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Sample records for definition study appendix

  1. 46 CFR Appendix B to Part 154 - Stress Analyses Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stress Analyses Definitions B Appendix B to Part 154...—Stress Analyses Definitions The following are the standard definitions of stresses for the analysis of an independent tank type B: Normal stress means the component of stress normal to the plane of reference...

  2. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering, cost and programmatics, appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Appendixes for Volume 2 (Part 2) of a seven volume Satellite (SPS) report are presented. The document contains two appendixes. The first is a SPS work breakdown structure dictionary. The second gives SPS cost estimating relationships and contains the cost analyses and a description of cost elements that comprise the SPS program.

  3. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 1: Functional requirements definition, DR-5. Appendix: Requirements data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Appendix A contains data that characterize the system functions in sufficient depth as to determine the requirements for the Space Station Data System (SSDS). This data is in the form of: (1) top down traceability report; (2) bottom up traceability report; (3) requirements data sheets; and (4) cross index of requirements paragraphs of the source documents and the requirements numbers. A data base users guide is included that interested parties can use to access the requirements data base and get up to date information about the functions.

  4. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 130 - Definition of HIV Infection or HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of HIV Infection or HIV A Appendix A to... PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM Pt. 130, App. A Appendix A to Part 130—Definition of HIV Infection or HIV ER31MY00.000 ER31MY00.001 ...

  5. Manned remote work station development article. Volume 1, book 2, appendix B: Trade and design definition studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    System trades, evaluations, and selection were organized under the appropriate manned remote work station roles and subsystems. Those trades/evaluations that have an impact on simulator fidelity were given emphasis in terms of identifying alternate concepts, making a selection, and defining the system approach. Those trades that do not impact simulator fidelity have the issues delineated and future study requirements identified.

  6. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendix I. Accident definition and use of event trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning accident definition and use of event trees, event tree methodology, potential accidents covered by the reactor safety study, analysis of potential accidents involving the reactor core, and analysis of potential accidents not involving the core

  7. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 4: Appendix, costs, and data management requirements of the dedicated 30-day laboratory. [carry-on laboratory for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The results of the updated 30-day life sciences dedicated laboratory scheduling and costing activities are documented, and the 'low cost' methodology used to establish individual equipment item costs is explained in terms of its allowances for equipment that is commerical off-the-shelf, modified commercial, and laboratory prototype; a method which significantly lowers program costs. The costs generated include estimates for non-recurring development, recurring production, and recurring operations costs. A cost for a biomedical emphasis laboratory and a Delta cost to provide a bioscience and technology laboratory were also generated. All cost reported are commensurate with the design and schedule definitions available.

  8. The Deployment Life Study. Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    hyperactivity SdQ (Goodman, 1997) x x x x Child peer relationships SdQ (Goodman, 1997) x x x x Child prosocial behavior SdQ (Goodman, 1997) x x x x...2 Th e d ep lo ym en t Life Stu d y: M eth o d o lo g ical O verview an d B aselin e Sam p le d escrip tio n Table A.1 List of Constructs and...Life Study x x List o f C o n stru cts an d M easu res fo r th e d ep lo ym en t Life Stu d y 3 Survey Topic Measure Source Service Member Spouse

  9. Appendix U: benthic biological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessler, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Characterization of the biology and standing crop of the benthic organisms is divided into two major categories: (1) those organisms (sessile or with limited mobility) that live on or within the sediment (infauna); and (2) highly mobile organisms that have contact (if only occasionally) with the sediment (benthopelagic organisms). At this time our studies of benthopelagic organisms are restricted to amphipods. The amphipods trapped at MPG-I (30 to 31 0 N, 159 0 W) in 1978 have been sorted to species and compared with those trapped at Climax II (28 0 N, 155 to 156 0 W) in 1977. The species composition is the same at both stations and the numerical representation of the various species appears to be equivalent. Instar categories based on morphological and size criteria have been determined for Eurythenes gryllus. Comparison of the size range of the instar categories, morphological characters and female to male ratio show no detectable differences in E. gryllus from the two areas. Individuals of one of the smaller species of amphipods (Paralicella caperesca) were trapped at 710 m above the sediment, demonstrating that although the primary range of this species is 0-1 m off the bottom, it is capable of wide bathymetric movements. Males mature at a much smaller size (7 cm vs 11.5 cm) than females. Females appear to breed only once while males seem to be reproductively mature for several instars. After attaining maturity, male growth decreases to almost half the previous rate, and the time interval between molts appears to increase substantially. Females approximate a linear growth rate throughout their instar stages. The data are insufficient to determine if a decrease in growth rate occurs at the molt to maturity (female 14). The apparent difference in the time to maturity for males and females results in a high number of mature males present in the population to fertilize relatively few females

  10. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 425 - Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit 1 C Appendix C to Part 425 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE...

  11. Hotspots Definition Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pater, F.; Brinkman, S.; Schellekens, E.

    2010-03-01

    In the Dutch research programme Climate changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) many scientific projects are carried out. They often take a multidisciplinary approach to the climate issue. However, more attention needed to be given to embedding the programme into practice. Therefore, the board decided to start a hotspot programme. A hotspot was defined as a pilot project in a sector, place or region in which spatial planning and climate change play an important role in the physical shape and land use of the area and where conflicts of interest are found between these and other factors. The hotspot programme started with a definition study. This report is the result of this study. The goal of the study was to identify, describe and evaluate possible hotspots. In two workshops with policy-makers from national and regional governments, consultancy firms and nature conservation organizations, a large number of potential hotspots were identified. Fifteen were selected after the workshops took place and described in detail. The selection was done using a set of conditional criteria, criteria that all had to be met. Two potential hotspots were withdrawn after the selection. Since the Board of the CcSP programme expressed its interest in financing six to seven hotspots, a prioritization was made, using prioritizing criteria. Also the potential hotspots were assessed looking at regional distribution, thematic coverage and target groups. After this assessment and an analysis of the hotspots taking some other factors into account (eg. some hotspots were very similar or one could easily be incorporated in another one) five hotspots were selected: Kampen, Biesbosch-Haringvliet, Zuidplaspolder, Delta Waters and Tilburg. Options to fill the last two places were: Grounds for Change, Noordoostpolder, Oude Vaart Valley and Arnhem/Nijmegen (KAN). For these remaining potential hotspots draft terms of reference were drawn as basis for a project proposals. These terms of reference are added to

  12. VSCE technology definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, R. A.; Hunt, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    Refined design definition of the variable stream control engine (VSCE) concept for advanced supersonic transports is presented. Operating and performance features of the VSCE are discussed, including the engine components, thrust specific fuel consumption, weight, noise, and emission system. A preliminary engine design is presented.

  13. Chesapeake Bay Low Freshwater Inflow Study. Appendix E. Biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    selecting representative species for study, mapping potential habitat under various conditions, using expert scientists to interpret the significance of...8217 t " TH H P CHESAPEAKE BAYE Ec LOW FRESHWATER INFLOW STUDY . htp APPENDIX E . . BIOTA TABLE OF ONTENTS...intensive manual searches of journals and other sources. Five abstract services were searched under more than 14 topics each. Journals, reports to

  14. Studies performed in support of the proposed revision of engineering design aspects of 10CFR100, Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, M.; Prassinos, P.; Kenneally, R.; Chokshi, N.

    1991-01-01

    Part 100 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR100) describes criteria which guide the commission in its evaluation of the suitability of proposed sites for nuclear power plants. Appendix A of this part describes seismic and geologic siting criteria for nuclear power plants. Some engineering design aspects of nuclear power plants are also briefly addressed in Appendix A. These include: definition of the operating basis earthquake (OBE) and the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE), definitions of safety related structures, systems and components, ratio of OBE to SSE, identification of acceptable analytical methods, and definition of vibratory ground motion. One of the interpretations of the regulations on the selection of the two earthquake design levels, the SSE and OBE, was that the SSE would control the design of all safety related systems while the OBE would be applied to the remaining systems required for continued power operation. In practice, however, with the load factors, damping, and service limits, the OBE, rather than the SSE, has controlled the design for some systems. The work in progress at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission will develop the technical basis to support engineering related changes to Appendix A. Included in this effort are the following: investigation of the impact of removing the OBE from design considerations with regard to safety options and review of possible strategies regarding the definition and requirements of the OBE for future reactors. This paper reports on the status and results of studies performed to date in support of this project. These include a study to identify components that are important to plant safety and also are affected by OBE designs; a study to evaluate the impact on ASME BPVC Section 3 Division 1 of eliminating the OBE; and a study to evaluate the impact on design margins if the OBE is eliminated from design

  15. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited

  16. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL).

  17. A STUDY ON GROSS FEATURES AND DIFFERENT POSITIONS OF ADULTS VERMIFORM APPENDIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasukurthy Ashalatha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Appendix is derived from a Latin word (Pendere meaning at the end. It is a narrow worm-like tubular diverticulum, which arises from the posteromedial wall of caecum about 2 cms below the ileocaecal junction and is suspended by a peritoneal fold known as mesoappendix. The body of appendix is kinked on itself where the free border of mesoappendix ends. Hence, it is coiled like a worm and so is named the ‘Vermiform Appendix’. The appendix is taken up for study in view of its different positions, varying anatomical relations, and the clinical complications when pathologically affected. The relations, measurements, positions, and arterial supply were studied by gross dissection in 61 specimens (Adults – 33 and foetuses – 28 from the population of Krishna and Warangal districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was done on 31 adult specimens, out the length of the appendix, the diameter of the appendix at base, length of the caecum, length of ascending colon were measured. The position of the appendix was classified as per Datta’s classification. Mesenteric attachment to the vermiform appendix were noted. Even arterial supply of the appendix was studied. RESULTS Length of the appendix in adults varied from 2.00 to 25.00 cm as described by different authors, the average being 3.00 to 12.50 cm. The length of the caecum in adults were ranging from 5 to 8 cm. In the present study, the length of appendix was 14.4 cm The origin of the appendicular artery was from inferior division of ileocolic artery. A single appendicular artery is observed in all the specimens almost coinciding with studies of Michels et al. In the present study, in adults, the mesoappendix was extending to the tip in 19 specimens and extending to a variable extent in 14 specimens. Regarding the positions, in adults, they were retrocaecal, retrocolic, and subcaecal positions were 21.21% and splenic, promontory, and pelvic positions were 78

  18. Science Mission Definition Studies for TROPIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of mission definition studies for solar electric propulsion missions that have been carried out over the last approximately three years. The major output from the studies has been two proposals which were submitted to NASA in response to Announcements of Opportunity for missions and an ongoing Global Magnetospheric Dynamics mission study. The bulk of this report consists of copies of the proposals and preliminary materials from the GMD study that will be completed in the coming months.

  19. 49 CFR Appendix II to Subpart A of... - Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier... to Subpart A of Part 1139—Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____) [Complete appendix... shareholders' equity less intangibles L. 7+L. 18 $ $ $ 20 Operating ratio (2 decimals) L. 11÷L. 9 % % % 21...

  20. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.

  1. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Crime Definitions in Accordance With the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting Program. The definitions for murder; robbery; aggravated... person through gross negligence. Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter The willful...

  2. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This document contains the appendixes for the remedial investigation and feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The following topics are covered in the appendixes: (A) David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site Historical Data, (B) Fieldwork Plans for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, (C) Risk Assessment, (D) Remediation Technology Discussion, (E) Engineering Support Documentation, (F) Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements, and (G) Cost Estimate Documentation

  3. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document contains the appendixes for the remedial investigation and feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The following topics are covered in the appendixes: (A) David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site Historical Data, (B) Fieldwork Plans for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, (C) Risk Assessment, (D) Remediation Technology Discussion, (E) Engineering Support Documentation, (F) Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements, and (G) Cost Estimate Documentation.

  4. Mini gas turbines. Study related to energy efficient cogeneration applications for new cogeneration markets. Appendix; Mini gasturbiner. Udredning vedr. energieffektive kraftvarmeapplikationer til nye kraftvarmemarkeder. Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, J.B.; Weel Hansen, M.; Astrupgaard, N.P.

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate, design and increase the energy efficiency in new cogeneration/cooling systems, which are based on new developed mini gas turbines. Hereby cogeneration can primarily based on natural gas and bio-fuels be spread to new market segments. The appendix presents further details related to gas turbine as burner; cogeneration with recuperation gas turbine; gas turbine for cogeneration/absorption refrigerator; the economic and operational basis used in the study. (EHS)

  5. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E.; Smith, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design

  6. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)

    1995-05-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

  7. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan).

  8. Study of frequency and Prognosis of appendix carcinoid tumor in appendoctomies done in Shohada hospital in Khorramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mojtaba Ahmadi Nejad

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Appendix carcinoid tumors are of rare cases. Their commonest place is in digestive system in appendix intensine and rectom respectively. They have no symptoms and they are detected along with laparotomy or inflation in appendix. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of carcinoid tumor in appendix and its prognosis in a period of 3 to 8 years in Shohada hospital in khorramabad. Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross – sectional which was carried out on 2845 patients with appendectomy in Shohada hospital in khorramabad in 2003-2006. The needed data were collected through a questionnaire from the pationts files who had the tumor operation in the hospital. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Then the patients prognosis was determind. Results: The results showed that among all the cases with tumors, three out of five were carcdinoids, one was mucucell, one was mucucell associated lymphoid tissue. In adition to these cases, one case was colon carcinoid related to metastatic΄s deodenom, but no adenocarcinoma tumor was observed. After pathological analysis, the results showed that none of the patients with carcinoid appendix needed any treatment in 3-8 years follow up program and there was no recurrent growth for the disease. Conclusion: As carcinoid in appendix can be malignant and spread over other tissues and causes short life, it needs special care and follow and the patients should be referred to the specialist to complete treatment. Carcinoid appendix should be considerd as a neoplasm since it has the special power of spreading and metastasis over distant tissues.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 564 - Information To Be Submitted for Long Life Replaceable Light Sources of Limited Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...—Information To Be Submitted for Long Life Replaceable Light Sources of Limited Definition I. Filament or... Source that Operates With a Ballast and Rated Life of the Light Source/Ballast Combination. A. Maximum power (in watts). B. Luminous Flux (in lumens). C. Rated laboratory life of the light source/ballast...

  10. Preliminary results from a numerical study on the appendix gap losses in a Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2005-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the losses in the displacer clearance gap, a.k.a. the appendix gap, have been refined during the last decades. But most real life Stirling engines violate the assumptions behind these expressions and hence the expressions may not be applicable. In this study the gap has...... been included directly into a one dimensional Stirling engine model. Practical aspects of the method, such as handling the moving wall in the gap while achieving an energy conserving model formulation and handling discontinuous derivatives in the equations, are discussed. A study on the convergence...... output of the engine....

  11. Feasibility study for biomass power plants in Thailand. Volume 2. appendix: Detailed financial analysis results. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report presents a technical and commercial analysis for the development of three nearly identical electricity generating facilities (biomass steam power plants) in the towns of Chachgoengsao, Suphan Buri, and Pichit in Thailand. Volume 2 of the study contains the following appendix: Detailed Financial Analysis Results

  12. Crescent Evaluation : appendix B : state case study evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The state case study evaluation approach uniquely captured an understanding of the potential of such a system by documenting the experiences, issues, and opportunities of selected key state government personnel from a cross-section of involved agenci...

  13. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This study also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  14. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis. Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-25

    The results of the design trade-off studies and the sensitivity analysis of Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) Program are presented. The effects of variations in the design of the vehicle body, propulsion systems, and other components on vehicle power, weight, cost, and fuel economy and an optimized hybrid vehicle design are discussed. (LCL)

  15. Study of air pollution in Buenos Aires city. Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, R.R.; Moreno, M.A.; Tafuri, V.; Cussto, G.S.; Adler, M.

    1995-01-01

    The work performed since 1993 on the study of the elemental profile of Buenos Aires atmosphere is presented. Both aerosol direct sampling and biomonitors have been used and the samples have been analyzed mainly by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Due to problems with XRF, Anodic Stripping Voltammetry has been chosen for lead determination and Ion Chromatography for soluble anions. For aerosol direct sampling, analytical and sampling methods are described, as well as the sampling campaigns. Experiments have been performed for studying differences between day/night elemental concentrations along the week and a possible seasonal dependence. Some results of mass concentrations and others from INAA are presented. Sampling with the 'Gent sampler' began during August 1994 at an urban residential area of the city. The results of mass concentrations for the first 28 pairs of samples are shown together with some INAA results, as this is the only technique used for the analysis. Lichens and tree bark were the chosen biomonitors. Sampling and analytical methods by INAA are exposed, presenting some of the results that have been obtained. The participation in the aerosol analysis for the Ushuaia Global Atmospheric Watch Station is also commented. (author)

  16. Life sciences payload definition and integration study, task C and D. Volume 2: Payload definition, integration, and planning studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Life Sciences Payload Definition and Integration Study was composed of four major tasks. Tasks A and B, the laboratory definition phase, were the subject of prior NASA study. The laboratory definition phase included the establishment of research functions, equipment definitions, and conceptual baseline laboratory designs. These baseline laboratories were designated as Maxi-Nom, Mini-30, and Mini-7. The outputs of Tasks A and B were used by the NASA Life Sciences Payload Integration Team to establish guidelines for Tasks C and D, the laboratory integration phase of the study. A brief review of Tasks A and B is presented provide background continuity. The tasks C and D effort is the subject of this report. The Task C effort stressed the integration of the NASA selected laboratory designs with the shuttle sortie module. The Task D effort updated and developed costs that could be used by NASA for preliminary program planning.

  17. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, appendix E: Alternate flight systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The functional requirements of stowage, preparation, serving, consumption, and cleanup were applied to each of the five food mixes selected for study in terms of the overall design of the space shuttle food system. The analysis led to a definition of performance requirements for each food mix, along with a definition of equipment to meet those requirements. Weight and volume data for all five systems, in terms of food and packaging, support equipment, and galley installation penalties, are presented.

  18. On the definition of a DEMO (demonstration) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, H.C.; Challender, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The paper is an appendix to a study of the reactor relevance of the NET design concept. The latter study examines whether the technologies and design principles proposed for NET can be directly extrapolated to a demonstration (DEMO) reactor. The authors have suggested a definition of a DEMO, and listed what they considered to be the most important implications of this definition. A table of parameters is included comparing published DEMO's with typical commercial reactor and 'pre-DEMO' studies. (U.K.)

  19. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  20. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Appendix 1. Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Appendix 1 includes the overall design philosophy about units in parallel, specifications above actual need, spares maintenance, etc. Most of the report involves engineering work sheets for various equipments. (LTN)

  1. Adenocarcinoid of the vermiform appendix. A clinicopathologic study of 20 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Asschenfeldt, P

    1988-01-01

    Adenocarcinoid of the appendix is a tumor that shares the histologic features of both carcinoids and adenocarcinomas. The metastatic ability of the tumor is uncertain. Twenty consecutive cases of adenocarcinoids were compared with 88 cases of conventional appendiceal carcinoids. Metastatic tumor...... by hemicolectomy. Adenocarcinoids showing moderate or severe nuclear atypia, a mitotic count of two or more mitoses/10 high power fields, or spread beyond the appendix should be treated by hemicolectomy. If these features are not present, simple appendectomy is adequate....

  2. Solar dynamic power system definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1988-01-01

    The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 136 - Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit-Revision 1.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calculated method detection limit. To insure that the estimate of the method detection limit is a good...) where: MDL = the method detection limit t(n-1,1- α=.99) = the students' t value appropriate for a 99... Determination of the Method Detection Limit-Revision 1.11 B Appendix B to Part 136 Protection of Environment...

  4. Technical and economic feasibility study of enhanced oil recovery in six Colombian fields. Appendix C. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to determine which of the reservoirs in the principal fields were amenable to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, to evaluate which process was the most effective from both a technical and economic point of view, and to propose the steps required to further investigate the recommended EOR methods at the laboratory and field (pilot) level. Appendix C is divided into three sections: (A) Casabe Field; (B) La Cira Field; and (C) Tibu-Barco.

  5. Programs of Study as a State Policy Mandate: A Longitudinal Study of the South Carolina Personal Pathways to Success Initiative. Technical Appendix B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Cathy; Drew, Sam F.; Withington, Cairen; Griffith, Cathy; Swiger, Caroline M.; Mobley, Catherine; Sharp, Julia L.; Stringfield, Samuel C.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Daugherty, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This Technical Appendix discusses how researchers from the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education (NRCCTE) conducted the five-year longitudinal study of South Carolina's Personal Pathway to Success initiative, which was authorized by the state's Education and Economic Development Act (EEDA) in 2005, and how they defined and…

  6. Developing a Framework for Analyzing Definitions: A Study of "The Feynman Lectures"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chee Leong; Chu, Hye-Eun; Yap, Kueh Chin

    2014-01-01

    One important purpose of a definition is to explain the meaning of a word. Any problems associated with a definition may impede students' learning. However, research studies on the definitional problems from the perspective of physics education are limited. Physics educators may not be aware of the nature and extent of definitional problems.…

  7. Geostationary platform systems concepts definition study. Volume 2A: Appendixes, book 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Various investigations and support data concerning geostationary platform feasibility are presented. Servicing flight analyses, platform cost model runs, and funding spread analyses are included. In addition, investigations of the radiation environment at synchronous altitude and its effects on satellite communication are reported.

  8. Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) spacelab payload definition study, appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    An equipment list, instrument baseline data, engineering drawings, mass properties computer printouts, electrical energy management, and control and display functional analysis pertinent to the AMPS (Satellite Payload) are presented.

  9. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the work performed by Rockwell International's Rocketdyne Division on NASA Contract No. NAS3-25808 (Task Order No. 16) entitled 'Mars Power System Definition Study'. This work was performed for NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC). The report is divided into two volumes as follows: Volume 1 - Study Results; and Volume 2 - Appendices. The results of the power system characterization studies, operations studies, and technology evaluations are summarized in Volume 1. The appendices include complete, standalone technology development plans for each candidate power system that was investigated.

  10. [Immortal time bias in pharmacoepidemiological studies: definition, solutions and examples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillie, Jean-Luc; Suissa, Samy

    2015-01-01

    Among the observational studies of drug effects in chronic diseases, many of them have found effects that were exaggerated or wrong. Among bias responsible for these errors, the immortal time bias, concerning the definition of exposure and exposure periods, is relevantly important as it usually tends to wrongly attribute a significant benefit to the study drug (or exaggerate a real benefit). In this article, we define the mechanism of immortal time bias, we present possible solutions and illustrate its consequences through examples of pharmacoepidemiological studies of drug effects. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  11. Technical appendix for the special safeguards study on material control and accounting systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The appendixes contain information on alarm levels for detection of theft, computer simulation of theft detection capabilities, benefits and liabilities related to real-time material control, cost analysis, and impact of collocated facilities on the real-time material control concept

  12. Indirect effects in community ecology: Their definition, study and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S Y

    1991-07-01

    The diversity of indirect interactions that can occur within communities is large. Recent research on indirect interactions is scattered in the literature under numerous labels. The definition of indirect effects is an important aspect of their study, and clarifies some of the subtle differences among indirect effects found in natural communities. Choosing which species to study, how to manipulate species and for what duration, which attributes to measure and, finally, which analytical techniques to use are all problems facing the community ecologist. Ultimately, we are striving for the best means of determining the relative importance of direct and indirect effects in structuring communities. Copyright © 1991. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Beyond the traditional definition of breakthrough pain: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Antonio; Gentili, Marta; Iorno, Vittorio; Mammucari, Massimo; Tufaro, Giuseppe; Lazzari, Marzia; Sabato, Alessandro Fabrizio

    2013-03-01

    Breakthrough pain (BTP) is traditionally defined as a transitory pain flare in opioid-treated patients with chronic background pain. This definition has, however, been challenged in recent years. This study aimed to analyze BTP prevalence in different pain conditions. This was a prospective, non-interventional, observational study conducted from June to September 2011 in two Italian pain treatment reference centres. Consecutive patients aged >18 years with oncological or non-oncological pain were eligible for this study; background pain was acute/ subacute (3 months). The characteristics of pain were evaluated by means of a structured interview by physicians, and patients were asked to complete a dedicated clinical study form. The following outcomes were assessed: chronic pain duration (in patients with chronic pain), BTP prevalence, and number and severity of daily BTP episodes. All outcomes were assessed in four populations of patients with: (a) chronic oncological pain; (b) chronic non-oncological pain; (c) non-chronic oncological pain; (d) non-chronic non-oncological pain. The correlation between BTP and gender was also investigated. Of 1,270 patients with chronic pain, 1,086 had non-oncological pain (85.5%). Most patients (68.6%) with non-oncological pain were female (P = 0.001). Pain duration was significantly longer in non-oncological pain versus oncological pain groups (P = 0.002). BTP prevalence was lower in non-oncological patients (P definition. BTP frequency and severity is similar in oncological and non-oncological pain.

  14. Appendix C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, F. A.; Henriksen, M. S.; Brincker, Rune

    1999-01-01

    In this appendix a model is formulated for the rotational capacity of reinforced concrete beams assuming rebar tension failure. The model is based on a classical approach and establishes the load-deflection curve of a reinforced concrete beam. The rotational capacity is then obtained as the area ...

  15. Appendix A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M. S.; Brincker, Rune; Heshe, Gert

    1999-01-01

    In this appendix a brief summary of experiments on reinforced concrete beams in three-point bending performed at Aalborg University is given. The aim of the investigation is to determine the full load-deflection curves for different beam sizes, different types of concrete and different amounts...

  16. Appendix B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, F. A.; Brincker, Rune

    1999-01-01

    In this appendix the failure behaviour of lightly reinforced concrete beams is investigated. A numerical model based on the fictitious crack approach according to Hillerborg [1] is established in order to estimate the load-deflection curve for lightly reinforced concrete beams. The debonding...

  17. Healthy ageing in the Nun Study: definition and neuropathologic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, Suzanne L; Snowdon, David A; Desrosiers, Mark F; Riley, Kathryn P; Markesbery, William R

    2007-11-01

    Although the concept of healthy ageing has stimulated considerable interest, no generally accepted definition has been developed nor has its biological basis been determined. To develop a definition of healthy ageing and investigate its association with longevity and neuropathology. Analyses were based on cognitive, physical, and post-mortem assessments from 1991 to 1998 in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of ageing in participants 75+ years at baseline. We defined three mutually exclusive levels of healthy ageing (excellent, very good, and good) based on measures of global cognitive function, short-term memory, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and self-rated function. Mortality analyses were based on 636 participants; neuropathologic analyses were restricted to 221 who had died and were autopsied. Only 11% of those meeting criteria for the excellent level of healthy ageing at baseline subsequently died, compared with 24% for the very good, 39% for the good, and 60% for the remaining participants. Survival curves showed significantly greater longevity with higher levels of healthy ageing. The risk of not attaining healthy ageing, adjusted for age, increased two-fold in participants with brain infarcts alone, six-fold in those with Alzheimer neuropathology alone, and more than thirteen-fold in those with both brain infarcts and Alzheimer neuropathology. The biological validity of our definition of healthy ageing is supported by its strong association with mortality and longevity. Avoiding Alzheimer and stroke neuropathology is critical to the maintenance of healthy ageing, and the presence of both pathologies dramatically decreases the likelihood of healthy ageing.

  18. Technical specifications Catawba Nuclear Station, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-413). Appendix A to License No. NPF-31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    This appendix includes: definitions, safety limits and limiting safety system settings, limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements, bases, design features, and administrative controls

  19. Technical specifications, Catawba Nuclear Station, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-413). Appendix A to License No. NPF-24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, F.D.

    1984-07-01

    This appendix comprises the following: definitions, safety limits and limiting safety system settings, limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements, design features, and administrative controls

  20. Strategic analysis for safeguards systems: a feasibility study. Volume 2. Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, A J

    1984-12-01

    This appendix provides detailed information regarding game theory (strategic analysis) and its potential role in safeguards to supplement the main body of this report. In particualr, it includes an extensive, though not comprehensive review of literature on game theory and on other topics that relate to the formulation of a game-theoretic model (e.g. the payoff functions). The appendix describes the basic form and components of game theory models, and the solvability of various models. It then discusses three basic issues related to the use of strategic analysis in material accounting: (1) its understandability; (2) its viability in regulatory settings; and (3) difficulties in the use of mixed strategies. Each of the components of a game theoretic model are then discussed and related to the present context.

  1. Strategic analysis for safeguards systems: a feasibility study. Volume 2. Appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.J.

    1984-12-01

    This appendix provides detailed information regarding game theory (strategic analysis) and its potential role in safeguards to supplement the main body of this report. In particualr, it includes an extensive, though not comprehensive review of literature on game theory and on other topics that relate to the formulation of a game-theoretic model (e.g. the payoff functions). The appendix describes the basic form and components of game theory models, and the solvability of various models. It then discusses three basic issues related to the use of strategic analysis in material accounting: (1) its understandability; (2) its viability in regulatory settings; and (3) difficulties in the use of mixed strategies. Each of the components of a game theoretic model are then discussed and related to the present context

  2. Case studies can support definitions of workplace innovation in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaas, F.; Žiauberytė-Jakštienė, R.; Oeij, P.R.

    2017-01-01

    Many practitioners find it problematic to understand and describe workplace innovation (WPI). Whereas there are well-known definitions of WPI, these remain highly abstract. We argue that, for practitioners, case examples of WPI best practices can be a valuable addition to these definitions. In this

  3. Vermiform appendix: positions and length – a study of 377 cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Cilindro de Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluation of the frequency of the relative positions and length of vermiform appendix in a group of corpses examined by the authors. Method: Dissection of 377 adult cadavers autopsied. Results and conclusions: Retrocecal: 43.5%; subcecal: 24.4% post-ileal: 14.3%, pelvic: 9.3%; paracecal: 5.8%; and pre-ileal appendices: 2.4%, other positions: 0.27%, mean length: 11.4 cm. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliação da frequência das posições relativas e do comprimento do apêndice vermiforme em um grupo de cadáveres examinados pelos autores. Método: Dissecção de 377 cadáveres adultos necropsiados. Resultados e conclusões: Apêndices retrocecais: 43,5%, subcecais: 24,4%, pós-ileais: 14,3%, pélvico: 9,3%, paracecais: 5,8%, pré-ileais 2,4%, outras posições: 0,27%. Comprimento médio: 11,4 cm. Keywords: Vermiform appendix, Cecum, Anatomical variation, Appendicitis, Palavras-chave: Apêndice vermiforme, Ceco, Variação anatômica, Apendicite

  4. Survey Definitions of Gout for Epidemiologic Studies: Comparison With Crystal Identification as the Gold Standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalbeth, N.; Schumacher, H.R.; Fransen, J.; Neogi, T.; Jansen, T.L; Brown, M.; Louthrenoo, W.; Vazquez-Mellado, J.; Eliseev, M.; McCarthy, G.; Stamp, L.K.; Perez-Ruiz, F.; Sivera, F.; Ea, H.K.; Gerritsen, M.; Scire, C.A.; Cavagna, L.; Lin, C.; Chou, Y.Y.; Tausche, A.K.; Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, G. da; Janssen, M; Chen, J.H.; Cimmino, M.A.; Uhlig, T.; Taylor, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the best-performing survey definition of gout from items commonly available in epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Survey definitions of gout were identified from 34 epidemiologic studies contributing to the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC) genome-wide association study.

  5. National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). Project definition study: Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1995-02-15

    This report describes a five-year plan for the construction and commissioning of a reliable and versatile NBTF facility for the production of high-quality, high-yield radioisotopes for research, biomedical, and industrial applications. The report is organized in nine sections providing, in consecutive order, responses to the nine questions posed by the U.S. Department of Energy in its solicitation for the NBTF Project Definition Study. In order to preserve direct correspondence (e.g., Sec. 3 = 3rd item), this Introduction is numbered {open_quotes}0.{close_quotes} Accelerator and facility designs are covered in Section 1 (Accelerator Design) and Section 2 (Facility Design). Preliminary estimates of capital costs are detailed in Section 3 (Design and Construction Costs). Full licensing requirements, including federal, state, and local ordinances, are discussed in Section 4 (Permits). A plan for the management of hazardous materials to be generated by NBTF is presented in Section 5 (Waste Management). An evaluation of NBTF`s economic viability and its potential market impact is detailed in Section 6(Business Plan), and is complemented by the plans in Section 7 (Operating Plan) and Section 8 (Radioisotope Plan). Finally, a plan for NBTF`s research, education, and outreach programs is presented in Section 9 (Research and Education Programs).

  6. The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

  7. Technical specifications Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-322). Appendix A to License No. NPF-19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    This appendix includes definitions, safety limits and limiting safety system settings, limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements, bases, design features, and administrative controls

  8. Technical specifications Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-275). Appendix A to License No. DPR-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This Appendix includes definitions, safety limits and limiting safety system settings, limiting conditions for opertion and surveillance requirements, bases, design features, and administrative controls

  9. German risk study on nuclear power plants. Appendix 2. Reliability analysis. Deutsche Risikostudie Kernkraftwerke. Fachband 2: Zuverlaessigkeitsanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlmeier, W.; Gossner, S.; Gueldner, W.; Hoertner, H.; von Linden, J.; Preischl, W.; Reichart, G.; Spindler, H.; Volmer, G.; Zipf, G.

    1981-01-01

    Based on the event tree analysis as documented in the Appendix 1, the failure probabilities of the system functions required to control the initiating events are evaluated in this Appendix 2. The reliability investigations necessary for the evaluation of the event sequences are performed mostly by means of the fault tree analysis. The methods of the reliability analysis, the composition and function of the systems important to safety and the functional tests performed on these systems are dealt with in detail. The comprehensive documentation of the reliability analyses as performed for the internal events necessitated a division of this Appendix 2 into two volumes.

  10. Appendix A : literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This appendix contains a review of the literature and other background information : germane to the experimental and analytical research presented in subsequent appendices. Table : 1 lists the sections and topics contained in this appendix and those ...

  11. Analysis of agreement among definitions of metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic Turkish adults: a methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersot Thomas P

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to explore the agreement among World Health Organization (WHO, European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR, National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP, American College of Endocrinology (ACE, and International Diabetes Federation (IDF definitions of the metabolic syndrome. Methods 1568 subjects (532 men, 1036 women, mean age 45 and standard deviation (SD 13 years were evaluated in this cross-sectional, methodological study. Cardiometabolic risk factors were determined. Insulin sensitivity was calculated by HOMA-IR. Agreement among definitions was determined by the kappa statistic. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test were used to compare multiple groups. Results The agreement between WHO and EGIR definitions was very good (kappa: 0.83. The agreement between NCEP, ACE, and IDF definitions was substantial to very good (kappa: 0.77–0.84. The agreement between NCEP or ACE or IDF and WHO or EGIR definitions was fair (kappa: 0.32–0.37. The age and sex adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38% by NCEP, 42% by ACE and IDF, 20% by EGIR and 19% by WHO definition. The evaluated definitions were dichotomized after analysis of design, agreement and prevalence: insulin measurement requiring definitions (WHO and EGIR and definitions not requiring insulin measurement (NCEP, ACE, IDF. One definition was selected from each set for comparison. WHO-defined subjects were more insulin resistant than subjects without the metabolic syndrome (mean and SD for log HOMA-IR, 0.53 ± 0.14 vs. 0.07 ± 0.23, respectively, p 0.05, but lower log HOMA-IR values (p Conclusion The metabolic syndrome definitions that do not require measurement of insulin levels (NCEP, ACE and IDF identify twice more patients with insulin resistance and increased Framingham risk scores and are more useful than the definitions that require measurement of insulin levels (WHO and EGIR.

  12. Scheduling language and algorithm development study. Appendix: Study approach and activity summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The approach and organization of the study to develop a high level computer programming language and a program library are presented. The algorithm and problem modeling analyses are summarized. The approach used to identify and specify the capabilities required in the basic language is described. Results of the analyses used to define specifications for the scheduling module library are presented.

  13. Autoamputation of the Appendix in a Chronic Adnexal Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Michele Markey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoamputation of the appendix has rarely been described in the literature. We present a case of a pelvic mass, thought to be a dermoid cyst based on preoperative imaging. After surgical removal and pathological examination, the mass was found to be a chronic pelvic abscess containing the right adnexa as well as an autoamputated vermiform appendix. Differentiating between gynecologic and gastrointestinal disease preoperatively can be difficult and often a definitive diagnosis cannot be made until surgical exploration and pathological review. However, to our knowledge, this is the first described case of a chronic pelvic abscess containing an autoamputated vermiform appendix.

  14. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  15. Definitions of Physical Concepts: A Study of Physics Teachers' Knowledge and Views. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Igal; Lehavi, Yaron

    2006-01-01

    A study was made of the ability of a population of high-school physics teachers to define physics concepts and of their views regarding the importance of such definitions. It was found possible to arrange the definitions accumulated in categories, and the classification so obtained was consonant with that of the philosophy of science. Although the…

  16. Comparing definitions in guidelines and written standards - a case study: 'Trueness'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavese, F

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of a repository initiated by IMEKO TC21 to allow the comparison of different definitions and use of the same term or concept in written standards and guidelines available internationally. The method used is illustrated for a case study: the critical concept of 'trueness' and its definitions.

  17. Does the Reliability of Reporting in Injury Surveillance Studies Depend on Injury Definition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew; Williams, Sean; Kemp, Simon P.T.; Fuller, Colin; Taylor, Aileen; Brooks, John; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Background: Choosing an appropriate definition for injury in injury surveillance studies is essential to ensure a balance among reporting reliability, providing an accurate representation of injury risk, and describing the nature of the clinical demand. Purpose: To provide guidance on the choice of injury definition for injury surveillance studies by comparing within- and between-team variability in injury incidence with >24-hour and >7-day time-loss injury definitions in a large multiteam injury surveillance study. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Injury data were reported for 2248 professional rugby union players from 15 Premiership Rugby clubs over 12 seasons. Within-team percentage coefficient of variation and mean between-team standard deviation (expressed as a percentage coefficient of variation) in injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 player match hours) were calculated. For both variables, a comparison was made between >24-hour and >7-day injury incidence rates in terms of the magnitude of the observed effects. Results: The overall mean incidence across the population with a >24-hour time-loss injury definition was approximately double the reported incidence with the >7-day definition. There was a 10% higher between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with the >24-hour time-loss definition versus the >7-day definition. Conclusion: There was a likely higher degree of between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with a >24-hour time-loss definition than with a >7-day definition of injury. However, in professional sports settings, it is likely that the benefits of using a more inclusive definition of injury (improved understanding of clinical demand and the appropriate and accurate reporting of injury risk) outweigh the small increase in variation in reporting consistency. PMID:29581994

  18. Competing Definitions of Schizophrenia: What Can Be Learned From Polydiagnostic Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Lennart Bertil; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    not a product of explicit conceptual analyses and empirical studies but defined through consensus with the purpose of improving reliability. The validity status of current definitions and of their predecessors remains unclear. The so-called "polydiagnostic approach" applies different definitions of a disorder...... to the same patient sample in order to compare these definitions on potential validity indicators. We reviewed 92 polydiagnostic sz studies published since the early 1970s. Different sz definitions show a considerable variation concerning frequency, concordance, reliability, outcome, and other validity...... measures. The DSM-IV and the ICD-10 show moderate reliability but both definitions appear weak in terms of concurrent validity, eg, with respect to an aggregation of a priori important features. The first-rank symptoms of Schneider are not associated with family history of sz or with prediction of poor...

  19. Competing definitions of schizophrenia: what can be learned from polydiagnostic studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Lennart B; Parnas, Josef

    2007-01-01

    of explicit conceptual analyses and empirical studies but defined through consensus with the purpose of improving reliability. The validity status of current definitions and of their predecessors remains unclear. The so-called "polydiagnostic approach" applies different definitions of a disorder to the same...... patient sample in order to compare these definitions on potential validity indicators. We reviewed 92 polydiagnostic sz studies published since the early 1970s. Different sz definitions show a considerable variation concerning frequency, concordance, reliability, outcome, and other validity measures....... The DSM-IV and the ICD-10 show moderate reliability but both definitions appear weak in terms of concurrent validity, eg, with respect to an aggregation of a priori important features. The first-rank symptoms of Schneider are not associated with family history of sz or with prediction of poor outcome...

  20. Does the Reliability of Reporting in Injury Surveillance Studies Depend on Injury Definition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew; Williams, Sean; Kemp, Simon P T; Fuller, Colin; Taylor, Aileen; Brooks, John; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2018-03-01

    Choosing an appropriate definition for injury in injury surveillance studies is essential to ensure a balance among reporting reliability, providing an accurate representation of injury risk, and describing the nature of the clinical demand. To provide guidance on the choice of injury definition for injury surveillance studies by comparing within- and between-team variability in injury incidence with >24-hour and >7-day time-loss injury definitions in a large multiteam injury surveillance study. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Injury data were reported for 2248 professional rugby union players from 15 Premiership Rugby clubs over 12 seasons. Within-team percentage coefficient of variation and mean between-team standard deviation (expressed as a percentage coefficient of variation) in injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 player match hours) were calculated. For both variables, a comparison was made between >24-hour and >7-day injury incidence rates in terms of the magnitude of the observed effects. The overall mean incidence across the population with a >24-hour time-loss injury definition was approximately double the reported incidence with the >7-day definition. There was a 10% higher between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with the >24-hour time-loss definition versus the >7-day definition. There was a likely higher degree of between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with a >24-hour time-loss definition than with a >7-day definition of injury. However, in professional sports settings, it is likely that the benefits of using a more inclusive definition of injury (improved understanding of clinical demand and the appropriate and accurate reporting of injury risk) outweigh the small increase in variation in reporting consistency.

