WorldWideScience

Sample records for definition study part

  1. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 1: System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2, Part 1, of a seven volume report is presented. Part 1 encompasses Satellite Power Systems (SPS) systems engineering aspects and is divided into three sections. The first section presents descriptions of the various candidate concepts considered and conclusions and recommendations for a preferred concept. The second section presents a summary of results of the various trade studies and analysis conducted during the course of the study. The third section describes the Photovoltaic Satellite Based Satellite Power System (SPS) Point Design as it was defined through studies performed during the period January 1977 through March 1979.

  2. Satellite power systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 1: System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Top level trade studies are presented, including comparison of solid state and klystron concepts, higher concentration on the solar cells, composite and aluminum structure, and several variations to the reference concept. Detailed trade studies are presented in each of the subsystem areas (solar array, power distribution, structures, thermal control, attitude control and stationkeeping, microwave transmission, and ground receiving station). A description of the selected point design is also presented.

  3. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering, cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2, Part 2, of a seven volume Satellite Power Systems (SPS) report is presented. Part 2 covers cost and programmatics and is divided into four sections. The first section gives illustrations of the SPS reference satellite and rectenna concept, and an overall scenario for SPS space transportation involvement. The second section presents SPS program plans for the implementation of PHASE C/D activities. These plans describe SPS program schedules and networks, critical items of systems evolution/technology development, and the natural resources analysis. The fourth section presents summary comments on the methods and rationale followed in arriving at the results documented. Suggestions are also provided in those areas where further analysis or evaluation will enhance SPS cost and programmatic definitions.

  4. [Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a qualitative study on sex definition and redesignation dilation surgery and psychological support (part II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles-Silveira, Mariana; Tonetto-Fernandes, Vânia F; Schiller, Paulo; Kater, Claudio E

    2009-12-01

    To identify relevant questions related to sex definition and re-designation and reconstructive surgery in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and to understand the role of the psychologist in providing care for these patients. We selected 21 subjects: 7 pediatric endocrinologists from 5 Brazilian Public Health System institutions, 9 parents and 6 patients with CAH, according to a qualitative research model. In this paper, 3 of the studied categories are analyzed: 'sex definition and re-designation', 'reconstructive surgery/vaginal dilation', and 'psychology'. Parents' main anguish relates to the situation of an unnamed sex at birth, whereas sex re-designation was distressful to physicians. A sense of loneliness when dealing with the disease and treatment was a common anguish among patients; dilation procedures were the major complaint. In general, physicians recommend that genital reconstructive surgery be performed early on to avoid future trauma. In such a complex scenario, it is remarkable that not all the reference service staff have a psychologist on duty. Difficulties to deal with questions involving sexuality were evident and dilation procedures are an additional source of trauma for these patients.

  5. 15 CFR 270.2 - Definitions used in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... members, other NIST employees participating in the investigation, private sector experts, university... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions used in this part. 270.2... CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS General § 270.2 Definitions used in this part. The following definitions are...

  6. 46 CFR Appendix B to Part 154 - Stress Analyses Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stress Analyses Definitions B Appendix B to Part 154...—Stress Analyses Definitions The following are the standard definitions of stresses for the analysis of an independent tank type B: Normal stress means the component of stress normal to the plane of reference...

  7. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering, cost and programmatics, appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Appendixes for Volume 2 (Part 2) of a seven volume Satellite (SPS) report are presented. The document contains two appendixes. The first is a SPS work breakdown structure dictionary. The second gives SPS cost estimating relationships and contains the cost analyses and a description of cost elements that comprise the SPS program.

  8. Hotspots Definition Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pater, F.; Brinkman, S.; Schellekens, E.

    2010-03-01

    In the Dutch research programme Climate changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) many scientific projects are carried out. They often take a multidisciplinary approach to the climate issue. However, more attention needed to be given to embedding the programme into practice. Therefore, the board decided to start a hotspot programme. A hotspot was defined as a pilot project in a sector, place or region in which spatial planning and climate change play an important role in the physical shape and land use of the area and where conflicts of interest are found between these and other factors. The hotspot programme started with a definition study. This report is the result of this study. The goal of the study was to identify, describe and evaluate possible hotspots. In two workshops with policy-makers from national and regional governments, consultancy firms and nature conservation organizations, a large number of potential hotspots were identified. Fifteen were selected after the workshops took place and described in detail. The selection was done using a set of conditional criteria, criteria that all had to be met. Two potential hotspots were withdrawn after the selection. Since the Board of the CcSP programme expressed its interest in financing six to seven hotspots, a prioritization was made, using prioritizing criteria. Also the potential hotspots were assessed looking at regional distribution, thematic coverage and target groups. After this assessment and an analysis of the hotspots taking some other factors into account (eg. some hotspots were very similar or one could easily be incorporated in another one) five hotspots were selected: Kampen, Biesbosch-Haringvliet, Zuidplaspolder, Delta Waters and Tilburg. Options to fill the last two places were: Grounds for Change, Noordoostpolder, Oude Vaart Valley and Arnhem/Nijmegen (KAN). For these remaining potential hotspots draft terms of reference were drawn as basis for a project proposals. These terms of reference are added to

  9. VSCE technology definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, R. A.; Hunt, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    Refined design definition of the variable stream control engine (VSCE) concept for advanced supersonic transports is presented. Operating and performance features of the VSCE are discussed, including the engine components, thrust specific fuel consumption, weight, noise, and emission system. A preliminary engine design is presented.

  10. 39 CFR 3050.1 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in a subsequent rule 3050.11 proceeding. (c) Analytical principle refers to a particular economic... Definitions applicable to this part. (a) Accepted analytical principle refers to an analytical principle that... analytical principle subsequently was accepted by the Commission in a final rule. (b) Accepted quantification...

  11. Sustainability Definitions for NRAs – Framework Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Harmer, Clare; Hewitt, Alison

    Part 1 “Sustainability Definitions for NRAs”. The objective of this part of the framework is to support NRAs in developing and implementing definitions of sustainability. The present report contains the foundations for the framework, including: •The methodology adopted in the process of developing...... the understanding of the social, environmental and economic aspects of managing a road network. Whilst NRAs generally share an increasing awareness of some aspects of sustainability there is not a common understanding of, or approach to sustainability, as a whole. The project ‘Sustainability for National Road...... Authorities’ (SUNRA) is tasked with identifying how NRAs can contribute to sustainable development. This involves three main tasks, addressed in three corresponding Work Packages (WPs) 1.Providing a common way of defining sustainable development within the context of European NRAs (WP1). 2.Identifying how...

  12. 41 CFR 102-41.20 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 102-41.20 What definitions apply to this part? The following definitions apply to this part: Beer... fermentation. Distilled spirits, as defined in the Federal Alcohol Administration Act (27 U.S.C. 211), means...

  13. 12 CFR 563b.25 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What definitions apply to this part? 563b.25... FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM § 563b.25 What definitions apply to this part? The following definitions... (including controlling, controlled by, and under common control with) means the direct or indirect power to...

  14. 36 CFR 18.2 - What definitions do you need to know to understand this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions do you need to know to understand this part? 18.2 Section 18.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... need to know to understand this part? In addition to the definitions contained in 36 CFR Part 1, the...

  15. 10 CFR 719.2 - What are the definitions of terms used in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... means members of the bar working in the private sector, either individually or in law firms, who are... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the definitions of terms used in this part? 719.2... § 719.2 What are the definitions of terms used in this part? For purposes of this part: Alternative...

  16. 41 CFR 102-38.35 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contacted via e-mail at [email protected] SCs may utilize (and should consider) private sector... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply... PROPERTY General Provisions Definitions § 102-38.35 What definitions apply to this part? The following...

  17. 41 CFR 102-192.35 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Introduction to this Part § 102-192.35 What definitions apply to this part? The following... responsible for mail policy implementation, operations, and financial management; the program level... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply...

  18. 31 CFR 30.1 - Q-1: What definitions apply in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Q-1: What definitions apply in this part? 30.1 Section 30.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.1 Q-1: What definitions apply in this part...

  19. 31 CFR 342.1 - Definition of words and terms used in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of words and terms used in this part. 342.1 Section 342.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... SAVINGS NOTES § 342.1 Definition of words and terms used in this part. (a) Payroll savings plan refers to...

  20. 40 CFR 370.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 370.3 Section 370.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... definitions of the key words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 370.66. It is important to read the definitions for key words because the definition explains the word's...

  1. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 130 - Definition of HIV Infection or HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of HIV Infection or HIV A Appendix A to... PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM Pt. 130, App. A Appendix A to Part 130—Definition of HIV Infection or HIV ER31MY00.000 ER31MY00.001 ...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 715 - Definition of an Unscheduled Discrete Organic Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of an Unscheduled Discrete... WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING UNSCHEDULED DISCRETE ORGANIC CHEMICALS (UDOCs) Pt. 715, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 715—Definition of an Unscheduled Discrete Organic Chemical Unscheduled...

  3. 45 CFR 310.1 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION General Provisions § 310.1 What definitions... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What definitions apply to this part? 310.1 Section...) Office Automation means a generic adjunct component of a computer system that supports the routine...

  4. 29 CFR 471.1 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS OBLIGATIONS OF FEDERAL CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS; NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS Definitions, Requirements for Employee Notice, and... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply to this part? 471.1 Section 471.1...

  5. 41 CFR 102-118.35 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PAYMENT AND AUDIT General Definitions § 102-118.35 What definitions apply to this part? The following... terms and conditions of a contract in electronic communication. Electronic commerce means electronic... 10721), or other equivalent contract, arrangement or exemption from regulation. Postpayment audit means...

  6. 40 CFR 355.3 - Which section contains the definitions of the key words used in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the key words used in this part? 355.3 Section 355.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... words used in this part? The definitions of key words used in this part are in § 355.61. It is important to read the definitions for these key words because the definition explains the word's specific...

  7. 44 CFR 204.3 - Definitions used throughout this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... The ranking official responsible for overseeing the management of fire operations, planning, logistics... D, E, and F of part 206. Local government. A local government is any county, municipality, city...

  8. LLL DBASE glossary and parameter definitions, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    This report lists, defines, and updates parameters in DBASE, an LLL test effects data bank in which data is stored from experiments performed at NTS and other test sites. Parameters are listed by subject and by number. Part 2 of this report presents the same information for classified parameters

  9. Science Mission Definition Studies for TROPIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of mission definition studies for solar electric propulsion missions that have been carried out over the last approximately three years. The major output from the studies has been two proposals which were submitted to NASA in response to Announcements of Opportunity for missions and an ongoing Global Magnetospheric Dynamics mission study. The bulk of this report consists of copies of the proposals and preliminary materials from the GMD study that will be completed in the coming months.

  10. 20 CFR 670.120 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... modification, addition, restoration or other improvement: (1) Which increases the usefulness, productivity, or... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What definitions apply to this part? 670.120 Section 670.120 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB...

  11. 25 CFR 47.2 - What definitions apply to terms in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 47.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION UNIFORM DIRECT FUNDING AND SUPPORT FOR BUREAU-OPERATED SCHOOLS § 47.2 What definitions apply to terms in this part? Act means... Bureau-operated school boards regarding each element of the local educational financial plan and...

  12. 12 CFR 585.20 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE AT SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 585.20 What definitions apply to this part? The following... phrase “savings and loan holding company” is substituted for “insured depository institution” each place... or other business entity. Savings and loan holding company is defined at 12 CFR 583.20, but excludes...

  13. 8 CFR 322.1 - What are the definitions used in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the definitions used in this part? 322.1 Section 322.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS... has legal custody will be based on the existence of a final adoption decree. In the case of a child of...

  14. 8 CFR 320.1 - What definitions are used in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What definitions are used in this part? 320.1 Section 320.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS CHILD... the existence of a final adoption decree. In the case of a child of divorced or legally separated...

  15. 41 CFR 102-34.35 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dealership. (Procedures for purchasing and leasing motor vehicles through GSA can be found in 41 CFR subpart... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE... definitions apply to this part: Commercial design motor vehicle means a motor vehicle procurable from regular...

  16. 17 CFR 232.11 - Definition of terms used in part 232.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effect by a person executing or issuing it. If data are stored in a computer or similar device, any... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of terms used in part 232. 232.11 Section 232.11 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  17. 13 CFR 127.102 - What are the definitions of the terms used in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the definitions of the terms used in this part? 127.102 Section 127.102 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE PROCEDURES General Provisions § 127.102...

  18. 12 CFR 533.11 - Other definitions and rules of construction used in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... THE TREASURY DISCLOSURE AND REPORTING OF CRA-RELATED AGREEMENTS § 533.11 Other definitions and rules... party to the agreement makes a CRA communication, as described in § 533.3 of this part. (b) Control. Control is defined in section 2(a) of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1841(a)). (c) CRA affiliate...

  19. 31 CFR 205.2 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply to this part? 205.2 Section 205.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR...

  20. 20 CFR 30.801 - What special definitions does OWCP use in connection with Part E wage-loss determinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What special definitions does OWCP use in connection with Part E wage-loss determinations? 30.801 Section 30.801 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... paying compensation based on wage-loss under Part E of the Act, OWCP will apply the following definitions...

  1. 17 CFR 15.00 - Definitions of terms used in parts 15 to 21 of this chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expressed or implied agreement not obtained from other customers and makes a minimum deposit in excess of... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions of terms used in... TRADING COMMISSION REPORTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS § 15.00 Definitions of terms used in parts 15 to 21 of this...

  2. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E.; Smith, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design

  3. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)

    1995-05-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

  4. The Buffer and Backfill Handbook. Part 1: Definitions, basic relationships and laboratory methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    Part 1 of this Handbook is focused on description of fundamental issues of soil physical and chemical arts and on soil mechanical definitions and relationships. Part 2 comprises a material data basis including also preparation and field testing methods. Part 3 provides a collection of physical and mathematical models and examples of how they can and should be applied. The present document, which has been prepared by Geodevelopment AB in co-operation with Scandia Consult AB and Clay Technology AB, Sweden, and with TVO, Finland, makes up Part 1. Most of the data and information emanate from the work that Geodevelopment AB and Clay Technology AB have performed for SKB but a number of results from experiments made in and for other organizations have been included as well. A significant number of experimental procedures and ways of characterizing buffers and backfills are included. The experience from the comprehensive international Stripa Project, concerning both systematic material investigations in the laboratory and the full-scale field experiments, has contributed significantly to this report. However, similar and additional information gained from later work in SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and from NAGRA and also from other waste-isolation projects have helped to make this document of assumed international interest.

  5. The Buffer and Backfill Handbook. Part 1: Definitions, basic relationships and laboratory methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland

    2002-04-01

    Part 1 of this Handbook is focused on description of fundamental issues of soil physical and chemical arts and on soil mechanical definitions and relationships. Part 2 comprises a material data basis including also preparation and field testing methods. Part 3 provides a collection of physical and mathematical models and examples of how they can and should be applied. The present document, which has been prepared by Geodevelopment AB in co-operation with Scandia Consult AB and Clay Technology AB, Sweden, and with TVO, Finland, makes up Part 1. Most of the data and information emanate from the work that Geodevelopment AB and Clay Technology AB have performed for SKB but a number of results from experiments made in and for other organizations have been included as well. A significant number of experimental procedures and ways of characterizing buffers and backfills are included. The experience from the comprehensive international Stripa Project, concerning both systematic material investigations in the laboratory and the full-scale field experiments, has contributed significantly to this report. However, similar and additional information gained from later work in SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and from NAGRA and also from other waste-isolation projects have helped to make this document of assumed international interest

  6. Binary analysis: 1. part: definitions and treatment of binary functions; 2. part: applications and functions of trans-coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, R.L.

    1968-01-01

    The study of binary groups under their mathematical aspects constitutes the matter of binary analysis, the purpose of which consists in developing altogether simple, rigorous and practical methods needed by the technicians, the engineers and all those who may be mainly concerned by digital processing. This subject, fast extending if not determining, however tends actually to play a main part in nuclear electronics as well as in several other research areas. (authors) [fr

  7. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 425 - Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit 1 C Appendix C to Part 425 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE...

  8. Life sciences payload definition and integration study, task C and D. Volume 2: Payload definition, integration, and planning studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Life Sciences Payload Definition and Integration Study was composed of four major tasks. Tasks A and B, the laboratory definition phase, were the subject of prior NASA study. The laboratory definition phase included the establishment of research functions, equipment definitions, and conceptual baseline laboratory designs. These baseline laboratories were designated as Maxi-Nom, Mini-30, and Mini-7. The outputs of Tasks A and B were used by the NASA Life Sciences Payload Integration Team to establish guidelines for Tasks C and D, the laboratory integration phase of the study. A brief review of Tasks A and B is presented provide background continuity. The tasks C and D effort is the subject of this report. The Task C effort stressed the integration of the NASA selected laboratory designs with the shuttle sortie module. The Task D effort updated and developed costs that could be used by NASA for preliminary program planning.

  9. 36 CFR 1236.2 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply to... ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT ELECTRONIC RECORDS MANAGEMENT General § 1236.2 What definitions apply to this.... Unstructured electronic records means records created using office automation applications such as electronic...

  10. 10 CFR 770.4 - What definitions are used in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the DOE Operations Offices or Field Offices associated with the management and control of defense nuclear facilities. Hazardous Substance means a substance within the definition of “hazardous substances... facility. Pollutant or Contaminant means a substance identified within the definition of “pollutant or...

  11. 41 CFR 102-42.10 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on Ethics of the Senate, for Senators and employees of the Senate, except that those responsibilities... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply..., DONATION, AND DISPOSAL OF FOREIGN GIFTS AND DECORATIONS General Provisions Definitions § 102-42.10 What...

  12. The Aalborg Survey / Part 4 - Literature Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young......) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 4 - Literature Study The 4th part of the DUS research project has been carried out during the spring 2012 and consists primarily of a literature search and bibliographical listings of literature by the three....... Jensen are conducting research within the field related to this research project. Furthermore, both are intended end users of the outcome of this literature study. Finally, all references have been collected in a digital database in RefWorks....

  13. Defining relative humidity in terms of water activity. Part 1: definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, Rainer; Lovell-Smith, Jeremy W.

    2017-08-01

    Relative humidity (RH) is a quantity widely used in various fields such as metrology, meteorology, climatology or engineering. However, RH is neither uniformly defined, nor do some definitions properly account for deviations from ideal-gas properties, nor is the application range of interest fully covered. In this paper, a new full-range definition of RH is proposed that is based on the thermodynamics of activities in order to include deviations from ideal-gas behaviour. Below the critical point of pure water, at pressures p  definition is consistent with de-facto standard RH definitions published previously and recommended internationally. Virial approximations are reported for estimating small corrections to the ideal-gas equations.

  14. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  15. 20 CFR 656.3 - Definitions, for purposes of this part, of terms used in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for an employer and/or alien under this part. Barter, for purposes of an Application for Permanent... the system developed by the Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, to provide to... Occupational Classification system. Further information about O*NET can be found at http://www.onetcenter.org...

  16. Solar dynamic power system definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1988-01-01

    The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

  17. 12 CFR 35.11 - Other definitions and rules of construction used in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TREASURY DISCLOSURE AND REPORTING OF CRA-RELATED AGREEMENTS § 35.11 Other definitions and rules of... party to the agreement makes a CRA communication, as described in § 35.3. (b) Control. “Control” is defined in section 2(a) of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1841(a)). (c) CRA affiliate. A “CRA...

  18. 40 CFR 1045.801 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), turbochargers, and oxygen sensors are not aftertreatment. Alcohol-fueled engine means an engine that is designed to run using an alcohol fuel. For purposes of this definition, alcohol fuels do not include fuels with a nominal alcohol content below 25 percent by volume. Amphibious vehicle means a vehicle with...

  19. 40 CFR 1054.801 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recirculation (EGR), turbochargers, and oxygen sensors are not aftertreatment. Alcohol-fueled engine means an engine that is designed to run using an alcohol fuel. For purposes of this definition, alcohol fuels do not include fuels with a nominal alcohol content below 25 percent by volume. Amphibious vehicle means...

  20. 40 CFR 1048.801 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR), turbochargers, and oxygen sensors are not aftertreatment. Aircraft means any vehicle capable of sustained air travel above treetop heights. Alcohol-fueled engine means an engine that is designed to run using an alcohol fuel. For purposes of this definition, alcohol fuels do...

  1. Adherence to tuberculosis care in Canadian Aboriginal populations, Part 1: definition, measurement, responsibility, barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Pamela

    2011-04-01

    In a 2-part series, the current literature with respect to adherence to tuberculosis care among Canadian Aboriginal populations is reviewed. In the current paper, which comprises part 1 of this review, adherence is defined, and methods of measurement, issues of responsibility and potential barriers to adherence are explored. Study design. Literature review. A systematic search and analytic review of relevant studies was undertaken, including an online search of electronic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, MEDLINE, Native Health Database, Scopus, Social Science Citation Index) and publications by governmental and non-governmental agencies. Poor adherence to therapy for TB disease is the most common cause of initial treatment failure and of disease relapse worldwide. Adherence to care for TB disease is necessary for the health of both the affected individual and society as a whole. Adherence is a task-specific behaviour that is not inherent to ethnic identity. The term applies only when common agreement over a care plan has been reached between patient and provider. The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care and the Patients Charter outline the responsibilities for adherence on the part of both patients and providers. For Canadian Aboriginals, barriers to adherence may derive from a complex interaction between the health system, personal factors and social factors, which may include dysfunctional acute and public health systems, dissonant (between health care provider and patient) belief systems, concurrent co-morbidities and life stressors, poverty and social stigma. Adherence is a task-specific behaviour, not a personality trait. It is influenced by the interaction of systemic, personal and societal factors. These factors must be understood within the historical experience of TB and the cultural meaning of health and illness among Indigenous Canadians.

  2. Life span study report 9, part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Toshiro; Kato, Hiroo; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Schull, W.J.

    1983-04-01

    The incidence of malignant tumors in the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) sample in Nagasaki as revealed by the Nagasaki Tumor Registry (Registry) has been investigated for the period 1959-78. No exposure status bias in data collection has been revealed. Neither method of diagnosis, reporting hospitals, nor the frequency of doubtful cases differ by exposure dose. Thus, the effect of a bias, if one exists, must be small and should not affect the interpretation of the results obtained in the present analysis. The risk of radiogenic cancer definitely increases with radiation dose for leukemia, cancer of the breast, lung, stomach, and thyroid, and suggestively so for cancer of the colon and urinary tract and multiple myeloma. However, there is no increase as yet for cancer of the esophagus, liver, gall bladder, uterus, ovary, and salivary gland, or for malignant lymphoma. For fatal cancers, these results strengthen those of the recent analysis of mortality based on death certificates on the same LSS cohort. In general, the relative risks based on incidence (that is, on Registry data) are either the same or slightly higher than those based on mortality for the same years; however, the absolute risk estimates (excess cancer per million person-year per rad) are far higher. (author)

  3. Developing a Framework for Analyzing Definitions: A Study of "The Feynman Lectures"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chee Leong; Chu, Hye-Eun; Yap, Kueh Chin

    2014-01-01

    One important purpose of a definition is to explain the meaning of a word. Any problems associated with a definition may impede students' learning. However, research studies on the definitional problems from the perspective of physics education are limited. Physics educators may not be aware of the nature and extent of definitional problems.…

  4. A four-part working bibliography of neuroethics: part 2--Neuroscientific studies of morality and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, Martina; Buniak, Liana; Giordano, James

    2015-02-15

    Moral philosophy and psychology have sought to define the nature of right and wrong, and good and evil. The industrial turn of the twentieth century fostered increasingly technological approaches that conjoined philosophy to psychology, and psychology to the natural sciences. Thus, moral philosophy and psychology became ever more vested to investigations of the anatomic structures and physiologic processes involved in cognition, emotion and behavior--ultimately falling under the rubric of the neurosciences. Since 2002, neuroscientific studies of moral thought, emotions and behaviors have become known as--and a part of--the relatively new discipline of neuroethics. Herein we present Part 2 of a bibliography of neuroethics from 2002-2013 addressing the "neuroscience of ethics"--studies of putative neural substrates and mechanisms involved in cognitive, emotional and behavioral processes of morality and ethics. A systematic survey of the neuroethics literature was undertaken. Bibliographic searches were performed by accessing 11 databases, 8 literature depositories, and 4 individual journal searches, and employed indexing language for National Library of Medicine (NLM) Medical Subject Heading databases. All bibliographic searches were conducted using the RefWorks citation management program. This bibliography lists 397 articles, 65 books, and 52 book chapters that present (1) empirical/experimental studies, overviews, and reviews of neural substrates and mechanisms involved in morality and ethics, and/or (2) reflections upon such studies and their implications. These works present resources offering iterative descriptions, definitions and criticisms of neural processes involved in moral cognition and behaviors, and also provide a historical view of this field, and insights to its developing canon.

  5. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Examples of articles which are taxable as parts or accessories are: Automobile air conditioners; baby seats...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber... motors, and other automobile parts or accessories. (c) Materials of a general use—(1) General rule. The...

  6. 36 CFR 1281.3 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... part, the term means operating equipment that must be furnished with the new library and included in the calculation of the required endowment. Operating equipment is fundamental to the operation of the...) and established as part of the system of Presidential libraries managed by NARA. Facility operations...

  7. 40 CFR 1051.801 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 90, 91, 1048, or 1054, where that engine is installed in a piece of equipment that is covered... CFR part 90, 91, 1048, or 1054, when that engine is installed in a piece of equipment that is covered... rear payload capacity of 350 pounds or more or seating for six or more passengers. Vehicles intended...

  8. Dynamics of Situation Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dongseop; Moro, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Situation definition is the process and product of actors' interpretive activities toward a given situation. By reviewing a number of psychological studies conducted in experimental settings, we found that the studies have only explicated a part of the situation definition process and have neglected its dynamic aspects. We need to focus on the…

  9. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the work performed by Rockwell International's Rocketdyne Division on NASA Contract No. NAS3-25808 (Task Order No. 16) entitled 'Mars Power System Definition Study'. This work was performed for NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC). The report is divided into two volumes as follows: Volume 1 - Study Results; and Volume 2 - Appendices. The results of the power system characterization studies, operations studies, and technology evaluations are summarized in Volume 1. The appendices include complete, standalone technology development plans for each candidate power system that was investigated.

  10. [Immortal time bias in pharmacoepidemiological studies: definition, solutions and examples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillie, Jean-Luc; Suissa, Samy

    2015-01-01

    Among the observational studies of drug effects in chronic diseases, many of them have found effects that were exaggerated or wrong. Among bias responsible for these errors, the immortal time bias, concerning the definition of exposure and exposure periods, is relevantly important as it usually tends to wrongly attribute a significant benefit to the study drug (or exaggerate a real benefit). In this article, we define the mechanism of immortal time bias, we present possible solutions and illustrate its consequences through examples of pharmacoepidemiological studies of drug effects. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  11. Indirect effects in community ecology: Their definition, study and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S Y

    1991-07-01

    The diversity of indirect interactions that can occur within communities is large. Recent research on indirect interactions is scattered in the literature under numerous labels. The definition of indirect effects is an important aspect of their study, and clarifies some of the subtle differences among indirect effects found in natural communities. Choosing which species to study, how to manipulate species and for what duration, which attributes to measure and, finally, which analytical techniques to use are all problems facing the community ecologist. Ultimately, we are striving for the best means of determining the relative importance of direct and indirect effects in structuring communities. Copyright © 1991. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Space Station Furnace Facility. Volume 1: Requirements definition and conceptual design study, executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The Space Station Freedom Furnace (SSFF) Study was awarded on June 2, 1989, to Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE) to define an advanced facility for materials research in the microgravity environment of Space Station Freedom (SSF). The SSFF will be designed for research in the solidification of metals and alloys, the crystal growth of electronic and electro-optical materials, and research in glasses and ceramics. The SSFF is one of the first 'facility' class payloads planned by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications of NASA Headquarters. This facility is planned for early deployment during man-tended operations of the SSF with continuing operations through the Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC). The SSFF will be built around a general 'Core' facility which provides common support functions not provided by SSF, common subsystems which are best centralized, and common subsystems which are best distributed with each experiment module. The intent of the facility approach is to reduce the overall cost associated with implementing and operating a variety of experiments. This is achieved by reducing the launch mass and simplifying the hardware development and qualification processes associated with each experiment. The Core will remain on orbit and will require only periodic maintenance and upgrading while new Furnace Modules, samples, and consumables are developed, qualified, and transported to the SSF. The SSFF Study was divided into two phases: phase 1, a definition study phase, and phase 2, a design and development phase. The definition phase 1 is addressed. Phase 1 was divided into two parts. In the first part, the basic part of the effort, covered the preliminary definition and assessment of requirements; conceptual design of the SSFF; fabrication of mockups; and the preparation for and support of the Conceptual Design Review (CoDR). The second part, the option part, covered requirements update and

  13. 41 CFR 102-117.25 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is a list of freight rates, taxes, and charges assessed against non-household goods cargo. Rate... part: Accessorial charges are charges for services other than line-haul charges. Examples of... household goods. Agency is any executive agency, but does not include: (1) A Government Controlled...

  14. 40 CFR 1039.801 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the environment. Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) and turbochargers are not aftertreatment. Aircraft..., modulating, delaying, or deactivating the operation of any part of the emission-control system. Brake power... type of steady-state test described in § 1039.505. Emission-control system means any device, system, or...

  15. 49 CFR 375.103 - What are the definitions of terms used in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS General... telephone number in a telephone directory or similar publication. However, Yellow Pages advertising is... effects or property used, or to be used, in a dwelling, when part of the equipment or supplies of the...

  16. 25 CFR 543.2 - What are the definitions for this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumable physical object that has one or more bingo cards on its face. Bingo sales. The value of purchases... mandated by part 547 of this chapter. Commission. The National Indian Gaming Commission. Count. The act of counting and recording the drop and/or other funds. Count room. A secured room where the count is performed...

  17. 25 CFR 224.30 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to a restriction against alienation under the laws of the United States. “Physical trust asset... restriction against alienation under the laws of the United States. For the purposes of this part, tribal land includes land taken into trust or subject to restrictions on alienation under the laws of the United States...

  18. 25 CFR 170.5 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... travel. Real Property means any interest in land together with the improvements, structures, and fixtures... means calendar days, except where the last day of any time period specified in this part falls on a... facilities that offer a significant alternative to regional highway travel. (“Regional transportation needs...

  19. Beyond the traditional definition of breakthrough pain: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Antonio; Gentili, Marta; Iorno, Vittorio; Mammucari, Massimo; Tufaro, Giuseppe; Lazzari, Marzia; Sabato, Alessandro Fabrizio

    2013-03-01

    Breakthrough pain (BTP) is traditionally defined as a transitory pain flare in opioid-treated patients with chronic background pain. This definition has, however, been challenged in recent years. This study aimed to analyze BTP prevalence in different pain conditions. This was a prospective, non-interventional, observational study conducted from June to September 2011 in two Italian pain treatment reference centres. Consecutive patients aged >18 years with oncological or non-oncological pain were eligible for this study; background pain was acute/ subacute (3 months). The characteristics of pain were evaluated by means of a structured interview by physicians, and patients were asked to complete a dedicated clinical study form. The following outcomes were assessed: chronic pain duration (in patients with chronic pain), BTP prevalence, and number and severity of daily BTP episodes. All outcomes were assessed in four populations of patients with: (a) chronic oncological pain; (b) chronic non-oncological pain; (c) non-chronic oncological pain; (d) non-chronic non-oncological pain. The correlation between BTP and gender was also investigated. Of 1,270 patients with chronic pain, 1,086 had non-oncological pain (85.5%). Most patients (68.6%) with non-oncological pain were female (P = 0.001). Pain duration was significantly longer in non-oncological pain versus oncological pain groups (P = 0.002). BTP prevalence was lower in non-oncological patients (P definition. BTP frequency and severity is similar in oncological and non-oncological pain.

  20. Healthy ageing in the Nun Study: definition and neuropathologic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, Suzanne L; Snowdon, David A; Desrosiers, Mark F; Riley, Kathryn P; Markesbery, William R

    2007-11-01

    Although the concept of healthy ageing has stimulated considerable interest, no generally accepted definition has been developed nor has its biological basis been determined. To develop a definition of healthy ageing and investigate its association with longevity and neuropathology. Analyses were based on cognitive, physical, and post-mortem assessments from 1991 to 1998 in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of ageing in participants 75+ years at baseline. We defined three mutually exclusive levels of healthy ageing (excellent, very good, and good) based on measures of global cognitive function, short-term memory, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and self-rated function. Mortality analyses were based on 636 participants; neuropathologic analyses were restricted to 221 who had died and were autopsied. Only 11% of those meeting criteria for the excellent level of healthy ageing at baseline subsequently died, compared with 24% for the very good, 39% for the good, and 60% for the remaining participants. Survival curves showed significantly greater longevity with higher levels of healthy ageing. The risk of not attaining healthy ageing, adjusted for age, increased two-fold in participants with brain infarcts alone, six-fold in those with Alzheimer neuropathology alone, and more than thirteen-fold in those with both brain infarcts and Alzheimer neuropathology. The biological validity of our definition of healthy ageing is supported by its strong association with mortality and longevity. Avoiding Alzheimer and stroke neuropathology is critical to the maintenance of healthy ageing, and the presence of both pathologies dramatically decreases the likelihood of healthy ageing.

  1. Gender Influence on Part-time Working: An Empirical Study Upon the EU and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Beyhan Acar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this empirical study, it’s investigated differences of part-time working rates between men and women in the period of 2000-2012. 17 members of the EU and Turkey -as a candidate country- are participated in the study. Turkey is participated into the study too, because Turkey must adapt the most of the regulations of EU as a candidate member of the Union. The data are collected from OECD and World Bank statistics web site. Beyond that many database indicate part-time employment rates for both common and national definition of part-time working for statistical purpose. According to this it’s aimed to determine whether there is a significant difference between part-time working rates that are based on common and national definition. In the literature, there are some studies that investigate fertility rates and part-time employment rates of women. The correlation of these two variables that are belonged the years 2000-2012 is tested and the findings are indicated in the study. Furthermore, it’s analyzed the rate differences of part-time working for men and women in the period of 2000-2012.

  2. Gender Influence on Part-time Working: An Empirical Study upon the EU and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Beyhan Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this empirical study, it’s investigated differences of part-time working rates between men and women in the period of 2000-2012. 17 members of the EU and Turkey -as a candidate country- are participated in the study. Turkey is participated into the study too, because Turkey must adapt the most of the regulations of EU as a candidate member of the Union. The data are collected from OECD and World Bank statistics web site. Beyond that many database indicate part-time employment rates for both common and national definition of part-time working for statistical purpose. According to this it’s aimed to determine whether there is a significant difference between part-time working rates that are based on common and national definition. In the literature, there are some studies that investigate fertility rates and part-time employment rates of women. The correlation of these two variables that are belonged the years 2000-2012 is tested and the findings are indicated in the study. Furthermore, it’s analyzed the rate differences of part-time working for men and women in the period of 2000-2012.

  3. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milenski, Helen M [Univ. of Mexico, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schmalzer, Andrew Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  4. LHC related projects and studies - Part (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, L.; De Maria, R.

    2012-01-01

    The session was devoted to address some aspects of the HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) project and explore ideas on new machines for the long term future. The session had two parts. The former focused on some of the key issues of the HL-LHC projects: beam current limits, evolution of the collimation system, research plans for the interaction region magnets and crab cavities. The latter explored the ideas for the long term future projects (LHeC and HE-LHC) and how the current research-development program for magnets and RF structures could fit in the envisaged scenarios

  5. The role of abdominal compliance, the neglected parameter in critically ill patients - a consensus review of 16. Part 1: definitions and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; Roberts, Derek J; De Laet, Inneke; De Waele, Jan J; Sugrue, Michael; Schachtrupp, Alexander; Duchesne, Juan; Van Ramshorst, Gabrielle; De Keulenaer, Bart; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ahmadi-Noorbakhsh, Siavash; Mulier, Jan; Ivatury, Rao; Pracca, Francisco; Wise, Robert; Pelosi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, increasing attention has been paid to understanding the pathophysiology, aetiology, prognosis, and treatment of elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in trauma, surgical, and medical patients. However, there is presently a relatively poor understanding of intra-abdominal volume (IAV) and the relationship between IAV and IAP (i.e. abdominal compliance). Consensus definitions on Cab were discussed during the 5th World Congress on Abdominal Compartment Syndrome and a writing committee was formed to develop this article. During the writing process, a systematic and structured Medline and PubMed search was conducted to identify relevant studies relating to the topic. According to the recently updated consensus definitions of the World Society on Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS), abdominal compliance (Cab) is defined as a measure of the ease of abdominal expansion, which is determined by the elasticity of the abdominal wall and diaphragm. It should be expressed as the change in IAV per change in IAP (mL [mm Hg]⁻¹). Importantly, Cab is measured differently than IAP and the abdominal wall (and its compliance) is only a part of the total abdominal pressure-volume (PV) relationship. During an increase in IAV, different phases are encountered: the reshaping, stretching, and pressurisation phases. The first part of this review article starts with a comprehensive list of the different definitions related to IAP (at baseline, during respiratory variations, at maximal IAV), IAV (at baseline, additional volume, abdominal workspace, maximal and unadapted volume), and abdominal compliance and elastance (i.e. the relationship between IAV and IAP). An historical background on the pathophysiology related to IAP, IAV and Cab follows this. Measurement of Cab is difficult at the bedside and can only be done in a case of change (removal or addition) in IAV. The Cab is one of the most neglected parameters in critically ill patients, although it plays a

  6. Study of laser cladding nuclear valve parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Shihong; Wang Xinlin; Huang Guodong

    1998-12-01

    The mechanism of laser cladding is discussed by using heat transfer model of laser cladding, heat conduction model of laser cladding and convective transfer mass model of laser melt-pool. Subsequently the laser cladding speed limit and the influence of laser cladding parameters on cladding layer structure is analyzed. A 5 kW with CO 2 transverse flow is used in the research for cladding treatment of sealing surface of stop valve parts of nuclear power stations. The laser cladding layer is found to be 3.0 mm thick. The cladding surface is smooth and has no such defects as crack, gas pore, etc. A series of comparisons with plasma spurt welding and arc bead welding has been performed. The results show that there are higher grain grade and hardness, lower dilution and better performances of resistance to abrasion, wear and of anti-erosion in the laser cladding layer. The new technology of laser cladding can obviously improve the quality of nuclear valve parts. Consequently it is possible to lengthen the service life of nuclear valve and to raise the safety and reliability of the production system

  7. Case studies can support definitions of workplace innovation in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaas, F.; Žiauberytė-Jakštienė, R.; Oeij, P.R.

    2017-01-01

    Many practitioners find it problematic to understand and describe workplace innovation (WPI). Whereas there are well-known definitions of WPI, these remain highly abstract. We argue that, for practitioners, case examples of WPI best practices can be a valuable addition to these definitions. In this

  8. The six most essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis: a pluralogue part 1: conceptual and definitional issues in psychiatric diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips James

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In face of the multiple controversies surrounding the DSM process in general and the development of DSM-5 in particular, we have organized a discussion around what we consider six essential questions in further work on the DSM. The six questions involve: 1 the nature of a mental disorder; 2 the definition of mental disorder; 3 the issue of whether, in the current state of psychiatric science, DSM-5 should assume a cautious, conservative posture or an assertive, transformative posture; 4 the role of pragmatic considerations in the construction of DSM-5; 5 the issue of utility of the DSM - whether DSM-III and IV have been designed more for clinicians or researchers, and how this conflict should be dealt with in the new manual; and 6 the possibility and advisability, given all the problems with DSM-III and IV, of designing a different diagnostic system. Part I of this article will take up the first two questions. With the first question, invited commentators express a range of opinion regarding the nature of psychiatric disorders, loosely divided into a realist position that the diagnostic categories represent real diseases that we can accurately name and know with our perceptual abilities, a middle, nominalist position that psychiatric disorders do exist in the real world but that our diagnostic categories are constructs that may or may not accurately represent the disorders out there, and finally a purely constructivist position that the diagnostic categories are simply constructs with no evidence of psychiatric disorders in the real world. The second question again offers a range of opinion as to how we should define a mental or psychiatric disorder, including the possibility that we should not try to formulate a definition. The general introduction, as well as the introductions and conclusions for the specific questions, are written by James Phillips, and the responses to commentaries are written by Allen Frances.

  9. Substance flows through the economy and environment of a region : Part I: Systems definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Voet, Ester; Kleijn, René; Van Oers, Lauran; Heijungs, Reinout; Huele, Ruben; Mulder, Paul

    1995-01-01

    In the tradition of the study of materials flows through society, the Substance Flow Analysis (SFA) method is presented. SFA aims at providing the relevant information for a country’s overall management strategy regarding single substances or coherent groups of substances. This article is dedicated

  10. Clinical Definitions of Sarcopenia and Risk of Hospitalization in Community-Dwelling Older Men: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Lui, Li-Yung; Taylor, Brent C; McCulloch, Charles E; Cauley, Jane A; Lapidus, Jodi; Orwoll, Eric; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2017-10-01

    The association between various definitions of sarcopenia and hospitalization has not been evaluated in community-dwelling older men. We used data from 1,516 participants at Visit 3 of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study who also had linked Medicare Fee-For-Service Claims data available. We examined the association between several sarcopenia definitions (International Working Group, European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older Persons, Foundation for the NIH Sarcopenia Project, Baumgartner, and Newman) and hospitalization, using two-part ("hurdle") models, adjusted for age, clinical center, functional limitations, self-reported health, comorbidity, and cognitive function. Predictors included sarcopenia status (the summary definitions and the components of slowness, weakness, and/or lean mass); outcomes included hospitalization and cumulative inpatient days/year in the 3 years following the Visit 3 exam. After accounting for confounding factors, none of the summary definitions or the definition components (slowness, weakness, or low lean mass) were associated with likelihood of hospitalization, the rate ratio of inpatient days among those hospitalized, or the mean rate of inpatient days amongst all participants. Sarcopenia was not associated hospitalization in community-dwelling older men. These results provide further evidence that current sarcopenia definitions are unlikely to identify those who are most likely to have greater hospitalization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Evaluation of natural gas supply options for south east and central Europe. Part 1: Indicator definitions and single indicator analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Naim H.; Carvalho, Maria G.; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Martins, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    The need for diversification of energy sources is an immanent goal in long term energy strategy. In particular, this is of great importance for the natural gas supply. In this respect, evaluation and assessment of potential natural gas resources and their relation to consumers is of great importance. The natural gas supply in Europe is one of the main issues of European energy strategy to be followed in the future. In particular, the natural gas supply in the southeast countries is important. This paper provides a framework for understanding how much natural gas is available for use in south east and central Europe as well as the links to the recent supply of natural gas and its transport. The analysis is focused on evaluation of the potential routes for natural gas supply to the south east and central European countries. The potential options included in this analysis are the Yamal Route; Nabucco Route; West Balkan Route; LNG NEUM Route and Gas by Wire Route. In this analysis, attention is focused on the following indicators for assessment of potential options: environmental indicator; NG cost indicator; NG transport and royalty indicator; investment indicator; and NG demand indicator. The first part of this paper is devoted to the definition of the indicators and to single indicator analysis. (author)

  12. Age 60 Study. Part 1. Bibliographic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    CMIATIONS phanocardlography, study of the arterial distensibility by the carotidogm, and the chronocudiographic meuurement of an index of systolic flow and...pilot performance and age, considering muscular strength, cardio-respiratory capacity, body weight and mental aspects). AEROSPACE MEDICINE, VOL. 42...great differences exhibited in the dynamic muscular endurance, aerobic capacity, power, agility, and coordination for the two groups. The standard

  13. Life span study report, 11, part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.

    1988-12-01

    ABCC and its successor, RERF, have followed since 1959 and retrospectively to 1950 the mortality in a fixed cohort of survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the so-called Life Span Study sample. The present study, the 11th in a series that began in 1961, extends the surveillance period three more years and covers the period 1950-85. It is based on the recently revised dose system, called DS86, that has replaced previous estimates of individual exposures. The impact of the change from the old system of dosimetry, the T65DR, to the new on the dose-response relationships for cancer mortality was described in the first of this series of reports. Here, the focus is on cancer mortality among the 76,000 A-bomb survivors within the LSS sample for whom DS86 doses have been estimated, with the emphasis on biological issues associated with radiation carcinogenesis. (author)

  14. LHC related projects and studies - Part (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garoby, R.; Ponce, L.

    2012-01-01

    This session was the first of the two sessions dealing with future projects and the associated studies. Starting with descriptions of the plans and needs of the LHCb and ALICE experiments which are less extensively documented than those of ATLAS and CMS, it addressed the plans for the High Luminosity LHC and for the upgrade of the injectors, both for protons and other ions. (authors)

  15. Solvent extraction studies on cadmium Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; El-Kot, A.

    1976-01-01

    An extraction study was performed on various concentrations of cadmium, zinc and cobalt halides in the presence of sulphuric acid. A long chain amine (Amberlite LA-2) and an organophosphorus solvent (TBP) were used. In most cases the value of the distribution ratio decreases with the increase of metal concentration in the aqueous phase. The various possibilities of chemical and radiochemical separations of cadmium from accompanying metal species are reported: separation of (sup109m)Ag from irradiated Cd targets, separation of (sup115m)In using HDEHP, separation of Cd and Zn from their mixtures. (T.G.)

  16. Survey Definitions of Gout for Epidemiologic Studies: Comparison With Crystal Identification as the Gold Standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalbeth, N.; Schumacher, H.R.; Fransen, J.; Neogi, T.; Jansen, T.L; Brown, M.; Louthrenoo, W.; Vazquez-Mellado, J.; Eliseev, M.; McCarthy, G.; Stamp, L.K.; Perez-Ruiz, F.; Sivera, F.; Ea, H.K.; Gerritsen, M.; Scire, C.A.; Cavagna, L.; Lin, C.; Chou, Y.Y.; Tausche, A.K.; Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, G. da; Janssen, M; Chen, J.H.; Cimmino, M.A.; Uhlig, T.; Taylor, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the best-performing survey definition of gout from items commonly available in epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Survey definitions of gout were identified from 34 epidemiologic studies contributing to the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC) genome-wide association study.

  17. Symbol synchronizer assembly instability study, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Data processing to develop a third-order phase model and to translate all such processed data to the frequency realm for further analysis was described. The frequency study yields a long frequency modulation (FM) drift sinusoid (1600-sec period), an impressed secondary drift wave with a period of about 116 sec, and a set of even harmonics of twice the ramp period-the latter arising from, and used to modify, the phase detector model. The result is applied secondarily to estimate the strong-signal SSA phase detector response "out-of-lock." Finally, the main drift components are verified against all available data, and the result is used to estimate minimum lock conditions and the SSA drift effect under normal operating modes. The instability problem appears marginally resolvable if the acquisition technique is modified.