  1. T1 bright appendix sign to exclude acute appendicitis in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ilah; An, Chansik; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the T1 bright appendix sign for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women. This retrospective study included 125 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The T1 bright appendix sign was defined as a high intensity signal filling more than half length of the appendix on T1-weighted imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix identification were calculated in all patients and in those with borderline-sized appendices (6-7 mm). The T1 bright appendix sign was seen in 51% of patients with normal appendices, but only in 4.5% of patients with acute appendicitis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix diagnosis were 44.9%, 95.5%, 97.6%, and 30.0%, respectively. All four patients with borderline sized appendix with appendicitis showed negative T1 bright appendix sign. The T1 bright appendix sign is a specific finding for the diagnosis of a normal appendix in pregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. • Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used in emergency settings. • Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. • Magnetic resonance imaging is widely used in pregnant population. • T1 bright appendix sign can be a specific sign representing normal appendix.

  2. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., aromatic hydrocarbons or paraffins. Others will form hazardous combinations with many groups: For example...

  3. The Definition and Treatment of Bulimarexia in College Women--A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskind-Ledahl, Marlene; White, William C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A study of college women suffering from bulimarexia, a cyclical eating disorder characterized by bingeing/purging behaviors and abnormally low self-esteem, indicates the importance of sociocultural factors in female role definition. (JMF)

  4. College Students' Definitions of Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Three Chinese Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yanpeng; Sun, Ivan Y; Farmer, Ashley K; Lin, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Although a large number of studies have been conducted worldwide to examine various aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV), comparative study of people's views on such violence in Chinese societies has been scarce. Using survey data collected from more than 850 college students in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, this study specifically assessed the impact of attitudes toward gender role and violence, personal and vicarious experience, demographic characteristics, and locality on students' definitions of IPV. The Taiwanese students were most likely to define a broader range of abusive behavior as IPV, followed by Hong Kong and Beijing students. Gender role and violence attitudes appeared to be most important predictors of IPV definitions. College students who supported the notion of male dominance were more likely to have a narrower definition of IPV, whereas those who viewed domestic violence as crime were more inclined to have a broader definition of IPV. Implications for future research and policy were discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Study on the market for heat pump systems. Long-list of projects. Appendix D2; Studie marktrijpheid warmtepompsystemen. Projectenlijst. Bijlage D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravelli, R.; Bosselaar, L.; Van der Kooij, D.; Molenaar, R. [Techniplan Adviseurs, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Van Aarssen, M.M.; De Zwart, B. [IF-Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands); Dingenouts, M.W.L.; Schorel, J.S. [New-Energy-Works, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2005-04-15

    An overview is given of the market for heat pumps in utility buildings in the Netherlands. The results of the study provide information based on which the energy performance coefficient (EPC) for new buildings in 2007 can be determined. In this appendix an overview is given of heat pump projects specifying 332 projects in the Netherlands. [Dutch] Deze studie rapporteert over de toetsing van de marktrijpheid van warmtepompen in de utiliteitsbouw. De resultaten leveren de informatie die nodig is om te beslissen over de mogelijkheden voor eventuele aanscherping van de energieprestatie-eisen voor nieuwe utiliteitsgebouwen in 2007. Onderzocht is de ontwikkeling van de marktinfrastructuur voor warmtepompen, het technisch functioneren in de praktijk, eventuele belemmeringen vanuit de wet en regelgeving en het stadium van marktintroductie van de warmtepompen. Daarnaast zijn concrete kentallen verzameld die nodig zijn voor berekeningen welke aanscherping van de EPC mogelijk is. In deze bijlage wordt een overzicht gegeven van warmtepompprojecten in Nederland (332)

  6. Reconsidering the International Association for the Study of Pain definition of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Milton; Quintner, John; van Rysewyk, Simon

    2018-03-01

    The definition of pain promulgated by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) is widely accepted as a pragmatic characterisation of that human experience. Although the Notes that accompany it characterise pain as "always subjective," the IASP definition itself fails to sufficiently integrate phenomenological aspects of pain. This essay reviews the historical development of the IASP definition, and the commentaries and suggested modifications to it over almost 40 years. Common factors of pain experience identified in phenomenological studies are described, together with theoretical insights from philosophy and biology. A fuller understanding of the pain experience and of the clinical care of those experiencing pain is achievable through greater attention to the phenomenology of pain, the social "intersubjective space" in which pain occurs, and the limitations of language. Based on these results, a revised definition of pain is offered: Pain is a mutually recognizable somatic experience that reflects a person's apprehension of threat to their bodily or existential integrity.

  7. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 6: SPS technology requirements and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    Volume 6 of the SPS Concept Definition Study is presented and also incorporates results of NASA/MSFC in-house effort. This volume includes a supporting research and technology summary. Other volumes of the final report that provide additional detail are as follows: (1) Executive Summary; (2) SPS System Requirements; (3) SPS Concept Evolution; (4) SPS Point Design Definition; (5) Transportation and Operations Analysis; and Volume 7, SPS Program Plan and Economic Analysis.

  8. Word Definitional Skills in School age Persian Speaking Children: A Developmental Study on Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talieh Zarifian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Word definitional skills (WDSs were classified according to the quality of both semantic content and syntactic form. The aim of the present study was to investigate the syntactic development in WDSs in typically developing school- age children. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study,  150 of typically developing school-age children participated by the  multistage sampling method in the second to sixth grade from primary schools in 1, 7 and 17 municipal  districts of Tehran. The definition skill was assessed with word definition task. The reliability was assessed by two independent values and the validity was determined by the content. The results were  analyzed by the SPSS (22th version  statistical software and with the method of independent- samples T test, univariate analysis of variance and Tukey test. Results: The form analysis revealed that all children use phrase/clause  or simple sentence, transitional form and Aristotelian form frequently, but by increasing the age, definitions were developed from simple syntactic structure into Aristotelian form, in fact mean score of the form in word definition was significantly increased by age (P<0.001. Discussion: Owing to the findings of this study, the development of word definitional skills in terms of form was developed from phrase/clause or simple sentence and transitional form responses into Aristotelian form. Also WDSs are closely related to academic success and the development of literacy.

  9. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for studies of injuries in rugby union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Molloy, Michael G; Bagate, Christian; Bahr, Roald; Brooks, John H M; Donson, Hilton; Kemp, Simon P T; McCrory, Paul; McIntosh, Andrew S; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Wiley, Preston

    2007-01-01

    Wide variations in the definitions and methodologies used for studies of injuries in rugby union have created inconsistencies in reported data and made interstudy comparisons of results difficult. The International Rugby Board established a Rugby Injury Consensus Group (RICG) to reach an agreement on the appropriate definitions and methodologies to standardise the recording of injuries and reporting of studies in rugby union. The RICG reviewed the consensus definitions and methodologies previously published for football (soccer) at a meeting in Dublin in order to assess their suitability for and application to rugby union. Following this meeting, iterative draft statements were prepared and circulated to members of the RICG for comment; a follow‐up meeting was arranged in Dublin, at which time all definitions and procedures were finalised. At this stage, all authors confirmed their agreement with the consensus statement. The agreed document was presented to and approved by the International Rugby Board Council. Agreement was reached on definitions for injury, recurrent injury, non‐fatal catastrophic injury, and training and match exposures, together with criteria for classifying injuries in terms of severity, location, type, diagnosis and causation. The definitions and methodology presented in this consensus statement for rugby union are similar to those proposed for football. Adoption of the proposals presented in this consensus statement should ensure that more consistent and comparable results will be obtained from studies of injuries within rugby union. PMID:17452684

  10. The Category of Definiteness Indefiniteness through the Prism of Functional Approach to Language Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labetova Victoria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The studying of language phenomena with the emphasis on their functional component is topical for modern linguistics. This approach gives a boost to thinking over various (semantic, morphological, syntactic forms through the prism of their functional-semantic load. The analysis of the category of definiteness/indefiniteness from this point of view allows defining the actual theoretical categorial model and the system of its expressive means. Purpose: The aim of the article is to define the essence and the bounds of the category of definiteness/indefiniteness in the Ukrainian language and reveal its expressive potential. Results: The category of definiteness/indefiniteness is a universal category that is based on the symbiosis of psychic, cognitive and lingual spheres. Its functional potential is accumulated in cognitive and communicative fields so it is not restricted only to defining spheres of definiteness or indefiniteness. Not only do things or objects appear definite or indefinite in the process of communication or its interpretation but also their characteristics or properties may acquire these senses. The category of definiteness/indefiniteness correlates with other functional-semantic categories, which leads to its complicated and ramified field structure with diffuse and peripheral zones. Discussion: The studying of the widened structure of the functional-semantic field of definiteness/indefiniteness and organizing all possible (regular, typical, occasional, etc. means of its expression is a perspective approach. It is important to study the category of definiteness/indefiniteness in different types of discourse to reveal the logic of its functioning.

  11. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  13. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    The choice of appropriate control group(s) is critical in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker research in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a lack of definitions and nomenclature of different control groups and a rationalized application of different control groups. We here propose consensus......). Furthermore, we discuss the application of these control groups in specific study designs, such as for diagnostic biomarker studies, prognostic biomarker studies and therapeutic response studies. Application of these uniform definitions will lead to better comparability of biomarker studies and optimal use...

  14. CT appearance of the normal appendix in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamburrini, Stefania; Brunetti, Arturo; Brown, Michele; Sirlin, Claude B.; Casola, Giovanna

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify (1) the normal range of the appendix on computed tomography (CT), (2) the correlation of patient age and sex with the visibility and appearance of the appendix on CT, and (3) the normal variations in wall thickness, intraluminal content, and location of the appendix. Three hundred seventy-two outpatients underwent abdominopelvic CT. The scans were reviewed on the picture archiving and communication system and appendiceal outer-to-outer wall diameter, wall thickness, location, content and its correlation with appendix diameter were analyzed. The appendix was visualized in 305/372 patients. Its location relative to the cecum was highly variable. The diameter range was 3-10 mm; in 42% of cases the diameter was greater than 6 mm. When the intraluminal content (185/305) was visualized, the diameter was slightly superior to the mean (p=0.0156). In 329 CT scans in which oral contrast material was given, the appendix was filled by contrast material in 74/329 patients. The appendix wall thickness was measurable in 22/305 patients (average 0.15 cm). There is significant overlap between the normal and abnormal CT appearance of the appendix. Consequently the diagnosis of acute appendicitis should be based not only on the appearance of the appendix but also on the presence of secondary signs. (orig.)

  15. How common is domestic violence against women? The definition of partner abuse in prevalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, K; Roberts, G

    1998-02-01

    We systematically reviewed studies of the prevalence of domestic violence. Selected overseas community studies were compared with all Australian prevalence studies found to be published. Twelve-month prevalence estimates of partner abuse in Australia varied from 2.1 per cent to 28.0 per cent, depending mainly on the definition of domestic violence used in each study. Implications of the lack of a precise definition result in varying operationalised definitions of partner abuse, from all types of violence in relationships (including a single minor violent incident), through to only those violent incidents that are classified as a crime. Recommendations for any future prevalence studies in this field include the need to collect frequency data which reflected the fact that partner abuse against women is a complex behavioural phenomenon involving emotional, physical and sexual abuse against a partner, not just simply physical incidents.

  16. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 147 - Curriculum Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Pt. 147, App. A Appendix A... must be taught, as outlined in appendices B, C, and D. (a) Definitions. As used in appendices B, C, and... application. (3) Level 3 requires: (i) Knowledge of general principles, and performance of a high degree of...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix to Part 277 - Program Fraud Civil Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this appendix. B. Definitions 1. Adequate Evidence Information sufficient to support the reasonable... statements, anything of value, including but not limited to any advantage, preference, privilege, license....C., chapter 33, pursuant to the competitive examination process applicable to administrative law...

  18. T1 bright appendix sign to exclude acute appendicitis in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ilah; An, Chansik; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the T1 bright appendix sign for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women. This retrospective study included 125 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The T1 bright appendix sign was defined as a high intensity signal filling more than half length of the appendix on T1-weighted imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix identification were calculated in all patients and in those with borderline-sized appendices (6-7 mm). The T1 bright appendix sign was seen in 51% of patients with normal appendices, but only in 4.5% of patients with acute appendicitis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix diagnosis were 44.9%, 95.5%, 97.6%, and 30.0%, respectively. All four patients with borderline sized appendix with appendicitis showed negative T1 bright appendix sign. The T1 bright appendix sign is a specific finding for the diagnosis of a normal appendix in pregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. (orig.)

  19. T1 bright appendix sign to exclude acute appendicitis in pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ilah; An, Chansik; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the T1 bright appendix sign for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women. This retrospective study included 125 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The T1 bright appendix sign was defined as a high intensity signal filling more than half length of the appendix on T1-weighted imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix identification were calculated in all patients and in those with borderline-sized appendices (6-7 mm). The T1 bright appendix sign was seen in 51% of patients with normal appendices, but only in 4.5% of patients with acute appendicitis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix diagnosis were 44.9%, 95.5%, 97.6%, and 30.0%, respectively. All four patients with borderline sized appendix with appendicitis showed negative T1 bright appendix sign. The T1 bright appendix sign is a specific finding for the diagnosis of a normal appendix in pregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. (orig.)

  20. Comparative Analysis of Institutional Policy Definitions of Plagiarism: A Pan-Canadian University Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2017-01-01

    This article shares the findings of a study investigating institutional policy definitions of plagiarism at twenty English-speaking Canadian universities. The types of primary sources consulted for this study included: (1) university academic calendars for 2016-2017, (2) institutional policies on academic misconduct, and (3) student academic codes…

  1. Recommendations for the definition of clinical responder in insulin preservation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Craig A; Gitelman, Stephen E; Palmer, Jerry P

    2014-09-01

    Clinical responder studies should contribute to the translation of effective treatments and interventions to the clinic. Since ultimately this translation will involve regulatory approval, we recommend that clinical trials prespecify a responder definition that can be assessed against the requirements and suggestions of regulatory agencies. In this article, we propose a clinical responder definition to specifically assist researchers and regulatory agencies in interpreting the clinical importance of statistically significant findings for studies of interventions intended to preserve β-cell function in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. We focus on studies of 6-month β-cell preservation in type 1 diabetes as measured by 2-h-stimulated C-peptide. We introduce criteria (bias, reliability, and external validity) for the assessment of responder definitions to ensure they meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines. Using data from several published TrialNet studies, we evaluate our definition (no decrease in C-peptide) against published alternatives and determine that our definition has minimum bias with external validity. We observe that reliability could be improved by using changes in C-peptide later than 6 months beyond baseline. In sum, to support efficacy claims of β-cell preservation therapies in type 1 diabetes submitted to U.S. and European regulatory agencies, we recommend use of our definition. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  2. Goal Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    The goal definition is the first phase of an LCA and determines the purpose of a study in detail. This chapter teaches how to perform the six aspects of a goal definition: (1) Intended applications of the results, (2) Limitations due to methodological choices, (3) Decision context and reasons...... for carrying out the study, (4) Target audience , (5) Comparative studies to be disclosed to the public and (6) Commissioner of the study and other influential actors. The instructions address both the conduct and reporting of a goal definition and are largely based on the ILCD guidance document (EC...

  3. A preliminary study on the definitions and differences of main types of business arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Tiago Peixoto Gonçalves

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of competitiveness and market requirements, several companies have been jointly organized with the aim of forming partnerships, forming the so-called Business Arrangements, to ensure that competitive advantages are achieved. This article came from the need to review the definitions and differences between the main types of existing Business Arrangements, as in the literature have been used different nomenclatures and classifications, either in terms of how the Arrangement is managed, how it is organized, the according to which members carry out their activities, how is the flow of resources and information, the degree of coordination and interaction, the form of production organization, and the strategies adopted. It is a basic research, descriptive and literature, which sought to collect the relevant sources, definitions about each Arrangement to meet the goal of the article is to study the definitions and differences between the main types of Business Arrangements. The article is justified by the scarcity of uniform definitions in the literature that make it possible to visualize the differences between each of the types of Arrangements, especially those in which the definitions are more similar.

  4. Objectives and Model Payload Definition for NEO Human Mission Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Carpenter, J.

    2011-10-01

    ESA has supported studies on NEO threat assessment systems and deflection concepts in the context of the General Studies Programme and in close cooperation with the directorates of Technical and Quality Management and of the Scientific Programme. This work has made it possible to identify a project for Europe to make a significant - yet realistic - contribution to the international efforts in this field: the Don Quijote NEO technology demonstration mission. This paper describes what such a small mission can do to prepare future human exploration and what is the in-situ data that can be obtained through such a project.

  5. Competing Definitions of Schizophrenia: What Can Be Learned From Polydiagnostic Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Lennart Bertil; Parnas, Josef

    2007-01-01

    The contemporary diagnoses of schizophrenia (sz)—Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and International Classification of Diseases,10th Revision (ICD-10)—are widely considered as important scientific achievements. However, these algorithms were...... not a product of explicit conceptual analyses and empirical studies but defined through consensus with the purpose of improving reliability. The validity status of current definitions and of their predecessors remains unclear. The so-called "polydiagnostic approach" applies different definitions of a disorder...

  6. Evaluating the offensive definition zone in football: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New technological solutions have greatly improved match analysis systems for investigating players' performance. Nevertheless, there still remains a large gap in the collective analysis where improvements need to be made, mainly in the use of automated information gathering. Thus, the aim of this case study was to ...

  7. Performance of gout definitions for genetic epidemiological studies: analysis of UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadzow, Murray; Merriman, Tony R; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2017-08-09

    Many different combinations of available data have been used to identify gout cases in large genetic studies. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of case definitions of gout using the limited items available in multipurpose cohorts for population-based genetic studies. This research was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource. Data, including genome-wide genotypes, were available for 105,421 European participants aged 40-69 years without kidney disease. Gout definitions and combinations of these definitions were identified from previous epidemiological studies. These definitions were tested for association with 30 urate-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, and ratio of waist circumference to height. Heritability estimates under an additive model were generated using GCTA version 1.26.0 and PLINK version 1.90b3.32 by partitioning the genome. There were 2066 (1.96%) cases defined by self-report of gout, 1652 (1.57%) defined by urate-lowering therapy (ULT) use, 382 (0.36%) defined by hospital diagnosis, 1861 (1.76%) defined by hospital diagnosis or gout-specific medications and 2295 (2.18%) defined by self-report of gout or ULT use. Association with gout at experiment-wide significance (P genetic epidemiological studies of gout.

  8. Preliminary Problem Definition Study on Munitions-Related Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    Thorium-230, Radium-226, Lead- 210 and Polonium - 210 by Plants," Radiat. Bot., 10(3), 293-295. Ernst, W. (1968), "Ecological Studies on Plants Grown on...dechlorane in the environment and its bioconcentration and biomagnifica- tion through the food chain. In mammals, dechlorane has been shown to be tei-atogenic...08 5. Phytotoxicity .o......................208 *6. Environmental Fate ....................... 210 7. Availability of Literature for

  9. Isotope effects: definitions and consequences for pharmacologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Langenhove, A.

    1986-01-01

    The use of stable isotope-labeled compounds for pharmacologic studies requires careful consideration of the nature of the stable isotope label (2H, 13C, 15N, 18O) and its position of incorporation in the molecule. When deuterium is used, improper positioning can lead to significant primary isotope effects. Primary isotope effects occur when the breaking of the bond to the heavy isotope is the rate-limiting step in a reaction (or metabolic transformation). A reaction will proceed slower for the molecule with the heavy isotope label because of the mass difference between the light and the heavy isotope. In addition to these primary isotope effects, smaller but nevertheless important secondary isotope effects, physicochemical isotope effects, active hydrogen/deuterium exchange, or isotope effects associated with either the enzyme-catalyzed biotransformation or the mass spectrometric ionization and fragmentation can be operative. In mechanistic studies, isotope effects are used to their advantage; however, in pharmacokinetic studies, the occurrence of isotope effects can lead to grossly misleading biologic and analytic results: the metabolism of the drug will differ when in vivo isotope effects are operative, and isotope effects occurring during the analysis procedure will obscure the true metabolic profile of the drug

  10. Methodological Appendix of Research Methods Employed in the Mexican American Education Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights released Mexican American Education Study findings in a series of documents: (1) "The Ethnic Isolation of Mexican Americans in the Public Schools of the Southwest" (ED 052 849), "The Unfinished Education" (ED 056 821), and "The Excluded Student" (ED 062 069). The research methods employed in the study are…

  11. 34 CFR 660.4 - What definitions apply to the International Research and Studies Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply to the International Research and Studies Program? 660.4 Section 660.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH...

  12. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 7, phase 1: SPS and rectenna systems analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A systems definition study of the solar power satellite systems is presented. The design and power distribution of the rectenna system is discussed. The communication subsystem and thermal control characteristics are described and a failure analysis performed on the systems is reported.

  13. A comparative study on the elastic modulus of polyvinyl alcohol sponge using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Alizadeh, Mansour; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-10-01

    There have been different stress-strain definitions to measure the elastic modulus of spongy materials, especially polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented. This study was aimed to show how different results are given by the various definitions of stress-strain used, and to recommend a specific definition when testing spongy materials. A fabricated PVA sponge was subjected to a series of tensile tests in order to measure its mechanical properties. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) were used to determine the elastic modulus. The results revealed that the Almansi-Hamel strain definition exhibited the highest non-linear stress-strain relation and, as a result, may overestimate the elastic modulus at different stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress). The Green-St. Venant strain definition failed to address the non-linear stress-strain relation using different definitions of stress and invoked an underestimation of the elastic modulus values. Engineering stress and strain definitions were only valid for small strains and displacements, which make them impractical when analyzing spongy materials. The results showed that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements was significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus. It is important to consider which stress-strain definition is employed when characterizing the mechanical properties of spongy materials. Although the true stress-true strain definition exhibits a non-linear relation, we favor it in spongy materials mechanics as it gives more accurate measurements of the material's response using the instantaneous values.

  14. Energy Efficient Engine program advanced turbofan nacelle definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David C.; Wynosky, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced, low drag, nacelle configurations were defined for some of the more promising propulsion systems identified in the earlier Benefit/Cost Study, to assess the benefits associated with these advanced technology nacelles and formulate programs for developing these nacelles and low volume thrust reversers/spoilers to a state of technology readiness in the early 1990's. The study results established the design feasibility of advanced technology, slim line nacelles applicable to advanced technology, high bypass ratio turbofan engines. Design feasibility was also established for two low volume thrust reverse/spoiler concepts that meet or exceed the required effectiveness for these engines. These nacelle and thrust reverse/spoiler designs were shown to be applicable in engines with takeoff thrust sizes ranging from 24,000 to 60,000 pounds. The reduced weight, drag, and cost of the advanced technology nacelle installations relative to current technology nacelles offer a mission fuel burn savings ranging from 3.0 to 4.5 percent and direct operating cost plus interest improvements from 1.6 to 2.2 percent.

  15. Ports: Definition and study of types, sizes and business models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Roa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the world today there are thousands of port facilities of different types and sizes, competing to capture some market share of freight by sea, mainly. This article aims to determine the type of port and the most common size, in order to find out which business model is applied in that segment and what is the legal status of the companies of such infrastructure.Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this goal, we develop a research on a representative sample of 800 ports worldwide, which manage 90% of the containerized port loading. Then you can find out the legal status of the companies that manage them.Findings: The results indicate a port type and a dominant size, which are mostly managed by companies subject to a concession model.Research limitations/implications: In this research, we study only those ports that handle freight (basically containerized, ignoring other activities such as fishing, military, tourism or recreational.Originality/value: This is an investigation to show that the vast majority of the studied segment port facilities are governed by a similar corporate model and subject to pressure from the markets, which increasingly demand efficiency and service. Consequently, we tend to concession terminals to private operators in a process that might be called privatization, but in the strictest sense of the term, is not entirely realistic because the ownership of the land never ceases to be public

  16. Numerical Study of the Critical Impact Velocity in Shear. Appendix Number 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klosak, M

    1996-01-01

    .... A numerical study of impact shearing of a layer has been performed by the FE code ABAQUS. It was intended to verify available experimental results for VAR 4340 steel 52 HRC, obtained by direct...

  17. 34 CFR 658.4 - What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to this...

  18. Study on the market for heat pump systems. Long-list of projects. Appendix D1; Studie marktrijpheid warmtepompsystemen. Projectenlijst. Bijlage D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravelli, R.; Bosselaar, L.; Van der Kooij, D.; Molenaar, R. [Techniplan Adviseurs, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Van Aarssen, M.M.; De Zwart, B. [IF-Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands); Dingenouts, M.W.L.; Schorel, J.S. [New-Energy-Works, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2005-04-15

    An overview is given of the market for heat pumps in utility buildings in the Netherlands. The results of the study provide information based on which the energy performance coefficient (EPC) for new buildings in 2007 can be determined. In this appendix criteria to assess market introduction of heat pump systems are defined, including the weighing factor: market penetration; energetic performance; economic feasibility, cost level and payback period; and the advantages compared to conventional systems. [Dutch] Deze studie rapporteert over de toetsing van de marktrijpheid van warmtepompen in de utiliteitsbouw. De resultaten leveren de informatie die nodig is om te beslissen over de mogelijkheden voor eventuele aanscherping van de energieprestatie-eisen voor nieuwe utiliteitsgebouwen in 2007. Onderzocht is de ontwikkeling van de marktinfrastructuur voor warmtepompen, het technisch functioneren in de praktijk, eventuele belemmeringen vanuit de wet en regelgeving en het stadium van marktintroductie van de warmtepompen. Daarnaast zijn concrete kentallen verzameld die nodig zijn voor berekeningen welke aanscherping van de EPC mogelijk is. In deze bijlage zijn beoordelingscriteria gedefinieerd m.b.t. de marktintroductie, inclusief de weegfactor: Marktpenetratie; Energetische prestaties; Economische haalbaarheid, kostenniveau, terugverdientijd; en Duidelijke voordelen t.o.v. conventioneel systeem.

  19. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roozen, K.

    1995-02-15

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel`s Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization.

  20. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roozen, K.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel's Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization

  1. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Reactor Vessel Material Surveillance Program Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... arrangement for data sharing between plants. d. There must be a contingency plan to assure that the... Requirements I. Introduction II. Definitions III. Surveillance Program Criteria IV. Report of Test Results I..., Rockville, MD 20852-2738. II. Definitions All terms used in this appendix have the same meaning as in...

  2. Speed test results and hardware/software study of computational speed problem, appendix D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The HP9845C is a desktop computer which is tested and evaluated for processing speed. A study was made to determine the availability and approximate cost of computers and/or hardware accessories necessary to meet the 20 ms sample period speed requirements. Additional requirements were that the control algorithm could be programmed in a high language and that the machine have sufficient storage to store the data from a complete experiment.

  3. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 3A. GSFLS technical analysis (appendix). Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. The technical and financial considerations underlying a global spent fuel logistics systems have been studied and are reported. The Pacific Basin is used as a model throughout this report; however the stated methodology and, in many cases, considerations and conclusions are applicable to other global regions. Spent fuel discharge profiles for Pacific Basin Countries were used to determine the technical systems requirements for alternative concepts. Functional analyses and flows were generated to define both system design requirements and logistics parameters. A technology review was made to ascertain the state-of-the-art of relevant GSFLS technical systems. Modular GSFLS facility designs were developed using the information generated from the functional analysis and technology review. The modular facility designs were used as a basis for siting and cost estimates for various GSFLS alternatives. Various GSFLS concepts were analyzed from a financial and economic perspective in order to provide total concepts costs and ascertain financial and economic sensitivities to key GSFLS variations. Results of the study include quantification of GSFLS facility and hardware requirements; drawings of relevant GSFLS facility designs; system cost estimates; financial reports - including user service charges; and comparative analyses of various GSFLS alternatives

  4. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 3A. GSFLS technical analysis (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriger, A.

    1978-01-31

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. The technical and financial considerations underlying a global spent fuel logistics systems have been studied and are reported. The Pacific Basin is used as a model throughout this report; however the stated methodology and, in many cases, considerations and conclusions are applicable to other global regions. Spent fuel discharge profiles for Pacific Basin Countries were used to determine the technical systems requirements for alternative concepts. Functional analyses and flows were generated to define both system design requirements and logistics parameters. A technology review was made to ascertain the state-of-the-art of relevant GSFLS technical systems. Modular GSFLS facility designs were developed using the information generated from the functional analysis and technology review. The modular facility designs were used as a basis for siting and cost estimates for various GSFLS alternatives. Various GSFLS concepts were analyzed from a financial and economic perspective in order to provide total concepts costs and ascertain financial and economic sensitivities to key GSFLS variations. Results of the study include quantification of GSFLS facility and hardware requirements; drawings of relevant GSFLS facility designs; system cost estimates; financial reports - including user service charges; and comparative analyses of various GSFLS alternatives.

  5. Air pollution in Santiago (Chile) as studied by nuclear and other techniques. Appendix 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, P.; Cortes, E.

    1995-01-01

    The elemental characterization of the urban aerosol in Santiago and of a rural area using different non-destructive analytical techniques such as PIXE, NAA and XRF was performed. In addition, AAS was used for selected samples and intercomparison purposes. The distribution of selected elements on membrane filters was studied using XRF. To assure adequate quality of the analytical data, an analytical quality control exercise was planned and carried out. Furthermore, different analytical techniques were used for the determination of the same elements in the same sample as further quality control procedure. (author)

  6. Definitions of love in a sample of British women: an empirical study using Q methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Simon; Stenner, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Social psychological research has increasingly acknowledged that any pretensions to a singular theory of love should be replaced with a concern about its affirmation and what people actually say and do in love's name. Lee's (1977) love styles research and Sternberg's (1995) theory of love as a story are prime examples. Despite traditional definitions of love in western cultures being dominated by feminine images and tales of gender difference, however, the personal definitions and experiences of women have received comparatively little empirical attention, particularly in recent years and despite some well-documented changes in their cultural circumstances. This study remedies that situation through presentation of a Q methodological study in which a convenience sample of 59 British women were asked to Q sort 54 single-word descriptors of love to define love as they had experienced it. Factor analysis of the resulting Q sorts revealed six distinct definitions of love, interpreted as 'attraction, passion & romance', 'unconditional love', 'sex & fun', 'friendship & spirituality', 'a permanent commitment', and 'separate people, separate lives'. The six definitions are then discussed in terms of their allegiance to traditionally feminine and/or masculine values and as a means of highlighting the changing face of Britain's relational culture. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Candidate experiments definition and preliminary concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, R. V.; Hollinden, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning data for overall shuttle payload requirements assessments.

  8. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix A: Active heating system-screening analysis. Appendix B: Reconstituted food heating techniques analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Technical data are presented which were used to evaluate active heating methods to be incorporated into the space shuttle food system design, and also to evaluate the relative merits and penalties associated with various approaches to the heating of rehydrated food during space flight. Equipment heating candidates were subject to a preliminary screening performed by a selection rationale process which considered the following parameters; (1) gravitational effect; (2) safety; (3) operability; (4) system compatibility; (5) serviceability; (6) crew acceptability; (7) crew time; (8) development risk; and (9) operating cost. A hot air oven, electrically heated food tray, and microwave oven were selected for further consideration and analysis. Passive, semi-active, and active food preparation approaches were also studied in an effort to determine the optimum method for heating rehydrated food. Potential complexity, cost, vehicle impact penalties, and palatability were considered in the analysis. A summary of the study results is provided along with cost estimates for each of the potential sytems

  9. Definitions of medication-overuse headache in population-based studies and their implications on prevalence estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Maria L; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Case definitions of medication-overuse headache (MOH) in population-based research have changed over time. This study aims to review MOH prevalence reports with respect to these changes, and to propose a practical case definition for future studies based on the ICHD-3 beta....

  10. Analysis of risk factors for schizophrenia with two different case definitions: a nationwide register-based external validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Larsen, Janne T; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-03-01

    Different case definitions of schizophrenia have been used in register based research. However, no previous study has externally validated two different case definitions of schizophrenia against a wide range of risk factors for schizophrenia. We investigated hazard ratios (HRs) for a wide range of risk factors for ICD-10 DCR schizophrenia using a nationwide Danish sample of 2,772,144 residents born in 1955-1997. We compared one contact only (OCO) (the case definition of schizophrenia used in Danish register based studies) with two or more contacts (TMC) (a case definition of at least 2 inpatient contacts with schizophrenia). During the follow-up, the OCO definition included 15,074 and the TMC 7562 cases; i.e. half as many. The TMC case definition appeared to select for a worse illness course. A wide range of risk factors were uniformly associated with both case definitions and only slightly higher risk estimates were found for the TMC definition. Choosing at least 2 inpatient contacts with schizophrenia (TMC) instead of the currently used case definition would result in almost similar risk estimates for many well-established risk factors. However, this would also introduce selection and include considerably fewer cases and reduce power of e.g. genetic studies based on register-diagnosed cases only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An experimental study on the mechanical properties of rat brain tissue using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2014-07-01

    There are different stress-strain definitions to measure the mechanical properties of the brain tissue. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be employed to measure the mechanical properties of the brain tissue at both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. It is worth knowing that an optimize stress-strain definition of the brain tissue at different loading directions may have implications for neuronavigation and surgery simulation through haptic devices. This study is aimed to conduct a comparative study on different results are given by the various definitions of stress-strain and to recommend a specific definition when testing brain tissues. Prepared cylindrical samples are excised from the parietal lobes of rats' brains and experimentally tested by applying load on both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) are used to determine the elastic modulus, maximum stress and strain. The highest non-linear stress-strain relation is observed for the Almansi-Hamel strain definition and it may overestimate the elastic modulus at different stress definitions at both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. The Green-St. Venant strain definition fails to address the non-linear stress-strain relation using different definitions of stress and triggers an underestimation of the elastic modulus. The results suggest the application of the true stress-true strain definition for characterization of the brain tissues mechanics since it gives more accurate measurements of the tissue's response using the instantaneous values.

  12. Acute respiratory infection case definitions for young children: a systematic review of community-based epidemiologic studies in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Daniel E; Gaffey, Michelle F; Smith-Romero, Evelyn; Fitzpatrick, Tiffany; Morris, Shaun K

    2015-12-01

    To explore the variability in childhood acute respiratory infection case definitions for research in low-income settings where there is limited access to laboratory or radiologic investigations. We conducted a systematic review of community-based, longitudinal studies in South Asia published from January 1990 to August 2013, in which childhood acute respiratory infection outcomes were reported. Case definitions were classified by their label (e.g. pneumonia, acute lower respiratory infection) and clinical content 'signatures' (array of clinical features that would be always present, conditionally present or always absent among cases). Case definition heterogeneity was primarily assessed by the number of unique case definitions overall and by label. We also compared case definition-specific acute respiratory infection incidence rates for studies reporting incidence rates for multiple case definitions. In 56 eligible studies, we found 124 acute respiratory infection case definitions. Of 90 case definitions for which clinical content was explicitly defined, 66 (73%) were unique. There was a high degree of content heterogeneity among case definitions with the same label, and some content signatures were assigned multiple labels. Within studies for which incidence rates were reported for multiple case definitions, variation in content was always associated with a change in incidence rate, even when the content differed by a single clinical feature. There has been a wide variability in case definition label and content combinations to define acute upper and lower respiratory infections in children in community-based studies in South Asia over the past two decades. These inconsistencies have important implications for the synthesis and translation of knowledge regarding the prevention and treatment of childhood acute respiratory infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Lengths and Positions of the Vermiform Appendix among Sudanese Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab I. El-Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: The anatomy of vermiform appendix displays great variations in length and position between different populations. The reports relating these variations to a specific etiological factor are few. This study aims to describe the positions and lengths of vermiform appendix among Sudanese cadavers. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Omdurman Teaching Hospital Morgue and Omdurman Islamic University-Sudan. Sixty Sudanese cadavers (30 male and 30 female, were dissected in the period from June 2013 to June 2014. The positions and the lengths of vermiform appendix were measured in millimeters. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results: The cadavers’ age ranged between 20 to 80 years according to their medico-legal reports. Retrocaecal position was mainly observed in 60%, pelvic in 35%, post-ileal in 3.3%, and pre-ileal in 1.7%. The lengths of the appendix was found < 69 mm in 23.3%, 70-110 mm in 60%, and > 110 mm in 16.7%, also the study showed insignificant difference between the lengths and ages (p < 0.08, and between males and females (p = 0.23. Age was the influencing factor for the positions of vermiform appendixes (p = 0.04. Conclusion: The study showed that the commonest lengths of the appendix were 70-110 mm while the common position was retrocaecal regardless to age or gender. This data should be considered in surgical removal of the inflamed appendix.

  14. Predictors of severity and outcome of global developmental delay without definitive etiologic yield: a prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Thomaidis, Loretta; Zantopoulos, Georgios Zacharias; Fouzas, Sotirios; Mantagou, Lito; Bakoula, Chryssa; Konstantopoulos, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Although several determinants of global developmental delay (GDD) have been recognized, a significant number of children remain without definitive etiologic diagnosis. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of various prenatal and perinatal factors on the severity and outcome of developmental delay without definitive etiologic yield. Methods From March 2008 to February 2010, 142 children with developmental quotient (DQ)

  15. Pragmatic criteria of the definition of neonatal near miss: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Pauline Lorena; Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de Mello; Laurenti, Ruy; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Silva, Kátia Silveira da

    2017-12-04

    The objective of this study was to test the validity of the pragmatic criteria of the definitions of neonatal near miss, extending them throughout the infant period, and to estimate the indicators of perinatal care in public maternity hospitals. A cohort of live births from six maternity hospitals in the municipalities of São Paulo, Niterói, and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was carried out in 2011. We carried out interviews and checked prenatal cards and medical records. We compared the pragmatic criteria (birth weight, gestational age, and 5' Apgar score) of the definitions of near miss of Pileggi et al., Pileggi-Castro et al., Souza et al., and Silva et al. We calculated sensitivity, specificity (gold standard: infant mortality), percentage of deaths among newborns with life-threatening conditions, and rates of near miss, mortality, and severe outcomes per 1,000 live births. A total 7,315 newborns were analyzed (completeness of information > 99%). The sensitivity of the definition of Pileggi-Castro et al. was higher, resulting in a higher number of cases of near miss, Souza et al. presented lower value, and Pileggi et al. and de Silva et al. presented intermediate values. There is an increase in sensitivity when the period goes from 0-6 to 0-27 days, and there is a decrease when it goes to 0-364 days. Specificities were high (≥ 97%) and above sensitivities (54% to 77%). One maternity hospital in São Paulo and one in Niterói presented, respectively, the lowest and highest rates of infant mortality, near miss, and frequency of births with life-threatening conditions, regardless of the definition. The definitions of near miss based exclusively on pragmatic criteria are valid and can be used for monitoring purposes. Based on the perinatal literature, the cutoff points adopted by Silva et al. were more appropriate. Periodic studies could apply a more complete definition, incorporating clinical, laboratory, and management criteria, including congenital anomalies

  16. 40 CFR 82.62 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Containing or Manufactured With Class II Substances § 82.62 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart... to subpart A. Class II Substance means any substance designated as class II in 40 CFR part 82.... Hydrochlorofluorocarbon means any substance listed as class II in 40 CFR part 82, appendix B to subpart A. Initial...

  17. The relation of metabolic syndrome according to five definitions to cardiovascular risk factors - a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ming-May

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP, International Diabetes Federation (IDF, American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI, World Health Organization (WHO, and the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS have been commonly used by studies, little is known about agreement among these five definitions. We examined the agreement among these five definitions and explored their relationship with risk factors of cardiovascular disease in a Taiwan population. Methods A total of 1305 subjects aged 40 years and over in Taiwan were analyzed. Biomedical markers and anthropometric indices were measured. Agreement among definitions was determined by the kappa statistic. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate the odds of a high cardiovascular risk group for five definitions of MetS. Results The agreement among the NCEP, IDF, and AHA/NHLBI definitions was from substantial to very good, and agreement between the WHO and EGIR definitions was also substantial. All MetS definitions were significantly associated prevalence of microalbuminuria, elevated highly sensitive CRP (hs-CRP, and arterial stiffness only in women. In men, MetS by NCEP and AHA/NHLBI was associated with elevated level of hs-CRP and arterial stiffness. MetS by WHO and EGIR were significantly associated with microalbuminuria. And MetS by WHO was the only MetS definition that significantly associated with prevalence of arterial stiffness (OR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.22-6.19. Conclusions The associations of these five definitions with cardiovascular risk factors were similar in women, and it was evident that the five definitions performed better in women than in men, with higher ORs observed in relation to arterial stiffness, elevated hs-CRP, and higher Framingham risk scores.

  18. A Validity Study of the Self-Esteem Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, H. John

    Results of this validation study of a slightly modified version of the Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory substantiate its use with seventh graders to assess Goal I (concerning self-understanding and appreciation of self-worth) of the Educational Quality Assessment Program in Pennsylvania. Appendixes include the definition and rationale for Goal I,…

  19. Cervicitis aetiology and case definition: a study in Australian women attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, M Josephine; Garden, Frances L; Rawlinson, William D; Naing, Zin W; Cumming, Robert G; Konecny, Pam

    2016-05-01

    Studies examining cervicitis aetiology and prevalence lack comparability due to varying criteria for cervicitis. We aimed to outline cervicitis associations and suggest a best case definition. A cross-sectional study of 558 women at three sexually transmitted infection clinics in Sydney, Australia, 2006-2010, examined pathogen and behavioural associations of cervicitis using three cervicitis definitions: 'microscopy' (>30 pmnl/hpf (polymorphonuclear leucocytes per high-powered field on cervical Gram stain)), 'cervical discharge' (yellow and/or mucopurulent cervical discharge) or 'micro+cervical discharge' (combined 'microscopy' and 'cervical discharge'). Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) had the strongest associations with cervicitis definitions 'micro+cervical discharge': CT adjusted prevalence ratio (APR)=2.13 (95% CI 1.38 to 3.30) p=0.0006, MG APR=2.21 (1.33 to 3.69) p=0.002, TV APR=2.37 (1.44 to 3.90) p=0.0007 NG PR=4.42 (3.79 to 5.15) pdefinitions with best clinical utility and pathogen prediction were 'cervical discharge' and 'micro+cervical discharge'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Space Station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 1: Functional requirements definition, DR-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The initial task in the Space Station Data System (SSDS) Analysis/Architecture Study is the definition of the functional and key performance requirements for the SSDS. The SSDS is the set of hardware and software, both on the ground and in space, that provides the basic data management services for Space Station customers and systems. The primary purpose of the requirements development activity was to provide a coordinated, documented requirements set as a basis for the system definition of the SSDS and for other subsequent study activities. These requirements should also prove useful to other Space Station activities in that they provide an indication of the scope of the information services and systems that will be needed in the Space Station program. The major results of the requirements development task are as follows: (1) identification of a conceptual topology and architecture for the end-to-end Space Station Information Systems (SSIS); (2) development of a complete set of functional requirements and design drivers for the SSIS; (3) development of functional requirements and key performance requirements for the Space Station Data System (SSDS); and (4) definition of an operating concept for the SSIS. The operating concept was developed both from a Space Station payload customer and operator perspective in order to allow a requirements practicality assessment.

  1. Exploring Stakeholder Definitions within the Aerospace Industry: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Jonathan R.

    A best practice in the discipline of project management is to identify all key project stakeholders prior to the execution of a project. When stakeholders are properly identified, they can be consulted to provide expert advice on project activities so that the project manager can ensure the project stays within the budget and schedule constraints. The problem addressed by this study is that managers fail to properly identify key project stakeholders when using stakeholder theory because there are multiple conflicting definitions for the term stakeholder. Poor stakeholder identification has been linked to multiple negative project outcomes such as budget and schedules overruns, and this problem is heightened in certain industries such as aerospace. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore project managers' and project stakeholders' perceptions of how they define and use the term stakeholder within the aerospace industry. This qualitative exploratory single-case study had two embedded units of analysis: project managers and project stakeholders. Six aerospace project managers and five aerospace project stakeholders were purposively selected for this study. Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews with both project managers and project stakeholders. All data were analyzed using Yin's (2011) five-phased cycle approach for qualitative research. The results indicated that the aerospace project managers and project stakeholder define the term stakeholder as "those who do the work of a company." The participants build upon this well-known concept by adding that, "a company should list specific job titles" that correspond to their company specific-stakeholder definition. Results also indicated that the definition of the term stakeholder is used when management is assigning human resources to a project to mitigate or control project risk. Results showed that project managers tended to include the customer in their stakeholder definitions

  2. Biofuel Drying - Literature Study and Definitions, Concepts and Terms; Torkning av biobraensle - litteraturstudie samt definitioner, begrepp och termer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanati, Mehri; Faghihi, Mostafa

    2001-09-01

    The report contains one section with definitions and explications of terms in the field of drying of biofuels. The second section presents, in english, the result of a literature study in the same subject, based on 90 literature references.

  3. The quest for a universal definition of polytrauma: a trauma registry-based validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Nerida E; D'Este, Catherine; Balogh, Zsolt J

    2014-10-01

    A pilot validation recommended defining polytrauma as patients with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score greater than 2 in at least two Injury Severity Score (ISS) body regions (2 × AIS score > 2). This study aimed to validate this definition on larger data set. We hypothesized that patients defined by the 2 × AIS score > 2 cutoff have worse outcomes and use more resources than those without 2 × AIS score > 2 and that this would therefore be a better definition of polytrauma. Patients injured between 2009 and 2011, with complete documentation of AIS by New South Wales Trauma Registry and 16 years and older were selected. Age and sex were obtained in addition to outcomes of ISS, hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ICU LOS, and mortality. We compared demographic characteristics and outcomes between patients with ISS greater than 15 who did and did not meet the 2 × AIS score > 2 definition. We then undertook regression analyses (logistic regression for binary outcomes [ICU admission and death] and linear regression for hospital and ICU LOS) to compare outcomes for patients with and without 2 × AIS score > 2, adjusting for sex and age categories. In the adjusted analyses, patients with 2 × AIS score > 2 had twice the odds of being admitted to the ICU compared with those without 2 × AIS score > 2 (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-2.8) and 1.7 times the odds of dying (95% CI, 1.4-2.0; p 2 also had a mean difference of 1.5 days longer stay in the hospital compared with those without 2 × AIS score > 2 (95% CI, 1.4-1.7) and 1.6 days longer ICU stay (95% CI, 1.4-1.8; p 2 had higher mortality, more frequent ICU admissions, and longer hospital and ICU stay than those without 2 × AIS score > 2 and represents a superior definition to the definitions for polytrauma currently in use. Diagnostic test/ criteria, level III.

  4. Consensus on the Definition of Advanced Parkinson’s Disease: A Neurologists-Based Delphi Study (CEPA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Rosario Luquin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, no consensus exists on the key factors for diagnosing advanced Parkinson disease (APD. To obtain consensus on the definition of APD, we performed a prospective, multicenter, Spanish nationwide, 3-round Delphi study (CEPA study. An ad hoc questionnaire was designed with 33 questions concerning the relevance of several clinical features for APD diagnosis. In the first-round, 240 neurologists of the Spanish Movement Disorders Group participated in the study. The results obtained were incorporated into the questionnaire and both, results and questionnaire, were sent out to and fulfilled by 26 experts in Movement Disorders. Review of results from the second-round led to a classification of symptoms as indicative of “definitive,” “probable,” and “possible” APD. This classification was confirmed by 149 previous participating neurologists in a third-round, where 92% completely or very much agreed with the classification. Definitive symptoms of APD included disability requiring help for the activities of daily living, presence of motor fluctuations with limitations to perform basic activities of daily living without help, severe dysphagia, recurrent falls, and dementia. These results will help neurologists to identify some key factors in APD diagnosis, thus allowing users to categorize the patients for a homogeneous recognition of this condition.

  5. An assessment of the impact of the pet trade on five CITES-Appendix II case studies - Boa constrictor imperator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Chad E.; Boback, Scott M.; Reed, Robert N.; Frazier, Julius A.

    2015-01-01

    Boa constrictor is a wide ranging snake species that is common in the pet trade and is currently listed in CITES Appendix II. Hog Island boas, or Cayos Cochinos boas, are a dwarf, insular race of Boa constrictor imperator endemic to the Cayos Cochinos Archipelago, Honduras. Cayos Cochinos boas are prized in the international pet trade for their light pink dorsal coloration, as well as for being much smaller and more docile than mainland boas (Porras, 1999; Russo, 2007). The boa population in the Cayos Cochinos was heavily exploited for the pet trade from 1979 to 1993, and researchers reported finding no boas on the islands during a five day herpetological survey trip in the early 1990s (Wilson and CruzDiaz, 1993), leading to the speculation that the population had been extirpated (e.g., Russo, 2007). The Cayos Cochinos Archipelago Natural Marine Monument has been managed by the Honduran Coral Reef Foundation since 1994 and prohibits removal of boas from the area. Poaching for the pet trade continues today, although at a lower level. Due to the endemic nature of this island morph of B. c. imperator it is imperative that we understand the dynamics of the populations and the ongoing threats that could negatively impact their long-term survival.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt. 431... Efficiency of Electric Motors 1. Definitions. Definitions contained in §§ 431.2 and 431.12 are applicable to...

  7. Space Station Furnace Facility. Volume 1: Requirements definition and conceptual design study, executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The Space Station Freedom Furnace (SSFF) Study was awarded on June 2, 1989, to Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE) to define an advanced facility for materials research in the microgravity environment of Space Station Freedom (SSF). The SSFF will be designed for research in the solidification of metals and alloys, the crystal growth of electronic and electro-optical materials, and research in glasses and ceramics. The SSFF is one of the first 'facility' class payloads planned by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications of NASA Headquarters. This facility is planned for early deployment during man-tended operations of the SSF with continuing operations through the Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC). The SSFF will be built around a general 'Core' facility which provides common support functions not provided by SSF, common subsystems which are best centralized, and common subsystems which are best distributed with each experiment module. The intent of the facility approach is to reduce the overall cost associated with implementing and operating a variety of experiments. This is achieved by reducing the launch mass and simplifying the hardware development and qualification processes associated with each experiment. The Core will remain on orbit and will require only periodic maintenance and upgrading while new Furnace Modules, samples, and consumables are developed, qualified, and transported to the SSF. The SSFF Study was divided into two phases: phase 1, a definition study phase, and phase 2, a design and development phase. The definition phase 1 is addressed. Phase 1 was divided into two parts. In the first part, the basic part of the effort, covered the preliminary definition and assessment of requirements; conceptual design of the SSFF; fabrication of mockups; and the preparation for and support of the Conceptual Design Review (CoDR). The second part, the option part, covered requirements update and

  8. The management approach to the NASA space station definition studies at the Manned Spacecraft Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlig, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The overall management approach to the NASA Phase B definition studies for space stations, which were initiated in September 1969 and completed in July 1972, is reviewed with particular emphasis placed on the management approach used by the Manned Spacecraft Center. The internal working organizations of the Manned Spacecraft Center and its prime contractor, North American Rockwell, are delineated along with the interfacing techniques used for the joint Government and industry study. Working interfaces with other NASA centers, industry, and Government agencies are briefly highlighted. The controlling documentation for the study (such as guidelines and constraints, bibliography, and key personnel) is reviewed. The historical background and content of the experiment program prepared for use in this Phase B study are outlined and management concepts that may be considered for future programs are proposed.

  9. Overlap of food addiction and substance use disorders definitions: analysis of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-10-01

    Food has both homeostatic and hedonic components, which makes it a potent natural reward. Food related reward could therefore promote an escalation of intake and trigger symptoms associated to withdrawal, suggesting a behavioral parallel with substance abuse. Animal and human theoretical models of food reward and addiction have emerged, raising further interrogations on the validity of a bond between Substance Use Disorders, as clinically categorized in the DSM 5, and food reward. These models propose that highly palatable food items, rich in sugar and/or fat, are overly stimulating to the brain's reward pathways. Moreover, studies have also investigated the possibility of causal link between food reward and the contemporary obesity epidemic, with obesity being potentiated and maintained due to this overwhelming food reward. Although natural rewards are a hot topic in the definition and categorization of Substance Use Disorders, proofs of concept and definite evidence are still inconclusive. This review focuses on available results from experimental studies in animal and human models exploring the concept of food addiction, in an effort to determine if it depicts a specific phenotype and if there is truly a neurobiological similarity between food addiction and Substance Use Disorders. It describes results from sugar, fat and sweet-fat bingeing in rodent models, and behavioral and neurobiological assessments in different human populations. Although pieces of behavioral and neurobiological evidence supporting a food addiction phenotype in animals and humans are interesting, it seems premature to conclude on its validity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 47 CFR Appendix - Technical Appendix 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Outputs (General) S-Video Digital Video Interface (DVI);Component video (YPbPr); High-Definition... and other existing video and audio equipmentRemote control may have dedicated keys to provide direct...

  11. Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) to improve interprofessional team crisis resource management: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Tania Di; Crooks, Simone; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann; Clarkin, Chantalle; Fraser, Amy B; Bunting, Alexandra C; Bould, M Dylan; Boet, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the perceived value of the Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) protocol for simulated intraoperative cardiac arrests. Sixteen interprofessional operating room teams completed three consecutive simulated intraoperative cardiac arrest scenarios: current standard, no CARD; CARD, no CARD teaching; and CARD, didactic teaching. Each team participated in a focus group interview immediately following the third scenario; data were transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analysed. After 6 months, participants formed eight new teams randomised to two groups (CARD or no CARD) and completed a retention intraoperative cardiac arrest simulation scenario. All simulation sessions were video recorded and expert raters assessed team performance. Qualitative analysis of the 16 focus group interviews revealed 3 thematic dimensions: role definition in crisis management; logistical issues; and the "real life" applicability of CARD. Members of the interprofessional team perceived CARD very positively. Exploratory quantitative analysis found no significant differences in team performance with or without CARD (p > 0.05). In conclusion, qualitative data suggest that the CARD protocol clarifies roles and team coordination during interprofessional crisis management and has the potential to improve the team performance. The concept of a self-organising team with defined roles is promising for patient safety.

  12. Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels. Technical appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Baker, M.P.

    1982-04-01

    Six technical appendixes are presented that provide important supporting technical information for the study of the application of nondestructive measurements to spent-fuel storage. Each appendix addresses a particular technical subject in a reasonably self-contained fashion. Appendix A is a comparison of spent-fuel data predicted by reactor operators with measured data from reprocessors. This comparison indicates a rather high level of uncertainty in previous burnup calculations. Appendix B describes a series of nondestructive measurements at the GE-Morris Operation Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. This series of experiments successfully demonstrated a technique for reproducible positioning of fuel assemblies for nondestructive measurement. The experimental results indicate the importance of measuring the axial and angular burnup profiles of irradiated fuel assemblies for quantitative determination of spent-fuel parameters. Appendix C is a reasonably comprehensive bibliography of reports and symposia papers on spent-fuel nondestructive measurements to April 1981. Appendix D is a compendium of spent-fuel calculations that includes isotope production and depletion calculations using the EPRI-CINDER code, calculations of neutron and gamma-ray source terms, and correlations of these sources with burnup and plutonium content. Appendix E describes the pulsed-neutron technique and its potential application to spent-fuel measurements. Although not yet developed, the technique holds the promise of providing separate measurements of the uranium and plutonium fissile isotopes. Appendix F describes the experimental program and facilities at Los Alamos for the development of spent-fuel nondestructive measurement systems. Measurements are reported showing that the active neutron method is sensitive to the replacement of a single fuel rod with a dummy rod in an unirradiated uranium fuel assembly

  13. Lower extremity revascularization using directional atherectomy: 12-month prospective results of the DEFINITIVE LE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinsey, James F; Zeller, Thomas; Rocha-Singh, Krishna J; Jaff, Michael R; Garcia, Lawrence A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of directional atherectomy (DA) for endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in infrainguinal arteries in patients with claudication or critical limb ischemia. To date, no prospective, multicenter, independently-adjudicated study has evaluated the effectiveness and durability of DA in the treatment of PAD. Previous DA studies have not been prospectively powered to evaluate any differences in outcomes in patients with and without diabetes. DEFINITIVE LE (Determination of EFfectiveness of the SilverHawk(®) PerIpheral Plaque ExcisioN System (SIlverHawk Device) for the Treatment of Infrainguinal VEssels / Lower Extremities) prospectively enrolled subjects at 47 multinational centers with an infrainguinal lesion length up to 20 cm. Primary endpoints were defined as primary patency at 12 months for claudicants and freedom from major unplanned amputation for critical limb ischemia (CLI) subjects. A pre-specified statistical hypothesis evaluated noninferiority of primary patency in diabetic versus nondiabetic claudicants. Independent angiographic and sonographic core laboratories assessed outcomes, and events were adjudicated by a clinical events committee. A total of 800 subjects were enrolled. The 12-month primary patency was 78% (95% confidence interval: 74.0% to 80.6%) in claudicants, with a 77% rate in the diabetic subgroup versus 78% in the nondiabetic subgroup (noninferior, p < 0.001). The rate of freedom from major unplanned amputation of the target limb at 12 months in CLI subjects was 95% (95% confidence interval: 90.7% to 97.4%). Periprocedural adverse events included embolization (3.8%), perforation (5.3%), and abrupt closure (2.0%). The bail-out stent rate was 3.2%. The DEFINITIVE LE study demonstrated that DA is a safe and effective treatment modality at 12 months for a diverse patient population with either claudication or CLI. Furthermore, DA was shown to be noninferior for

  14. Appendix to the thesis an experimental and numerical study of a jetfire stop material and a new helical flow heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austegard, Anders

    1997-12-31

    This thesis consists of two parts. Part 1: Experimental and numerical study of jetfire stop, and Part 2: Experimental and numerical study of a new kind of shell and tube heat exchanger with helical flow on shell side. Part 1 describes the development of the model for simulation of the temperature development through Viking jetfirestop. A simulation program is developed that calculates the temperature development through Viking jetfirestop. In the development of the model, measurements of reaction energy, pyrolysis and heat conductivity at low temperatures are made. The conductivity at higher temperatures and when pyrolysis reactions are going on is estimated experimentally and by numerical calculations. Full-scale jet fire test and small-scale xenon lamp experiments are made to test the simulation model. Part 2 contains the development of a model that simulate the fluid flow and heat transfer in a helical flow shell and tube heat exchanger. It consists of the development of a porosity model and a model for pressure drop and heat transfer as well as experiments in non-standard tube layouts. Results from the simulation program are compared with experiments on a helical flow shell and tube heat exchanger. This is a separate appendix volume, including computer codes and simulated results. 316 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Physical disease and resilient outcomes: a systematic review of resilience definitions and study methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Marjorie C; Porteous, Terry; Crilly, Michael A; Burton, Christopher D; Elliott, Alison; Iversen, Lisa; McArdle, Karen; Murray, Alison; Phillips, Louise H; Black, Corri

    2015-01-01

    Findings from physical disease resilience research may be used to develop approaches to reduce the burden of disease. However, there is no consensus on the definition and measurement of resilience in the context of physical disease. The aim was to summarize the range of definitions of physical disease resilience and the approaches taken to study it in studies examining physical disease and its relationship to resilient outcomes. Electronic databases were searched from inception to March 2013 for studies in which physical disease was assessed for its association with resilient outcomes. Article screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were carried out independently by 2 reviewers, with disagreements being resolved by a third reviewer. The results were combined using a narrative technique. Of 2280 articles, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Of these studies, 1 was of high quality, 9 were of moderate quality, and 2 were low quality. The common findings were that resilience involves maintaining healthy levels of functioning following adversity and that it is a dynamic process not a personality trait. Studies either assessed resilience based on observed outcomes or via resilience measurement scales. They either considered physical disease as an adversity leading to resilience or as a variable modifying the relationship between adversity and resilience. This work begins building consensus as to the approach to take when defining and measuring physical disease resilience. Resilience should be considered as a dynamic process that varies across the life-course and across different domains, therefore the choice of a resilience measure should reflect this. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome – A clinically empirical approach to its definition and study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papanicolaou Dimitris A

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of standardized criteria for defining chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has constrained research. The objective of this study was to apply the 1994 CFS criteria by standardized reproducible criteria. Methods This population-based case control study enrolled 227 adults identified from the population of Wichita with: (1 CFS (n = 58; (2 non-fatigued controls matched to CFS on sex, race, age and body mass index (n = 55; (3 persons with medically unexplained fatigue not CFS, which we term ISF (n = 59; (4 CFS accompanied by melancholic depression (n = 27; and (5 ISF plus melancholic depression (n = 28. Participants were admitted to a hospital for two days and underwent medical history and physical examination, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, and laboratory testing to identify medical and psychiatric conditions exclusionary for CFS. Illness classification at the time of the clinical study utilized two algorithms: (1 the same criteria as in the surveillance study; (2 a standardized clinically empirical algorithm based on quantitative assessment of the major domains of CFS (impairment, fatigue, and accompanying symptoms. Results One hundred and sixty-four participants had no exclusionary conditions at the time of this study. Clinically empirical classification identified 43 subjects as CFS, 57 as ISF, and 64 as not ill. There was minimal association between the empirical classification and classification by the surveillance criteria. Subjects empirically classified as CFS had significantly worse impairment (evaluated by the SF-36, more severe fatigue (documented by the multidimensional fatigue inventory, more frequent and severe accompanying symptoms than those with ISF, who in turn had significantly worse scores than the not ill; this was not true for classification by the surveillance algorithm. Conclusion The empirical definition includes all aspects of CFS specified in the 1994 case definition and identifies persons with

  17. The Smithsonian Earth Physics Satellite (SEPS) definition study, volumes 1 through 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A limited Phase B study was undertaken to determine the merit and feasibility of launching a proposed earth physics satellite with Apollo-type hardware. The study revealed that it would be feasible to launch this satellite using a S-IB stage, a S-IVB with restart capability, an instrument unit, a SLA for the satellite shroud, and a nose cone (AS-204 configuration). A definition of the proposed satellite is provided, which is specifically designed to satisfy the fundamental requirement of providing an orbiting benchmark of maximum accuracy. The satellite is a completely passive, solid 3628-kg sphere of 38.1-cm radius and very high mass-to-area ratio (7980 kg sq mi). In the suggested orbit of 55 degrees inclination, 3720 km altitude, and low eccentricity, the orbital lifetime is extremely long, so many decades of operation can be expected.

  18. Definition study for variable cycle engine testbed engine and associated test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdoviak, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The product/study double bypass variable cycle engine (VCE) was updated to incorporate recent improvements. The effect of these improvements on mission range and noise levels was determined. This engine design was then compared with current existing high-technology core engines in order to define a subscale testbed configuration that simulated many of the critical technology features of the product/study VCE. Detailed preliminary program plans were then developed for the design, fabrication, and static test of the selected testbed engine configuration. These plans included estimated costs and schedules for the detail design, fabrication and test of the testbed engine and the definition of a test program, test plan, schedule, instrumentation, and test stand requirements.

  19. Definition study of a Variable Cycle Experimental Engine (VCEE) and associated test program and test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The Definition Study of a Variable Cycle Experimental Engine (VCEE) and Associated Test Program and Test Plan, was initiated to identify the most cost effective program for a follow-on to the AST Test Bed Program. The VCEE Study defined various subscale VCE's based on different available core engine components, and a full scale VCEE utilizing current technology. The cycles were selected, preliminary design accomplished and program plans and engineering costs developed for several program options. In addition to the VCEE program plans and options, a limited effort was applied to identifying programs that could logically be accomplished on the AST Test Bed Program VCE to extend the usefulness of this test hardware. Component programs were provided that could be accomplished prior to the start of a VCEE program.

  20. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix D: EOS configuration design data. Part 2: Data management system configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) data management system (DMS) is discussed. The DMS is composed of several subsystems or system elements which have basic purposes and are connected together so that the DMS can support the EOS program by providing the following: (1) payload data acquisition and recording, (2) data processing and product generation, (3) spacecraft and processing management and control, and (4) data user services. The configuration and purposes of the primary or high-data rate system and the secondary or local user system are explained. Diagrams of the systems are provided to support the systems analysis.

  1. GACT: a Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool for SNP imputation and meta-analysis in genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulovari, Arvis; Li, Dawei

    2014-07-19

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genes associated with complex human diseases. Although much of the heritability remains unexplained, combining single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes from multiple studies for meta-analysis will increase the statistical power to identify new disease-associated variants. Meta-analysis requires same allele definition (nomenclature) and genome build among individual studies. Similarly, imputation, commonly-used prior to meta-analysis, requires the same consistency. However, the genotypes from various GWAS are generated using different genotyping platforms, arrays or SNP-calling approaches, resulting in use of different genome builds and allele definitions. Incorrect assumptions of identical allele definition among combined GWAS lead to a large portion of discarded genotypes or incorrect association findings. There is no published tool that predicts and converts among all major allele definitions. In this study, we have developed a tool, GACT, which stands for Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool, that predicts and inter-converts between any of the common SNP allele definitions and between the major genome builds. In addition, we assessed several factors that may affect imputation quality, and our results indicated that inclusion of singletons in the reference had detrimental effects while ambiguous SNPs had no measurable effect. Unexpectedly, exclusion of genotypes with missing rate > 0.001 (40% of study SNPs) showed no significant decrease of imputation quality (even significantly higher when compared to the imputation with singletons in the reference), especially for rare SNPs. GACT is a new, powerful, and user-friendly tool with both command-line and interactive online versions that can accurately predict, and convert between any of the common allele definitions and between genome builds for genome-wide meta-analysis and imputation of genotypes from SNP-arrays or deep

  2. The Appendix on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitley, S. [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Barts and the Royal London, Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: siobhanwhitley@yahoo.co.uk; Sookur, P.; McLean, A.; Power, N. [Barts and the Royal London, Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Appendicitis can be a difficult clinical diagnosis to make. A negative appendicectomy rate of 20% has traditionally been accepted as the consequences of appendiceal perforation can be grave. Cross-sectional imaging is increasingly being employed in the investigation of adults with suspected appendicitis. This review will demonstrate the appearance of the normal appendix on computed tomography (CT) and its appearance in a range of inflammatory and neoplastic processes including appendicitis, Crohn's disease, infections, and benign and malignant tumour000.

  3. What is a clinical pathway? Refinement of an operational definition to identify clinical pathway studies for a Cochrane systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Adegboyega K; Rotter, Thomas; Kinsman, Leigh; Machotta, Andreas; Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Scott, Shannon D; Goodridge, Donna; Plishka, Christopher; Groot, Gary

    2016-02-23

    Clinical pathways (CPWs) are a common component in the quest to improve the quality of health. CPWs are used to reduce variation, improve quality of care, and maximize the outcomes for specific groups of patients. An ongoing challenge is the operationalization of a definition of CPW in healthcare. This may be attributable to both the differences in definition and a lack of conceptualization in the field of clinical pathways. This correspondence article describes a process of refinement of an operational definition for CPW research and proposes an operational definition for the future syntheses of CPWs literature. Following the approach proposed by Kinsman et al. (BMC Medicine 8(1):31, 2010) and Wieland et al. (Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 17(2):50, 2011), we used a four-stage process to generate a five criteria checklist for the definition of CPWs. We refined the operational definition, through consensus, merging two of the checklist's criteria, leading to a more inclusive criterion for accommodating CPW studies conducted in various healthcare settings. The following four criteria for CPW operational definition, derived from the refinement process described above, are (1) the intervention was a structured multidisciplinary plan of care; (2) the intervention was used to translate guidelines or evidence into local structures; (3) the intervention detailed the steps in a course of treatment or care in a plan, pathway, algorithm, guideline, protocol or other 'inventory of actions' (i.e. the intervention had time-frames or criteria-based progression); and (4) the intervention aimed to standardize care for a specific population. An intervention meeting all four criteria was considered to be a CPW. The development of operational definitions for complex interventions is a useful approach to appraise and synthesize evidence for policy development and quality improvement.

  4. Clinical Definitions of Sarcopenia and Risk of Hospitalization in Community-Dwelling Older Men: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Lui, Li-Yung; Taylor, Brent C; McCulloch, Charles E; Cauley, Jane A; Lapidus, Jodi; Orwoll, Eric; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2017-10-01

    The association between various definitions of sarcopenia and hospitalization has not been evaluated in community-dwelling older men. We used data from 1,516 participants at Visit 3 of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study who also had linked Medicare Fee-For-Service Claims data available. We examined the association between several sarcopenia definitions (International Working Group, European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older Persons, Foundation for the NIH Sarcopenia Project, Baumgartner, and Newman) and hospitalization, using two-part ("hurdle") models, adjusted for age, clinical center, functional limitations, self-reported health, comorbidity, and cognitive function. Predictors included sarcopenia status (the summary definitions and the components of slowness, weakness, and/or lean mass); outcomes included hospitalization and cumulative inpatient days/year in the 3 years following the Visit 3 exam. After accounting for confounding factors, none of the summary definitions or the definition components (slowness, weakness, or low lean mass) were associated with likelihood of hospitalization, the rate ratio of inpatient days among those hospitalized, or the mean rate of inpatient days amongst all participants. Sarcopenia was not associated hospitalization in community-dwelling older men. These results provide further evidence that current sarcopenia definitions are unlikely to identify those who are most likely to have greater hospitalization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Volume 1, Appendix I: Transportation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report has been prepared to address local issues concerning current and potential operations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), to document the results of the NTS transportation risk analysis, and to provide information and supporting documentation for the NTS Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Stakeholders have identified transportation, health, and safety issues as their paramount concern. In response to these concerns, the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) solicited and received input from the public through public meetings and in meetings with federal, state, local, and tribal organizations; and commissioned a transportation risk analysis. The stakeholders and DOE went on to establish the Transportation Protocol Working Group and Big Group to further discuss transportation issues associated with NTS transportation activities. This study used two different models: ADROIT for Defense Program activities and a RADTRAN-like model for waste management activities. Because of national security concerns associated with special nuclear material, the DOE has developed ADROIT to assist in defining the potential risk associated with Defense Program transportation activities. RADTRAN is a computer model which analyzes data without exposing the steps taken to reach the end result. So the public could see every step in the process, a RADTRAN-like model was used. This model is composed of a combination of spreadsheet and FORTRAN codes, that can be used by the stakeholder on a personal computer. This model is available to the public upon request. A detailed discussion of the results of the model are contained in this Appendix

  6. Radioactive wastes. Management prospects. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2003-01-01

    These appendixes complete the article BN3661 entitled 'Radioactive wastes. Management prospects'. They develop the principles of the different separation processes under study and make a status of the conditioning matrices that are envisaged: 1 - principles of advanced separation (separation of U, Np, Pu, Tc and I; separation of Am and Cm in two extraction steps (Diamex and Sanex processes); separation of Am and Cm in a single extraction step (Paladin process); separation of Am and Cm (Sesame process); separation of Cs (Calixarene process); 2 - principles of separation in pyro-chemistry: separation under inert atmosphere (non-oxidizing); separation in oxidizing conditions; 3 - conditioning matrices under study for separate elements: objectives and methodology, matrices for iodine, for cesium and for actinides. (J.S.)

  7. Magnetometer instrument team studies for the definition phase of the outer planets grand tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of magnetic field investigations on missions to the outer planets were defined as well as an instrumentation system, a program of studies and instrument development tasks was proposed for the mission definition phase of the Outer Planets Grand Tour project. A report on the status of this program is given. Requirements were also established for the spacecraft and the mission which would insure their compatibility with the magnetic field investigation proposed for the outer planets missions and developed figures of merit for encounter trajectories. The spacecraft-instrumentation interface and the on-board data handling system were defined in various reports by the Project Team and in the reports by the Science Steering Group. The defining program for exploring the outer planets within the more restrictive constraints of the Mariner Jupiter-Saturn project included defining a limited magnetic field investigation.

  8. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 25 - Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appendix I to Part 25—Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS) I25.1General. (a... crew to increase thrust or power. I25.2Definitions. (a) Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust...

  9. Relating the Capabilities of the Handicapped to the Human Attribute Requirements of Jobs: Appendixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    Twenty-five appendixes from a study attempting to match capabilities of the handicapped to the human attribute requirements of three jobs (general secretary, automotive mechanic, and business data programmer) are presented. Appendixes include information on such topics as data analysis for identification of key tasks; job descriptions for the…

  10. INTRAOPERATIVE MOTIVE FOR PERFORMING A LAPAROSCOPIC APPENDECTOMY ON A POSTOPERATIVE HISTOLOGICAL PROVEN NORMAL APPENDIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, T.; Hamminga, J. T. H.; Hofker, H. S.; Heineman, E.; Haveman, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic laparoscopy is the ultimate tool to evaluate the appendix. However, the intraoperative evaluation of the appendix is difficult, as the negative appendectomy rate remains 12%-18%. The aim of this study is to analyze the intraoperative motive for performing a laparoscopic

  11. MORPHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VERMIFORM APPENDIX DURING THE PRENATAL PERIOD IN MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Živković

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, there are different data about the morphologic characteristics and variations of the appendix during the postnatal period in man, but the information about its characteristics in the prenatal period is scarce. In our study, the characteristics of the appendix in prenatal period of development were studied on the fetal material. We used the fetuses from the collection of the Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine in Niš, 100 of them in total, formalin-fixed, of both genders, in their second and third trimester of intrauterine development. Regarding anatomical variations, we found a missing appendix in one case and a double appendix in another. The appendical opening into the cecum was located on the inner, posterior, outer, and anterior walls of the cecum, always below the ileal opening. The origin from the inferior, lowest part of the cecum was also observed. The appendix ran in preileal, retroileal, prececal, retrocecal, and retrocolic directions. The appendix had tubular shape, with one or two bends, being rarely straight. The length of the appendix varied from very short to very long, descending from the inferior edge of the liver to the right iliac fossa. The morphologic characteristics of the appendix in fetus, observed in our study, in the literature have been described to exist in the postnatal human life as well.

  12. Evaluation of surveillance case definition in the diagnosis of leptospirosis, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Dinesh L B; Wimalaratna, Harith; Agampodi, Suneth B; Liyanapathirana, Veranja C; Piyarathna, Thibbotumunuwe A C L; Goonapienuwala, Bimba L

    2009-04-22

    Leptospirosis is endemic in both urban and rural areas of Sri Lanka and there had been many out breaks in the recent past. This study was aimed at validating the leptospirosis surveillance case definition, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The study population consisted of patients with undiagnosed acute febrile illness who were admitted to the medical wards of the Teaching Hospital Kandy, from 1st July 2007 to 31st July 2008. The subjects were screened to diagnose leptospirosis according to the leptospirosis case definition. MAT was performed on blood samples taken from each patient on the 7th day of fever. Leptospirosis case definition was evaluated in regard to sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, using a MAT titre >or= 1:800 for confirming leptospirosis. A total of 123 patients were initially recruited of which 73 had clinical features compatible with the surveillance case definition. Out of the 73 only 57 had a positive MAT result (true positives) leaving 16 as false positives. Out of the 50 who didn't have clinical features compatible with the case definition 45 had a negative MAT as well (true negatives), therefore 5 were false negatives. Total number of MAT positives was 62 out of 123. According to these results the test sensitivity was 91.94%, specificity 73.77%, positive predictive value and negative predictive values were 78.08% and 90% respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of the test was 82.93%. This study confirms that the surveillance case definition has a very high sensitivity and negative predictive value with an average specificity in diagnosing leptospirosis, based on a MAT titre of >or= 1: 800.

  13. Outcomes Definitions and Statistical Tests in Oncology Studies: A Systematic Review of the Reporting Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoirard, Romain; Duplay, Vianney; Oriol, Mathieu; Tinquaut, Fabien; Chauvin, Franck; Magne, Nicolas; Bourmaud, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    Quality of reporting for Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) in oncology was analyzed in several systematic reviews, but, in this setting, there is paucity of data for the outcomes definitions and consistency of reporting for statistical tests in RCTs and Observational Studies (OBS). The objective of this review was to describe those two reporting aspects, for OBS and RCTs in oncology. From a list of 19 medical journals, three were retained for analysis, after a random selection: British Medical Journal (BMJ), Annals of Oncology (AoO) and British Journal of Cancer (BJC). All original articles published between March 2009 and March 2014 were screened. Only studies whose main outcome was accompanied by a corresponding statistical test were included in the analysis. Studies based on censored data were excluded. Primary outcome was to assess quality of reporting for description of primary outcome measure in RCTs and of variables of interest in OBS. A logistic regression was performed to identify covariates of studies potentially associated with concordance of tests between Methods and Results parts. 826 studies were included in the review, and 698 were OBS. Variables were described in Methods section for all OBS studies and primary endpoint was clearly detailed in Methods section for 109 RCTs (85.2%). 295 OBS (42.2%) and 43 RCTs (33.6%) had perfect agreement for reported statistical test between Methods and Results parts. In multivariable analysis, variable "number of included patients in study" was associated with test consistency: aOR (adjusted Odds Ratio) for third group compared to first group was equal to: aOR Grp3 = 0.52 [0.31-0.89] (P value = 0.009). Variables in OBS and primary endpoint in RCTs are reported and described with a high frequency. However, statistical tests consistency between methods and Results sections of OBS is not always noted. Therefore, we encourage authors and peer reviewers to verify consistency of statistical tests in oncology studies.

  14. Space platform expendables resupply concept definition study. Volume 3: Work breakdown structure and work breakdown structure dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The work breakdown structure (WBS) for the Space Platform Expendables Resupply Concept Definition Study is described. The WBS consists of a list of WBS elements, a dictionary of element definitions, and an element logic diagram. The list and logic diagram identify the interrelationships of the elements. The dictionary defines the types of work that may be represented by or be classified under each specific element. The Space Platform Expendable Resupply WBS was selected mainly to support the program planning, scheduling, and costing performed in the programmatics task (task 3). The WBS is neither a statement-of-work nor a work authorization document. Rather, it is a framework around which to define requirements, plan effort, assign responsibilities, allocate and control resources, and report progress, expenditures, technical performance, and schedule performance. The WBS element definitions are independent of make-or-buy decisions, organizational structure, and activity locations unless exceptions are specifically stated.

  15. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [carry-on laboratory for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The definition and integration tasks involved in the development of design concepts for a carry-on laboratory (COL), to be compatible with Spacelab operations, were divided into the following study areas: (1) identification of research and equipment requirements of the COL; (2) development of a number of conceptual layouts for COL based on the defined research of final conceptual designs; and (4) development of COL planning information for definition of COL/Spacelab interface data, cost data, and program cost schedules, including design drawings of a selected COL to permit fabrication of a functional breadboard.

  16. Reconsidering the International Association for the Study of Pain definition of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Cohen

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion:. Based on these results, a revised definition of pain is offered: Pain is a mutually recognizable somatic experience that reflects a person's apprehension of threat to their bodily or existential integrity.

  17. Achieving consensus on the definition of conversion to laparotomy: a Delphi study among general surgeons, gynecologists, and urologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikkendaal, Mathijs D; Twijnstra, Andries R H; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Beerlage, Harrie P; Bemelman, Willem A; Jansen, Frank Willem

    2013-12-01

    In laparoscopic surgery, conversion to laparotomy is associated with worse clinical outcomes, especially if the conversion is due to a complication. Although apparently important, no commonly used definition of conversion exists. The aim of this study was to achieve multidisciplinary consensus on a uniform definition of conversion. On the basis of definitions currently used in the literature, a web-based Delphi consensus study was conducted among members of all four Dutch endoscopic societies. The rate of agreement (RoA) was calculated; a RoA of >70% suggested consensus. The survey was completed by 268 respondents in the first Delphi round (response rate, 45.6%); 43% were general surgeons, 49% gynecologists, and 8% urologists. Average ± standard deviation laparoscopic experience was 12.5 ± 7.2 years. On the basis of the results of round 1, a consensus definition was compiled. Conversion to laparotomy is an intraoperative switch from a laparoscopic to an open abdominal approach that meets the criteria of one of the two subtypes: strategic conversion, a standard laparotomy that is made directly after the assessment of the feasibility of completing the procedure laparoscopically and because of anticipated operative difficulty or logistic considerations; and reactive conversion, the need for a laparotomy because of a complication or (extension of an incision) because of (anticipated) operative difficulty after a considerable amount of dissection (i.e., >15 min in time). A laparotomy after a diagnostic laparoscopy (i.e., to assess the curability of the disease) should not be considered a conversion. In the second Delphi round, a RoA of 90% was achieved with this definition. After two Delphi rounds, consensus on a uniform multidisciplinary definition of conversion was achieved within a representative group of general surgeons, gynecologists, and urologists. An unambiguous interpretation will result in a more reliable clinical registration of conversion and scientific

  18. Comparative prognostic performance of definitions of prediabetes: a prospective cohort analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Bethany; Pankow, James S; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Punjabi, Naresh M; Daya, Natalie R; Grams, Morgan; Woodward, Mark; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    No consensus on definitions of prediabetes exists among international organisations. Analysis of associations with different definitions and clinical complications can inform the comparative value of different prediabetes definitions. We compared the risk of future outcomes across different prediabetes definitions based on fasting glucose concentration, HbA 1c , and 2 h glucose concentration during over two decades of follow-up in the community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. We aimed to analyse the associations of definitions with outcomes to provide a comparison of different definitions. We did a prospective cohort study of participants in the ARIC study who did not have diagnosed diabetes and who attended visit 2 (1990-92; n=10 844) and who attended visit 4 (1996-98; n=7194). ARIC participants were enrolled from four communities across the USA. Fasting glucose concentration and HbA 1c were measured at visit 2 and fasting glucose concentration and 2 h glucose concentration were measured at visit 4. We compared prediabetes definitions based on fasting glucose concentration (American Diabetes Association [ADA] fasting glucose concentration cutoff 5·6-6·9 mmol/L and WHO fasting glucose concentration cutoff 6·1-6·9 mmol/L), HbA 1c (ADA HbA 1c cutoff 5·7-6·4% [39-46 mmol/mol] and International Expert Committee [IEC] HbA 1c cutoff 6·0-6·4% [42-46 mmol/mol]), and 2 h glucose concentration (ADA and WHO 2 h glucose concentration cutoff 7·8-11·0 mmol/L). Prediabetes defined using the ADA fasting glucose concentration cutoff (prevalence 4112 [38%] of 10 844 people; 95% CI 37·0-38·8) was the most sensitive for major clinical outcomes, whereas using the ADA HbA 1c cutoff (2027 [19%] of 10 884 people; 18·0-19·4) and IEC HbA 1c cutoff (970 [9%] of 10 844 people; 8·4-9·5), and the WHO fasting glucose concentration cutoff (1213 [11%] of 10 844 people; 10·6-11·8) were more specific. After demographic adjustment, HbA 1c -based

  19. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering. [cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  20. High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation in early onset epileptic encephalopathy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiron, Oded; Gale, Rena; Namestnic, Julia; Bennet-Back, Odeya; David, Jonathan; Gebodh, Nigel; Adair, Devin; Esmaeilpour, Zeinab; Bikson, Marom

    2018-01-01

    Early onset epileptic encephalopathy is characterized by high daily seizure-frequency, multifocal epileptic discharges, severe psychomotor retardation, and death at infancy. Currently, there are no effective treatments to alleviate seizure frequency and high-voltage epileptic discharges in these catastrophic epilepsy cases. The current study examined the safety and feasibility of High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) in reducing epileptiform activity in a 30-month-old child suffering from early onset epileptic encephalopathy. HD-tDCS was administered over 10 intervention days spanning two weeks including pre- and post-intervention video-EEG monitoring. There were no serious adverse events or side effects related to the HD-tDCS intervention. Frequency of clinical seizures was not significantly reduced. However, interictal sharp wave amplitudes were significantly lower during the post-intervention period versus baseline. Vital signs and blood biochemistry remained stable throughout the entire study. These exploratory findings support the safety and feasibility of 4 × 1 HD-tDCS in early onset epileptic encephalopathy and provide the first evidence of HD-tDCS effects on paroxysmal EEG features in electroclinical cases under the age of 36 months. Extending HD-tDCS treatment may enhance electrographic findings and clinical effects.