  18. National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). Project definition study: Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1995-02-15

    This report describes a five-year plan for the construction and commissioning of a reliable and versatile NBTF facility for the production of high-quality, high-yield radioisotopes for research, biomedical, and industrial applications. The report is organized in nine sections providing, in consecutive order, responses to the nine questions posed by the U.S. Department of Energy in its solicitation for the NBTF Project Definition Study. In order to preserve direct correspondence (e.g., Sec. 3 = 3rd item), this Introduction is numbered {open_quotes}0.{close_quotes} Accelerator and facility designs are covered in Section 1 (Accelerator Design) and Section 2 (Facility Design). Preliminary estimates of capital costs are detailed in Section 3 (Design and Construction Costs). Full licensing requirements, including federal, state, and local ordinances, are discussed in Section 4 (Permits). A plan for the management of hazardous materials to be generated by NBTF is presented in Section 5 (Waste Management). An evaluation of NBTF`s economic viability and its potential market impact is detailed in Section 6(Business Plan), and is complemented by the plans in Section 7 (Operating Plan) and Section 8 (Radioisotope Plan). Finally, a plan for NBTF`s research, education, and outreach programs is presented in Section 9 (Research and Education Programs).

  19. The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

  20. Analysis of agreement among definitions of metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic Turkish adults: a methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersot Thomas P

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to explore the agreement among World Health Organization (WHO, European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR, National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP, American College of Endocrinology (ACE, and International Diabetes Federation (IDF definitions of the metabolic syndrome. Methods 1568 subjects (532 men, 1036 women, mean age 45 and standard deviation (SD 13 years were evaluated in this cross-sectional, methodological study. Cardiometabolic risk factors were determined. Insulin sensitivity was calculated by HOMA-IR. Agreement among definitions was determined by the kappa statistic. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test were used to compare multiple groups. Results The agreement between WHO and EGIR definitions was very good (kappa: 0.83. The agreement between NCEP, ACE, and IDF definitions was substantial to very good (kappa: 0.77–0.84. The agreement between NCEP or ACE or IDF and WHO or EGIR definitions was fair (kappa: 0.32–0.37. The age and sex adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38% by NCEP, 42% by ACE and IDF, 20% by EGIR and 19% by WHO definition. The evaluated definitions were dichotomized after analysis of design, agreement and prevalence: insulin measurement requiring definitions (WHO and EGIR and definitions not requiring insulin measurement (NCEP, ACE, IDF. One definition was selected from each set for comparison. WHO-defined subjects were more insulin resistant than subjects without the metabolic syndrome (mean and SD for log HOMA-IR, 0.53 ± 0.14 vs. 0.07 ± 0.23, respectively, p 0.05, but lower log HOMA-IR values (p Conclusion The metabolic syndrome definitions that do not require measurement of insulin levels (NCEP, ACE and IDF identify twice more patients with insulin resistance and increased Framingham risk scores and are more useful than the definitions that require measurement of insulin levels (WHO and EGIR.

  1. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  2. Definitions of Physical Concepts: A Study of Physics Teachers' Knowledge and Views. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Igal; Lehavi, Yaron

    2006-01-01

    A study was made of the ability of a population of high-school physics teachers to define physics concepts and of their views regarding the importance of such definitions. It was found possible to arrange the definitions accumulated in categories, and the classification so obtained was consonant with that of the philosophy of science. Although the…

  3. Comparing definitions in guidelines and written standards - a case study: 'Trueness'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavese, F

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of a repository initiated by IMEKO TC21 to allow the comparison of different definitions and use of the same term or concept in written standards and guidelines available internationally. The method used is illustrated for a case study: the critical concept of 'trueness' and its definitions.

  4. Does the Reliability of Reporting in Injury Surveillance Studies Depend on Injury Definition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew; Williams, Sean; Kemp, Simon P.T.; Fuller, Colin; Taylor, Aileen; Brooks, John; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Background: Choosing an appropriate definition for injury in injury surveillance studies is essential to ensure a balance among reporting reliability, providing an accurate representation of injury risk, and describing the nature of the clinical demand. Purpose: To provide guidance on the choice of injury definition for injury surveillance studies by comparing within- and between-team variability in injury incidence with >24-hour and >7-day time-loss injury definitions in a large multiteam injury surveillance study. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Injury data were reported for 2248 professional rugby union players from 15 Premiership Rugby clubs over 12 seasons. Within-team percentage coefficient of variation and mean between-team standard deviation (expressed as a percentage coefficient of variation) in injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 player match hours) were calculated. For both variables, a comparison was made between >24-hour and >7-day injury incidence rates in terms of the magnitude of the observed effects. Results: The overall mean incidence across the population with a >24-hour time-loss injury definition was approximately double the reported incidence with the >7-day definition. There was a 10% higher between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with the >24-hour time-loss definition versus the >7-day definition. Conclusion: There was a likely higher degree of between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with a >24-hour time-loss definition than with a >7-day definition of injury. However, in professional sports settings, it is likely that the benefits of using a more inclusive definition of injury (improved understanding of clinical demand and the appropriate and accurate reporting of injury risk) outweigh the small increase in variation in reporting consistency. PMID:29581994

  5. Competing Definitions of Schizophrenia: What Can Be Learned From Polydiagnostic Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Lennart Bertil; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    not a product of explicit conceptual analyses and empirical studies but defined through consensus with the purpose of improving reliability. The validity status of current definitions and of their predecessors remains unclear. The so-called "polydiagnostic approach" applies different definitions of a disorder...... to the same patient sample in order to compare these definitions on potential validity indicators. We reviewed 92 polydiagnostic sz studies published since the early 1970s. Different sz definitions show a considerable variation concerning frequency, concordance, reliability, outcome, and other validity...... measures. The DSM-IV and the ICD-10 show moderate reliability but both definitions appear weak in terms of concurrent validity, eg, with respect to an aggregation of a priori important features. The first-rank symptoms of Schneider are not associated with family history of sz or with prediction of poor...

  6. Competing definitions of schizophrenia: what can be learned from polydiagnostic studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Lennart B; Parnas, Josef

    2007-01-01

    of explicit conceptual analyses and empirical studies but defined through consensus with the purpose of improving reliability. The validity status of current definitions and of their predecessors remains unclear. The so-called "polydiagnostic approach" applies different definitions of a disorder to the same...... patient sample in order to compare these definitions on potential validity indicators. We reviewed 92 polydiagnostic sz studies published since the early 1970s. Different sz definitions show a considerable variation concerning frequency, concordance, reliability, outcome, and other validity measures....... The DSM-IV and the ICD-10 show moderate reliability but both definitions appear weak in terms of concurrent validity, eg, with respect to an aggregation of a priori important features. The first-rank symptoms of Schneider are not associated with family history of sz or with prediction of poor outcome...

  7. Does the Reliability of Reporting in Injury Surveillance Studies Depend on Injury Definition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew; Williams, Sean; Kemp, Simon P T; Fuller, Colin; Taylor, Aileen; Brooks, John; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2018-03-01

    Choosing an appropriate definition for injury in injury surveillance studies is essential to ensure a balance among reporting reliability, providing an accurate representation of injury risk, and describing the nature of the clinical demand. To provide guidance on the choice of injury definition for injury surveillance studies by comparing within- and between-team variability in injury incidence with >24-hour and >7-day time-loss injury definitions in a large multiteam injury surveillance study. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Injury data were reported for 2248 professional rugby union players from 15 Premiership Rugby clubs over 12 seasons. Within-team percentage coefficient of variation and mean between-team standard deviation (expressed as a percentage coefficient of variation) in injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 player match hours) were calculated. For both variables, a comparison was made between >24-hour and >7-day injury incidence rates in terms of the magnitude of the observed effects. The overall mean incidence across the population with a >24-hour time-loss injury definition was approximately double the reported incidence with the >7-day definition. There was a 10% higher between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with the >24-hour time-loss definition versus the >7-day definition. There was a likely higher degree of between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with a >24-hour time-loss definition than with a >7-day definition of injury. However, in professional sports settings, it is likely that the benefits of using a more inclusive definition of injury (improved understanding of clinical demand and the appropriate and accurate reporting of injury risk) outweigh the small increase in variation in reporting consistency.

  8. Biological characteristics as a part of pollution monitoring studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.

    Ecosystem modifications can be considered as an integral part of any pollution monitoring studies and in such cases community structure/diversity is of prime importance. Considering this advantage of aquatic life, pelagic and benthic communities...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 564 - Information To Be Submitted for Long Life Replaceable Light Sources of Limited Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...—Information To Be Submitted for Long Life Replaceable Light Sources of Limited Definition I. Filament or... Source that Operates With a Ballast and Rated Life of the Light Source/Ballast Combination. A. Maximum power (in watts). B. Luminous Flux (in lumens). C. Rated laboratory life of the light source/ballast...

  10. The Definition and Treatment of Bulimarexia in College Women--A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskind-Ledahl, Marlene; White, William C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A study of college women suffering from bulimarexia, a cyclical eating disorder characterized by bingeing/purging behaviors and abnormally low self-esteem, indicates the importance of sociocultural factors in female role definition. (JMF)

  11. Definition of soil characteristics and ground response at the northwestern part of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Adel, M E; Deif, A; El-Hadidy, S; Sayed, S R Moustafa; El Werr, A

    2008-01-01

    The area of interest represents the industrial part of Ain El-Sokhna new port, located in the northwestern part of the seismically active Gulf of Suez zone. The main objective of the current study is to estimate the site characteristics of the area of interest in terms of the fundamental frequency and the corresponding peak amplitude using noise measurements. The microtremor measurements were performed at 44 sites distributed over the study area in order to calculate the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio. The standard spectral ratio (SSR) is used in addition to the numerical modelling of horizontal shear (SH) waves in soil at selected sites in order to have a comparison with the H/V spectral ratio. The required 1D soil models for the numerical modelling of SH-waves were derived from 220 P-wave shallow seismic refraction profiles in addition to 30 SH-wave profiles. Maps of the fundamental frequency (f 0 ) and its corresponding H/V peak amplitude (A 0 ) were provided, and a range of site conditions in the area were shown. The amplification factor results derived from the SSR technique are very similar to those derived from the H/V spectral ratio. In most cases, the H/V spectral ratio proved to be suitable for calculating the fundamental resonance. Results were found to be compatible with the surface geology of the area of interest

  12. Binary analysis: 1. part: definitions and treatment of binary functions; 2. part: applications and functions of trans-coding; Analyse binaire: 1ere partie: definitions et traitements des fonctions binaires; 2eme partie: applications et fonctions de transcodage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, R L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The study of binary groups under their mathematical aspects constitutes the matter of binary analysis, the purpose of which consists in developing altogether simple, rigorous and practical methods needed by the technicians, the engineers and all those who may be mainly concerned by digital processing. This subject, fast extending if not determining, however tends actually to play a main part in nuclear electronics as well as in several other research areas. (authors) [French] L'analyse binaire a pour objet l'etude mathematique des proprietes d'ensembles binaires algebriques et pour but l'elaboration de methodes simples, rigoureuses et pratiques, destinees aux techniciens, aux ingenieurs et a tous ceux qu'interesse directement le traitement numerique de l'information, discipline en expansion rapide qui, deja, en electronique nucleaire comme dans de nombreux autres domaines de la recherche, tend a jouer un role essentiel sinon determinant. (auteurs)

  13. Outcomes Definitions and Statistical Tests in Oncology Studies: A Systematic Review of the Reporting Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoirard, Romain; Duplay, Vianney; Oriol, Mathieu; Tinquaut, Fabien; Chauvin, Franck; Magne, Nicolas; Bourmaud, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    Quality of reporting for Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) in oncology was analyzed in several systematic reviews, but, in this setting, there is paucity of data for the outcomes definitions and consistency of reporting for statistical tests in RCTs and Observational Studies (OBS). The objective of this review was to describe those two reporting aspects, for OBS and RCTs in oncology. From a list of 19 medical journals, three were retained for analysis, after a random selection: British Medical Journal (BMJ), Annals of Oncology (AoO) and British Journal of Cancer (BJC). All original articles published between March 2009 and March 2014 were screened. Only studies whose main outcome was accompanied by a corresponding statistical test were included in the analysis. Studies based on censored data were excluded. Primary outcome was to assess quality of reporting for description of primary outcome measure in RCTs and of variables of interest in OBS. A logistic regression was performed to identify covariates of studies potentially associated with concordance of tests between Methods and Results parts. 826 studies were included in the review, and 698 were OBS. Variables were described in Methods section for all OBS studies and primary endpoint was clearly detailed in Methods section for 109 RCTs (85.2%). 295 OBS (42.2%) and 43 RCTs (33.6%) had perfect agreement for reported statistical test between Methods and Results parts. In multivariable analysis, variable "number of included patients in study" was associated with test consistency: aOR (adjusted Odds Ratio) for third group compared to first group was equal to: aOR Grp3 = 0.52 [0.31-0.89] (P value = 0.009). Variables in OBS and primary endpoint in RCTs are reported and described with a high frequency. However, statistical tests consistency between methods and Results sections of OBS is not always noted. Therefore, we encourage authors and peer reviewers to verify consistency of statistical tests in oncology studies.

  14. College Students' Definitions of Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Three Chinese Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yanpeng; Sun, Ivan Y; Farmer, Ashley K; Lin, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Although a large number of studies have been conducted worldwide to examine various aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV), comparative study of people's views on such violence in Chinese societies has been scarce. Using survey data collected from more than 850 college students in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, this study specifically assessed the impact of attitudes toward gender role and violence, personal and vicarious experience, demographic characteristics, and locality on students' definitions of IPV. The Taiwanese students were most likely to define a broader range of abusive behavior as IPV, followed by Hong Kong and Beijing students. Gender role and violence attitudes appeared to be most important predictors of IPV definitions. College students who supported the notion of male dominance were more likely to have a narrower definition of IPV, whereas those who viewed domestic violence as crime were more inclined to have a broader definition of IPV. Implications for future research and policy were discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Professional Learning in Part-time University Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    The theme of this article is adult students' learning in part-time studies at university level in Denmark. One issue discussed is the interplay of research and teaching in this kind of study programme. Examples are presented from the Master of Learning Processes study programme at Aalborg...

  16. Reconsidering the International Association for the Study of Pain definition of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Milton; Quintner, John; van Rysewyk, Simon

    2018-03-01

    The definition of pain promulgated by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) is widely accepted as a pragmatic characterisation of that human experience. Although the Notes that accompany it characterise pain as "always subjective," the IASP definition itself fails to sufficiently integrate phenomenological aspects of pain. This essay reviews the historical development of the IASP definition, and the commentaries and suggested modifications to it over almost 40 years. Common factors of pain experience identified in phenomenological studies are described, together with theoretical insights from philosophy and biology. A fuller understanding of the pain experience and of the clinical care of those experiencing pain is achievable through greater attention to the phenomenology of pain, the social "intersubjective space" in which pain occurs, and the limitations of language. Based on these results, a revised definition of pain is offered: Pain is a mutually recognizable somatic experience that reflects a person's apprehension of threat to their bodily or existential integrity.

  17. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 6: SPS technology requirements and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    Volume 6 of the SPS Concept Definition Study is presented and also incorporates results of NASA/MSFC in-house effort. This volume includes a supporting research and technology summary. Other volumes of the final report that provide additional detail are as follows: (1) Executive Summary; (2) SPS System Requirements; (3) SPS Concept Evolution; (4) SPS Point Design Definition; (5) Transportation and Operations Analysis; and Volume 7, SPS Program Plan and Economic Analysis.

  18. Word Definitional Skills in School age Persian Speaking Children: A Developmental Study on Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talieh Zarifian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Word definitional skills (WDSs were classified according to the quality of both semantic content and syntactic form. The aim of the present study was to investigate the syntactic development in WDSs in typically developing school- age children. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study,  150 of typically developing school-age children participated by the  multistage sampling method in the second to sixth grade from primary schools in 1, 7 and 17 municipal  districts of Tehran. The definition skill was assessed with word definition task. The reliability was assessed by two independent values and the validity was determined by the content. The results were  analyzed by the SPSS (22th version  statistical software and with the method of independent- samples T test, univariate analysis of variance and Tukey test. Results: The form analysis revealed that all children use phrase/clause  or simple sentence, transitional form and Aristotelian form frequently, but by increasing the age, definitions were developed from simple syntactic structure into Aristotelian form, in fact mean score of the form in word definition was significantly increased by age (P<0.001. Discussion: Owing to the findings of this study, the development of word definitional skills in terms of form was developed from phrase/clause or simple sentence and transitional form responses into Aristotelian form. Also WDSs are closely related to academic success and the development of literacy.

  19. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for studies of injuries in rugby union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Molloy, Michael G; Bagate, Christian; Bahr, Roald; Brooks, John H M; Donson, Hilton; Kemp, Simon P T; McCrory, Paul; McIntosh, Andrew S; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Wiley, Preston

    2007-01-01

    Wide variations in the definitions and methodologies used for studies of injuries in rugby union have created inconsistencies in reported data and made interstudy comparisons of results difficult. The International Rugby Board established a Rugby Injury Consensus Group (RICG) to reach an agreement on the appropriate definitions and methodologies to standardise the recording of injuries and reporting of studies in rugby union. The RICG reviewed the consensus definitions and methodologies previously published for football (soccer) at a meeting in Dublin in order to assess their suitability for and application to rugby union. Following this meeting, iterative draft statements were prepared and circulated to members of the RICG for comment; a follow‐up meeting was arranged in Dublin, at which time all definitions and procedures were finalised. At this stage, all authors confirmed their agreement with the consensus statement. The agreed document was presented to and approved by the International Rugby Board Council. Agreement was reached on definitions for injury, recurrent injury, non‐fatal catastrophic injury, and training and match exposures, together with criteria for classifying injuries in terms of severity, location, type, diagnosis and causation. The definitions and methodology presented in this consensus statement for rugby union are similar to those proposed for football. Adoption of the proposals presented in this consensus statement should ensure that more consistent and comparable results will be obtained from studies of injuries within rugby union. PMID:17452684

  20. The Category of Definiteness Indefiniteness through the Prism of Functional Approach to Language Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labetova Victoria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The studying of language phenomena with the emphasis on their functional component is topical for modern linguistics. This approach gives a boost to thinking over various (semantic, morphological, syntactic forms through the prism of their functional-semantic load. The analysis of the category of definiteness/indefiniteness from this point of view allows defining the actual theoretical categorial model and the system of its expressive means. Purpose: The aim of the article is to define the essence and the bounds of the category of definiteness/indefiniteness in the Ukrainian language and reveal its expressive potential. Results: The category of definiteness/indefiniteness is a universal category that is based on the symbiosis of psychic, cognitive and lingual spheres. Its functional potential is accumulated in cognitive and communicative fields so it is not restricted only to defining spheres of definiteness or indefiniteness. Not only do things or objects appear definite or indefinite in the process of communication or its interpretation but also their characteristics or properties may acquire these senses. The category of definiteness/indefiniteness correlates with other functional-semantic categories, which leads to its complicated and ramified field structure with diffuse and peripheral zones. Discussion: The studying of the widened structure of the functional-semantic field of definiteness/indefiniteness and organizing all possible (regular, typical, occasional, etc. means of its expression is a perspective approach. It is important to study the category of definiteness/indefiniteness in different types of discourse to reveal the logic of its functioning.

  1. Colorado SIP: 5 CCR 1001-13, Reg 11, Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program—Part A, General Provisions, Area of Applicability, Schedules for Obtaining Certification of Emissions Control, Definitions, Exemptions, and Clean Screening/Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado SIP: 5 CCR 1001-13, Reg 11, Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program—Part A, General Provisions, Area of Applicability, Schedules for Obtaining Certification of Emissions Control, Definitions, Exemptions, and Clean Screening/Remote Sensing

  2. Investigation of Echinococcus multilocularis in Environmental Definitive Host Feces in the Asian and the European Parts of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tümay Gürler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to investigate the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in two regions of Turkey—central Anatolia (in Asia Minor and Thrace (in the European part of Turkey. A total of 405 putative fox feces were collected from central Anatolia (186 specimens in 59 locations and from Thrace (219 specimens in 114 locations. All samples were examined by the flotation and sieving method for taeniid eggs, and positive and putative samples were further analyzed by multiplex PCR. In seven samples from three locations in central Anatolia (5.1% and in one (0.9% from Thrace, E. multilocularis DNA was amplified, and this result was confirmed with another PCR specific for E. multilocularis. In addition, Echinococcus granulosus s.l. was found in two (0.5% of the samples. Although alveolar echinococcosis (AE is known as a serious zoonosis in Turkey, this is the first field study detecting E. multilocularis in collected fecal samples documenting the environmental contamination with eggs of this zoonotic parasite.

  3. Management approach recommendations. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Management analyses and tradeoffs were performed to determine the most cost effective management approach for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Phase C/D. The basic objectives of the management approach are identified. Some of the subjects considered are as follows: (1) contract startup phase, (2) project management control system, (3) configuration management, (4) quality control and reliability engineering requirements, and (5) the parts procurement program.

  4. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    The choice of appropriate control group(s) is critical in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker research in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a lack of definitions and nomenclature of different control groups and a rationalized application of different control groups. We here propose consensus......). Furthermore, we discuss the application of these control groups in specific study designs, such as for diagnostic biomarker studies, prognostic biomarker studies and therapeutic response studies. Application of these uniform definitions will lead to better comparability of biomarker studies and optimal use...

  5. Morphometric studies on a part of Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.

    Morphometric and slope angle studies carried out on a part of Indian Ocean Basin have shown that gentle slope angle ranges dominate, 92% of the area represented by 0-3 degrees slopes. Young's hypothesis of log-normal distribution of slope angle...

  6. How common is domestic violence against women? The definition of partner abuse in prevalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, K; Roberts, G

    1998-02-01

    We systematically reviewed studies of the prevalence of domestic violence. Selected overseas community studies were compared with all Australian prevalence studies found to be published. Twelve-month prevalence estimates of partner abuse in Australia varied from 2.1 per cent to 28.0 per cent, depending mainly on the definition of domestic violence used in each study. Implications of the lack of a precise definition result in varying operationalised definitions of partner abuse, from all types of violence in relationships (including a single minor violent incident), through to only those violent incidents that are classified as a crime. Recommendations for any future prevalence studies in this field include the need to collect frequency data which reflected the fact that partner abuse against women is a complex behavioural phenomenon involving emotional, physical and sexual abuse against a partner, not just simply physical incidents.

  7. Integrated source-risk model for radon: A definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laheij, G.M.H.; Aldenkamp, F.J.; Stoop, P.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of a source-risk model is to support policy making on radon mitigation by comparing effects of various policy options and to enable optimization of counter measures applied to different parts of the source-risk chain. There are several advantages developing and using a source-risk model: risk calculations are standardized; the effects of measures applied to different parts of the source-risk chain can be better compared because interactions are included; and sensitivity analyses can be used to determine the most important parameters within the total source-risk chain. After an inventory of processes and sources to be included in the source-risk chain, the models presently available in the Netherlands are investigated. The models were screened for completeness, validation and operational status. The investigation made clear that, by choosing for each part of the source-risk chain the most convenient model, a source-risk chain model for radon may be realized. However, the calculation of dose out of the radon concentrations and the status of the validation of most models should be improved. Calculations with the proposed source-risk model will give estimations with a large uncertainty at the moment. For further development of the source-risk model an interaction between the source-risk model and experimental research is recommended. Organisational forms of the source-risk model are discussed. A source-risk model in which only simple models are included is also recommended. The other models are operated and administrated by the model owners. The model owners execute their models for a combination of input parameters. The output of the models is stored in a database which will be used for calculations with the source-risk model. 5 figs., 15 tabs., 7 appendices, 14 refs

  8. Integrated technology rotor/flight research rotor concept definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. G.; Beno, E. A.; Ulisnik, H. D.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) Program a number of advanced rotor system designs were conceived and investigated. From these, several were chosen that best meet the started ITR goals with emphasis on stability, reduced weight and hub drag, simplicity, low head moment stiffness, and adequate strength and fatigue life. It was concluded that obtaining low hub moment stiffness was difficult when only the blade flexibility of bearingless rotor blades is considered, unacceptably low fatigue life being the primary problem. Achieving a moderate hub moment stiffness somewhat higher than state of the art articulated rotors in production today is possible within the fatigue life constraint. Alternatively, low stiffness is possible when additional rotor elements, besides the blades themselves, provide part of the rotor flexibility. Two primary designs evolved as best meeting the general ITR requirements that presently exist. An I shaped flexbeam with an external torque tube can satisfy the general goals but would have either higher stiffness or reduced fatigue life. The elastic gimbal rotor can achieve a better combination of low stiffness and high fatigue life but would be a somewhat heavier design and possibly exhibit a higher risk of aeromechanical instability.

  9. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 3: Clinical Trial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preskorn, Sheldon H; Macaluso, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    three, 14-week studies involving 1088 subjects, 409 of whom were elderly like the 76-year-old individual presented in the case in the first column of this series. Finally, 3 short-term studies evaluated the use of aripiprazole in patients with psychosis associated with Alzheimer disease, a population who would be considered a relatively higher risk group for developing TD when exposed to antipsychotics and that also closely matches the patient in the case presented at the beginning of this series in terms of age. No incidence of TD was reported in this sample and mean scores on the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale decreased in individuals exposed to aripiprazole compared with those on placebo. On the basis of results of this review and data from registration trials of aripiprazole for all indications, the potential (or raw) incidence of what was termed TD occurred at rates ranging from 0.004 (4/987) based on long-term safety data from the program investigating aripiprazole augmentation treatment in MDD, to 0.0016 (19/11,897) based on the total safety database from aripiprazole registration trials for all indications, to 0 in trials in elderly individuals with Alzheimer disease. The confidence intervals for all of these potential incidence rates overlap with zero. The next column in this 5-part series reviews 37 case reports that reported TD in association with aripiprazole treatment and 27 case reports that suggested an improvement in preexisting TD with aripiprazole treatment. The fifth and final column in this series will discuss the types of prohibitively expensive and logistically difficult studies that would be needed to determine whether a definitive causal relationship between aripiprazole and TD exists.

  10. An Ontology to Improve Transparency in Case Definition and Increase Case Finding of Infectious Intestinal Disease: Database Study in English General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, Simon; Shinneman, Stacy; Yonova, Ivelina; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Elliot, Alex J; Bolton, Frederick; Smith, Gillian E; O'Brien, Sarah

    2017-09-28

    Infectious intestinal disease (IID) has considerable health impact; there are 2 billion cases worldwide resulting in 1 million deaths and 78.7 million disability-adjusted life years lost. Reported IID incidence rates vary and this is partly because terms such as "diarrheal disease" and "acute infectious gastroenteritis" are used interchangeably. Ontologies provide a method of transparently comparing case definitions and disease incidence rates. This study sought to show how differences in case definition in part account for variation in incidence estimates for IID and how an ontological approach provides greater transparency to IID case finding. We compared three IID case definitions: (1) Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre (RCGP RSC) definition based on mapping to the Ninth International Classification of Disease (ICD-9), (2) newer ICD-10 definition, and (3) ontological case definition. We calculated incidence rates and examined the contribution of four supporting concepts related to IID: symptoms, investigations, process of care (eg, notification to public health authorities), and therapies. We created a formal ontology using ontology Web language. The ontological approach identified 5712 more cases of IID than the ICD-10 definition and 4482 more than the RCGP RSC definition from an initial cohort of 1,120,490. Weekly incidence using the ontological definition was 17.93/100,000 (95% CI 15.63-20.41), whereas for the ICD-10 definition the rate was 8.13/100,000 (95% CI 6.70-9.87), and for the RSC definition the rate was 10.24/100,000 (95% CI 8.55-12.12). Codes from the four supporting concepts were generally consistent across our three IID case definitions: 37.38% (3905/10,448) (95% CI 36.16-38.5) for the ontological definition, 38.33% (2287/5966) (95% CI 36.79-39.93) for the RSC definition, and 40.82% (1933/4736) (95% CI 39.03-42.66) for the ICD-10 definition. The proportion of laboratory results associated with a positive test

  11. Comparative Analysis of Institutional Policy Definitions of Plagiarism: A Pan-Canadian University Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2017-01-01

    This article shares the findings of a study investigating institutional policy definitions of plagiarism at twenty English-speaking Canadian universities. The types of primary sources consulted for this study included: (1) university academic calendars for 2016-2017, (2) institutional policies on academic misconduct, and (3) student academic codes…

  12. Time to definitive diagnosis of breast cancer in Latina and non-Hispanic white women: the six cities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Talavera, Gregory A; Penedo, Frank J; Carrillo, J Emilio; Fernandez, Maria E; Muñoz, Edgar; Long Parma, Dorothy; Holden, Alan Ec; San Miguel de Majors, Sandra; Nápoles, Anna; Castañeda, Sheila F; Gallion, Kipling J

    2013-12-01

    Time delay after an abnormal screening mammogram may have a critical impact on tumor size, stage at diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and survival of subsequent breast cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate disparities between Latina and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women in time to definitive diagnosis of breast cancer after an abnormal screening mammogram, as well as factors contributing to such disparities. As part of the activities of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded Redes En Acción research network, clinical records of 186 Latinas and 74 NHWs who received abnormal screening mammogram results were reviewed to determine the time to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Data was obtained from participating clinics in six U.S. cities and included demographics, clinical history, and mammogram characteristics. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models were used to test differences in median time to definitive diagnosis by ethnicity after adjusting for clinic site, demographics, and clinical characteristics. Time-to-event analysis showed that Latinas took 2.2 times longer to reach 50% definitively diagnosed with breast cancer relative to NHWs, and three times longer to reach 80% diagnosed (p=0.001). Latinas' median time to definitive diagnosis was 60 days compared to 27 for NHWs, a 59% gap in diagnosis rates (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR] = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.31; p=0.015). BI-RADS-4/5 women's diagnosis rate was more than twice that of BI-RADS-3 (aHR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.18, 3.78; p=0.011). Disparities in time between receipt of abnormal screening result and definitive diagnosis adversely affect Latinas compared to NHWs, and remain significant after adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. With cancer now the leading cause of mortality among Latinos, a greater need exists for ethnically and culturally appropriate interventions like patient navigation to facilitate Latinas' successful entry into, and progression through, the cancer care

  13. Recommendations for the definition of clinical responder in insulin preservation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Craig A; Gitelman, Stephen E; Palmer, Jerry P

    2014-09-01

    Clinical responder studies should contribute to the translation of effective treatments and interventions to the clinic. Since ultimately this translation will involve regulatory approval, we recommend that clinical trials prespecify a responder definition that can be assessed against the requirements and suggestions of regulatory agencies. In this article, we propose a clinical responder definition to specifically assist researchers and regulatory agencies in interpreting the clinical importance of statistically significant findings for studies of interventions intended to preserve β-cell function in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. We focus on studies of 6-month β-cell preservation in type 1 diabetes as measured by 2-h-stimulated C-peptide. We introduce criteria (bias, reliability, and external validity) for the assessment of responder definitions to ensure they meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines. Using data from several published TrialNet studies, we evaluate our definition (no decrease in C-peptide) against published alternatives and determine that our definition has minimum bias with external validity. We observe that reliability could be improved by using changes in C-peptide later than 6 months beyond baseline. In sum, to support efficacy claims of β-cell preservation therapies in type 1 diabetes submitted to U.S. and European regulatory agencies, we recommend use of our definition. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  14. Goal Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    The goal definition is the first phase of an LCA and determines the purpose of a study in detail. This chapter teaches how to perform the six aspects of a goal definition: (1) Intended applications of the results, (2) Limitations due to methodological choices, (3) Decision context and reasons...... for carrying out the study, (4) Target audience , (5) Comparative studies to be disclosed to the public and (6) Commissioner of the study and other influential actors. The instructions address both the conduct and reporting of a goal definition and are largely based on the ILCD guidance document (EC...

  15. A preliminary study on the definitions and differences of main types of business arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Tiago Peixoto Gonçalves

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of competitiveness and market requirements, several companies have been jointly organized with the aim of forming partnerships, forming the so-called Business Arrangements, to ensure that competitive advantages are achieved. This article came from the need to review the definitions and differences between the main types of existing Business Arrangements, as in the literature have been used different nomenclatures and classifications, either in terms of how the Arrangement is managed, how it is organized, the according to which members carry out their activities, how is the flow of resources and information, the degree of coordination and interaction, the form of production organization, and the strategies adopted. It is a basic research, descriptive and literature, which sought to collect the relevant sources, definitions about each Arrangement to meet the goal of the article is to study the definitions and differences between the main types of Business Arrangements. The article is justified by the scarcity of uniform definitions in the literature that make it possible to visualize the differences between each of the types of Arrangements, especially those in which the definitions are more similar.

  16. Objectives and Model Payload Definition for NEO Human Mission Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Carpenter, J.

    2011-10-01

    ESA has supported studies on NEO threat assessment systems and deflection concepts in the context of the General Studies Programme and in close cooperation with the directorates of Technical and Quality Management and of the Scientific Programme. This work has made it possible to identify a project for Europe to make a significant - yet realistic - contribution to the international efforts in this field: the Don Quijote NEO technology demonstration mission. This paper describes what such a small mission can do to prepare future human exploration and what is the in-situ data that can be obtained through such a project.

  17. Competing Definitions of Schizophrenia: What Can Be Learned From Polydiagnostic Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Lennart Bertil; Parnas, Josef

    2007-01-01

    The contemporary diagnoses of schizophrenia (sz)—Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and International Classification of Diseases,10th Revision (ICD-10)—are widely considered as important scientific achievements. However, these algorithms were...... not a product of explicit conceptual analyses and empirical studies but defined through consensus with the purpose of improving reliability. The validity status of current definitions and of their predecessors remains unclear. The so-called "polydiagnostic approach" applies different definitions of a disorder...

  18. Evaluating the offensive definition zone in football: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New technological solutions have greatly improved match analysis systems for investigating players' performance. Nevertheless, there still remains a large gap in the collective analysis where improvements need to be made, mainly in the use of automated information gathering. Thus, the aim of this case study was to ...

  19. Performance of gout definitions for genetic epidemiological studies: analysis of UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadzow, Murray; Merriman, Tony R; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2017-08-09

    Many different combinations of available data have been used to identify gout cases in large genetic studies. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of case definitions of gout using the limited items available in multipurpose cohorts for population-based genetic studies. This research was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource. Data, including genome-wide genotypes, were available for 105,421 European participants aged 40-69 years without kidney disease. Gout definitions and combinations of these definitions were identified from previous epidemiological studies. These definitions were tested for association with 30 urate-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, and ratio of waist circumference to height. Heritability estimates under an additive model were generated using GCTA version 1.26.0 and PLINK version 1.90b3.32 by partitioning the genome. There were 2066 (1.96%) cases defined by self-report of gout, 1652 (1.57%) defined by urate-lowering therapy (ULT) use, 382 (0.36%) defined by hospital diagnosis, 1861 (1.76%) defined by hospital diagnosis or gout-specific medications and 2295 (2.18%) defined by self-report of gout or ULT use. Association with gout at experiment-wide significance (P genetic epidemiological studies of gout.

  20. Preliminary Problem Definition Study on Munitions-Related Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    Thorium-230, Radium-226, Lead- 210 and Polonium - 210 by Plants," Radiat. Bot., 10(3), 293-295. Ernst, W. (1968), "Ecological Studies on Plants Grown on...dechlorane in the environment and its bioconcentration and biomagnifica- tion through the food chain. In mammals, dechlorane has been shown to be tei-atogenic...08 5. Phytotoxicity .o......................208 *6. Environmental Fate ....................... 210 7. Availability of Literature for

  1. Isotope effects: definitions and consequences for pharmacologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Langenhove, A.

    1986-01-01

    The use of stable isotope-labeled compounds for pharmacologic studies requires careful consideration of the nature of the stable isotope label (2H, 13C, 15N, 18O) and its position of incorporation in the molecule. When deuterium is used, improper positioning can lead to significant primary isotope effects. Primary isotope effects occur when the breaking of the bond to the heavy isotope is the rate-limiting step in a reaction (or metabolic transformation). A reaction will proceed slower for the molecule with the heavy isotope label because of the mass difference between the light and the heavy isotope. In addition to these primary isotope effects, smaller but nevertheless important secondary isotope effects, physicochemical isotope effects, active hydrogen/deuterium exchange, or isotope effects associated with either the enzyme-catalyzed biotransformation or the mass spectrometric ionization and fragmentation can be operative. In mechanistic studies, isotope effects are used to their advantage; however, in pharmacokinetic studies, the occurrence of isotope effects can lead to grossly misleading biologic and analytic results: the metabolism of the drug will differ when in vivo isotope effects are operative, and isotope effects occurring during the analysis procedure will obscure the true metabolic profile of the drug

  2. 34 CFR 660.4 - What definitions apply to the International Research and Studies Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply to the International Research and Studies Program? 660.4 Section 660.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH...

  3. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 7, phase 1: SPS and rectenna systems analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A systems definition study of the solar power satellite systems is presented. The design and power distribution of the rectenna system is discussed. The communication subsystem and thermal control characteristics are described and a failure analysis performed on the systems is reported.

  4. A comparative study on the elastic modulus of polyvinyl alcohol sponge using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Alizadeh, Mansour; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-10-01

    There have been different stress-strain definitions to measure the elastic modulus of spongy materials, especially polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented. This study was aimed to show how different results are given by the various definitions of stress-strain used, and to recommend a specific definition when testing spongy materials. A fabricated PVA sponge was subjected to a series of tensile tests in order to measure its mechanical properties. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) were used to determine the elastic modulus. The results revealed that the Almansi-Hamel strain definition exhibited the highest non-linear stress-strain relation and, as a result, may overestimate the elastic modulus at different stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress). The Green-St. Venant strain definition failed to address the non-linear stress-strain relation using different definitions of stress and invoked an underestimation of the elastic modulus values. Engineering stress and strain definitions were only valid for small strains and displacements, which make them impractical when analyzing spongy materials. The results showed that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements was significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus. It is important to consider which stress-strain definition is employed when characterizing the mechanical properties of spongy materials. Although the true stress-true strain definition exhibits a non-linear relation, we favor it in spongy materials mechanics as it gives more accurate measurements of the material's response using the instantaneous values.

  5. High energy physics studies. Progress report. Part I. Experimental program. Part II. Theoretical program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, T.A.; Tanaka, K.; Wada, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental Program: assembly of an experiment as Fermilab E-531 to measure decay lifetimes, with tagged emulsion of charmed particles produced by high energy neutrinos was finished, and data taking now is in progress. An experiment to measure prompt neutrino production at Fermilab, E-613, was approved and detailed design of it is continuing. Search for parity violation in scattering of polarized protons, an experiment E-446-ZGS at ANL, was performed with the sensitivity of 10 -6 for detection of that process and yielded null results. Another run with improved sensitivity of 10 -7 is in preparation. Data analysis of the neutrino experiment E-310 at Fermilab will continue. Trimuon events, a new discovery, were identified in those data. Analysis of data on meson production from experiments performed at the ZGS--ANL, E-397, E-420 and E-428, with charged and neutral spectrometer will continue. A new relatively broad resonance (T approx. 70 MeV) with quantum numbers IJ/sup P/ = 00 -1 was discovered in the data from E-397. Analysis of beta decay of polarized Σ - hyperons is in progress. Participation in the design of the experimental areas for the Isabelle colliding proton beam accelerator will continue. Theoretical Program: topics of current interest in particle theory which will be investigated in the coming year are: the instanton-anti-instanton QCD gauge fields, discrete symmetries which may determine quark masses in the SU(2) x U(1) model, calculation of charmed meson production in e + e - collisions and formation of gluon jets, Higgs boson production in pp collisions, calculation of Higgs boson mass in terms of vector boson mass, study of Lagrangians with gauge and Higgs scalar fields, investigation of Faddeev--Popov determinants as related to quantum chromodynamics, a study of quantum flavor dynamics and anomalies in the axial vector Ward identity and a study of super symmetry as a part of a realistic model of leptonic interactions

  6. In situ radionuclide migration studies in a shallow sand aquifer. Part. 1. Part. 2: appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.M.; Alexander, L.S.; Hitchman, S.P.; Hooker, P.J.; Noy, D.J.; Ross, C.A.M.; Stuart, A.; West, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    As a result of a study of the geology of the British Nuclear Fuels premises at Drigg, Cumbria, the British Geological Survey identified a shallow glacial sand deposit approximately 1.5m thick, interbedded between two clay horizons. An array of boreholes has been constructed in this sand in order to study the migration of radionuclides introduced into the formation under controlled conditions of groundwater flow. Conservative tracers used in the field test include chloride (as NaCl) and iodine-131 (as NaI). Strontium-85 (as the chloride) has been used as a chemically reactive tracer in conjunction with 131 I. The principal research objectives of the programme are as follows: (1) To undertake laboratory batch sorption experiments using core material from the field site in order to choose those nuclides of radiological interest that would migrate sufficiently quickly for their behaviour to be studied in a field experiment within a reasonable time period. (2) To identify and quantify the mechanisms for nuclide/sediment interaction by determination of the geochemical distribution of 85 Sr in contaminated cores using a sequential leaching procedure. (3) To obtain appropriate data on the hydraulic characteristics of the sand formation in order to construct a mathematical model to describe groundwater flow and reactive mass transport. Part 2 of this report contains the following appendices: (1) Calculation of sorption parameters. (2) A low-cost manifold system for use with multi-level samplers. (3) Radioactivity curves for 131 I and 85 Sr. (4) Results of particle size analysis for sand aquifers

  7. Energy Efficient Engine program advanced turbofan nacelle definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David C.; Wynosky, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced, low drag, nacelle configurations were defined for some of the more promising propulsion systems identified in the earlier Benefit/Cost Study, to assess the benefits associated with these advanced technology nacelles and formulate programs for developing these nacelles and low volume thrust reversers/spoilers to a state of technology readiness in the early 1990's. The study results established the design feasibility of advanced technology, slim line nacelles applicable to advanced technology, high bypass ratio turbofan engines. Design feasibility was also established for two low volume thrust reverse/spoiler concepts that meet or exceed the required effectiveness for these engines. These nacelle and thrust reverse/spoiler designs were shown to be applicable in engines with takeoff thrust sizes ranging from 24,000 to 60,000 pounds. The reduced weight, drag, and cost of the advanced technology nacelle installations relative to current technology nacelles offer a mission fuel burn savings ranging from 3.0 to 4.5 percent and direct operating cost plus interest improvements from 1.6 to 2.2 percent.

  8. Ports: Definition and study of types, sizes and business models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Roa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the world today there are thousands of port facilities of different types and sizes, competing to capture some market share of freight by sea, mainly. This article aims to determine the type of port and the most common size, in order to find out which business model is applied in that segment and what is the legal status of the companies of such infrastructure.Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this goal, we develop a research on a representative sample of 800 ports worldwide, which manage 90% of the containerized port loading. Then you can find out the legal status of the companies that manage them.Findings: The results indicate a port type and a dominant size, which are mostly managed by companies subject to a concession model.Research limitations/implications: In this research, we study only those ports that handle freight (basically containerized, ignoring other activities such as fishing, military, tourism or recreational.Originality/value: This is an investigation to show that the vast majority of the studied segment port facilities are governed by a similar corporate model and subject to pressure from the markets, which increasingly demand efficiency and service. Consequently, we tend to concession terminals to private operators in a process that might be called privatization, but in the strictest sense of the term, is not entirely realistic because the ownership of the land never ceases to be public

  9. 34 CFR 658.4 - What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to this...

  10. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roozen, K.

    1995-02-15

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel`s Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization.

  11. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roozen, K.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel's Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization

  12. Study of graphite sealing for the instrumentation feed through part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jintae; Ahn, Sungho; Joung, Changyoung; Kim, Kahye [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Because highly pressurized (15.5 MPa) and highly heated (300 .deg. C) coolant is circulated through the test rig, it needs to seal out the instrumentation feed through part. In this case, general sealing method is brazing and several works have been carried out in nuclear fields. However, because high temperature is induced on the sealing plug and sheaths, it is easy to be broken due to oxidisation of the sheath during brazing process. In addition, because the brazing process is irreversible, if the brazing process fails, the whole inner assembly should be scrapped out. Another approach which uses graphite has been studied to seal out the instrumentation feed through part. In the study, graphite sealing is considered as a sealing method and the improvement of mechanical structure has been studied to improve the workability. To check the sealing performance of the instrumentation feed through part, a hydraulic pressure test and a helium leak test were carried out according to the ASME section III. The criterion of a hydraulic pressure test is 125% of the design pressure. In this study, because the design pressure of the pressure vessel is 17.5 MPa. the sealing criterion should be 21.9 MPa. Also, in a Helium leak test, the criterion is less than 5 Χ 10{sup -9} torr·liter/sec. At first, a Helium leak test was carried out. After eliminating Helium in the pressure vessel by evacuating the internal area of the pressure vessel up to 1 Χ 10{sup -3} torr using ASM 310, Helium detection test was carried out by spraying Helium gas at the top face of the top flange for 5 minutes. Fig. 4 shows the rate of Helium leakage is 2.4 Χ 10{sup -9} torr·liter/sec, and it satisfies the sealing performance criterion. A hydraulic pressure test was also carried out, and there was no leakage or pressure drop when the water in the pressure vessel is pressurized up to 22.5 MPa. The above test results show that graphite powder can seal out the instrumentation feed through part easily with

  13. Study of graphite sealing for the instrumentation feed through part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jintae; Ahn, Sungho; Joung, Changyoung; Kim, Kahye

    2013-01-01

    Because highly pressurized (15.5 MPa) and highly heated (300 .deg. C) coolant is circulated through the test rig, it needs to seal out the instrumentation feed through part. In this case, general sealing method is brazing and several works have been carried out in nuclear fields. However, because high temperature is induced on the sealing plug and sheaths, it is easy to be broken due to oxidisation of the sheath during brazing process. In addition, because the brazing process is irreversible, if the brazing process fails, the whole inner assembly should be scrapped out. Another approach which uses graphite has been studied to seal out the instrumentation feed through part. In the study, graphite sealing is considered as a sealing method and the improvement of mechanical structure has been studied to improve the workability. To check the sealing performance of the instrumentation feed through part, a hydraulic pressure test and a helium leak test were carried out according to the ASME section III. The criterion of a hydraulic pressure test is 125% of the design pressure. In this study, because the design pressure of the pressure vessel is 17.5 MPa. the sealing criterion should be 21.9 MPa. Also, in a Helium leak test, the criterion is less than 5 Χ 10 -9 torr·liter/sec. At first, a Helium leak test was carried out. After eliminating Helium in the pressure vessel by evacuating the internal area of the pressure vessel up to 1 Χ 10 -3 torr using ASM 310, Helium detection test was carried out by spraying Helium gas at the top face of the top flange for 5 minutes. Fig. 4 shows the rate of Helium leakage is 2.4 Χ 10 -9 torr·liter/sec, and it satisfies the sealing performance criterion. A hydraulic pressure test was also carried out, and there was no leakage or pressure drop when the water in the pressure vessel is pressurized up to 22.5 MPa. The above test results show that graphite powder can seal out the instrumentation feed through part easily with the improved

  14. Nordic study on reactor waste. Technical part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    An important part of the Nordic studies on system- and safety analysis of the management of low and medium level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, is the safety analysis of a Reference System. This reference system was established within the study and is described in this Technical Part 1. The reference system covers waste management Schemes that are potential possibilities in either one of the four participating Nordic countries. The reference system is based on: a power reactor system consisting of 6 BWR's of 500 MWe each, operated simultaneously over the same 30 year period, and deep bed granular ion exchange resin wastes from the Reactor Water Clean-Up System (RWCS and powdered ion exchange resin from the Spent Fuel Pool Cleanup System (SFPCS)). Both waste types are supposed to be solidified by mixing with cement and bitumen. Two basic types of containers are considered. Standard 200 liter steel drums and specially made cubicreinforced concrete moulds with a net volume of 1 m 3 . The Nordic study assumes temporary storage of the solidified waste for a maximum of 50 years before the waste is transferred to the disposal site. Transportation of the waste from the storage facilitiy to the disposal site will be by road or sea. Three different disposal facilities are considered: Shallow land burial, near surface concrete bunker, and rock cavern with about 30 m granite cover. (EG)

  15. Trends and missing parts in the study of movement ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, Marcel; Casagrandi, Renato; Nathan, Ran; Revilla, Eloy; Spiegel, Orr

    2008-12-09

    Movement is important to all organisms, and accordingly it is addressed in a huge number of papers in the literature. Of nearly 26,000 papers referring to movement, an estimated 34% focused on movement by measuring it or testing hypotheses about it. This enormous amount of information is difficult to review and highlights the need to assess the collective completeness of movement studies and identify gaps. We surveyed 1,000 randomly selected papers from 496 journals and compared the facets of movement studied with a suggested framework for movement ecology, consisting of internal state (motivation, physiology), motion and navigation capacities, and external factors (both the physical environment and living organisms), and links among these components. Most studies simply measured and described the movement of organisms without reference to ecological or internal factors, and the most frequently studied part of the framework was the link between external factors and motion capacity. Few studies looked at the effects on movement of navigation capacity, or internal state, and those were mainly from vertebrates. For invertebrates and plants most studies were at the population level, whereas more vertebrate studies were conducted at the individual level. Consideration of only population-level averages promulgates neglect of between-individual variation in movement, potentially hindering the study of factors controlling movement. Terminology was found to be inconsistent among taxa and subdisciplines. The gaps identified in coverage of movement studies highlight research areas that should be addressed to fully understand the ecology of movement.