  1. Identifiability and Accessibility in Learning Definite Article Usages: A Quasi-Experimental Study with Japanese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinenoya, Kimiko; Lyster, Roy

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of instruction on the use of the definite article "the" by Japanese learners of English by implementing two instructional treatments that varied in the extent to which they emphasized identifiability and accessibility. One instructional treatment, referred to as the traditional (TR) treatment,…

  2. Characteristics of the telescope for high energy gamma-ray astronomy selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Rolfe, J.; Johansson, A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray telescope selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

  3. Achieving consensus on the definition of conversion to laparotomy: a Delphi study among general surgeons, gynecologists, and urologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blikkendaal, Mathijs D.; Twijnstra, Andries R. H.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Beerlage, Harrie P.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Jansen, Frank Willem

    2013-01-01

    In laparoscopic surgery, conversion to laparotomy is associated with worse clinical outcomes, especially if the conversion is due to a complication. Although apparently important, no commonly used definition of conversion exists. The aim of this study was to achieve multidisciplinary consensus on a

  4. Appendix F - Sample Contingency Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This sample Contingency Plan in Appendix F is intended to provide examples of contingency planning as a reference when a facility determines that the required secondary containment is impracticable, pursuant to 40 CFR §112.7(d).

  5. What is my walking neighbourhood? A pilot study of English adults' definitions of their local walking neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey Rachel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing measures of perceptions of the environment associated with walking commonly rely on providing a definition of 'neighbourhood', e.g. 1 mile area around the home. We have little understanding of how these examples relate with adults' own geographical definitions of their neighbourhood area. Our pilot study examined the congruence between definitions used in environmental questionnaires and adults' own definitions of neighbourhood. Methods We conducted 58 face-to-face interviews with participants randomly selected from 10 areas of Stoke-on-Trent, England. Participants were shown printed maps showing their local area with road names and places of interest (e.g. shops, services, green space and were asked: (i to recall usual walking destinations (from their home; (ii to draw their 'neighbourhood walking area' on the map. Annotated maps were scanned back into GIS for analysis. Results When asked to draw their 'neighbourhood' boundary, the resulting area drawn by participants on average represented only 16 ± 20% of the commonly used total straight-line buffer of 1 mile (or 1.6 km with a range of 0.3% to 111%. Even when repeated using a network buffer (rather than straight-line the same comparison resulted in a mean of 36% (± 47% and a range of 0.6 to 245%. Conclusions We found that adults' interpretation of their neighbourhood area does not appear to relate accurately to the definitions typically used in research into environmental perceptions and walking. This mis-match warrants further investigation as definitions used in existing measures may be consistently misclassifying perceived local walking neighbourhoods.

  6. Definition of intercultural competence (IC) in undergraduate students at a private university in the USA: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierke, Lioba; Binder, Nadine; Heckmann, Mark; Odağ, Özen; Leiser, Anne; Kedzior, Karina Karolina

    2018-01-01

    Intercultural competence (IC) is an important skill to be gained from higher education. However, it remains unclear what IC means to students and what factors might influence their definitions of IC. The aim of the current study was to qualitatively assess how students at one higher education institution in the USA define IC and to quantitatively test for relationships among IC components and various demographic characteristics, including intercultural experience and study context. A further aim was to descriptively compare the IC definitions from the US sample with the definitions obtained from another sample of university students in Germany. A purposive sample of n = 93 undergraduate, second semester students at Dickinson College, USA, participated in the study by completing an online questionnaire. The qualitative data were content-analyzed to define the dimensions of IC. The quantitative data were cluster-analyzed to assess the multivariate relationships among the IC components and the demographic characteristics of the sample. The most important dimensions of IC were Knowledge, External Outcomes (interaction, communication), and Attitudes (respect, tolerance) according to the US sample. The most frequently chosen dimensions of IC differed between both samples: Knowledge was chosen by the sample in the USA while External Outcomes was chosen by the sample in Germany. Relative to the US sample, significantly more students chose Attitudes, External Outcomes, and Intrapersonal Skills in the sample in Germany. The relationships among IC components and demographic characteristics were only weak in the US sample. A person with IC was rated as Open-minded and Respectful by students who lived predominantly in the USA or Tolerant and Curious by those who lived outside the USA for at least six months. The current results suggest that students residing in two countries (USA or Germany) define IC using similar dimensions. However, IC definitions may depend on the

  7. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study. Volume 2: OTV concept definition and evaluation. Book 1: Mission and system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofal, Allen E.

    1987-01-01

    The mission and system requirements for the concept definition and system analysis of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) are established. The requirements set forth constitute the single authority for the selection, evaluation, and optimization of the technical performance and design of the OTV. This requirements document forms the basis for the Ground and Space Based OTV concept definition analyses and establishes the physical, functional, performance and design relationships to STS, Space Station, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), and payloads.

  8. The definition of polytrauma: variable interrater versus intrarater agreement--a prospective international study among trauma surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Nerida E; Enninghorst, Natalie; Sisak, Krisztian; Balogh, Zsolt J

    2013-03-01

    The international trauma community has recognized the lack of a validated consensus definition of "polytrauma." We hypothesized that using a subjective definition, trauma surgeons will not have substantial agreement; thus, an objective definition is needed. A prospective observational study was conducted between December 2010 and June 2011 (John Hunter Hospital, Level I trauma center). Inclusion criteria were all trauma call patients with subsequent intensive care unit admission. The study was composed of four stages as follows: (1) four trauma surgeons assessed patients until 24 hours, then coded as either "yes" or "no" for polytrauma, and results compared for agreement; (2) eight trauma surgeons representing the United States, Germany, and the Netherlands graded the same prospectively assessed patients and coded as either "yes" or "no" for polytrauma; (3) 12 months later, the original four trauma surgeons repeated assessment via data sheets to test intrarater variability; and (4) individual subjective definitions were compared with three anatomic scores, namely, (a) Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than 15, (b) ISS of greater 17, and (c) Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of greater than 2 in at least two ISS body regions. A total of 52 trauma patients were included. Results for each stage were as follows: (1) κ score of 0.50, moderate agreement; (2) κ score of 0.41, moderate agreement; (3) Rater 1 had moderate intrarater agreement (κ score, 0.59), while Raters 2, 3, 4 had substantial intrarater agreement (κ scores, 0.75, 0.66, and 0.71, respectively); and (4) none had most agreement with ISS of greater than 15 (κ score, 0.16), while both definitions ISS greater than 17 and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of greater than 2 in at least two ISS body regions had on average fair agreement (κ scores, 0.27 and 0.39, respectively). Based on subjective assessments, trauma surgeons do not agree on the definition of polytrauma, with the subjective

  9. Epidemiology and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome in children according to the Berlin definition: a multicenter prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Eliane R; Munoz, Gabriela O C; Cavalheiro, Priscilla O; Suzuki, Adriana S; Degaspare, Natalia V; Shieh, Huei H; Martines, João A D S; Ferreira, Juliana C; Lane, Christianne; Carvalho, Werther B; Gilio, Alfredo E; Precioso, Alexander R

    2015-05-01

    In 2012, a new acute respiratory distress syndrome definition was proposed for adult patients. It was later validated for infants and toddlers. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence, outcomes, and risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in children up to 15 years according to the Berlin definition. A prospective, multicenter observational study from March to September 2013. Seventy-seven PICU beds in eight centers: two private hospitals and six public academic hospitals in Brazil. All children aged 1 month to 15 years admitted to the participating PICUs in the study period. None. All children admitted to the PICUs were daily evaluated for the presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome according to the American-European Consensus Conference and Berlin definitions. Of the 562 patients included, acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 57 patients (10%) and 58 patients (10.3%) according to the Berlin definition and the American-European Consensus Conference definition, respectively. Among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome according to the Berlin definition, nine patients (16%) were mild, 21 (37%) were moderate, and 27 (47%) were severe. Compared with patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome had significantly higher severity scores, longer PICU and hospital length of stay, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and higher mortality (p < 0.001). The presence of two or more comorbidities and admission for medical reasons were associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Comparisons across the three the Berlin categories showed significant differences in the number of ventilator-free days (21, 20, and 5 d, p = 0.001) and mortality for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (41%) in comparison with mild (0) and moderate (15%) acute respiratory distress syndrome(p = 0.02). No differences in PICU or hospital stay were

  10. Effect of Disease Definition on Perceived Burden of Acute Respiratory Infections in Children: A Prospective Cohort Study Based on Symptom Diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoch, Beate; Günther, Annette; Karch, André; Mikolajczyk, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are among the most frequent childhood diseases in Western countries. Assessment of ARI episodes for research purposes is usually based on parent-administered retrospective questionnaires or prospective symptom diaries. The aim of our analysis was to compare the effect of ARI definitions on the corresponding disease burden in a prospective cohort study using symptom diaries. A literature search was performed to identify definitions of ARI used in research studies. The definitions were applied to a symptom diary dataset from a cohort study of 1-3-year-old children conducted in the winter season 2013/2014. We compared the total number of ARI episodes, the total number of days with ARI and the median and mean duration of ARI episodes resulting from the use of the different definitions. Six ARI definitions were identified in the literature. Depending on ARI definition, the total number of ARI episodes and the total number of days with ARI in our dataset varied by a factor of 1.69 and 1.53, respectively, between the lowest and the highest. The median duration of the episodes ranged from 7 to 10 days. Different definitions led to considerable differences in the number and duration of ARI episodes, making direct comparisons of studies with different methods questionable. We propose the use of a standardized ARI definition in upcoming cohort studies working with diary data. This process could be conducted using a Delphi survey with experts in this study field.

  11. Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium (WERC) annual progress report, 1991--1992. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-07

    This report contains the following appendices: Appendix A - Requirements for Undergraduate Level; Appendix B - Requirements for Graduate Level; Appendix C - Graduate Degree In Environmental Engineering; Appendix D - Non-degree Certificate Program; Appendix E - Curriculum for Associate Degree Program; Appendix F - Curriculum for NCC Program; Appendix G - Information 1991 Teleconference Series; Appendix H - Information on 1992 Teleconference Series; Appendix I - WERC interactive Television Courses; Appendix J - WERC Research Seminar Series; Appendix K - Sites for Hazardous/Radioactive Waste Management Series; Appendix L- Summary of Technology Development of the Second Year; Appendix M - List of Major Publications Resulting from WERC; Appendix N - Types of Equipment at WERC Laboratories.

  12. An Empirical Study of the Process of Crafting and Using Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Angela Jean

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation I analyze the process of crafting definitions whose purpose is classification. The context I examine is undergraduate upper-division physical science majors defining and naming sub-categories of a physical phenomenon in the context of a design task over an extended period of time. The goal of the design task is one of…

  13. Definition dependent properties of the cortical silent period in upper-extremity muscles, a methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, A.A. van; Bakker, C.D.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Geurts, A.C.; Stegeman, D.F.; Pasman, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To explore if stimulus-response (S-R) characteristics of the silent period (SP) after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are affected by changing the SP definition and by changing data presentation in healthy individuals. This information would be clinically relevant to predict

  14. Definition dependent properties of the cortical silent period in upper-extremity muscles, a methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuijk, A.A.; Bakker, C,; Hendriks, J.J.A.; Geurts, A.H.; Stegeman, D.F.; Pasman, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To explore if stimulus-response (S-R) characteristics of the silent period (SP) after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are affected by changing the SP definition and by changing data presentation in healthy individuals. This information would be clinically relevant to predict

  15. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG). Volume 2, appendix A: Selected DSG technologies and their general control requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A consistent approach was sought for both hardware and software which will handle the monitoring and control necessary to integrate a number of different DSG technologies into a common distribution dispatch network. It appears that the control of each of the DSG technologies is compatible with a supervisory control method of operation that lends itself to remote control from a distribution dispatch center.

  16. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG). Volume 3, appendix B: State of the art, trends, and potential growth of selected DSG technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Present and future relatively small (30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration can help achieve national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. Based on current projections, it appears that dispersed storage and generation (DSG) electrical energy will comprise only a small portion, from 4 to 10 percent, of the national total by the end of this century. In general, the growth potential for DSG seems favorable in the long term because of finite fossil energy resources and increasing fuel prices. Recent trends, especially in the institutional and regulatory fields, favor greater use of the DSGs for the future.

  17. Dynamics of Situation Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dongseop; Moro, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Situation definition is the process and product of actors' interpretive activities toward a given situation. By reviewing a number of psychological studies conducted in experimental settings, we found that the studies have only explicated a part of the situation definition process and have neglected its dynamic aspects. We need to focus on the…

  18. Definition of Videogames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Tavinor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Can videogames be defined? The new field of games studies has generated three somewhat competing models of videogaming that characterize games as new forms of gaming, narratives, and interactive fictions. When treated as necessary and sufficient condition definitions, however, each of the three approaches fails to pick out all and only videogames. In this paper I argue that looking more closely at the formal qualities of definition helps to set out the range of definitional options open to the games theorist. A disjunctive definition of videogaming seems the most appropriate of these definitional options. The disjunctive definition I offer here is motivated by the observation that there is more than one characteristic way of being a videogame.

  19. New Market Paradigm for Zero-Energy Homes: The Comparative San Diego Case Study; Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Appendixes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B. C.; Coburn, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    This study suggests a conceptually fresh alternative paradigm for the building and marketing of zero-energy homes (ZEHs) based on experience which will help builders create sustainable communities for our well-being and that of future generations.

  20. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix A: Mission analysis and performance specification studies report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of a study leading to the preliminary design of a five passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis are presented. The study methodology is described. Vehicle characterizations, the mission description, characterization, and impact on potential sales, and the rationale for the selection of the reference internal combustion engine vehicle are presented. Conclusions and recommendations of the mission analysis and performance specification report are included.

  1. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study (Exhibit D). Volume 5: Systems engineering/integration research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines and ground rules followed in the development of requirements for the SPS are presented. Development planning objectives are specified in each of these areas, and evolutionary SPS program scenarios are described for the various concepts studied during the past one year contract. Program descriptions are presented as planning packages of technical tasks, and schedule phasing. Each package identifies the ground based technology effort that will facilitate SPS definitions, designs, development, and operations.

  2. How does leadership education shape students’ definitions of leadership? Insights from the Multi-institutional Study of Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, EK; Thornton, J; Coartney, J

    2017-01-01

    The Multi-institutional Study of Leadership (MSL) is an international research program focused on understanding the influences of higher education in shaping socially responsible leadership capacity and other related student outcomes. While there have been numerous reports on the quantitative findings from the MSL, the published research tends to ignore data from the qualitative prompt: “Please provide a brief definition of what the term leadership means to you.” By coding and categorizing th...

  3. NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THE APPENDIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bryk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to present the clinical observations of neoplastic lesions of the appendix (one carcinoid and two mucous cysts and to discuss various manners of treatment and prognosis. Material and methods: The authors of the following paper present a description of three cases of appendix tumours, two patients with a mucous cyst and a patient with carcinoid, against the background of all the appendectomies performed at the Clinical Department of General, Endocrine and Oncological Surgery of the Provincial Polyclinical Hospital in Kielce in the years 2005–2011. Results : Within the 7-year period, a total of 11 719 surgical operations have been performed, where 834 (7.1% were that of appendectomy. Among all of the removed vermiform appendixes, neoplastic lesions occurred in three cases constituting a mere 0.3% of all of the appendectomies performed within that period. In two of the cases there was a suspicion of mucous cysts before the surgical operation. In none of the above-mentioned cases was is possible to ultimately establish the diagnosis before the operation. The patients were subjected to a simple appendectomy. The patients are in good clinical health, with no signs of relapse. Conclusions : The presented cases of patients with appendix tumours illustrate the difficulty of preoperative detection of a neoplastic lesion. This is mainly due to a scantily symptomatic course or symptoms typical of appendicitis. In light of this, histopathological examination of each appendix should be treated as obligatory.

  4. MRI for appendicitis in pregnancy: is seeing believing? clinical outcomes in cases of appendix nonvisualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Katib, Sayf; Sokhandon, Farnoosh; Farah, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes in cases of appendix nonvisualization with MRI in pregnant patients with suspected appendicitis and the implications of appendix nonvisualization for excluding appendicitis. Fifty-eight pregnant patients with suspected appendicitis evaluated with MRI at three centers from a single institution were retrospectively reviewed by three radiologists with varying levels of abdominal imaging experience. All scans were performed on a 1.5-Tesla Siemens unit. Cases were evaluated for diagnostic quality, visualization of the appendix, presence of appendicitis, and alternate diagnoses. Clinical outcomes were gathered from the electronic medical record. Of the 58 patients who underwent MRI for suspected appendicitis, 50 cases were considered adequate diagnostic quality by all three radiologists. The rate of appendix visualization among the three radiologists ranged from 60 to 76% (p = 0.44). The appendix was nonvisualized by at least one of the three radiologists in 25 cases (50%). Of these, none had a final diagnosis of appendicitis including one patient who underwent appendectomy. MRI suggested an alternate diagnosis in 6 (24%) patients with appendix nonvisualization. For the three reviewers, the agreement level on whether or not the appendix was visualized on the MRI had a Light's kappa value of 0.526, indicating a "moderate" level of agreement (p value appendicitis confers a significant reduction in the risk of appendicitis compared to all comers as long as the study is adequate diagnostic quality and there are no secondary signs of appendicitis present.

  5. Esophageal transit study using a sliding sum image. Application to patients with probable and definite systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Minoru; Inaki, Anri; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Kinuya, Seigo; Hosoya, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal complication is common in systemic sclerosis (SSc), but scintigraphic transit patterns based on each subtype have not been understood well. The aim of this study was to develop a new algorithm for integrating a dynamic esophageal transit study and to apply the method to patients with SSc. A total of 40 patients suspected of having SSc were examined by a dynamic esophageal transit study. The subtypes included 32 with definite SSc (15 limited cutaneous type and 17 diffuse cutaneous type) and 8 with probable SSc. The serial esophageal images were shifted and summed to a functional image (sliding sum image) and compared to a conventional condensed image analysis. Esophageal retention fraction at 90 s (R 90 ) and half-time (T 1/2 ) of transit were also measured. The four patterns of the sliding sum image and condensed image agreed in all patients. Abnormal retention patterns were observed in none of the 8 (0%) patients with the probable SSc and in 15 of 32 (47%) patients with definite SSc (p=0.014). The severity of scleroderma assessed by modified Rodnan skin thickness score correlated with that of esophageal retention R 90 (p=0.04). The sliding sum image is a simple and effective method for integrating esophageal transit. Patients with definite SSc and severe scleroderma had significantly higher retention patterns, while probable SSc patients showed no esophageal dysmotility. (author)

  6. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 41 and 42: Lenses and Mirrors; Relativity; and Appendix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  7. Studies in iodine metabolism: 33 year summary, 1948-1979 (as previously submitted) with appendix, 1979-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middlesworth, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research into iodine metabolism from 1948 to 1982 are summarized. Study areas included the monitoring of iodine 131 from fallout in the thyroid glands of cattle and humans, the biological functions and metabolism of thyroid hormones, and methods to reduce the retention of radioiodine in the thyroid

  8. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appendix are the annual intakes of a given radionuclide by “Reference Man” which would result in either (1... effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly. The values of wT are listed under the definition of..., where 2×104 ml is the volume of air breathed per minute at work by “Reference Man” under working...

  9. 28 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - Preamble to Regulation on Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability by Public Accommodations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inclusion of the word “temporary” in the definition of “disability.” The preamble indicated that impairments... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability by Public Accommodations and in Commercial Facilities (Published July... THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Pt. 36, App. B Appendix...

  10. Definition of a facility for experimental studies of two-phase flows and heat transfer in porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reda, D.C.; Eaton, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    A facility-development effort is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in order to create an experimental capability for the study of two-phase, steam/water flows through a variety of porous media. The facility definition phase of this project is described. Equations are derived for the steady, adiabatic, macroscopically-linear two-phase flow of a single-component fluid through a porous medium, including energy transfer both by convection and conduction. These equations are then solved to give relative permeabilities for the steam and water phases as functions of known and/or measurable quantities. A viable experimental approach was thereby formulated, leading to the definition of facility components and instrumentation requirements, including the application of gamma-beam densitometry for the measurement of liquid-saturation distributions in porous media. Finally, a state-of-the-art computer code was utilized to numerically simulate the proposed experiments, providing an estimate of the facility operating envelope

  11. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  13. Natural analogue study on backfill materials from ancient Chinese constructions for LILW disposal. Appendix 5: China (b)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunli, G.; Zhiwen, F.; Xiuzhen, L.; Yawen, H.; Anxi, C.; Jinsheng, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this work was to contribute to the demonstration of the long term safety of low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal using information from a natural analogue study on ancient Chinese constructions. The work firstly compared LILW near surface disposal facilities with Chinese ancient tombs in respects of siting, engineering structures, design and construction procedures and indicates that they are both based upon multi-barrier principle. After extensive literature and field survey, three materials were collected from two Chinese ancient tombs and one ancient architectures for further laboratory study. The three materials were studied in laboratories from the point of view of radioactive waste disposal in near surface facilities to obtain information concerning their basic physical and chemical properties, engineering properties and radionuclide adsorption abilities. The results show that the two materials from the ancient tombs have low permeability and strong adsorption for 60 Co and 134 Cs. The saturated permeabilities of the two ancient materials are in the order of 10 -1 0 m/s and the distribution coefficients for the two radionuclides are all in the order of 10 1 m 3 /kg. The conclusion was that the then current LILW disposal option in near-surface would be effective for a long term period of time, and clay materials, as backfill materials for LILW near-surface disposal facilities would very effective in preventing water intrusion and retarding radionuclide release even over a long term of period. Overall the LILW disposal option was considered to be safe in long term. (author)

  14. In vivo location of the vermiform appendix in multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Su Lim; Ku, Young Mi [Dept. of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Gil; Byun, Jae Young [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To provide a more detailed classification system regarding the position of the vermiform appendix within the right lower quadrant, as seen on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and to investigate the relative differences in frequency of appendiceal position according to patient gender and the pathologic state of appendix. Between January 2008 and December 2010, 1157 patients were included in our final analysis: 542 patients with preoperative MDCT and subsequent appendectomy and 615 patients with visible appendix seen on MDCT performed as part of a health checkup. We classified the appendix according to its position relative to the cecum, the terminal ileum, and the external iliac vessels: type 1: antececal; type 2: preileal; type 3: postileal; type 4: subileal; type 5: subcecal; type 6: deep pelvic; type 7: retrocecal; and type 8: paracecal. The relative incidence of various positions of the appendix found in all of our study patients was: type 1: 3.5%; type 2: 1.7%; type 3: 9.0%; type 4: 12.9%; type 5: 42.3%; type 6: 16.2%; type 7: 10.9%; and type 8: 3.0%. According to patient gender, type 1 (male: 3.7% vs. female: 3.3%), type 3 (8.6% vs. 9.8%), type 4 (14.3% vs. 9.8%), type 5 (47.5% vs. 32.7%), type 7 (9.2% vs. 14.4%), and type 8 (3.4% vs. 2.2%) positions showed a statistically significant male predominance. In terms of the inflamed state, type 2 preileal (normal: 0.8% vs. inflamed: 2.8%), type 3 (10.2% vs. 7.6%), type 4 (14.0% vs. 11.6%), and type 5 (14.1% vs. 18.5%) positions showed a statistically significant difference. Contrary to the common assumption that the retrocecal appendix is the most common position, the in vivo appendix is seen more often on MDCT in the subcecal and deep pelvic positions. The relative frequency of various positions of the appendix can also differ according to patient gender and the pathologic state.

  15. Time to definitive diagnosis of breast cancer in Latina and non-Hispanic white women: the six cities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Talavera, Gregory A; Penedo, Frank J; Carrillo, J Emilio; Fernandez, Maria E; Muñoz, Edgar; Long Parma, Dorothy; Holden, Alan Ec; San Miguel de Majors, Sandra; Nápoles, Anna; Castañeda, Sheila F; Gallion, Kipling J

    2013-12-01

    Time delay after an abnormal screening mammogram may have a critical impact on tumor size, stage at diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and survival of subsequent breast cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate disparities between Latina and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women in time to definitive diagnosis of breast cancer after an abnormal screening mammogram, as well as factors contributing to such disparities. As part of the activities of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded Redes En Acción research network, clinical records of 186 Latinas and 74 NHWs who received abnormal screening mammogram results were reviewed to determine the time to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Data was obtained from participating clinics in six U.S. cities and included demographics, clinical history, and mammogram characteristics. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models were used to test differences in median time to definitive diagnosis by ethnicity after adjusting for clinic site, demographics, and clinical characteristics. Time-to-event analysis showed that Latinas took 2.2 times longer to reach 50% definitively diagnosed with breast cancer relative to NHWs, and three times longer to reach 80% diagnosed (p=0.001). Latinas' median time to definitive diagnosis was 60 days compared to 27 for NHWs, a 59% gap in diagnosis rates (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR] = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.31; p=0.015). BI-RADS-4/5 women's diagnosis rate was more than twice that of BI-RADS-3 (aHR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.18, 3.78; p=0.011). Disparities in time between receipt of abnormal screening result and definitive diagnosis adversely affect Latinas compared to NHWs, and remain significant after adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. With cancer now the leading cause of mortality among Latinos, a greater need exists for ethnically and culturally appropriate interventions like patient navigation to facilitate Latinas' successful entry into, and progression through, the cancer care

  16. A critical study on the IAEA definition of high level radioactive waste unsuitable for dumping at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasuo; Saruhashi, Katsuko.

    1976-01-01

    The definition of high level radioactive waste and other high level radioactive matter not suitable for dumping at sea has been given by IAEA (1975). Since this definition is based on the report by Webb and Morley (1973), a critical study is made on their report. The result of study shows that owing to the assumption of a very small value of the horizontal eddy diffusion coefficient (10 4 cm 2 /s) for the sake of safety for these nuclides, the limiting environmental capacity for such nuclides as 226 Ra and 239 Pu with longer half-lives is extremely overestimated. And due to a very small value of a daily intake of marine foods (6 g/d) and a larger value of the ratio of nuclidic concentrations between the top of the deep layer and the surface layer (100), the environmental capacity is also overestimated for every nuclide. It is proposed that the definition of high level radioactive waste should be reassessed carefully by experts in various countries. (auth.)

  17. A safeguards case study of the Nuclear Materials and equipment corporation uranium processing plant Apollo, Pennsylvania. Appendix B with proprietary information removed. Staff technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, W.; Hockert, J.; Quinn, E.

    1980-04-01

    The report characterizes the Atomic Energy Commission safeguards requirements and the safeguards systems and procedures in place at the Nuclear Materials and Equipment (NUMEC) uranium processing plant in Apollo, Pennsylvania during the spring of 1964. Based upon this characterization, a list of safeguards weaknesses which would be considered deficiencies under 1979 requirements is developed. Appendixes A and B to the report provide a detailed characterization of AEC safeguards requirements as well as a side by side comparison of NUMEC's safeguards program in 1964 with the safeguards program currently required of a comparable licensed facility

  18. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  19. Taking the Lead in Science Education: Forging Next-Generation Science Standards. International Science Benchmarking Report. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    This appendix accompanies the report "Taking the Lead in Science Education: Forging Next-Generation Science Standards. International Science Benchmarking Report," a study conducted by Achieve to compare the science standards of 10 countries. This appendix includes the following: (1) PISA and TIMSS Assessment Rankings; (2) Courses and…

  20. Torsion of an Epiploic Appendix Pretending as Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ahmad Malik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Torsion of an epiploic appendix is a rare surgical entity. Its unusual symptomatology, wide variation in physical findings and the absence of helpful laboratory and radiological studies makes it very difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. This is a report of this rare entity found in a patient upon diagnostic laparoscopy performed for suspected acute appendicitis

  1. A comparative study of standard vs. high definition colonoscopy for adenoma and hyperplastic polyp detection with optimized withdrawal technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, J E; Stavrindis, M; Thomas-Gibson, S; Guenther, T; Tekkis, P P; Saunders, B P

    2008-09-15

    Colonoscopy has a known miss rate for polyps and adenomas. High definition (HD) colonoscopes may allow detection of subtle mucosal change, potentially aiding detection of adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. To compare detection rates between HD and standard definition (SD) colonoscopy. Prospective, cohort study with optimized withdrawal technique (withdrawal time >6 min, antispasmodic, position changes, re-examining flexures and folds). One hundred and thirty patients attending for routine colonoscopy were examined with either SD (n = 72) or HD (n = 58) colonoscopes. Groups were well matched. Sixty per cent of patients had at least one adenoma detected with SD vs. 71% with HD, P = 0.20, relative risk (benefit) 1.32 (95% CI 0.85-2.04). Eighty-eight adenomas (mean +/- standard deviation 1.2 +/- 1.4) were detected using SD vs. 93 (1.6 +/- 1.5) with HD, P = 0.12; however more nonflat, diminutive (9 mm) hyperplastic polyps was 7% (0.09 +/- 0.36). High definition did not lead to a significant increase in adenoma or hyperplastic polyp detection, but may help where comprehensive lesion detection is paramount. High detection rates appear possible with either SD or HD, when using an optimized withdrawal technique.

  2. High-Definition Computed Tomography for Coronary Artery Stent Imaging: a Phantom Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wen Jie; Chen, Ke Min; Pang, Li Fang; Zhang, Huang; Pan, Zi Lai [Rui Jin Hospital, Medical School, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shangha (China); Guo, Ying; Li, Jian Ying [Beijing Economic and Technology Development Area, Beijing (China)

    2012-01-15

    To assess the performance of a high-definition CT (HDCT) for imaging small caliber coronary stents ({<=} 3 mm) by comparing different scan modes of a conventional 64-row standard-definition CT (SDCT). A cardiac phantom with twelve stents (2.5 mm and 3.0 mm in diameter) was scanned by HDCT and SDCT. The scan modes were retrospective electrocardiography (ECG)-gated helical and prospective ECG-triggered axial with tube voltages of 120 kVp and 100 kVp, respectively. The inner stent diameters (ISD) and the in-stent attenuation value (AVin-stent) and the in-vessel extra-stent attenuation value (AVin-vessel) were measured by two observers. The artificial lumen narrowing (ALN = [ISD - ISDmeasured]/ISD) and artificial attenuation increase between in-stent and in-vessel (AAI = AVin-stent - AVin-vessel) were calculated. All data was analyzed by intraclass correlation and ANOVA-test. The correlation coefficient of ISD, AVin-vessel and AVin-stent between the two observers was good. The ALNs of HDCT were statistically lower than that of SDCT (30 {+-} 5.7% versus 35 {+-} 5.4%, p < 0.05). HDCT had statistically lower AAI values than SDCT (15.7 {+-} 81.4 HU versus 71.4 {+-} 90.5 HU, p < 0.05). The prospective axial dataset demonstrated smaller ALN than the retrospective helical dataset on both HDCT and SDCT (p < 0.05). Additionally, there were no differences in ALN between the 120 kVp and 100 kVp tube voltages on HDCT (p = 0.05). High-definition CT helps improve measurement accuracy for imaging coronary stents compared to SDCT. HDCT with 100 kVp and the prospective ECG-triggered axial technique, with a lower radiation dose than 120 kVp application, may be advantageous in evaluating coronary stents with smaller calibers ({<=} 3 mm).

  3. LD Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Disability Quarterly, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The position paper (1981) of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities presents a revised definition of learning disabilities and identifies issues and concerns (such as the limitation to children and the exclusion clause) associated with the definition included in P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. (DB)

  4. Variation in Anatomical Position of Vermiform Appendix among Iranian Population: An Old Issue Which Has Not Lost Its Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermiform appendix has diverse anatomical positions, lengths, and conditions of mesoappendix. Knowing the exact anatomical position of vermiform appendix is important in view of surgeons for on-time diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis. The aim of present study is determination of these characteristics of vermiform appendix among Iranian population. The present study was conducted on 200 bodies, selected from the dead bodies that had been referred to local bureau of legal medicine, Zenjan province, Iran, for medicolegal autopsy since 21 Mar 2010 to 21 Mar 2011. According to the results, the anatomical positions of the appendix were pelvic, subcecal, retroileal, retrocecal, ectopic, and preileal in 55.8%, 19%, 12.5%, 7%, 4.2%, and 1.5% of the bodies, respectively. The mean length of vermiform appendix was 91.2 mm and 80.3 mm in men and women, respectively. Mesoappendix was complete in 79.5% of the bodies. No association was found between sex and anatomical position of vermiform appendix. Anterior anatomical position was the most common position for vermiform appendix. It is inconsistent with most related reports from western countries. It might be possible that some factors, such as race, geographical changes, and dietary habits, play roles in determining the position of vermiform appendix.

  5. Defending definitions of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Lucas John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life.

  6. Appendix C: safety design rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, S.

    1985-01-01

    A brief discussion of the rationale for safety design of fusion plants is presented in the main text. Further detail safety considerations are presented in this appendix in the form of charts and tables. The author present some of the major safety criteria and other criteria used in blanket selection here

  7. Reliability of digital ulcer definitions as proposed by the UK Scleroderma Study Group: A challenge for clinical trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael; Tracey, Andrew; Bhushan, Monica; Chakravarty, Kuntal; Denton, Christopher P; Dubey, Shirish; Guiducci, Serena; Muir, Lindsay; Ong, Voon; Parker, Louise; Pauling, John D; Prabu, Athiveeraramapandian; Rogers, Christine; Roberts, Christopher; Herrick, Ariane L

    2018-06-01

    The reliability of clinician grading of systemic sclerosis-related digital ulcers has been reported to be poor to moderate at best, which has important implications for clinical trial design. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of new proposed UK Scleroderma Study Group digital ulcer definitions among UK clinicians with an interest in systemic sclerosis. Raters graded (through a custom-built interface) 90 images (80 unique and 10 repeat) of a range of digital lesions collected from patients with systemic sclerosis. Lesions were graded on an ordinal scale of severity: 'no ulcer', 'healed ulcer' or 'digital ulcer'. A total of 23 clinicians - 18 rheumatologists, 3 dermatologists, 1 hand surgeon and 1 specialist rheumatology nurse - completed the study. A total of 2070 (1840 unique + 230 repeat) image gradings were obtained. For intra-rater reliability, across all images, the overall weighted kappa coefficient was high (0.71) and was moderate (0.55) when averaged across individual raters. Overall inter-rater reliability was poor (0.15). Although our proposed digital ulcer definitions had high intra-rater reliability, the overall inter-rater reliability was poor. Our study highlights the challenges of digital ulcer assessment by clinicians with an interest in systemic sclerosis and provides a number of useful insights for future clinical trial design. Further research is warranted to improve the reliability of digital ulcer definition/rating as an outcome measure in clinical trials, including examining the role for objective measurement techniques, and the development of digital ulcer patient-reported outcome measures.

  8. 12 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Article 4A, Funds Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Article 4A, Funds Transfers B Appendix B to...—Article 4A, Funds Transfers Part 1—Subject Matter and Definitions Section 4A-101. Short Title This Article... otherwise provided in section 4A-108, this Article applies to funds transfers defined in section 4A-104...

  9. People with dementia in nursing home research: a methodological review of the definition and identification of the study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Rebecca; Jünger, Saskia; Reuther, Sven; Schwab, Christian G G; Dichter, Martin N; Holle, Bernhard; Halek, Margareta

    2016-04-05

    There are various definitions and diagnostic criteria for dementia, leading to discrepancies in case ascertainment in both clinical practice and research. We reviewed the different definitions, approaches and measurements used to operationalize dementia in health care studies in German nursing homes with the aim of discussing the implications of different approaches. We conducted a systematic search of the MEDLINE and CINAHL databases to identify pre-2016 studies conducted in German nursing homes that focused on residents with dementia or cognitive impairment. In- or exclusion of studies were consented by all authors; data extraction was independently carried out by 2 authors (RP, SJ). The studies' sampling methods were compared with respect to their inclusion criteria, assessment tools and methods used to identify the study population. We summarized case ascertainment methods from 64 studies. Study participants were identified based on a diagnosis that was evaluated during the study, or a recorded medical dementia diagnosis, or a recorded medical diagnosis either with additional cognitive screenings or using screening tests exclusively. The descriptions of the diagnostics that were applied to assess a diagnosis of dementia were not fully transparent in most of the studies with respect to either a clear reference definition of dementia or applied diagnostic criteria. If reported, various neuropsychological tests were used, mostly without a clear rationale for their selection. Pragmatic considerations often determine the sampling strategy; they also may explain the variances we detected in the different studies. Variations in sampling methods impede the comparability of study results. There is a need to consent case ascertainment strategies in dementia studies in health service research in nursing homes. These strategies should consider resource constraints and ethical issues that are related to the vulnerable population of nursing home residents. Additionally

  10. Study of high-definition and stereoscopic head-aimed vision for improved teleoperation of an unmanned ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyczka, Dale R.; Wright, Robert; Janiszewski, Brian; Chatten, Martha Jane; Bowen, Thomas A.; Skibba, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Nearly all explosive ordnance disposal robots in use today employ monoscopic standard-definition video cameras to relay live imagery from the robot to the operator. With this approach, operators must rely on shadows and other monoscopic depth cues in order to judge distances and object depths. Alternatively, they can contact an object with the robot's manipulator to determine its position, but that approach carries with it the risk of detonation from unintentionally disturbing the target or nearby objects. We recently completed a study in which high-definition (HD) and stereoscopic video cameras were used in addition to conventional standard-definition (SD) cameras in order to determine if higher resolutions and/or stereoscopic depth cues improve operators' overall performance of various unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) tasks. We also studied the effect that the different vision modes had on operator comfort. A total of six different head-aimed vision modes were used including normal-separation HD stereo, SD stereo, "micro" (reduced separation) SD stereo, HD mono, and SD mono (two types). In general, the study results support the expectation that higher resolution and stereoscopic vision aid UGV teleoperation, but the degree of improvement was found to depend on the specific task being performed; certain tasks derived notably more benefit from improved depth perception than others. This effort was sponsored by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise under Robotics Technology Consortium Agreement #69-200902 T01. Technical management was provided by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Robotics Research and Development Group at Tyndall AFB, Florida.

  11. Study to Determine Adequate Margins in Radiotherapy Planning for Esophageal Carcinoma by Detailing Patterns of Recurrence After Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, Michael R.; Morgan, Carys A.; Croydon, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, S. Ashley; Crosby, Thomas D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the adequacy of radiotherapy (RT) margins by studying the relapse patterns after definitive chemoradiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study assessing the first site of disease relapse after definitive chemoradiotherapy that included four 3-weekly cycles of cisplatin and continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil, with conformal RT (50 Gy in 25 fractions) concurrent with Cycles 3 and 4. The RT planning target volume was the endoscopic ultrasonography/computed tomography-defined gross tumor volume with 1.5-cm lateral and 3-cm superoinferior margins. Results: A total of 145 patients were included. Their average age was 65.4 years, 45% had adenocarcinoma, 61% had lower third esophageal tumors, and 75% had Stage III-IVA disease. After RT, of 142 patients, 85 (60%) had evidence of relapse at a median follow-up of 18 months. The relapse was local (within the RT field) in 55; distant (metastatic) in 13, and a combination of local and distant in 14. The local relapse rates were not influenced by tumor stage, lymph node status, or disease length. Three patients developed a relapse in regions adjacent to the RT fields; however, it is unlikely that larger field margins would have been clinically acceptable or effective in these cases. The median overall survival was 15 months. Conclusion: The gross tumor volume-planning target volume margins in this study appeared adequate. Future efforts to improve outcomes using definitive chemoradiotherapy should be directed toward reducing the high rates of in-field and distant relapses

  12. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 806b - Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... receive copies of their records. Amendment: The process of adding, deleting, or changing information in a... delinquent debts for these programs. Confidential source: A person or organization giving information under...: The official who is responsible for managing a system of records, including policies and procedures to...

  13. Preconceptual ABC design definition and system configuration layout: Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The mission of the ABC system is to destroy as effectively as possible the fissile material inserted into the core without producing any new fissile material. The contents of this report are as follows: operating conditions for the steam-cycle ABC system; flow rates and component dimensions; drawings of the ABC layout; and impact of core design parameters on containment size

  14. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 3015 - Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... acquisition, by purchase, lease, or barter, of property or services for the direct benefit or use of the.... “Percentage-of-completion method” refers to a system under which payments are made for construction work...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 438 - Oily Operations Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... differentiate between the six “core” metal finishing operations (i.e., Electroplating, Electroless Plating... joining two or more pieces of material by applying heat, pressure, or both, with or without filler...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix H to Part 505 - Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the server to store its own information about a user on the user's own computer. Cookies are embedded in the HTML information flowing back and forth between the user's computer and the servers. They.... Corporations, partnerships, sole proprietorships, professional groups, businesses, whether incorporated or...