  16. [Quality assurance and quality improvement in medical practice. Part 1. Definition and importance of quality in medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godény, Sándor

    2012-01-22

    In Hungary, financing of healthcare has decreased relative to the GDP, while the health status of the population is still ranks among the worst in the European Union. Since healthcare financing is not expected to increase, the number of practicing doctors per capita is continuously decreasing. In the coming years, it is an important question that in this situation what methods can be used to prevent further deterioration of the health status of the Hungarian population, and within this is the role of the quality approach, and different methods of quality management. In the present and the forthcoming two articles those standpoints will be summarized which support the need for the integration of quality assurance in the everyday medical practice. In the first part the importance of quality thinking, quality management, quality assurance, necessity of quality measurement and improvement, furthermore, advantages of the quality systems will be discussed.

  17. Definitions of love in a sample of British women: an empirical study using Q methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Simon; Stenner, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Social psychological research has increasingly acknowledged that any pretensions to a singular theory of love should be replaced with a concern about its affirmation and what people actually say and do in love's name. Lee's (1977) love styles research and Sternberg's (1995) theory of love as a story are prime examples. Despite traditional definitions of love in western cultures being dominated by feminine images and tales of gender difference, however, the personal definitions and experiences of women have received comparatively little empirical attention, particularly in recent years and despite some well-documented changes in their cultural circumstances. This study remedies that situation through presentation of a Q methodological study in which a convenience sample of 59 British women were asked to Q sort 54 single-word descriptors of love to define love as they had experienced it. Factor analysis of the resulting Q sorts revealed six distinct definitions of love, interpreted as 'attraction, passion & romance', 'unconditional love', 'sex & fun', 'friendship & spirituality', 'a permanent commitment', and 'separate people, separate lives'. The six definitions are then discussed in terms of their allegiance to traditionally feminine and/or masculine values and as a means of highlighting the changing face of Britain's relational culture. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Publishing studies: being part of a cultural practice plus x ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bläsi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In some parts of the world, Publishing Studies are a fairly well-established field of research as well as of higher education. Not least since this is not so much the case in continental Europe, the Publishing Studies community increasingly sees a more elaborated self-concept as an important prerequisite for a prosperous further development of the field in research as well as in teaching. This paper starts off by relating the question for an advanced self-concept of Publishing Studies to the question what criteria have to be fulfilled to call a field (like Publishing Studies a scholarly discipline. As the second source for the possible formation of a more elaborate self-concept, the paper presents the first results of an ongoing empirical research project. In this projects, extensive expert interviews with representatives of UK Publishing Studies study programs and research institutions are evaluated to shed light on the core questions related to Publishing Studies as a discipline / „discipline“ in a bottom-up manner. After presenting a very clear and differentiated North American view as an additional point of reference, a contribution to the discussion on Publishing Studies is proposed.

  19. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Candidate experiments definition and preliminary concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, R. V.; Hollinden, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning data for overall shuttle payload requirements assessments.

  20. A study on stress corrosion cracking of explosive plugged part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaga, Seiichi; Fujii, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Sakuma, Koosuke; Hibi, Seiji; Morimoto, Hiroyoshi.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on the stress corrosion cracking of explosive plugged part are conducted. SUS 304 stainless steel is used as testing material. The distribution of residual stress in plug and tube plate after plugging is obtained. The effect of residual stress on the stress corrosion cracking is studied. Residual stress in tube plate near the plug is compressive and stress corrosion cracking dose not occur in the tube plate there, and it occurs on the inner surface of plug because of residual tensile stress in axial direction of the plug. Stress corrosion test in MgCl 2 solution under constant load is conducted. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of the explosive bonded boundary is lower than that of base metal because of greater resistance to plastic deformation. Stress corrosion test in high temperature and high pressure pure water is also conducted by means of static type of autoclave but stress corrosion cracking does not occur under the testing condition used. (author)

  1. Reproduction in the space environment: Part I. Animal reproductive studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, P. A.; Jennings, R. T.; Craigie, D.

    1990-01-01

    Mankind's exploration and colonization of the frontier of space will ultimately depend on men's and women's ability to live, work, and reproduce in the space environment. This paper reviews animal studies, from microorganisms to mammals, done in space or under space-simulated conditions, which identify some of the key areas which might interfere with human reproductive physiology and/or embryonic development. Those space environmental factors which impacted almost all species included: microgravity, artificial gravity, radiation, and closed life support systems. These factors may act independently and in combination to produce their effects. To date, there have been no studies which have looked at the entire process of reproduction in any animal species. This type of investigation will be critical in understanding and preventing the problems which will affect human reproduction. Part II will discuss these problems directly as they relate to human physiology.

  2. Definitions of medication-overuse headache in population-based studies and their implications on prevalence estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Maria L; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Case definitions of medication-overuse headache (MOH) in population-based research have changed over time. This study aims to review MOH prevalence reports with respect to these changes, and to propose a practical case definition for future studies based on the ICHD-3 beta....

  3. Analysis of risk factors for schizophrenia with two different case definitions: a nationwide register-based external validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Larsen, Janne T; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-03-01

    Different case definitions of schizophrenia have been used in register based research. However, no previous study has externally validated two different case definitions of schizophrenia against a wide range of risk factors for schizophrenia. We investigated hazard ratios (HRs) for a wide range of risk factors for ICD-10 DCR schizophrenia using a nationwide Danish sample of 2,772,144 residents born in 1955-1997. We compared one contact only (OCO) (the case definition of schizophrenia used in Danish register based studies) with two or more contacts (TMC) (a case definition of at least 2 inpatient contacts with schizophrenia). During the follow-up, the OCO definition included 15,074 and the TMC 7562 cases; i.e. half as many. The TMC case definition appeared to select for a worse illness course. A wide range of risk factors were uniformly associated with both case definitions and only slightly higher risk estimates were found for the TMC definition. Choosing at least 2 inpatient contacts with schizophrenia (TMC) instead of the currently used case definition would result in almost similar risk estimates for many well-established risk factors. However, this would also introduce selection and include considerably fewer cases and reduce power of e.g. genetic studies based on register-diagnosed cases only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Construction of quality-assured infant feeding process of care data repositories: definition and design (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcí A-de-León-Chocano, Ricardo; Sáez, Carlos; Muñoz-Soler, Verónica; Garcí A-de-León-González, Ricardo; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2015-12-01

    This is the first paper of a series of two regarding the construction of data quality (DQ) assured repositories for the reuse of information on infant feeding from birth until two years old. This first paper justifies the need for such repositories and describes the design of a process to construct them from Electronic Health Records (EHR). As a result, Part 1 proposes a computational process to obtain quality-assured datasets represented by a canonical structure extracted from raw data from multiple EHR. For this, 13 steps were defined to ensure the harmonization, standardization, completion, de-duplication, and consistency of the dataset content. Moreover, the quality of the input and output data for each of these steps is controlled according to eight DQ dimensions: predictive value, correctness, duplication, consistency, completeness, contextualization, temporal-stability and spatial-stability. The second paper of the series will describe the application of this computational process to construct the first quality-assured repository for the reuse of information on infant feeding in the perinatal period aimed at the monitoring of clinical activities and research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear technology terms and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The terms and definitions in this standard are part of the catalogue of definitions 'Nuclear technology, terms and definitions', in eight parts; they are the latest version of the standards and draft standards of DIN 25 401, part 10 to 19, published at irregular intervals until now. (orig.) [de

  6. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA)

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its

  7. An experimental study on the mechanical properties of rat brain tissue using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2014-07-01

    There are different stress-strain definitions to measure the mechanical properties of the brain tissue. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be employed to measure the mechanical properties of the brain tissue at both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. It is worth knowing that an optimize stress-strain definition of the brain tissue at different loading directions may have implications for neuronavigation and surgery simulation through haptic devices. This study is aimed to conduct a comparative study on different results are given by the various definitions of stress-strain and to recommend a specific definition when testing brain tissues. Prepared cylindrical samples are excised from the parietal lobes of rats' brains and experimentally tested by applying load on both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) are used to determine the elastic modulus, maximum stress and strain. The highest non-linear stress-strain relation is observed for the Almansi-Hamel strain definition and it may overestimate the elastic modulus at different stress definitions at both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. The Green-St. Venant strain definition fails to address the non-linear stress-strain relation using different definitions of stress and triggers an underestimation of the elastic modulus. The results suggest the application of the true stress-true strain definition for characterization of the brain tissues mechanics since it gives more accurate measurements of the tissue's response using the instantaneous values.

  8. Acute respiratory infection case definitions for young children: a systematic review of community-based epidemiologic studies in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Daniel E; Gaffey, Michelle F; Smith-Romero, Evelyn; Fitzpatrick, Tiffany; Morris, Shaun K

    2015-12-01

    To explore the variability in childhood acute respiratory infection case definitions for research in low-income settings where there is limited access to laboratory or radiologic investigations. We conducted a systematic review of community-based, longitudinal studies in South Asia published from January 1990 to August 2013, in which childhood acute respiratory infection outcomes were reported. Case definitions were classified by their label (e.g. pneumonia, acute lower respiratory infection) and clinical content 'signatures' (array of clinical features that would be always present, conditionally present or always absent among cases). Case definition heterogeneity was primarily assessed by the number of unique case definitions overall and by label. We also compared case definition-specific acute respiratory infection incidence rates for studies reporting incidence rates for multiple case definitions. In 56 eligible studies, we found 124 acute respiratory infection case definitions. Of 90 case definitions for which clinical content was explicitly defined, 66 (73%) were unique. There was a high degree of content heterogeneity among case definitions with the same label, and some content signatures were assigned multiple labels. Within studies for which incidence rates were reported for multiple case definitions, variation in content was always associated with a change in incidence rate, even when the content differed by a single clinical feature. There has been a wide variability in case definition label and content combinations to define acute upper and lower respiratory infections in children in community-based studies in South Asia over the past two decades. These inconsistencies have important implications for the synthesis and translation of knowledge regarding the prevention and treatment of childhood acute respiratory infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering. [cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  10. Study on process of laser cladded nuclear valve parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunliang

    2000-01-01

    The microstructure and performances of the Co-base alloy coatings that are formed by laser cladding, plasma spurt welding and arc surfacing on the nuclear valve-sealing surface have been studied and compared. The combination costs of laser cladding, plasma spurt welding and arc, surfacing have been analyzed and compared. The results showed that the laser cladding processing has the advantages of high efficiency, low energy cost, a little machining allowance, high rate of finished products and low combination cost, compared with plasma spurt welding processing and arc surfacing processing. The laser cladding technology can improve the qualities of nuclear valve parts and increase their service life. Therefore, the laser cladding processing is a new technology with developing potential

  11. Review of project definition studies of possible on-site uses of superconducting super collider assets and facilities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This document reports on the results of a peer review and evaluation of studies made of potential uses of assets from the terminated Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. These project definition studies focused on nine areas of use of major assets and facilities at the SSC site near Waxahachie, Texas. The studies were undertaken as part of the effort to maximize the value of the investment made in the SSC and were supported by two sets of grants, one to the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC) and the second to various universities and other institutions for studies of ideas raised by a public call for expressions of interest. The Settlement Agreement, recently signed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and TNRLC, provides for a division of SSC property. As part of the goal of maximizing the value of the SSC investment, the findings contained in this report are thus addressed to officials in both the Department and TNRLC. In addition, this review had several other goals: to provide constructive feedback to those doing the studies; to judge the benefits and feasibility (including funding prospects) of the projects studied; and to help worthy projects become reality by matching projects with possible funding sources

  12. Review of project definition studies of possible on-site uses of superconducting super collider assets and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This document reports on the results of a peer review and evaluation of studies made of potential uses of assets from the terminated Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. These project definition studies focused on nine areas of use of major assets and facilities at the SSC site near Waxahachie, Texas. The studies were undertaken as part of the effort to maximize the value of the investment made in the SSC and were supported by two sets of grants, one to the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC) and the second to various universities and other institutions for studies of ideas raised by a public call for expressions of interest. The Settlement Agreement, recently signed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and TNRLC, provides for a division of SSC property. As part of the goal of maximizing the value of the SSC investment, the findings contained in this report are thus addressed to officials in both the Department and TNRLC. In addition, this review had several other goals: to provide constructive feedback to those doing the studies; to judge the benefits and feasibility (including funding prospects) of the projects studied; and to help worthy projects become reality by matching projects with possible funding sources

  13. Review of project definition studies of possible on-site uses of superconducting super collider assets and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This document reports on the results of a peer review and evaluation of studies made of potential uses of assets from the terminated Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. These project definition studies focused on nine areas of use of major assets and facilities at the SSC site near Waxahachie, Texas. The studies were undertaken as part of the effort to maximize the value of the investment made in the SSC and were supported by two sets of grants, one to the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC) and the second to various universities and other institutions for studies of ideas raised by a public call for expressions of interest. The Settlement Agreement, recently signed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and TNRLC, provides for a division of SSC property. As part of the goal of maximizing the value of the SSC investment, the findings contained in this report are thus addressed to officials in both the Department and TNRLC. In addition, this review had several other goals: to provide constructive feedback to those doing the studies; to judge the benefits and feasibility (including funding prospects) of the projects studied; and to help worthy projects become reality by matching projects with possible funding sources.

  14. Review of project definition studies of possible on-site uses of superconducting super collider assets and facilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This document reports on the results of a peer review and evaluation of studies made of potential uses of assets from the terminated Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. These project definition studies focused on nine areas of use of major assets and facilities at the SSC site near Waxahachie, Texas. The studies were undertaken as part of the effort to maximize the value of the investment made in the SSC and were supported by two sets of grants, one to the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC) and the second to various universities and other institutions for studies of ideas raised by a public call for expressions of interest. The Settlement Agreement, recently signed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and TNRLC, provides for a division of SSC property. As part of the goal of maximizing the value of the SSC investment, the findings contained in this report are thus addressed to officials in both the Department and TNRLC. In addition, this review had several other goals: to provide constructive feedback to those doing the studies; to judge the benefits and feasibility (including funding prospects) of the projects studied; and to help worthy projects become reality by matching projects with possible funding sources.

  15. Definition and grading of anastomotic leakage following anterior resection of the rectum: a proposal by the International Study Group of Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Nuh N; Weitz, Jürgen; Hohenberger, Werner; Heald, Richard J; Moran, Brendan; Ulrich, Alexis; Holm, Torbjörn; Wong, W Douglas; Tiret, Emmanuel; Moriya, Yoshihiro; Laurberg, Søren; den Dulk, Marcel; van de Velde, Cornelis; Büchler, Markus W

    2010-03-01

    Anastomotic leakage represents a major complication after anterior resection of the rectum. The incidence of anastomotic leakage varies considerably among clinical studies in part owing to the lack of a standardized definition of this complication. The aim of the present article was to propose a definition and severity grading of anastomotic leakage after anterior rectal resection. After a literature review a consensus definition and severity grading of anastomotic leakage was developed within the International Study Group of Rectal Cancer. Anastomotic leakage should be defined as a defect of the intestinal wall at the anastomotic site (including suture and staple lines of neorectal reservoirs) leading to a communication between the intra- and extraluminal compartments. Severity of anastomotic leakage should be graded according to the impact on clinical management. Grade A anastomotic leakage results in no change in patients' management, whereas grade B leakage requires active therapeutic intervention but is manageable without re-laparotomy. Grade C anastomotic leakage requires re-laparotomy. The proposed definition and clinical grading is applicable easily in the setting of clinical studies. It should be applied in future reports to facilitate valid comparison of the results of different studies. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictors of severity and outcome of global developmental delay without definitive etiologic yield: a prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Thomaidis, Loretta; Zantopoulos, Georgios Zacharias; Fouzas, Sotirios; Mantagou, Lito; Bakoula, Chryssa; Konstantopoulos, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Although several determinants of global developmental delay (GDD) have been recognized, a significant number of children remain without definitive etiologic diagnosis. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of various prenatal and perinatal factors on the severity and outcome of developmental delay without definitive etiologic yield. Methods From March 2008 to February 2010, 142 children with developmental quotient (DQ)

  17. Volatile particles formation during PartEmis: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Vancassel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A modelling study of the formation of volatile particles in a combustor exhaust has been carried out in the frame of the PartEmis European project. A kinetic model has been used in order to investigate nucleation efficiency of the H2O-H2SO4 binary mixture in the sampling system. A value for the fraction of the fuel sulphur S(IV converted into S(VI has been indirectly deduced from comparisons between model results and measurements. In the present study, ranges between roughly 2.5% and 6%, depending on the combustor settings and on the value assumed for the parameter describing sulphuric acid wall losses. Soot particles hygroscopicity has also been investigated as their activation is a key parameter for contrail formation. Growth factors of monodisperse particles exposed to high relative humidity (95% have been calculated and compared with experimental results. The modelling study confirms that the growth factor increases as the soot particle size decreases.

  18. Pragmatic criteria of the definition of neonatal near miss: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Pauline Lorena; Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de Mello; Laurenti, Ruy; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Silva, Kátia Silveira da

    2017-12-04

    The objective of this study was to test the validity of the pragmatic criteria of the definitions of neonatal near miss, extending them throughout the infant period, and to estimate the indicators of perinatal care in public maternity hospitals. A cohort of live births from six maternity hospitals in the municipalities of São Paulo, Niterói, and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was carried out in 2011. We carried out interviews and checked prenatal cards and medical records. We compared the pragmatic criteria (birth weight, gestational age, and 5' Apgar score) of the definitions of near miss of Pileggi et al., Pileggi-Castro et al., Souza et al., and Silva et al. We calculated sensitivity, specificity (gold standard: infant mortality), percentage of deaths among newborns with life-threatening conditions, and rates of near miss, mortality, and severe outcomes per 1,000 live births. A total 7,315 newborns were analyzed (completeness of information > 99%). The sensitivity of the definition of Pileggi-Castro et al. was higher, resulting in a higher number of cases of near miss, Souza et al. presented lower value, and Pileggi et al. and de Silva et al. presented intermediate values. There is an increase in sensitivity when the period goes from 0-6 to 0-27 days, and there is a decrease when it goes to 0-364 days. Specificities were high (≥ 97%) and above sensitivities (54% to 77%). One maternity hospital in São Paulo and one in Niterói presented, respectively, the lowest and highest rates of infant mortality, near miss, and frequency of births with life-threatening conditions, regardless of the definition. The definitions of near miss based exclusively on pragmatic criteria are valid and can be used for monitoring purposes. Based on the perinatal literature, the cutoff points adopted by Silva et al. were more appropriate. Periodic studies could apply a more complete definition, incorporating clinical, laboratory, and management criteria, including congenital anomalies

  19. The relation of metabolic syndrome according to five definitions to cardiovascular risk factors - a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ming-May

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP, International Diabetes Federation (IDF, American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI, World Health Organization (WHO, and the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS have been commonly used by studies, little is known about agreement among these five definitions. We examined the agreement among these five definitions and explored their relationship with risk factors of cardiovascular disease in a Taiwan population. Methods A total of 1305 subjects aged 40 years and over in Taiwan were analyzed. Biomedical markers and anthropometric indices were measured. Agreement among definitions was determined by the kappa statistic. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate the odds of a high cardiovascular risk group for five definitions of MetS. Results The agreement among the NCEP, IDF, and AHA/NHLBI definitions was from substantial to very good, and agreement between the WHO and EGIR definitions was also substantial. All MetS definitions were significantly associated prevalence of microalbuminuria, elevated highly sensitive CRP (hs-CRP, and arterial stiffness only in women. In men, MetS by NCEP and AHA/NHLBI was associated with elevated level of hs-CRP and arterial stiffness. MetS by WHO and EGIR were significantly associated with microalbuminuria. And MetS by WHO was the only MetS definition that significantly associated with prevalence of arterial stiffness (OR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.22-6.19. Conclusions The associations of these five definitions with cardiovascular risk factors were similar in women, and it was evident that the five definitions performed better in women than in men, with higher ORs observed in relation to arterial stiffness, elevated hs-CRP, and higher Framingham risk scores.

  20. Cervicitis aetiology and case definition: a study in Australian women attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, M Josephine; Garden, Frances L; Rawlinson, William D; Naing, Zin W; Cumming, Robert G; Konecny, Pam

    2016-05-01

    Studies examining cervicitis aetiology and prevalence lack comparability due to varying criteria for cervicitis. We aimed to outline cervicitis associations and suggest a best case definition. A cross-sectional study of 558 women at three sexually transmitted infection clinics in Sydney, Australia, 2006-2010, examined pathogen and behavioural associations of cervicitis using three cervicitis definitions: 'microscopy' (>30 pmnl/hpf (polymorphonuclear leucocytes per high-powered field on cervical Gram stain)), 'cervical discharge' (yellow and/or mucopurulent cervical discharge) or 'micro+cervical discharge' (combined 'microscopy' and 'cervical discharge'). Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) had the strongest associations with cervicitis definitions 'micro+cervical discharge': CT adjusted prevalence ratio (APR)=2.13 (95% CI 1.38 to 3.30) p=0.0006, MG APR=2.21 (1.33 to 3.69) p=0.002, TV APR=2.37 (1.44 to 3.90) p=0.0007 NG PR=4.42 (3.79 to 5.15) pdefinitions with best clinical utility and pathogen prediction were 'cervical discharge' and 'micro+cervical discharge'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Space Station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 1: Functional requirements definition, DR-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The initial task in the Space Station Data System (SSDS) Analysis/Architecture Study is the definition of the functional and key performance requirements for the SSDS. The SSDS is the set of hardware and software, both on the ground and in space, that provides the basic data management services for Space Station customers and systems. The primary purpose of the requirements development activity was to provide a coordinated, documented requirements set as a basis for the system definition of the SSDS and for other subsequent study activities. These requirements should also prove useful to other Space Station activities in that they provide an indication of the scope of the information services and systems that will be needed in the Space Station program. The major results of the requirements development task are as follows: (1) identification of a conceptual topology and architecture for the end-to-end Space Station Information Systems (SSIS); (2) development of a complete set of functional requirements and design drivers for the SSIS; (3) development of functional requirements and key performance requirements for the Space Station Data System (SSDS); and (4) definition of an operating concept for the SSIS. The operating concept was developed both from a Space Station payload customer and operator perspective in order to allow a requirements practicality assessment.

  2. The Benefits of Part-Time Undergraduate Study and UK Higher Education Policy: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Alice; Scesa, Anna; Williams, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Part-time study in the UK is significant: nearly 40 per cent of higher education students study part-time. This article reports on a literature review that sought to understand the economic and social benefits of part-time study in the UK. It concludes that there are substantial and wide-ranging benefits from studying part-time. The article also…

  3. E-learning for Part-Time Medical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Półjanowicz Wiesław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Distance education undoubtedly has many advantages, such as individualization of the learning process, unified transmission of teaching materials, the opportunity to study at any place and any time, reduction of financial costs for commuting to classes or accommodation of participants, etc. Adequate working conditions on the e-learning portal must also be present, eg. well-prepared, substantive courses and good communication between the participants. Therefore, an important element in the process of conducting e-learning courses is to measure the increase of knowledge and satisfaction of participants with distance learning. It allows for fine-tuning the content of the course and for classes to be properly organized. This paper presents the results of teaching and assessment of satisfaction with e-learning courses in “Problems of multiculturalism in medicine”, “Selected issues of visual rehabilitation” and “Ophthalmology and Ophthalmic Nursing”, which were carried out experimentally at the Faculty of Health Sciences at the Medical University of Bialystok for nursing students for the 2010/2011 academic year. The study group consisted of 72 part-time students who learnt in e-learning mode and the control group of 87 students who learnt in the traditional way. The students’ opinions about the teaching process and final exam scores were analyzed based on a specially prepared survey questionnaire. Organization of e-learning classes was rated positively by 90% of students. The average result on the final exams for all distance learning subjects was at the level of 82%, while for classes taught in the traditional form it was 81%. Based on these results, we conclude that distance learning is as effective as learning according to the traditional form in medical education studies.

  4. Exploring Stakeholder Definitions within the Aerospace Industry: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Jonathan R.

    A best practice in the discipline of project management is to identify all key project stakeholders prior to the execution of a project. When stakeholders are properly identified, they can be consulted to provide expert advice on project activities so that the project manager can ensure the project stays within the budget and schedule constraints. The problem addressed by this study is that managers fail to properly identify key project stakeholders when using stakeholder theory because there are multiple conflicting definitions for the term stakeholder. Poor stakeholder identification has been linked to multiple negative project outcomes such as budget and schedules overruns, and this problem is heightened in certain industries such as aerospace. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore project managers' and project stakeholders' perceptions of how they define and use the term stakeholder within the aerospace industry. This qualitative exploratory single-case study had two embedded units of analysis: project managers and project stakeholders. Six aerospace project managers and five aerospace project stakeholders were purposively selected for this study. Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews with both project managers and project stakeholders. All data were analyzed using Yin's (2011) five-phased cycle approach for qualitative research. The results indicated that the aerospace project managers and project stakeholder define the term stakeholder as "those who do the work of a company." The participants build upon this well-known concept by adding that, "a company should list specific job titles" that correspond to their company specific-stakeholder definition. Results also indicated that the definition of the term stakeholder is used when management is assigning human resources to a project to mitigate or control project risk. Results showed that project managers tended to include the customer in their stakeholder definitions

  5. Biofuel Drying - Literature Study and Definitions, Concepts and Terms; Torkning av biobraensle - litteraturstudie samt definitioner, begrepp och termer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanati, Mehri; Faghihi, Mostafa

    2001-09-01

    The report contains one section with definitions and explications of terms in the field of drying of biofuels. The second section presents, in english, the result of a literature study in the same subject, based on 90 literature references.

  6. The quest for a universal definition of polytrauma: a trauma registry-based validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Nerida E; D'Este, Catherine; Balogh, Zsolt J

    2014-10-01

    A pilot validation recommended defining polytrauma as patients with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score greater than 2 in at least two Injury Severity Score (ISS) body regions (2 × AIS score > 2). This study aimed to validate this definition on larger data set. We hypothesized that patients defined by the 2 × AIS score > 2 cutoff have worse outcomes and use more resources than those without 2 × AIS score > 2 and that this would therefore be a better definition of polytrauma. Patients injured between 2009 and 2011, with complete documentation of AIS by New South Wales Trauma Registry and 16 years and older were selected. Age and sex were obtained in addition to outcomes of ISS, hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ICU LOS, and mortality. We compared demographic characteristics and outcomes between patients with ISS greater than 15 who did and did not meet the 2 × AIS score > 2 definition. We then undertook regression analyses (logistic regression for binary outcomes [ICU admission and death] and linear regression for hospital and ICU LOS) to compare outcomes for patients with and without 2 × AIS score > 2, adjusting for sex and age categories. In the adjusted analyses, patients with 2 × AIS score > 2 had twice the odds of being admitted to the ICU compared with those without 2 × AIS score > 2 (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-2.8) and 1.7 times the odds of dying (95% CI, 1.4-2.0; p 2 also had a mean difference of 1.5 days longer stay in the hospital compared with those without 2 × AIS score > 2 (95% CI, 1.4-1.7) and 1.6 days longer ICU stay (95% CI, 1.4-1.8; p 2 had higher mortality, more frequent ICU admissions, and longer hospital and ICU stay than those without 2 × AIS score > 2 and represents a superior definition to the definitions for polytrauma currently in use. Diagnostic test/ criteria, level III.

  7. The meaning and knowledge of definition in elementary school geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažič, Maša

    2017-01-01

    The first part of the diploma thesis considers the theoretical aspects of the meaning of concepts and definition of concepts. The focus is on the question ‘Why are definitions important and how should definitions look like?’. Then, the difference between the definition of a concept and the image of a concept is explained and the interactions between them considered. The second part of this diploma thesis describes the results of a pilot study, which considered the extent to which seventh...

  8. Consensus on the Definition of Advanced Parkinson’s Disease: A Neurologists-Based Delphi Study (CEPA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Rosario Luquin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, no consensus exists on the key factors for diagnosing advanced Parkinson disease (APD. To obtain consensus on the definition of APD, we performed a prospective, multicenter, Spanish nationwide, 3-round Delphi study (CEPA study. An ad hoc questionnaire was designed with 33 questions concerning the relevance of several clinical features for APD diagnosis. In the first-round, 240 neurologists of the Spanish Movement Disorders Group participated in the study. The results obtained were incorporated into the questionnaire and both, results and questionnaire, were sent out to and fulfilled by 26 experts in Movement Disorders. Review of results from the second-round led to a classification of symptoms as indicative of “definitive,” “probable,” and “possible” APD. This classification was confirmed by 149 previous participating neurologists in a third-round, where 92% completely or very much agreed with the classification. Definitive symptoms of APD included disability requiring help for the activities of daily living, presence of motor fluctuations with limitations to perform basic activities of daily living without help, severe dysphagia, recurrent falls, and dementia. These results will help neurologists to identify some key factors in APD diagnosis, thus allowing users to categorize the patients for a homogeneous recognition of this condition.

  9. Two-Dimensional High Definition Versus Three-Dimensional Endoscopy in Endonasal Skull Base Surgery: A Comparative Preclinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampinelli, Vittorio; Doglietto, Francesco; Mattavelli, Davide; Qiu, Jimmy; Raffetti, Elena; Schreiber, Alberto; Villaret, Andrea Bolzoni; Kucharczyk, Walter; Donato, Francesco; Fontanella, Marco Maria; Nicolai, Piero

    2017-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) endoscopy has been recently introduced in endonasal skull base surgery. Only a relatively limited number of studies have compared it to 2-dimensional, high definition technology. The objective was to compare, in a preclinical setting for endonasal endoscopic surgery, the surgical maneuverability of 2-dimensional, high definition and 3D endoscopy. A group of 68 volunteers, novice and experienced surgeons, were asked to perform 2 tasks, namely simulating grasping and dissection surgical maneuvers, in a model of the nasal cavities. Time to complete the tasks was recorded. A questionnaire to investigate subjective feelings during tasks was filled by each participant. In 25 subjects, the surgeons' movements were continuously tracked by a magnetic-based neuronavigator coupled with dedicated software (ApproachViewer, part of GTx-UHN) and the recorded trajectories were analyzed by comparing jitter, sum of square differences, and funnel index. Total execution time was significantly lower with 3D technology (P < 0.05) in beginners and experts. Questionnaires showed that beginners preferred 3D endoscopy more frequently than experts. A minority (14%) of beginners experienced discomfort with 3D endoscopy. Analysis of jitter showed a trend toward increased effectiveness of surgical maneuvers with 3D endoscopy. Sum of square differences and funnel index analyses documented better values with 3D endoscopy in experts. In a preclinical setting for endonasal skull base surgery, 3D technology appears to confer an advantage in terms of time of execution and precision of surgical maneuvers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The management approach to the NASA space station definition studies at the Manned Spacecraft Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlig, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The overall management approach to the NASA Phase B definition studies for space stations, which were initiated in September 1969 and completed in July 1972, is reviewed with particular emphasis placed on the management approach used by the Manned Spacecraft Center. The internal working organizations of the Manned Spacecraft Center and its prime contractor, North American Rockwell, are delineated along with the interfacing techniques used for the joint Government and industry study. Working interfaces with other NASA centers, industry, and Government agencies are briefly highlighted. The controlling documentation for the study (such as guidelines and constraints, bibliography, and key personnel) is reviewed. The historical background and content of the experiment program prepared for use in this Phase B study are outlined and management concepts that may be considered for future programs are proposed.

  11. Overlap of food addiction and substance use disorders definitions: analysis of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-10-01

    Food has both homeostatic and hedonic components, which makes it a potent natural reward. Food related reward could therefore promote an escalation of intake and trigger symptoms associated to withdrawal, suggesting a behavioral parallel with substance abuse. Animal and human theoretical models of food reward and addiction have emerged, raising further interrogations on the validity of a bond between Substance Use Disorders, as clinically categorized in the DSM 5, and food reward. These models propose that highly palatable food items, rich in sugar and/or fat, are overly stimulating to the brain's reward pathways. Moreover, studies have also investigated the possibility of causal link between food reward and the contemporary obesity epidemic, with obesity being potentiated and maintained due to this overwhelming food reward. Although natural rewards are a hot topic in the definition and categorization of Substance Use Disorders, proofs of concept and definite evidence are still inconclusive. This review focuses on available results from experimental studies in animal and human models exploring the concept of food addiction, in an effort to determine if it depicts a specific phenotype and if there is truly a neurobiological similarity between food addiction and Substance Use Disorders. It describes results from sugar, fat and sweet-fat bingeing in rodent models, and behavioral and neurobiological assessments in different human populations. Although pieces of behavioral and neurobiological evidence supporting a food addiction phenotype in animals and humans are interesting, it seems premature to conclude on its validity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On the problem of ethnophyletism: a historical study. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venediktov Vadim Yuriyevich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Holy and Great Council on Crete, 2016 has risen an important issue of Ethnophyletism. Russian, Georgian, Bulgarian, and Antiochian Orthodox Churches delegations were not present at the Great Council and were criticized for Ethnophyletism at the plenary session. The heresy of ethnophyletism was announced by the Council of Constantinople in 1872. Now we can see that it became essential nowadays. The article tells about the origin of this heresy and whether the Ethnophyletism may be decided to be the heresy. The second part of the paper deals with the events on the eve of the Pan-Orthodox Synod in 1872 (since the manifestation of the famous Abdülaziz Sultan's Firman 1870.

  13. Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) to improve interprofessional team crisis resource management: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Tania Di; Crooks, Simone; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann; Clarkin, Chantalle; Fraser, Amy B; Bunting, Alexandra C; Bould, M Dylan; Boet, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the perceived value of the Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) protocol for simulated intraoperative cardiac arrests. Sixteen interprofessional operating room teams completed three consecutive simulated intraoperative cardiac arrest scenarios: current standard, no CARD; CARD, no CARD teaching; and CARD, didactic teaching. Each team participated in a focus group interview immediately following the third scenario; data were transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analysed. After 6 months, participants formed eight new teams randomised to two groups (CARD or no CARD) and completed a retention intraoperative cardiac arrest simulation scenario. All simulation sessions were video recorded and expert raters assessed team performance. Qualitative analysis of the 16 focus group interviews revealed 3 thematic dimensions: role definition in crisis management; logistical issues; and the "real life" applicability of CARD. Members of the interprofessional team perceived CARD very positively. Exploratory quantitative analysis found no significant differences in team performance with or without CARD (p > 0.05). In conclusion, qualitative data suggest that the CARD protocol clarifies roles and team coordination during interprofessional crisis management and has the potential to improve the team performance. The concept of a self-organising team with defined roles is promising for patient safety.

  14. Lower extremity revascularization using directional atherectomy: 12-month prospective results of the DEFINITIVE LE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinsey, James F; Zeller, Thomas; Rocha-Singh, Krishna J; Jaff, Michael R; Garcia, Lawrence A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of directional atherectomy (DA) for endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in infrainguinal arteries in patients with claudication or critical limb ischemia. To date, no prospective, multicenter, independently-adjudicated study has evaluated the effectiveness and durability of DA in the treatment of PAD. Previous DA studies have not been prospectively powered to evaluate any differences in outcomes in patients with and without diabetes. DEFINITIVE LE (Determination of EFfectiveness of the SilverHawk(®) PerIpheral Plaque ExcisioN System (SIlverHawk Device) for the Treatment of Infrainguinal VEssels / Lower Extremities) prospectively enrolled subjects at 47 multinational centers with an infrainguinal lesion length up to 20 cm. Primary endpoints were defined as primary patency at 12 months for claudicants and freedom from major unplanned amputation for critical limb ischemia (CLI) subjects. A pre-specified statistical hypothesis evaluated noninferiority of primary patency in diabetic versus nondiabetic claudicants. Independent angiographic and sonographic core laboratories assessed outcomes, and events were adjudicated by a clinical events committee. A total of 800 subjects were enrolled. The 12-month primary patency was 78% (95% confidence interval: 74.0% to 80.6%) in claudicants, with a 77% rate in the diabetic subgroup versus 78% in the nondiabetic subgroup (noninferior, p < 0.001). The rate of freedom from major unplanned amputation of the target limb at 12 months in CLI subjects was 95% (95% confidence interval: 90.7% to 97.4%). Periprocedural adverse events included embolization (3.8%), perforation (5.3%), and abrupt closure (2.0%). The bail-out stent rate was 3.2%. The DEFINITIVE LE study demonstrated that DA is a safe and effective treatment modality at 12 months for a diverse patient population with either claudication or CLI. Furthermore, DA was shown to be noninferior for

  15. Physical disease and resilient outcomes: a systematic review of resilience definitions and study methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Marjorie C; Porteous, Terry; Crilly, Michael A; Burton, Christopher D; Elliott, Alison; Iversen, Lisa; McArdle, Karen; Murray, Alison; Phillips, Louise H; Black, Corri

    2015-01-01

    Findings from physical disease resilience research may be used to develop approaches to reduce the burden of disease. However, there is no consensus on the definition and measurement of resilience in the context of physical disease. The aim was to summarize the range of definitions of physical disease resilience and the approaches taken to study it in studies examining physical disease and its relationship to resilient outcomes. Electronic databases were searched from inception to March 2013 for studies in which physical disease was assessed for its association with resilient outcomes. Article screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were carried out independently by 2 reviewers, with disagreements being resolved by a third reviewer. The results were combined using a narrative technique. Of 2280 articles, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Of these studies, 1 was of high quality, 9 were of moderate quality, and 2 were low quality. The common findings were that resilience involves maintaining healthy levels of functioning following adversity and that it is a dynamic process not a personality trait. Studies either assessed resilience based on observed outcomes or via resilience measurement scales. They either considered physical disease as an adversity leading to resilience or as a variable modifying the relationship between adversity and resilience. This work begins building consensus as to the approach to take when defining and measuring physical disease resilience. Resilience should be considered as a dynamic process that varies across the life-course and across different domains, therefore the choice of a resilience measure should reflect this. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome – A clinically empirical approach to its definition and study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papanicolaou Dimitris A

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of standardized criteria for defining chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has constrained research. The objective of this study was to apply the 1994 CFS criteria by standardized reproducible criteria. Methods This population-based case control study enrolled 227 adults identified from the population of Wichita with: (1 CFS (n = 58; (2 non-fatigued controls matched to CFS on sex, race, age and body mass index (n = 55; (3 persons with medically unexplained fatigue not CFS, which we term ISF (n = 59; (4 CFS accompanied by melancholic depression (n = 27; and (5 ISF plus melancholic depression (n = 28. Participants were admitted to a hospital for two days and underwent medical history and physical examination, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, and laboratory testing to identify medical and psychiatric conditions exclusionary for CFS. Illness classification at the time of the clinical study utilized two algorithms: (1 the same criteria as in the surveillance study; (2 a standardized clinically empirical algorithm based on quantitative assessment of the major domains of CFS (impairment, fatigue, and accompanying symptoms. Results One hundred and sixty-four participants had no exclusionary conditions at the time of this study. Clinically empirical classification identified 43 subjects as CFS, 57 as ISF, and 64 as not ill. There was minimal association between the empirical classification and classification by the surveillance criteria. Subjects empirically classified as CFS had significantly worse impairment (evaluated by the SF-36, more severe fatigue (documented by the multidimensional fatigue inventory, more frequent and severe accompanying symptoms than those with ISF, who in turn had significantly worse scores than the not ill; this was not true for classification by the surveillance algorithm. Conclusion The empirical definition includes all aspects of CFS specified in the 1994 case definition and identifies persons with

  17. The Smithsonian Earth Physics Satellite (SEPS) definition study, volumes 1 through 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A limited Phase B study was undertaken to determine the merit and feasibility of launching a proposed earth physics satellite with Apollo-type hardware. The study revealed that it would be feasible to launch this satellite using a S-IB stage, a S-IVB with restart capability, an instrument unit, a SLA for the satellite shroud, and a nose cone (AS-204 configuration). A definition of the proposed satellite is provided, which is specifically designed to satisfy the fundamental requirement of providing an orbiting benchmark of maximum accuracy. The satellite is a completely passive, solid 3628-kg sphere of 38.1-cm radius and very high mass-to-area ratio (7980 kg sq mi). In the suggested orbit of 55 degrees inclination, 3720 km altitude, and low eccentricity, the orbital lifetime is extremely long, so many decades of operation can be expected.

  18. Definition study for variable cycle engine testbed engine and associated test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdoviak, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The product/study double bypass variable cycle engine (VCE) was updated to incorporate recent improvements. The effect of these improvements on mission range and noise levels was determined. This engine design was then compared with current existing high-technology core engines in order to define a subscale testbed configuration that simulated many of the critical technology features of the product/study VCE. Detailed preliminary program plans were then developed for the design, fabrication, and static test of the selected testbed engine configuration. These plans included estimated costs and schedules for the detail design, fabrication and test of the testbed engine and the definition of a test program, test plan, schedule, instrumentation, and test stand requirements.

  19. Definition study of a Variable Cycle Experimental Engine (VCEE) and associated test program and test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The Definition Study of a Variable Cycle Experimental Engine (VCEE) and Associated Test Program and Test Plan, was initiated to identify the most cost effective program for a follow-on to the AST Test Bed Program. The VCEE Study defined various subscale VCE's based on different available core engine components, and a full scale VCEE utilizing current technology. The cycles were selected, preliminary design accomplished and program plans and engineering costs developed for several program options. In addition to the VCEE program plans and options, a limited effort was applied to identifying programs that could logically be accomplished on the AST Test Bed Program VCE to extend the usefulness of this test hardware. Component programs were provided that could be accomplished prior to the start of a VCEE program.

  20. GACT: a Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool for SNP imputation and meta-analysis in genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulovari, Arvis; Li, Dawei

    2014-07-19

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genes associated with complex human diseases. Although much of the heritability remains unexplained, combining single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes from multiple studies for meta-analysis will increase the statistical power to identify new disease-associated variants. Meta-analysis requires same allele definition (nomenclature) and genome build among individual studies. Similarly, imputation, commonly-used prior to meta-analysis, requires the same consistency. However, the genotypes from various GWAS are generated using different genotyping platforms, arrays or SNP-calling approaches, resulting in use of different genome builds and allele definitions. Incorrect assumptions of identical allele definition among combined GWAS lead to a large portion of discarded genotypes or incorrect association findings. There is no published tool that predicts and converts among all major allele definitions. In this study, we have developed a tool, GACT, which stands for Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool, that predicts and inter-converts between any of the common SNP allele definitions and between the major genome builds. In addition, we assessed several factors that may affect imputation quality, and our results indicated that inclusion of singletons in the reference had detrimental effects while ambiguous SNPs had no measurable effect. Unexpectedly, exclusion of genotypes with missing rate > 0.001 (40% of study SNPs) showed no significant decrease of imputation quality (even significantly higher when compared to the imputation with singletons in the reference), especially for rare SNPs. GACT is a new, powerful, and user-friendly tool with both command-line and interactive online versions that can accurately predict, and convert between any of the common allele definitions and between genome builds for genome-wide meta-analysis and imputation of genotypes from SNP-arrays or deep

  1. What is a clinical pathway? Refinement of an operational definition to identify clinical pathway studies for a Cochrane systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Adegboyega K; Rotter, Thomas; Kinsman, Leigh; Machotta, Andreas; Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Scott, Shannon D; Goodridge, Donna; Plishka, Christopher; Groot, Gary

    2016-02-23

    Clinical pathways (CPWs) are a common component in the quest to improve the quality of health. CPWs are used to reduce variation, improve quality of care, and maximize the outcomes for specific groups of patients. An ongoing challenge is the operationalization of a definition of CPW in healthcare. This may be attributable to both the differences in definition and a lack of conceptualization in the field of clinical pathways. This correspondence article describes a process of refinement of an operational definition for CPW research and proposes an operational definition for the future syntheses of CPWs literature. Following the approach proposed by Kinsman et al. (BMC Medicine 8(1):31, 2010) and Wieland et al. (Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 17(2):50, 2011), we used a four-stage process to generate a five criteria checklist for the definition of CPWs. We refined the operational definition, through consensus, merging two of the checklist's criteria, leading to a more inclusive criterion for accommodating CPW studies conducted in various healthcare settings. The following four criteria for CPW operational definition, derived from the refinement process described above, are (1) the intervention was a structured multidisciplinary plan of care; (2) the intervention was used to translate guidelines or evidence into local structures; (3) the intervention detailed the steps in a course of treatment or care in a plan, pathway, algorithm, guideline, protocol or other 'inventory of actions' (i.e. the intervention had time-frames or criteria-based progression); and (4) the intervention aimed to standardize care for a specific population. An intervention meeting all four criteria was considered to be a CPW. The development of operational definitions for complex interventions is a useful approach to appraise and synthesize evidence for policy development and quality improvement.

  2. Positive predictive value of a case definition for diabetes mellitus using automated administrative health data in children and youth exposed to antipsychotic drugs or control medications: a Tennessee Medicaid study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo William V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed and validated an automated database case definition for diabetes in children and youth to facilitate pharmacoepidemiologic investigations of medications and the risk of diabetes. Methods The present study was part of an in-progress retrospective cohort study of antipsychotics and diabetes in Tennessee Medicaid enrollees aged 6–24 years. Diabetes was identified from diabetes-related medical care encounters: hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and filled prescriptions. The definition required either a primary inpatient diagnosis or at least two other encounters of different types, most commonly an outpatient diagnosis with a prescription. Type 1 diabetes was defined by insulin prescriptions with at most one oral hypoglycemic prescription; other cases were considered type 2 diabetes. The definition was validated for cohort members in the 15 county region geographically proximate to the investigators. Medical records were reviewed and adjudicated for cases that met the automated database definition as well as for a sample of persons with other diabetes-related medical care encounters. Results The study included 64 cases that met the automated database definition. Records were adjudicated for 46 (71.9%, of which 41 (89.1% met clinical criteria for newly diagnosed diabetes. The positive predictive value for type 1 diabetes was 80.0%. For type 2 and unspecified diabetes combined, the positive predictive value was 83.9%. The estimated sensitivity of the definition, based on adjudication for a sample of 30 cases not meeting the automated database definition, was 64.8%. Conclusion These results suggest that the automated database case definition for diabetes may be useful for pharmacoepidemiologic studies of medications and diabetes.

  3. Positive predictive value of a case definition for diabetes mellitus using automated administrative health data in children and youth exposed to antipsychotic drugs or control medications: a Tennessee Medicaid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, William V; Cooper, William O; Stein, C Michael; Olfson, Mark; Mounsey, Jackie; Daugherty, James; Ray, Wayne A

    2012-08-24

    We developed and validated an automated database case definition for diabetes in children and youth to facilitate pharmacoepidemiologic investigations of medications and the risk of diabetes. The present study was part of an in-progress retrospective cohort study of antipsychotics and diabetes in Tennessee Medicaid enrollees aged 6-24 years. Diabetes was identified from diabetes-related medical care encounters: hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and filled prescriptions. The definition required either a primary inpatient diagnosis or at least two other encounters of different types, most commonly an outpatient diagnosis with a prescription. Type 1 diabetes was defined by insulin prescriptions with at most one oral hypoglycemic prescription; other cases were considered type 2 diabetes. The definition was validated for cohort members in the 15 county region geographically proximate to the investigators. Medical records were reviewed and adjudicated for cases that met the automated database definition as well as for a sample of persons with other diabetes-related medical care encounters. The study included 64 cases that met the automated database definition. Records were adjudicated for 46 (71.9%), of which 41 (89.1%) met clinical criteria for newly diagnosed diabetes. The positive predictive value for type 1 diabetes was 80.0%. For type 2 and unspecified diabetes combined, the positive predictive value was 83.9%. The estimated sensitivity of the definition, based on adjudication for a sample of 30 cases not meeting the automated database definition, was 64.8%. These results suggest that the automated database case definition for diabetes may be useful for pharmacoepidemiologic studies of medications and diabetes.

  4. Positive predictive value of a case definition for diabetes mellitus using automated administrative health data in children and youth exposed to antipsychotic drugs or control medications: a Tennessee Medicaid study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background We developed and validated an automated database case definition for diabetes in children and youth to facilitate pharmacoepidemiologic investigations of medications and the risk of diabetes. Methods The present study was part of an in-progress retrospective cohort study of antipsychotics and diabetes in Tennessee Medicaid enrollees aged 6–24 years. Diabetes was identified from diabetes-related medical care encounters: hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and filled prescriptions. The definition required either a primary inpatient diagnosis or at least two other encounters of different types, most commonly an outpatient diagnosis with a prescription. Type 1 diabetes was defined by insulin prescriptions with at most one oral hypoglycemic prescription; other cases were considered type 2 diabetes. The definition was validated for cohort members in the 15 county region geographically proximate to the investigators. Medical records were reviewed and adjudicated for cases that met the automated database definition as well as for a sample of persons with other diabetes-related medical care encounters. Results The study included 64 cases that met the automated database definition. Records were adjudicated for 46 (71.9%), of which 41 (89.1%) met clinical criteria for newly diagnosed diabetes. The positive predictive value for type 1 diabetes was 80.0%. For type 2 and unspecified diabetes combined, the positive predictive value was 83.9%. The estimated sensitivity of the definition, based on adjudication for a sample of 30 cases not meeting the automated database definition, was 64.8%. Conclusion These results suggest that the automated database case definition for diabetes may be useful for pharmacoepidemiologic studies of medications and diabetes. PMID:22920280

  5. Stress among part-time business students: a study in a Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress among part-time business students: a study in a Ghanaian univeristy campus. ... students among part-time business students in a Ghanaian university. ... in other areas of life in order to concentrate more on their jobs and schooling.

  6. Il piradellismo di Buzzati (Prima parte) | Zangrilli | Italian Studies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Italian Studies in Southern Africa/Studi d'Italianistica nell'Africa Australe. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 1 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. CASE STUDIES IN INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY PART 2 (EDITORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Žvelc

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Announcement of the special issue of the International Journal of Integrative Psychotherapy, which is dedicated to the exploration and discussion of an integrative psychotherapy case study.

  8. Course Descriptions in Environmental Studies Part Two: Interdisciplinary Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Riley; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents descriptions (syllabi, outlines, goals) of interdisciplinary environmental studies courses. Topic areas of these courses include: environmental sociology; human ecology (politics, institutions, and the environment); humans and the environment in historical perspective; environmental management; humans, hazards, and disasters; and other…

  9. Course Descriptions in Environmental Studies Part One: Historical Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Donald; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents descriptions (syllabi, outlines, goals) of selected environmental studies courses which approach the discipline from an historical and humanistic perspective. Areas explored in the courses include human ecology, American environmental history, environmental politics, and others. (JN)

  10. Magnetometer instrument team studies for the definition phase of the outer planets grand tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of magnetic field investigations on missions to the outer planets were defined as well as an instrumentation system, a program of studies and instrument development tasks was proposed for the mission definition phase of the Outer Planets Grand Tour project. A report on the status of this program is given. Requirements were also established for the spacecraft and the mission which would insure their compatibility with the magnetic field investigation proposed for the outer planets missions and developed figures of merit for encounter trajectories. The spacecraft-instrumentation interface and the on-board data handling system were defined in various reports by the Project Team and in the reports by the Science Steering Group. The defining program for exploring the outer planets within the more restrictive constraints of the Mariner Jupiter-Saturn project included defining a limited magnetic field investigation.

  11. Morphologic study of the maxillary molars. Part II: Internal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécora, J D; Woelfel, J B; Sousa Neto, M D; Issa, E P

    1992-01-01

    The internal anatomy of three hundred and seventy (370) decalcified and cleared human maxillary molars was studied. Seventy-five percent of the first molars, 58% of the second molars and 68% of the third molars studied presented three (3) root canals and 25% of the first molars, 42% of the second molars and 32% of the third molars presented four (4) root canals. The authors observed that the incidence of two root canals in the mesiobuccal root was higher in second maxillary molars than in first maxillary molars.

  12. Consumer-driven definition of traditional food products and innovation in traditional foods. A qualitative cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Luis; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Xicola, Joan; Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Zakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Sajdakowska, Marta; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Contel, Michele; Scalvedi, M Luisa; Granli, Britt Signe; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2009-04-01

    Traditional food products (TFP) are an important part of European culture, identity, and heritage. In order to maintain and expand the market share of TFP, further improvement in safety, health, or convenience is needed by means of different innovations. The aim of this study was to obtain a consumer-driven definition for the concept of TFP and innovation and to compare these across six European countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain) by means of semantic and textual statistical analyses. Twelve focus groups were performed, two per country, under similar conditions. The transcriptions obtained were submitted to an ordinary semantic analysis and to a textual statistical analysis using the software ALCESTE. Four main dimensions were identified for the concept of TFP: habit-natural, origin-locality, processing-elaboration and sensory properties. Five dimensions emerged around the concept of innovation: novelty-change, variety, processing-technology, origin-ethnicity and convenience. TFP were similarly perceived in the countries analysed, while some differences were detected for the concept of innovation. Semantic and statistical analyses of the focus groups led to similar results for both concepts. In some cases and according to the consumers' point of view the application of innovations may damage the traditional character of TFP.

  13. Pharmacognostic studies and elemental analysis of the aerial parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings from this study revealed the presence of some diagnostic microscopical features such as paracytic stomata, unicellular covering trichomes with cystoliths, prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and annular xylem vessels. Quantitative physical constants include moisture contents (5.5 %), ash value (17 %), acid insoluble ...

  14. Base flow and exhaust plume interaction. Part 1 : Experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoones, M.M.J.; Bannink, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study of the flow field along an axi-symmetric body with a single operating exhaust nozzle has been performed in the scope of an investigation on base flow-jet plume interactions. The structure of under-expanded jets in a co-flowing supersonic free stream was described using

  15. Biotechnology awareness study, Part 1: Where scientists get their information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefsheim, S; Franklin, J; Cunningham, D

    1991-01-01

    A model study, funded by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and conducted by the Southeastern/Atlantic Regional Medical Library (RML) and the University of Maryland Health Sciences Library, attempted to assess the information needs of researchers in the developing field of biotechnology and to determine the resources available to meet those needs in major academic health sciences centers. Nine medical schools in RML Region 2 were selected to participate in a biotechnology awareness study. A survey was conducted of the nine medical school libraries to assess their support of biotechnology research. To identify the information needs of scientists engaged in biotechnology-related research at the schools, a written survey was sent to the deans of the nine institutions and selected scientists they had identified. This was followed by individual, in-depth interviews with both the deans and scientists surveyed. In general, scientists obtained information from three major sources: their own experiments, personal communication with other scientists, and textual material (print or electronic). For textual information, most study participants relied on personal journal subscriptions. Tangential journals were scanned in the department's library. Only a few of these scientists came to the health sciences library on a regular basis. Further, the study found that personal computers have had a major impact on how biotechnologists get and use information. Implications of these findings for libraries and librarians are discussed. PMID:1998818

  16. Nordic study on reactor waste. Technical part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The ground disposal alternatives examined in the Nordic study are based on establishment of relevant product specifications which can be adapted to the safety analysis of the entire waste handling sequence. Such product specifications would in turn influence the choice of incorporation techniques and may enable an optimization of the process. In order to interprete the small-scale laboratory tests with respect to long-term performance of full-scale products there were accomplished: - qualitative evaluations of the relevance of product properties for normal and abnormal events during storage, transport and disposal; - attempts to quantify the relevance of different properties, i.e. their influence on radiation doses from different stages of well specified waste management system; - assessments of available laboratory tests and of correlations between results from such tests and the long-term performance of full-scale technical products; - studies of reaction mechanisms and parameters that can affect the long-term performance of disposed products; - laboratory incorporation experiments to study impacts of process variables on the fixation of ion exchange wastes in cement and bitumen; - full-scale tests to study product performance under simulated accident conditions. (EG)

  17. Connected Lighting System Interoperability Study Part 1: Application Programming Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaidon, Clement [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-10-31

    First in a series of studies that focuses on interoperability as realized by the use of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), explores the diversity of such interfaces in several connected lighting systems; characterizes the extent of interoperability that they provide; and illustrates challenges, limitations, and tradeoffs that were encountered during this exploration.

  18. Cytogenetic studies of the blood (M111), part A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    The cytogenetic study of the crew appears to indicate that Skylab-type environmental conditions have no deleterious effect upon chromosomal material. The findings are, however, less clear-cut than might be desired, due in large measure to confounding of the experimental design by the administration of isotope injections for the purposes of other experiments and to the lack of control subjects.

  19. Experimental study on RCCV of ABWR plant-Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saita, H.; Kikuchi, R.; Muramatsu, Y.; Hiramoto, M.; Oyamada, O.; Furukawa, H.; Sasagawa, K.; Ohmori, N.; Suzuki, S.; Suoita, M.; Kobayashi, I.; Yamaguchi, I.

    1989-01-01

    Steel containment vessels have generally been used for BWR (Boiling Water Reactor)-type nuclear power plants in Japan. However, in accordance with the development of the advanced-type BWR (ABWR), the introduction of a reinforced concrete containment vessel (RCCV) has been proposed because it enables greater freedom in flexibility of configuration. The study presented here accumulates basic data on RCCV's and verifies the integrity and ultimate strength of a trial-designed RCCV and the validity of its design method

  20. INPRO phase 1B (2nd part) joint study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee (and others)

    2006-08-15

    In this project, the Korean innovative nuclear energy system(INS) concept was assessed to be contributory to IAEA's INPRO Joint Study on CNFC-FR. The Korean INS concept was defined as an integrated system consisting of a sodium-cooled, metal fueled fast reactor KALIMER and a PWR(including CANDU)-KALIMER coupled closed nuclear fuel cycle for the Joint Study. From the results of the national scenario study performed based o the Korean INS concept, it has veen confirmed that the deployment of KALIMER from 2030 until 2100 could reduce the amount of domestic spent fuel from PWRs and CANDUs with no further increase in PWR spent fuel thereafter. And the amount of minor actinides disposed as high level would be decreased to zero with complete replacement of PWRs with KALIMERs. Based on the results of the national scenario study, a preliminary assessment of the Korean INS concept has been performed using the INPRO methodology and user's manuals. During the INS assessment, items requiring either improvement or complement have been detected in order to dedicate to INPRO's effort to improve the methodology. The INPRO methodology generally lack a consistency in a level of depth and quantity of evaluation criteria and parameters for six areas within the INPRO framework. It needs to complement application methods and guidances applicable to various technology levels as well as illustrations of assessment tools. In addition, it needs to develop quantification and aggregation of evaluated results, application of weighting factor methods, and a synthetic manual for integrated assessment procedure and methodology.

  1. Neuroimaging Studies Of Striatum In Cognition, Part I: Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sebastien eProvost

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The striatum has traditionally mainly been associated with playing a key role in the modulation of motor functions. Indeed, lesion studies in animals and studies of some neurological conditions in humans have brought further evidence to this idea. However, better methods of investigation have raised concerns about this notion, and it was proposed that the striatum could also be involved in different types of functions including cognitive ones. Although the notion was originally a matter of debate, it is now well accepted that the caudate nucleus contributes to cognition, while the putamen could be involved in motor functions, and to some extent in cognitive functions as well. With the arrival of modern neuroimaging techniques in the early 1990, knowledge supporting the cognitive aspect of the striatum has greatly increased, and a substantial number of scientific papers were published studying the role of the striatum in healthy individuals. For the first time, it was possible to assess the contribution of specific areas of the brain during the execution of a cognitive task. Neuroanatomical studies have described functional loops involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex suggesting a specific interaction between these two structures. This review examines the data up to date and provides strong evidence for a specific contribution of the fronto-striatal regions in different cognitive processes, such as set-shifting, self-initiated responses, rule learning, action-contingency, and planning. Finally, a new two-level functional model involving the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum is proposed suggesting an essential role of the dorsal striatum in selecting between competing potential responses or actions, and in resolving a high level of ambiguity.

  2. INPRO phase 1B (2nd part) joint study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee

    2006-08-01

    In this project, the Korean innovative nuclear energy system(INS) concept was assessed to be contributory to IAEA's INPRO Joint Study on CNFC-FR. The Korean INS concept was defined as an integrated system consisting of a sodium-cooled, metal fueled fast reactor KALIMER and a PWR(including CANDU)-KALIMER coupled closed nuclear fuel cycle for the Joint Study. From the results of the national scenario study performed based o the Korean INS concept, it has veen confirmed that the deployment of KALIMER from 2030 until 2100 could reduce the amount of domestic spent fuel from PWRs and CANDUs with no further increase in PWR spent fuel thereafter. And the amount of minor actinides disposed as high level would be decreased to zero with complete replacement of PWRs with KALIMERs. Based on the results of the national scenario study, a preliminary assessment of the Korean INS concept has been performed using the INPRO methodology and user's manuals. During the INS assessment, items requiring either improvement or complement have been detected in order to dedicate to INPRO's effort to improve the methodology. The INPRO methodology generally lack a consistency in a level of depth and quantity of evaluation criteria and parameters for six areas within the INPRO framework. It needs to complement application methods and guidances applicable to various technology levels as well as illustrations of assessment tools. In addition, it needs to develop quantification and aggregation of evaluated results, application of weighting factor methods, and a synthetic manual for integrated assessment procedure and methodology

  3. Experimental study on RCCV of ABWR plant- part 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Kikuchi, R.; Muramatsu, Y.; Hiramoto, M.; Oyamada, O.; Furukawa, H.; Ujiie, K.; Takahashi, T.; Tsurumaki, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study confirms the integrity of the trial-designed RCCV structure with regard to horizontal earthquake force. Load-deformation, load-strain, cracking patterns and variation in stiffness were obtained by the experiments and these data were used for evaluation of the integrity of the RCCV and reliability of several kinds of design stresses. Data to grasp the mechanical properties at higher than design load level and horizontal ultimate strength of the RCCV were also obtained

  4. CKTI-Vibroseism study, parts I to IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostarev, V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of current earthquake design criteria used in former Soviet Regulations for equipment and piping systems of nuclear power plants in light of those used in United States and Japan. The detailed comparative seismic analysis of PWR (WWER) Primary Coolant Loop System (PCLS) according to Former Soviet (Russian) PNAE Code and ASME BPV Code with some comments regarding to Japan Code JEAG - 4601 was undertaken for better understanding of the differences and coincidences of seismic design criteria and requirements. The selection of these three guides for the study has very simple explanation: according to ASME BVPC, JEAG and PNAE the huge majority of existing NPPs has been designed

  5. Cost-effectiveness studies as part of an ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies of cost effectiveness of engineering modifications for dose reduction at nuclear power plants conducted at BNL will be considered in this report. Since each of these items has the potential for a 50% to 60% reduction in collective dose, it appears there is large potential for dose reduction from engineering type modifications. The question that must be answered for each plant is ''which modifications or improvements are required for optimization (ALARA). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that quantified optimization need not be costly and can often be highly beneficial

  6. Development of a radiochemical sensor. Part I: Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarancon, A. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Marti Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, J.F. [Departament de Pintura, Facultat de Belles Arts, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Pau Gargallo 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jfgarcia@apolo.qui.ub.es; Rauret, G. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Marti Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-05-04

    The evolution of nuclear activities and criteria for radiation protection have led to a continuous increase in measures to monitor and control the environment and therefore in the number of determinations required for such purposes. Classical analytical procedures are time-consuming, labor-intense and generate a large amount of waste. The alternative use of sensors for such determinations has seen very limited development. The present study focuses on the evaluation of the behavior of a prototype radiochemical sensor for liquid effluents. The sensor is based on a receptor made of a plastic scintillator and is capable of continuous, on-time and accurate remote quantification of the activity of alpha, beta and beta-gamma emitters. Low-level active solutions of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 60}Co in matrices of groundwater, seawater and drinking water were quantified with prediction errors lower than 10% in most cases. The study also yields information about light generation and transmission and transductor configuration that will be useful in the design of future versions of this sensor.

  7. Sandia solidification process: consolidation and characterization. Part I. Consolidation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, J.K.

    1978-05-01

    The consolidation behavior of a complex polycrystalline ceramic nuclear waste form composed of titanates, zeolite, and metallic silicon was studied. Initial solidification takes place by an ion exchange process. The resulting powder exhibits a large surface area, approximately 350 m 2 /g, and several decomposition, crystallization and phase change reactions from room temperature to 1100 0 C. In spite of the large surface area, consolidation by cold pressing and atmospheric sintering to 1100 0 C was not satisfactory. Vacuum hot pressing was found to produce fully dense pellets (less than 1% residual porosity) under very mild conditions, 6.9 MPa (1100 psi) and 1100 0 C. The dominant densification mechanism was viscous flow. Under less than optimum hot pressing conditions, three stages of densification were observed. Initial densification took place by particle rearrangement which was described with a viscous flow model. Second stage densification occurred by a solution-precipitation process controlled by a phase boundary dissolution reaction. In several cases, a third, final densification stage was observed. Detailed studies describe the effects of heating rate, processing temperature, pressure, residence time, atmosphere, composition, heat treatment, and the addition of consolidation aids on the densification behavior. In addition, fully radioactive high level mixed fission product titanate/waste pellets (1.27 cm diameter) were hot pressed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to demonstrate the feasibility of such a process in a remotely operated hot cell. High density uniform pellets were obtained

  8. Error studies for SNS Linac. Part 1: Transverse errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The SNS linac consist of a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), a drift-tube linac (DTL), a coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) and a coupled-cavity linac (CCL). The RFQ and DTL are operated at 402.5 MHz; the CCDTL and CCL are operated at 805 MHz. Between the RFQ and DTL is a medium-energy beam-transport system (MEBT). This error study is concerned with the DTL, CCDTL and CCL, and each will be analyzed separately. In fact, the CCL is divided into two sections, and each of these will be analyzed separately. The types of errors considered here are those that affect the transverse characteristics of the beam. The errors that cause the beam center to be displaced from the linac axis are quad displacements and quad tilts. The errors that cause mismatches are quad gradient errors and quad rotations (roll)

  9. A comparative study on the uniaxial mechanical properties of the umbilical vein and umbilical artery using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2014-12-01

    The umbilical cord is part of the fetus and generally includes one umbilical vein (UV) and two umbilical arteries (UAs). As the saphenous vein and UV are the most commonly used veins for the coronary artery disease treatment as a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), understating the mechanical properties of UV has a key asset in its performance for CABG. However, there is not only a lack of knowledge on the mechanical properties of UV and UA but there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented to measure their mechanical properties. In this study, the UV and UA samples were removed after caesarean from eight individuals and subjected to a series of tensile testing. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) were employed to determine the linear mechanical properties of UVs and UAs. The nonlinear mechanical behavior of UV/UA was computationally investigated using hyperelastic material models, such as Ogden and Mooney-Rivlin. The results showed that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements of the UV/UA is significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus. In the true stress-strain diagram, the maximum strain of UV was 92 % higher, while the elastic modulus and maximum stress were 162 and 42 % lower than that of UA. The Mooney-Rivlin material model was designated to represent the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the UV and UA under uniaxial loading.

  10. Evaluation of surveillance case definition in the diagnosis of leptospirosis, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Dinesh L B; Wimalaratna, Harith; Agampodi, Suneth B; Liyanapathirana, Veranja C; Piyarathna, Thibbotumunuwe A C L; Goonapienuwala, Bimba L

    2009-04-22

    Leptospirosis is endemic in both urban and rural areas of Sri Lanka and there had been many out breaks in the recent past. This study was aimed at validating the leptospirosis surveillance case definition, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The study population consisted of patients with undiagnosed acute febrile illness who were admitted to the medical wards of the Teaching Hospital Kandy, from 1st July 2007 to 31st July 2008. The subjects were screened to diagnose leptospirosis according to the leptospirosis case definition. MAT was performed on blood samples taken from each patient on the 7th day of fever. Leptospirosis case definition was evaluated in regard to sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, using a MAT titre >or= 1:800 for confirming leptospirosis. A total of 123 patients were initially recruited of which 73 had clinical features compatible with the surveillance case definition. Out of the 73 only 57 had a positive MAT result (true positives) leaving 16 as false positives. Out of the 50 who didn't have clinical features compatible with the case definition 45 had a negative MAT as well (true negatives), therefore 5 were false negatives. Total number of MAT positives was 62 out of 123. According to these results the test sensitivity was 91.94%, specificity 73.77%, positive predictive value and negative predictive values were 78.08% and 90% respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of the test was 82.93%. This study confirms that the surveillance case definition has a very high sensitivity and negative predictive value with an average specificity in diagnosing leptospirosis, based on a MAT titre of >or= 1: 800.

  11. Space platform expendables resupply concept definition study. Volume 3: Work breakdown structure and work breakdown structure dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The work breakdown structure (WBS) for the Space Platform Expendables Resupply Concept Definition Study is described. The WBS consists of a list of WBS elements, a dictionary of element definitions, and an element logic diagram. The list and logic diagram identify the interrelationships of the elements. The dictionary defines the types of work that may be represented by or be classified under each specific element. The Space Platform Expendable Resupply WBS was selected mainly to support the program planning, scheduling, and costing performed in the programmatics task (task 3). The WBS is neither a statement-of-work nor a work authorization document. Rather, it is a framework around which to define requirements, plan effort, assign responsibilities, allocate and control resources, and report progress, expenditures, technical performance, and schedule performance. The WBS element definitions are independent of make-or-buy decisions, organizational structure, and activity locations unless exceptions are specifically stated.

  12. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [carry-on laboratory for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The definition and integration tasks involved in the development of design concepts for a carry-on laboratory (COL), to be compatible with Spacelab operations, were divided into the following study areas: (1) identification of research and equipment requirements of the COL; (2) development of a number of conceptual layouts for COL based on the defined research of final conceptual designs; and (4) development of COL planning information for definition of COL/Spacelab interface data, cost data, and program cost schedules, including design drawings of a selected COL to permit fabrication of a functional breadboard.

  13. Reconsidering the International Association for the Study of Pain definition of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Cohen

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion:. Based on these results, a revised definition of pain is offered: Pain is a mutually recognizable somatic experience that reflects a person's apprehension of threat to their bodily or existential integrity.

  14. Achieving consensus on the definition of conversion to laparotomy: a Delphi study among general surgeons, gynecologists, and urologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikkendaal, Mathijs D; Twijnstra, Andries R H; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Beerlage, Harrie P; Bemelman, Willem A; Jansen, Frank Willem

    2013-12-01

    In laparoscopic surgery, conversion to laparotomy is associated with worse clinical outcomes, especially if the conversion is due to a complication. Although apparently important, no commonly used definition of conversion exists. The aim of this study was to achieve multidisciplinary consensus on a uniform definition of conversion. On the basis of definitions currently used in the literature, a web-based Delphi consensus study was conducted among members of all four Dutch endoscopic societies. The rate of agreement (RoA) was calculated; a RoA of >70% suggested consensus. The survey was completed by 268 respondents in the first Delphi round (response rate, 45.6%); 43% were general surgeons, 49% gynecologists, and 8% urologists. Average ± standard deviation laparoscopic experience was 12.5 ± 7.2 years. On the basis of the results of round 1, a consensus definition was compiled. Conversion to laparotomy is an intraoperative switch from a laparoscopic to an open abdominal approach that meets the criteria of one of the two subtypes: strategic conversion, a standard laparotomy that is made directly after the assessment of the feasibility of completing the procedure laparoscopically and because of anticipated operative difficulty or logistic considerations; and reactive conversion, the need for a laparotomy because of a complication or (extension of an incision) because of (anticipated) operative difficulty after a considerable amount of dissection (i.e., >15 min in time). A laparotomy after a diagnostic laparoscopy (i.e., to assess the curability of the disease) should not be considered a conversion. In the second Delphi round, a RoA of 90% was achieved with this definition. After two Delphi rounds, consensus on a uniform multidisciplinary definition of conversion was achieved within a representative group of general surgeons, gynecologists, and urologists. An unambiguous interpretation will result in a more reliable clinical registration of conversion and scientific

  15. Comparative prognostic performance of definitions of prediabetes: a prospective cohort analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Bethany; Pankow, James S; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Punjabi, Naresh M; Daya, Natalie R; Grams, Morgan; Woodward, Mark; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    No consensus on definitions of prediabetes exists among international organisations. Analysis of associations with different definitions and clinical complications can inform the comparative value of different prediabetes definitions. We compared the risk of future outcomes across different prediabetes definitions based on fasting glucose concentration, HbA 1c , and 2 h glucose concentration during over two decades of follow-up in the community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. We aimed to analyse the associations of definitions with outcomes to provide a comparison of different definitions. We did a prospective cohort study of participants in the ARIC study who did not have diagnosed diabetes and who attended visit 2 (1990-92; n=10 844) and who attended visit 4 (1996-98; n=7194). ARIC participants were enrolled from four communities across the USA. Fasting glucose concentration and HbA 1c were measured at visit 2 and fasting glucose concentration and 2 h glucose concentration were measured at visit 4. We compared prediabetes definitions based on fasting glucose concentration (American Diabetes Association [ADA] fasting glucose concentration cutoff 5·6-6·9 mmol/L and WHO fasting glucose concentration cutoff 6·1-6·9 mmol/L), HbA 1c (ADA HbA 1c cutoff 5·7-6·4% [39-46 mmol/mol] and International Expert Committee [IEC] HbA 1c cutoff 6·0-6·4% [42-46 mmol/mol]), and 2 h glucose concentration (ADA and WHO 2 h glucose concentration cutoff 7·8-11·0 mmol/L). Prediabetes defined using the ADA fasting glucose concentration cutoff (prevalence 4112 [38%] of 10 844 people; 95% CI 37·0-38·8) was the most sensitive for major clinical outcomes, whereas using the ADA HbA 1c cutoff (2027 [19%] of 10 884 people; 18·0-19·4) and IEC HbA 1c cutoff (970 [9%] of 10 844 people; 8·4-9·5), and the WHO fasting glucose concentration cutoff (1213 [11%] of 10 844 people; 10·6-11·8) were more specific. After demographic adjustment, HbA 1c -based

  16. Study of seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Ella; Sanina, Irina; Ivanchenko, Galina; Nesterkina, Margarita; Konstantinovskaya, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    A measurement system for location seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform is situated within the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory of the RAS Institute of Geospheres Dynamics and consists of 12 seismic stations. One vertical station is located in the center of the group in a shaft tunnel. The other stations are located on the periphery in three concentric circles and are almost equally spaced with regard to the terrain to ensure full azimuth coverage to the maximum extent possible. The unique array identifies events with a magnitude up to 3 at the distances until 1000 km within the Central Part of East European platform. Most of the events recorded by the Mikhnevo array at a distance of 60-500 km are man-made events represented by explosions in quarries during the development of mineral deposits. Long-term seismic records of explosions in quarries have been processed for the period from 2004 to 2014 to generate a database containing standard waveforms for each quarry. Some events of unknown origin appear in the records for this period; these do not correspond to the identified seismic forms for explosions in known quarries. Epicenter coordinates for these events do not match the coordinates of the known quarries. A cosmotectonic map of the Central Part of East European Platform was compiled during the studies using the LESSA software package (Lineament Extraction and Stripe Statistical Analysis) and data on the deep crustal structure, which made it possible to define the morphostructural plan and evaluate the geodynamic conditions in the area. The deep basement structure through the sedimentary cover is expressed in the surface texture of the area under study. The region's neotectonics is closely related to the history of deep structures, in particular, aulacogens extending in different directions, which may show in the contemporary morphostructural plan, mainly as inversion and partially inherited forms. Out of events of unknown nature

  17. Discussion about the use of the volume specific surface area (VSSA) as a criterion to identify nanomaterials according to the EU definition. Part two: experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecloux, André J; Atluri, Rambabu; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Deepak, Francis Leonard

    2017-10-12

    The first part of this study was dedicated to the modelling of the influence of particle shape, porosity and particle size distribution on the volume specific surface area (VSSA) values in order to check the applicability of this concept to the identification of nanomaterials according to the European Commission Recommendation. In this second part, experimental VSSA values are obtained for various samples from nitrogen adsorption isotherms and these values were used as a screening tool to identify and classify nanomaterials. These identification results are compared to the identification based on the 50% of particles with a size below 100 nm criterion applied to the experimental particle size distributions obtained by analysis of electron microscopy images on the same materials. It is concluded that the experimental VSSA values are able to identify nanomaterials, without false negative identification, if they have a mono-modal particle size, if the adsorption data cover the relative pressure range from 0.001 to 0.65 and if a simple, qualitative image of the particles by transmission or scanning electron microscopy is available to define their shape. The experimental conditions to obtain reliable adsorption data as well as the way to analyze the adsorption isotherms are described and discussed in some detail in order to help the reader in using the experimental VSSA criterion. To obtain the experimental VSSA values, the BET surface area can be used for non-porous particles, but for porous, nanostructured or coated nanoparticles, only the external surface of the particles, obtained by a modified t-plot approach, should be considered to determine the experimental VSSA and to avoid false positive identification of nanomaterials, only the external surface area being related to the particle size. Finally, the availability of experimental VSSA values together with particle size distributions obtained by electron microscopy gave the opportunity to check the

  18. High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation in early onset epileptic encephalopathy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiron, Oded; Gale, Rena; Namestnic, Julia; Bennet-Back, Odeya; David, Jonathan; Gebodh, Nigel; Adair, Devin; Esmaeilpour, Zeinab; Bikson, Marom

    2018-01-01

    Early onset epileptic encephalopathy is characterized by high daily seizure-frequency, multifocal epileptic discharges, severe psychomotor retardation, and death at infancy. Currently, there are no effective treatments to alleviate seizure frequency and high-voltage epileptic discharges in these catastrophic epilepsy cases. The current study examined the safety and feasibility of High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) in reducing epileptiform activity in a 30-month-old child suffering from early onset epileptic encephalopathy. HD-tDCS was administered over 10 intervention days spanning two weeks including pre- and post-intervention video-EEG monitoring. There were no serious adverse events or side effects related to the HD-tDCS intervention. Frequency of clinical seizures was not significantly reduced. However, interictal sharp wave amplitudes were significantly lower during the post-intervention period versus baseline. Vital signs and blood biochemistry remained stable throughout the entire study. These exploratory findings support the safety and feasibility of 4 × 1 HD-tDCS in early onset epileptic encephalopathy and provide the first evidence of HD-tDCS effects on paroxysmal EEG features in electroclinical cases under the age of 36 months. Extending HD-tDCS treatment may enhance electrographic findings and clinical effects.

  19. Identifiability and Accessibility in Learning Definite Article Usages: A Quasi-Experimental Study with Japanese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinenoya, Kimiko; Lyster, Roy

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of instruction on the use of the definite article "the" by Japanese learners of English by implementing two instructional treatments that varied in the extent to which they emphasized identifiability and accessibility. One instructional treatment, referred to as the traditional (TR) treatment,…

  20. Characteristics of the telescope for high energy gamma-ray astronomy selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Rolfe, J.; Johansson, A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray telescope selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

  1. Achieving consensus on the definition of conversion to laparotomy: a Delphi study among general surgeons, gynecologists, and urologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blikkendaal, Mathijs D.; Twijnstra, Andries R. H.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Beerlage, Harrie P.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Jansen, Frank Willem

    2013-01-01

    In laparoscopic surgery, conversion to laparotomy is associated with worse clinical outcomes, especially if the conversion is due to a complication. Although apparently important, no commonly used definition of conversion exists. The aim of this study was to achieve multidisciplinary consensus on a

  2. Indeterminacy of definitions and criteria in mental health: case study of emotional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, George

    2013-06-01

    The concept of emotions has gone through radical transformations during the last couple of centuries. Despite these severe re-specifications of its content, the concept of emotions (and especially some such as depression or anxiety) has acquired a central role in contemporary clinical Psychology and Psychiatry. This creates an apparent paradox, utilizing more and more concepts for which no clear conceptual understanding has been obtained. This paradox creates a challenge for researchers as well as clinicians, as on a daily basis, millions of people are currently ascribed with 'having' or 'being in' emotional states, which also entails certain interventions to be applied, without much clear insight into what exactly those states might really constitute. Conceptual research in aetiological and historical transformation of theoretical accounts of emotions as well as an overview of relevant empirical research on fundamental emotions. Examining of critical respective questions such as: whether there are any universal 'typical' emotional reactions to be found in each and every known culture, indicating their intrinsic existence as being a part of the human condition; whether there are 'basic' and 'secondary' emotions; whether emotions are merely bodily events, patterns of behavioural reactions to given types of stimuli or whether they rely inevitably on their cognitive content; whether emotions are necessarily intentional (in Brentano's sense) viz. are inevitably about a real or an imaginary object or whether there can be objectless emotional states; whether emotions are in a significant sense rational or fundamentally irrational responses and so forth. Moreover, more recent experimental data advocating for one or the other response to the aforementioned fundamental questions are scrutinized. In both conceptual research (including the works of thinkers such as the highly influential contributions of Darwin, James, Cannon, Freud, Ryle and Sartre or contemporary attempts

  3. What is my walking neighbourhood? A pilot study of English adults' definitions of their local walking neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey Rachel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing measures of perceptions of the environment associated with walking commonly rely on providing a definition of 'neighbourhood', e.g. 1 mile area around the home. We have little understanding of how these examples relate with adults' own geographical definitions of their neighbourhood area. Our pilot study examined the congruence between definitions used in environmental questionnaires and adults' own definitions of neighbourhood. Methods We conducted 58 face-to-face interviews with participants randomly selected from 10 areas of Stoke-on-Trent, England. Participants were shown printed maps showing their local area with road names and places of interest (e.g. shops, services, green space and were asked: (i to recall usual walking destinations (from their home; (ii to draw their 'neighbourhood walking area' on the map. Annotated maps were scanned back into GIS for analysis. Results When asked to draw their 'neighbourhood' boundary, the resulting area drawn by participants on average represented only 16 ± 20% of the commonly used total straight-line buffer of 1 mile (or 1.6 km with a range of 0.3% to 111%. Even when repeated using a network buffer (rather than straight-line the same comparison resulted in a mean of 36% (± 47% and a range of 0.6 to 245%. Conclusions We found that adults' interpretation of their neighbourhood area does not appear to relate accurately to the definitions typically used in research into environmental perceptions and walking. This mis-match warrants further investigation as definitions used in existing measures may be consistently misclassifying perceived local walking neighbourhoods.

  4. The Acquisition of Auxiliary Syntax: A Longitudinal Elicitation Study. Part 2: The Modals and Auxiliary DO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The study of auxiliary acquisition is central to work on language development and has attracted theoretical work from both nativist and constructivist approaches. This study is part of a 2-part companion set that represents a unique attempt to trace the development of auxiliary syntax by using a longitudinal elicitation methodology. The…

  5. Integrating CHWs as part of the team leading diabetes group visits: A randomized controlled feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of integrating Community Health Workers (CHWs) as part of the team leading diabetes group visits. This was a randomized controlled study that integrated CHWs as part of the team leading diabetes group visits for low-income Hispanic adults (n=5...

  6. Validity of the definite and semidefinite questionnaire version of the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Hamilton subscale and the Melancholia Scale. Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Bent; Bech, Per

    2011-01-01

    , and their corresponding definite versions of the self-rating questionnaires DMQ and DHAM6 were accepted by the Rasch analysis, and only these four valid scales discriminated significantly between the effect of citalopram and placebo treatment. Our results are limited to patients with moderate depression. Two new self......-report scales with unparalleled construct validity, reliability, sensitivity, and convergent validity have been identified (DMQ and DHAM6). We have also identified a crucial importance of format for the means and variances of self-rating scales. These findings are of high practical and scientific value....

  7. Definition of intercultural competence (IC) in undergraduate students at a private university in the USA: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierke, Lioba; Binder, Nadine; Heckmann, Mark; Odağ, Özen; Leiser, Anne; Kedzior, Karina Karolina

    2018-01-01

    Intercultural competence (IC) is an important skill to be gained from higher education. However, it remains unclear what IC means to students and what factors might influence their definitions of IC. The aim of the current study was to qualitatively assess how students at one higher education institution in the USA define IC and to quantitatively test for relationships among IC components and various demographic characteristics, including intercultural experience and study context. A further aim was to descriptively compare the IC definitions from the US sample with the definitions obtained from another sample of university students in Germany. A purposive sample of n = 93 undergraduate, second semester students at Dickinson College, USA, participated in the study by completing an online questionnaire. The qualitative data were content-analyzed to define the dimensions of IC. The quantitative data were cluster-analyzed to assess the multivariate relationships among the IC components and the demographic characteristics of the sample. The most important dimensions of IC were Knowledge, External Outcomes (interaction, communication), and Attitudes (respect, tolerance) according to the US sample. The most frequently chosen dimensions of IC differed between both samples: Knowledge was chosen by the sample in the USA while External Outcomes was chosen by the sample in Germany. Relative to the US sample, significantly more students chose Attitudes, External Outcomes, and Intrapersonal Skills in the sample in Germany. The relationships among IC components and demographic characteristics were only weak in the US sample. A person with IC was rated as Open-minded and Respectful by students who lived predominantly in the USA or Tolerant and Curious by those who lived outside the USA for at least six months. The current results suggest that students residing in two countries (USA or Germany) define IC using similar dimensions. However, IC definitions may depend on the

  8. On an elementary definition of visual saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Various approaches to computational modelling of bottom-up visual attention have been proposed in the past two decades. As part of this trend, researchers have studied ways to characterize the saliency map underlying many of these models. In more recent years, several definitions based on probabi......Various approaches to computational modelling of bottom-up visual attention have been proposed in the past two decades. As part of this trend, researchers have studied ways to characterize the saliency map underlying many of these models. In more recent years, several definitions based...... on probabilistic and information or decision theoretic considerations have been proposed. These provide experimentally successful, appealing, low-level, operational, and elementary definitions of visual saliency (see eg, Bruce, 2005 Neurocomputing 65 125 - 133). Here, I demonstrate that, in fact, all...

  9. 7 CFR 15a.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 15a.2 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: (a) Title IX means... political subdivision thereof, of any instrumentality of a State or political subdivision thereof, any...) Offers academic study beyond the bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree, whether or not leading...

  10. 34 CFR 106.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Introduction § 106.2 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: (a) Title IX means title IX of the Education... or political subdivision thereof, or any instrumentality of a State or political subdivision thereof... study beyond the bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree, whether or not leading to a certificate...

  11. Definitions of night eating in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; Thompson, D; Franko, DL; Barton, B; Affenito, S; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of night eating in a community cohort of black and white girls, using different definitions of night eating as described in the literature. Research Methods and Procedures: Three-day food diaries collected as part of the National Growth and Health Study were

  12. Clinical application of removable partial dentures using thermoplastic resin-part I: definition and indication of non-metal clasp dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueki, Kenji; Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Yatabe, Masaru; Arakawa, Ichiro; Arita, Masahiro; Ino, Satoshi; Kanamori, Toshikazu; Kawai, Yasuhiko; Kawara, Misao; Komiyama, Osamu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Hosoki, Maki; Masumi, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Mutsuo; Aita, Hideki; Ono, Takahiro; Kondo, Hisatomo; Tamaki, Katsushi; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Tsukasaki, Hiroaki; Fujisawa, Masanori; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    This position paper proposes a definition and naming standard for removable partial dentures (RPDs) using thermoplastic resin, and presents a guideline for clinical application. A panel of 14 experts having broad experience with clinical application of RPDs using thermoplastic resin was selected from members of the Japan Prosthodontic Society. At a meeting of the panel, "non-metal clasp denture" was referred as the generic name of RPDs with retentive elements (resin clasps) made of thermoplastic resin. The panel classified non-metal clasp dentures into two types: one with a flexible structure that lacks a metal framework and the other having a rigid structure that includes a metal framework. According to current prosthetic principles, flexible non-metal clasp dentures are not recommended as definitive dentures, except for limited cases such as patients with a metal allergy. Rigid non-metal clasp dentures are recommended in cases where patients will not accept metal clasps for esthetic reasons. Non-metal clasp dentures should follow the same design principles as conventional RPDs using metal clasps. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Manufacturing strategy in the auto parts industry: a multicases study in companies at sorocaba’s region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Neves Guimarães

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The alignment of manufacturing strategy with the business strategy is fundamental for achieving sustainable competitive advantage. In the particular case of the automotive industry, it is verified that the production strategy of suppliers is strongly influenced by the strategy of automakers. In this context, this paper aims at presenting characteristics of the content of the production strategy of four auto parts companies besides analyzing the influence of automakers in the definition of the strategy contents.This is a descriptive and exploratory research that uses  a qualitative approach and the multi-case study method. Among the main results, it was found that the prevalent competitive priority in the companies is quality followed by delivery. In the decision areas, it was noted that customers have great influence on the quality management of these companies and in the R&D activities, besides demanding frequent deliveries. Finally, it was found that auto parts companies seek to strengthen their competitive priorities by adopting criteria from suppliers  for selecting and evaluating.

  14. Oak Ridge Health Studies Phase 1 report, Volume 2, Part B, Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brorby, G.P.; Bruce, G.M.; Widner, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    While each of the three different screening comparisons made in this report (i.e., within-medium evaluation, between-media evaluation and relative importance grouping) individually provides information potentially of value in focusing future studies, each one is subject to a variety of limitations, the most important being associated with the absence or variable quality of environmental data for a number of the contaminants and media. These screening exercises are intended to provide an initial framework for approaching the study of an extremely complex site. Other approaches could very well yield somewhat different priorities, and the identification or reinterpretation of data in subsequent detailed studies are likely to invalidate some of the results of these screening exercises. However, these evaluations provide a logical approach to defining initial off- site health impact study priorities for the ORR. Therefore, while care must be taken in attempting to make any broad generalizations or greatly simplifying assumptions with regard to the potential health hazards posed by the complex releases from the Reservation, Table 6-1 represents an attempt to summarize a set of recommendations that are derived from the screening exercises presented in this report. Table 6-1 identifies the facilities, processes and contaminants believed to have the highest potential for resulting in off-site health impacts. Table 6-2 identifies contaminants for which no ranking could be performed as part of this feasibility study, because of the absence of any appropriate data for any environmental medium

  15. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study. Volume 2: OTV concept definition and evaluation. Book 1: Mission and system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofal, Allen E.

    1987-01-01

    The mission and system requirements for the concept definition and system analysis of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) are established. The requirements set forth constitute the single authority for the selection, evaluation, and optimization of the technical performance and design of the OTV. This requirements document forms the basis for the Ground and Space Based OTV concept definition analyses and establishes the physical, functional, performance and design relationships to STS, Space Station, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), and payloads.