  17. Global case studies of soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS: Definitions, classifications, advances, origins, and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam

    2017-10-01

    Problems that hinder our understanding of SSDS still remain. They are: (1 vague definitions of the phrase “soft-sediment deformation”; (2 complex factors that govern the origin of SSDS; (3 omission of vital empirical data in documenting vertical changes in facies using measured sedimentological logs; (4 difficulties in distinguishing depositional processes from tectonic events; (5 a model-driven interpretation of SSDS (i.e., earthquake being the singular cause; (6 routine application of the genetic term “seismites” to the “SSDS”, thus undermining the basic tenet of process sedimentology (i.e., separation of interpretation from observation; (7 the absence of objective criteria to differentiate 21 triggering mechanisms of liquefaction and related SSDS; (8 application of the process concept “high-density turbidity currents”, a process that has never been documented in modern oceans; (9 application of the process concept “sediment creep” with a velocity connotation that cannot be inferred from the ancient record; (10 classification of pockmarks, which are hollow spaces (i.e., without sediments as SSDS, with their problematic origins by fluid expulsion, sediment degassing, fish activity, etc.; (11 application of the Earth's climate-change model; and most importantly, (12 an arbitrary distinction between depositional process and sediment deformation. Despite a profusion of literature on SSDS, our understanding of their origin remains muddled. A solution to the chronic SSDS problem is to utilize the robust core dataset from scientific drilling at sea (DSDP/ODP/IODP with a constrained definition of SSDS.

  18. Toward a definition of intolerance of uncertainty: a review of factor analytical studies of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, Jane; Meares, Kevin; Wilkinson, Andrew; Freeston, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Since its emergence in the early 1990s, a narrow but concentrated body of research has developed examining the role of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in worry, and yet we still know little about its phenomenology. In an attempt to clarify our understanding of this construct, this paper traces the way in which our understanding and definition of IU have evolved throughout the literature. This paper also aims to further our understanding of IU by exploring the latent variables measures by the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; Freeston, Rheaume, Letarte, Dugas & Ladouceur, 1994). A review of the literature surrounding IU confirmed that the current definitions are categorical and lack specificity. A critical review of existing factor analytic studies was carried out in order to determine the underlying factors measured by the IUS. Systematic searches yielded 9 papers for review. Two factors with 12 consistent items emerged throughout the exploratory studies, and the stability of models containing these two factors was demonstrated in subsequent confirmatory studies. It is proposed that these factors represent (i) desire for predictability and an active engagement in seeking certainty, and (ii) paralysis of cognition and action in the face of uncertainty. It is suggested that these factors may represent approach and avoidance responses to uncertainty. Further research is required to confirm the construct validity of these factors and to determine the stability of this structure within clinical samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Scope Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    The scope definition is the second phase of an LCA. It determines what product systems are to be assessed and how this assessment should take place. This chapter teaches how to perform a scope definition. First, important terminology and key concepts of LCA are introduced. Then, the nine items...... making up a scope definition are elaborately explained: (1) Deliverables. (2) Object of assessment, (3) LCI modelling framework and handling of multifunctional processes, (4) System boundaries and completeness requirements, (5) Representativeness of LCI data, (6) Preparing the basis for the impact...... assessment, (7) Special requirements for system comparisons, (8) Critical review needs and (9) Planning reporting of results. The instructions relate both to the performance and reporting of a scope definition and are largely based on ILCD....

  20. Target volume definition for external beam partial breast radiotherapy: Clinical, pathological and technical studies informing current approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Anna M.; Coles, Charlotte E.; Yarnold, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Partial breast irradiation (PBI) is currently under investigation in several phase III trials and, following a recent consensus statement, its use off-study may increase despite ongoing uncertainty regarding optimal target volume definition. We review the clinical, pathological and technical evidence for target volume definition in external beam partial breast irradiation (EB-PBI). The optimal method of tumour bed (TB) delineation requires X-ray CT imaging of implanted excision cavity wall markers. The definition of clinical target volume (CTV) as TB plus concentric 15 mm margins is based on the anatomical distribution of multifocal and multicentric disease around the primary tumour in mastectomy specimens, and the clinical locations of local tumour relapse (LR) after breast conservation surgery. If the majority of LR originate from foci of residual invasive and/or intraduct disease in the vicinity of the TB after complete microscopic resection, CTV margin logically takes account of the position of primary tumour within the surgical resection specimen. The uncertain significance of independent primary tumours as sources of preventable LR, and of wound healing responses in stimulating LR, increases the difficulties in defining optimal CTV. These uncertainties may resolve after long-term follow-up of current PBI trials. By contrast, a commonly used 10 mm clinical to planning target volume (PTV) margin has a stronger evidence base, although departmental set-up errors need to be confirmed locally. A CTV-PTV margin >10 mm may be required in women with larger breasts and/or large seromas, whilst the role of image-guided radiotherapy with or without TB markers in reducing CTV-PTV margins needs to be explored.

  1. The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho Ting; Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Choi, Kup Sze; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term “Big Data”, which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing. PMID:27763525

  2. The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ting Wong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term “Big Data”, which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing.

  3. The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho Ting; Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Choi, Kup Sze; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2016-10-17

    The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term "Big Data", which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing.

  4. Computed tomography localization of the appendix in the pediatric population relative to the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, John; Kopelman, Tammy R. [Maricopa Integrated Health System, Maricopa Medical Center Department of Surgery, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Roh, Albert T.; Matz, Samantha L.; Gridley, Daniel G.; Connell, Mary J. [Maricopa Integrated Health System, Maricopa Medical Center Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Petterson, Matthew B. [University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to evaluate suspected acute appendicitis. Although very effective, CT uses ionizing radiation, exposing patients to an increased risk of cancer. This study assessed the potential for decreasing the field of view of the CT (and therefore the dose to the patient) in the evaluation of suspected acute appendicitis in children. This study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 212 consecutive patients who underwent CT for suspected acute appendicitis. The most superior aspect of the appendix with respect to vertebral bodies was recorded. Age, gender and diagnosis (negative, acute appendicitis or alternative diagnosis) were noted. The appendix was visualized in 190 of 212 subjects (89.6%). Overall, all visualized appendixes were located at or below the level of L1. Sixty-three of the subjects (29.7%) were diagnosed with acute appendicitis via CT imaging. All appendixes in patients with acute appendicitis were located at or below the level of the L3 vertebral body, predominating at the level of L5. Six subjects (3.1%) received alternative diagnoses, including pneumonia, pyelonephritis, small bowel obstruction and infected urachal cyst. There were no differences in appendix location with regard to diagnosis, gender, or age (P=0.664, 0.748 and 0.705, respectively). CT field of view may be decreased to the level of L1 or L3 superiorly, decreasing radiation dose without affecting the rate of appendix visualization. (orig.)

  5. CISSP Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, Eric; Feldman, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    The CISSP Study Guide is aligned to cover all of the material included in the exam, complete with special attention to recent updates. The 10 domains are covered completely and as concisely as possible with an eye to passing the exam thr first time. Each of the 10 domains has its own chapter that includes specially-designed pedagogy to aid you in passing the exam. Clearly Stated Exam Objectives Unique Terms / Definitions Exam Warnings Helpful Notes Learning By Example Stepped Chapter Ending Questions Self Test Appendix Detailed Glossary Web Site (htt

  6. Biopharming, bananas and bureaucracy: the banana vaccine as a case study for products that straddle the definitional food/drug divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Margaux

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the definition of the terms "food" and "drug" as used in the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act through the lens of biopharmed products. The paper uses the so-called "banana vaccine" as a case study to highlight the problems that occur when attempting to regulate a product that could be safely used as a food or as a drug. Specifically, the examination of this model illustrates the problems in the current definitional scheme. The paper considers how a product that straddles the definitional line between food and drug could be regulated and proposes a reformation to how the definitions are applied to products to better suit new technology in food and drugs.

  7. Definition of curriculum and approach: study of a training course for teachers of non-formal education in NGOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivis Perez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a research aimed to analyze the approach and the definition of guiding curriculum of teacher training for work in the non-formal education in non-governmental organizations(NGOs. We opted for a qualitative approach and case study of Teacher Training Course for NGOs, developed by Ong São Paulo-SP. The research instruments were: analysis of documents of the course, interviews with trainers and coordinator and literature review. In this course, curriculum is defined as a path to be followed by students and instructors and the coordinator of the subjects studied. We adopted the so-called Integrated Curriculum, in which teaching occurs by the study of problem situations and integrators of learning projects. At the end, we suggest improving the course and following that information, it is hoped, one will support the production of further comparative research.

  8. An Ontology to Improve Transparency in Case Definition and Increase Case Finding of Infectious Intestinal Disease: Database Study in English General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, Simon; Shinneman, Stacy; Yonova, Ivelina; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Elliot, Alex J; Bolton, Frederick; Smith, Gillian E; O'Brien, Sarah

    2017-09-28

    Infectious intestinal disease (IID) has considerable health impact; there are 2 billion cases worldwide resulting in 1 million deaths and 78.7 million disability-adjusted life years lost. Reported IID incidence rates vary and this is partly because terms such as "diarrheal disease" and "acute infectious gastroenteritis" are used interchangeably. Ontologies provide a method of transparently comparing case definitions and disease incidence rates. This study sought to show how differences in case definition in part account for variation in incidence estimates for IID and how an ontological approach provides greater transparency to IID case finding. We compared three IID case definitions: (1) Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre (RCGP RSC) definition based on mapping to the Ninth International Classification of Disease (ICD-9), (2) newer ICD-10 definition, and (3) ontological case definition. We calculated incidence rates and examined the contribution of four supporting concepts related to IID: symptoms, investigations, process of care (eg, notification to public health authorities), and therapies. We created a formal ontology using ontology Web language. The ontological approach identified 5712 more cases of IID than the ICD-10 definition and 4482 more than the RCGP RSC definition from an initial cohort of 1,120,490. Weekly incidence using the ontological definition was 17.93/100,000 (95% CI 15.63-20.41), whereas for the ICD-10 definition the rate was 8.13/100,000 (95% CI 6.70-9.87), and for the RSC definition the rate was 10.24/100,000 (95% CI 8.55-12.12). Codes from the four supporting concepts were generally consistent across our three IID case definitions: 37.38% (3905/10,448) (95% CI 36.16-38.5) for the ontological definition, 38.33% (2287/5966) (95% CI 36.79-39.93) for the RSC definition, and 40.82% (1933/4736) (95% CI 39.03-42.66) for the ICD-10 definition. The proportion of laboratory results associated with a positive test

  9. [Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a qualitative study on sex definition and redesignation dilation surgery and psychological support (part II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles-Silveira, Mariana; Tonetto-Fernandes, Vânia F; Schiller, Paulo; Kater, Claudio E

    2009-12-01

    To identify relevant questions related to sex definition and re-designation and reconstructive surgery in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and to understand the role of the psychologist in providing care for these patients. We selected 21 subjects: 7 pediatric endocrinologists from 5 Brazilian Public Health System institutions, 9 parents and 6 patients with CAH, according to a qualitative research model. In this paper, 3 of the studied categories are analyzed: 'sex definition and re-designation', 'reconstructive surgery/vaginal dilation', and 'psychology'. Parents' main anguish relates to the situation of an unnamed sex at birth, whereas sex re-designation was distressful to physicians. A sense of loneliness when dealing with the disease and treatment was a common anguish among patients; dilation procedures were the major complaint. In general, physicians recommend that genital reconstructive surgery be performed early on to avoid future trauma. In such a complex scenario, it is remarkable that not all the reference service staff have a psychologist on duty. Difficulties to deal with questions involving sexuality were evident and dilation procedures are an additional source of trauma for these patients.

  10. Management of SPN in France. Pathways for definitive diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule: a multicentre study in 18 French districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzahouri, Kazem; Velten, Michel; Arveux, Patrick; Woronoff-Lemsi, Marie-Christine; Jolly, Damien; Guillemin, Francis

    2008-01-01

    The process of diagnosis and management of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) between 1 and 3 cm is not standardized. This multicentre study investigated how diagnosis of newly discovered SPNs is managed in routine practice. We examined 11,515 radiology reports of patients undergoing chest computed tomography (CT) at all 76 radiology centres in 18 French administrative districts covering 8,220,000 people. Information on diagnostic procedures and treatment administered from discovery to definitive diagnosis of SPN was collected prospectively. We identified 152 cases of newly diagnosed SPNs. Follow-up was complete for 112 patients. The median number of diagnostic tests was 4 and the mean time to diagnosis was 41.4 days. Marked variability was observed in the sequence of diagnostic tests, and 8 diagnostic pathways were identified. Patients' characteristics and radiological features of SPNs influenced the number of tests performed. Referral by specialist, history of smoking and spiculated SPN predicted the performance of at least one invasive procedure (P < 0.01). Definitive diagnosis was a malignant disease in 30 patients (26%). The diagnosis of SPN is a complex process that physicians approach in markedly different ways. Implementing practice guidelines for managing the diagnosis of SPN requires clarification

  11. Mucinous adenocarcinona of the appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Roberto Furst Crenitte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of malignancy in the vermiform appendix is quite rare. The most common histological malignant neoplasia found in this tiny portion of the gastrointestinal tract is represented by the mucinous adenocarcinoma. This entity predominates in males around 50 years of age, and clinical presentation usually mimics or occurs along with an acute appendicitis. Early diagnosis is outside the rule since most cases at this stage are symptomless. The authors present the case of a 59-year-old female patient who looked for medical attention complaining of abdominal pain. Physical examination and laboratory workup were poor in diagnostic findings. The computed tomography images were compatible with the diagnosis of appendicitis and/or appendiceal neoplasia. The patient underwent a laparotomy and right hemicolectomy. The histological examination disclosed a moderately differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix stage T4a, N0, M0. The patient outcome was uneventful and was referred to an oncological center.

  12. Optimizing US examination to detect the normal and abnormal appendix in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peletti, Adriana B.; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2006-01-01

    US detection of a normal appendix can safely rule out appendicitis. However, there is a wide range of accuracy in detection of a normal appendix. To optimize US examination to detect the normal and the abnormal appendix according to the potential positions of the appendix. This prospective study included 107 children who underwent gray-scale US scanning. Noncompressive and compressive graded sonography was performed to detect normal and abnormal appendices according to their potential positions. The maximum transverse diameter of the appendices was measured. Of the 107 children examined, 56 had a histologic diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Sonography had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98% for the diagnosis of appendicitis. A normal appendix was visualized in 44 (86.2%) of the 51 patients without acute appendicitis, and of these 44, 43 were true-negative and 1 was false-positive. Normal and abnormal appendices, respectively, were positioned as follows: 54.4% and 39.3% were mid-pelvic; 27.2% and 28.6% were retrocecal; 11.4% and 17.8% were deep pelvic; and 6.8% and 14.3% were abdominal. US scanning according to the potential positions of the appendix was useful in the detection of normal appendices in children suspected of having appendicitis. (orig.)

  13. Indeterminacy of definitions and criteria in mental health: case study of emotional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, George

    2013-06-01

    such as the ones of theorists like Solomon, Nash, Rey, Pugmire and Lyons) as well as in comprehensive theoretical schemes combining experimental data (such as the ones provided by the works of Schachter and Singer, Ekman and Friesen, Panksepp, Damasio and Griffiths), there seems to be a radical indeterminacy of conceptual content and fundamental features of emotions in general, as well as of particular emotional states. Furthermore, there is an apparent conceptual incapability to include each and every feature of emotional states within a single comprehensive definition without making reference to contingent particularities of their biological instantiation. At least in the crucial concept of emotional states, when examined carefully, it seems that (1) there are substantial barriers to the ambitious quest for a scientific grounding of taxonomies and definitions of phenomena like emotions, due to the inability to provide an independent verification of scientific propositions; (2) all major approaches in Psychology and Psychiatry seem to have serious shortcomings in defining emotions; (3) such shortcomings have to do with fundamental issues such as the nature of mental states; (4) most ordinary concepts of emotions utilized by clinicians and researchers tend to be circular and question begging when scrutinized theoretically; and (5) historically dominant beliefs, values and cultural systems tend to influence heavily both the acceptability of such representations of emotions as well as their very nature. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Definition of internal target volume and domestric study for hepatocellular carcinoma using four-dimensional CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Mian; Liu Mengzhong; Deng Xiaowu; Zhang Li; Huang Xiaoyan; Cai Ling

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To define individualized internal target volume (ITV) for hepatocellular carcinoma using four-dimensional (4D) CT, and to compare the differences in target volume definition and dose distribution among 3D, 4D and respiratory-gated plans. Methods: 4DCT scanning was obtained for 12 patients with hepatocellular. Gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV) and normal tissues were contoured on all 10 respiratory phases of 4DCT images. The 3D, 4D and gated treatment plans were prepared for each patient using three different planning target volumes (PTVs): 1) PTV 3D was derived from a single CTV plus conventional margins; 2) PTV 4D was derived from ITV 4D , which encompassed all 10 CTVs plus setup margins (SMs); 3) PT Gating was derived from ITV Gating , which encompassed 3 CTVs within gating-window at end-expiration plus SMs. The PTV volume and dose distribution were compared among different plans. Results: The PTV3D was the largest in all 12 patients, but still missed partial target volume in 5 patients when comparing with PTV4D. Both the 4D plans and the gated plans spared more normal tissues than the 3D plans, especially the liver. Without increasing normal tissue dose, the 4D plans allowed for increasing the calculated dose from (50.8 ± 2.0) Gy (3D plans) to (54.7 ± 3.3) Gy, and the gated plans could further increase the dose to (58.0 ± 3.9) Gy. Conclusions: The 4DCT-based plans can ensure optimal target coverage with less irradiation of normal tissues and allow dose escalation when compared with 3D plans. Respiratory gated radiotherapy can further reduce the target volumes to spare more surrounding tissues, especially for patients with large extent of respiratory mobility. (authors)

  15. Leiomyoma of the appendix: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Hoon; Cho, Hyun Cheol; Son, Mi Young [Dae-Gu Veterans Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    Leiomyomas of the appendix are rare and most are encountered incidentally during exploration of the abdomen for some other disease, during postmortem examination, or in the course of routine pathologic examinations of surgical specimens. We report here the findings of ultrasonography, CT and surgery of a case of leiomyoma that arose from the appendix; this lesion was pathologically confirmed.

  16. Interval Appendicectomy and Management of Appendix Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wholly conservative management without interval appendicectomy was instituted for 13 patients diagnosed as having appendix mass between 1998 and 2002 in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Within three days of admission, one patient developed clinical features of ruptured appendix and ...

  17. An evaluation of the usefulness of consensus definitions of sarcopenia in older men: results from the observational Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Blackwell, Terri L; Cauley, Jane; Kado, Deborah M; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Lee, Christine G; Hoffman, Andrew R; Nevitt, Michael M; Stefanick, Marcia L; Lane, Nancy E; Ensrud, Kristine E; Cummings, Steven R; Orwoll, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, several consensus definitions for sarcopenia have been developed. Objective To evaluate the associations and discriminative ability of definitions of sarcopenia against clinical outcomes. Design Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study Setting Six clinical centers Participants 5,934 community-dwelling men aged ≥65 yrs Measurements Sarcopenia definitions evaluated were: International Working Group (IWG), European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older Persons (EWGSOP), Foundation for the NIH (FNIH) Sarcopenia, Baumgartner, and Newman. Recurrent falls were defined as ≥2 self-reported falls in the year after baseline (N=694, 11.9%). Incident hip fractures (N=207, 3.5 %) and deaths (N=2003, 34.1%) were confirmed by central review of medical records over 9.8 years. Self-reported functional limitations were assessed at baseline and again 4.6 years later. Logistic regression or proportional hazards models estimated associations between sarcopenia and falls, hip fractures or death. The discriminative ability of the sarcopenia definitions (compared to referent models) for these outcomes was evaluated with areas under the receiver operator curve (AUCs) or C-statistics. Referent models included age alone for falls, function limitations and mortality, and age and BMD for hip fractures. Results The association between sarcopenia by the various definitions and risk of falls, functional limitations, and hip fractures was variable; all definitions were associated with increased mortality risk. However, none of the definitions materially changed discrimination based on AUC and C-statistic when compared to referent models (change ≤1% in all models). Conclusions Sarcopenia definitions as currently constructed did not consistently improve prediction of clinical outcomes in relatively healthy older men. PMID:26502831

  18. Brief historical perspective on the definition of high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Szluha, A.T.; Gablin, K.A.; Croff, A.G.

    1985-03-01

    This report constitutes a historical perspective on the definition of HLW with emphasis on the US situation. The major HLW definitions are summarized chronologically, including a categorization of the considerations (e.g., waste source, heat generation rate, radiological effects) forming the bases of the definitions. High-level waste (HLW) definitions are then discussed in terms of these considerations. A brief discussion of the institutional aspects of HLW regulation and management are presented. An appendix to the report constitutes an annotated, chronological bibliography that formed the basis of the perspective

  19. New definitions of 6 clinical signs of perceptual disorder in children with cerebral palsy: an observational study through reliability measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Sghedoni, A; Alboresi, S; Pedroni, E; Lombardi, F

    2014-12-01

    Recently authors have begun to emphasize the non-motor aspects of Cerebral Palsy and their influence on motor control and recovery prognosis. Much has been written about single clinical signs (i.e., startle reaction) but so far no definitions of the six perceptual signs presented in this study have appeared in literature. This study defines 6 signs (startle reaction, upper limbs in startle position, frequent eye blinking, posture freezing, averted eye gaze, grimacing) suggestive of perceptual disorders in children with cerebral palsy and measures agreement on sign recognition among independent observers and consistency of opinions over time. Observational study with both cross-sectional and prospective components. Fifty-six videos presented to observers in random order. Videos were taken from 19 children with a bilateral form of cerebral palsy referred to the Children Rehabilitation Unit in Reggio Emilia. Thirty-five rehabilitation professionals from all over Italy: 9 doctors and 26 physiotherapists. Measure of agreement among 35 independent observers was compiled from a sample of 56 videos. Interobserver reliability was determined using the K index of Fleiss and reliability intra-observer was calculated by the Spearman correlation index between ranks (rho - ρ). Percentage of agreement between observers and Gold Standard was used as criterion validity. Interobserver reliability was moderate for startle reaction, upper limb in startle position, adverted eye gaze and eye-blinking and fair for posture freezing and grimacing. Intraobserver reliability remained consistent over time. Criterion validity revealed very high agreement between independent observer evaluation and gold standard. Semiotics of perceptual disorders can be used as a specific and sensitive instrument in order to identify a new class of patients within existing heterogeneous clinical types of bilateral cerebral palsy forms and could help clinicians in identifying functional prognosis. To provide

  20. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, Meena S.; Ma Shuangge; Jagsi, Reshma; Yang, Tzu-I Jonathan; Higgins, Susan A.; Weidhaas, Joanne B.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Lloyd, Shane; Peschel, Richard; Gaudreau, Bryant; Rockwell, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  1. 40 CFR 197.2 - What definitions apply in subpart A?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appendix A of this part. EPA means the Environmental Protection Agency. General environment means... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply in subpart A? 197.2 Section 197.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION...

  2. Data Summary Report for the Annual Fourmile Branch and F- and H-Area Seeplines, Appendix IX Metals and Radionuclides, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the definitive data validation and verification for the 1998 RFI/RI annual Appendix IX metals and radionuclides survey for Fourmile Branch and the F- and H-Area Seeplines. The validation process began with project mobilization and continued through the delivery of EDDs and this report

  3. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 35 - Preamble to Regulation on Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... many comments on the proposed rule's inclusion of the word “temporary” in the definition of “disability... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government Services (Published July 26, 1991) A... DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Pt. 35, App. A Appendix A to Part 35—Preamble to Regulation...

  4. The definition of alcoholism. The Joint Committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, R M; Flavin, D K

    1992-08-26

    To establish a more precise use of the term alcoholism, a 23-member multidisciplinary committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine conducted a 2-year study of the definition of alcoholism in the light of current concepts. The goals of the committee were to create by consensus a revised definition that is (1) scientifically valid, (2) clinically useful, and (3) understandable by the general public. Therefore, the committee agreed to define alcoholism as a primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic.

  5. How Art Works: The National Endowment for the Arts' Five-Year Research Agenda, with a System Map and Measurement Model. Appendix A & B

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two appendices supporting the "How Art Works: The National Endowment for the Arts' Five-Year Research Agenda, with a System Map and Measurement Model" report. In Appendix A, brief descriptions of relevant studies and datasets for each node in the "How Art Works" system map are presented. This appendix is meant to supply…

  6. Review of project definition studies of possible on-site uses of superconducting super collider assets and facilities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This document reports on the results of a peer review and evaluation of studies made of potential uses of assets from the terminated Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. These project definition studies focused on nine areas of use of major assets and facilities at the SSC site near Waxahachie, Texas. The studies were undertaken as part of the effort to maximize the value of the investment made in the SSC and were supported by two sets of grants, one to the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC) and the second to various universities and other institutions for studies of ideas raised by a public call for expressions of interest. The Settlement Agreement, recently signed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and TNRLC, provides for a division of SSC property. As part of the goal of maximizing the value of the SSC investment, the findings contained in this report are thus addressed to officials in both the Department and TNRLC. In addition, this review had several other goals: to provide constructive feedback to those doing the studies; to judge the benefits and feasibility (including funding prospects) of the projects studied; and to help worthy projects become reality by matching projects with possible funding sources

  7. Review of project definition studies of possible on-site uses of superconducting super collider assets and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This document reports on the results of a peer review and evaluation of studies made of potential uses of assets from the terminated Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. These project definition studies focused on nine areas of use of major assets and facilities at the SSC site near Waxahachie, Texas. The studies were undertaken as part of the effort to maximize the value of the investment made in the SSC and were supported by two sets of grants, one to the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC) and the second to various universities and other institutions for studies of ideas raised by a public call for expressions of interest. The Settlement Agreement, recently signed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and TNRLC, provides for a division of SSC property. As part of the goal of maximizing the value of the SSC investment, the findings contained in this report are thus addressed to officials in both the Department and TNRLC. In addition, this review had several other goals: to provide constructive feedback to those doing the studies; to judge the benefits and feasibility (including funding prospects) of the projects studied; and to help worthy projects become reality by matching projects with possible funding sources

  8. Review of project definition studies of possible on-site uses of superconducting super collider assets and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This document reports on the results of a peer review and evaluation of studies made of potential uses of assets from the terminated Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. These project definition studies focused on nine areas of use of major assets and facilities at the SSC site near Waxahachie, Texas. The studies were undertaken as part of the effort to maximize the value of the investment made in the SSC and were supported by two sets of grants, one to the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC) and the second to various universities and other institutions for studies of ideas raised by a public call for expressions of interest. The Settlement Agreement, recently signed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and TNRLC, provides for a division of SSC property. As part of the goal of maximizing the value of the SSC investment, the findings contained in this report are thus addressed to officials in both the Department and TNRLC. In addition, this review had several other goals: to provide constructive feedback to those doing the studies; to judge the benefits and feasibility (including funding prospects) of the projects studied; and to help worthy projects become reality by matching projects with possible funding sources.

  9. Review of project definition studies of possible on-site uses of superconducting super collider assets and facilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This document reports on the results of a peer review and evaluation of studies made of potential uses of assets from the terminated Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project. These project definition studies focused on nine areas of use of major assets and facilities at the SSC site near Waxahachie, Texas. The studies were undertaken as part of the effort to maximize the value of the investment made in the SSC and were supported by two sets of grants, one to the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC) and the second to various universities and other institutions for studies of ideas raised by a public call for expressions of interest. The Settlement Agreement, recently signed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and TNRLC, provides for a division of SSC property. As part of the goal of maximizing the value of the SSC investment, the findings contained in this report are thus addressed to officials in both the Department and TNRLC. In addition, this review had several other goals: to provide constructive feedback to those doing the studies; to judge the benefits and feasibility (including funding prospects) of the projects studied; and to help worthy projects become reality by matching projects with possible funding sources.

  10. Two-Dimensional High Definition Versus Three-Dimensional Endoscopy in Endonasal Skull Base Surgery: A Comparative Preclinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampinelli, Vittorio; Doglietto, Francesco; Mattavelli, Davide; Qiu, Jimmy; Raffetti, Elena; Schreiber, Alberto; Villaret, Andrea Bolzoni; Kucharczyk, Walter; Donato, Francesco; Fontanella, Marco Maria; Nicolai, Piero

    2017-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) endoscopy has been recently introduced in endonasal skull base surgery. Only a relatively limited number of studies have compared it to 2-dimensional, high definition technology. The objective was to compare, in a preclinical setting for endonasal endoscopic surgery, the surgical maneuverability of 2-dimensional, high definition and 3D endoscopy. A group of 68 volunteers, novice and experienced surgeons, were asked to perform 2 tasks, namely simulating grasping and dissection surgical maneuvers, in a model of the nasal cavities. Time to complete the tasks was recorded. A questionnaire to investigate subjective feelings during tasks was filled by each participant. In 25 subjects, the surgeons' movements were continuously tracked by a magnetic-based neuronavigator coupled with dedicated software (ApproachViewer, part of GTx-UHN) and the recorded trajectories were analyzed by comparing jitter, sum of square differences, and funnel index. Total execution time was significantly lower with 3D technology (P < 0.05) in beginners and experts. Questionnaires showed that beginners preferred 3D endoscopy more frequently than experts. A minority (14%) of beginners experienced discomfort with 3D endoscopy. Analysis of jitter showed a trend toward increased effectiveness of surgical maneuvers with 3D endoscopy. Sum of square differences and funnel index analyses documented better values with 3D endoscopy in experts. In a preclinical setting for endonasal skull base surgery, 3D technology appears to confer an advantage in terms of time of execution and precision of surgical maneuvers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between autonomic cardiovascular control, case definition, clinical symptoms, and functional disability in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyller, Vegard B; Helland, Ingrid B

    2013-02-07

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is characterized by severe impairment and multiple symptoms. Autonomic dysregulation has been demonstrated in several studies. We aimed at exploring the relationship between indices of autonomic cardiovascular control, the case definition from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria), important clinical symptoms, and disability in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome. 38 CFS patients aged 12-18 years were recruited according to a wide case definition (ie. not requiring accompanying symptoms) and subjected to head-up tilt test (HUT) and a questionnaire. The relationships between variables were explored with multiple linear regression analyses. In the final models, disability was positively associated with symptoms of cognitive impairments (p<0.001), hypersensitivity (p<0.001), fatigue (p=0.003) and age (p=0.007). Symptoms of cognitive impairments were associated with age (p=0.002), heart rate (HR) at baseline (p=0.01), and HR response during HUT (p=0.02). Hypersensitivity was associated with HR response during HUT (p=0.001), high-frequency variability of heart rate (HF-RRI) at baseline (p=0.05), and adherence to the CDC criteria (p=0.005). Fatigue was associated with gender (p=0.007) and adherence to the CDC criteria (p=0.04). In conclusion, a) The disability of CFS patients is not only related to fatigue but to other symptoms as well; b) Altered cardiovascular autonomic control is associated with certain symptoms; c) The CDC criteria are poorly associated with disability, symptoms, and indices of altered autonomic nervous activity.

  12. Radiation-Induced Cranial Nerve Palsy: A Cross-Sectional Study of Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients After Definitive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Lin; Lu, Jiade J.; Liss, Adam L.; Hu Chaosu; Guo Xiaomao; Wu Yongru; Zhang Youwang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To address the characteristics and the causative factors of radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy (CNP) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with an extensive period of followed-up. Patients and Methods: A total of 317 consecutive and nonselected patients treated with definitive external-beam radiotherapy between November 1962 and February 1995 participated in this study. The median doses to the nasopharynx and upper neck were 71 Gy (range, 55-86 Gy) and 61 Gy (range, 34-72 Gy), respectively. Conventional fractionation was used in 287 patients (90.5%). Forty-five patients (14.2%) received chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up was 11.4 years (range, 5.1-38.0 years). Ninety-eight patients (30.9%) developed CNP, with a median latent period of 7.6 years (range, 0.3-34 years). Patients had a higher rate of CNP (81 cases, 25.5%) in lower-group cranial nerves compared with upper group (44 cases, 13.9%) (χ 2 = 34.444, p 2 = 4.661, p = 0.031). The cumulative incidences of CNP were 10.4%, 22.4%, 35.5%, and 44.5% at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that CNP at diagnosis, chemotherapy, total radiation dose to the nasopharynx, and upper neck fibrosis were independent risk factors for developing radiation-induced CNP. Conclusion: Radiation-induced fibrosis may play an important role in radiation-induced CNP. The incidence of CNP after definitive radiotherapy for NPC remains high after long-term follow-up and is dose and fractionation dependent.

  13. The definition of severe and early-onset preeclampsia. Statements from the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilli, Andrea L; Brown, Mark A; Zeeman, Gerda G; Dekker, Gustaaf; Sibai, Baha M

    2013-01-01

    There is discrepancy in the literature on the definitions of severe and early-onset pre-eclampsia. We aimed to determine those definitions for clinical purposes and to introduce them in the classification of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy for publication purposes. We circulated a questionnaire to the International Committee of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy focusing on the thresholds for defining severe preeclampsia and the gestation at which to define early-onset preeclampsia, and on the definition and inclusion of the HELLP syndrome or other clinical features in severe preeclampsia. The questions were closed, but all answers had space for more open detailed comments. There was a general agreement to define preeclampsia as severe if blood pressure was >160mmHg systolic or 110mmHg diastolic. There was scarce agreement on the amount of proteinuria to define severity. The HELLP syndrome was considered a feature to include in the severe classification. Most investigators considered early-onset preeclampsia as that occurring before 34weeks. A definition of pre-eclampsia is paramount for driving good clinical practice. Classifications on the other hand are useful to enable international comparisons of clinical data and outcomes. We used the results of this survey to update our previous classification for the purposes of providing clinical research definitions of severe and early onset pre-eclampsia that will hopefully be accepted in the international literature. Copyright © 2012 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. All rights reserved.

  14. High-definition resolution three-dimensional imaging systems in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: randomized comparative study with high-definition resolution two-dimensional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Nakagawa, Ken; Usui, Yukio; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Ito, Akihiro; Miyajima, Akira; Hoshi, Akio; Arai, Yoichi; Baba, Shiro; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging systems have been introduced worldwide for surgical instrumentation. A difficulty of laparoscopic surgery involves converting two-dimensional (2D) images into 3D images and depth perception rearrangement. 3D imaging may remove the need for depth perception rearrangement and therefore have clinical benefits. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial to compare the surgical outcome of 3D-high-definition (HD) resolution and 2D-HD imaging in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), in order to determine whether an LRP under HD resolution 3D imaging is superior to that under HD resolution 2D imaging in perioperative outcome, feasibility, and fatigue. One-hundred twenty-two patients were randomly assigned to a 2D or 3D group. The primary outcome was time to perform vesicourethral anastomosis (VUA), which is technically demanding and may include a number of technical difficulties considered in laparoscopic surgeries. VUA time was not significantly shorter in the 3D group (26.7 min, mean) compared with the 2D group (30.1 min, mean) (p = 0.11, Student's t test). However, experienced surgeons and 3D-HD imaging were independent predictors for shorter VUA times (p = 0.000, p = 0.014, multivariate logistic regression analysis). Total pneumoperitoneum time was not different. No conversion case from 3D to 2D or LRP to open RP was observed. Fatigue was evaluated by a simulation sickness questionnaire and critical flicker frequency. Results were not different between the two groups. Subjective feasibility and satisfaction scores were significantly higher in the 3D group. Using a 3D imaging system in LRP may have only limited advantages in decreasing operation times over 2D imaging systems. However, the 3D system increased surgical feasibility and decreased surgeons' effort levels without inducing significant fatigue.

  15. Definition of tolerance to continuous hyperoxia in man - An abstract report of Predictive Studies V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Clark, J. M.; Gelfand, R.; Pisarello, J. B.; Cobbs, W. H.

    1987-01-01

    The overall goals, design, and procedures of Predictive Studies V are discussed as well as the specific elements of neural effects produced by prolonged hyperoxia. It is noted that Predictive Studies V study of oxygen poisoning in normal men during uninterrupted exposures to oxygen over the range of hyperbaric oxygen exposure most useful in diving, the treatment of gas lesion diseases, and general hyperbaric medicine. It is found that, throughout the study, the most striking observations were related to effects on visual function, on the lung, and the probable interactions of preconvulsive neural activity with effects on cardiovascular and respiratory-pulmonary functions.

  16. Optimizing the definition of intrauterine growth restriction: the multicenter prospective PORTO Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) (PORTO Study), a national prospective observational multicenter study, was to evaluate which sonographic findings were associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies affected by growth restriction, originally defined as estimated fetal weight (EFW) <10th centile.

  17. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 2: Supplement to design trade-off studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of studies leading to the preliminary design of a hybrid passenger vehicle which is projected to have the maximum potential for reducing petroleum consumption in the near term are presented. Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicle tradeoffs, assessment of battery power source, and weight and cost analysis of key components are among the topics covered. Performance of auxiliary equipment, such as power steering, power brakes, air conditioning, lighting and electrical accessories, heating and ventilation is discussed along with the selection of preferred passenger compartment heating procedure for the hybrid vehicle. Waste heat from the engine, thermal energy storage, and an auxiliary burner are among the approaches considered.

  18. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 1: System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2, Part 1, of a seven volume report is presented. Part 1 encompasses Satellite Power Systems (SPS) systems engineering aspects and is divided into three sections. The first section presents descriptions of the various candidate concepts considered and conclusions and recommendations for a preferred concept. The second section presents a summary of results of the various trade studies and analysis conducted during the course of the study. The third section describes the Photovoltaic Satellite Based Satellite Power System (SPS) Point Design as it was defined through studies performed during the period January 1977 through March 1979.

  19. Satellite power systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 1: System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Top level trade studies are presented, including comparison of solid state and klystron concepts, higher concentration on the solar cells, composite and aluminum structure, and several variations to the reference concept. Detailed trade studies are presented in each of the subsystem areas (solar array, power distribution, structures, thermal control, attitude control and stationkeeping, microwave transmission, and ground receiving station). A description of the selected point design is also presented.

  20. Life sciences payload definition and integration study, task C and D. Volume 1: Management summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of a study to define the required payloads for conducting life science experiments in space are presented. The primary objectives of the study are: (1) identify research functions to be performed aboard life sciences spacecraft laboratories and necessary equipment, (2) develop conceptual designs of potential payloads, (3) integrate selected laboratory designs with space shuttle configurations, and (4) establish cost analysis of preliminary program planning.

  1. MRI of the normal appendix in children: data toward a new reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, David W. [Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Providence, RI (United States); Schooler, Gary R. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Stamoulis, Catherine; Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might prove useful in the diagnostic evaluation of pediatric appendicitis in the effort to avoid exposing children to the ionizing radiation of CT, yet there is a paucity of literature describing the normal range of appearances of the pediatric appendix on MRI. To investigate MRI characteristics of the normal appendix to aid in establishing a reference standard in the pediatric population. We conducted a retrospective study of children and young adults (≤18 years of age) who underwent lumbar spine or pelvis MRI between Jan. 1, 2013, and Dec. 31, 2013, for indications unrelated to appendicitis. Two board-certified radiologists independently reviewed all patients' MRI examinations for appendix visualization, diameter, intraluminal content signal, and presence of periappendiceal inflammation or free fluid. We used the Cohen kappa statistic and Spearman correlation coefficient to assess reader agreement on qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. Three hundred forty-six patients met inclusion criteria. Both readers visualized the appendix in 192/346 (55.5%) patients (kappa = 0.88, P < 0.0001). Estimated median appendix diameter was 5 mm for reader 1 and 6 mm for reader 2 ([25th, 75th] quartiles = [5, 6] mm; range, 2-11 mm; r = 0.81, P < 0.0001). Appendix intraluminal signal characteristics were variable. Periappendiceal inflammation was present in 0/192 (0%) and free fluid in 6/192 (3.1%) MRI examinations (kappa = 1.0). The normal appendix was seen on MRI in approximately half of pediatric patients, with a mean diameter of ∝5-6 mm, variable intraluminal signal characteristics, no adjacent inflammatory changes, and rare surrounding free fluid. (orig.)

  2. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Information related to the feasibility study and ARARs. Appendixes G, H, I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  3. Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) concept definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    Studies were conducted by Hughes Helicopters, Inc. (HHI) for the Applied Technology Laboratory and Aeromechanics Laboratory, U.S. Army Research and Technology Laboratories (AVRADCOM) and the Ames Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Results of predesign studies of advanced main rotor hubs, including bearingless designs, are presented in this report. In addition, the Government's rotor design goals and specifications were reviewed and evaluated. Hub concepts were designed and qualitatively evaluated in order to select the two most promising concepts for further development. Various flexure designs, control systems, and pitchcase designs were investigated during the initial phases of this study. The two designs selected for additional development were designated the V-strap and flat-strap cruciform hubs. These hubs were designed for a four bladed rotor and were sized for 18,400 pounds gross weight with the same diameter (62 feet) and solidity (23 inch chord) as the existing rotor on the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA).

  4. Radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: volume definition and patient selection. Annecy 1998 international Association for the study of lung cancer (IASLC) Workshop recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, F.; Loubeyre, P.; Van houtte, P.; Scalliet, P.

    1998-01-01

    Chemo-radiation is the standard treatment of unresectable, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, with a mean dose of 60-66 Gy, excluding escalation dose schemes. The standard treated volume includes primary tumor, ipsilateral hilar and mediastinal nodes, supraclavicular and contralateral nodes as well, regardless of the node status. This work tries to answer the question of the optimal volume to be treated. Drainage routes analysis is in favor of large volumes, while toxicity analysis favors small volumes. Combined modality treatment may increase the observed toxicity. The optimal volume definition is difficult, and requires available conformal therapy tools. Patients selection is another important issue. A volume definition is then attempted, based on the IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) Annecy workshop experience, highlighting the inter-observers discrepancies, and suggests basic recommendations to harmonize volume definition. (author)

  5. Systematic Review on the Definition of Allergic Diseases in Children : The MeDALL Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinart, Mariona; Albang, Richard; Maier, Dieter; Duran-Tauleria, Enric; Mena, Guillermo; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Solà, Ivan; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Guerra, Stefano; Stein, Renato T; Benet, Marta; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Herr, Marie; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Momas, Isabelle; Pin, Isabelle; Rancière, Fanny; Smit, Henriëtte A; Varraso, Raphaelle; Bonfill, Xavier; Keil, Thomas; Bousquet, Jean; Antó, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the last decades, a large number of phenotypes and disease classifications of allergic diseases have been proposed. Despite the heterogeneity across studies, no systematic review has been conducted on phenotype classification and the criteria that define allergic diseases. We

  6. Aero-Propulsion Technology (APT) Task V Low Noise ADP Engine Definition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, V.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify and evaluate noise reduction technologies for advanced ducted prop propulsion systems that would allow increased capacity operation and result in an economically competitive commercial transport. The study investigated the aero/acoustic/structural advancements in fan and nacelle technology required to match or exceed the fuel burned and economic benefits of a constrained diameter large Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) compared to an unconstrained ADP propulsion system with a noise goal of 5 to 10 EPNDB reduction relative to FAR 36 Stage 3 at each of the three measuring stations namely, takeoff (cutback), approach and sideline. A second generation ADP was selected to operate within the maximum nacelle diameter constrain of 160 deg to allow installation under the wing. The impact of fan and nacelle technologies of the second generation ADP on fuel burn and direct operating costs for a typical 3000 nm mission was evaluated through use of a large, twin engine commercial airplane simulation model. The major emphasis of this study focused on fan blade aero/acoustic and structural technology evaluations and advanced nacelle designs. Results of this study have identified the testing required to verify the interactive performance of these components, along with noise characteristics, by wind tunnel testing utilizing and advanced interaction rig.

  7. What is a clinical pathway? Refinement of an operational definition to identify clinical pathway studies for a Cochrane systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Lawal, Adegboyega K.; Rotter, Thomas; Kinsman, Leigh; Machotta, Andreas; Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Scott, Shannon D.; Goodridge, Donna; Plishka, Christopher; Groot, Gary

    2016-01-01

    textabstractClinical pathways (CPWs) are a common component in the quest to improve the quality of health. CPWs are used to reduce variation, improve quality of care, and maximize the outcomes for specific groups of patients. An ongoing challenge is the operationalization of a definition of CPW in healthcare. This may be attributable to both the differences in definition and a lack of conceptualization in the field of clinical pathways. This correspondence article describes a process of refin...

  8. INTELLIGENCE STUDIES IN FORENSIC CRIMINOLOGY OF FUGITIVE EMANATING DEFINITIVE AND LOCATIONAL PARAMETERS - Dissertation without Errata

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the problem of manhunts, against criminal fugitives. It establishesnew ways of describing and refining mechanisms and techniques, for manhunts. Methods used in thisdissertation to meet those objectives, include: review of case studies, benchmarking of techniques andthe analysis of techniques and concepts, which have been put forward by other scholars. Emphasishas been placed on the applicability of search techniques to a wide range of situations, and techniques for...

  9. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL airplane: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabinsky, J. M.; Higgins, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    A two-engine three-fan V/STOL airplane was designed to fulfill naval operational requirements. A multimission airplane was developed from study of specific point designs. Based on the multimission concept, airplanes were designed to demonstrate and develop the technology and operational procedures for this class of aircraft. Use of interconnected variable pitch fans led to a good balance between high thrust with responsive control and efficient thrust at cruise speeds. The airplanes and their characteristics are presented.

  10. Regional recurrence of oropharyngeal cancer after definitive radiotherapy: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Söderström, Karin; Nilsson, Per; Dalianis, Tina; Kjellén, Elisabeth; Zackrisson, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Elective treatment of lymph nodes in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) has impact on both regional recurrences (RR) and risk of late side effects. This study was performed to quantify the dose-dependent impact on RR and overall survival (OS) in a prospectively collected cohort of OPC from the ARTSCAN study with emphasis on elective treatment. ARTSCAN is a previously published prospective, randomized, multicentre study of altered radiotherapy (RT) fractionation in head and neck cancer. In ARTSCAN the elective treatment volume for node positive OPC varied significantly between centres due to local treatment principles. All patients with OPC in complete response after primary treatment were eligible for the present case–control study. Cases were patients with RR during five years follow-up. Patients with no recurrence were eligible as controls. Four controls per case were matched according to T- and N-stage. Mean (D mean ) and median (D 50% ) dose for the lymph node level (LNL) of RR in the cases and the corresponding LNL in the controls were analysed with conditional logistic regression. OS was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and evaluated by multivariate Cox regression analysis. There was a dose-dependent risk reduction for D 50% in the interval that represented elective treatment (40–50 Gy) (OR = 0.18, p < 0.05) and a trend in the same dose interval for D mean (OR = 0.19, p = 0.07). OS rates at five years were 0.39 (0.24-0.65) for cases and 0.70 (0.62–0.81) for controls (p < 0.001). The Kaplan-Meier and the Cox regression analysis for cases categorised by delivered dose showed an inverse relationship between dose and survival. The cases with RR in a LNL outside planning target volume (PTV) (D mean < 40 Gy) had an OS rate comparable to that of all patients, and those with RR in a LNL in PTV elective (D mean 40–60 Gy) or PTV tumour (D mean >60 Gy) did significantly worse (p < 0.05). The same inverse relationship was also shown for a small subset of patient

  11. 3D high-definition manometry in evaluation of children after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasiuk, Marcin; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Piotrowski, Dariusz; Albrecht, Piotr; Kamiński, Andrzej; Radzikowski, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Anorectal 3-dimensional high definition manometry (3D HRM) could be the best tool for postoperative assessment of restorative surgical procedures for Hirschsprung's disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate patients after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease using 3D HRM. Anorectal function was evaluated using solid state 3D HRM. We measured the length of the anal canal, mean resting squeeze pressures, the presence of rectoanal inhibitory reflex, cough reflex, ano-anal reflex and the bear down manoeuvre. We studied 14 children operated on for Hirschsprung's disease. The mean values of pressure asymmetry were higher in patients after the Duhamel procedure than after the TEPT procedure (29.58% vs. 22.26% during resting and 26.1% vs. 14.01% during squeeze, respectively). No difference between the groups was observed in the measurement of all the manometric parameters except the presence of rectoanal inhibitory reflex (87.5% after TEPT vs. 33% after Duhamel). Anorectal 3D HRM evaluation of patients with Hirschsprung's disease demonstrated that the asymmetry of the anal canal occurred in a similar percentage after both procedures. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Vital Statistics Definitions of Suicide against a Coroner Reference Standard: A Population-Based Linkage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatov, Evgenia; Kurdyak, Paul; Sinyor, Mark; Holder, Laura; Schaffer, Ayal

    2018-03-01

    We sought to determine the utility of health administrative databases for population-based suicide surveillance, as these data are generally more accessible and more integrated with other data sources compared to coroners' records. In this retrospective validation study, we identified all coroner-confirmed suicides between 2003 and 2012 in Ontario residents aged 21 and over and linked this information to Statistics Canada's vital statistics data set. We examined the overlap between the underlying cause of death field and secondary causes of death using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes for deliberate self-harm (i.e., suicide) and examined the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of misclassified records. Among 10,153 linked deaths, there was a very high degree of overlap between records coded as deliberate self-harm in the vital statistics data set and coroner-confirmed suicides using both ICD-9 and ICD-10 definitions (96.88% and 96.84% sensitivity, respectively). This alignment steadily increased throughout the study period (from 95.9% to 98.8%). Other vital statistics diagnoses in primary fields included uncategorised signs and symptoms. Vital statistics records that were misclassified did not differ from valid records in terms of sociodemographic characteristics but were more likely to have had an unspecified place of injury on the death certificate ( P statistics and coroner classification of suicide deaths suggests that health administrative data can reliably be used to identify suicide deaths.

  13. Paediatric traumatic cardiac arrest: a Delphi study to establish consensus on definition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Annette C; Vassallo, James; Nutbeam, Tim; Lyttle, Mark D; Maconochie, Ian K; Enki, Doyo G; Smith, Jason E

    2018-04-28

    Paediatric traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) is associated with low survival and poor outcomes. The mechanisms that underlie TCA are different from medical cardiac arrest; the approach to treatment of TCA may therefore also need to differ to optimise outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the opinion of subject matter experts regarding the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric TCA, and to reach consensus on how best to manage this group of patients. An online Delphi study was conducted over three rounds, with the aim of achieving consensus (defined as 70% agreement) on statements related to the diagnosis and management of paediatric TCA. Participants were invited from paediatric and adult emergency medicine, paediatric anaesthetics, paediatric ICU and paediatric surgery, as well as Paediatric Major Trauma Centre leads and representatives from the Resuscitation Council UK. Statements were informed by literature reviews and were based on elements of APLS resuscitation algorithms as well as some concepts used in the management of adult TCA; they ranged from confirmation of cardiac arrest to the indications for thoracotomy. 73 experts completed all three rounds between June and November 2016. Consensus was reached on 14 statements regarding the diagnosis and management of paediatric TCA; oxygenation and ventilatory support, along with rapid volume replacement with warmed blood, improve survival. The duration of cardiac arrest and the lack of a response to intervention, along with cardiac standstill on ultrasound, help to guide the decision to terminate resuscitation. This study has given a consensus-based framework to guide protocol development in the management of paediatric TCA, though further work is required in other key areas including its acceptability to clinicians. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Definition and grading of anastomotic leakage following anterior resection of the rectum: a proposal by the International Study Group of Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Nuh N; Weitz, Jürgen; Hohenberger, Werner; Heald, Richard J; Moran, Brendan; Ulrich, Alexis; Holm, Torbjörn; Wong, W Douglas; Tiret, Emmanuel; Moriya, Yoshihiro; Laurberg, Søren; den Dulk, Marcel; van de Velde, Cornelis; Büchler, Markus W

    2010-03-01

    Anastomotic leakage represents a major complication after anterior resection of the rectum. The incidence of anastomotic leakage varies considerably among clinical studies in part owing to the lack of a standardized definition of this complication. The aim of the present article was to propose a definition and severity grading of anastomotic leakage after anterior rectal resection. After a literature review a consensus definition and severity grading of anastomotic leakage was developed within the International Study Group of Rectal Cancer. Anastomotic leakage should be defined as a defect of the intestinal wall at the anastomotic site (including suture and staple lines of neorectal reservoirs) leading to a communication between the intra- and extraluminal compartments. Severity of anastomotic leakage should be graded according to the impact on clinical management. Grade A anastomotic leakage results in no change in patients' management, whereas grade B leakage requires active therapeutic intervention but is manageable without re-laparotomy. Grade C anastomotic leakage requires re-laparotomy. The proposed definition and clinical grading is applicable easily in the setting of clinical studies. It should be applied in future reports to facilitate valid comparison of the results of different studies. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Definition of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage as an Outcome Event in Clinical Trials and Observational Studies Proposal of a Multidisciplinary Research Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergouwen, Mervyn D. I.; Vermeulen, Marinus; van Gijn, Jan; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.; Muizelaar, J. Paul; Mendelow, A. David; Juvela, Seppo; Yonas, Howard; Terbrugge, Karel G.; Macdonald, R. Loch; Diringer, Michael N.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Dreier, Jens P.; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose-In clinical trials and observational studies there is considerable inconsistency in the use of definitions to describe delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A major cause for this inconsistency is the combining of radiographic evidence of

  16. Involving stakeholders in policy research should not imply that they control the problem definition: lessons from a case study on new analgesics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moret-Hartman, M.; van der Wilt, G.J.; Grin, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch Health Care Insurance Board (HCIB) commissions research to guide their policy recommendations. However, the studies conducted do not always yield relevant information. This may result from differences in problem definitions held by the HCIB and target populations. To compensate these

  17. Problem definition study of subsidence caused by geopressured geothermal resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The environmental and socio-economic settings of four environmentally representative Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal fairways were inventoried. Subsidence predictions were prepared using feasible development scenarios for the four representative subsidence sites. Based on the results of the subsidence estimates, an assessment of the associated potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts was prepared. An inventory of mitigation measures was also compiled. Results of the subsidence estimates and impact assessments are presented, as well as conclusions as to what are the major uncertainties, problems, and issues concerning the future study of geopressured geothermal subsidence.

  18. Concept definition study of small Brayton cycle engines for dispersed solar electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L. D.; Ashe, T. L.; Dobler, F. X.; Elkins, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Three first-generation Brayton cycle engine types were studied for solar application: a near-term open cycle (configuration A), a near-term closed cycle (configuration B), and a longer-term open cycle (configuration C). A parametric performance analysis was carried out to select engine designs for the three configurations. The interface requirements for the Brayton cycle engine/generator and solar receivers were determined. A technology assessment was then carried out to define production costs, durability, and growth potential for the selected engine types.

  19. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 1: Management summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of a study program to determine the life sciences payloads required for conducting biomedical experiments during space missions are presented. The objectives are defined as: (1) to identify the research functions which must be performed aboard life sciences spacecraft laboratories and the equipment needed to support these functions and (2) to develop layouts and preliminary conceptual designs of several potential baseline payloads for the accomplishment of life research in space. Payload configurations and subsystems are described and illustrated. Tables of data are included to identify the material requirements for the space missions.

  20. Long-term outcome of simple inversion of the appendix as an alternativeto incidental appendectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masad, J.K.; Daoud, Faiez S.

    2008-01-01

    Inversion of the appendix is an alternative to incidental appendectomy toprevent future appendicitis. This study investigated outcome andcomplications in a group of patients who underwent simple inversion of theappendix. Inversion of the appendix was performed in 41 patients, including21 women (51%) and 20 men (49%) (mean age, 48.7 year; range 12-85 years). Asimple inversion technique was used in 65% of patients. Twenty-nine patientshad colonoscopy between 3 to 44 months after surgery (mean, 8 months), nonefor the sake of study. During the follow-up, none of the patients developedintussusceptions or rectal bleeding. Colonoscopy demonstrated an absentappendix in 9 patients (31%). In the remaining 20 patients (69%), theinverted appendix persisted with no obvious change on visualized mucosa.Neither intussusception nor hemorrhage was observed after simple inversion.In our view, persistence of the appendix is a welcome event since thepresence of the appendix may carry several benefits as it continues to workas a specialized organ, exerting an important physiological role infacilitating forward passage of colon contents, providing antibacterialfunctions and possibly playing a preventive role against development of colonand other cancers. (author)

  1. Connecting functional and statistical definitions of genotype by genotype interactions in coevolutionary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Denise Heath

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Predicting how species interactions evolve requires that we understand the mechanistic basis of coevolution, and thus the functional genotype-by-genotype interactions (G × G that drive reciprocal natural selection. Theory on host-parasite coevolution provides testable hypotheses for empiricists, but depends upon models of functional G × G that remain loosely tethered to the molecular details of any particular system. In practice, reciprocal cross-infection studies are often used to partition the variation in infection or fitness in a population that is attributable to G × G (statistical G × G. Here we use simulations to demonstrate that within-population statistical G × G likely tells us little about the existence of coevolution, its strength, or the genetic basis of functional G × G. Combined with studies of multiple populations or points in time, mapping and molecular techniques can bridge the gap between natural variation and mechanistic models of coevolution, while model-based statistics can formally confront coevolutionary models with cross-infection data. Together these approaches provide a robust framework for inferring the infection genetics underlying statistical G × G, helping unravel the genetic basis of coevolution.

  2. Appendectomy: Surgical Removal of the Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blocked opening can be from an illness, thick mucus, hard stool, or a tumor. Appendix Large intestine ... any thing over 10 pounds. A gallon of milk weighs 9 pounds. 6 Your Recovery and Discharge ...

  3. Appendix E - Sample Production Facility Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This sample Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan in Appendix E is intended to provide examples and illustrations of how a production facility could address a variety of scenarios in its SPCC Plan.

  4. Appendix F. Developmental enforcement algorithm definition document : predictive braking enforcement algorithm definition document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to fully define and describe the logic flow and mathematical equations for a predictive braking enforcement algorithm intended for implementation in a Positive Train Control (PTC) system.

  5. Definition and management of hypertension among Haitian immigrants: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Marie-Anne; Mohammed, Selina A; McCullagh, Marjorie C

    2014-08-01

    Hypertension is a major health concern among Haitian immigrants, one of the largest Caribbean immigrant groups in the United States. Yet, little is known about how Hatian immigrants define and manage hypertension. For this qualitative study, face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 Haitian immigrants in Miami Dade County, Florida. Results indicated that most Haitian immigrants used the Haitian Creole word tansyon to represent hypertension. Tansyon was considered as either a normal condition of the human body or a maladi (illness). Both traditional biomedical and alternative approaches were used to manage hypertension. The findings show that how Haitian immigrants defined hypertension shaped their beliefs about its occurrence and the resulting management strategies used. Those who believed tansyon was a normal body condition did not take any management measures. Awareness and understanding of Haitian immigrants' beliefs about and approaches to hypertension management can enhance culturally sensitive care and improve health outcomes.

  6. The "Residential" Effect Fallacy in Neighborhood and Health Studies: Formal Definition, Empirical Identification, and Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Basile; Duncan, Dustin; Vallée, Julie; Vernez-Moudon, Anne; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Kestens, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Because of confounding from the urban/rural and socioeconomic organizations of territories and resulting correlation between residential and nonresidential exposures, classically estimated residential neighborhood-outcome associations capture nonresidential environment effects, overestimating residential intervention effects. Our study diagnosed and corrected this "residential" effect fallacy bias applicable to a large fraction of neighborhood and health studies. Our empirical application investigated the effect that hypothetical interventions raising the residential number of services would have on the probability that a trip is walked. Using global positioning systems tracking and mobility surveys over 7 days (227 participants and 7440 trips), we employed a multilevel linear probability model to estimate the trip-level association between residential number of services and walking to derive a naïve intervention effect estimate and a corrected model accounting for numbers of services at the residence, trip origin, and trip destination to determine a corrected intervention effect estimate (true effect conditional on assumptions). There was a strong correlation in service densities between the residential neighborhood and nonresidential places. From the naïve model, hypothetical interventions raising the residential number of services to 200, 500, and 1000 were associated with an increase by 0.020, 0.055, and 0.109 of the probability of walking in the intervention groups. Corrected estimates were of 0.007, 0.019, and 0.039. Thus, naïve estimates were overestimated by multiplicative factors of 3.0, 2.9, and 2.8. Commonly estimated residential intervention-outcome associations substantially overestimate true effects. Our somewhat paradoxical conclusion is that to estimate residential effects, investigators critically need information on nonresidential places visited.

  7. Bullying by Definition: An Examination of Definitional Components of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmid, Susan; Howie, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Lack of definitional consensus remains an important unresolved issue within bullying research. This study examined the ability of definitional variables to predict overall level of victimisation (distress, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) and bullying (intention to harm, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) in 246…

  8. Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (SR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within

  9. Morally disengaged and unempathic: do cyberbullies fit these definitions? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renati, Roberta; Berrone, Carlo; Zanetti, Maria Assunta

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the phenomenon of cyberbullying has been gaining scholars' growing interest under various aspects, including its overlap with face-to-face bullying. Nevertheless, its relationships with cognitive and affective empathy, proactive and reactive aggression, and moral disengagement, constructs that proved to be crucial in distinguishing aggressive subjects from their targets and nonaggressive peers in traditional bullying, still represent, to some extent, an unexplored domain. The main purpose of the present exploratory study was to investigate the associations between cyberbullying and the mentioned constructs among Italian adolescents. 819 high-school students (mean age 16.08) were administered a battery of standardized tools, along with Cyberties, a new instrument created to assess the prevalence of (and the type of involvement in) different forms of electronic assaults. Analyses of variance were conducted to compare four roles ("pure" bullies, "pure" victims, bully victims, and noninvolved subjects). Participants who identified themselves as cyberbullies or cyberbully victims showed significantly higher levels of overall moral disengagement and of both types of aggression. Cyberbullies also displayed a lack of affective empathy. Our findings are in line with the ones in extant literature about correlates of traditional and electronic forms of bullying. Implications for prevention strategies are discussed.

  10. 18 CFR Appendix B to Subpart H of... - Appendix B to Subpart H of Part 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appendix B to Subpart H of Part 35 B Appendix B to Subpart H of Part 35 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based...

  11. 18 CFR Appendix A to Subpart H of... - Appendix A to Subpart H of Part 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appendix A to Subpart H of Part 35 A Appendix A to Subpart H of Part 35 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based...

  12. Study of Pitch Attitude Estimation Using a High-Definition TV (HDTV) Camera on the Japanese Lunar Explorer SELENE (KAGUYA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Junichi; Matsumoto, Shuichi; Konishi, Hisahiro; Maejima, Hironori; Sasaki, Susumu; Kato, Manabu; Mitsuhashi, Seiji; Tachino, Junichi

    The lunar explorer SELENE (also called KAGUYA) carried thirteen scientific mission instruments to reveal the origin and evolution of Moon and to investigate the possible future utilization of Moon. In addition to the scientific instruments, a high-definition TV (HDTV) camera provided by the Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) was carried on KAGUYA to promote public outreach. We usually use housekeeping telemetry data to derive the satellite attitude along with orbital determination and propagated information. However, it takes time to derive this information, since orbital determination and propagation calculation require the use of the orbital model. When a malfunction of the KAGUYA reaction wheel occurred, we could not have correct attitude information. This means that we don’t have a correct orbital determination in timely fashion. However, when we checked HDTV movies, we found that horizon information on the lunar surface derived from HDTV moving images as a horizon sensor was very useful for the detection of the attitude of KAGUYA. We then compared this information with the attitude information derived from orbital telemetry to validate the accuracy of the HDTV derived estimation. As a result of this comparison, there are good pitch attitude estimation using HDTV derived estimation and we could estimate the pitch angle change during the KAGUYA mission operation simplify and quickly. In this study, we show the usefulness of this HDTV camera as a horizon sensor.

  13. The definition of radiological signs in gastric ulcer and assessment of their validity by inter-observer variation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, A; Simpkins, K C

    1975-07-01

    The initial aim was to program a computer with information on the frequency of radiological signs in benign and malignant gastric ulcers in order to obtain a percentage probability of benignancy or malignancy in succeeding ulcers in clinical practice. However, only four of the many signs described in gastric ulcer were confirmed to be of validity (i.e. reliable existence) by an inter-observer variation study using two observers and the films from 69 barium meal examinations. These were projection or non-projection of the in-profile ulcer, presence or absence of adjacent mucosal folds, good or poor definition of the in-face ulcer's edge, and extension of radiating folds to the in-face ulcer's edge. A few more remained unassessed due to insufficient numbers of relevant cases. It is condluced that: as defined in the literature the majority of radiological signs in this field are of uncertain existence; and the four that were found to be valid do not fully describe the important appearances that may be seen in benign and malignant ulcers and would be inadequate to differentiate them to a sufficiently high degree of probability.

  14. Consumer-driven definition of traditional food products and innovation in traditional foods. A qualitative cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Luis; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Xicola, Joan; Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Zakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Sajdakowska, Marta; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Contel, Michele; Scalvedi, M Luisa; Granli, Britt Signe; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2009-04-01

    Traditional food products (TFP) are an important part of European culture, identity, and heritage. In order to maintain and expand the market share of TFP, further improvement in safety, health, or convenience is needed by means of different innovations. The aim of this study was to obtain a consumer-driven definition for the concept of TFP and innovation and to compare these across six European countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain) by means of semantic and textual statistical analyses. Twelve focus groups were performed, two per country, under similar conditions. The transcriptions obtained were submitted to an ordinary semantic analysis and to a textual statistical analysis using the software ALCESTE. Four main dimensions were identified for the concept of TFP: habit-natural, origin-locality, processing-elaboration and sensory properties. Five dimensions emerged around the concept of innovation: novelty-change, variety, processing-technology, origin-ethnicity and convenience. TFP were similarly perceived in the countries analysed, while some differences were detected for the concept of innovation. Semantic and statistical analyses of the focus groups led to similar results for both concepts. In some cases and according to the consumers' point of view the application of innovations may damage the traditional character of TFP.

  15. The Definition of Pneumonia, the Assessment of Severity, and Clinical Standardization in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonodi, Chizoba; Moïsi, Jennifer C.; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; DeLuca, Andrea N.; Karron, Ruth A.; Bhat, Niranjan; Murdoch, David R.; Crawley, Jane; Levine, Orin S.; O’Brien, Katherine L.; Feikin, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    To develop a case definition for the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project, we sought a widely acceptable classification that was linked to existing pneumonia research and focused on very severe cases. We began with the World Health Organization’s classification of severe/very severe pneumonia and refined it through literature reviews and a 2-stage process of expert consultation. PERCH will study hospitalized children, aged 1–59 months, with pneumonia who present with cough or difficulty breathing and have either severe pneumonia (lower chest wall indrawing) or very severe pneumonia (central cyanosis, difficulty breastfeeding/drinking, vomiting everything, convulsions, lethargy, unconsciousness, or head nodding). It will exclude patients with recent hospitalization and children with wheeze whose indrawing resolves after bronchodilator therapy. The PERCH investigators agreed upon standard interpretations of the symptoms and signs. These will be maintained by a clinical standardization monitor who conducts repeated instruction at each site and by recurrent local training and testing. PMID:22403224

  16. Serum Cystatin C– Versus Creatinine-Based Definitions of Acute Kidney Injury Following Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahillari, Aferdita; Parikh, Chirag R.; Sint, Kyaw; Koyner, Jay L.; Patel, Uptal D.; Edelstein, Charles L.; Passik, Cary S.; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Swaminathan, Madhav; Shlipak, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and rapidity of AKI detection by cystatin C relative to creatinine following cardiac surgery. Study Design Prospective cohort study Settings and Participants 1,150 high-risk, adult cardiac surgery patients in the TRIBE-AKI (Translational Research Investigating Biomarker Endpoints for Acute Kidney Injury) Consortium. Predictor Changes in serum creatinine and cystatin C Outcome Post-surgical incidence of AKI Measurements Serum creatinine and cystatin C were measured at the preoperative visit and daily on postoperative days 1–5. To allow comparisons between changes in creatinine and cystatin C, AKI endpoints were defined by the relative increases in each marker from baseline (25, 50 and 100%) and the incidence of AKI was compared based upon each marker. Secondary aims were to compare clinical outcomes among patients defined as having AKI by cystatin C and/or creatinine. Results Overall, serum creatinine detected more cases of AKI than cystatin C: 35% developed a ≥25% increase in serum creatinine, whereas only 23% had ≥25% increase in cystatin C (p Creatinine also had higher proportions meeting the 50% (14% and 8%, pcreatinine or cystatin C. However, for each AKI threshold, patients with AKI confirmed by both markers had significantly higher risk of the combined mortality/dialysis outcome compared with patients with AKI detected by creatinine alone (p=0.002). Limitations There were few adverse clinical outcomes, limiting our ability to detect differences in outcomes between subgroups of patients based upon their definitions of AKI. Conclusion In this large multicenter study, we found that cystatin C was less sensitive for AKI detection compared with creatinine. However, confirmation by cystatin C appeared to identify a subset of AKI patients with substantially higher risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:22809763

  17. Sealing of the cystic and appendix arteries with monopolar electrocautery during laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui-Bao; Mao, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Chang-Ping; Cao, Jin-Lin

    2018-03-01

    The best method to ligate the arteries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy or appendectomy remains controversy. The aim of this study is to introduce a new approach during laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy using a monopolar electrocautery to seal the cystic and appendix arteries. We retrospectively reviewed data from 57 patients who underwent laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy between December 2006 and June 2016. Each laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy was performed by coagulating and sealing the cystic and appendix arteries. Absorbable clip or coils were then used to ligate the proximal of cystic duct and the stump of appendix. The other side of the cystic duct and appendix which subsequently were to be removed from abdomen were used titanium clips or silk ligature. Of the 57 patients, 3 patients (5.3%) were converted to open surgery due to severe abdominal adhesions or gallbladder perforation. The mean operative time was 56 minutes (range, 40-80 minutes). Mean blood loss was 12 mL (range, 5-120 mL), and the mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.0 days (range, 2-5 days). No postoperative bleeding, biliary leakage, infection, or mortality occurred. Monopolar electrocautery to seal the cystic and appendix arteries is a safe, effective, and economical surgical procedure during laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy. Further randomized controlled clinical trials are required to validate our findings.

  18. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 2: Requirements, design, and planning studies for the carry-on laboratories. [for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The task phase concerned with the requirements, design, and planning studies for the carry-on laboratory (COL) began with a definition of biomedical research areas and candidate research equipment, and then went on to develop conceptual layouts for COL which were each evaluated in order to arrive at a final conceptual design. Each step in this design/evaluation process concerned itself with man/systems integration research and hardware, and life support and protective systems research and equipment selection. COL integration studies were also conducted and include attention to electrical power and data management requirements, operational considerations, and shuttle/Spacelab interface specifications. A COL program schedule was compiled, and a cost analysis was finalized which takes into account work breakdown, annual funding, and cost reduction guidelines.

  19. ONE OF THE LONGEST APPENDIX: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat Rao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The vermiform appendix is an organ that can have variable sizes. We are prompted to report here one of the longest appendix removed, measuring about 16cm in length. INTRODUCTION : The vermiform appendix is an organ that can vary in size, site, and presence, as well as in other clinical and functional aspects. We describe here one of the longest appendix removed, measuring about 16cm in length in a case of acute appendicitis

  20. Euclid Definition Study Report

    CERN Document Server

    Laureijs, R; Arduini, S.; Augueres, J.L.; Brinchmann, J.; Cole, R.; Cropper, M.; Dabin, C.; Duvet, L.; Ealet, A.; Garilli, B.; Gondoin, P.; Guzzo, L.; Hoar, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holmes, R.; Kitching, T.; Maciaszek, T.; Mellier, Y.; Pasian, F.; Percival, W.; Rhodes, J.; Criado, G.Saavedra; Sauvage, M.; Scaramella, R.; Valenziano, L.; Warren, S.; Bender, R.; Castander, F.; Cimatti, A.; Le, O.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Levi, M.; Lilje, P.; Mellier, Y.; Meylan, G.; Nichol, R.; Pedersen, K.; Popa, V.; Rebolo Lopez, R.; Rix, H.W.; Rottgering, H.; Zeilinger, W.; Grupp, F.; Hudelot, P.; Massey, R.; Meneghetti, M.; Miller, L.; Paltani, S.; Paulin-Henriksson, S.; Pires, S.; Saxton, C.; Schrabback, T.; Seidel, G.; Walsh, J.; Aghanim, N.; Amendola, L.; Bartlett, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Beaulieu, J.P.; Benabed, K.; Cuby, J.G.; Elbaz, D.; Fosalba, P.; Gavazzi, G.; Helmi, A.; Hook, I.; Irwin, M.; Kneib, J.P.; Kunz, M.; Mannucci, F.; Moscardini, L.; Tao, C.; Teyssier, R.; Weller, J.; Zamorani, G.; Osorio, M.R.Zapatero; Boulade, O.; Foumond, J.J.; Di Giorgio, A.; Guttridge, P.; James, A.; Kemp, M.; Martignac, J.; Spencer, A.; Walton, D.; Blumchen, T.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Cerna, C.; Corcione, L.; Fabron, C.; Jahnke, K.; Ligori, S.; Madrid, F.; Martin, L.; Morgante, G.; Pamplona, T.; Prieto, E.; Riva, M.; Toledo, R.; Trifoglio, M.; Zerbi, F.; Abdalla, F.; Douspis, M.; Grenet, C.; Borgani, S.; Bouwens, R.; Courbin, F.; Delouis, J.M.; Dubath, P.; Fontana, A.; Frailis, M.; Grazian, A.; Koppenhofer, J.; Mansutti, O.; Melchior, M.; Mignoli, M.; Mohr, J.; Neissner, C.; Noddle, K.; Poncet, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Serrano, S.; Shane, N.; Starck, J.L.; Surace, C.; Taylor, A.; Verdoes-Kleijn, G.; Vuerli, C.; Williams, O.R.; Zacchei, A.; Altieri, B.; Sanz, I.Escudero; Kohley, R.; Oosterbroek, T.; Astier, P.; Bacon, D.; Bardelli, S.; Baugh, C.; Bellagamba, F.; Benoist, C.; Bianchi, D.; Biviano, A.; Branchini, E.; Carbone, C.; Cardone, V.; Clements, D.; Colombi, S.; Conselice, C.; Cresci, G.; Deacon, N.; Dunlop, J.; Fedeli, C.; Fontanot, F.; Franzetti, P.; Giocoli, C.; Garcia-Bellido, J.; Gow, J.; Heavens, A.; Hewett, P.; Heymans, C.; Holland, A.; Huang, Z.; Ilbert, O.; Joachimi, B.; Jennins, E.; Kerins, E.; Kiessling, A.; Kirk, D.; Kotak, R.; Krause, O.; Lahav, O.; van Leeuwen, F.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lombardi, M.; Magliocchetti, M.; Maguire, K.; Majerotto, E.; Maoli, R.; Marulli, F.; Maurogordato, S.; McCracken, H.; McLure, R.; Melchiorri, A.; Merson, A.; Moresco, M.; Nonino, M.; Norberg, P.; Peacock, J.; Pello, R.; Penny, M.; Pettorino, V.; Di Porto, C.; Pozzetti, L.; Quercellini, C.; Radovich, M.; Rassat, A.; Roche, N.; Ronayette, S.; Rossetti, E.; Sartoris, B.; Schneider, P.; Semboloni, E.; Serjeant, S.; Simpson, F.; Skordis, C.; Smadja, G.; Smartt, S.; Spano, P.; Spiro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Tilquin, A.; Trotta, R.; Verde, L.; Wang, Y.; Williger, G.; Zhao, G.; Zoubian, J.; Zucca, E.

    2011-01-01

    Euclid is a space-based survey mission from the European Space Agency designed to understand the origin of the Universe's accelerating expansion. It will use cosmological probes to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by tracking their observational signatures on the geometry of the universe and on the cosmic history of structure formation. The mission is optimised for two independent primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing (WL) and Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The Euclid payload consists of a 1.2 m Korsch telescope designed to provide a large field of view. It carries two instruments with a common field-of-view of ~0.54 deg2: the visual imager (VIS) and the near infrared instrument (NISP) which contains a slitless spectrometer and a three bands photometer. The Euclid wide survey will cover 15,000 deg2 of the extragalactic sky and is complemented by two 20 deg2 deep fields. For WL, Euclid measures the shapes of 30-40 resolved galaxies per arcmin2 in one broad...

  1. Quality Investing – Industry versus Academic Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Kyosev (Georgi); M.X. Hanauer (Matthias); J.J. Huij (Joop); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this study we provide an overview of common quality definitions that are currently used in the industry and those used in academic studies, and we outline the differences between these definitions. We show that there is a large dispersion in the definitions that are used for the

  2. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 275 - Obtaining Customer Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining Customer Authorization B Appendix B to... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. B Appendix B to Part 275—Obtaining Customer Authorization A. A DoD law... feasible, obtain the customer's consent. B. Any authorization obtained under paragraph A. of this appendix...

  3. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 14. Appendix I: Communicating with Deaf and Hearing Impaired Patients. Appendix II: Medical Terminology. Appendix III: EMS Organizations. Appendix IV: Legislation (Ohio). Glossary of Terms. Index. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This training manual for emergency medical technicians, one of 14 modules that comprise the Emergency Victim Care textbook, contains appendixes, a glossary, and an index. The first appendix is an article on communicating with deaf and hearing-impaired patients. Appendix 2, the largest section in this manual, is an introduction to medical…

  4. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172... SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. B Appendix B to Part 172—Trefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph 2 of this appendix, the trefoil symbol required for RADIOACTIVE labels and placards and required to be...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 240 - Medical Standards Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical Standards Guidelines F Appendix F to Part 240 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... F Appendix F to Part 240—Medical Standards Guidelines (1) The purpose of this appendix is to provide...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 420 - Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Downrange from 100 nm beyond the launch point, world population data are available from: Total landmass area... appendix B. This appendix also provides an applicant options to simplify the method where population at... and, for an appendix B flight corridor, trajectory information. (2) Population data. Total population...

  7. Mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix: a case report | Alese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tumours of the appendix are emerging as diseases of increasing concern due to a rising incidence1. We present a case of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix in an elderly patient. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix from Nigeria. Key Words: Appendiceal tumour, ...

  8. Management of appendix mass in a Nigerian rural district | Umunna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The traditional management of an appendix mass is conservative, followed by interval appendicectomy. Interval appendicectomy is now controversial. Aim: To present an experience with the management of appendix mass among a rural people in Nigeria. Methods: Patients presenting with appendix masses ...

  9. Focal versus diffuse anaplasia in Wilms tumor--new definitions with prognostic significance: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, P; Beckwith, J B; Mishra, K; Zuppan, C; Weeks, D A; Breslow, N; Green, D M

    1996-08-01

    Anaplasia, defined by the presence of extreme nuclear and mitotic atypia, is a potent marker of adverse prognosis in Wilms tumor (WT). Anaplastic WT cells apparently have increased resistance to therapy rather than increased aggressiveness. The distribution of anaplasia should therefore have critical prognostic relevance. The original definitions for focal anaplasia (FA) and diffuse anaplasia (DA) were based on quantitative rather than topographical criteria and lacked prognostic significance. A new definition was developed based on the distribution of anaplastic changes within the tumor: FA applies only to tumors with anaplasia confined to one or a few discrete loci within the primary tumor, with no anaplasia or marked nuclear atypia elsewhere. This revised definition was evaluated in 165 cases with anaplastic WT entered on the third and fourth National Wilms Tumor Study. Only three relapses and one death occurred among 39 cases with FA, regardless of tumor stage, a result comparable to that for nonanaplastic WT. Eight children with metastases at diagnosis and FA in the primary tumor were alive and free of relapse; 22 of 23 children with stage IV DA WT died of tumor. This new definition reinforces the importance of carefully documenting the exact site from which each tumor section is obtained.

  10. Case definitions of knee osteoarthritis in 4,151 unselected subjects: relevance for epidemiological studies : The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxafoss, Erling; Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper K

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aims of the present study were threefold: to examine the distribution of knee joint osteoarthritis in a large, standardized radiological study; to examine the relationships between self reported knee pain and radiological OA; and to examine the natural history of radio-morpholog...

  11. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix T: Comments and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix documents the public and agency review of the SOR Draft EIS and how the SOR agencies used the review to formulate the FINAL EIS. The appendix includes a summary of the review process, a discussion of the nature of the comments, a list of all commentors, reproductions of comment letters, and responses to all comments. Changes in the EIS text in response to comments are noted in the responses

  12. Unusual Presentations of Actinomycosis; Anterior Abdominal Wall and Appendix: Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Karateke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary actinomycosis of the anterior abdominal wall and appendix are very rare clinical entities. An accurate diagnosis is generally obtained by histological examination, and treatment often requires surgical resection. Case Report: In this study we presented two cases of primary actinomycosis involving the anterior abdominal wall and a third one located in the appendix. Conclusion: Actinomyces Israelii can involve all anatomic structures of the abdomen. Although preoperative diagnosis is difficult, the combination of surgery and antibiotic treatment results in complete treatment in the majority of cases.

  13. What is a clinical pathway? Refinement of an operational definition to identify clinical pathway studies for a Cochrane systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Lawal (Adegboyega K.); T. Rotter (Thomas); L. Kinsman (Leigh); A. Machotta (Andreas); U. Ronellenfitsch (Ulrich); S.D. Scott (Shannon D.); D. Goodridge (Donna); C. Plishka (Christopher); G. Groot (Gary)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractClinical pathways (CPWs) are a common component in the quest to improve the quality of health. CPWs are used to reduce variation, improve quality of care, and maximize the outcomes for specific groups of patients. An ongoing challenge is the operationalization of a definition of CPW in

  14. The definition of pneumonia, the assessment of severity, and clinical standardization in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, J. Anthony G.; Wonodi, Chizoba; Moïsi, Jennifer C.; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; DeLuca, Andrea N.; Karron, Ruth A.; Bhat, Niranjan; Murdoch, David R.; Crawley, Jane; Levine, Orin S.; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Black, Robert E.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Campbell, Harry; Cherian, Thomas; Crook, Derrick W.; de Jong, Menno D.; Dowell, Scott F.; Graham, Stephen M.; Klugman, Keith P.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Martin, Paul; Nataro, James P.; Piazza, Franco M.; Qazi, Shamim A.; Zar, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    To develop a case definition for the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project, we sought a widely acceptable classification that was linked to existing pneumonia research and focused on very severe cases. We began with the World Health Organization's classification of severe/very

  15. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 1: Orbit/launch vehicle tradeoff studies and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the recommended orbit for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Land Resources Mission. It was determined that a promising sun synchronous orbit is 366 nautical miles when using an instrument with a 100 nautical mile swath width. The orbit has a 17 day repeat cycle and a 14 nautical mile swath overlap. Payloads were developed for each mission, EOS A through F. For each mission, the lowest cost booster that was capable of lifting the payload to the EOS orbit was selected. The launch vehicles selected for the missions are identified on the basis of tradeoff studies and recommendations. The reliability aspects of the launch vehicles are analyzed.