  16. The definition of polytrauma: variable interrater versus intrarater agreement--a prospective international study among trauma surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Nerida E; Enninghorst, Natalie; Sisak, Krisztian; Balogh, Zsolt J

    2013-03-01

    The international trauma community has recognized the lack of a validated consensus definition of "polytrauma." We hypothesized that using a subjective definition, trauma surgeons will not have substantial agreement; thus, an objective definition is needed. A prospective observational study was conducted between December 2010 and June 2011 (John Hunter Hospital, Level I trauma center). Inclusion criteria were all trauma call patients with subsequent intensive care unit admission. The study was composed of four stages as follows: (1) four trauma surgeons assessed patients until 24 hours, then coded as either "yes" or "no" for polytrauma, and results compared for agreement; (2) eight trauma surgeons representing the United States, Germany, and the Netherlands graded the same prospectively assessed patients and coded as either "yes" or "no" for polytrauma; (3) 12 months later, the original four trauma surgeons repeated assessment via data sheets to test intrarater variability; and (4) individual subjective definitions were compared with three anatomic scores, namely, (a) Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than 15, (b) ISS of greater 17, and (c) Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of greater than 2 in at least two ISS body regions. A total of 52 trauma patients were included. Results for each stage were as follows: (1) κ score of 0.50, moderate agreement; (2) κ score of 0.41, moderate agreement; (3) Rater 1 had moderate intrarater agreement (κ score, 0.59), while Raters 2, 3, 4 had substantial intrarater agreement (κ scores, 0.75, 0.66, and 0.71, respectively); and (4) none had most agreement with ISS of greater than 15 (κ score, 0.16), while both definitions ISS greater than 17 and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of greater than 2 in at least two ISS body regions had on average fair agreement (κ scores, 0.27 and 0.39, respectively). Based on subjective assessments, trauma surgeons do not agree on the definition of polytrauma, with the subjective

  17. Epidemiology and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome in children according to the Berlin definition: a multicenter prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Eliane R; Munoz, Gabriela O C; Cavalheiro, Priscilla O; Suzuki, Adriana S; Degaspare, Natalia V; Shieh, Huei H; Martines, João A D S; Ferreira, Juliana C; Lane, Christianne; Carvalho, Werther B; Gilio, Alfredo E; Precioso, Alexander R

    2015-05-01

    In 2012, a new acute respiratory distress syndrome definition was proposed for adult patients. It was later validated for infants and toddlers. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence, outcomes, and risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in children up to 15 years according to the Berlin definition. A prospective, multicenter observational study from March to September 2013. Seventy-seven PICU beds in eight centers: two private hospitals and six public academic hospitals in Brazil. All children aged 1 month to 15 years admitted to the participating PICUs in the study period. None. All children admitted to the PICUs were daily evaluated for the presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome according to the American-European Consensus Conference and Berlin definitions. Of the 562 patients included, acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 57 patients (10%) and 58 patients (10.3%) according to the Berlin definition and the American-European Consensus Conference definition, respectively. Among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome according to the Berlin definition, nine patients (16%) were mild, 21 (37%) were moderate, and 27 (47%) were severe. Compared with patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome had significantly higher severity scores, longer PICU and hospital length of stay, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and higher mortality (p < 0.001). The presence of two or more comorbidities and admission for medical reasons were associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Comparisons across the three the Berlin categories showed significant differences in the number of ventilator-free days (21, 20, and 5 d, p = 0.001) and mortality for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (41%) in comparison with mild (0) and moderate (15%) acute respiratory distress syndrome(p = 0.02). No differences in PICU or hospital stay were

  18. Experience with Regulatory Strategies in Nuclear Power Oversight. Part 1: An International Exploratory Study. Part 2: Workshop Discussions and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, Barbara [Melber Consulting, Seattle, WA (United States); Durbin, Nancy E. [Nancy E. Durbin Consulting, Kirkland, WA (United States); Tael, Irene (ed.) [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study which explored the use of six different regulatory strategies for oversight of commercial nuclear power facilities: prescriptive, case-based, outcome-based, risk-based, process-based, and self-assessment strategies. Information was collected on experiences with the use of these different regulatory strategies from experts from nuclear regulatory agencies in Canada, Finland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Systematic, structured open-ended interviews with expert regulators with extensive experience were used in order to understand how regulatory strategies are applied in practice. Common patterns were identified regarding: Experts' perspectives on the major benefits and difficulties of using specific regulatory strategies; Experts' experiences with using regulatory strategies for three areas of oversight-design and modifications, quality systems, and training and qualifications; Expert views of the consequences of different regulatory strategies; Issues that emerged in the interviews regarding regulatory strategies. The major benefit of a prescriptive strategy was that it is clear about requirements and expectations. The major difficulties were that it takes responsibility away from the licensee, it requires a high use of regulator resources and is rigid and difficult to change. A case-based strategy had the key benefit of flexibility for adapting regulatory responses to unique situations, but the difficulties of being considered arbitrary, inconsistent, and unfair and requiring heavy resource use. An outcome-based strategy had the main benefit of allowing licensees to decide the best way to operate m order to meet safety goals, but the major difficulty of identifying appropriate ways to measure safety performance. The major benefit of a risk strategy was its use co prioritize safety issues and allocate resources. However, it was considered inappropriate to use as a stand alone strategy

  19. Experience with Regulatory Strategies in Nuclear Power Oversight. Part 1: An International Exploratory Study. Part 2: Workshop Discussions and Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melber, Barbara; Durbin, Nancy E.; Tael, Irene

    2005-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study which explored the use of six different regulatory strategies for oversight of commercial nuclear power facilities: prescriptive, case-based, outcome-based, risk-based, process-based, and self-assessment strategies. Information was collected on experiences with the use of these different regulatory strategies from experts from nuclear regulatory agencies in Canada, Finland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Systematic, structured open-ended interviews with expert regulators with extensive experience were used in order to understand how regulatory strategies are applied in practice. Common patterns were identified regarding: Experts' perspectives on the major benefits and difficulties of using specific regulatory strategies; Experts' experiences with using regulatory strategies for three areas of oversight-design and modifications, quality systems, and training and qualifications; Expert views of the consequences of different regulatory strategies; Issues that emerged in the interviews regarding regulatory strategies. The major benefit of a prescriptive strategy was that it is clear about requirements and expectations. The major difficulties were that it takes responsibility away from the licensee, it requires a high use of regulator resources and is rigid and difficult to change. A case-based strategy had the key benefit of flexibility for adapting regulatory responses to unique situations, but the difficulties of being considered arbitrary, inconsistent, and unfair and requiring heavy resource use. An outcome-based strategy had the main benefit of allowing licensees to decide the best way to operate m order to meet safety goals, but the major difficulty of identifying appropriate ways to measure safety performance. The major benefit of a risk strategy was its use co prioritize safety issues and allocate resources. However, it was considered inappropriate to use as a stand alone strategy and a

  20. Study of antioxidant capacity of different parts of two south Algerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the antioxidant capacity of ethanolic EE and water WE extracts from different parts (calyx, peel, and pulp) of eggplant (Solanum melongena L) were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry. The antioxidant capacity of different parts of eggplant was measured using ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity assays ...

  1. Is networking different with part-time working colleagues? A study of medical teams.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.; Jong, J. de; Groenewegen, P.; Hingstman, L.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in work arrangements like the introduction of part-time work can affect both formal and informal organization. This study will focus on informal networks amongst teams of medical specialists, some but not all of which include part-time workers. Are there notable differences in the structure

  2. Becoming Academics: Experiencing Legitimate Peripheral Participation in Part-Time Doctoral Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeuwsen, Phil; Ratkovic, Snežana; Tilley, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    An important element of doctoral studies is identification with the academic community. Such identification is often complicated by part-time student status. In this paper, two part-time doctoral students and their supervisor employ Lave and Wenger's concept of legitimate peripheral participation to explore, through a critical socio-cultural lens,…

  3. The Motivations and Outcomes of Studying for Part-Time Mature Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Jon; Hammond, Cathie

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the motivations and outcomes for mature students who study part-time in higher education (HE) in the UK. Although many students in HE are mature part-time learners, they have not been the specific focus of much research or policy interest. In-depth narrative interviews were carried out with 18 graduates who had studied…

  4. The Invisible Student: Benefits and Challenges of Part-Time Doctoral Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Peter; Goff, Lori

    2012-01-01

    This autoethnographic study explores the experiences of two part-time doctoral students as we document our journey of balancing our multiple competing roles. As we reflected and consulted the literature, we began to identify many benefits and challenges that part-time candidature brings to students, universities and employers. Through our…

  5. Effect of Disease Definition on Perceived Burden of Acute Respiratory Infections in Children: A Prospective Cohort Study Based on Symptom Diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoch, Beate; Günther, Annette; Karch, André; Mikolajczyk, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are among the most frequent childhood diseases in Western countries. Assessment of ARI episodes for research purposes is usually based on parent-administered retrospective questionnaires or prospective symptom diaries. The aim of our analysis was to compare the effect of ARI definitions on the corresponding disease burden in a prospective cohort study using symptom diaries. A literature search was performed to identify definitions of ARI used in research studies. The definitions were applied to a symptom diary dataset from a cohort study of 1-3-year-old children conducted in the winter season 2013/2014. We compared the total number of ARI episodes, the total number of days with ARI and the median and mean duration of ARI episodes resulting from the use of the different definitions. Six ARI definitions were identified in the literature. Depending on ARI definition, the total number of ARI episodes and the total number of days with ARI in our dataset varied by a factor of 1.69 and 1.53, respectively, between the lowest and the highest. The median duration of the episodes ranged from 7 to 10 days. Different definitions led to considerable differences in the number and duration of ARI episodes, making direct comparisons of studies with different methods questionable. We propose the use of a standardized ARI definition in upcoming cohort studies working with diary data. This process could be conducted using a Delphi survey with experts in this study field.

  6. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part I. A knowledge mapping approach for defining most critical risk factors in integrative risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.S.; Thomsen, M.; Assmuth, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper helps bridge the gap between scientists and other stakeholders in the areas of human and environmental risk management of chemicals and engineered nanomaterials. This connection is needed due to the evolution of stakeholder awareness and scientific progress related to human and environ...... and effectively handles assumptions and definitions and allows the integration of different forms of knowledge, thereby supporting the inclusion of multifaceted risk components in cumulative risk management.......This paper helps bridge the gap between scientists and other stakeholders in the areas of human and environmental risk management of chemicals and engineered nanomaterials. This connection is needed due to the evolution of stakeholder awareness and scientific progress related to human...... and environmental health which involves complex methodological demands on risk management. At the same time, the available scientific knowledge is also becoming more scattered across multiple scientific disciplines. Hence, the understanding of potentially risky situations is increasingly multifaceted, which again...

  7. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part I: a knowledge mapping approach for defining most critical risk factors in integrative risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Peter B; Thomsen, Marianne; Assmuth, Timo; Grieger, Khara D; Baun, Anders

    2010-08-15

    This paper helps bridge the gap between scientists and other stakeholders in the areas of human and environmental risk management of chemicals and engineered nanomaterials. This connection is needed due to the evolution of stakeholder awareness and scientific progress related to human and environmental health which involves complex methodological demands on risk management. At the same time, the available scientific knowledge is also becoming more scattered across multiple scientific disciplines. Hence, the understanding of potentially risky situations is increasingly multifaceted, which again challenges risk assessors in terms of giving the 'right' relative priority to the multitude of contributing risk factors. A critical issue is therefore to develop procedures that can identify and evaluate worst case risk conditions which may be input to risk level predictions. Therefore, this paper suggests a conceptual modelling procedure that is able to define appropriate worst case conditions in complex risk management. The result of the analysis is an assembly of system models, denoted the Worst Case Definition (WCD) model, to set up and evaluate the conditions of multi-dimensional risk identification and risk quantification. The model can help optimize risk assessment planning by initial screening level analyses and guiding quantitative assessment in relation to knowledge needs for better decision support concerning environmental and human health protection or risk reduction. The WCD model facilitates the evaluation of fundamental uncertainty using knowledge mapping principles and techniques in a way that can improve a complete uncertainty analysis. Ultimately, the WCD is applicable for describing risk contributing factors in relation to many different types of risk management problems since it transparently and effectively handles assumptions and definitions and allows the integration of different forms of knowledge, thereby supporting the inclusion of multifaceted risk

  8. An Empirical Study of the Process of Crafting and Using Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Angela Jean

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation I analyze the process of crafting definitions whose purpose is classification. The context I examine is undergraduate upper-division physical science majors defining and naming sub-categories of a physical phenomenon in the context of a design task over an extended period of time. The goal of the design task is one of…

  9. Definition dependent properties of the cortical silent period in upper-extremity muscles, a methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, A.A. van; Bakker, C.D.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Geurts, A.C.; Stegeman, D.F.; Pasman, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To explore if stimulus-response (S-R) characteristics of the silent period (SP) after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are affected by changing the SP definition and by changing data presentation in healthy individuals. This information would be clinically relevant to predict

  10. Definition dependent properties of the cortical silent period in upper-extremity muscles, a methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuijk, A.A.; Bakker, C,; Hendriks, J.J.A.; Geurts, A.H.; Stegeman, D.F.; Pasman, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To explore if stimulus-response (S-R) characteristics of the silent period (SP) after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are affected by changing the SP definition and by changing data presentation in healthy individuals. This information would be clinically relevant to predict

  11. Definition of Videogames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Tavinor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Can videogames be defined? The new field of games studies has generated three somewhat competing models of videogaming that characterize games as new forms of gaming, narratives, and interactive fictions. When treated as necessary and sufficient condition definitions, however, each of the three approaches fails to pick out all and only videogames. In this paper I argue that looking more closely at the formal qualities of definition helps to set out the range of definitional options open to the games theorist. A disjunctive definition of videogaming seems the most appropriate of these definitional options. The disjunctive definition I offer here is motivated by the observation that there is more than one characteristic way of being a videogame.

  12. Function- and User-related Definitions in Online Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    A study of the existing literature shows that definitions play an important part in dictionary use and making. The discussions primarily concern printed dictionaries and show that definitions are static in that only one definition should be provided for each meaning of a lemma or entry word, as a....... The important point is that each definition has been written with a specific function and user group in mind taking into account the needs of users in specific types of user situation.......A study of the existing literature shows that definitions play an important part in dictionary use and making. The discussions primarily concern printed dictionaries and show that definitions are static in that only one definition should be provided for each meaning of a lemma or entry word......, as argued in e.g. Jackson (2002: 86-100). However, online dictionaries provide lexicographers with the option of taking a more flexible approach to lexicographic definitions in an attempt to give the best possible help to users. The “one-size-fits-all” approach to dictionary making has its limits...

  13. The U.S./Canadian GEO Bilateral Drought Indices and Definitions Study: Implications for the Canadian Drought Monitor and a Global Drought Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwen, T.; Heim, R. R.; Howard, A.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a difficult phenomenon to define; the way in which it is monitored, measured, assessed and even the very definition of drought vary from location to location based on the regional climate and the potential impacts. Drought is not an absolute condition but an evolving state brought on by relatively dry weather, growing more severe over time. There are many factors that define a drought and many more that define its impacts. Many definitions and indices are based solely on meteorological characteristics. Although this approach has merit, it is often necessary to go further to define those meteorological conditions in a way that is relevant to the land and water use in a region. A Drought Indices and Definitions Study was initiated in 2010 as part of a GEO Bilateral effort to examine drought across the U.S. and Canada. The Study's deliverables will include a survey of the drought indices used to monitor drought, and a bibliography of research addressing the nature of drought, across the diverse climates of the continent. With an increasing pressure to utilize drought monitoring as a primary indicator of need for disaster assistance, the reliability of drought indices must be validated and utilized in appropriate in various regions. In 2009, following over five years of participation in the North American Drought Monitor (NA-DM), the National Agroclimate Information Service of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada initiated a project to develop a Canadian Drought Monitor (Can-DM), based on primary principles used in the NA-DM and the US Drought Monitor (US-DM). The process of developing an operational monitoring tool and using drought indices in a vast and environmentally diverse country has been challenging. in Canada, many of the commonly used indices are not appropriate in certain regions or data densities do not allow for proper use. This paper will discuss the experiences that the Can-DM team has had dealing with these challenges, how these experiences

  14. LDR structural experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    A system study to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector on the Space Station was accomplished by the Boeing Aerospace Company for NASA's Langley Research Center. The objective of the study was to use a Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration as the basis for focusing an experiment definition, so that the resulting accommodation requirements and interface constraints could be used as part of the mission requirements data base for Space Station. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of an optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments, and alignment of the optical components, would occur on a second experiment. The structure would then be moved to the payload point system for pointing, optical control, and scientific optical measurement for a third experiment. Experiment 1 will deploy the primary support truss while it is attached to the instrument module structure. The ability to adjust the mirror attachment points and to attach several dummy primary mirror segments with a robotic system will also be demonstrated. Experiment 2 will be achieved by adding new components and equipment to experiment one. Experiment 3 will demonstrate advanced control strategies, active adjustment of the primary mirror alignment, and technologies associated with optical sensing.

  15. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study (Exhibit D). Volume 5: Systems engineering/integration research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines and ground rules followed in the development of requirements for the SPS are presented. Development planning objectives are specified in each of these areas, and evolutionary SPS program scenarios are described for the various concepts studied during the past one year contract. Program descriptions are presented as planning packages of technical tasks, and schedule phasing. Each package identifies the ground based technology effort that will facilitate SPS definitions, designs, development, and operations.

  16. How does leadership education shape students’ definitions of leadership? Insights from the Multi-institutional Study of Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, EK; Thornton, J; Coartney, J

    2017-01-01

    The Multi-institutional Study of Leadership (MSL) is an international research program focused on understanding the influences of higher education in shaping socially responsible leadership capacity and other related student outcomes. While there have been numerous reports on the quantitative findings from the MSL, the published research tends to ignore data from the qualitative prompt: “Please provide a brief definition of what the term leadership means to you.” By coding and categorizing th...

  17. Ocean Thermal Energy Converstion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC test program which may include land and floating test facilities. Volume II--Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part B provides an annotated test list and describes component tests and system tests.

  18. La burocrazia nella ricerca pubblica. PARTE I, Una rassegna dei principali studi

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Coccia; Alessandro Gobbino

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the main studies carried out on the Bureaucracy in public research institutions. The first part of the paper describes the classical theory concerning the Bureaucracy developed by Weber, Merton et al. The second part of the research focuses the studies on the bureaucracy carried out on public research institutions in United States of America and Norway. Some concluding remarks complete the research.

  19. 10 CFR 830.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... structures, systems, and components; (3) Safety management programs; (4) Technical safety requirements; and..., construction, fabrication, assembly, decontamination, environmental restoration, waste management, laboratory... ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.3 Definitions. (a) The following definitions apply to this part...

  20. 21 CFR 136.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION BAKERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 136.3 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the following definitions apply: (a) The word bread when used in the name of the food means the unit weighs one-half pound...

  1. Esophageal transit study using a sliding sum image. Application to patients with probable and definite systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Minoru; Inaki, Anri; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Kinuya, Seigo; Hosoya, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal complication is common in systemic sclerosis (SSc), but scintigraphic transit patterns based on each subtype have not been understood well. The aim of this study was to develop a new algorithm for integrating a dynamic esophageal transit study and to apply the method to patients with SSc. A total of 40 patients suspected of having SSc were examined by a dynamic esophageal transit study. The subtypes included 32 with definite SSc (15 limited cutaneous type and 17 diffuse cutaneous type) and 8 with probable SSc. The serial esophageal images were shifted and summed to a functional image (sliding sum image) and compared to a conventional condensed image analysis. Esophageal retention fraction at 90 s (R 90 ) and half-time (T 1/2 ) of transit were also measured. The four patterns of the sliding sum image and condensed image agreed in all patients. Abnormal retention patterns were observed in none of the 8 (0%) patients with the probable SSc and in 15 of 32 (47%) patients with definite SSc (p=0.014). The severity of scleroderma assessed by modified Rodnan skin thickness score correlated with that of esophageal retention R 90 (p=0.04). The sliding sum image is a simple and effective method for integrating esophageal transit. Patients with definite SSc and severe scleroderma had significantly higher retention patterns, while probable SSc patients showed no esophageal dysmotility. (author)

  2. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 136 - Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit-Revision 1.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calculated method detection limit. To insure that the estimate of the method detection limit is a good...) where: MDL = the method detection limit t(n-1,1- α=.99) = the students' t value appropriate for a 99... Determination of the Method Detection Limit-Revision 1.11 B Appendix B to Part 136 Protection of Environment...

  3. Pre-Medicare Eligible Individuals' Decision-Making In Medicare Part D: An Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to elicit salient beliefs among pre-Medicare eligible individuals regarding (1 the outcomes associated with enrolling in the Medicare Part D program; (2 those referents who might influence participants' decisions about enrolling in the Part D program; and (3 the perceived barriers and facilitators facing those considering enrolling in the Part D program. Methods: Focused interviews were used for collecting data. A sample of 10 persons between 62 and 64 years of age not otherwise enrolled in the Medicare program was recruited. Interviews were audio taped and field notes were taken concurrently. Audio recordings were reviewed to amend field notes until obtaining a thorough reflection of interviews. Field notes were analyzed to elicit a group of beliefs, which were coded into perceived outcomes, the relevant others who might influence Medicare Part D enrollment decisions and perceived facilitators and impediments. By extracting those most frequently mentioned beliefs, modal salient sets of behavioral beliefs, relevant referents, and control beliefs were identified. Results: Analyses showed that (1 most pre-Medicare eligible believed that Medicare Part D could "provide drug coverage", "save money on medications", and "provide financial and health security in later life". However, "monthly premiums", "the formulary with limited drug coverage" and "the complexity of Medicare Part D" were perceived as major disadvantages; (2 immediate family members are most likely to influence pre-Medicare eligible's decisions about Medicare Part D enrollment; and (3 internet and mailing educational brochures are considered to be most useful resources for Medicare Part D enrollment. Major barriers to enrollment included the complexity and inadequacy of insurance plan information. Conclusion: There are multiple factors related to decision-making surrounding the Medicare Part D enrollment. These factors include the advantages

  4. Clinical Trial Design Principles and Endpoint Definitions for Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair and Replacement: Part 1: Clinical Trial Design Principles: A Consensus Document From the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gregg W; Vahanian, Alec S; Adams, David H; Abraham, William T; Borer, Jeffrey S; Bax, Jeroen J; Schofer, Joachim; Cutlip, Donald E; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Blackstone, Eugene H; Généreux, Philippe; Mack, Michael J; Siegel, Robert J; Grayburn, Paul A; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Kappetein, Arie Pieter

    2015-07-21

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most prevalent valve disorders and has numerous etiologies, including primary (organic) MR, due to underlying degenerative/structural mitral valve (MV) pathology, and secondary (functional) MR, which is principally caused by global or regional left ventricular remodeling and/or severe left atrial dilation. Diagnosis and optimal management of MR requires integration of valve disease and heart failure specialists, MV cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists with expertise in structural heart disease, and imaging experts. The introduction of transcatheter MV therapies has highlighted the need for a consensus approach to pragmatic clinical trial design and uniform endpoint definitions to evaluate outcomes in patients with MR. The Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration between leading academic research organizations and physician-scientists specializing in MV disease from the United States and Europe. Three in-person meetings were held in Virginia and New York during which 44 heart failure, valve, and imaging experts, MV surgeons and interventional cardiologists, clinical trial specialists and statisticians, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered all aspects of MV pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapies, culminating in a 2-part document describing consensus recommendations for clinical trial design (Part 1) and endpoint definitions (Part 2) to guide evaluation of transcatheter and surgical therapies for MR. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative effectiveness evaluation of new devices and approaches to treat MR. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment of new transcatheter MV devices, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexting and the Definition Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrense-Dias, Yara; Berchtold, André; Surís, Joan-Carles; Akre, Christina

    2017-11-01

    Sexting among youths has become a necessary topic of interest in research because of the negative consequences that this activity could create, especially when content is shared with others. Indeed, this loss of control could lead to humiliation, (cyber)bullying, or harassment. The development of new technologies, press coverage, and increase of prevalence rates could also explain the growth of interest in sexting. However, its definition is still a gray area. This review examines the different definitions of sexting used in the literature and its correlates. Several elements of the definition of sexting were assessed: actions (sending, receiving, and forwarding); media types (text, images, and videos); sexual characteristics; and transmission modes. Nine databases were searched for studies on sexting among youths up to 18 years of age. Eighteen studies published between 2012 and 2015 were included. Prevalence rates of sexting ranged between .9% and 60% partly depending on the definition. Most studies assessed sending, but when sending and receiving were measured, prevalence rates were higher for receiving. Some articles found associations with age, gender, race, sexual behavior, romantic relationships, risky behaviors, online activity, psychological difficulties, and social pressure. Finding a consensus regarding the definition is essential to assess accurately the activity and adapt prevention. Adolescents' interpretations of the activity are important as sexting could be used as a sexual behavior between two consenting persons. Prevention strategies should focus on sexting that goes wrong when it is forwarded to a third party and when it occurs in a context of pressure or harassment. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of remote sensing technology in New Zealand, part 1. Mapping land use and environmental studies in New Zealand, part 2. Indigenous forest assessment, part 3. Seismotectonic, structural, volcanologic and geomorphic study of New Zealand, part 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probine, M. C.; Suggate, R. P.; Stirling, I. F.; Mcgreevy, M. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. As part of the tape reformatting process, a simple coded picture output program was developed. This represents Pixel's radiance level by one of a 47 character set on a nonoverprinting line printer. It not only has aided in locating areas for the reformatting process, but has also formed the foundation for a supervised clustering package. This in turn has led to a simplistic but effective thematic mapping package.

  7. Definition of a facility for experimental studies of two-phase flows and heat transfer in porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reda, D.C.; Eaton, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    A facility-development effort is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in order to create an experimental capability for the study of two-phase, steam/water flows through a variety of porous media. The facility definition phase of this project is described. Equations are derived for the steady, adiabatic, macroscopically-linear two-phase flow of a single-component fluid through a porous medium, including energy transfer both by convection and conduction. These equations are then solved to give relative permeabilities for the steam and water phases as functions of known and/or measurable quantities. A viable experimental approach was thereby formulated, leading to the definition of facility components and instrumentation requirements, including the application of gamma-beam densitometry for the measurement of liquid-saturation distributions in porous media. Finally, a state-of-the-art computer code was utilized to numerically simulate the proposed experiments, providing an estimate of the facility operating envelope

  8. Definition study biotechnological sanitation of former natural gasworks in the Netherlands. Final report; Definitiestudie Biotechnologische sanering voormalige gasfabrieksterreinen. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelman, P.; Groenewolt, A. [IWACO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Heersche, J.A.N.M.; Van der Heide, I.V. [Hanze Milieu, Zwolle (Netherlands); Keuning, S. [Bioclear Milieubiotechnologie, Groningen (Netherlands); Riedstra, D. [BION Overijssel, Almelo (Netherlands)

    1999-06-01

    The objective of the title study was to determine the potential and the position of biotechnological remediation options in the development of former gas works sites. Gas works sites are characterised by a combination of heterogeneous soil and a cocktail of contaminants part of which are difficult to degrade. The bottlenecks for which this definition study seeks to find solutions are the lack of knowledge of the natural attenuation potential and the possibilities for stimulating these processes (remove limitations). Moreover, there is a lack of insight and experience in optimally attuning the development of a location to the remediation scenario. The project started with a literature study and a study of recent investigations conducted elsewhere, focused on the problems of former gas works sites and the possible biotechnological solutions to these problems. Although a lot of research has been conducted into the aerobic degradation of the individual components, little is known about the (anaerobic) degradation of gas works sites cocktails. Supplementary degradation research has been conducted with soil from three gas works sites.Despite the presence of sufficient PAHs, cyanide and oil degrading components, no significant decrease of the concentrations of the components concerned could be observed. Moreover, (chemical) pre-treatment with Fenton's reagent made no difference. Contrary to the treatment of a core contamination, biological in situ remediation options for mobile plume contamination at and around gas works sites are considered to be a promising solution for cost-effective control and/or removal of the contaminants. The second part of the study deals with boundary conditions a competitive development plan poses to the application of biotechnological remediation. Forty gas works sites in the north of the Netherlands have been grouped into a number of clusters on the basis of ecological urgency, social urgency and development potential. Since the

  9. A critical study on the IAEA definition of high level radioactive waste unsuitable for dumping at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasuo; Saruhashi, Katsuko.

    1976-01-01

    The definition of high level radioactive waste and other high level radioactive matter not suitable for dumping at sea has been given by IAEA (1975). Since this definition is based on the report by Webb and Morley (1973), a critical study is made on their report. The result of study shows that owing to the assumption of a very small value of the horizontal eddy diffusion coefficient (10 4 cm 2 /s) for the sake of safety for these nuclides, the limiting environmental capacity for such nuclides as 226 Ra and 239 Pu with longer half-lives is extremely overestimated. And due to a very small value of a daily intake of marine foods (6 g/d) and a larger value of the ratio of nuclidic concentrations between the top of the deep layer and the surface layer (100), the environmental capacity is also overestimated for every nuclide. It is proposed that the definition of high level radioactive waste should be reassessed carefully by experts in various countries. (auth.)

  10. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  11. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331,288 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    provided similar prevalence estimates. The variation across studies in the relation between glucose-based and HbA1c-based prevalences was partly related to participants' age, followed by natural logarithm of per person gross domestic product, the year of survey, mean BMI, and whether the survey population was national, subnational, or from specific communities. Diabetes defined as HbA1c 6·5% or more had a pooled sensitivity of 52·8% (95% CI 51·3-54·3%) and a pooled specificity of 99·74% (99·71-99·78%) compared with FPG 7·0 mmol/L or more for diagnosing previously undiagnosed participants; sensitivity compared with diabetes defined based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was 30·5% (28·7-32·3%). None of the preselected study-level characteristics explained the heterogeneity in the sensitivity of HbA1c versus FPG. Different biomarkers and definitions for diabetes can provide different estimates of population prevalence of diabetes, and differentially identify people without previous diagnosis as having diabetes. Using an HbA1c-based definition alone in health surveys will not identify a substantial proportion of previously undiagnosed people who would be considered as having diabetes using a glucose-based test. Wellcome Trust, US National Institutes of Health. Copyright © 2015 NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Available forest biomass for new energetic and industrial prospects. Part 1: analysis and synthesis of existing studies compiled at the international level. Part 2: volume calculations. Part 3: economic part. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by new energetic constraints and the interest of biomass, the authors report a bibliographical survey of studies concerning the evaluation of the available forest biomass. They comment the geographical and time distribution of the identified and compiled studies. They analyse their different topics. Then, they discuss the various field hypotheses, discuss and comments various resource assessment methodologies. They comment the resource the French forest can be, present a synthesis of the available resource at the regional level according to the different studies. They propose a review of some technical-economical aspects (costs, energy cost, price evolutions, improvement of the wood-energy mobilization). The second part proposes a whole set of volume calculations for different forest types (clusters or plantations of trees, copses, sawmills products), for industry and household consumption. It discusses the available volumes with respect to accessibility, additional available volumes, and possible improvements. The third part analyses, comments and discusses the wood market and wood energetic uses, and the possible supply curves for wood energetic uses by 2016

  13. Proposed standardized definitions for vertical resolution and uncertainty in the NDACC lidar ozone and temperature algorithms - Part 2: Ozone DIAL uncertainty budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Thierry; Sica, Robert J.; van Gijsel, Joanna A. E.; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haefele, Alexander; Trickl, Thomas; Payen, Guillaume; Liberti, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    A standardized approach for the definition, propagation, and reporting of uncertainty in the ozone differential absorption lidar data products contributing to the Network for the Detection for Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) database is proposed. One essential aspect of the proposed approach is the propagation in parallel of all independent uncertainty components through the data processing chain before they are combined together to form the ozone combined standard uncertainty. The independent uncertainty components contributing to the overall budget include random noise associated with signal detection, uncertainty due to saturation correction, background noise extraction, the absorption cross sections of O3, NO2, SO2, and O2, the molecular extinction cross sections, and the number densities of the air, NO2, and SO2. The expression of the individual uncertainty components and their step-by-step propagation through the ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) processing chain are thoroughly estimated. All sources of uncertainty except detection noise imply correlated terms in the vertical dimension, which requires knowledge of the covariance matrix when the lidar signal is vertically filtered. In addition, the covariance terms must be taken into account if the same detection hardware is shared by the lidar receiver channels at the absorbed and non-absorbed wavelengths. The ozone uncertainty budget is presented as much as possible in a generic form (i.e., as a function of instrument performance and wavelength) so that all NDACC ozone DIAL investigators across the network can estimate, for their own instrument and in a straightforward manner, the expected impact of each reviewed uncertainty component. In addition, two actual examples of full uncertainty budget are provided, using nighttime measurements from the tropospheric ozone DIAL located at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Table Mountain Facility, California, and nighttime measurements from the JPL

  14. A comparative study on antioxidant activity of different parts of lotus (Nelumbo nuficera Gaertn rhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei YANG

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the antioxidant activities of different parts of lotus (Nelumbo nuficera Gaertn rhizome were compared. The total phenolic content of lotus rhizome was determined, and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH radical-scavenging assay and β-carotene-linoleic acid assay were performed to assess the antioxidant activity of lotus rhizome. Results showed that there was a significant difference in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity between any two of four parts of lotus rhizome. The order of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in different parts of lotus rhizome was as follows: peel of old lotus rhizome > peel of young lotus rhizome > flesh of old lotus rhizome > flesh of young lotus rhizome. The total phenol content is significantly positive correlated with the antioxidant activity in different parts of lotus rhizome. This study has provided a basis for further exploring the antioxidant components in lotus rhizome.

  15. A review of heat pump drying: Part 1 - systems, models and studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colak, Neslihan [Dept. of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pamukkale Univ., 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Hepbasli, Arif [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege Univ., 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    The first heat pump dryer (HPD) patent applications were started in 1973, while recently, there has been a great interest in utilizing HPDs for drying fruits, vegetables and biological materials. This study deals with reviewing heat pump drying studies and consists of two parts. In the first part of this study, historical development of HPDs was briefly given first. Description of these systems was then presented. Finally, studies conducted on HPD were reviewed in terms of process efficiency modeling and progress of quality. (author)

  16. Efficient biological process characterization by definitive-screening designs: the formaldehyde treatment of a therapeutic protein as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Axel; de Mas, Nuria; Ramsey, Philip; Henderson, Grant

    2013-03-01

    As part of the process-characterization campaign of a candidate vaccine product, a recently developed class of three-level designs-definitive-screening designs-was employed to select a quadratic model that describes the effect of six input process parameters, including protein concentration, formaldehyde-to-protein ratio, lysine concentration, reaction duration, pH, and reaction temperature, on a formylation protein-crosslinking reaction. This design requires only 17 experimental runs. The resulting model was then used to simulate 10,000 runs that account for the variability in the inputs expected on manufacturing scale. The extent of protein polymerization was predicted to be within specifications for all simulated runs, demonstrating the robustness of the unit operation for subsequent process validation and future commercial manufacturing.

  17. A comparative study of standard vs. high definition colonoscopy for adenoma and hyperplastic polyp detection with optimized withdrawal technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, J E; Stavrindis, M; Thomas-Gibson, S; Guenther, T; Tekkis, P P; Saunders, B P

    2008-09-15

    Colonoscopy has a known miss rate for polyps and adenomas. High definition (HD) colonoscopes may allow detection of subtle mucosal change, potentially aiding detection of adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. To compare detection rates between HD and standard definition (SD) colonoscopy. Prospective, cohort study with optimized withdrawal technique (withdrawal time >6 min, antispasmodic, position changes, re-examining flexures and folds). One hundred and thirty patients attending for routine colonoscopy were examined with either SD (n = 72) or HD (n = 58) colonoscopes. Groups were well matched. Sixty per cent of patients had at least one adenoma detected with SD vs. 71% with HD, P = 0.20, relative risk (benefit) 1.32 (95% CI 0.85-2.04). Eighty-eight adenomas (mean +/- standard deviation 1.2 +/- 1.4) were detected using SD vs. 93 (1.6 +/- 1.5) with HD, P = 0.12; however more nonflat, diminutive (9 mm) hyperplastic polyps was 7% (0.09 +/- 0.36). High definition did not lead to a significant increase in adenoma or hyperplastic polyp detection, but may help where comprehensive lesion detection is paramount. High detection rates appear possible with either SD or HD, when using an optimized withdrawal technique.

  18. Cementless anatomical prosthesis for the treatment of 3-part and 4-part proximal humerus fractures: cadaver study and prospective clinical study with minimum 2 years followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obert Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of a cementless, trauma-specific locked stem for 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures. Materials and methods: This study consisted of two parts: a cadaver study with 22 shoulders and a multicenter prospective clinical study of 23 fracture patients evaluated at least 2 years after treatment. In the cadaver study, the locked stem (HumelockTM, FX Solutions and its instrumentation were evaluated. In the clinical study, five senior surgeons at four different hospitals performed the surgical procedures. An independent surgeon evaluated the patients using clinical (Constant score, QuickDASH and radiological (X-rays, CT scans outcome measures. Results: The cadaver study allowed us to validate the height landmarks relative to the pectoralis major tendon. In the clinical study, at the review, abduction was 95° (60–160, forward flexion was 108° (70–160, external rotation (elbow at body was 34° (0–55, the QuickDASH was 31 (4.5–59, the overall Constant score was 54 (27–75, and the weighted Constant score was 76 (31.5–109. Discussion: This preliminary study of hemiarthroplasty (HA with a locked stem found results that were at least equivalent to published series. As all patients had at least a 2-year follow-up, integration of the locked stem did not cause any specific complications. These results suggest that it is possible to avoid using cement when hemiarthroplasty is performed for the humeral stem. This implant makes height adjustment and transosseous suturing of the tuberosities more reproducible.

  19. High-Definition Computed Tomography for Coronary Artery Stent Imaging: a Phantom Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wen Jie; Chen, Ke Min; Pang, Li Fang; Zhang, Huang; Pan, Zi Lai [Rui Jin Hospital, Medical School, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shangha (China); Guo, Ying; Li, Jian Ying [Beijing Economic and Technology Development Area, Beijing (China)

    2012-01-15

    To assess the performance of a high-definition CT (HDCT) for imaging small caliber coronary stents ({<=} 3 mm) by comparing different scan modes of a conventional 64-row standard-definition CT (SDCT). A cardiac phantom with twelve stents (2.5 mm and 3.0 mm in diameter) was scanned by HDCT and SDCT. The scan modes were retrospective electrocardiography (ECG)-gated helical and prospective ECG-triggered axial with tube voltages of 120 kVp and 100 kVp, respectively. The inner stent diameters (ISD) and the in-stent attenuation value (AVin-stent) and the in-vessel extra-stent attenuation value (AVin-vessel) were measured by two observers. The artificial lumen narrowing (ALN = [ISD - ISDmeasured]/ISD) and artificial attenuation increase between in-stent and in-vessel (AAI = AVin-stent - AVin-vessel) were calculated. All data was analyzed by intraclass correlation and ANOVA-test. The correlation coefficient of ISD, AVin-vessel and AVin-stent between the two observers was good. The ALNs of HDCT were statistically lower than that of SDCT (30 {+-} 5.7% versus 35 {+-} 5.4%, p < 0.05). HDCT had statistically lower AAI values than SDCT (15.7 {+-} 81.4 HU versus 71.4 {+-} 90.5 HU, p < 0.05). The prospective axial dataset demonstrated smaller ALN than the retrospective helical dataset on both HDCT and SDCT (p < 0.05). Additionally, there were no differences in ALN between the 120 kVp and 100 kVp tube voltages on HDCT (p = 0.05). High-definition CT helps improve measurement accuracy for imaging coronary stents compared to SDCT. HDCT with 100 kVp and the prospective ECG-triggered axial technique, with a lower radiation dose than 120 kVp application, may be advantageous in evaluating coronary stents with smaller calibers ({<=} 3 mm).

  20. Fluvial sediments characterization of Hornád river in its chosen parts (preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Hanigovská

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of main river sedimentary characteristics is very important source of information for next study or potentialcommercial usage of fluvial sediments. In paper is shown characterization of sediment distribution in chosen part of the river Hornád.Three main facial types were studied and described – gravel, sand and clay. Model created in this study shows that Hornád is a riverwith predominant gravel transport. This model also shows a sufficient amount of gravel for commercial use in some parts of the river.

  1. Emergence and Evolution of Meaning: The General Definition of Information (GDI Revisiting Program—Part I: The Progressive Perspective: Top-Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer E. Zimmermann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this first part of the paper, the category of meaning is traced starting from the origin of the Universe itself as well as its very grounding in pre-geometry (the second part deals with an appropriate bottom-up approach. In contrast to many former approaches in the theories of information and also in biosemiotics, we will show that the forms of meaning emerge simultaneously (alongside with information and energy. Hence, information can be visualized as being always meaningful (in a sense to be explicated rather than visualizing meaning as a later specification of information within social systems only. This perspective taken has two immediate consequences: (1 We follow the GDI as defined by Floridi, though we modify it somehow as to the aspect of truthfulness. (2 We can conceptually solve Capurro’s trilemma. Hence, what we actually do is to follow the strict (i.e., optimistic line of UTI in the sense of Hofkirchner’s. While doing this, we treat energy and information as two different categorial aspects of one and the same underlying primordial structure. We thus demonstrate the presently developing convergence of physics, biology, and computer science (as well as the various theories of information in some detail and draft out a line of argument eventually leading up to the further unification of UTI and biosemiotics.

  2. LD Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Disability Quarterly, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The position paper (1981) of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities presents a revised definition of learning disabilities and identifies issues and concerns (such as the limitation to children and the exclusion clause) associated with the definition included in P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. (DB)

  3. Diagnosing displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus: a review of observer studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Bagger, Jens; Sylvest, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Displaced four-part fractures comprise 2-10 % of all proximal humeral fractures. The optimal treatment is unclear and randomised trials are needed. The conduct and interpretation of such trials is facilitated by a reproducible fracture classification. We aimed at quantifying observer agreement...... on the classification of displaced four-part fractures according to the Neer system. Published and unpublished data from five observer studies were reviewed. Observers agreed less on displaced four-part fractures than on the overall Neer classification. Mean kappa values for interobserver agreement ranged from 0.......16 to 0.48. Specialists agreed slightly more than fellows and residents. Advanced imaging modalities (CT and 3D CT) seemed to contribute more to classification of displaced four-part patterns than in less complex fracture patterns. Low observer agreement may challenge the clinical approach to displaced...

  4. Defending definitions of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Lucas John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life.

  5. Proposed standardized definitions for vertical resolution and uncertainty in the NDACC lidar ozone and temperature algorithms - Part 3: Temperature uncertainty budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Thierry; Sica, Robert J.; van Gijsel, Joanna A. E.; Haefele, Alexander; Payen, Guillaume; Liberti, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    A standardized approach for the definition, propagation, and reporting of uncertainty in the temperature lidar data products contributing to the Network for the Detection for Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) database is proposed. One important aspect of the proposed approach is the ability to propagate all independent uncertainty components in parallel through the data processing chain. The individual uncertainty components are then combined together at the very last stage of processing to form the temperature combined standard uncertainty. The identified uncertainty sources comprise major components such as signal detection, saturation correction, background noise extraction, temperature tie-on at the top of the profile, and absorption by ozone if working in the visible spectrum, as well as other components such as molecular extinction, the acceleration of gravity, and the molecular mass of air, whose magnitudes depend on the instrument, data processing algorithm, and altitude range of interest. The expression of the individual uncertainty components and their step-by-step propagation through the temperature data processing chain are thoroughly estimated, taking into account the effect of vertical filtering and the merging of multiple channels. All sources of uncertainty except detection noise imply correlated terms in the vertical dimension, which means that covariance terms must be taken into account when vertical filtering is applied and when temperature is integrated from the top of the profile. Quantitatively, the uncertainty budget is presented in a generic form (i.e., as a function of instrument performance and wavelength), so that any NDACC temperature lidar investigator can easily estimate the expected impact of individual uncertainty components in the case of their own instrument. Using this standardized approach, an example of uncertainty budget is provided for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) lidar at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawai'i, which is

  6. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendix I. Accident definition and use of event trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning accident definition and use of event trees, event tree methodology, potential accidents covered by the reactor safety study, analysis of potential accidents involving the reactor core, and analysis of potential accidents not involving the core

  7. Reliability of digital ulcer definitions as proposed by the UK Scleroderma Study Group: A challenge for clinical trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael; Tracey, Andrew; Bhushan, Monica; Chakravarty, Kuntal; Denton, Christopher P; Dubey, Shirish; Guiducci, Serena; Muir, Lindsay; Ong, Voon; Parker, Louise; Pauling, John D; Prabu, Athiveeraramapandian; Rogers, Christine; Roberts, Christopher; Herrick, Ariane L

    2018-06-01

    The reliability of clinician grading of systemic sclerosis-related digital ulcers has been reported to be poor to moderate at best, which has important implications for clinical trial design. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of new proposed UK Scleroderma Study Group digital ulcer definitions among UK clinicians with an interest in systemic sclerosis. Raters graded (through a custom-built interface) 90 images (80 unique and 10 repeat) of a range of digital lesions collected from patients with systemic sclerosis. Lesions were graded on an ordinal scale of severity: 'no ulcer', 'healed ulcer' or 'digital ulcer'. A total of 23 clinicians - 18 rheumatologists, 3 dermatologists, 1 hand surgeon and 1 specialist rheumatology nurse - completed the study. A total of 2070 (1840 unique + 230 repeat) image gradings were obtained. For intra-rater reliability, across all images, the overall weighted kappa coefficient was high (0.71) and was moderate (0.55) when averaged across individual raters. Overall inter-rater reliability was poor (0.15). Although our proposed digital ulcer definitions had high intra-rater reliability, the overall inter-rater reliability was poor. Our study highlights the challenges of digital ulcer assessment by clinicians with an interest in systemic sclerosis and provides a number of useful insights for future clinical trial design. Further research is warranted to improve the reliability of digital ulcer definition/rating as an outcome measure in clinical trials, including examining the role for objective measurement techniques, and the development of digital ulcer patient-reported outcome measures.