  16. Pseudomyxoma peritonei originating from appendix tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Maria Fernandes Moreira Marques

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appendix tumors represent about 1% of all gastrointestinal neoplasia, in other words they are quite rare. However, there is a specific type of appendiceal neoplasms (mucinous adenocarcinoma that spreads to the peritoneum and in almost 20% of the cases, resulting in a disease called pseudomyxoma peritonei. Although, it is a very rare condition, it is nonetheless a very severe one and therefore it is crucial to know how to correctly diagnose and treat it. Objective: This study provides updated data on how to diagnose, classify and treat pseudomyxoma peritonei that originates from appendix tumors. Methods: A bibliographic research was performed on PubMed database, including articles published since 2000, as well as, cross-referencing with the initial research. Discussion: In the past, patients diagnosed with pseudomyxoma peritonei would only undergo palliative measures, so their overall survival rate was greatly reduced. Over the years pseudomyxoma peritonei treatment has evolved and patients are now undergoing treatment which is a combination of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This new therapy has allowed an increase of survival chances of up to 5 years in those patients with values between 53% and 88%, depending on the type of tumor. Conclusion: Despite the great progress we have witnessed in recent years, which have led to a large increase in survival rates, more research needs to be done, on what to do when the disease is in an unresectable stage. Finding a less aggressive therapy than cytoreductive surgery + hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy will be an important step forward. Resumo: Introdução: As neoplasias do apêndice são bastante raras, representando atualmente cerca de 1% de todas as neoplasias gastrointestinais. O adenocarcinoma mucinoso é um dos subtipos de neoplasia do apêndice e caracteriza-se por metastizar para o peritoneu, em 20% dos casos, facto que se manifesta sob

  17. 49 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Revenue Need and Allocation to Traffic at Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... system revenue needs of the traffic and cost study carriers, which, along with the financial data required in appendix B, will facilitate an analysis of the financial stability of these carriers, and (2... the operating ratios to present and restated levels as required in .3 Cost study. As indicated above...

  18. Case definitions of knee osteoarthritis in 4,151 unselected subjects: relevance for epidemiological studies. The Copenhagen osteoarthritis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxafoss, Erling; Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper K.; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the present study were threefold: to examine the distribution of knee joint osteoarthritis in a large, standardized radiological study; to examine the relationships between self reported knee pain and radiological OA; and to examine the natural history of radio-morphological change over age in individuals without radiological features of OA. The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study - COS is a substudy of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a longitudinal regional health survey. From the third inclusion of the CCHS (1992-1994) 4,151 subjects were selected for subsequent standardized radiography of the pelvis, the knees, the hands, the wrists, and the lumbar spine. Images were analyzed and knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) was classified according to the radiographic atlas of Kellgren and Lawrence. Joint space width (JSW) was measured at three sites within both the medial and the lateral compartment. For the entire cohort the prevalence of radiological knee joint OA of all grades was 38.7% for men and 44.2% for women. Age stratification documented increasing knee joint OA both in regard to prevalence and morphological severity. Knee pain was universally correlated to the Kellgren and Lawrence severity of OA. In a subgroup with no features of radiological OA, a significant and linear decline in JSW with increasing age was found. We found a clear relationship between self-reported knee pain and radiological osteoarthritis. Pain was proportionally related to the severity of change. We also demonstrated a significant diminishing of joint space width with increasing age in individuals without apparent radiological degeneration. (orig.)

  19. Case definitions of knee osteoarthritis in 4,151 unselected subjects: relevance for epidemiological studies. The Copenhagen osteoarthritis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxafoss, Erling; Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper K.; Sonne-Holm, Stig [Copenhagen University Hospital of Hvidovre (Denmark). Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

    2010-09-15

    The aims of the present study were threefold: to examine the distribution of knee joint osteoarthritis in a large, standardized radiological study; to examine the relationships between self reported knee pain and radiological OA; and to examine the natural history of radio-morphological change over age in individuals without radiological features of OA. The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study - COS is a substudy of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a longitudinal regional health survey. From the third inclusion of the CCHS (1992-1994) 4,151 subjects were selected for subsequent standardized radiography of the pelvis, the knees, the hands, the wrists, and the lumbar spine. Images were analyzed and knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) was classified according to the radiographic atlas of Kellgren and Lawrence. Joint space width (JSW) was measured at three sites within both the medial and the lateral compartment. For the entire cohort the prevalence of radiological knee joint OA of all grades was 38.7% for men and 44.2% for women. Age stratification documented increasing knee joint OA both in regard to prevalence and morphological severity. Knee pain was universally correlated to the Kellgren and Lawrence severity of OA. In a subgroup with no features of radiological OA, a significant and linear decline in JSW with increasing age was found. We found a clear relationship between self-reported knee pain and radiological osteoarthritis. Pain was proportionally related to the severity of change. We also demonstrated a significant diminishing of joint space width with increasing age in individuals without apparent radiological degeneration. (orig.)

  20. An Analysis of Noun Definition in Cantonese

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol Kit Sum; Stokes, Stephanie; Man, Yonnie; T'Sou, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the noun definitions given by Cantonese speakers at different ages. Definitional responses on six concrete nouns from 1075 children aged 4;10 to 12;01 and 15 adults were analyzed with reference to the semantic content and the syntactic form. Results showed that conventional definitions produced by Cantonese adult speakers…

  1. Definition, causes, and consequences of Hamm (idiom of distress in Arabic) in the Palestinian context: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Abeer A; Salah, Razan; Ahmad, Abla Sayyed; Hijleh, Samah Abu; Kattab, Sa'eed Abu; Kurd, Alia Al; Sharif, Rawan Al; Amro, Raed; Khatib, Ahmad; Mousa, Hana'; Shamasnah, Walaa; Shqerat, Khammisa; Giacaman, Rita

    2018-02-21

    Hamm is an Arabic word that is used to express suffering. Idioms of distress are communicated differently in different contexts and cultures. Understanding idioms of distress and symptoms can help in diagnosis and lead to socioculturally sensitive health care. In this qualitative study, we did semi-structured interviews with men and women of all age groups. Questions focused on the definition, causes, and consequences of Hamm. Responses were analysed by reading and re-reading interview transcripts until themes and subthemes emerged. Oral informed consent was obtained from participants. 52 participants contributed to this study (26 women, 26 men; half of whom were aged 18-40 years, and the other half of whom were older than 40 years. Hamm was defined by participants as a feeling of discomfort, sadness, stress, anxiety, and fear of the future. Causes of Hamm included social, economic, and political factors and varied between the sexes: young men (aged 18-40 years) reported family obligations, conflicts, unsolved problems, and failure in studies, whereas young women (aged 18-40 years) reported gossip, social traditional restrictions, isolation, and gender-related problems. People older than 40 years reported fear of family separation, fear for children and their future, or the loss of loved ones. Political causes of Hamm included the Israeli occupation, Israeli checkpoints separating families and creating difficult living conditions, Palestinian authority measures, and the burden of colonialism. Young respondents reported that Hamm results in psychological problems apparent from facial expressions and body language, sleeplessness, miscommunication with others, rudeness and aggression, appetite changes, and mental illnesses. Respondents older than 40 years reported deterioration in psychosocial health, including feelings described as broken spirits, and emphasised the physical consequences of Hamm such as diabetes, heart attack, and hypertension. Hamm is precipitated

  2. Prognosis of patients excluded by the definition of septic shock based on their lactate levels after initial fluid resuscitation: a prospective multi-center observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Byuk Sung; Kim, Kyuseok; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Kang, Gu Hyun; Shin, Tae Gun; Jo, You Hwan; Ryoo, Seung Mok; Beom, Jin Ho; Kwon, Woon Yong; Han, Kap Su; Choi, Han Sung; Chung, Sung Phil; Suh, Gil Joon; Lim, Tae Ho; Kim, Won Young

    2018-02-24

    Septic shock can be defined both by the presence of hyperlactatemia and need of vasopressors. Lactate levels should be measured after volume resuscitation (as per the Sepsis-3 definition). However, currently, no studies have evaluated patients who have been excluded by the new criteria for septic shock. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and prognosis of these patients, based on their lactate levels after initial fluid resuscitation. This observational study was performed using a prospective, multi-center registry of septic shock, with the participation of 10 hospitals in the Korean Shock Society, between October 2015 and February 2017. We compared the 28-day mortality between patients who were excluded from the new definition (defined as lactate level definition of septic shock. These patients, in whom perfusion was restored, demonstrated significantly lower age, platelet count, and initial and subsequent lactate levels (all p < 0.01). Similarly, significantly lower 28-day mortality was observed in these patients than in those who had not been excluded (8.2% vs 25.5%, p = 0.02). In-hospital mortality and the maximum SOFA score were also significantly lower in the excluded patients group (p = 0.03, both). It seems reasonable for septic shock to be defined by the lactate levels after volume resuscitation. However, owing to the small number of patients in whom lactate levels were improved, further study is warranted.

  3. High Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Induces Both Acute and Persistent Changes in Broadband Cortical Synchronization: a Simultaneous tDCS-EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhrajeet; Baxter, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop methods for simultaneously acquiring electrophysiological data during high definition transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) using high resolution electroencephalography (EEG). Previous studies have pointed to the after effects of tDCS on both motor and cognitive performance, and there appears to be potential for using tDCS in a variety of clinical applications. However, little is known about the real-time effects of tDCS on rhythmic cortical activity in humans due to the technical challenges of simultaneously obtaining electrophysiological data during ongoing stimulation. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action of tDCS in humans are not well understood. We have conducted a simultaneous tDCS-EEG study in a group of healthy human subjects. Significant acute and persistent changes in spontaneous neural activity and event related synchronization (ERS) were observed during and after the application of high definition tDCS over the left sensorimotor cortex. Both anodal and cathodal stimulation resulted in acute global changes in broadband cortical activity which were significantly different than the changes observed in response to sham stimulation. For the group of 8 subjects studied, broadband individual changes in spontaneous activity during stimulation were apparent both locally and globally. In addition, we found that high definition tDCS of the left sensorimotor cortex can induce significant ipsilateral and contralateral changes in event related desynchronization (ERD) and ERS during motor imagination following the end of the stimulation period. Overall, our results demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring high resolution EEG during high definition tDCS and provide evidence that tDCS in humans directly modulates rhythmic cortical synchronization during and after its administration. PMID:24956615

  4. Long-term applicability of the new ILAE definition of epilepsy. Results from the PRO-LONG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Simone; Carone, Davide; Zanchi, Clara; Bianchi, Elisa; Pirovano, Marta; Trentini, Claudia; Padovano, Giada; Colombo, Matteo; Cereda, Diletta; Scanziani, Sofia; Giussani, Giorgia; Gasparini, Sara; Bogliun, Graziella; Ferrarese, Carlo; Beghi, Ettore

    2017-09-01

    The new epilepsy definition adopted by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) includes patients with one unprovoked seizure with a probability of further seizures, similar to the general recurrence risk after two unprovoked seizures, occurring in a 10-year period. Long-term follow-up of patients diagnosed after a single seizure is needed to assess the applicability of the new epilepsy definition in clinical practice. Patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy were recruited retrospectively with a minimum follow-up of 10 years. Patients were stratified in two groups depending on the occurrence of one (new definition, ND) or two or more unprovoked seizures (traditional definition, TD) at the time of epilepsy diagnosis and compared for disease characteristics and factors predicting seizure recurrence. The primary outcome was the occurrence of a new unprovoked seizure during follow-up in the ND group. The secondary outcome was the achievement of an early remission in both groups. Among 1,006 patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy, 152 (15.1%) were diagnosed after a single seizure. Compared to patients diagnosed using the TD, patients diagnosed according to the ND showed a higher proportion of subjects with an abnormal neurologic examination (19.9% vs. 13.7%, p = 0.0504) and with focal seizures (69.3% vs. 60.4%, p = 0.0021). The two samples differed in the presence of at least one of the factors predicting seizure recurrence (focal seizures or abnormal findings in at least one among the following: neurologic examination, electroencephalography [EEG], and neuroimaging) (94.6% vs. 89.1%, p = 0.0376). Long-term recurrence in patients diagnosed with the new definition was 83.6% at 10 years and 89.1% at 15 years. The probability of early remission did not differ between the two groups. Our results support the applicability of the new epilepsy definition in clinical practice. Individual patient characteristics and a personalized diagnostic approach can justify

  5. Appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Thulin, Mats

    2009-01-01

    A taxonomic and floristic account of all the additional or new species in Etyhiopia and/or Eritrea that have been discovered while Vols 2 - 7 of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea were being published.......A taxonomic and floristic account of all the additional or new species in Etyhiopia and/or Eritrea that have been discovered while Vols 2 - 7 of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea were being published....

  6. Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NatureScope, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides a glossary and bibliography which includes a listing of the following: general reference books, field guides, children's books, films, filmstrips, slides, videos, coloring books, games, posters, software, activity sources, where to get more information, Ranger Rick Ocean Index, and a metric conversion chart. (RT)

  7. A cost-effectiveness analysis to illustrate the impact of cost definitions on results, interpretations and comparability of pharmacoeconomic studies in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunis, Sandra L

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of a uniform proxy for defining direct medical costs in the US. This potentially important source of variation in modelling and other types of economic studies is often overlooked. The extent to which increased expenditures for an intervention can be offset by reductions in subsequent service costs can be directly related to the choice of cost definitions. To demonstrate how different cost definitions for direct medical costs can impact results and interpretations of a cost-effectiveness analysis. The IMS-CORE Diabetes Model was used to project the lifetime (35-year) cost effectiveness in the US of one pharmacological intervention 'medication A' compared with a second 'medication B' (both unspecified) for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The complications modelled included cardiovascular disease, renal disease, eye disease and neuropathy. The model had a Markov structure with Monte Carlo simulations. Utility values were derived from the published literature. Complication costs were obtained from a retrospective database study that extracted anonymous patient-level data from (primarily private payer) adjudicated medical and pharmaceutical claims. Costs for pharmacy services, outpatient services and inpatient hospitalizations were included. Cost definitions for complications included charged, allowed and paid amounts, and for medications included both wholesale acquisition cost (WAC) and average wholesale price (AWP). Costs were reported in year 2007 values. The cost-effectiveness results differed according to the particular combination of cost definitions employed. The use of charges greatly increased costs for complications. When the analysis incorporated WAC medication prices with charged amounts for complication costs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for medication A versus medication B was $US6337 per QALY. When AWP prices were used with charged amounts, medication A became a dominant treatment strategy, i.e. lower costs with greater

  8. Crohn's disease limited to the vermiform appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Andersen, J C

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen cases of Crohn's disease confined to the vermiform appendix were seen during a 12-year period. They constituted 16.9% of patients with primary resection of the bowel for Crohn's disease in the same period, but only 0.4% of the cases of acute appendicitis. In 10 of the 13 cases there was ......Thirteen cases of Crohn's disease confined to the vermiform appendix were seen during a 12-year period. They constituted 16.9% of patients with primary resection of the bowel for Crohn's disease in the same period, but only 0.4% of the cases of acute appendicitis. In 10 of the 13 cases...... to approach that of recurrence after resection in other parts of the intestines. Collective review of this and three other relatively large case series gave an estimated recurrence rate of 3.5%. We conclude that in Crohn's disease initially confined to the appendix the course appears to be indolent....

  9. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in Central America: a provisional epidemiologic case definition for surveillance and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Matthew; Turcios-Ruiz, Reina Maria; Noonan, Gary; Ordunez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT). According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.

  10. Tacit definitions of informal caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrubel, J; Richards, T A; Folkman, S; Acree, M C

    2001-01-01

    This study describes three tacit definitions of informal caregiving and explores the extent to which differences in these tacit definitions explain variation in caregivers' negative mood over time. There is a growing need to understand the sources of stress and gratification for informal caregivers. Tacit definitions of informal caregiving refer to caregivers' understanding of what caregiving entails. These definitions are tacit because they arise from caregivers' taken-for-granted understanding rather than formally articulated positions concerning caregiving. A random sample of 60 men, all of whom were caregiving partners of men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), was drawn from a larger cohort of 253 participants in the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Coping Project (1990-1997). The caregivers were assessed bimonthly for 2 years with procedures that included a semi-structured interview focusing on a recent stressful event involving caregiving, and quantitative measures of well-being. Interpretive phenomenological case studies of the narrative accounts of the 60 caregivers produced three tacit definitions of caregiving - engagement, conflict and distance. These three tacit definitions were distinguished by differences in learning about caregiving, involvement in health care decisions, caregiving activities and reported sources of stress. The three groups differed on measures of dyadic adjustment, depression, anger and anxiety. Better understanding of caregivers' tacit definitions can facilitate and enhance effective support and interventions for caregivers.

  11. Heat plan Denmark 2010. Appendix report; Varmeplan Danmark 2010. Bilagsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyrelund, A.; Fafner, K.; Ulbjerg, F. (and others)

    2010-09-15

    Heat Plan Denmark 2010 is an update of Heat Plan Denmark 2008 and confirms how the sector has reduced the CO{sub 2} emission in Denmark since 1980 and how this development can continue in a cost effective way to an almost CO{sub 2} neutral heating sector in 2030. The study is based on an overall least cost evaluation of the best existing technology taking into account the interaction between buildings, district heating and the power system with a large share of wind energy. The present appendix report contains the technical and economical documentation for the main report. (ln)

  12. Definition study biotechnological sanitation of former natural gasworks in the Netherlands. Final report; Definitiestudie Biotechnologische sanering voormalige gasfabrieksterreinen. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelman, P.; Groenewolt, A. [IWACO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Heersche, J.A.N.M.; Van der Heide, I.V. [Hanze Milieu, Zwolle (Netherlands); Keuning, S. [Bioclear Milieubiotechnologie, Groningen (Netherlands); Riedstra, D. [BION Overijssel, Almelo (Netherlands)

    1999-06-01

    The objective of the title study was to determine the potential and the position of biotechnological remediation options in the development of former gas works sites. Gas works sites are characterised by a combination of heterogeneous soil and a cocktail of contaminants part of which are difficult to degrade. The bottlenecks for which this definition study seeks to find solutions are the lack of knowledge of the natural attenuation potential and the possibilities for stimulating these processes (remove limitations). Moreover, there is a lack of insight and experience in optimally attuning the development of a location to the remediation scenario. The project started with a literature study and a study of recent investigations conducted elsewhere, focused on the problems of former gas works sites and the possible biotechnological solutions to these problems. Although a lot of research has been conducted into the aerobic degradation of the individual components, little is known about the (anaerobic) degradation of gas works sites cocktails. Supplementary degradation research has been conducted with soil from three gas works sites.Despite the presence of sufficient PAHs, cyanide and oil degrading components, no significant decrease of the concentrations of the components concerned could be observed. Moreover, (chemical) pre-treatment with Fenton's reagent made no difference. Contrary to the treatment of a core contamination, biological in situ remediation options for mobile plume contamination at and around gas works sites are considered to be a promising solution for cost-effective control and/or removal of the contaminants. The second part of the study deals with boundary conditions a competitive development plan poses to the application of biotechnological remediation. Forty gas works sites in the north of the Netherlands have been grouped into a number of clusters on the basis of ecological urgency, social urgency and development potential. Since the

  13. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 505 - Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. D Appendix D to... of the claim; and the agency or program under which the case arose may be disclosed. However, before... carry out its legally authorized Government-wide personnel management functions and studies. (9...

  14. Carcinoid tumour of the appendix: An analysis of 1,485 consecutive emergency appendectomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K-H. in 't Hof (Klaas); H.C. van der Wal; G. Kazemier (Geert); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAim: The aim of this study is to conduct a retrospective analysis of the incidence and long-term results of carcinoid tumours of the appendix in emergency appendectomies. Methods: A retrospective review of 1,485 appendectomies was performed in two centres from January 2000 until January

  15. Evaluation of the anatomical position of the vermiform appendix in Iranian cadavers in 2013: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Meamarian

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Majority of appendices examined in the present study were positioned at the posterior (Retrocecal of pelvis. According to different positions of appendices in different populations and different races, the knowledge of appendix position in various populations is necessary for early diagnosis and treatment and fewer complications for related disease.

  16. Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix : a specific type of carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eeden, S.; Offerhaus, G. J. A.; Hart, A. A. M.; Boerrigter, L.; Nederlof, P. M.; Porter, E.; van Velthuysen, M-L F.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: Goblet cell carcinoid is a poorly understood tumour of the appendix. The aim of this study was to determine whether it should be regarded as a separate entity or as a variant of classical carcinoid. Methods and results: The immunohistochemical expression pattern of 21 markers and the mutation

  17. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 25 - Appendix D to Part 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. D Appendix D to Part 25 Criteria for... any compartment. (7) The degree of automation provided in the aircraft systems to afford (after...

  18. 36 CFR Appendix A to Part 14 - Appendix A to Part 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... obtain the benefits of _____(Cite statute); and I further certify that the right-of-way herein described... RIGHTS-OF-WAY Pt. 14, App. A Appendix A to Part 14 Where necessary, these forms should be modified so as...

  19. Appendix to Power Dissipation in Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    This document is an appendix to the paper: Wei Liu and Alberto Nannarelli, ”Power Dissipation in Division”, Proc. of 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 2008. The purpose of the document is to provide the necessary information for the implementation of the archite......This document is an appendix to the paper: Wei Liu and Alberto Nannarelli, ”Power Dissipation in Division”, Proc. of 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 2008. The purpose of the document is to provide the necessary information for the implementation...

  20. The use of old and recent DSM definitions of premature ejaculation in observational studies: a contribution to the present debate for a new classification of PE in the DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2008-05-01

    The DSM-III definition of premature ejaculation (PE) contains the criterion "control" but not that of "ejaculation time." In contrast, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition, Text Revision) (DSM-IV-TR) contains the criterion "short ejaculation time," while it lacks "control." To review the adequacy and consequent use of all criteria of the DSM-IV-TR definition in previously published PE Internet surveys. Reviewing all published cohort studies on PE from 2004 to 2007. MEDLINE and EMBASE computer bibliographies were used. Definitions of DSM-III, DSM-IV-TR, and International Classification of Diseases. Five papers, of which three are original studies, reported inclusion of men with PE according to DSM-IV-TR definition but omitted to apply the required "short ejaculation time" criterion. These studies, which have defined PE according to subjective criteria such as control, actually referred to the DSM-III definition. Using DSM-III-like definitions in three different studies revealed a highly variable prevalence of PE (32.5%, 27.6%, and 13.0%). In contrast, based on studies using a 1-minute cutoff point, being the time that is required to call ejaculation time "short" or using the criterion "persistent occurrence," PE revealed to be far less prevalent (5-6%). Unacceptable discrepancies of PE definitions according to DSM-III (abandoned but still used) and DSM-IV-TR argue strongly in favor of a multidimensional new classification of PE for the DSM-V.

  1. A comparative study on the uniaxial mechanical properties of the umbilical vein and umbilical artery using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2014-12-01

    The umbilical cord is part of the fetus and generally includes one umbilical vein (UV) and two umbilical arteries (UAs). As the saphenous vein and UV are the most commonly used veins for the coronary artery disease treatment as a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), understating the mechanical properties of UV has a key asset in its performance for CABG. However, there is not only a lack of knowledge on the mechanical properties of UV and UA but there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented to measure their mechanical properties. In this study, the UV and UA samples were removed after caesarean from eight individuals and subjected to a series of tensile testing. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) were employed to determine the linear mechanical properties of UVs and UAs. The nonlinear mechanical behavior of UV/UA was computationally investigated using hyperelastic material models, such as Ogden and Mooney-Rivlin. The results showed that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements of the UV/UA is significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus. In the true stress-strain diagram, the maximum strain of UV was 92 % higher, while the elastic modulus and maximum stress were 162 and 42 % lower than that of UA. The Mooney-Rivlin material model was designated to represent the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the UV and UA under uniaxial loading.

  2. Columbia River final environmental impact statement. Appendix B: Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the air quality issues that were raised in the SOR scoping process and provides an overview of the study process used to evaluate air quality effects from various system operation alternatives. Chapter 2 describes the Federal, state, and local programs that regulate air quality and discusses the air quality standards that are relevant to the analysis. It also gives an overview of the limatology of the region and the existing air quality in the Columbia River Basin, including areas of non-attainment for relevant air quality standards. Chapter 3 presents the methods this study uses for the analysis of air quality and for the evaluation of human health effects from air pollutants. Chapter 4 provides the study results for the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives and potential mitigation measures. Chapter 5 compares impacts on air quality and human health across alternatives, and discusses mitigation measures and cumulative effects. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 contain the list of preparers, glossary, and references, respectively. Technical exhibits supporting the analysis are also included

  3. Optimal gross tumor volume definition in lung-sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy for pleural mesothelioma: an in silico study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticella, Angela; Defraene, Gilles; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Deroose, Christophe M; Coolen, Johan; Nafteux, Philippe; Peeters, Stephanie; Ricardi, Umberto; De Ruysscher, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    The gross tumor volume (GTV) definition for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is ill-defined. We therefore investigated which imaging modality is optimal: computed tomography (CT) with intravenous contrast (IVC), positron emission tomography-CT (PET/CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sixteen consecutive patients with untreated stage I-IV MPM were included. Patients with prior pleurodesis were excluded. CT with IVC, 18FDG-PET/CT and MRI (T2 and contrast-enhanced T1) were obtained. CT was rigidly co-registered with PET/CT and with MRI. Three sets of pleural GTVs were defined: GTV CT , GTV CT+PET/CT and GTV CT+MRI . Quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the contoured GTVs were performed. Compared to CT-based GTV definition, PET/CT identified additional tumor sites (defined as either separate nodules or greater extent of a known tumor) in 12/16 patients. Compared to either CT or PET/CT, MRI identified additional tumor sites in 15/16 patients (p = .7). The mean GTV CT , GTV CT+PET/CT and GTV CT+MRI [±standard deviation (SD)] were 630.1 cm 3 (±302.81), 640.23 cm 3 (±302.83) and 660.8 cm 3 (±290.8), respectively. Differences in mean volumes were not significant. The mean Jaccard Index was significantly lower in MRI-based contours versus all the others. As MRI identified additional pleural disease sites in the majority of patients, it may play a role in optimal target volume definition.

  4. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in Central America: a provisional epidemiologic case definition for surveillance and epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lozier

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT. According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age < 60 years with CKD, without type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypertensive diseases, and other well-known causes of CKD. A probable case of CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.

  5. Follow-On Studies for Design Definition of a Lift/Cruise Fan Technology V/STOL Airplane, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A three engine, three fan V/STOL airplane was designed for use as a Research Technology Airplane in proof-of-concept of a candidate configuration for use as a Navy multimission airplane. Use of mechanically interconnected variable pitch fans is made to accommodate power transfer for flight control in hover and to provide flight capability in the event of a single engine failure. The airplane is a modification of a T-39A transport. Design definition is provided for high risk propulsion components and a development test program is defined.

  6. The environmental survey manual: Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy operating facilities. This appendix contains procedures for chemical analysis of organics, inorganics, and radioisotopes

  7. Primary lymphoma of appendix: Ultrasound finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotillos Parra, V.E.; Belda Serrano, J.; Mota Castilla, A.; Falomir Gil, G.; Abreu Maqueda, V.; Trigueris Sanchez, M.; Hernandez Barcelo, J.E.; Martinez Diaz, F.

    1994-01-01

    We present an uncommon case of primary lymphoma of the appendix in a patient who complained of discomfort in lower right quadrant. The findings revealed by ultrasound, barium enema and CT scan are reported and the diagnostic aspects of this appendiceal tumor and others are discussed. (Author) 6 refs

  8. Energy 21. Preconditions and results. Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This appendix comprises the following 5 scenarios: Reference scenario for electricity and district heating supply; Action plan scenario for electricity and district heat supply; Energy balances for reference and action plan scenarios; Investments and operating costs for user installations; Projection of CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector. (EG)

  9. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendix XI. Analysis of comments on the draft WASH-1400 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning comments on reactor safety by governmental agencies and civilian organizations; reactor safety study methodology; consequence model; probability of accident sequences; and various accident conditions

  10. Topological characteristics of brainstem lesions in clinically definite and clinically probable cases of multiple sclerosis: An MRI-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brainin, M.; Omasits, M.; Reisner, T.; Neuhold, A.; Wicke, L.

    1987-01-01

    Disseminated lesions in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres and confluent lesions at the borders of the lateral ventricles as seen on MRI are both considered acceptable paraclinical evidence for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Similar changes are, however, also found in vascular diseases of the brain. We therefore aimed at identifying those additional traits in the infratentorial region, which in our experience are not frequently found in cerebrovascular pathology. We evaluated MR brain scans of 68 patients and found pontine lesions in 71% of cases with a clinically definite diagnosis (17 out of 24) and in 33% of cases with a probable diagnosis (14 out of 43). Lesions in the medulla oblongata were present in 50% and 16%, respectively, and in the midbrain in 25% and 7%, respectively. With rare exceptions all brainstem lesions were contiguous with the cisternal or ventricular cerebrospinal fluid spaces. In keeping with post-mortem reports the morphological spectrum ranged from large confluent patches to solitary, well delineated paramedian lesions or discrete linings of the cerebrospinal fluid border zones and were most clearly depicted from horizontal and sagittal T2 weighted SE-sequences. If there is a predilection for the outer or inner surfaces of the brainstem, such lesions can be considered an additional typical feature of multiple sclerosis and can be more reliably weighted as paraclinical evidence for a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Proceedings: The Appendix 'K' relief workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The licensing and operation of commercial LWRs were impacted significantly when Appendix 'K' requirements for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) analyses were implemented in 1974. The Appendix K requirements included both criteria and mandatory assumptions for LOCA analysis. Plants must meet these criteria, using analysis methods that have included very conservative assumptions, such as estimating decay heat energy as 20% greater than the 1971 American Nuclear Society standard. Additional constraints were placed on the application of specific models and correlations. The Appendix K requirements had a significant impact on licensing, analysis, fuel design, reload management, plant operation, and some supporting equipment. The overall impact of Appendix K could be translated into increased costs of millions of dollars per year to utilities. The Appendix 'K' Relief Workshop provided an improved understanding of the trade-offs -- both benefits and efforts required -- inherent in continuing to use existing analysis methods or adopting BE analysis under revised NRC rule. A range of options is available to each utility. The workshop explored options and benefits to the utility industry from LOCA/ECCS rule change. A forum for complete and open discussion of the issues germaine to the question of BE methodology versus existing methodology in view of LOCA/ECCS rule changes was incorporated. Both regulatory and utility perspectives on the implementation of proposed changes were discussed. Existing and planned efforts in developing and implementing BE uncertainty methodologies for plant-licensing application have been included. The individual papers have been cataloged separately

  12. Assessment of Severe Extremity Wound Bioburden at the Time of Definitive Wound Closure or Coverage: Correlation With Subsequent Postclosure Deep Wound Infection (Bioburden Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Michael J; Murray, Clinton K; Carlini, Anthony R; Firoozabadi, Reza; Manson, Theodore; Scharfstein, Daniel O; Wenke, Joseph C; Zadnik, Mary; Castillo, Renan C

    2017-04-01

    Infection remains the most common and significant complication after high-energy fractures. The Bioburden Study is a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of wound bacterial bioburden and antibiotic care in severe open lower extremity fractures. The aims of this study are to (1) characterize the contemporary extremity wound "bioburden" at the time of definitive wound closure; (2) determine the concordance between polymerase chain reaction results and hospital microbiology; (3) determine, among those who develop deep infections, the concordance between the pathogens at wound closure and at deep infection; and (4) compare the probability of deep infection between those who did and did not receive an appropriate course of antibiotics based on bioburden at the time of wound closure. To address these aims, sites collected tissue samples from severe lower extremity injuries at the time of wound closure and at first surgery for treatment of a deep infection, nonunion, flap failure, amputation, or other complications (because these surgeries may be due to undetected infection). Otherwise, if no further surgical treatment occurred, participants were followed for 12 months. The study was conducted at 38 US trauma centers and has enrolled 655 participants aged 18-64 years. This is the first large multi-institutional study evaluating the wound bioburden of severe open tibia fractures and correlating this bioburden with the risk of wound complications after definitive soft tissue closure.

  13. Definition of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as an outcome event in clinical trials and observational studies: proposal of a multidisciplinary research group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Vermeulen, Marinus; van Gijn, Jan; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Wijdicks, Eelco F; Muizelaar, J Paul; Mendelow, A David; Juvela, Seppo; Yonas, Howard; Terbrugge, Karel G; Macdonald, R Loch; Diringer, Michael N; Broderick, Joseph P; Dreier, Jens P; Roos, Yvo B W E M

    2010-10-01

    In clinical trials and observational studies there is considerable inconsistency in the use of definitions to describe delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A major cause for this inconsistency is the combining of radiographic evidence of vasospasm with clinical features of cerebral ischemia, although multiple factors may contribute to DCI. The second issue is the variability and overlap of terms used to describe each phenomenon. This makes comparisons among studies difficult. An international ad hoc panel of experts involved in subarachnoid hemorrhage research developed and proposed a definition of DCI to be used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and observational studies. We used a consensus-building approach. It is proposed that in observational studies and clinical trials aiming to investigate strategies to prevent DCI, the 2 main outcome measures should be: (1) cerebral infarction identified on CT or MRI or proven at autopsy, after exclusion of procedure-related infarctions; and (2) functional outcome. Secondary outcome measure should be clinical deterioration caused by DCI, after exclusion of other potential causes of clinical deterioration. Vasospasm on angiography or transcranial Doppler can also be used as an outcome measure to investigate proof of concept but should be interpreted in conjunction with DCI or functional outcome. The proposed measures reflect the most relevant morphological and clinical features of DCI without regard to pathogenesis to be used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and observational studies.

  14. TORSION OF THE VERMIFORM APPENDIX: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Imtiaz Wani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Torsion of the vermiform appendix is a rare condition with few cases reported in the literature. Various factors predispose to torsion. Various factors predispose to torsion. We report a case of primary torsion of the vermiform appendix. The clinical presentation was indistinguishable from acute appendicitis and the diagnosis was made at operation. Appendix was preileal in position and the direction of torsion was anticlockwise. There was intrinsic torsion with no obvious factor for torsion identified. Appendectomy was performed.

  15. Analysis by multiple criteria for the definition of environmental fragility levels – A case study: watershed of Cará-Cará River, Ponta Grossa/PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Miara

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The GIS (Geographical Information Systems, as a tool for theenvironmental analyses of specific modules, makes possiblethe use of different sources of information simultaneously. Inorder to exploit this characteristic, the present research applieda Multi criteria evaluation (MCE, using also the AHP (AnalyticHierarchy Process for the identification of differentiated levelsof environmental fragility from the definition of weights for theconsidered physical variables. The work has used the Cará-Cará River watershed, Ponta Grossa/PR, as its study area.The results have shown a five-class variation of environmentalfragility, which have been correlated witch the reality, givingsupport to a positive evaluation of the methods which wereused.

  16. Pawcatuck River and Narragansett Bay Drainage Basins Water and Related Land Resources Study. Big River Reservoir Project. Volume II. Appendix A-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    actuarial rate are determined and flood plain zoning is enacted. A flood hazard analysis of the Pocasset River in Johnston has been completed by the Soil...RELATED LAND ESOURCES STUDY TPANOWMSON MAIN CNlmlONCOOT CUMV ENA ________ _____ AW B- ANONO o EOF " asmS TAPA MTIONN. COS6 PLATE NO 6-16 " : Ei 2 wm (L ca 0

  17. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) Base Year to First Follow-Up Data File Documentation. Appendixes. NCES 2014-361

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Herget, Deborah R.; Dever, Jill A.; Fritch, Laura Burns; Ottem, Randolph; Rogers, James E.; Kitmitto, Sami; Leinwand, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The manual that accompanies these appendices was produced to familiarize data users with the design, and the procedures followed for data collection and processing, in the base year and first follow-up of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), with emphasis on the first follow-up. It also provides the necessary documentation for use…

  18. Mississippi and Louisiana Estuarine Areas. Freshwater Diversion to Lake Pontchartrain Basin and Mississippi Sound. Feasibility Study. Volume 3. Technical Appendixes, E, F, G, H, I, J, K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Effects on Biota. (a) Primary Production, Photosynthesis . Some phytoplankton would be destroyed by turbidity in areas adjacent to discharge sites...These vegetation surveys would provide meaningful data on long term impacts of the proposed project. Seagrass beds in the study area would be

  19. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering, cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2, Part 2, of a seven volume Satellite Power Systems (SPS) report is presented. Part 2 covers cost and programmatics and is divided into four sections. The first section gives illustrations of the SPS reference satellite and rectenna concept, and an overall scenario for SPS space transportation involvement. The second section presents SPS program plans for the implementation of PHASE C/D activities. These plans describe SPS program schedules and networks, critical items of systems evolution/technology development, and the natural resources analysis. The fourth section presents summary comments on the methods and rationale followed in arriving at the results documented. Suggestions are also provided in those areas where further analysis or evaluation will enhance SPS cost and programmatic definitions.

  20. Efficient biological process characterization by definitive-screening designs: the formaldehyde treatment of a therapeutic protein as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Axel; de Mas, Nuria; Ramsey, Philip; Henderson, Grant

    2013-03-01

    As part of the process-characterization campaign of a candidate vaccine product, a recently developed class of three-level designs-definitive-screening designs-was employed to select a quadratic model that describes the effect of six input process parameters, including protein concentration, formaldehyde-to-protein ratio, lysine concentration, reaction duration, pH, and reaction temperature, on a formylation protein-crosslinking reaction. This design requires only 17 experimental runs. The resulting model was then used to simulate 10,000 runs that account for the variability in the inputs expected on manufacturing scale. The extent of protein polymerization was predicted to be within specifications for all simulated runs, demonstrating the robustness of the unit operation for subsequent process validation and future commercial manufacturing.

  1. Internet gaming disorder treatment: a review of definitions of diagnosis and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2014-10-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a new disorder currently positioned in the appendix of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Few clinical studies report that psychological and pharmacological interventions can significantly reduce the severity of IGD symptomatology. The aim of this review was to assess current knowledge of the short- and long-term benefits of IGD interventions. This review presents a systematic evaluation of definitions of diagnosis and treatment outcomes employed in IGD treatment studies, including an assessment of goodness of fit with the DSM-5 classification. A computer database search of Academic Search Premier, PubMed, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Google Scholar was conducted to identify all available research evidence on Internet gaming disorder treatment (N = 8 studies). Diagnostic and treatment outcome parameters were systematically evaluated. Several weaknesses of IGD treatment literature were identified. Only 2 treatment studies have employed an equivalent method of diagnosis for IGD. Studies have not assessed formative change in diagnostic status at posttreatment or follow-up. Duration of follow-up has been inadequate to assess relapse and remission. Posttreatment assessment has been predominantly limited to IGD symptomatology, comorbidity, and frequency of gaming behavior. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to warrant suggestion that trialled IGD interventions confer a long-term therapeutic benefit. Several improvements to study design and reporting are proposed to guide future studies of IGD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Feasibility Study for an Air Force Environmental Model and Data Exchange. Volume 4. Appendix G. Model Review and Index-Air Multimedia and Other Models, Plus Data Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    8217 ,".: , :.:: .. :.:.> ’,:,’ ;’ . i:i,-- -- ’ ..4.-,._ _ -. ._.. " .. ..-... .-. -. -= _-. Model acronym: SANGRE Model name: Nonlinear Thermal Creep of Geological...release rates, depositon and settling velocities, scaveng- ing rates, and decay constants; arrays of meat animals, dairy cattle , crop areas, and...multihit and one-hit dies- response functions applied to animal response data derived trom lifetime feeding studies. Document citations: Rai, K., and

  3. [Adult patients treated for focal epilepsy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in combination in France: description according to the 2009 ILAE definition of AED resistance (ESPERA study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespignani, H; de Zélicourt, M; Laurendeau, C; Fagnani, F; Levy-Bachelot, L; Murat, C; Kahane, P; de Toffol, B

    2014-02-01

    To describe the adult population treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in combination for focal epilepsy according to the definition of AED resistance proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) in 2009 and to evaluate its implementation in current practice. ESPERA was a multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study with a clinical data collection covering the past 12 months conducted by neurologists. Classifications according to AED responsiveness established by investigators for each enrolled patient were revised by two experts. Seventy-one neurologists enrolled 405 patients. Their mean age was 42.7 years (sex-ratioM/F 0.98). According to the investigators, 60% of epilepsies were drug-resistant, 37% drug-responsive and 3% had an undefined drug-responsiveness. After revision of experts, 71% of epilepsies were classified as drug resistant, 22% as responsive and 7% as undefined. Among the participating neurologists, 76% have made at least one error in classifying their patients according to the 2009 ILAE definition of AED resistance. Because of epilepsy, 24% of patients (age≤65) were inactive and 42% could not drive (respectively 29 and 49% of patients with AED resistant epilepsy). Half of patients had at least one other chronic condition. Number of prescribed drugs in combination and health care resource utilisation were significantly higher in patients with drug-resistant epilepsies than in patients with drug responsive epilepsies. ESPERA study shows that the use of new definition of drug-resistance in everyday practice seems difficult without any additional training and that the social and professional disability is frequent in adults with focal epilepsies treated with polytherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma in triple location: lungs, parametria and appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Raś

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML usually are situated in one organ, most often in lungs. BML patients typically have a history of uterine leiomyoma treated with hysterectomy, myomectomy or subtotal hysterectomy. The aim of the study was to present the case of a 53-year-old woman with triple location in the lungs, parametria and appendix. She had undergone a myomectomy 26 years earlier. In 2015, she was admitted to the surgical department because of abdominal pain, whereupon a cholecystectomy was performed. CT scans showed pelvic mass with pulmonary metastasis. Upon discharge the patient was referred to the Gynecology Clinic, where a laparotomy was performed. The intraoperative findings were: 1 uterus with multiple leiomyomas, 2 four tumors in the parametria, 3 tumor connected to the appendix. A subtotal hysterectomy, with a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, removal of the tumors from the parametria and appendectomy was performed. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis based on morphology and immunohistochemical staining (strongly positive for estrogen receptors and SMA, while Ki67 was very low, below 1%. Upon postoperative recovery, the patient was referred to the Thoracic Surgery Department. During the thoracotomy, multiple nodes, surrounded by lung parenchyma, were revealed. Wedge resection was performed, for localized pulmonary lesions, and sent for pathological examination. The final pathological diagnosis was benign metastasizing leiomyomatosis. In conclusion, the triple location of BML could possibly be a result of a parallel different metastasizing mechanism, although it is impossible to exclude one mechanism, which may be the cause of the metastases in three locations.