  8. Comprehensive clinical study of concurrent chemotherapy breathing IMRT middle part of locally advanced esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jae Hong; Moon, Seong Kwon; Kim, Seung Chul

    2015-01-01

    The standard treatment of locally advanced type of mid-esophageal cancer is concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT). We evaluated the feasibility of chemotherapy with adding docetaxel to the classical basic regimens of cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiotherapy up to 70.2 Gy using dose escalations for esophageal cancer. It was possible to escalate radiation treatment dose up to 70.2 Gy by the respiratory-gated intensity- modulated radiotherapy (gated-IMRT) based on the 4DCT-simulation, with improving target coverage and normal tissue (ex., lung, heart, and spinal cord) sparing. This study suggested that the definitive chemo-radiotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (i.e., DCF-R) and gating IMRT is tolerable and active in patients with locally advanced mid-esophageal cancer (AEC)

  9. A study of drying and cleaning methods used in preparation for fluorescent penetrant inspection - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.; Larson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection is the most widely used method for aerospace components such as critical rotating components of gas turbine engines. Successful use of FPI begins with a clean and dry part, followed by a carefully controlled and applied FPI process, and conscientious inspection by well trained personnel. A variety of cleaning methods are in use for cleaning of titanium and nickel parts with selection based on the soils or contamination to be removed. Cleaning methods may include chemical or mechanical methods with sixteen different types studied as part of this program. Several options also exist for use in drying parts prior to FPI. Samples were generated and exposed to a range of conditions to study the effect of both drying and cleaning methods on the flaw response of FPI. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) cracks were generated in approximately 40 nickel and 40 titanium samples for evaluation of the various cleaning methods. Baseline measurements were made for each of the samples using a photometer to measure sample brightness and a UVA videomicroscope to capture digital images of the FPI indications. Samples were exposed to various contaminants, cleaned and inspected. Brightness measurements and digital images were also taken to compare to the baseline data. A comparison of oven drying to flash dry in preparation for FPI has been completed and will be reported in Part I. Comparison of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods for the contaminants will be presented in Part II. The cleaning and drying studies were completed in cooperation with Delta Airlines using cleaning, drying and FPI processes typical of engine overhaul processes and equipment. The work was completed as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium and included investigators from Honeywell, General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce

  10. A study of drying and cleaning methods used in preparation for fluorescent penetrant inspection - Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.; Larson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection is the most widely used method for aerospace components such as critical rotating components of gas turbine engines. Successful use of FPI begins with a clean and dry part, followed by a carefully controlled and applied FPI process, and conscientious inspection by well trained personnel. A variety of cleaning methods are in use for cleaning of titanium and nickel parts with selection based on the soils or contamination to be removed. Cleaning methods may include chemical or mechanical methods with sixteen different types studied as part of this program. Several options also exist for use in drying parts prior to FPI. Samples were generated and exposed to a range of conditions to study the effect of both drying and cleaning methods on the flaw response of FPI. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) cracks were generated in approximately 40 nickel and 40 titanium samples for evaluation of the various cleaning methods. Baseline measurements were made for each of the samples using a photometer to measure sample brightness and a UVA videomicroscope to capture digital images of the FPI indications. Samples were exposed to various contaminants, cleaned and inspected. Brightness measurements and digital images were also taken to compare to the baseline data. A comparison of oven drying to flash dry in preparation for FPI has been completed and will be reported in Part I. Comparison of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods for the contaminants will be presented in Part II. The cleaning and drying studies were completed in cooperation with Delta Airlines using cleaning, drying and FPI processes typical of engine overhaul processes and equipment. The work was completed as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium and included investigators from Honeywell, General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce

  11. Numerical simulation of projectile impact on mild steel armour plates using LS-DYNA, Part II: Parametric studies

    OpenAIRE

    Raguraman, M; Deb, A; Gupta, NK; Kharat, DK

    2008-01-01

    In Part I of the current two-part series, a comprehensive simulation-based study of impact of Jacketed projectiles on mild steel armour plates has been presented. Using the modelling procedures developed in Part I, a number of parametric studies have been carried out for the same mild steel plates considered in Part I and reported here in Part II. The current investigation includes determination of ballistic limits of a given target plate for different projectile diameters and impact velociti...

  12. Numerical Simulation of Projectile Impact on Mild Steel Armour Platesusing LS-DYNA, Part II: Parametric Studies

    OpenAIRE

    M. Raguraman; A. Deb; N. K. Gupta; D. K. Kharat

    2008-01-01

    In Part I of the current two-part series, a comprehensive simulation-based study of impact of jacketed projectiles on mild steel armour plates has been presented. Using the modelling procedures developed in Part I, a number of parametric studies have been carried out for the same mild steel plates considered in Part I and reported here in Part II. The current investigation includes determination of ballistic limits of a given target plate for different projectile diameters and impact velociti...

  13. People with dementia in nursing home research: a methodological review of the definition and identification of the study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Rebecca; Jünger, Saskia; Reuther, Sven; Schwab, Christian G G; Dichter, Martin N; Holle, Bernhard; Halek, Margareta

    2016-04-05

    There are various definitions and diagnostic criteria for dementia, leading to discrepancies in case ascertainment in both clinical practice and research. We reviewed the different definitions, approaches and measurements used to operationalize dementia in health care studies in German nursing homes with the aim of discussing the implications of different approaches. We conducted a systematic search of the MEDLINE and CINAHL databases to identify pre-2016 studies conducted in German nursing homes that focused on residents with dementia or cognitive impairment. In- or exclusion of studies were consented by all authors; data extraction was independently carried out by 2 authors (RP, SJ). The studies' sampling methods were compared with respect to their inclusion criteria, assessment tools and methods used to identify the study population. We summarized case ascertainment methods from 64 studies. Study participants were identified based on a diagnosis that was evaluated during the study, or a recorded medical dementia diagnosis, or a recorded medical diagnosis either with additional cognitive screenings or using screening tests exclusively. The descriptions of the diagnostics that were applied to assess a diagnosis of dementia were not fully transparent in most of the studies with respect to either a clear reference definition of dementia or applied diagnostic criteria. If reported, various neuropsychological tests were used, mostly without a clear rationale for their selection. Pragmatic considerations often determine the sampling strategy; they also may explain the variances we detected in the different studies. Variations in sampling methods impede the comparability of study results. There is a need to consent case ascertainment strategies in dementia studies in health service research in nursing homes. These strategies should consider resource constraints and ethical issues that are related to the vulnerable population of nursing home residents. Additionally

  14. Pre-Medicare Eligible Individuals’ Decision-Making In Medicare Part D: An Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jin, B.S. Pharm, Ph.D. Candidate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to elicit salient beliefs among pre-Medicare eligible individuals regarding (1 the outcomes associated with enrolling in the Medicare Part D program; (2 those referents who might influence participants’ decisions about enrolling in the Part D program; and (3 the perceived barriers and facilitators facing those considering enrolling in the Part D program.MethodsFocused interviews were used for collecting data. A sample of 10 persons between 62 and 64 years of age not otherwise enrolled in the Medicare program was recruited. Interviews were audio taped and field notes were taken concurrently. Audio recordings were reviewed to amend field notes until obtaining a thorough reflection of interviews. Field notes were analyzed to elicit a group of beliefs, which were coded into perceived outcomes, the relevant others who might influence Medicare Part D enrollment decisions and perceived facilitators and impediments. By extracting those most frequently mentioned beliefs, modal salient sets of behavioral beliefs, relevant referents, and control beliefs were identified.ResultsAnalyses showed that (1 most pre-Medicare eligible believed that Medicare Part D could “provide drug coverage”, “save money on medications”, and “provide financial and health security in later life”. However, “monthly premiums”, “the formulary with limited drug coverage” and “the complexity of Medicare Part D” were perceived as major disadvantages; (2 immediate family members are most likely to influence pre-Medicare eligible’s decisions about Medicare Part D enrollment; and (3 internet and mailing educational brochures are considered to be most useful resources for Medicare Part D enrollment. Major barriers to enrollment included the complexity and inadequacy of insurance plan information.ConclusionThere are multiple factors related to decision-making surrounding the Medicare Part D enrollment. These factors

  15. Study of high-definition and stereoscopic head-aimed vision for improved teleoperation of an unmanned ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyczka, Dale R.; Wright, Robert; Janiszewski, Brian; Chatten, Martha Jane; Bowen, Thomas A.; Skibba, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Nearly all explosive ordnance disposal robots in use today employ monoscopic standard-definition video cameras to relay live imagery from the robot to the operator. With this approach, operators must rely on shadows and other monoscopic depth cues in order to judge distances and object depths. Alternatively, they can contact an object with the robot's manipulator to determine its position, but that approach carries with it the risk of detonation from unintentionally disturbing the target or nearby objects. We recently completed a study in which high-definition (HD) and stereoscopic video cameras were used in addition to conventional standard-definition (SD) cameras in order to determine if higher resolutions and/or stereoscopic depth cues improve operators' overall performance of various unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) tasks. We also studied the effect that the different vision modes had on operator comfort. A total of six different head-aimed vision modes were used including normal-separation HD stereo, SD stereo, "micro" (reduced separation) SD stereo, HD mono, and SD mono (two types). In general, the study results support the expectation that higher resolution and stereoscopic vision aid UGV teleoperation, but the degree of improvement was found to depend on the specific task being performed; certain tasks derived notably more benefit from improved depth perception than others. This effort was sponsored by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise under Robotics Technology Consortium Agreement #69-200902 T01. Technical management was provided by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Robotics Research and Development Group at Tyndall AFB, Florida.

  16. Study to Determine Adequate Margins in Radiotherapy Planning for Esophageal Carcinoma by Detailing Patterns of Recurrence After Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, Michael R.; Morgan, Carys A.; Croydon, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, S. Ashley; Crosby, Thomas D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the adequacy of radiotherapy (RT) margins by studying the relapse patterns after definitive chemoradiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study assessing the first site of disease relapse after definitive chemoradiotherapy that included four 3-weekly cycles of cisplatin and continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil, with conformal RT (50 Gy in 25 fractions) concurrent with Cycles 3 and 4. The RT planning target volume was the endoscopic ultrasonography/computed tomography-defined gross tumor volume with 1.5-cm lateral and 3-cm superoinferior margins. Results: A total of 145 patients were included. Their average age was 65.4 years, 45% had adenocarcinoma, 61% had lower third esophageal tumors, and 75% had Stage III-IVA disease. After RT, of 142 patients, 85 (60%) had evidence of relapse at a median follow-up of 18 months. The relapse was local (within the RT field) in 55; distant (metastatic) in 13, and a combination of local and distant in 14. The local relapse rates were not influenced by tumor stage, lymph node status, or disease length. Three patients developed a relapse in regions adjacent to the RT fields; however, it is unlikely that larger field margins would have been clinically acceptable or effective in these cases. The median overall survival was 15 months. Conclusion: The gross tumor volume-planning target volume margins in this study appeared adequate. Future efforts to improve outcomes using definitive chemoradiotherapy should be directed toward reducing the high rates of in-field and distant relapses

  17. Global case studies of soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS: Definitions, classifications, advances, origins, and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam

    2017-10-01

    Problems that hinder our understanding of SSDS still remain. They are: (1 vague definitions of the phrase “soft-sediment deformation”; (2 complex factors that govern the origin of SSDS; (3 omission of vital empirical data in documenting vertical changes in facies using measured sedimentological logs; (4 difficulties in distinguishing depositional processes from tectonic events; (5 a model-driven interpretation of SSDS (i.e., earthquake being the singular cause; (6 routine application of the genetic term “seismites” to the “SSDS”, thus undermining the basic tenet of process sedimentology (i.e., separation of interpretation from observation; (7 the absence of objective criteria to differentiate 21 triggering mechanisms of liquefaction and related SSDS; (8 application of the process concept “high-density turbidity currents”, a process that has never been documented in modern oceans; (9 application of the process concept “sediment creep” with a velocity connotation that cannot be inferred from the ancient record; (10 classification of pockmarks, which are hollow spaces (i.e., without sediments as SSDS, with their problematic origins by fluid expulsion, sediment degassing, fish activity, etc.; (11 application of the Earth's climate-change model; and most importantly, (12 an arbitrary distinction between depositional process and sediment deformation. Despite a profusion of literature on SSDS, our understanding of their origin remains muddled. A solution to the chronic SSDS problem is to utilize the robust core dataset from scientific drilling at sea (DSDP/ODP/IODP with a constrained definition of SSDS.

  18. Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Teaching English as a Foreign Language: A Study on Body Part Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    Similarities and differences across languages can be observed in terms of the use of body part terms (BPTs) to express states, actions, emotions, and thoughts. This study primarily compared five best-selling English books with their Turkish translations and identified in both sets of books (a) the distribution of the literal and non-literal uses…

  19. Creep investigation of GFRP RC Beams - Part A : Literature review and experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    masmoudi abdelmonem

    2014-11-01

    This paper (Part A presents a literature review and the loading history of six experimental beams reinforced with GFRP and steel bars. The results of this study revealed that Beams reinforced with GFRP are less marked with creep phenomenon.  This investigation should guide the civil engineer/designer for a better understanding creep phenomenon in GFRP reinforced concrete members.

  20. Studying at University as Part of Student Life and Identity Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairio, Marjatta; Puukari, Sauli; Kouvo, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The study examines how students see their time at university as part of life and identity construction. The research data are based on a questionnaire administered to Finnish-speaking undergraduates at the University of Jyvaskyla on the topic "How do you see your time as a student from the perspective of life construction?" A total of…

  1. TOGAF version 9 foundation study guide preparation for the TOGAF 9 Part 1 examination

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This document is a Study Guide for TOGAF™ 9 Foundation.It gives an overview of every learning objective for the TOGAF 9 Foundation Syllabus and in-depth coverage on preparing and taking the TOGAF 9 Part 1 Examination. It is specifically designed to help individuals prepare for certification.

  2. Married Thai Working Mothers: Coping with Initial Part-Time Doctoral Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinnam, Thanit

    2011-01-01

    Advanced educational attainment can "grow" a career. But acquiring a doctoral qualification adds study to existing work and family responsibilities, especially for women. This phenomenological research explores the experiences of eight Thai working mothers enrolled in the initial stage of part-time doctoral programs in Thailand. A…

  3. Attitudes of medical students towards taking part-time jobs: a study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitudes of medical students towards taking part-time jobs: a study amongst first year clinical students of the College of Medicine, University of Ibadan. ... All participants were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on bio-data, ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  4. BALANCING ON THE BORDERLINE OF EARLY AFFECT-CONFUSION - PART 2 OF A CASE STUDY TRILOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Part 2 of a case study trilogy on early affect-confusion describes the psychotherapy relationship between an angry/helpless client and the psychotherapist’s skill in balancing the “borderline” between behavioral management and affect attunement, historical inquiry and normalization, validation and shame. The therapeutic use of bifurcated questions and juxtaposition reactions is illustrated.

  5. 5 CFR 362.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 362.101 Section 362.101... PROGRAM Definitions § 362.101 Definitions. For purposes of this part, An agency means a component within... outstanding record of achievement in an applicable leadership, policy, managerial, professional, or technical...

  6. 23 CFR 230.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for Minority, Disadvantaged, and Women Business Enterprises § 230.202 Definitions. (a) Minority... disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE), all defined under 49 CFR part 23. This expanded definition is used only... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 230.202 Section 230.202 Highways FEDERAL...

  7. 20 CFR 229.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MINIMUM GUARANTEE General § 229.2 Definitions. The following definitions are used in this part: Annuity... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 229.2 Section 229.2 Employees... average wages of all wage earners from 1951 although the second year before the year the worker dies or...

  8. 44 CFR 71.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... as by a private sector insurance company under the Write Your Own Program as authorized by 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 71.2 Section 71... LEGISLATION § 71.2 Definitions. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, the definitions set forth in...

  9. Toward a definition of intolerance of uncertainty: a review of factor analytical studies of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, Jane; Meares, Kevin; Wilkinson, Andrew; Freeston, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Since its emergence in the early 1990s, a narrow but concentrated body of research has developed examining the role of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in worry, and yet we still know little about its phenomenology. In an attempt to clarify our understanding of this construct, this paper traces the way in which our understanding and definition of IU have evolved throughout the literature. This paper also aims to further our understanding of IU by exploring the latent variables measures by the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; Freeston, Rheaume, Letarte, Dugas & Ladouceur, 1994). A review of the literature surrounding IU confirmed that the current definitions are categorical and lack specificity. A critical review of existing factor analytic studies was carried out in order to determine the underlying factors measured by the IUS. Systematic searches yielded 9 papers for review. Two factors with 12 consistent items emerged throughout the exploratory studies, and the stability of models containing these two factors was demonstrated in subsequent confirmatory studies. It is proposed that these factors represent (i) desire for predictability and an active engagement in seeking certainty, and (ii) paralysis of cognition and action in the face of uncertainty. It is suggested that these factors may represent approach and avoidance responses to uncertainty. Further research is required to confirm the construct validity of these factors and to determine the stability of this structure within clinical samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sedación paliativa (parte I: Controversias sobre términos, definiciones y aplicaciones clínicas Sedação paliativa (parte I: Controvérsias sobre termos, definições e aplicações clínicas Palliative sedation (part I: Controversies about terms, definitions and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Taboada R.

    ão da hidratação e a nutrição medicamente assistida, e os fundamentos éticos e sua diferença com a eutanásia e/ou suicídio medicamente assistido. São revisados alguns aspectos do debate atual sobre o conceito de “sedação paliativa” e suas diferentes definições, assim como também certas controvérsias relacionadas com as suas aplicações clínicas. Ainda que sejam mencionadas brevemente algumas questões éticas relacionadas com esta prática clínica, estas não são abordadas diretamente neste artigo, mas são deixadas deliberadamente para uma análise mais profunda numa segunda parte.This article analyzes the use of palliative sedation, as a potentially useful therapeutic tool in Palliative Medicine. It suggests that, in spite of the improvement of medical knowledge related to palliative sedation during the last decade, available empirical evidence is still limited and controversy persists. The current debate includes aspects such us: 1. The definition and terminology (palliative vs. terminal sedation; 2. The types of sedation that are included under these expressions (intermittent vs. continuous; superficial vs. profound; 3. The clinical indications (physical symptoms vs. existential suffering; 4. The concomitant administration vs. withdrawal of medically assisted nutrition and hydration; 5. The ethical foundations and its difference with euthanasia and/or physician-assisted-suicide. This article analyzes aspects related to the concept of “palliative sedation” and its different definitions, as well as some controversies related to its clinical applications. Although ethical issues related to palliative sedation are briefly mentioned, they are not dealt with in this article, but intentionally left for a deeper analysis in a part II.

  11. Practicums as part of study programmes in library and information studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Južnič

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Library and Information Science (LIS courses, practicums serve as a specific bond between theory on the one hand and practical work and the profession on the other. In seeking to prepare graduates for the profession and for professional work, LIS programmes use practicums as a model to enhance the library school curriculum. During the traditional LIS practicum, one already makes use of the many advantages online tools provide, building online portfolios or keeping student work diaries online while undertaking the practical part of one’s practicum. This enables easy and constant communication among all three stakeholders: host institutions, educational institutions, and students. Whilst it is important to engage actively with industry to provide students with opportunities to participate in ‘experiential learning’ and in building practical skills and knowledge, it is also important to ensure this is done in a systematic manner, and with a genuine desire on the part of the employers for a collaborative partnership. Striking similarities regarding practicums and placements between geographically distant countries such as Australia and Slovenia, and the opinions and attitudes that all three stakeholders – students, host institutions and educational institutions – share, indicates that traditional practicums, undertaken in a physical workplace, are still a key component of an LIS education.In Library and Information Science (LIS courses, practicums serve as a specific bond between theory onthe one hand and practical work and the profession on the other. In seeking to prepare graduates for theprofession and for professional work, LIS programmes use practicums as a model to enhance the libraryschool curriculum. During the traditional LIS practicum, one already makes use of the many advantagesonline tools provide, building online portfolios or keeping student work diaries online while undertakingthe practical part of one’s practicum. This

  12. Scope Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    The scope definition is the second phase of an LCA. It determines what product systems are to be assessed and how this assessment should take place. This chapter teaches how to perform a scope definition. First, important terminology and key concepts of LCA are introduced. Then, the nine items...... making up a scope definition are elaborately explained: (1) Deliverables. (2) Object of assessment, (3) LCI modelling framework and handling of multifunctional processes, (4) System boundaries and completeness requirements, (5) Representativeness of LCI data, (6) Preparing the basis for the impact...... assessment, (7) Special requirements for system comparisons, (8) Critical review needs and (9) Planning reporting of results. The instructions relate both to the performance and reporting of a scope definition and are largely based on ILCD....

  13. Target volume definition for external beam partial breast radiotherapy: Clinical, pathological and technical studies informing current approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Anna M.; Coles, Charlotte E.; Yarnold, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Partial breast irradiation (PBI) is currently under investigation in several phase III trials and, following a recent consensus statement, its use off-study may increase despite ongoing uncertainty regarding optimal target volume definition. We review the clinical, pathological and technical evidence for target volume definition in external beam partial breast irradiation (EB-PBI). The optimal method of tumour bed (TB) delineation requires X-ray CT imaging of implanted excision cavity wall markers. The definition of clinical target volume (CTV) as TB plus concentric 15 mm margins is based on the anatomical distribution of multifocal and multicentric disease around the primary tumour in mastectomy specimens, and the clinical locations of local tumour relapse (LR) after breast conservation surgery. If the majority of LR originate from foci of residual invasive and/or intraduct disease in the vicinity of the TB after complete microscopic resection, CTV margin logically takes account of the position of primary tumour within the surgical resection specimen. The uncertain significance of independent primary tumours as sources of preventable LR, and of wound healing responses in stimulating LR, increases the difficulties in defining optimal CTV. These uncertainties may resolve after long-term follow-up of current PBI trials. By contrast, a commonly used 10 mm clinical to planning target volume (PTV) margin has a stronger evidence base, although departmental set-up errors need to be confirmed locally. A CTV-PTV margin >10 mm may be required in women with larger breasts and/or large seromas, whilst the role of image-guided radiotherapy with or without TB markers in reducing CTV-PTV margins needs to be explored.

  14. A qualitative phenomenological study: Enhanced, risk-based FAA oversight on part 145 maintenance practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Bryan G.

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to examine the phenomenon of enhanced, risk-based Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight of Part 145 repair stations that performed aircraft maintenance for Part 121 air carriers between 2007 and 2014 in Oklahoma. Specifically, this research was utilized to explore what operational changes have occurred in the domestic Part 145 repair station industry such as variations in management or hiring practices, training, recordkeeping and technical data, inventory and aircraft parts supply-chain logistics, equipment, and facilities. After interviewing 12 managers from Part 145 repair stations in Oklahoma, six major theme codes emerged from the data: quality of oversight before 2007, quality of oversight after 2007, advantages of oversight, disadvantages of oversight, status quo of oversight, and process improvement . Of those six major theme codes, 17 subthemes appeared from the data that were used to explain the phenomenon of enhanced oversight in the Part 145 repair station industry. Forty-two percent of the participants indicated a weak FAA oversight system that has hindered the continuous process improvement program in their repair stations. Some of them were financially burdened after hiring additional full-time quality assurance inspectors to specifically manage enhanced FAA oversight. Notwithstanding, the participants of the study indicated that the FAA must apply its surveillance on a more standardized and consistent basis. They want to see this standardization in how FAA inspectors interpret regulations and practice the same quality of oversight for all repair stations, particularly those that are repeat violators and fail to comply with federal aviation regulations. They believed that when the FAA enforces standardization on a consistent basis, repair stations can become more efficient and safer in the performance of their scope of work for the U.S. commercial air transportation industry.

  15. Operation window and part-load performance study of a syngas fired gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Fen; Li, Zheng; Liu, Pei; Ma, Linwei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2012-01-01

    Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) provides a great opportunity for clean utilization of coal while maintaining the advantage of high energy efficiency brought by gas turbines. A challenging problem arising from the integration of an existing gas turbine to an IGCC system is the performance change of the gas turbine due to the shift of fuel from natural gas to synthesis gas, or syngas, mainly consisting of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Besides the change of base-load performance, which has been extensively studied, the change of part-load performance is also of great significance for the operation of a gas turbine and an IGCC plant. In this paper, a detailed mathematical model of a syngas fired gas turbine is developed to study its part-load performance. A baseline is firstly established using the part-load performance of a natural gas fired gas turbine, then the part-load performance of the gas turbine running with different compositions of syngas is investigated and compared with the baseline. Particularly, the impacts of the variable inlet guide vane, the degree of fuel dilution, and the degree of air bleed are investigated. Results indicate that insufficient cooling of turbine blades and a reduced compressor surge margin are the major factors that constrain the part-load performance of a syngas fired gas turbine. Results also show that air bleed from the compressor can greatly improve the working condition of a syngas fired gas turbine, especially for those fired with low lower heating value syngas. The regulating strategy of a syngas fired gas turbine should also be adjusted in accordance to the changes of part-load performance, and a reduced scope of constant TAT (turbine exhaust temperature) control mode is required.

  16. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, M. S.; Salam, M. A.; Paul, D. N. R.; Hossain, M. I.; Rahman, N. M. F.; Aziz, Abdullah; Latif, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of s...

  17. Revisiting the description of Protein-Protein interfaces. Part II: Experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Cazals , Frédéric; Proust , Flavien

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed experimental study of an interface model developed in the companion article F. Cazals and F. Proust, Revisiting the description of Protein-Protein interfaces. Part I: algorithms. Our experimental study is concerned with the usual database of protein-protein complexes, split into five families (Proteases, Immune system, Enzyme Complexes, Signal transduction, Misc.) Our findings, which bear some contradictions with usual statements are the following: (i)Connectivi...

  18. The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho Ting; Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Choi, Kup Sze; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term “Big Data”, which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing. PMID:27763525

  19. The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ting Wong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term “Big Data”, which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing.

  20. The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho Ting; Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Choi, Kup Sze; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2016-10-17

    The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term "Big Data", which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing.

  1. High-Definition Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Andersen, Kristian G; Steinhubl, Steven R; Topol, Eric J

    2017-08-24

    The foundation for a new era of data-driven medicine has been set by recent technological advances that enable the assessment and management of human health at an unprecedented level of resolution-what we refer to as high-definition medicine. Our ability to assess human health in high definition is enabled, in part, by advances in DNA sequencing, physiological and environmental monitoring, advanced imaging, and behavioral tracking. Our ability to understand and act upon these observations at equally high precision is driven by advances in genome editing, cellular reprogramming, tissue engineering, and information technologies, especially artificial intelligence. In this review, we will examine the core disciplines that enable high-definition medicine and project how these technologies will alter the future of medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems--part II: methodological guidance for a better practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie; Bernstad, Anna; Bakas, Ioannis; Niero, Monia; Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Hauschild, Michael Z

    2014-03-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used in waste management to identify strategies that prevent or minimise negative impacts on ecosystems, human health or natural resources. However, the quality of the provided support to decision- and policy-makers is strongly dependent on a proper conduct of the LCA. How has LCA been applied until now? Are there any inconsistencies in the past practice? To answer these questions, we draw on a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of solid waste management systems. We analyse the past practice against the ISO standard requirements and the ILCD Handbook guidelines for each major step within the goal definition, scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation phases of the methodology. Results show that malpractices exist in several aspects of the LCA with large differences across studies. Examples are a frequent neglect of the goal definition, a frequent lack of transparency and precision in the definition of the scope of the study, e.g. an unclear delimitation of the system boundaries, a truncated impact coverage, difficulties in capturing influential local specificities such as representative waste compositions into the inventory, and a frequent lack of essential sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Many of these aspects are important for the reliability of the results. For each of them, we therefore provide detailed recommendations to practitioners of waste management LCAs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of remote sensing technology in New Zealand, part 1. Seismotectonic, structural, volcanologic and geomorphic study of New Zealand, part 2. Indigenous forest assessment, part 3. Mapping land use and environmental studies in New Zealand, part 4. New Zealand forest service LANDSAT projects, part 5. Vegetation map and landform map of Aupouri Peninsula, Northland, part 6. Geographical applications of LANDSAT mapping, part 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probine, M. C.; Suggate, R. P.; Mcgreevy, M. G.; Stirling, I. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Inspection of pixels obtained from LANDSAT of New Zealand revealed that not only can ships and their wakes be detected, but that information on the size, state of motion, and direction of movement was inferred by calculating the total number of pixels occupied by the vessel and wake, the orientation of these pixels, and the sum of their radiance values above the background level. Computer enhanced images showing the Waimihia State Forest and much of Kaingaroa State Forest on 22 December 1975 were examined. Most major forest categories were distinguished on LANDSAT imagery. However, the LANDSAT imagery seemed to be most useful for updating and checking existing forest maps, rather than making new maps with many forest categories. Snow studies were performed using two basins: Six Mile Creek and Mt. Robert. The differences in radiance levels indicated that a greater areal snow cover in Six Mile Creek Basin with the effect of lower radiance values from vegetation/snow regions. A comparison of the two visible bands (MSS 4 and 5) demonstrate this difference for the two basins.

  4. Biopharming, bananas and bureaucracy: the banana vaccine as a case study for products that straddle the definitional food/drug divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Margaux

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the definition of the terms "food" and "drug" as used in the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act through the lens of biopharmed products. The paper uses the so-called "banana vaccine" as a case study to highlight the problems that occur when attempting to regulate a product that could be safely used as a food or as a drug. Specifically, the examination of this model illustrates the problems in the current definitional scheme. The paper considers how a product that straddles the definitional line between food and drug could be regulated and proposes a reformation to how the definitions are applied to products to better suit new technology in food and drugs.

  5. Study on Applicability of 10 CFR Part 21 to APR1400 DC Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, He Young; Lee, Do Hwan; Lim, Jae Yong

    2014-01-01

    The tools such as NCR (non conformance report), CAR (corrective action request) and CAP (corrective action program) are widely used for that purpose based upon the rule of 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix B and the ASME Code NQA-1 requirements. These are the tools for a utility, as a purchaser taking over related basic components and services, to ensure strong quality assurance. During the conduct of the project for the acquisition of the standard design certification for APR1400 nuclear power plants from the U. S. NRC (APR1400 DC Project), a new CAP procedure that is appropriate to conduct this unique project was developed. However, it was also recommended to comply with the requirements under 10 CFR Part 21 which enhances nuclear safety quality assurances. Consequently, a new QA procedure is developed in order to deal with the 10 CFR Part 21 issues and this is integrated to the CAP procedure In this paper, the current corrective action program for the APR1400 DC project is introduced and the result of the study on the applicability of 10 CFR Part 21 to the project is indicated. In addition, further improving aspects to be considered are identified. As a frontier project to obtain the standard design certification for APR 1400 model from the U. S. NRC, a modified CAP procedure is developed and enhanced to deal with safety concerning issues in accordance with 10 CFR Part 21. In addition, the newly established QA procedure to directly control the reportability on 10 CFR Part 21 is interfaced into the existing CAP procedure

  6. Definition of curriculum and approach: study of a training course for teachers of non-formal education in NGOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivis Perez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a research aimed to analyze the approach and the definition of guiding curriculum of teacher training for work in the non-formal education in non-governmental organizations(NGOs. We opted for a qualitative approach and case study of Teacher Training Course for NGOs, developed by Ong São Paulo-SP. The research instruments were: analysis of documents of the course, interviews with trainers and coordinator and literature review. In this course, curriculum is defined as a path to be followed by students and instructors and the coordinator of the subjects studied. We adopted the so-called Integrated Curriculum, in which teaching occurs by the study of problem situations and integrators of learning projects. At the end, we suggest improving the course and following that information, it is hoped, one will support the production of further comparative research.

  7. CHILD WELFARE IN CANADA : PART II

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 眞一; Shinichi, Matsumoto; 桃山学院大学社会学部

    2006-01-01

    This part study aims to research on the whole aspect of child protection in Canada. And so, this paper consists of five chapters as follows: (1)Canadian history of child protection, (2)definition of child abuse, (3)current situation of child protection in Canada, (4)outline of child protection and treatment, (5)triangular comparison of child protection and prevention in Canada, Australia and England. The first efforts at identifying and combating child abuse occurred in the latter part of the...

  8. Management of SPN in France. Pathways for definitive diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule: a multicentre study in 18 French districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzahouri, Kazem; Velten, Michel; Arveux, Patrick; Woronoff-Lemsi, Marie-Christine; Jolly, Damien; Guillemin, Francis

    2008-01-01

    The process of diagnosis and management of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) between 1 and 3 cm is not standardized. This multicentre study investigated how diagnosis of newly discovered SPNs is managed in routine practice. We examined 11,515 radiology reports of patients undergoing chest computed tomography (CT) at all 76 radiology centres in 18 French administrative districts covering 8,220,000 people. Information on diagnostic procedures and treatment administered from discovery to definitive diagnosis of SPN was collected prospectively. We identified 152 cases of newly diagnosed SPNs. Follow-up was complete for 112 patients. The median number of diagnostic tests was 4 and the mean time to diagnosis was 41.4 days. Marked variability was observed in the sequence of diagnostic tests, and 8 diagnostic pathways were identified. Patients' characteristics and radiological features of SPNs influenced the number of tests performed. Referral by specialist, history of smoking and spiculated SPN predicted the performance of at least one invasive procedure (P < 0.01). Definitive diagnosis was a malignant disease in 30 patients (26%). The diagnosis of SPN is a complex process that physicians approach in markedly different ways. Implementing practice guidelines for managing the diagnosis of SPN requires clarification

  9. Dissociative Part-Dependent Resting-State Activity in Dissociative Identity Disorder : A Controlled fMRI Perfusion Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlumpf, Yolanda R.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Luechinger, Roger; van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Jaencke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: In accordance with the Theory of Structural Dissociation of the Personality (TSDP), studies of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have documented that two prototypical dissociative subsystems of the personality, the "Emotional Part'' (EP) and the "Apparently Normal Part'' (ANP), have

  10. A cephalometric study to determine the plane of occlusion in completely edentulous patients: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindocha, Amit D; Vartak, Vikas N; Bhandari, Aruna J; Dudani, Mohit

    2010-12-01

    To determine the relationship between the plane of occlusion and the Camper's line (ala-tragus line). Lateral cephalograms of 105 dentulous subjects were obtained after outlining the tragus and the base of the ala of the nose with radiopaque markers. Tracings of the cephalograms were done and the relationship between the plane of occlusion and the Camper's line (ala-tragus line) was noted. The most common tragal reference as a posterior landmark for determination of plane of occlusion was found to be below inferior (in 30.48% of subjects), and inferior (in 24.76% of subjects). The least common tragal reference was found to be above superior (in 3.82% of subjects) followed by superior of tragus and the point between superior and middle of the tragus (in 6.66% of subjects). The tragal reference in this study population was more towards the inferior of the tragus, with most of the times being below the inferior border. Therefore, the orientation of the plane of occlusion using the superior of tragus as a posterior landmark (according to the widely accepted definition of Camper's line) may be considered to be questionable. Further, the use of the tragus as a posterior landmark for the orientation of the plane of occlusion may be questioned on the basis of the findings of this study.

  11. Oak Ridge Health Studies Phase 1 report, Volume 2: Part C, Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DaMassa, C.L.; Widner, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    A significant number of information sources have been identified that are relevant to historical locations and activities of populations potentially affected by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation. The information that has been reviewed as part of this Task 5 investigation has shown that numerous residences and farms have historically been present near the ORR boundary and that a variety of land uses and recreational activities have been practiced. Based on this information alone, it would appear that many routes of off-site exposure could have been plausible. Most of the available published information addresses demographic and land use data on a regional or county-wide basis over fairly broad time periods. The information sources that are most readily available do not support direct evaluation of potential exposure pathways at specific geographic locations near the Oak Ridge facilities at specific points in time. A number of information sources have been identified that can provide demography and land use information more specific to locations and time periods that are identified to be of interest. Examples of data sources in this category include individual USGS topographic maps, aerial photographs, lowest-level census tract data, and interviews with long-time local residents. However, specific release events and periods of interest should be identified prior to attempts to collect more specific demographic or land use information for actual dose reconstruction

  12. Utility of pediatric cariogenicity index among preschoolers of the western part of Maharashtra: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhi Pancholi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early childhood caries (ECC is a multifactorial infectious disease occurring on one or more decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces in a child from birth to 6 years of age. ECC results from the interaction of behavioral and biological factors including fermentable carbohydrate, plaque, and dietary patterns. Diet is a major modifiable risk factor in the initiation of ECC. Aim: The aim was to assess the utility of pediatric cariogenicity index among the Indian population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with sample size of 400 preschool children of Satara district, western Maharashtra. Data regarding the diet were obtained from caregivers and cariogenicity indices were used to score dietary data using a food frequency questionnaire. The 24 h dietary recall was taken. Preschool children were subjected to type 3 dental examinations. Solid and liquid cariogenicity scores were assessed by Statistical analysis - SPSS v 17.0. Results: The mean deft was 1.44 (±1.20 for the subjects. Similarly, according to the calculation using 24 h recall, mean solid cariogenicity score was 2.3 (±0.9 and mean liquid cariogenicity score 4.37 (±1.5. The correlation between deft and the solid cariogenicity score was not significant (r = −0.074. The correlation between deft and liquid cariogenicity scores was significant and positive (r = 0.671. Conclusions: There was definite positive correlation of liquid cariogenic food intake with the ECC experience among the preschool children of western part of Maharashtra.

  13. Fatigue Analysis of Rotating Parts. A Case Study for a Belt Driven Pulley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Ionela; Tabacu, Stefan; Ducu, Catalin

    2017-10-01

    The present study is focused on the life estimation of a rotating part as a component of an engine assembly namely the pulley of the coolant pump. The goal of the paper is to develop a model, supported by numerical analysis, capable to predict the lifetime of the part. Starting from functional drawing, CAD Model and technical specifications of the part a numerical model was developed. MATLAB code was used to develop a tool to apply the load over the selected area. The numerical analysis was performed in two steps. The first simulation concerned the inertia relief due to rotational motion about the shaft (of the pump). Results from this simulation were saved and the stress - strain state used as initial conditions for the analysis with the load applied. The lifetime of a good part was estimated. A defect was created in order to investigate the influence over the working requirements. It was found that there is little influence with respect to the prescribed lifetime.

  14. Information system design of inventory control spare parts maintenance (valuation class 5000) (case study: plant kw)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriana, Rina; Moengin, Parwadi; Riana, Mega

    2016-02-01

    Plat KW hadn't using optimal inventory level planning yet and hadn't have an information system that well computerized. The research objective is to be able to design an information system related inventory control of spare parts maintenance. The study focused on five types of spare parts with the highest application rate during February 2013- March 2015 and included in the classification of fast on FSN analysis Grinding stones Cut 4". Cable Tie 15". Welding RB 26-32MM. Ring Plat ½" and Ring Plate 5/8 ". Inventory calculation used Economic Order Quantity (EOQ). Safety Stock (SS) and Reorder Point (ROP) methods. System analysis conducted using the framework PIECES with the proposed inventory control system. the performance of the plant KW relating to the supply of spare parts maintenance needs can be more efficient as well as problems at the company can be answered and can perform inventory cost savings amounting Rp.267.066. A computerized information system of inventory control spare parts maintenance provides a menu that can be accessed by each departments as the user needed.

  15. Definition of internal target volume and domestric study for hepatocellular carcinoma using four-dimensional CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Mian; Liu Mengzhong; Deng Xiaowu; Zhang Li; Huang Xiaoyan; Cai Ling

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To define individualized internal target volume (ITV) for hepatocellular carcinoma using four-dimensional (4D) CT, and to compare the differences in target volume definition and dose distribution among 3D, 4D and respiratory-gated plans. Methods: 4DCT scanning was obtained for 12 patients with hepatocellular. Gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV) and normal tissues were contoured on all 10 respiratory phases of 4DCT images. The 3D, 4D and gated treatment plans were prepared for each patient using three different planning target volumes (PTVs): 1) PTV 3D was derived from a single CTV plus conventional margins; 2) PTV 4D was derived from ITV 4D , which encompassed all 10 CTVs plus setup margins (SMs); 3) PT Gating was derived from ITV Gating , which encompassed 3 CTVs within gating-window at end-expiration plus SMs. The PTV volume and dose distribution were compared among different plans. Results: The PTV3D was the largest in all 12 patients, but still missed partial target volume in 5 patients when comparing with PTV4D. Both the 4D plans and the gated plans spared more normal tissues than the 3D plans, especially the liver. Without increasing normal tissue dose, the 4D plans allowed for increasing the calculated dose from (50.8 ± 2.0) Gy (3D plans) to (54.7 ± 3.3) Gy, and the gated plans could further increase the dose to (58.0 ± 3.9) Gy. Conclusions: The 4DCT-based plans can ensure optimal target coverage with less irradiation of normal tissues and allow dose escalation when compared with 3D plans. Respiratory gated radiotherapy can further reduce the target volumes to spare more surrounding tissues, especially for patients with large extent of respiratory mobility. (authors)

  16. Safety study of PCC 2140 and ALILOG 21 used as part of safety measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriaux, Pierre; Adnot, Serge; Rayrolles, Catherine.

    1978-03-01

    The PCC 2140 and ALILOG 21 equipment may be used at C.E.A. or E.D.F., as part of safety measurement systems. In a study of a similar, but earlier equipment, it was noticed that certain types of failures caused the system to switch to the least sensitive measurement range, which was detrimental to safety. This report analyses failure modes leading to unsafe failures and evaluates the risks ran into taking in account tests during use [fr

  17. An evaluation of the usefulness of consensus definitions of sarcopenia in older men: results from the observational Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Blackwell, Terri L; Cauley, Jane; Kado, Deborah M; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Lee, Christine G; Hoffman, Andrew R; Nevitt, Michael M; Stefanick, Marcia L; Lane, Nancy E; Ensrud, Kristine E; Cummings, Steven R; Orwoll, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, several consensus definitions for sarcopenia have been developed. Objective To evaluate the associations and discriminative ability of definitions of sarcopenia against clinical outcomes. Design Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study Setting Six clinical centers Participants 5,934 community-dwelling men aged ≥65 yrs Measurements Sarcopenia definitions evaluated were: International Working Group (IWG), European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older Persons (EWGSOP), Foundation for the NIH (FNIH) Sarcopenia, Baumgartner, and Newman. Recurrent falls were defined as ≥2 self-reported falls in the year after baseline (N=694, 11.9%). Incident hip fractures (N=207, 3.5 %) and deaths (N=2003, 34.1%) were confirmed by central review of medical records over 9.8 years. Self-reported functional limitations were assessed at baseline and again 4.6 years later. Logistic regression or proportional hazards models estimated associations between sarcopenia and falls, hip fractures or death. The discriminative ability of the sarcopenia definitions (compared to referent models) for these outcomes was evaluated with areas under the receiver operator curve (AUCs) or C-statistics. Referent models included age alone for falls, function limitations and mortality, and age and BMD for hip fractures. Results The association between sarcopenia by the various definitions and risk of falls, functional limitations, and hip fractures was variable; all definitions were associated with increased mortality risk. However, none of the definitions materially changed discrimination based on AUC and C-statistic when compared to referent models (change ≤1% in all models). Conclusions Sarcopenia definitions as currently constructed did not consistently improve prediction of clinical outcomes in relatively healthy older men. PMID:26502831

  18. Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

    1980-01-01

    The potential market of photovoltaic systems in remote village applications in developing countries is assessed. It is indicated that photovoltaic technology is cost-competitive with diesel generators in many remote village applications. The major barriers to development of this market are the limited financial resources on the part of developing countries, and lack of awareness of photovoltaics as a viable option in rural electrification. A comprehensive information, education and demonstration program should be established as soon as possible to convince the potential customer countries and the various financial institutions of the viability of photovoltaics as an electricity option for developing countries.

  19. Diabetes Part 1. Definition, Diagnosis and Prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skoludek_R

    increasing obesity and a steady year on year rise in the incidence of type 1 ... its under-diagnosis and under-treatment leads to rapid death in T1DM and to unnecessary suffering and ... 80% of the time), T1DM presents in childhood with.

  20. 12 CFR 528.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 528.1 Section 528.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NONDISCRIMINATION REQUIREMENTS § 528.1 Definitions. As used in this part 528— (a) Application. For purposes of this part, an application for a loan...

  1. 29 CFR 1405.3 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 1405.3 Section 1405.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT General § 1405.3 Definition. Part-time career employment means regularly scheduled work of from 16 to 32 hours...

  2. 20 CFR 345.105 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS General Provisions and Definitions § 345.105 Definitions. (a) Chief Financial Officer. References in this part to the Board's Chief Financial Officer mean the... requested from the Board's Chief Financial Officer. (c) Month defined. (1) For the purposes of this part, if...

  3. 40 CFR 85.1402 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1402 Definitions. The definitions of this..., state, city department, or private or public entity controlling the use of one or more urban buses... part means a part present in or on an engine at the time an urban bus is originally sold to the...

  4. New definitions of 6 clinical signs of perceptual disorder in children with cerebral palsy: an observational study through reliability measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Sghedoni, A; Alboresi, S; Pedroni, E; Lombardi, F

    2014-12-01

    Recently authors have begun to emphasize the non-motor aspects of Cerebral Palsy and their influence on motor control and recovery prognosis. Much has been written about single clinical signs (i.e., startle reaction) but so far no definitions of the six perceptual signs presented in this study have appeared in literature. This study defines 6 signs (startle reaction, upper limbs in startle position, frequent eye blinking, posture freezing, averted eye gaze, grimacing) suggestive of perceptual disorders in children with cerebral palsy and measures agreement on sign recognition among independent observers and consistency of opinions over time. Observational study with both cross-sectional and prospective components. Fifty-six videos presented to observers in random order. Videos were taken from 19 children with a bilateral form of cerebral palsy referred to the Children Rehabilitation Unit in Reggio Emilia. Thirty-five rehabilitation professionals from all over Italy: 9 doctors and 26 physiotherapists. Measure of agreement among 35 independent observers was compiled from a sample of 56 videos. Interobserver reliability was determined using the K index of Fleiss and reliability intra-observer was calculated by the Spearman correlation index between ranks (rho - ρ). Percentage of agreement between observers and Gold Standard was used as criterion validity. Interobserver reliability was moderate for startle reaction, upper limb in startle position, adverted eye gaze and eye-blinking and fair for posture freezing and grimacing. Intraobserver reliability remained consistent over time. Criterion validity revealed very high agreement between independent observer evaluation and gold standard. Semiotics of perceptual disorders can be used as a specific and sensitive instrument in order to identify a new class of patients within existing heterogeneous clinical types of bilateral cerebral palsy forms and could help clinicians in identifying functional prognosis. To provide

  5. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, Meena S.; Ma Shuangge; Jagsi, Reshma; Yang, Tzu-I Jonathan; Higgins, Susan A.; Weidhaas, Joanne B.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Lloyd, Shane; Peschel, Richard; Gaudreau, Bryant; Rockwell, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  6. A study of the inner parts of protoplanetary disks observed by interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthonioz, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Observing gas and dusty disks around young stars are of utmost importance for our knowledge about planetary formation. Observations of these disks bring unprecedented details about their structure and composition, and provide stronger and stronger constrains on planetary formation models. However, the inner parts of these disk are still barely known. Indeed, a 100 m diameter telescope would be required in order to resolve these inner region, for the closest young stars; nowadays, the construction of such telescope is impossible technologically and financially. By combining the light of pairs of telescopes, the interferometry technique is able to reach the sufficient resolving power, and permits us to observe the inner parts of circumstellar disks. My thesis has been focused on the observation and study of the inner part of TTauri's circumstellar disks. I present in this manuscript a statistical study on the environment around these stars, along with its modeling by taking into account thermal emission and light scattering of the disk. Finally, I present a more complete modelling for some of these stars, done by constraining spectroscopic, interferometric and photometric datasets with a radiative transfer code. (author)

  7. FORMATION OF TOILET HABITS IN CHILDREN IN MOSCOW. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY RESULTS. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Karkashadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the first Russian study of toilet habits formation in children have been obtained. The article was planned to be published in 2 subsequent parts due to the extensiveness of the material. This article is the 2nd part*. It presents and comments on the remaining part of results in the form of the connection between main parameters and characteristics of toilet habits training processes and physiological, psychological and social factors; it also presents the discussion and conclusions. Comparative data (with foreign studies is given. A multitude of both physiological and social factors affect the process of children’s toilet habits training. The following physiological factors have been revealed: stool frequency, physiological involuntary night urination, peculiarities of falling asleep and pernicious habits – processes, which reflect the intestinal motility regulation and defecation states, urination control and neuropsychic activity. The selected training strategy and tactics, style of communication with a child also affect the training process. The most influential family-social factors in terms of toilet habits training processes are: two- or one-parent family, mother’s education and twins in the family. 

  8. Integrating CHWs as Part of the Team Leading Diabetes Group Visits: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Elizabeth M; Johnston, Craig A; Cardenas, Victor J; Moreno, Jennette P; Foreyt, John P

    2017-12-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of integrating Community Health Workers (CHWs) as part of the team leading diabetes group visits. Methods This was a randomized controlled study that integrated CHWs as part of the team leading diabetes group visits for low-income Hispanic adults (n = 50). Group visits met for 3 hours each month for a 6-month duration. Main measures included baseline and 6-month clinical outcomes (ie, A1C, lipids), concordance with 8 standard of care guidelines (ie, screens for cervical, breast, and colon cancer) from the US Preventive Task Force and American Diabetes Association, and participant acceptability. Results Compared to control participants, the intervention group resulted in significantly better clinical outcomes or guideline concordance for the following areas: target A1C levels, retinal eye exams, diabetes foot exams, mammograms, and urine microalbumin. Significantly more individuals in the control group gained weight, whereas a greater number of participants in the intervention group lost weight. Intervention participants found the group visits highly acceptable. Conclusions Integrating CHWs as part a comprehensive diabetes group visit program is a feasible and effective system-level intervention to improve glycemic control and achieve guideline concordance.

  9. PIO I-II tendencies case study. Part 1. Mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a study is performed from the perspective of giving a method to reduce the conservatism of the well known PIO (Pilot-Induced Oscillation criteria in predicting the susceptibility of an aircraft to this very harmful phenomenon. There are three interacting components of a PIO – the pilot, the vehicle, and the trigger (in fact, the hazard. The study, conceived in two parts, aims to underline the importance of human pilot model involved in analysis. In this first part, it is shown, following classical sources, how the LQG theory of control and estimation is used to obtain a complex model of human pilot. The approach is based on the argument, experimentally proved, that the human behaves “optimally” in some sense, subject to his inherent psychophysical limitations. The validation of such model is accomplished based on the experimental model of a VTOL-type aircraft. Then, the procedure of inserting typical saturation nonlinearities in the open loop transfer function is presented. A second part of the paper will illustrate PIO tendencies evaluation by means of a grapho-analytic method.

  10. Oak Ridge Health Studies Phase 1 report, Volume 2: Part D, Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, G.M.; Walker, L.B.; Widner, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of Task 6 of Oak Ridge Phase I Health Studies is to provide summaries of current knowledge of toxic and hazardous properties of materials that are important for the Oak Ridge Reservation. The information gathered in the course of Task 6 investigations will support the task of focussing any future health studies efforts on those operations and emissions which have likely been most significant in terms of off-site health risk. The information gathered in Task 6 efforts will likely also be of value to individuals evaluating the feasibility of additional health,study efforts (such as epidemiological investigations) in the Oak Ridge area and as a resource for citizens seeking information on historical emissions

  11. LHC Beam Dump Design Study - Part III : Off-normal operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, L; Ross, M; Sala, P

    2000-01-01

    The LHC beam dump design study has been preliminarily substantiated by energy deposition simulations (Part I) and heat transfer analyses (Part II). The present report is devoted to the abnormal operating conditions induced by a malfunction of the beam diluters. A general approach to the analysis of off-normal operation is presented, which is derived from standard design norms adopted in the nuclear industry. Attention is focused mainly on the carbon core, which is longitudinally split into segments of different density in order to better distribute the deposited energy. The maximum energy density it absorbs decreases by at least 33%, compared to a uniform standard density carbon core. This structure may sustain any partial sweep failure without major damage, up to the ultimate beam intensity and energy. To minimise the risks inherent in a fully unswept beam, a sacrificial graphite mandrel will be placed on the core axis, surrounded by a thick high strength carbon-carbon composite tube. With this arrangement, ...

  12. Self–Evaluation of Distance Learning Study Program as a Part of Internal Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojka Krneta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper features quality assurance of specific distance learning master study program through self-evaluation. This unique program involving e-learning as the program content, as well as delivery method, is presented in the paper from the aspects of its quality assurance. Student evaluation of this study program as a part of the internal quality assurance is performed at the end of every school year in the aim of its quality assurance. Results and conclusions of self-evaluation conducted in this school year by known SEVAQ+ evaluation tool are presented here.

  13. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System - Part IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wichgers, Joel M.; Haynes, Brian; Roy, Aloke

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present the final results describing the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified as part of the study.

  14. isotopic and hydrochemical studies on the groundwater of the eastern part of nile delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.A.I.

    1984-01-01

    the present work deals with the study of trace elements, chemical composition and isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in groundwater in the eastern part of the nile delta, surface water from the nile and ismaillia canal and sea water from the mediterranean sea and suez canal. this study involves chemical analysis for water samples and distribution of trace elements and major elements, some water-rock interactions, groundwater recharge relationships between surface and groundwater and some flow mechanism. the combination between isotopic composition and chemical composition of surface and groundwater

  15. Medical engineering at Cardiff University. Part 2: Postgraduate programmes of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, P; O'Doherty, D M; Holt, C A; Evans, S L; Jones, M D

    2009-05-01

    The Medical Engineering team within the School of Engineering, Cardiff University, delivers two postgraduate programmes of study. Established over 10 years ago, the part-time MSc programmes in Orthopaedic Engineering and Clinical Engineering offer the opportunity of further study while remaining within full-time employment. Both programmes deliver 120 taught credits over two academic years via a series of residential weekends, with successful completion enabling the student to undertake and then defend a 60-credit research dissertation. Fulfilling a specific role on the career pathway for both student cohorts, the strength of each programme is indicated by the consistent number of applicants.

  16. Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the western part of Maira area, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A case study by using electrical resistivity

    KAUST Repository

    Farid, Asam M.; Jadoon, Khan; Akhter, Gulraiz; Iqbal, Muhammad Asim

    2012-01-01

    at the western part of the Maira area, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistan. Aquifer lithology in the eastern part of the study area is dominated by coarse sand and gravel whereas the western part is characterized by fine sand. An attempt has been made to estimate

  17. The definition of alcoholism. The Joint Committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, R M; Flavin, D K

    1992-08-26

    To establish a more precise use of the term alcoholism, a 23-member multidisciplinary committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine conducted a 2-year study of the definition of alcoholism in the light of current concepts. The goals of the committee were to create by consensus a revised definition that is (1) scientifically valid, (2) clinically useful, and (3) understandable by the general public. Therefore, the committee agreed to define alcoholism as a primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic.

  18. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  19. Combustion Behaviour of Pulverised Wood - Numerical and Experimental Studies. Part 1 Numerical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfasakhany, A.; Xue-Song Bai [Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering

    2002-12-01

    This report describes a theoretical/numerical investigation of the particle motion and the particle drying, pyrolysis, oxidation of volatile and char in a pulverised biofuel (wood) flame. This work, along with the experimental measurement of a pulverised wood flame in a vertical furnace at TPS, is supported by the Swedish Energy Agency, STEM. The fundamental combustion process of a pulverised wood flame with determined size distribution and anisotropy character is studied. Comprehensive submodels are studied and some models not available in the literature are developed. The submodels are integrated to a CFD code, previously developed at LTH. The numerical code is used to simulate the experimental flame carried out at TPS (as sub-task 2 within the project). The sub-models describe the drying, devolatilization, char formation of wood particles, and the oxidation reaction of char and the gas phase volatile. At the present stage, the attention is focused on the understanding and modelling of non-spherical particle dynamics and the drying, pyrolysis, and oxidation of volatile and char. Validation of the sub-models against the experimental data is presented and discussed in this study. The influence of different factors on the pulverised wood flame in the TPS vertical furnace is investigated. This includes shape of the particles, the effect of volatile release, as well as the orientation of the particles on the motion of the particles. The effect of particle size on the flame structure (distribution of species and temperature along the axis of the furnace) is also studied. The numerical simulation is in close agreement with the TPS experimental data in the concentrations of species O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} as well as temperature. Some discrepancy between the model simulations and measurements is observed, which suggests that further improvement in our understanding and modeling the pulverised wood flame is needed.

  20. Study on reactor building structure using ultrahigh strength materials - Part 9: Summary of the study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Odajima, M.; Irino, K.; Hashiba, T.

    1993-01-01

    Considerations for longevity of nuclear facilities and ease of decommissioning are of great importance for future nuclear power plants. To this end, a concept of an optimal structural concept for nuclear reactor buildings has been studied: the main feature of this concept is to utilize large-sized, light weight prefabricated members with ultrahigh strength materials. The following two items have been selected to study the prospective structure: (1) Applicability of ultrahigh strength materials for reinforced concrete shear walls (2) Construction using large sized prefabricated members As the first step (1), material and structural tests using ultrahigh strength materials, and the subsequent analysis of those tests for reinforced concrete shear walls, has been conducted. The positive results of this study show a bright future for the use of ultrahigh strength materials for the reinforced concrete shear walls of nuclear reactor buildings. As the second step (2), tests on a mixed structure with precasted members have been conducted. Our results positively suggest the use of these materials and methods to improve prospective nuclear power plants. (author)

  1. Mineralogical study of uraniferous graphitic ore from Deogpyeong, Mogso and southern part of Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D J; Nam, S K [Korean Inst. of Energy and Resources, Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    1981-11-01

    Uranium minerals of torbernite, metatorbernite, metatyuyamunite and autunite have been identified from the uraniferous ores in graphitic beds of Ogcheon Group in Deogpyeong, Mogso and southern part of Daejeon area. Polarizing and ore microscopic studies, and chemical and X-ray powder diffraction analyses were carried out on the uraniferous graphite and associated materials. Main component minerals of uraniferous samples are graphite and quartz. Minor minerals are calcite, muscovite, sericite, andalusite, barite, kaolinite, hyaline opal, uranium minerals, sulfides such as pyrite, chalcopyrite, zincblende, and pyrrhotite, limonite, zeolite minerals such as laumontite and heulandite. Metatyuyamunite, torbernite, metatorbernite and autunite generally occur together with secondary minerals such as kaolinite, hyaline opal, calcite and limonite. They were found along the minor fissures or on the surface. Secondary uranium minerals described above were formed by supergenetic origin from primary uranium mineral. Uraniferous phosphatic nodule from Deogpyeong area are mainly composed of graphite and fluorapatite. And minor minerals are barite, quartz, muscovite and pyrite. Autoradiograph from uraniferous nodule shows that uranium enrichment in outer part of nodules is much higher than in inner part. This feature coincides with chemical analyses data of this uraniferous nodule.

  2. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part II: Methodological guidance for a better practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie; Bernstad, Anna; Bakas, Ioannis; Niero, Monia; Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H.; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We perform a critical review of 222 LCA studies of solid waste management systems. • We analyse the past LCA practice against the ISO standard and ILCD Handbook guidance. • Malpractices exist in many methodological aspects with large variations among studies. • Many of these aspects are important for the reliability of the results. • We provide detailed recommendations to practitioners of waste management LCAs. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used in waste management to identify strategies that prevent or minimise negative impacts on ecosystems, human health or natural resources. However, the quality of the provided support to decision- and policy-makers is strongly dependent on a proper conduct of the LCA. How has LCA been applied until now? Are there any inconsistencies in the past practice? To answer these questions, we draw on a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of solid waste management systems. We analyse the past practice against the ISO standard requirements and the ILCD Handbook guidelines for each major step within the goal definition, scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation phases of the methodology. Results show that malpractices exist in several aspects of the LCA with large differences across studies. Examples are a frequent neglect of the goal definition, a frequent lack of transparency and precision in the definition of the scope of the study, e.g. an unclear delimitation of the system boundaries, a truncated impact coverage, difficulties in capturing influential local specificities such as representative waste compositions into the inventory, and a frequent lack of essential sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Many of these aspects are important for the reliability of the results. For each of them, we therefore provide detailed recommendations to practitioners of waste management LCAs

  3. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part II: Methodological guidance for a better practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, Alexis, E-mail: alau@dtu.dk [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Clavreul, Julie [Residual Resources Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bernstad, Anna [Water and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bakas, Ioannis [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Niero, Monia [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); ECO – Ecosystems and Environmental Sustainability, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Gentil, Emmanuel [Copenhagen Resource Institute, 1215 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H. [Residual Resources Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Hauschild, Michael Z. [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • We perform a critical review of 222 LCA studies of solid waste management systems. • We analyse the past LCA practice against the ISO standard and ILCD Handbook guidance. • Malpractices exist in many methodological aspects with large variations among studies. • Many of these aspects are important for the reliability of the results. • We provide detailed recommendations to practitioners of waste management LCAs. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used in waste management to identify strategies that prevent or minimise negative impacts on ecosystems, human health or natural resources. However, the quality of the provided support to decision- and policy-makers is strongly dependent on a proper conduct of the LCA. How has LCA been applied until now? Are there any inconsistencies in the past practice? To answer these questions, we draw on a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of solid waste management systems. We analyse the past practice against the ISO standard requirements and the ILCD Handbook guidelines for each major step within the goal definition, scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation phases of the methodology. Results show that malpractices exist in several aspects of the LCA with large differences across studies. Examples are a frequent neglect of the goal definition, a frequent lack of transparency and precision in the definition of the scope of the study, e.g. an unclear delimitation of the system boundaries, a truncated impact coverage, difficulties in capturing influential local specificities such as representative waste compositions into the inventory, and a frequent lack of essential sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Many of these aspects are important for the reliability of the results. For each of them, we therefore provide detailed recommendations to practitioners of waste management LCAs.

  4. Relationship between autonomic cardiovascular control, case definition, clinical symptoms, and functional disability in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyller, Vegard B; Helland, Ingrid B

    2013-02-07

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is characterized by severe impairment and multiple symptoms. Autonomic dysregulation has been demonstrated in several studies. We aimed at exploring the relationship between indices of autonomic cardiovascular control, the case definition from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria), important clinical symptoms, and disability in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome. 38 CFS patients aged 12-18 years were recruited according to a wide case definition (ie. not requiring accompanying symptoms) and subjected to head-up tilt test (HUT) and a questionnaire. The relationships between variables were explored with multiple linear regression analyses. In the final models, disability was positively associated with symptoms of cognitive impairments (p<0.001), hypersensitivity (p<0.001), fatigue (p=0.003) and age (p=0.007). Symptoms of cognitive impairments were associated with age (p=0.002), heart rate (HR) at baseline (p=0.01), and HR response during HUT (p=0.02). Hypersensitivity was associated with HR response during HUT (p=0.001), high-frequency variability of heart rate (HF-RRI) at baseline (p=0.05), and adherence to the CDC criteria (p=0.005). Fatigue was associated with gender (p=0.007) and adherence to the CDC criteria (p=0.04). In conclusion, a) The disability of CFS patients is not only related to fatigue but to other symptoms as well; b) Altered cardiovascular autonomic control is associated with certain symptoms; c) The CDC criteria are poorly associated with disability, symptoms, and indices of altered autonomic nervous activity.

  5. Radiation-Induced Cranial Nerve Palsy: A Cross-Sectional Study of Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients After Definitive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Lin; Lu, Jiade J.; Liss, Adam L.; Hu Chaosu; Guo Xiaomao; Wu Yongru; Zhang Youwang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To address the characteristics and the causative factors of radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy (CNP) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with an extensive period of followed-up. Patients and Methods: A total of 317 consecutive and nonselected patients treated with definitive external-beam radiotherapy between November 1962 and February 1995 participated in this study. The median doses to the nasopharynx and upper neck were 71 Gy (range, 55-86 Gy) and 61 Gy (range, 34-72 Gy), respectively. Conventional fractionation was used in 287 patients (90.5%). Forty-five patients (14.2%) received chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up was 11.4 years (range, 5.1-38.0 years). Ninety-eight patients (30.9%) developed CNP, with a median latent period of 7.6 years (range, 0.3-34 years). Patients had a higher rate of CNP (81 cases, 25.5%) in lower-group cranial nerves compared with upper group (44 cases, 13.9%) (χ 2 = 34.444, p 2 = 4.661, p = 0.031). The cumulative incidences of CNP were 10.4%, 22.4%, 35.5%, and 44.5% at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that CNP at diagnosis, chemotherapy, total radiation dose to the nasopharynx, and upper neck fibrosis were independent risk factors for developing radiation-induced CNP. Conclusion: Radiation-induced fibrosis may play an important role in radiation-induced CNP. The incidence of CNP after definitive radiotherapy for NPC remains high after long-term follow-up and is dose and fractionation dependent.

  6. Oak Ridge Health Studies Phase 1 report, Volume 2: Part A, Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, G.M.; Buddenbaum, J.E.; Lamb, J.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    The Phase I feasibility study has focused on determining the availability of information for estimating exposures of the public to chemicals and radionuclides released as a result of historical operation of the facilities at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The estimation of such past exposures is frequently called dose reconstruction. The initial project tasks, Tasks 1 and 2 were designed to identify and collect information that documents the history of activities at the ORR that resulted in the release of contamination and to characterize the availability of data that could be used to estimate the magnitude of the contaminant releases or public exposures. A history of operations that are likely to have generated off-site releases has been documented as a result of Task 1 activities. The activities required to perform this task involved the extensive review of historical operation records and interviews with present and past employees as well as other knowledgeable individuals. The investigation process is documented in this report. The Task 1 investigations have led to the documentation of an overview of the activities that have taken place at each of the major complexes, including routine operations, waste management practices, special projects, and accidents and incidents. Historical activities that appear to warrant the highest priority in any further investigations were identified based on their likely association with off-site emissions of hazardous materials as indicated by the documentation reviewed or information obtained in interviews

  7. The definition of severe and early-onset preeclampsia. Statements from the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilli, Andrea L; Brown, Mark A; Zeeman, Gerda G; Dekker, Gustaaf; Sibai, Baha M

    2013-01-01

    There is discrepancy in the literature on the definitions of severe and early-onset pre-eclampsia. We aimed to determine those definitions for clinical purposes and to introduce them in the classification of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy for publication purposes. We circulated a questionnaire to the International Committee of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy focusing on the thresholds for defining severe preeclampsia and the gestation at which to define early-onset preeclampsia, and on the definition and inclusion of the HELLP syndrome or other clinical features in severe preeclampsia. The questions were closed, but all answers had space for more open detailed comments. There was a general agreement to define preeclampsia as severe if blood pressure was >160mmHg systolic or 110mmHg diastolic. There was scarce agreement on the amount of proteinuria to define severity. The HELLP syndrome was considered a feature to include in the severe classification. Most investigators considered early-onset preeclampsia as that occurring before 34weeks. A definition of pre-eclampsia is paramount for driving good clinical practice. Classifications on the other hand are useful to enable international comparisons of clinical data and outcomes. We used the results of this survey to update our previous classification for the purposes of providing clinical research definitions of severe and early onset pre-eclampsia that will hopefully be accepted in the international literature. Copyright © 2012 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. All rights reserved.

  8. Conceptual design study of quasi-steady state fusion experimental reactor (FEQ-Q), part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    Since 1980 the design study has been conducted at JAERI for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) which has been proposed to be the next machine to JT-60 in the Japanese long term program of fusion reactor development. Starting from 1984 JER design is being reviewed and redesigned. This report is a part of the interim report which describes the results obtained in the review and redesign activities in FY 1984. The results of the following design items are included; core plasma, reactor structure, reactor core components, magnets. (author)

  9. RELATIONAL HEALING OF EARLY AFFECT-CONFUSION - PART 3 OF A CASE STUDY TRILOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Part 3 of a case study trilogy on early affect-confusion describes the use of therapeutic dialogue, relational presence and supportive age regression in the psychotherapy of a client who lived on a “borderline” of early affect confusion. The concepts and methods of an in-depth, integrative and relational psychotherapy include a sensitivity to the client’s physiological and emotional expressions of implicit and sub-symbolic memories, therapeutic inference, an awareness of the client’s relational-needs, the effective use of a developmental image, as well the identification of an introjected other and the use of therapeutic interposition.

  10. Conceptual design study of quasi-steady state fusion experimental reactor (FER-Q), part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    Since 1980 the design study has been conducted at JAERI for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) which has been proposed to be the next machine to JT-60 in the Japanese long term program of fusion reactor development. Starting from 1984 FER design is being reviewed and redesigned. This report is a part of the interim report which describes the results obtained in the review and redesign activities in FY 1984. The results of the following design items are included: heating/current drive system, plasma position control, power supply, diagnostics, neutronics, blanket test module, repair and maintenance and safety. (author)

  11. High-definition resolution three-dimensional imaging systems in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: randomized comparative study with high-definition resolution two-dimensional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Nakagawa, Ken; Usui, Yukio; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Ito, Akihiro; Miyajima, Akira; Hoshi, Akio; Arai, Yoichi; Baba, Shiro; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging systems have been introduced worldwide for surgical instrumentation. A difficulty of laparoscopic surgery involves converting two-dimensional (2D) images into 3D images and depth perception rearrangement. 3D imaging may remove the need for depth perception rearrangement and therefore have clinical benefits. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial to compare the surgical outcome of 3D-high-definition (HD) resolution and 2D-HD imaging in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), in order to determine whether an LRP under HD resolution 3D imaging is superior to that under HD resolution 2D imaging in perioperative outcome, feasibility, and fatigue. One-hundred twenty-two patients were randomly assigned to a 2D or 3D group. The primary outcome was time to perform vesicourethral anastomosis (VUA), which is technically demanding and may include a number of technical difficulties considered in laparoscopic surgeries. VUA time was not significantly shorter in the 3D group (26.7 min, mean) compared with the 2D group (30.1 min, mean) (p = 0.11, Student's t test). However, experienced surgeons and 3D-HD imaging were independent predictors for shorter VUA times (p = 0.000, p = 0.014, multivariate logistic regression analysis). Total pneumoperitoneum time was not different. No conversion case from 3D to 2D or LRP to open RP was observed. Fatigue was evaluated by a simulation sickness questionnaire and critical flicker frequency. Results were not different between the two groups. Subjective feasibility and satisfaction scores were significantly higher in the 3D group. Using a 3D imaging system in LRP may have only limited advantages in decreasing operation times over 2D imaging systems. However, the 3D system increased surgical feasibility and decreased surgeons' effort levels without inducing significant fatigue.

  12. Evolutionary space platform concept study. Volume 2, part B: Manned space platform concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Logical, cost-effective steps in the evolution of manned space platforms are investigated and assessed. Tasks included the analysis of requirements for a manned space platform, identifying alternative concepts, performing system analysis and definition of the concepts, comparing the concepts and performing programmatic analysis for a reference concept.

  13. Definition of tolerance to continuous hyperoxia in man - An abstract report of Predictive Studies V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Clark, J. M.; Gelfand, R.; Pisarello, J. B.; Cobbs, W. H.

    1987-01-01

    The overall goals, design, and procedures of Predictive Studies V are discussed as well as the specific elements of neural effects produced by prolonged hyperoxia. It is noted that Predictive Studies V study of oxygen poisoning in normal men during uninterrupted exposures to oxygen over the range of hyperbaric oxygen exposure most useful in diving, the treatment of gas lesion diseases, and general hyperbaric medicine. It is found that, throughout the study, the most striking observations were related to effects on visual function, on the lung, and the probable interactions of preconvulsive neural activity with effects on cardiovascular and respiratory-pulmonary functions.

  14. Nursing students´perception of taking part in an Inter-professional Clinical Study Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahnsen, Iben Bøgh; Braad, Mette; Lisby, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    the stay at ICSU in their final clinical placement. Moreover, students spent a considerable amount of time an basic nursing tasks during their stay at the ICSU; skills already acquired earlier in their education programme. Conclusion: Staying in an ICSU improved inter-professional collaboration skills......Background: Length of hospitalization is reduced demanding effective and timely interventions from all health professions. In an Inter-professional Clinical Study Unit (ICSU) students have the opportunity to develop inter-professional competencies. Nevertheless some nursing students have commented...... that staying in an ICSU is an interruption in their final clinical placement with limited learning possibilities. Aim: The aim of the study was to explore nursing students´perceptions of taking part in an ICSU Methods: The study was qualitative with explorative, decriptive and interpretative aspects. Data were...

  15. Optimizing the definition of intrauterine growth restriction: the multicenter prospective PORTO Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) (PORTO Study), a national prospective observational multicenter study, was to evaluate which sonographic findings were associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies affected by growth restriction, originally defined as estimated fetal weight (EFW) <10th centile.

  16. 34 CFR 363.6 - What definitions apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... individual is compensated at or above the minimum wage, but not less than the customary or usual wage paid by... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply? 363.6 Section 363.6 Education... What definitions apply? (a) Definitions in 34 CFR part 361. The following terms used in this part are...

  17. Study of an induction brazing process for the instrumentation feed through part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jintae; Ahn, Sung Ho; Joung, Chang Young; Kim, Ka Hye; Heo, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In general, brazing is used to seal out the feed through part of thin wires, and several studies in nuclear fields used brazing as a sealing method. However, previous techniques using a manual torch or an induction brazing by blowing Ar gas as a shield gas cannot avoid soot, which is difficult to remove. In addition, because their brazing quality is not uniform, instrumentation cables cannot deliver signals due to damage of excessive heat. In this study, an automatically controlled induction brazing system has been developed including a vacuum chamber to prevent generation of soot. A loop is a facility to carry out irradiation test for nuclear fuels and materials in a research reactor by measuring the irradiation behavior of them in a timely manner. Because flow condition of coolant in a loop should be the same with that of NPPs', highly pressurized (15.5 MPa) and highly heated (300 .deg. C) coolant is circulated through the loop. Therefore, sealing of the pressure boundary is one of the most important processes in fabricating the in-pile test section (IPS). In particular, sensors such as thermocouples, LVDTs and SPNDs are attached in a test rig and deliver signals to the measuring device at the outside of the reactor pool through instrumentation cables, which pass through the pressure boundary of the test rig. Therefore, it needs to seal out the instrumentation feed through part to not leak the coolant.

  18. A study of anemia among adolescent girls in eastern part of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piush Kanodia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Anemia is a global health problem. About 40% of the world's population suffers from anemia and adolescence is one of the most vulnerable age group. Hence the objective of the study was to determine prevalence and distribution of anemia among adolescent girls in eastern part of Nepal.Materials & Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in a Government School of Dharan over a period of one year. There were total 433 participants, whose clinical and demographic profile were recorded and analyzed. Hemoglobin estimation was done by using cyanmethaemoglobin method and anemia was defined as per WHO cut-off.Results: The overall prevalence of anemia was found to be 51.3%. Prevalence was significantly more in pre-menarche age and undernourished girls (p<0.05. However factors like diet (vegetarian/non-vegetarian, worm infestation and parental education did not have a significant impact on occurrence of anemia.Conclusion: Anemia is the major health problem among adolescent girls in eastern part Nepal with high prevalence rate and nutrition is one of the leading causative factors for anemia.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:19-22.

  19. THE PILOT STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE GENERATED IN SUBURBAN PARTS OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Steinhoff-Wrześniewska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the studies were waste generated in suburban households, in 3-bag system. The sum of wastes generated during the four analyzed seasons (spring, summer, autumn, winter – 1 year, in the households under study, per 1 person, amounted to 170,3 kg (in wet mass basis. For 1 person, most domestic waste was generated in autumn – 45,5 kg per capita and the least in winter – 39,0 kg per capita. The analysis performed of sieved composition (size fraction showed that fractions: >100 mm, 40–100 mm, 20–40 mm constituted totally 80% of the mass of wastes (average in a year. The lowest fraction (<10 mm, whose significant part constitutes ashes, varied depending on the season of year: from 3.5% to 12.8%. In the morphological composition of the households analyzed (on average in 4 seasons, biowastes totally formed over 53% of the whole mass of wastes. A significant part of waste generated were also glass waste (10,7% average per year and disposable nappies (8,3% average per year. The analysis of basic chemical components of biowastes showed that in case of utilizing them for production of compost, it would be necessary to modify (correct the ratios C/N and C/P. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that the biowastes were characterized by very high moisture content and neutral pH.

  20. Study of the dairy characters of lactating Murrah buffaloes on the basis of body parts measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Dhillod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to correlate the milk yield of Murrah buffaloes with certain body parts measurements. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 lactating Murrah buffaloes were selected from Buffalo Farm, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Hisar and were randomly selected in a range from first to fifth parity. Traits studied were 305 days milk yield (MY, body weight (BW, body length (BL, muzzle width (MW, height at wither (HW, abdominal girth (AG, chest girth (CG, body depth fore, body depth rear, hip bone distance (HBD, pin bone distance (PBD, skin thickness (STK, and tail length (TL. Data were collected and statically analyzed by Pearson’s correlation method. Result: The result of this study showed that Murrah buffaloes had the average 2604.8±39.5 kg for MY, 556.1±4.9 kg for BW, and 152.2±0.8 cm for BL. This study showed that buffaloes had positive significant (p<0.05 correlation between MY and BW (0.26. Highly significant (p<0.01 correlation was observed between MY and AG (0.64, MW (0.42. Significant (p<0.01 negative correlation was observed between MY and STK (−0.79. Different body part measurements (BW, BL, HW, AG, CG, MW, TL, BD, PBD, HBD, STK were significantly correlated with each other. Conclusion: This study can be helpful as a selection tool to enhance and evaluate the production potential by setting standards of Murrah buffalo breed. BW, abdominal growth, muzzle thickness, and STK were found key factors while selecting a dairy Murrah buffalo.

  1. Life sciences payload definition and integration study, task C and D. Volume 1: Management summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of a study to define the required payloads for conducting life science experiments in space are presented. The primary objectives of the study are: (1) identify research functions to be performed aboard life sciences spacecraft laboratories and necessary equipment, (2) develop conceptual designs of potential payloads, (3) integrate selected laboratory designs with space shuttle configurations, and (4) establish cost analysis of preliminary program planning.

  2. Product Structure, the Heart of Product Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoog, C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the LMMSS Product Definition System (PDS) philosophy and approach were the use of each item parts document or software can be traced to a specific end item (EI) serial/tail number of the product. It explains why a part-oriented approach to data organization and configuration management is required. The definition of part-oriented is that all appropriate product definition data products will be collected. Referenced and managed by their linkage/relationship to parts/items, The paper will touch upon how LMMSS store/controls product definition information under each project's top product designator in a two tiered approach. One tier for each product end item and another tier which contain/controls listings of drawings, documents. Specifications and standards that are required for hardware item definition.

  3. Information Retrieval in a Work Setting: A Case Study of the Documentation Part of Chemists’ Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    1993-01-01

    , partial systems, such as piles with urgent things. Mostly, the final documentation work where documents are made part of the archive is delegated to the secretaries who act as intermediaries between the chemists and the archive. Recently, a comprehensive computer-based filing and retrieval system......The purpose of this study is to gain insight into a group of chemists’ documentation work in a large, international enterprise. The main concern is how filing is organized to support subsequent retrieval without overloading the primary work. The chemists’ documentation work is based on individual...... was implemented, primarily supporting the final documentation work. However, to some extent it is also the intention that the chemists shall use this system. The study identifies certain problematic issues in providing computer support for documentation work, but technical solutions are not offered....

  4. TOGAF 9 foundation study guide preparation for the TOGAF 9 part 1 examination

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This title is a Study Guide for Togaf® 9 Foundation. It gives an overview of every learning objective for the Togaf 9 Foundation Syllabus and in-depth coverage on preparing and taking the Togaf 9 Part 1 Examination. It is specifically designed to help individuals prepare for certification. This Study Guide is excellent material for: * Individuals who require a basic understanding of Togaf 9; * Professionals who are working in roles associated with an architecture project such as those responsible for planning, execution, development, delivery, and operation; * Architects who are looking for a first introduction to Togaf 9; * Architects who want to achieve Level 2 certification in a stepwise manner and have not previously qualified as Togaf 8 Certified. A prior knowledge of enterprise architecture is advantageous but not required.

  5. Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) concept definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    Studies were conducted by Hughes Helicopters, Inc. (HHI) for the Applied Technology Laboratory and Aeromechanics Laboratory, U.S. Army Research and Technology Laboratories (AVRADCOM) and the Ames Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Results of predesign studies of advanced main rotor hubs, including bearingless designs, are presented in this report. In addition, the Government's rotor design goals and specifications were reviewed and evaluated. Hub concepts were designed and qualitatively evaluated in order to select the two most promising concepts for further development. Various flexure designs, control systems, and pitchcase designs were investigated during the initial phases of this study. The two designs selected for additional development were designated the V-strap and flat-strap cruciform hubs. These hubs were designed for a four bladed rotor and were sized for 18,400 pounds gross weight with the same diameter (62 feet) and solidity (23 inch chord) as the existing rotor on the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA).

  6. Radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: volume definition and patient selection. Annecy 1998 international Association for the study of lung cancer (IASLC) Workshop recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, F.; Loubeyre, P.; Van houtte, P.; Scalliet, P.

    1998-01-01

    Chemo-radiation is the standard treatment of unresectable, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, with a mean dose of 60-66 Gy, excluding escalation dose schemes. The standard treated volume includes primary tumor, ipsilateral hilar and mediastinal nodes, supraclavicular and contralateral nodes as well, regardless of the node status. This work tries to answer the question of the optimal volume to be treated. Drainage routes analysis is in favor of large volumes, while toxicity analysis favors small volumes. Combined modality treatment may increase the observed toxicity. The optimal volume definition is difficult, and requires available conformal therapy tools. Patients selection is another important issue. A volume definition is then attempted, based on the IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) Annecy workshop experience, highlighting the inter-observers discrepancies, and suggests basic recommendations to harmonize volume definition. (author)

  7. The posterior communicating artery: morphometric study in 3D angio-computed tomography reconstruction. The proof of the mathematical definition of the hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierżanowski, J; Szarmach, A; Słoniewski, P; Czapiewski, P; Piskunowicz, M; Bandurski, T; Szmuda, T

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the morphometry of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA), on the basis of angio-computed tomography (CT), and to give proof of the mathematical definition of the term "hypopal sia of the PCoA". One hundred 3-dimensional (3D) angio-CT images, performed in adult patients with bilateral reconstruction of the PCoA (200 results) were used tocalculate the morphometry of the vessel. The average length of the vessel on the right side was 14.48 ± 3.47 mm, andon the left side 14.98 ± 4.77 mm (in women 14.75 mm, in men 14.70 mm). The mean of the diameter at the "proximal" point (the junction with P1) on the right side was 1.49 ± 0.51 mm, and on the left 1.46 ± 0.47 mm (in women 1.44 mm and in men 1.51 mm). The mean of the diameter in the "distal" part (the connection with ICA) on the right side was 1.4 ± 0.49 mm, and on the left 1.37 ± 0.41 mm (in women 1.38 mm, and in men 1.39 mm). No statistical correlation between the length and the diameter of the PCoA in relation to the sex and side was shown. On the basis of our measurements, we defined the hypoplasia of the artery as the estimated value less than the average diameter minus the standard deviation. The percentage distribution was as follows: the left artery 15.5%, the right artery 24%, women 11.5%, and the men 9%. Similarly to the above parameters, we have not found any statistical differences. The presence of the foetal origin was noted in 25% of the radiological examinations. The infundibular widening was visualised in 11.5% of cases of 3D reconstructions. The agenesis of PCoA was found in 9% (never bilaterally), and in 1 case the unilateral duplication of the artery was observed. No statistical differences between those parameters in relation to sex and the examined side were revealed. Morphological calculation of the PCoA on the basis of angio-CT from adult patients did not show any statistical differences depending on sex or the investigated side. The presented

  8. Systematic Review on the Definition of Allergic Diseases in Children : The MeDALL Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinart, Mariona; Albang, Richard; Maier, Dieter; Duran-Tauleria, Enric; Mena, Guillermo; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Solà, Ivan; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Guerra, Stefano; Stein, Renato T; Benet, Marta; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Herr, Marie; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Momas, Isabelle; Pin, Isabelle; Rancière, Fanny; Smit, Henriëtte A; Varraso, Raphaelle; Bonfill, Xavier; Keil, Thomas; Bousquet, Jean; Antó, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the last decades, a large number of phenotypes and disease classifications of allergic diseases have been proposed. Despite the heterogeneity across studies, no systematic review has been conducted on phenotype classification and the criteria that define allergic diseases. We

  9. Aero-Propulsion Technology (APT) Task V Low Noise ADP Engine Definition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, V.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify and evaluate noise reduction technologies for advanced ducted prop propulsion systems that would allow increased capacity operation and result in an economically competitive commercial transport. The study investigated the aero/acoustic/structural advancements in fan and nacelle technology required to match or exceed the fuel burned and economic benefits of a constrained diameter large Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) compared to an unconstrained ADP propulsion system with a noise goal of 5 to 10 EPNDB reduction relative to FAR 36 Stage 3 at each of the three measuring stations namely, takeoff (cutback), approach and sideline. A second generation ADP was selected to operate within the maximum nacelle diameter constrain of 160 deg to allow installation under the wing. The impact of fan and nacelle technologies of the second generation ADP on fuel burn and direct operating costs for a typical 3000 nm mission was evaluated through use of a large, twin engine commercial airplane simulation model. The major emphasis of this study focused on fan blade aero/acoustic and structural technology evaluations and advanced nacelle designs. Results of this study have identified the testing required to verify the interactive performance of these components, along with noise characteristics, by wind tunnel testing utilizing and advanced interaction rig.

  10. Part-Time Work and Advancement: A Study of Female Professional Staff in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Janis; Troup, Carolyn; Strachan, Glenda

    2017-01-01

    One focus of gender equity policies in universities has been the creation of "retention" part-time work for professional staff, which allows employees to move between full-time and part-time hours at their request. This paper examines whether such "good" part-time jobs can contribute to or at least not impede women's career…

  11. What is a clinical pathway? Refinement of an operational definition to identify clinical pathway studies for a Cochrane systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Lawal, Adegboyega K.; Rotter, Thomas; Kinsman, Leigh; Machotta, Andreas; Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Scott, Shannon D.; Goodridge, Donna; Plishka, Christopher; Groot, Gary

    2016-01-01

    textabstractClinical pathways (CPWs) are a common component in the quest to improve the quality of health. CPWs are used to reduce variation, improve quality of care, and maximize the outcomes for specific groups of patients. An ongoing challenge is the operationalization of a definition of CPW in healthcare. This may be attributable to both the differences in definition and a lack of conceptualization in the field of clinical pathways. This correspondence article describes a process of refin...

  12. Studies on physicochemical and nutritional properties of aerial parts of Cassia occidentalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivam Manikandaselvi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present, work chemical composition and nutritional value of aerial parts of Cassia occidentalis L. was studied. The aerial parts of C. occidentalis possess favorable physicochemical properties with good nutritional value, such as high energy value, crude fibers, and vitamin levels. The X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry data revealed that the sample is rich in minerals, especially in Fe, Ca, K, and Mn. Further, minerals such as Mg, Zn, Cu, Na, P, and S are present in good amount and depicted the nutritional value of the selected material. The plant sample is rich in phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, lignin, tannins, and phenols. The presence of phytochemical constituents was confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profile and high-performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting techniques. The findings stimulate the on-farm cultivation of C. occidentalis on a large scale to relieve the iron deficiency in local community, and it can be used as a dietary supplement to treat anemia.

  13. A case study of packaging waste collection systems in Portugal - Part II: Environmental and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ana; Sargedas, João; Miguel, Mécia; Pina, Joaquim; Martinho, Graça

    2017-03-01

    An understanding of the environmental impacts and costs related to waste collection is needed to ensure that existing waste collection schemes are the most appropriate with regard to both environment and cost. This paper is Part II of a three-part study of a mixed packaging waste collection system (curbside plus bring collection). Here, the mixed collection system is compared to an exclusive curbside system and an exclusive bring system. The scenarios were assessed using life cycle assessment and an assessment of costs to the waste management company. The analysis focuses on the collection itself so as to be relevant to waste managers and decision-makers who are involved only in this step of the packaging life cycle. The results show that the bring system has lower environmental impacts and lower economic costs, and is capable of reducing the environmental impacts of the mixed system. However, a sensitivity analysis shows that these results could differ if the curbside collection were to be optimized. From economic and environmental perspectives, the mixed system has few advantages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental Studies on Assemblies 1 and 2 of the Fast Reactor FR-0. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, E; Andersson, T L; Brunfelter, B; Kockum, J; Londen, S O; Tiren, L I

    1965-12-15

    In a first part of this report, published as AE-195, an account was given of critical mass determinations and measurements of flux distribution and reaction ratios in the first assemblies of the fast zero power reactor FR0. This second part of the report deals with various investigations involving the measurement of reactivity. Control rod calibrations have been made using the positive period, the inverse multiplication, the rod drop and the pulsed source techniques, and show satisfactory agreement between the various methods. The reactivity worths of samples of different materials and different sizes have been measured at the core centre. Comparisons with perturbation calculations show that the regular and adjoint fluxes are well predicted in the central region of the core. The variation in the prompt neutron life-time with reactivity has been studied by means of the pulsed source and the Rossi-{alpha} techniques. Comparison with one region calculations reveals large discrepancies, indicating that this simple model is inadequate. Some investigations of streaming effects in an empty channel in the reactor and of interaction effects between channels have been made and are compared with theoretical estimates. Measurements of the reactivity worth of an air gap between the reactor halves and of the temperature coefficient are also described in the report. The work has been performed as a joint effort by AB Atomenergi and the Research Institute of National Defence.

  15. INTELLIGENCE STUDIES IN FORENSIC CRIMINOLOGY OF FUGITIVE EMANATING DEFINITIVE AND LOCATIONAL PARAMETERS - Dissertation without Errata

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the problem of manhunts, against criminal fugitives. It establishesnew ways of describing and refining mechanisms and techniques, for manhunts. Methods used in thisdissertation to meet those objectives, include: review of case studies, benchmarking of techniques andthe analysis of techniques and concepts, which have been put forward by other scholars. Emphasishas been placed on the applicability of search techniques to a wide range of situations, and techniques for...

  16. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL airplane: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabinsky, J. M.; Higgins, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    A two-engine three-fan V/STOL airplane was designed to fulfill naval operational requirements. A multimission airplane was developed from study of specific point designs. Based on the multimission concept, airplanes were designed to demonstrate and develop the technology and operational procedures for this class of aircraft. Use of interconnected variable pitch fans led to a good balance between high thrust with responsive control and efficient thrust at cruise speeds. The airplanes and their characteristics are presented.

  17. Regional recurrence of oropharyngeal cancer after definitive radiotherapy: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Söderström, Karin; Nilsson, Per; Dalianis, Tina; Kjellén, Elisabeth; Zackrisson, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Elective treatment of lymph nodes in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) has impact on both regional recurrences (RR) and risk of late side effects. This study was performed to quantify the dose-dependent impact on RR and overall survival (OS) in a prospectively collected cohort of OPC from the ARTSCAN study with emphasis on elective treatment. ARTSCAN is a previously published prospective, randomized, multicentre study of altered radiotherapy (RT) fractionation in head and neck cancer. In ARTSCAN the elective treatment volume for node positive OPC varied significantly between centres due to local treatment principles. All patients with OPC in complete response after primary treatment were eligible for the present case–control study. Cases were patients with RR during five years follow-up. Patients with no recurrence were eligible as controls. Four controls per case were matched according to T- and N-stage. Mean (D mean ) and median (D 50% ) dose for the lymph node level (LNL) of RR in the cases and the corresponding LNL in the controls were analysed with conditional logistic regression. OS was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and evaluated by multivariate Cox regression analysis. There was a dose-dependent risk reduction for D 50% in the interval that represented elective treatment (40–50 Gy) (OR = 0.18, p < 0.05) and a trend in the same dose interval for D mean (OR = 0.19, p = 0.07). OS rates at five years were 0.39 (0.24-0.65) for cases and 0.70 (0.62–0.81) for controls (p < 0.001). The Kaplan-Meier and the Cox regression analysis for cases categorised by delivered dose showed an inverse relationship between dose and survival. The cases with RR in a LNL outside planning target volume (PTV) (D mean < 40 Gy) had an OS rate comparable to that of all patients, and those with RR in a LNL in PTV elective (D mean 40–60 Gy) or PTV tumour (D mean >60 Gy) did significantly worse (p < 0.05). The same inverse relationship was also shown for a small subset of patient

  18. 3D high-definition manometry in evaluation of children after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasiuk, Marcin; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Piotrowski, Dariusz; Albrecht, Piotr; Kamiński, Andrzej; Radzikowski, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Anorectal 3-dimensional high definition manometry (3D HRM) could be the best tool for postoperative assessment of restorative surgical procedures for Hirschsprung's disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate patients after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease using 3D HRM. Anorectal function was evaluated using solid state 3D HRM. We measured the length of the anal canal, mean resting squeeze pressures, the presence of rectoanal inhibitory reflex, cough reflex, ano-anal reflex and the bear down manoeuvre. We studied 14 children operated on for Hirschsprung's disease. The mean values of pressure asymmetry were higher in patients after the Duhamel procedure than after the TEPT procedure (29.58% vs. 22.26% during resting and 26.1% vs. 14.01% during squeeze, respectively). No difference between the groups was observed in the measurement of all the manometric parameters except the presence of rectoanal inhibitory reflex (87.5% after TEPT vs. 33% after Duhamel). Anorectal 3D HRM evaluation of patients with Hirschsprung's disease demonstrated that the asymmetry of the anal canal occurred in a similar percentage after both procedures. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Vital Statistics Definitions of Suicide against a Coroner Reference Standard: A Population-Based Linkage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatov, Evgenia; Kurdyak, Paul; Sinyor, Mark; Holder, Laura; Schaffer, Ayal

    2018-03-01

    We sought to determine the utility of health administrative databases for population-based suicide surveillance, as these data are generally more accessible and more integrated with other data sources compared to coroners' records. In this retrospective validation study, we identified all coroner-confirmed suicides between 2003 and 2012 in Ontario residents aged 21 and over and linked this information to Statistics Canada's vital statistics data set. We examined the overlap between the underlying cause of death field and secondary causes of death using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes for deliberate self-harm (i.e., suicide) and examined the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of misclassified records. Among 10,153 linked deaths, there was a very high degree of overlap between records coded as deliberate self-harm in the vital statistics data set and coroner-confirmed suicides using both ICD-9 and ICD-10 definitions (96.88% and 96.84% sensitivity, respectively). This alignment steadily increased throughout the study period (from 95.9% to 98.8%). Other vital statistics diagnoses in primary fields included uncategorised signs and symptoms. Vital statistics records that were misclassified did not differ from valid records in terms of sociodemographic characteristics but were more likely to have had an unspecified place of injury on the death certificate ( P statistics and coroner classification of suicide deaths suggests that health administrative data can reliably be used to identify suicide deaths.

  20. Paediatric traumatic cardiac arrest: a Delphi study to establish consensus on definition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Annette C; Vassallo, James; Nutbeam, Tim; Lyttle, Mark D; Maconochie, Ian K; Enki, Doyo G; Smith, Jason E

    2018-04-28

    Paediatric traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) is associated with low survival and poor outcomes. The mechanisms that underlie TCA are different from medical cardiac arrest; the approach to treatment of TCA may therefore also need to differ to optimise outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the opinion of subject matter experts regarding the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric TCA, and to reach consensus on how best to manage this group of patients. An online Delphi study was conducted over three rounds, with the aim of achieving consensus (defined as 70% agreement) on statements related to the diagnosis and management of paediatric TCA. Participants were invited from paediatric and adult emergency medicine, paediatric anaesthetics, paediatric ICU and paediatric surgery, as well as Paediatric Major Trauma Centre leads and representatives from the Resuscitation Council UK. Statements were informed by literature reviews and were based on elements of APLS resuscitation algorithms as well as some concepts used in the management of adult TCA; they ranged from confirmation of cardiac arrest to the indications for thoracotomy. 73 experts completed all three rounds between June and November 2016. Consensus was reached on 14 statements regarding the diagnosis and management of paediatric TCA; oxygenation and ventilatory support, along with rapid volume replacement with warmed blood, improve survival. The duration of cardiac arrest and the lack of a response to intervention, along with cardiac standstill on ultrasound, help to guide the decision to terminate resuscitation. This study has given a consensus-based framework to guide protocol development in the management of paediatric TCA, though further work is required in other key areas including its acceptability to clinicians. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Definition of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage as an Outcome Event in Clinical Trials and Observational Studies Proposal of a Multidisciplinary Research Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergouwen, Mervyn D. I.; Vermeulen, Marinus; van Gijn, Jan; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.; Muizelaar, J. Paul; Mendelow, A. David; Juvela, Seppo; Yonas, Howard; Terbrugge, Karel G.; Macdonald, R. Loch; Diringer, Michael N.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Dreier, Jens P.; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose-In clinical trials and observational studies there is considerable inconsistency in the use of definitions to describe delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A major cause for this inconsistency is the combining of radiographic evidence of

  2. Involving stakeholders in policy research should not imply that they control the problem definition: lessons from a case study on new analgesics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moret-Hartman, M.; van der Wilt, G.J.; Grin, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch Health Care Insurance Board (HCIB) commissions research to guide their policy recommendations. However, the studies conducted do not always yield relevant information. This may result from differences in problem definitions held by the HCIB and target populations. To compensate these

  3. Problem definition study of subsidence caused by geopressured geothermal resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The environmental and socio-economic settings of four environmentally representative Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal fairways were inventoried. Subsidence predictions were prepared using feasible development scenarios for the four representative subsidence sites. Based on the results of the subsidence estimates, an assessment of the associated potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts was prepared. An inventory of mitigation measures was also compiled. Results of the subsidence estimates and impact assessments are presented, as well as conclusions as to what are the major uncertainties, problems, and issues concerning the future study of geopressured geothermal subsidence.

  4. Concept definition study of small Brayton cycle engines for dispersed solar electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L. D.; Ashe, T. L.; Dobler, F. X.; Elkins, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Three first-generation Brayton cycle engine types were studied for solar application: a near-term open cycle (configuration A), a near-term closed cycle (configuration B), and a longer-term open cycle (configuration C). A parametric performance analysis was carried out to select engine designs for the three configurations. The interface requirements for the Brayton cycle engine/generator and solar receivers were determined. A technology assessment was then carried out to define production costs, durability, and growth potential for the selected engine types.

  5. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 1: Management summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of a study program to determine the life sciences payloads required for conducting biomedical experiments during space missions are presented. The objectives are defined as: (1) to identify the research functions which must be performed aboard life sciences spacecraft laboratories and the equipment needed to support these functions and (2) to develop layouts and preliminary conceptual designs of several potential baseline payloads for the accomplishment of life research in space. Payload configurations and subsystems are described and illustrated. Tables of data are included to identify the material requirements for the space missions.

  6. Connecting functional and statistical definitions of genotype by genotype interactions in coevolutionary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Denise Heath

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Predicting how species interactions evolve requires that we understand the mechanistic basis of coevolution, and thus the functional genotype-by-genotype interactions (G × G that drive reciprocal natural selection. Theory on host-parasite coevolution provides testable hypotheses for empiricists, but depends upon models of functional G × G that remain loosely tethered to the molecular details of any particular system. In practice, reciprocal cross-infection studies are often used to partition the variation in infection or fitness in a population that is attributable to G × G (statistical G × G. Here we use simulations to demonstrate that within-population statistical G × G likely tells us little about the existence of coevolution, its strength, or the genetic basis of functional G × G. Combined with studies of multiple populations or points in time, mapping and molecular techniques can bridge the gap between natural variation and mechanistic models of coevolution, while model-based statistics can formally confront coevolutionary models with cross-infection data. Together these approaches provide a robust framework for inferring the infection genetics underlying statistical G × G, helping unravel the genetic basis of coevolution.

  7. The 'realities' of part-time nursing: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Lynn N; Williams, Leonie Mosel; Lauder, William; Dwyer, Trudy

    2008-10-01

    To develop a theory that explains the 'realities' of part-time nursing. While little is known about the phenomenon of part-time nursing, increasing numbers of nurses work in part-time employment. Grounded theory. The problem that part-time nurses shared was an inability to achieve their personal optimal nursing potential. Motivators to work part-time, employment hours, specialty, individual and organizational factors formed contextual conditions that led to this problem. Part-time nurses responded to the challenges through a process of adaptation and adjustment. Harnessing the full productive potential of part-time nurses requires support to limit the difficulties that they encounter. The developed theory provides a valuable guide to managerial action. Nurse Managers need to consider the developed substantive theory when planning and managing nursing workforces.

  8. Solvent extraction equipment evaluation study. Part 1. Review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.; Browne, L.M. (comps.)

    1977-01-01

    This is Part 1 of a three-part document that reviews the solvent extraction contactors available for use in radiochemical reprocessing plants. The three parts are: Part 1: A Review of the Literature, Part 2: Workshop Proceedings, Part 3: A Summary. The main objective of the document is to provide an information base to aid in contactor selection and design of future reprocessing plants. The Literature Review (Part 1) brings together scattered data on all major contactors in use today. It contains an annotated bibliography of the citations used in the review and a complete listing of all the citations screened prior to the review. These bibliographies should aid in determining which reports would be most useful if additional information is desired.

  9. Solvent extraction equipment evaluation study. Part 1. Review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, R.G.; Browne, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    This is Part 1 of a three-part document that reviews the solvent extraction contactors available for use in radiochemical reprocessing plants. The three parts are: Part 1: A Review of the Literature, Part 2: Workshop Proceedings, Part 3: A Summary. The main objective of the document is to provide an information base to aid in contactor selection and design of future reprocessing plants. The Literature Review (Part 1) brings together scattered data on all major contactors in use today. It contains an annotated bibliography of the citations used in the review and a complete listing of all the citations screened prior to the review. These bibliographies should aid in determining which reports would be most useful if additional information is desired

  10. Definition and management of hypertension among Haitian immigrants: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Marie-Anne; Mohammed, Selina A; McCullagh, Marjorie C

    2014-08-01

    Hypertension is a major health concern among Haitian immigrants, one of the largest Caribbean immigrant groups in the United States. Yet, little is known about how Hatian immigrants define and manage hypertension. For this qualitative study, face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 Haitian immigrants in Miami Dade County, Florida. Results indicated that most Haitian immigrants used the Haitian Creole word tansyon to represent hypertension. Tansyon was considered as either a normal condition of the human body or a maladi (illness). Both traditional biomedical and alternative approaches were used to manage hypertension. The findings show that how Haitian immigrants defined hypertension shaped their beliefs about its occurrence and the resulting management strategies used. Those who believed tansyon was a normal body condition did not take any management measures. Awareness and understanding of Haitian immigrants' beliefs about and approaches to hypertension management can enhance culturally sensitive care and improve health outcomes.

  11. The "Residential" Effect Fallacy in Neighborhood and Health Studies: Formal Definition, Empirical Identification, and Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Basile; Duncan, Dustin; Vallée, Julie; Vernez-Moudon, Anne; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Kestens, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Because of confounding from the urban/rural and socioeconomic organizations of territories and resulting correlation between residential and nonresidential exposures, classically estimated residential neighborhood-outcome associations capture nonresidential environment effects, overestimating residential intervention effects. Our study diagnosed and corrected this "residential" effect fallacy bias applicable to a large fraction of neighborhood and health studies. Our empirical application investigated the effect that hypothetical interventions raising the residential number of services would have on the probability that a trip is walked. Using global positioning systems tracking and mobility surveys over 7 days (227 participants and 7440 trips), we employed a multilevel linear probability model to estimate the trip-level association between residential number of services and walking to derive a naïve intervention effect estimate and a corrected model accounting for numbers of services at the residence, trip origin, and trip destination to determine a corrected intervention effect estimate (true effect conditional on assumptions). There was a strong correlation in service densities between the residential neighborhood and nonresidential places. From the naïve model, hypothetical interventions raising the residential number of services to 200, 500, and 1000 were associated with an increase by 0.020, 0.055, and 0.109 of the probability of walking in the intervention groups. Corrected estimates were of 0.007, 0.019, and 0.039. Thus, naïve estimates were overestimated by multiplicative factors of 3.0, 2.9, and 2.8. Commonly estimated residential intervention-outcome associations substantially overestimate true effects. Our somewhat paradoxical conclusion is that to estimate residential effects, investigators critically need information on nonresidential places visited.

  12. Bullying by Definition: An Examination of Definitional Components of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmid, Susan; Howie, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Lack of definitional consensus remains an important unresolved issue within bullying research. This study examined the ability of definitional variables to predict overall level of victimisation (distress, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) and bullying (intention to harm, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) in 246…

  13. Study of a phase change energy storage using spherical capsules. Part II: Numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedecarrats, J.P.; Castaing-Lasvignottes, J.; Strub, F.; Dumas, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is the numerical study of an industrial process of energy storage which consists in the use of a cylindrical tank filled with encapsulated phase change materials (PCM). A particularity is present in this kind of processes; it concerns the delay of the crystallization of the PCM, called supercooling phenomenon. The development of the model for cold storage with heat transfer fluid flowing enables a detailed analysis of this process. The effects of different parameters on the behaviour of the tank, such as the inlet temperature, the flow rate, are examined when the tank is in vertical position. There is substantial agreement between the prediction and the experimental values already presented in part I.

  14. Managing Returnable Containers Logistics - A Case Study Part II - Improving Visibility through Using Automatic Identification Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Meiser

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This case study is the result of a project conducted on behalf of a company that uses its own returnable containers to transport purchased parts from suppliers. The objective of this project was to develop a proposal to enable the company to more effectively track and manage its returnable containers. The research activities in support of this project included (1 the analysis and documentation of the physical flow and the information flow associated with the containers and (2 the investigation of new technologies to improve the automatic identification and tracking of containers. This paper explains the automatic identification technologies and important criteria for selection. A companion paper details the flow of information and containers within the logistics chain, and it identifies areas for improving the management of the containers.

  15. Study of irradiated bone: Part III. /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate autoradiographic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.A.; Corriveau, O.; Casarett, G.W.; Weber, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The macroautoradiographic and microautoradiographic localization of /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/TcPPi) was studied in x-irradiated bone of rabbits up to one year post-irradiation. In cortical bone, /sup 99m/TcPPi was concentrated on bone surfaces near vasculature. Both forming and resorbing bone surfaces were comparably labeled at 2 hrs post-injection. Uptake on the surface of sites of haversian bone remodeling was observed to be at least part of the increased /sup 99m/TcPPi observed in irradiated bone in camera images. In irradiated trabecular bone 12 months following irradiation, a patchy decrease in /sup 99m/TcPPi uptake was correlated with localized decreases in vasculature

  16. Study on Excavation of Particular Part of Underground Cavern for Hydropower Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Shang, Qin; Zheng, Huakang

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, regarding four particular parts of underground cavern for hydropower station, i.e., crown, high sidewall, the intersection between high sidewall and tunnel and tailrace tunnel, by summarizing the previous construction experience, we have proposed the excavation approach based on “middle first and edge later, soft first and hard later”, “layered construction by excavating the thin layer first and supporting as the layer advances”, “tunnel first and wall later, small tunnels into large ones” and “excavating tunnels supported by separation piers”. In addition, the proposed excavation approach has been analyzed and verified with finite element numerical simulation. The result has indicated that the proposed special approach is reasonable and effective to reduce the turbulence on surrounding rocks, lower the influence of unloading during excavating and enhance the local and global stability of caverns and surrounding rocks.

  17. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 6, Alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL's weapons research, development, and testing (WRD ampersand T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL's inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for material and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment 111-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VI - Alternatives Study, presents a study of the different storage/containment options considered for NMSF

  18. Formulating autism systemically: Part 2 - A 12-year prospective case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewerton, Nicky; Robson, Katrina; Crittenden, Patricia M

    2017-07-01

    This prospective case study illustrates the ideas on the developmental origins of some cases of autism that were described in Part 1 of this article. We explored and found support for several systemic hypotheses regarding the experience of 'Graeme' and his mother. Graeme's story is told prospectively from the age of 3 until 15. Three independent sources of information are reported: hypotheses from the literature and case review in Part 1 of this article, the school's experience, and observations from the assessments of attachment when Graeme was turning 6. These three streams of information are integrated here. The review of the literature and clinical cases gives us a wide-angle lens, empirically supporting our focus on danger in relationships. The school's experience describes working with a child with undiagnosed autism. The assessments of attachment both provide information about family members' psychological strategies for protection from danger and also include the mother's childhood history of family threat. Their synthesis permits us to construct a developmental history, from Graeme's mother's childhood history of being triangulated into her parents' hidden marital discord to it's repetition for Graeme in her own marriage. New observations included mum's postural/gestural communication to Graeme and her possible ambivalence about males. Strikingly, Graeme was a case study (Attachment & Family Therapy, ch. 6) before he was diagnosed with autism. That presentation focused on Graeme's feeling of rejection by his father. In the same book, an interpersonal formulation of autism was offered (ch. 3), but it was not connected to Graeme, showing that when one lacks crucial information, the clinical formulation is distorted. The crucial information in this case was the mother's psychological history. Our case suggests that filling the blind spot in the research on autism with information about family functioning over at least two generations might change the

  19. Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (SR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within

  20. Morally disengaged and unempathic: do cyberbullies fit these definitions? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renati, Roberta; Berrone, Carlo; Zanetti, Maria Assunta

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the phenomenon of cyberbullying has been gaining scholars' growing interest under various aspects, including its overlap with face-to-face bullying. Nevertheless, its relationships with cognitive and affective empathy, proactive and reactive aggression, and moral disengagement, constructs that proved to be crucial in distinguishing aggressive subjects from their targets and nonaggressive peers in traditional bullying, still represent, to some extent, an unexplored domain. The main purpose of the present exploratory study was to investigate the associations between cyberbullying and the mentioned constructs among Italian adolescents. 819 high-school students (mean age 16.08) were administered a battery of standardized tools, along with Cyberties, a new instrument created to assess the prevalence of (and the type of involvement in) different forms of electronic assaults. Analyses of variance were conducted to compare four roles ("pure" bullies, "pure" victims, bully victims, and noninvolved subjects). Participants who identified themselves as cyberbullies or cyberbully victims showed significantly higher levels of overall moral disengagement and of both types of aggression. Cyberbullies also displayed a lack of affective empathy. Our findings are in line with the ones in extant literature about correlates of traditional and electronic forms of bullying. Implications for prevention strategies are discussed.

  1. Study of Pitch Attitude Estimation Using a High-Definition TV (HDTV) Camera on the Japanese Lunar Explorer SELENE (KAGUYA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Junichi; Matsumoto, Shuichi; Konishi, Hisahiro; Maejima, Hironori; Sasaki, Susumu; Kato, Manabu; Mitsuhashi, Seiji; Tachino, Junichi

    The lunar explorer SELENE (also called KAGUYA) carried thirteen scientific mission instruments to reveal the origin and evolution of Moon and to investigate the possible future utilization of Moon. In addition to the scientific instruments, a high-definition TV (HDTV) camera provided by the Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) was carried on KAGUYA to promote public outreach. We usually use housekeeping telemetry data to derive the satellite attitude along with orbital determination and propagated information. However, it takes time to derive this information, since orbital determination and propagation calculation require the use of the orbital model. When a malfunction of the KAGUYA reaction wheel occurred, we could not have correct attitude information. This means that we don’t have a correct orbital determination in timely fashion. However, when we checked HDTV movies, we found that horizon information on the lunar surface derived from HDTV moving images as a horizon sensor was very useful for the detection of the attitude of KAGUYA. We then compared this information with the attitude information derived from orbital telemetry to validate the accuracy of the HDTV derived estimation. As a result of this comparison, there are good pitch attitude estimation using HDTV derived estimation and we could estimate the pitch angle change during the KAGUYA mission operation simplify and quickly. In this study, we show the usefulness of this HDTV camera as a horizon sensor.

  2. The definition of radiological signs in gastric ulcer and assessment of their validity by inter-observer variation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, A; Simpkins, K C

    1975-07-01

    The initial aim was to program a computer with information on the frequency of radiological signs in benign and malignant gastric ulcers in order to obtain a percentage probability of benignancy or malignancy in succeeding ulcers in clinical practice. However, only four of the many signs described in gastric ulcer were confirmed to be of validity (i.e. reliable existence) by an inter-observer variation study using two observers and the films from 69 barium meal examinations. These were projection or non-projection of the in-profile ulcer, presence or absence of adjacent mucosal folds, good or poor definition of the in-face ulcer's edge, and extension of radiating folds to the in-face ulcer's edge. A few more remained unassessed due to insufficient numbers of relevant cases. It is condluced that: as defined in the literature the majority of radiological signs in this field are of uncertain existence; and the four that were found to be valid do not fully describe the important appearances that may be seen in benign and malignant ulcers and would be inadequate to differentiate them to a sufficiently high degree of probability.

  3. The Definition of Pneumonia, the Assessment of Severity, and Clinical Standardization in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonodi, Chizoba; Moïsi, Jennifer C.; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; DeLuca, Andrea N.; Karron, Ruth A.; Bhat, Niranjan; Murdoch, David R.; Crawley, Jane; Levine, Orin S.; O’Brien, Katherine L.; Feikin, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    To develop a case definition for the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project, we sought a widely acceptable classification that was linked to existing pneumonia research and focused on very severe cases. We began with the World Health Organization’s classification of severe/very severe pneumonia and refined it through literature reviews and a 2-stage process of expert consultation. PERCH will study hospitalized children, aged 1–59 months, with pneumonia who present with cough or difficulty breathing and have either severe pneumonia (lower chest wall indrawing) or very severe pneumonia (central cyanosis, difficulty breastfeeding/drinking, vomiting everything, convulsions, lethargy, unconsciousness, or head nodding). It will exclude patients with recent hospitalization and children with wheeze whose indrawing resolves after bronchodilator therapy. The PERCH investigators agreed upon standard interpretations of the symptoms and signs. These will be maintained by a clinical standardization monitor who conducts repeated instruction at each site and by recurrent local training and testing. PMID:22403224

  4. Serum Cystatin C– Versus Creatinine-Based Definitions of Acute Kidney Injury Following Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahillari, Aferdita; Parikh, Chirag R.; Sint, Kyaw; Koyner, Jay L.; Patel, Uptal D.; Edelstein, Charles L.; Passik, Cary S.; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Swaminathan, Madhav; Shlipak, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and rapidity of AKI detection by cystatin C relative to creatinine following cardiac surgery. Study Design Prospective cohort study Settings and Participants 1,150 high-risk, adult cardiac surgery patients in the TRIBE-AKI (Translational Research Investigating Biomarker Endpoints for Acute Kidney Injury) Consortium. Predictor Changes in serum creatinine and cystatin C Outcome Post-surgical incidence of AKI Measurements Serum creatinine and cystatin C were measured at the preoperative visit and daily on postoperative days 1–5. To allow comparisons between changes in creatinine and cystatin C, AKI endpoints were defined by the relative increases in each marker from baseline (25, 50 and 100%) and the incidence of AKI was compared based upon each marker. Secondary aims were to compare clinical outcomes among patients defined as having AKI by cystatin C and/or creatinine. Results Overall, serum creatinine detected more cases of AKI than cystatin C: 35% developed a ≥25% increase in serum creatinine, whereas only 23% had ≥25% increase in cystatin C (p Creatinine also had higher proportions meeting the 50% (14% and 8%, pcreatinine or cystatin C. However, for each AKI threshold, patients with AKI confirmed by both markers had significantly higher risk of the combined mortality/dialysis outcome compared with patients with AKI detected by creatinine alone (p=0.002). Limitations There were few adverse clinical outcomes, limiting our ability to detect differences in outcomes between subgroups of patients based upon their definitions of AKI. Conclusion In this large multicenter study, we found that cystatin C was less sensitive for AKI detection compared with creatinine. However, confirmation by cystatin C appeared to identify a subset of AKI patients with substantially higher risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:22809763

  5. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 2: Requirements, design, and planning studies for the carry-on laboratories. [for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The task phase concerned with the requirements, design, and planning studies for the carry-on laboratory (COL) began with a definition of biomedical research areas and candidate research equipment, and then went on to develop conceptual layouts for COL which were each evaluated in order to arrive at a final conceptual design. Each step in this design/evaluation process concerned itself with man/systems integration research and hardware, and life support and protective systems research and equipment selection. COL integration studies were also conducted and include attention to electrical power and data management requirements, operational considerations, and shuttle/Spacelab interface specifications. A COL program schedule was compiled, and a cost analysis was finalized which takes into account work breakdown, annual funding, and cost reduction guidelines.

  6. A critical spare part inventory control based on hazard function approach: A case study in a garment company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinda, Intan Dewi; Jauhari, Wakhid Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Spare part procurement is a complex issue and requires an accurate analysis. Stock outs of spare part can leads a great impact on production. Therefore, it is necessary to design the inventory control of spare parts that guarantee the availability of spare parts needed for supporting the maintenance activity. This paper studies the inventory policy for sewing machine spare part using hazard function to approximate the demand. Hazard function is the indicator of the effect of ageing on the reliability of the system. It quantifies the risk of failure as the age of the system increases. We use a continuous review policy based on Hadley Within Approach to calculate the optimum inventory level for critical spare parts. There are four spare parts categorized as critical spare parts, which are needle plate, feed dog, rotary and binder attachment. The optimal ordering quantity for needle plate, feed, rotary and binder attachment are 5 units, 17 units, 5 units, and 9 units, respectively and the reorder point are 2 units, 1 unit, 2 units and 1 unit, respectively. Finally, the service level achieved by the proposed policy is in a range of 95.91%-97.93%, which indicates that the inventory level of spare parts can be used to support the required parts in the maintenance activity.

  7. Biotechnology awareness study, Part 2: Meeting the information needs of biotechnologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, D; Grefsheim, S; Simon, M; Lansing, P S

    1991-01-01

    The second part of the biotechnology awareness study focused on health sciences libraries and how well they are meeting the needs of biotechnologists working in the study's nine medical centers. A survey was conducted over a three-month period to assess the demand for biotechnology-related reference services at nine libraries and the sources the librarians used to answer the questions. Data on monographic and current serial holdings were also collected. At the end of the survey period, librarians were asked for their perceptions about biotechnology research at their institutions and in their geographic areas. Their responses were compared to the responses the scientists at the nine schools gave to the same or similar questions. Results showed few biotechnology-related reference questions were asked of the librarians. The recorded questions dealt with a range of biotechnology subjects. MEDLINE was used to answer 77% of the questions received during the survey period. More detailed notes in MeSH and a guide to online searching for biotechnology topics were suggested by the librarians as ways to improve reference service to this group of researchers. Journal collections were generally strong, with libraries owning from 50% to 87% of the titles on a core list of biotechnology journals compiled for this study. All libraries subscribed to the five titles most often cited by the scientists surveyed. Generally, librarians were unaware of the biotechnology-related research being done on their campuses or in their geographic areas. PMID:1998819

  8. Heat Balance Study on Integrated Cycles for Hydrogen and Electricity Generation in VHTR - Part 2 -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Il; Yoo, Yeon Jae; Heo, Gyunyoung; Park, Soyoung; Kang, Yeon Kwan

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, reverse engineering was performed on SCMHR proposed by NGNP to reconstruct it into PEPSE. This model was used to analyze sensitivity of key variables. The paper also presented a concept design of thermal cycle, where heat of nuclear reactor is partially used for hydrogen production and remaining heat is used to generate power through IHX. This study introduces the results of concept designs on thermal cycle constructed using methods that are somewhat different from the previous results. As for the first method, efficiency under main steam condition proposed by NGNP was analyzed using ultra supercritical steam cycle, which exhibits highest efficiency among commercial technologies available. Another method was to prepare heat balance using supercritical CO 2 cycle, which has recently been commercialized in small scale and is undergoing R and D efforts for scale-up. As a part of concept design for high temperature gas reactor, this paper attempts different types of electricity generation cycle design and compares their advantages and disadvantages. A reference model was developed to change original design of NGNP. Sensitivity analysis can be performed according to changing performance of facility and external conditions. A Rankine cycle model operated under SC or USC condition was created by adding to a previous study to carry out key sensitivity analysis. Data for future design will be prepared through supplementary study, and the ultimate objective is to make contribution to optimal design of high temperature gas reactor

  9. Heat Balance Study on Integrated Cycles for Hydrogen and Electricity Generation in VHTR - Part 2 -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Il; Yoo, Yeon Jae [Hyundai Engineering Company Ltd., Seouul (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung; Park, Soyoung; Kang, Yeon Kwan [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In the paper, reverse engineering was performed on SCMHR proposed by NGNP to reconstruct it into PEPSE. This model was used to analyze sensitivity of key variables. The paper also presented a concept design of thermal cycle, where heat of nuclear reactor is partially used for hydrogen production and remaining heat is used to generate power through IHX. This study introduces the results of concept designs on thermal cycle constructed using methods that are somewhat different from the previous results. As for the first method, efficiency under main steam condition proposed by NGNP was analyzed using ultra supercritical steam cycle, which exhibits highest efficiency among commercial technologies available. Another method was to prepare heat balance using supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle, which has recently been commercialized in small scale and is undergoing R and D efforts for scale-up. As a part of concept design for high temperature gas reactor, this paper attempts different types of electricity generation cycle design and compares their advantages and disadvantages. A reference model was developed to change original design of NGNP. Sensitivity analysis can be performed according to changing performance of facility and external conditions. A Rankine cycle model operated under SC or USC condition was created by adding to a previous study to carry out key sensitivity analysis. Data for future design will be prepared through supplementary study, and the ultimate objective is to make contribution to optimal design of high temperature gas reactor.

  10. Euclid Definition Study Report

    CERN Document Server

    Laureijs, R; Arduini, S.; Augueres, J.L.; Brinchmann, J.; Cole, R.; Cropper, M.; Dabin, C.; Duvet, L.; Ealet, A.; Garilli, B.; Gondoin, P.; Guzzo, L.; Hoar, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holmes, R.; Kitching, T.; Maciaszek, T.; Mellier, Y.; Pasian, F.; Percival, W.; Rhodes, J.; Criado, G.Saavedra; Sauvage, M.; Scaramella, R.; Valenziano, L.; Warren, S.; Bender, R.; Castander, F.; Cimatti, A.; Le, O.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Levi, M.; Lilje, P.; Mellier, Y.; Meylan, G.; Nichol, R.; Pedersen, K.; Popa, V.; Rebolo Lopez, R.; Rix, H.W.; Rottgering, H.; Zeilinger, W.; Grupp, F.; Hudelot, P.; Massey, R.; Meneghetti, M.; Miller, L.; Paltani, S.; Paulin-Henriksson, S.; Pires, S.; Saxton, C.; Schrabback, T.; Seidel, G.; Walsh, J.; Aghanim, N.; Amendola, L.; Bartlett, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Beaulieu, J.P.; Benabed, K.; Cuby, J.G.; Elbaz, D.; Fosalba, P.; Gavazzi, G.; Helmi, A.; Hook, I.; Irwin, M.; Kneib, J.P.; Kunz, M.; Mannucci, F.; Moscardini, L.; Tao, C.; Teyssier, R.; Weller, J.; Zamorani, G.; Osorio, M.R.Zapatero; Boulade, O.; Foumond, J.J.; Di Giorgio, A.; Guttridge, P.; James, A.; Kemp, M.; Martignac, J.; Spencer, A.; Walton, D.; Blumchen, T.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Cerna, C.; Corcione, L.; Fabron, C.; Jahnke, K.; Ligori, S.; Madrid, F.; Martin, L.; Morgante, G.; Pamplona, T.; Prieto, E.; Riva, M.; Toledo, R.; Trifoglio, M.; Zerbi, F.; Abdalla, F.; Douspis, M.; Grenet, C.; Borgani, S.; Bouwens, R.; Courbin, F.; Delouis, J.M.; Dubath, P.; Fontana, A.; Frailis, M.; Grazian, A.; Koppenhofer, J.; Mansutti, O.; Melchior, M.; Mignoli, M.; Mohr, J.; Neissner, C.; Noddle, K.; Poncet, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Serrano, S.; Shane, N.; Starck, J.L.; Surace, C.; Taylor, A.; Verdoes-Kleijn, G.; Vuerli, C.; Williams, O.R.; Zacchei, A.; Altieri, B.; Sanz, I.Escudero; Kohley, R.; Oosterbroek, T.; Astier, P.; Bacon, D.; Bardelli, S.; Baugh, C.; Bellagamba, F.; Benoist, C.; Bianchi, D.; Biviano, A.; Branchini, E.; Carbone, C.; Cardone, V.; Clements, D.; Colombi, S.; Conselice, C.; Cresci, G.; Deacon, N.; Dunlop, J.; Fedeli, C.; Fontanot, F.; Franzetti, P.; Giocoli, C.; Garcia-Bellido, J.; Gow, J.; Heavens, A.; Hewett, P.; Heymans, C.; Holland, A.; Huang, Z.; Ilbert, O.; Joachimi, B.; Jennins, E.; Kerins, E.; Kiessling, A.; Kirk, D.; Kotak, R.; Krause, O.; Lahav, O.; van Leeuwen, F.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lombardi, M.; Magliocchetti, M.; Maguire, K.; Majerotto, E.; Maoli, R.; Marulli, F.; Maurogordato, S.; McCracken, H.; McLure, R.; Melchiorri, A.; Merson, A.; Moresco, M.; Nonino, M.; Norberg, P.; Peacock, J.; Pello, R.; Penny, M.; Pettorino, V.; Di Porto, C.; Pozzetti, L.; Quercellini, C.; Radovich, M.; Rassat, A.; Roche, N.; Ronayette, S.; Rossetti, E.; Sartoris, B.; Schneider, P.; Semboloni, E.; Serjeant, S.; Simpson, F.; Skordis, C.; Smadja, G.; Smartt, S.; Spano, P.; Spiro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Tilquin, A.; Trotta, R.; Verde, L.; Wang, Y.; Williger, G.; Zhao, G.; Zoubian, J.; Zucca, E.

    2011-01-01

    Euclid is a space-based survey mission from the European Space Agency designed to understand the origin of the Universe's accelerating expansion. It will use cosmological probes to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by tracking their observational signatures on the geometry of the universe and on the cosmic history of structure formation. The mission is optimised for two independent primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing (WL) and Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The Euclid payload consists of a 1.2 m Korsch telescope designed to provide a large field of view. It carries two instruments with a common field-of-view of ~0.54 deg2: the visual imager (VIS) and the near infrared instrument (NISP) which contains a slitless spectrometer and a three bands photometer. The Euclid wide survey will cover 15,000 deg2 of the extragalactic sky and is complemented by two 20 deg2 deep fields. For WL, Euclid measures the shapes of 30-40 resolved galaxies per arcmin2 in one broad...

  11. Quality Investing – Industry versus Academic Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Kyosev (Georgi); M.X. Hanauer (Matthias); J.J. Huij (Joop); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this study we provide an overview of common quality definitions that are currently used in the industry and those used in academic studies, and we outline the differences between these definitions. We show that there is a large dispersion in the definitions that are used for the

  12. MIRD methodology. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Parada, Ines

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) methodology for the evaluation of the internal dose due to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals. In this second part, different methods for the calculation of the accumulated activity are presented, together with the effective half life definition. Different forms of Retention Activity curves are also shown. (author)

  13. Change in Geographical Proximity: A Qualitative Study of the Experience of Parting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvashi Dixit

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to examine the psychological impact on individuals that results from a change in geographic proximity of a close friend, romantic partner and a sibling. The topic was chosen in light of personal experiences, that is, deep affiliation with friends, and the subsequent experience of parting. A total of 6 participants (1 male and 1 female in each of the three categories, aged between 19 to 26 years were selected purposively. Out of these, 2 had experienced change in geographic proximity from a friend and 2 from a romantic partner and 2 from a sibling. The study provides an insight into the experiences of those who deal with the process of a romantic partner, friend or sibling moving away. The participants identified had experienced change in geographic proximity of friend, romantic partner or sibling within a period of 1 to 8 months. The various aspects explored were communication, well-being, loneliness, transition in feelings, coping with stress, significant experiences, etc. The data were collected using a semi structured interview, and was transcribed and analysed through thematic analysis.

  14. Vitamin D as an adjunctive therapy in asthma. Part 2: A review of human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, Conor P; Elnazir, Basil; Faul, John; Cormican, Liam

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is highly prevalent worldwide, with adverse effects on bone health but also potentially other unfavorable consequences. VDD and asthma-incidence/severity share many common risk factors, including winter season, industrialization, poor diet, obesity, dark skin pigmentation, and high latitude. Multiple anatomical areas relevant to asthma contain both the enzyme responsible for producing activated vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor suggesting that activated vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) may have important local effects at these sites. Emerging evidence suggests that VDD is associated with increased airway hyperresponsiveness, decreased pulmonary function, worse asthma control, and possibly decreased response to standard anti-asthma therapy. However the effect is inconsistent with preliminary evidence from different studies suggesting vitamin D is both beneficial and detrimental to asthma genesis and severity. Current evidence suggests that supplementation with moderate doses of vitamin D may be appropriate for maintenance of bone health in asthmatics, particularly steroid users. However emerging data from an increasing number of randomized, controlled, intervention studies of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric and adult asthma are becoming available and should help determine the importance, if any of vitamin D for asthma pathogenesis. The purpose of this second of a two-part review is to review the current human literature on vitamin D and asthma, discussing the possible consequences of VDD for asthma and the potential for vitamin D repletion as adjunct therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanical degradation of Emplacement Drifts at Yucca Mountain - A Modeling Case Study. Part I: Nonlithophysal Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Lin; D. Kicker; B. Damjanac; M. Board; M. Karakouzian

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines rock mechanics investigations associated with mechanical degradation of planned emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, which is the designated site for the proposed U.S. high-level nuclear waste repository. The factors leading to drift degradation include stresses from the overburden, stresses induced by the heat released from the emplaced waste, stresses due to seismically related ground motions, and time-dependent strength degradation. The welded tuff emplacement horizon consists of two groups of rock with distinct engineering properties: nonlithophysal units and lithophysal units, based on the relative proportion of lithophysal cavities. The term 'lithophysal' refers to hollow, bubble like cavities in volcanic rock that are surrounded by a porous rim formed by fine-grained alkali feldspar, quartz, and other minerals. Lithophysae are typically a few centimeters to a few decimeters in diameter. Part I of the paper concentrates on the generally hard, strong, and fractured nonlithophysal rock. The degradation behavior of the tunnels in the nonlithophysal rock is controlled by the occurrence of keyblocks. A statistically equivalent fracture model was generated based on extensive underground fracture mapping data from the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain. Three-dimensional distinct block analyses, generated with the fracture patterns randomly selected from the fracture model, were developed with the consideration of in situ, thermal, and seismic loads. In this study, field data, laboratory data, and numerical analyses are well integrated to provide a solution for the unique problem of modeling drift degradation

  16. Part-Time and Full-Time Faculty Conceptualizations of Academic Community: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Cecile H.

    2012-01-01

    The poor work environment for part-time faculty in higher education is a topic that has been receiving more attention as the professoriate moves away from full-time tenure-track positions. In community colleges, the use of part-time faculty is even more prevalent. However, there are institutions that have been trying to create better work…

  17. A study of flame spread in engineered cardboard fuelbeds: Part II: Scaling law approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittany A. Adam; Nelson K. Akafuah; Mark Finney; Jason Forthofer; Kozo Saito

    2013-01-01

    In this second part of a two part exploration of dynamic behavior observed in wildland fires, time scales differentiating convective and radiative heat transfer is further explored. Scaling laws for the two different types of heat transfer considered: Radiation-driven fire spread, and convection-driven fire spread, which can both occur during wildland fires. A new...

  18. Energy Efficient Engine: Control system preliminary definition report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David C.

    1986-01-01

    The object of the Control Preliminary Definition Program was to define a preliminary control system concept as a part of the Energy Efficient Engine program. The program was limited to a conceptual definition of a full authority digital electronic control system. System requirements were determined and a control system was conceptually defined to these requirements. Areas requiring technological development were identified and a plan was established for implementing the identified technological features, including a control technology demonstration. A significant element of this program was a study of the potential benefits of closed-loop active clearance control, along with laboratory tests of candidate clearance sensor elements for a closed loop system.

  19. Focal versus diffuse anaplasia in Wilms tumor--new definitions with prognostic significance: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, P; Beckwith, J B; Mishra, K; Zuppan, C; Weeks, D A; Breslow, N; Green, D M

    1996-08-01

    Anaplasia, defined by the presence of extreme nuclear and mitotic atypia, is a potent marker of adverse prognosis in Wilms tumor (WT). Anaplastic WT cells apparently have increased resistance to therapy rather than increased aggressiveness. The distribution of anaplasia should therefore have critical prognostic relevance. The original definitions for focal anaplasia (FA) and diffuse anaplasia (DA) were based on quantitative rather than topographical criteria and lacked prognostic significance. A new definition was developed based on the distribution of anaplastic changes within the tumor: FA applies only to tumors with anaplasia confined to one or a few discrete loci within the primary tumor, with no anaplasia or marked nuclear atypia elsewhere. This revised definition was evaluated in 165 cases with anaplastic WT entered on the third and fourth National Wilms Tumor Study. Only three relapses and one death occurred among 39 cases with FA, regardless of tumor stage, a result comparable to that for nonanaplastic WT. Eight children with metastases at diagnosis and FA in the primary tumor were alive and free of relapse; 22 of 23 children with stage IV DA WT died of tumor. This new definition reinforces the importance of carefully documenting the exact site from which each tumor section is obtained.

  20. Case definitions of knee osteoarthritis in 4,151 unselected subjects: relevance for epidemiological studies : The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxafoss, Erling; Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper K

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aims of the present study were threefold: to examine the distribution of knee joint osteoarthritis in a large, standardized radiological study; to examine the relationships between self reported knee pain and radiological OA; and to examine the natural history of radio-morpholog...

  1. 40 CFR 80.140 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluated by weight. Leaded gasoline means gasoline which is produced with the use of any lead additive or... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.140 Definitions. The definitions in this section apply... given them in 40 CFR part 79, subpart A. Additization means the addition of detergent to gasoline or...

  2. 10 CFR 60.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 60.2 Section 60.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... § 60.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Accessible environment means: (1) The atmosphere; (2) The... involved; and (2) Estimates of severe external man-induced events, to be used for deriving design bases...

  3. 10 CFR 61.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 61.2 Section 61.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY....2 Definitions. As used in this part: Active maintenance means any significant remedial activity... biosphere inhabited by man and containing his food chains by emplacement in a land disposal facility...

  4. 24 CFR 597.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 597.3 Section 597.3... COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS General Provisions § 597.3 Definitions. The terms HUD and Secretary are defined in 24 CFR part 5. Designation means...

  5. 12 CFR 918.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DIRECTOR COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES § 918.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Compensation means any... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 918.1 Section 918.1 Banks and... the Bank, including, without limitation, daily meeting fees, incentive payments and fringe benefits. ...

  6. 12 CFR 1710.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from compensation or benefit agreements, fee arrangements, perquisites, stock option plans, post... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1710.2 Section 1710.2 Banks and... AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE General § 1710.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the term...

  7. 16 CFR 1115.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.3 Definitions. In addition to the definitions given... Sunshine Act, 16 CFR part 1012. (c) Noncompliance means the failure of a consumer product to comply with an...

  8. 12 CFR 569.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 569.1 Section 569.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PROXIES § 569.1 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Security holder. The term security holder means any person having the right to vote in...

  9. 12 CFR 513.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 513.2 Section 513.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRACTICE BEFORE THE OFFICE § 513.2 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Office means the Office; (b) The term Secretary means the Secretary and...

  10. 28 CFR 26.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 26.21 Section 26.21 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEATH SENTENCES PROCEDURES Certification Process for State Capital Counsel Systems § 26.21 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the term— Appropriate state official means the...

  11. 12 CFR 3.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Authority and Definitions § 3.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this part: (a) Adjusted total assets means the average total assets figure required to be computed for and stated in a bank's most recent quarterly Consolidated Report of Condition and Income (Call Report) minus end-of-quarter intangible assets...

  12. 12 CFR 18.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 18.2 Section 18.2 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DISCLOSURE OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION BY NATIONAL BANKS § 18.2 Definitions. Unless otherwise defined in this part, the terms used have...

  13. 16 CFR 259.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... economy of the particular new automobile on which the label is affixed, as determined in accordance with... for the class of new automobiles. The estimated city and highway fuel economy values of the class of... FOR NEW AUTOMOBILES § 259.1 Definitions. For the purposes of this part, the following definitions...

  14. 32 CFR 99.3 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General definitions. 99.3 Section 99.3 National... PROCEDURES FOR STATES AND LOCALITIES TO REQUEST INDEMNIFICATION § 99.3 General definitions. For the purposes of §§ 99.1 through 99.9 of this part: Criminal history record information: information collected by...

  15. 22 CFR 99.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 99.1 Section 99.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES REPORTING ON CONVENTION AND NON-CONVENTION ADOPTIONS OF EMIGRATING CHILDREN § 99.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: (a) Convention means...

  16. 16 CFR 1401.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1401.3 Section 1401.3... TECHNICAL DATA § 1401.3 Definitions. For the purposes of this part 1401: (a) Chlorofluorocarbon means any... product across state lines from a contract filler to the marketer of the product would not constitute...

  17. 26 CFR 1.856-3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.856-3 Section 1.856-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.856-3 Definitions. For purposes of the regulations under part II...

  18. 42 CFR 55a.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 55a.101 Section 55a.101 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROGRAM GRANTS FOR BLACK LUNG CLINICS General Provisions § 55a.101 Definitions. Act, as used in this part, means the Federal Mine Safety...

  19. 12 CFR 956.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 956.1 Section 956.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Deposits in banks or trust...

  20. 12 CFR 926.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 926.1 Section 926.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING ASSOCIATES § 926.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Governmental agency means the...

  1. 29 CFR 575.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 575.2 Section 575.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAIVER OF CHILD LABOR... § 575.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended...

  2. 19 CFR 210.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 210.3 Section 210.3 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Rules of General Applicability § 210.3 Definitions. As used in this part...

  3. 20 CFR 361.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 361.3 Section 361.3 Employees... THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 361.3 Definitions. For purposes of this part... guaranteed by the United States and all other amounts due the United States from fees, leases, rents...

  4. 12 CFR 997.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 997.1 Section 997.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES RESOLUTION FUNDING CORPORATION OBLIGATIONS OF THE BANKS § 997.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Actual quarterly payment means the quarterly...

  5. 7 CFR 301.89-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 301.89-1 Section 301.89-1 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-1 Definitions. Actual price... part) for or capable of propagation, including a tree, a tissue culture, a plantlet culture, pollen, a...

  6. 25 CFR 83.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 83.1 Section 83.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... GROUP EXISTS AS AN INDIAN TRIBE § 83.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Area Office means a Bureau of... of the history, geography, culture and social organization of the petitioning group. Board means the...

  7. 16 CFR 18.0 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 18.0 Section 18.0 Commercial... Definitions. Industry products. As used in this part, the term industry products includes all types of trees... greenhouse plants solely for inside culture or use and annual vegetable plants. Industry members. Any person...

  8. 34 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintained by the Department, including but not limited to the individual's education, financial transactions... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 5b.1 Section 5b.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As used in this part: (a...

  9. 48 CFR 970.0371-3 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 970.0371-3... Interest 970.0371-3 Definition. Employees, as used in this section, are defined to mean individuals employed by the contractor, both full and part-time, who are assigned to work under a DOE management and...

  10. 22 CFR 513.105 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) General § 513.105 Definitions. The following definitions apply to this part: Adequate evidence. Information sufficient to support the reasonable belief... designated by the agency head. Indictment. Indictment for a criminal offense. An information or other filing...

  11. 28 CFR 72.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 72.2 Section 72.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND NOTIFICATION § 72.2 Definitions. All terms used in this part that are defined in section 111 of the Sex Offender Registration and...

  12. 21 CFR 601.31 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition. 601.31 Section 601.31 Food and Drugs... Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals § 601.31 Definition. For purposes of this part,diagnostic radiopharmaceutical means: (a) An article that is intended for use in the diagnosis or monitoring of a disease or a...

  13. 21 CFR 315.2 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition. 315.2 Section 315.2 Food and Drugs... DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.2 Definition. For purposes of this part, diagnostic radiopharmaceutical means: (a) An article that is intended for use in the diagnosis or monitoring of a disease or a...

  14. 12 CFR 952.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Targeted community lending means providing financing for economic development projects for targeted... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 952.1 Section 952.1 Banks and... INVESTMENT CASH ADVANCE PROGRAMS § 952.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Champion Community means a...

  15. 12 CFR 411.105 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 411.105 Section 411.105 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING General § 411.105 Definitions. For purposes of this part: (a) Agency, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 552(f), includes Federal executive...

  16. 34 CFR 33.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 33.2 Section 33.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 33.2 Definitions. As used in this part..., record, or accounting or bookkeeping entry made: (a) With respect to a claim or to obtain the approval or...

  17. 50 CFR 453.02 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.02 Definitions. Definitions applicable to this part are contained in 50... Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  18. 12 CFR 353.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 353.2 Section 353.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY SUSPICIOUS ACTIVITY REPORTS § 353.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this part: (a) FinCEN means the Financial Crimes...

  19. 25 CFR 226.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 226.1 Section 226.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... MINING § 226.1 Definitions. As used in this part 226, terms shall have the meanings set forth in this... hydrocarbons recovered at the surface as liquids which are the result of condensation caused by reduction of...

  20. 12 CFR 980.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 980.1 Section 980.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.1 Definitions. As used in this part: New business activity means any business activity undertaken...