  5. Presenting features of Enterobius vermicularis in the vermiform appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodergren, Mikael H; Jethwa, Paras; Wilkinson, Simon; Kerwat, Rajab

    2009-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infestation can present with symptoms resembling acute appendicitis, although current evidence suggests that it does not necessarily cause acute appendicitis. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical presentation of patients with pinworms in the vermiform appendix and to establish features suggestive of this condition. A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing appendicectomy with appendicular pinworms between 1998 and 2003 was undertaken. Patients were compared against 54 controls with confirmed acute suppurative appendicitis from the same time period. Presenting features, vital signs and modified Alvarado scores were obtained from the patients' records. Eighteen out of 1150 patients (1.5%) undergoing appendicectomy were proven to have pinworms (age range 8-37 years, 12 F, 6 M). Two of 18 appendices containing pinworms showed evidence of inflammation. Patients with pinworms had significantly lower white cell counts (WCCs) than the control group (median 8.9 versus 14.7, p=0.045), lower total Alvarado scores (median 5.5 versus 7, p=0.01) and were more likely to have had recurrent episodes of right iliac fossa (RIF) pain and previous hospital admissions (p<0.001). E. vermicularis infestation of the appendix should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with recurrent RIF pain but do not have a significantly raised WCCs, or high Alvarado scores. These patients should be investigated with early fecal sampling and night-time application of cellophane tape, and they may benefit from empirical antiparasitic treatment.

  6. The U.S./Canadian GEO Bilateral Drought Indices and Definitions Study: Implications for the Canadian Drought Monitor and a Global Drought Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwen, T.; Heim, R. R.; Howard, A.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a difficult phenomenon to define; the way in which it is monitored, measured, assessed and even the very definition of drought vary from location to location based on the regional climate and the potential impacts. Drought is not an absolute condition but an evolving state brought on by relatively dry weather, growing more severe over time. There are many factors that define a drought and many more that define its impacts. Many definitions and indices are based solely on meteorological characteristics. Although this approach has merit, it is often necessary to go further to define those meteorological conditions in a way that is relevant to the land and water use in a region. A Drought Indices and Definitions Study was initiated in 2010 as part of a GEO Bilateral effort to examine drought across the U.S. and Canada. The Study's deliverables will include a survey of the drought indices used to monitor drought, and a bibliography of research addressing the nature of drought, across the diverse climates of the continent. With an increasing pressure to utilize drought monitoring as a primary indicator of need for disaster assistance, the reliability of drought indices must be validated and utilized in appropriate in various regions. In 2009, following over five years of participation in the North American Drought Monitor (NA-DM), the National Agroclimate Information Service of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada initiated a project to develop a Canadian Drought Monitor (Can-DM), based on primary principles used in the NA-DM and the US Drought Monitor (US-DM). The process of developing an operational monitoring tool and using drought indices in a vast and environmentally diverse country has been challenging. in Canada, many of the commonly used indices are not appropriate in certain regions or data densities do not allow for proper use. This paper will discuss the experiences that the Can-DM team has had dealing with these challenges, how these experiences

  7. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331,288 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA1c (HbA1c ≥6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG ≥7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ≥11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r=0·98), but was higher by 2-6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in the other 15·6%, the two definitions

  8. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  9. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  10. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design. Appendix B: cost study, high-purity aluminum production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, C.N.; Dawless, R.K.; Whitchurch, J.B.

    1979-09-01

    Cost information is supplied for aluminum with purities of 200, 2000, and 5000 residual resistivity ratio. Two production situations were used for each purity: (1) 1 x 10 6 kg/yr production rate with a 30-yr sustaining market and (2) 1 x 10 6 kg/yr production rate for 2 yrs only. These productions and purities are of interest for manufacturing devices for Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage. The cost study results are presented as a range and include (1) the selling price of the aluminum for each case, (2) the cost of facilities including construction, engineering, and related costs, (3) the cost of money and depreciation (interest/amortization), and (4) the energy costs - the total of power and fuel. The range is affected by possible production variations and other uncertainties. Information is also given on plant location options and the preferred feed to the purification facility

  11. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OU`s). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  13. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3: Appendixes E and F -- Risk assessment information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 5. Appendixes J, K, L, M, and N-other supporting information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 5 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  15. Scarce means with alternative uses: robbins' definition of economics and its extension to the behavioral and neurobiological study of animal decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizgal, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Almost 80 years ago, Lionel Robbins proposed a highly influential definition of the subject matter of economics: the allocation of scarce means that have alternative ends. Robbins confined his definition to human behavior, and he strove to separate economics from the natural sciences in general and from psychology in particular. Nonetheless, I extend his definition to the behavior of non-human animals, rooting my account in psychological processes and their neural underpinnings. Some historical developments are reviewed that render such a view more plausible today than would have been the case in Robbins' time. To illustrate a neuroeconomic perspective on decision making in non-human animals, I discuss research on the rewarding effect of electrical brain stimulation. Central to this discussion is an empirically based, functional/computational model of how the subjective intensity of the electrical reward is computed and combined with subjective costs so as to determine the allocation of time to the pursuit of reward. Some successes achieved by applying the model are discussed, along with limitations, and evidence is presented regarding the roles played by several different neural populations in processes posited by the model. I present a rationale for marshaling convergent experimental methods to ground psychological and computational processes in the activity of identified neural populations, and I discuss the strengths, weaknesses, and complementarity of the individual approaches. I then sketch some recent developments that hold great promise for advancing our understanding of structure-function relationships in neuroscience in general and in the neuroeconomic study of decision making in particular.

  16. Positive predictive value of a case definition for diabetes mellitus using automated administrative health data in children and youth exposed to antipsychotic drugs or control medications: a Tennessee Medicaid study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo William V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed and validated an automated database case definition for diabetes in children and youth to facilitate pharmacoepidemiologic investigations of medications and the risk of diabetes. Methods The present study was part of an in-progress retrospective cohort study of antipsychotics and diabetes in Tennessee Medicaid enrollees aged 6–24 years. Diabetes was identified from diabetes-related medical care encounters: hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and filled prescriptions. The definition required either a primary inpatient diagnosis or at least two other encounters of different types, most commonly an outpatient diagnosis with a prescription. Type 1 diabetes was defined by insulin prescriptions with at most one oral hypoglycemic prescription; other cases were considered type 2 diabetes. The definition was validated for cohort members in the 15 county region geographically proximate to the investigators. Medical records were reviewed and adjudicated for cases that met the automated database definition as well as for a sample of persons with other diabetes-related medical care encounters. Results The study included 64 cases that met the automated database definition. Records were adjudicated for 46 (71.9%, of which 41 (89.1% met clinical criteria for newly diagnosed diabetes. The positive predictive value for type 1 diabetes was 80.0%. For type 2 and unspecified diabetes combined, the positive predictive value was 83.9%. The estimated sensitivity of the definition, based on adjudication for a sample of 30 cases not meeting the automated database definition, was 64.8%. Conclusion These results suggest that the automated database case definition for diabetes may be useful for pharmacoepidemiologic studies of medications and diabetes.

  17. Positive predictive value of a case definition for diabetes mellitus using automated administrative health data in children and youth exposed to antipsychotic drugs or control medications: a Tennessee Medicaid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, William V; Cooper, William O; Stein, C Michael; Olfson, Mark; Mounsey, Jackie; Daugherty, James; Ray, Wayne A

    2012-08-24

    We developed and validated an automated database case definition for diabetes in children and youth to facilitate pharmacoepidemiologic investigations of medications and the risk of diabetes. The present study was part of an in-progress retrospective cohort study of antipsychotics and diabetes in Tennessee Medicaid enrollees aged 6-24 years. Diabetes was identified from diabetes-related medical care encounters: hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and filled prescriptions. The definition required either a primary inpatient diagnosis or at least two other encounters of different types, most commonly an outpatient diagnosis with a prescription. Type 1 diabetes was defined by insulin prescriptions with at most one oral hypoglycemic prescription; other cases were considered type 2 diabetes. The definition was validated for cohort members in the 15 county region geographically proximate to the investigators. Medical records were reviewed and adjudicated for cases that met the automated database definition as well as for a sample of persons with other diabetes-related medical care encounters. The study included 64 cases that met the automated database definition. Records were adjudicated for 46 (71.9%), of which 41 (89.1%) met clinical criteria for newly diagnosed diabetes. The positive predictive value for type 1 diabetes was 80.0%. For type 2 and unspecified diabetes combined, the positive predictive value was 83.9%. The estimated sensitivity of the definition, based on adjudication for a sample of 30 cases not meeting the automated database definition, was 64.8%. These results suggest that the automated database case definition for diabetes may be useful for pharmacoepidemiologic studies of medications and diabetes.

  18. Positive predictive value of a case definition for diabetes mellitus using automated administrative health data in children and youth exposed to antipsychotic drugs or control medications: a Tennessee Medicaid study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background We developed and validated an automated database case definition for diabetes in children and youth to facilitate pharmacoepidemiologic investigations of medications and the risk of diabetes. Methods The present study was part of an in-progress retrospective cohort study of antipsychotics and diabetes in Tennessee Medicaid enrollees aged 6–24 years. Diabetes was identified from diabetes-related medical care encounters: hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and filled prescriptions. The definition required either a primary inpatient diagnosis or at least two other encounters of different types, most commonly an outpatient diagnosis with a prescription. Type 1 diabetes was defined by insulin prescriptions with at most one oral hypoglycemic prescription; other cases were considered type 2 diabetes. The definition was validated for cohort members in the 15 county region geographically proximate to the investigators. Medical records were reviewed and adjudicated for cases that met the automated database definition as well as for a sample of persons with other diabetes-related medical care encounters. Results The study included 64 cases that met the automated database definition. Records were adjudicated for 46 (71.9%), of which 41 (89.1%) met clinical criteria for newly diagnosed diabetes. The positive predictive value for type 1 diabetes was 80.0%. For type 2 and unspecified diabetes combined, the positive predictive value was 83.9%. The estimated sensitivity of the definition, based on adjudication for a sample of 30 cases not meeting the automated database definition, was 64.8%. Conclusion These results suggest that the automated database case definition for diabetes may be useful for pharmacoepidemiologic studies of medications and diabetes. PMID:22920280

  19. Hadoop The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    White, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Hadoop: The Definitive Guide helps you harness the power of your data. Ideal for processing large datasets, the Apache Hadoop framework is an open source implementation of the MapReduce algorithm on which Google built its empire. This comprehensive resource demonstrates how to use Hadoop to build reliable, scalable, distributed systems: programmers will find details for analyzing large datasets, and administrators will learn how to set up and run Hadoop clusters. Complete with case studies that illustrate how Hadoop solves specific problems, this book helps you: Use the Hadoop Distributed

  20. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix L: Soils, geology and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix addresses the study of geology, soils, and groundwater concerns relative to the System Operation Review (SOR). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the study, scope, and process for this resource area. In order, the respective sections of this chapter discuss the relevant issues for the study, and the means by which the SOR team carried out the study

  1. A STUDY OF WAVELET ENTROPY MEASURE DEFINITION AND ITS APPLICATION FOR FAULT FEATURE PICK-UP AND CLASSIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Shannon entropy in time domain is a measure of signal or system uncertainty. When based on spectrum entropy, Shannon entropy can be taken as a measure of signal or system complexity.Therefore, wavelet analysis based on wavelet entropy measure can signify the complexity of non-steady signal or system in both time and frequency domain. In this paper, in order to meet the requirements of post-analysis on abundant wavelet transform result data and the need of information mergence, the basic definition of wavelet entropy measure is proposed, corresponding algorithms of several wavelet entropies, such as wavelet average entropy, wavelet time-frequency entropy, wavelet distance entropy,etc. are put forward, and the physical meanings of these entropies are analyzed as well. The application principle of wavelet entropy measure in ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG) signal analysis, mechanical fault diagnosis, fault detection and classification in power system are analyzed. Finally, take the transmission line fault detection in power system for example, simulations in two different systems, a 10kV automatic blocking and continuous power transmission line and a 500kV Extra High Voltage (EHV) transmission line, are carried out, and the two methods, wavelet entropy and wavelet modulus maxima, are compared, the results show feasibility and application prospect of the six wavelet entropies.

  2. LDR structural experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard A.; Gates, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector that would utilize the Space Station. The objective of the study was to use the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration for focusing on experiment definition activity which would identify the Space Station accommodation requirements and interface constraints. Results of the study defined three Space Station based experiments to demonstrate the technologies needed for an LDR type structure. The basic experiment configurations are the same as the JPL baseline except that the primary mirror truss is 10 meters in diameter instead of 20. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of the optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments and alignment of the optical components occur on the second experiment. The structure will then be moved to the payload pointing system for pointing, optical control and scientific optical measurement for the third experiment.

  3. Carcinoid tumor of the cecal appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazo Mauri, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    The carcinoid tumors of the cecal appendix are the most frequent of all appendicular tumors, with no clinical manifestations in general. The general objective of this paper was to present an interesting case of carcinoid tumor found in a 26 years-old woman, whose clinical picture was diagnosed as subacute appendicitis. She was hospitalized and treated with antibiotics with good recovery and discharged 10 days later. She had no abdominal tumors confirmed clinically and echographically at that time. Three months later, the patient was operated on and underwent cecal appendicectomy. The pathological anatomy analysis yielded argentaffinoma in the distal third of the cecal appendix with mucosal infiltration. She was referred to the oncology service to be followed up. She has been free from any complication with good recovery for 10 years. The annual ultrasound and the CT scan show that there is neither regional adenopathy nor hepatic metastasis

  4. Developing a comprehensive definition of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Julia E; Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Bain, Julie; Straus, Sharon E

    2017-09-02

    Understanding sustainability is one of the significant implementation science challenges. One of the big challenges in researching sustainability is the lack of consistent definitions in the literature. Most implementation studies do not present a definition of sustainability, even when assessing sustainability. The aim of the current study was to systematically develop a comprehensive definition of sustainability based on definitions already used in the literature. We searched for knowledge syntheses of sustainability and abstracted sustainability definitions from the articles identified through any relevant systematic and scoping reviews. The constructs in the abstracted sustainability definitions were mapped to an existing definition. The comprehensive definition of sustainability was revised to include emerging constructs. We identified four knowledge syntheses of sustainability, which identified 209 original articles. Of the 209 articles, 24 (11.5%) included a definition of sustainability. These definitions were mapped to three constructs from an existing definition, and nine new constructs emerged. We reviewed all constructs and created a revised definition: (1) after a defined period of time, (2) a program, clinical intervention, and/or implementation strategies continue to be delivered and/or (3) individual behavior change (i.e., clinician, patient) is maintained; (4) the program and individual behavior change may evolve or adapt while (5) continuing to produce benefits for individuals/systems. All 24 definitions were remapped to the comprehensive definition (percent agreement among three coders was 94%). Of the 24 definitions, 17 described the continued delivery of a program (70.8%), 17 mentioned continued outcomes (70.8%), 13 mentioned time (54.2%), 8 addressed the individual maintenance of a behavior change (33.3%), and 6 described the evolution or adaptation (25.0%). We drew from over 200 studies to identify 24 existing definitions of sustainability

  5. Definition and means of maintaining the criticality detectors and alarms portion of the PFP safety envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W.F.

    1997-05-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the definition and means of maintaining the Safety Envelope (SE) related to the Criticality Alarm System (CAS). This document provides amplification of the Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Operational Safety Requirements (OSR), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010, Rev. 0, 1994, Section 3.1.2, Criticality Detectors and Alarms. This document, with its appendices, provides the following: (1) System functional requirements for determining system operability (Section 3); (2) A list of annotated system block diagrams which indicate the safety envelope boundaries (Appendix C); (3) A list of the Safety Class 1 and 2 Safety Envelope (SC-1/2 SE) equipment for input into the Master Component Index (Appendix B); (4) Functional requirements for individual SC-1/2 SE components, including appropriate setpoints and process parameters (Section 6 and Appendix A); (5) A list of the operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the SC-1/2 SE components as required by the LCO (Section 6 and Appendix A).

  6. Definition and means of maintaining the criticality detectors and alarms portion of the PFP safety envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the definition and means of maintaining the Safety Envelope (SE) related to the Criticality Alarm System (CAS). This document provides amplification of the Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Operational Safety Requirements (OSR), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010, Rev. 0, 1994, Section 3.1.2, Criticality Detectors and Alarms. This document, with its appendices, provides the following: (1) System functional requirements for determining system operability (Section 3); (2) A list of annotated system block diagrams which indicate the safety envelope boundaries (Appendix C); (3) A list of the Safety Class 1 and 2 Safety Envelope (SC-1/2 SE) equipment for input into the Master Component Index (Appendix B); (4) Functional requirements for individual SC-1/2 SE components, including appropriate setpoints and process parameters (Section 6 and Appendix A); (5) A list of the operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the SC-1/2 SE components as required by the LCO (Section 6 and Appendix A)

  7. Methanol plant ship: Appendix. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The document is an appendix to the final report on a proposed methanol plant ship off of the coast of Trinidad. The document incorporates the results of the redetermination of capital required to implement the project. It also presents a revised cost analysis, with better accuracy, for the project. The projected operating revenues and revised expenses are also given. As a continuation of the information presented in the final report, the methanol market and proposed products are discussed in the report

  8. Appendix B - GPRA06 biomass program documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    This appendix discusses the assumptions and methods employed in the biomass benefits analysis that is part of the fiscal year 2006 GPRA benefits analysis for all of the Department of Energy’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) research and deployment programs. The biomass benefits analysis focuses on the benefits of future achievements by the program and excludes retrospective benefits and benefits resulting from industry’s own initiative and funding.

  9. A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study of Undergraduate Health Care Professional Students’ Knowledge, Definitions, Education, and Training Experience of Domestic Violence in Northern Ireland and Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Mansour Al-Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-cultural differences in the knowledge, definitions, and current training and educational experiences of domestic violence (DV among third-year undergraduate nursing, dental, and medical students from two distinct universities in Northern Ireland and Jordan. A convenience sample of 774 undergraduate students was recruited. Analysis was based on gender, culture, and educational speciality, as seen through the integrated lens of a social ecological and feminist theory model. The results showed that a substantial percentage of all participants had never received any education or training on DV in their undergraduate programs. The majority of participants had good knowledge about DV, and half of the participants believed that DV is “common” in their respective countries. Significant gender and cultural differences in the definition of DV were also revealed, with Northern Irish students and female students in both cultures more likely to regard a range of behaviors as a form of DV. The research findings suggest several potential directions for change, emphasizing the importance of establishing a systematic evidence-based multidisciplinary and interagency approach to teaching and learning for student health care professionals on the topic of DV in their undergraduate programs.

  10. Preliminary study on the energy coefficients of buildings; Vorstudie zur Erhebung von Energiekennzahlen von Wohnbauten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R.; Bade, S. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Baumgartner, A.; Bleisch, M. [Amstein und Walthert, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-11-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study concerning the definition of a method for the cost-effective and reliable collection of data and the calculation of energy coefficients for residential buildings in Switzerland. On the basis of data already collected, typical coefficients for various types of building are proposed. Also, reasons for considerable differences between the data of various Swiss Cantons are investigated. Requirements and criteria for the judgement of the energy coefficients are discussed and the methods used by various Swiss cities and Cantons are reviewed. A comprehensive appendix completes the report.

  11. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG). Volume 4, appendix C: Identification from utility visits of present and future approaches to integration of DSG into distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Visits to four utilities concerned with the use of DSG power sources on their distribution networks yielded useful impressions of present and future approaches to the integration of DSGs into electrical distribution network. Different approaches to future utility systems with DSG are beginning to take shape. The new DSG sources will be in decentralized locations with some measure of centralized control. The utilities have yet to establish firmly the communication and control means or their organization. For the present, the means for integrating the DSGs and their associated monitoring and control equipment into a unified system have not been decided.

  12. 32 CFR Appendix to Part 395 - Delegations of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegations of Authority Appendix to Part 395...) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE LEGAL SERVICES AGENCY Pt. 395, App. Appendix to Part 395—Delegations of Authority... terminate the service, of an employee in the interest of national security. 2. Authorize and approve...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 360 - Customer File Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customer File Structure F Appendix F to Part... POLICY RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. F Appendix F to Part 360—Customer File Structure This is the structure of the data file to provide to the FDIC information related to each customer who...

  14. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 311 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 311 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 311, App. A Appendix A to Part...,” in accordance with its instructions. (3) The undersigned shall require that the language of this...

  15. 36 CFR Appendix D to Part 1191 - Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical D Appendix D to Part 1191 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE...; ARCHITECTURAL BARRIERS ACT (ABA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES Pt. 1191, App. D Appendix D to Part 1191—Technical...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 563e - Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ratings A Appendix A to Part 563e Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Pt. 563e, App. A Appendix A to Part 563e—Ratings (a) Ratings in general. (1) In assigning a rating, the OTS evaluates a...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 716 - SAMPLE CLAUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-dealers, and insurance agents”]; • Non-financial companies, such as [provide illustrative examples, such... CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Pt. 716, App. B Appendix B to Part 716—SAMPLE CLAUSES This appendix only... disclose nonpublic personal information about you to the following types of third parties: • Financial...

  18. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 160 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as [provide illustrative examples, such as “mortgage bankers”]; • Non-financial companies, such as... FINANCIAL INFORMATION Pt. 160, App. B Appendix B to Part 160—Sample Clauses This appendix only applies to privacy notices provided before January 1, 2011. Financial institutions, including a group of financial...

  19. Exposition concerning small windmills. Appendix to main report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This appendix to the main report entitled ''Exposition Concerning Small Windmills'' includes background information on the report, profiles of the participating companies and of those visited in Denmark and abroad, questionnaires and interview schemes sent to the participating companies, surveys of producers of Danish and foreign producers of small windmills and an appendix to the economical calculations found within the report. (AB)

  20. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 341 - Tables of Redemption Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables of Redemption Values Appendix... RETIREMENT PLAN BONDS Pt. 341, App. Appendix to Part 341—Tables of Redemption Values Table of Redemption Values Providing an Investment Yield of 33/4 Percent per Annum for Bonds Bearing Issue Dates Beginning...

  1. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Room Air Conditioners E Appendix E to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix E to Part 305—Room Air Conditioners Range Information Manufacturer's rated cooling capacity in Btu...

  2. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 41 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] D Appendix D to Part 41 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Appendix D to Part 41[Reserved] ...

  3. 12 CFR Appendixes A-B to Part 41 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] A Appendixes A-B to Part 41 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Appendixes A-B to Part 41 [Reserved] ...

  4. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 210 - Adjudication and Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjudication and Enforcement A Appendix A to Part 210 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Pt. 210, App. A Appendix A to Part 210—Adjudication and...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 222 - Alternative Safety Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 222, App. B Appendix B to Part 222—Alternative Safety Measures Introduction A public authority seeking... requirements associated with an SSM as listed in appendix A is revised or deleted, data or analysis supporting...); d. Photographic or video equipment deployed to capture images sufficient to document the violation...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 360 - Deposit File Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... • STATE = State government. • COMM = Commercial. • CORP = Corporate. • BANK = Bank Owned. • DUE TO = Other... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deposit File Structure C Appendix C to Part 360... RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. C Appendix C to Part 360—Deposit File Structure This is the...

  7. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix ER27DE05.000...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 45 - DD Form 215

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 215 C Appendix C to Part 45 National... CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. C Appendix C to Part 45—DD Form 215 EC21OC91.050 ...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 536 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part 536 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 536, App. A Appendix A to Part 536—Consumer Grievance Process Any consumer who...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 343 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 343, App. A Appendix A to Part 343—Consumer... Consumer Protection (DSC), Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, at the following address: 550 17th Street... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 14 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part 14 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 14, App. A Appendix A to Part 14—Consumer Grievance Process Any consumer who...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 345 - CRA Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CRA Notice B Appendix B to Part 345 Banks and... REINVESTMENT Pt. 345, App. B Appendix B to Part 345—CRA Notice (a) Notice for main offices and, if an... Community Reinvestment Act (CRA), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) evaluates our record of...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 228 - CRA Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CRA Notice B Appendix B to Part 228 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Pt. 228, App. B Appendix B to Part 228—CRA Notice (a) Notice for main offices and... Federal Community Reinvestment Act (CRA), the Federal Reserve Board (Board) evaluates our record of...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 25 - CRA Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CRA Notice B Appendix B to Part 25 Banks and... DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Pt. 25, App. B Appendix B to Part 25—CRA Notice (a) Notice for main offices... the Federal Community Reinvestment Act (CRA), the Comptroller of the Currency evaluates our record of...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 411 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 411 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 411, App. A Appendix A to Part 411—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts...

  16. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 132 - Model Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Notice A Appendix A to Part 132 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance PROHIBITION ON FUNDING OF UNLAWFUL INTERNET GAMBLING Pt. 132, App. A Appendix A to Part 132—Model Notice [Date] [Name of foreign sender or...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 233 - Model Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FUNDING OF UNLAWFUL INTERNET GAMBLING (REGULATION GG) Part 233, App. A Appendix A to Part 233—Model Notice... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model Notice A Appendix A to Part 233 Banks and... that your institution processed payments through our facilities for Internet gambling transactions...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 37 - FTA Regional Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FTA Regional Offices B Appendix B to Part 37 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Pt. 37, App. B Appendix B to Part 37—FTA Regional Offices Region I, Federal Transit...

  19. 31 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples A Appendix A to Subpart C of... A to Subpart C of Part 29—Examples This appendix contains sample calculations of Federal Benefit Payments in a variety of situations. Optional Retirement Examples Example 1: No Unused Sick Leave A. In...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 825-Index - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] A Appendix A to Part 825-Index Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Appendix A to Part 825—Index [Reserved] ...

  1. 29 CFR Appendix F to Part 825 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] F Appendix F to Part 825 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Appendix F to Part 825 [Reserved] ...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 599 - CARS Purchaser Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARS Purchaser Survey D Appendix D to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. D Appendix D to Part 599—CARS Purchaser Survey ER29JY09.008 ...

  3. Pathways for School Finance in California. Technical Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This is a technical appendix for the report, "Pathways for School Finance in California" (ED515651). "Pathways for School Finance in California" simulates alternatives to California's current school finance system. This appendix provides more information about the revenues used in those simulations. The first section describes…

  4. Torsion of the vermiform appendix: A case report | Wani | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Torsion of the vermiform appendix is a rare condition with few cases reported in the literature. Various factors predispose to torsion. Various factors predispose to torsion. We report a case of primary torsion of the vermiform appendix. The clinical presentation was indistinguishable from acute appendicitis and the diagnosis ...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 600 - Audit Report Distributees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit Report Distributees B Appendix B to Part 600 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Pt. 600, App. B Appendix B to Part 600—Audit Report Distributees Distributee: Manager, Eastern Region, Office of Inspector...

  6. Significance of acquired diverticular disease of the vermiform appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, Klaus; Hjorth, Sofie Vetli; Engel, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of acquired diverticulum of the appendix (DA), including incipient forms and its possible significance as a marker of local/regional neoplasms.......To assess the prevalence of acquired diverticulum of the appendix (DA), including incipient forms and its possible significance as a marker of local/regional neoplasms....

  7. 25 CFR Appendix B to Part 276 - Financial Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial Reporting Requirements B Appendix B to Part 276...—Financial Reporting Requirements A. Purpose and scope. This appendix prescribes requirements for grantee to report financial information to the Bureau and to request advances and reimbursement when a letter-of...

  8. 43 CFR Appendix A to Part 10 - Sample Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sample Summary A Appendix A to Part 10... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Pt. 10, App. A Appendix A to Part 10—Sample Summary The following is a generic sample and should be used as a guideline for preparation of summaries tailoring the information to the...

  9. Application of the verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES) on a pediatric data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatne, Torun M; Finset, Arnstein; Ørnes, Knut; Ruland, Cornelia M

    2010-09-01

    Adult patients present concerns as defined in the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES), but we do not know how children express their concerns during medical consultations. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of VR-CoDES to pediatric oncology consultations. Twenty-eight pediatric consultations were coded with the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES), and the material was also qualitatively analyzed for descriptive purposes. Five consultations were randomly selected for reliability testing and descriptive statistics were computed. Perfect inter-rater reliability for concerns and moderate reliability for cues were obtained. Cues and/or concerns were present in over half of the consultations. Cues were more frequent than concerns, with the majority of cues being verbal hints to hidden concerns or non-verbal cues. Intensity of expressions, limitations in vocabulary, commonality of statements, and complexity of the setting complicated the use of VR-CoDES. Child-specific cues; use of the imperative, cues about past experiences, and use of onomatopoeia were observed. Children with cancer express concerns during medical consultations. VR-CoDES is a reliable tool for coding concerns in pediatric data sets. For future applications in pediatric settings an appendix should be developed to incorporate the child-specific traits. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. LDR structural experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    A system study to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector on the Space Station was accomplished by the Boeing Aerospace Company for NASA's Langley Research Center. The objective of the study was to use a Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration as the basis for focusing an experiment definition, so that the resulting accommodation requirements and interface constraints could be used as part of the mission requirements data base for Space Station. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of an optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments, and alignment of the optical components, would occur on a second experiment. The structure would then be moved to the payload point system for pointing, optical control, and scientific optical measurement for a third experiment. Experiment 1 will deploy the primary support truss while it is attached to the instrument module structure. The ability to adjust the mirror attachment points and to attach several dummy primary mirror segments with a robotic system will also be demonstrated. Experiment 2 will be achieved by adding new components and equipment to experiment one. Experiment 3 will demonstrate advanced control strategies, active adjustment of the primary mirror alignment, and technologies associated with optical sensing.

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials In total, 744...... patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during...... at 6 months and then declined slightly at 3 and 4 years. The overall symptom experience was elevated at baseline and decreased to a level within the range of that of the reference population. Similarly, tumor-related symptoms (eg, pain, appetite loss, and constipation), which were present before...

  12. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryb, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  13. ITER concept definition. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Volume II of the two volumes describing the concept definition of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor deals with the ITER concept in technical depth, and covers all areas of design of the ITER tokamak. Included are an assessment of the current database for design, scoping studies, rationale for concepts selection, performance flexibility, the ITER concept, the operations and experimental/testing program, ITER parameters and design phase schedule, and research and development specific to ITER. This latter includes a definition of specific research and development tasks, a division of tasks among members, specific milestones, required results, and schedules. Figs and tabs

  14. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment Pt. 18, Subpt. D, App. II Appendix II to Subpart D of...

  15. Is the secure base phenomenon evident here, there, and anywhere? A cross-cultural study of child behavior and experts' definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, German; Lu, Ting; Trumbell, Jill; Kaloustian, Garene; Trudel, Marcel; Plata, Sandra J; Peña, Paola P; Perez, Jennifer; Tereno, Susana; Dugravier, Romain; Coppola, Gabrielle; Constantini, Alessandro; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Nóblega, Magaly; Haya, Ines M; Pedraglio, Claudia; Verissimo, Manuela; Santos, Antonio J; Monteiro, Ligia; Lay, Keng-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary rationale offered by Bowlby implies that secure base relationships are common in child-caregiver dyads and thus, child secure behavior observable across diverse social contexts and cultures. This study offers a test of the universality hypothesis. Trained observers in nine countries used the Attachment Q-set to describe the organization of children's behavior in naturalistic settings. Children (N = 547) were 10-72 months old. Child development experts (N = 81) from all countries provided definitions of optimal child secure base use. Findings indicate that children from all countries use their mother as a secure base. Children's organization of secure base behavior was modestly related to each other both within and across countries. Experts' descriptions of the optimally attached child were highly similar across cultures. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Impact of chemotherapy and definitive radiotherapy for laryngeal preservation. A comparative study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy and induction chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, Yukihiro; Kou, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    During the past 23 years, from June 1989 to December 2012, our treatment paradigm for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) had involved comprehensive use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy followed by surgery. Between 1989 and 2005, chemotherapy using fluorouracil and carboplatin had been administered via intravenous drip infusion as induction chemotherapy (ICT), and more recently between 2006 and 2012 as concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). In the present study, we examined the superiority of definitive CCRT (dCCRT) over the ICT followed by definitive radiotherapy (ICT-dRT) as to the impact on the treatment of HNSCC with the stage-categories of T2-T4a, retrospectively analyzing survival rates and laryngeal preservation rates at the 3-year point between the two groups. The number of patients assigned for this study was 76, all of whom were previously untreated, and of whom 51 suffered from laryngeal carcinoma and 25 from hypopharyngeal carcinoma: 21 with Stage II, 25 with Stage III, 23 with Stage IV A, 7 with Stage IV C. The three-year overall survival rate and cause-specific survival rate were 54.5%, 73.5% in the ICT-dRT group and 69.2%, 80.5% in the dCCRT group, respectively, both of which statistically had no difference. But the dCCRT was found to contribute to obtaining a higher rate of laryngeal preservation than that of the ICT-dRT in T2 and T3 but not in T4a. In conclusion, dCCRT showed more significant efficacy for organ preservation on T2 and T3 HNSCC than ICT-dRT. (author)

  17. 3D visualization reduces operating time when compared to high-definition 2D in laparoscopic liver resection: a case-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, Vimalraj; Fuks, David; Nomi, Takeo; Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Gayet, Brice

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of three-dimensional (3D) visualization on operative performance during elective laparoscopic liver resection (LLR). Major limitations of conventional laparoscopy are lack of depth perception and tactile feedback. Introduction of robotic technology, which employs 3D imaging, has removed only one of these technical obstacles. Despite the significant advantages claimed, 3D systems have not been widely accepted. In this single institutional study, 20 patients undergoing LLR by high-definition 3D laparoscope between April 2014 and August 2014 were matched to a retrospective control group of patients who underwent LLR by two-dimensional (2D) laparoscope. The number of patients who underwent major liver resection was 5 (25%) in the 3D group and 10 (25%) in the 2D group. There was no significant difference in contralateral wedge resection or combined resections between the 3D and 2D groups. There was no difference in the proportion of patients undergoing previous abdominal surgery (70 vs. 77%, p = 0.523) or previous hepatectomy (20 vs. 27.5%, p = 0.75). The operative time was significantly shorter in the 3D group when compared to 2D (225 ± 109 vs. 284 ± 71 min, p = 0.03). There was no significant difference in blood loss in the 3D group when compared to 2D group (204 ± 226 in 3D vs. 252 ± 349 ml in 2D group, p = 0.291). The major complication rates were similar, 5% (1/20) and 7.5% (3/40), respectively, (p ≥ 0.99). 3D visualization may reduce the operating time compared to high-definition 2D. Further large studies, preferably prospective randomized control trials are required to confirm this.

  18. Digest of Education Statistics, 2011. NCES 2012-001 [Appendix A: Guide to Sources; Appendix B: Definitions; Appendix C: Index of Table Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Thomas D.; Dillow, Sally A.

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 47th in a series of publications initiated in 1962. The "Digest" has been issued annually except for combined editions for the years 1977-78, 1983-84, and 1985-86. Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field…

  19. Digest of Education Statistics, 2012. NCES 2014-015 [Appendix A: Guide to Sources; Appendix B: Definitions; Appendix C: Index of Table Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Thomas D.; Dillow, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 48th in a series of publications initiated in 1962. The "Digest" has been issued annually except for combined editions for the years 1977-78, 1983-84, and 1985-86. Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field…

  20. Cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Erich

    1987-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.

  1. Pitch and timbre : definition, meaning and use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, A.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Pitch and timbre are terms frequently used in studies on sound perception. Despite the existence of formal definitions, these terms are often used ambiguously in the literature. This paper is intended as a review of the ANSI definitions and their shortcomings, of modern ways to define the concepts

  2. On the definition of learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , and disciplinary approaches. This book is a first publication in the ‘On the definition of learning’ network. The network arose out of the aspiration to study the phenomenon of learning in depth and to understand its complex relationship to empirical investigation and teaching. Based on the assumption...

  3. 34 CFR 656.7 - What definitions apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES General § 656.7 What definitions apply? The following definitions apply... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply? 656.7 Section 656.7 Education...

  4. AMPS Supporting Research and Technology (SR and T) report. Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A listing of candidate technology areas that require additional study is presented. These candidate tasks, identified during the AMPS Phase B studies, are requisites to the design, development, and operation of the AMPS concept selected for preliminary design.

  5. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1995 site environmental report: Volume 2, Data appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory presents Volume II, Data Appendix as a reference document to supplement the 1995 Site Environmental Report. Volume II contains the raw environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate many of the summary results included in the main report. Supplemental data is provided for sitewide activities involving the media of stack and ambient air quality, rainwater, surface water, stormwater, wastewater, and soil and sediment. Volume II also contains supplemental data on the special preoperational monitoring study for the new Hazardous Waste Handling Facility. The Table of Contents provides a cross-reference to the data tables of the main report and this appendix. Data are given in System International (SI) units

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix P: Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements (CEAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The purpose of this technical appendix is to provide the environmental review necessary to enter into agreements regarding the distribution between Federal and non-Federal project owners with respect to delivery of the Canadian Entitlement obligation to Canada for the period 1998 through 2024

  7. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix E: Flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Corps of Engineers, Bonneville Power Administration, and Bureau of Reclamation conducted a scoping process consisting of a series of regionwide public meetings and solicitation of written comments in the summer of 1990. Comments on flood control issues were received from all parts of the Columbia river basin. This appendix includes issues raised in the public scoping process, as well as those brought for consideration by members of the Flood Control Work Group

  8. Analysis of internal events for the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta B, A.; Lopez M, R.

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the accident sequences analysis for those internally initiated events for Laguna Verde Unit 1, Nuclear Power Plant. The appendix A presents the comments raised by the Sandia National Laboratories technical staff as a result of the review of the Internal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. This review was performed during a joint Sandia/CNSNS multi-day meeting by the end 1992. Also included is a brief evaluation on the applicability of these comments to the present study. The appendix B presents the fault tree models printed for each of the systems included and.analyzed in the Internal Event Analysis for LVNPP. The appendice C presents the outputs of the TEMAC code, used for the cuantification of the dominant accident sequences as well as for the final core damage evaluation. (Author)

  9. Nuclear physics: appendix to the Daresbury annual report 1990/91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This nuclear physics chapter of the Annual Report of the Daresbury Laboratory of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council describes the work of the Nuclear Structure Facility. In the limited space available it necessarily provides only a broad outline of the facility, its development and a flavour of the research in a selection of a few highlighted topics. This appendix complements the first volume of the Report reproducing users' short camera ready scientific reports. These describe the progress and results of each experimental proposal. Reports are grouped in five sections: research into nuclear structure with contributions ordered in increasing Z number of the nuclei studies; investigations of nuclear reaction mechanisms; nuclear theory; atomic physics; and accelerator operations, developments and instrumentation. The appendix forms a compact record of the work of the Nuclear Structure Facility for the year 1990/91. (author)

  10. Analysis of internal events for the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta B, A.; Lopez M, R.

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the accident sequences analysis for those internally initiated events for Laguna Verde Unit 1, Nuclear Power Plant. The appendix A presents the comments raised by the Sandia National Laboratories technical staff as a result of the review of the Internal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. This review was performed during a joint Sandia/CNSNS multi-day meeting by the end 1992. Also included is a brief evaluation on the applicability of these comments to the present study. The appendix B presents the fault tree models printed for each of the systems included and analyzed in the Internal Event Analysis for LVNPP. The appendice C presents the outputs of the TEMAC code, used for the cuantification of the dominant accident sequences as well as for the final core damage evaluation. (Author)

  11. Consciousness: function and definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeyer, E

    1994-07-01

    The term "consciousness" plays an enormous role in the clinical assessment of patients and also in psychophysiological considerations. It has often been said that consciousness is a term that defies definition. This lack of definability, however, might be more apparent than real. In the multitude of facets, three main components can be singled out: a) vigilance, b) mental contents and c) selective attention. Vigilance, not to be equated with consciousness, is most amenable to electrophysiological studies. The stages of sleep have fairly well standardized EEG correlates, unlike the comatose states. The overflowing wealth of mental contents is constantly adjusted to momentary needs by the mechanism of selective attention. Awareness is a subcomponent and differs from both vigilance and consciousness. Emotionality is particularly important among the variety of further subcomponents. The time factor must be taken into account in order to understand the dynamics and fluctuations of consciousness.

  12. [Perforation of the appendix and observation of Enterobius vermicularis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou-Jensen, Katrine; Antipina, Elena Nikolaevna; Brisling, Steffen Kirstein; Azawi, Nessn

    2014-12-15

    A nine-year-old girl was admitted to the paediatric ward due to fever and lower abdomen pain through a day. Acute laparoscopic exploration showed a large necrotic perforation at the distal end of the appendix. During the appendectomy multiple small, live Enterobius vermicularis (pinworms) were observed. The patient was admitted for three days of observation and received relevant treatment with intravenous antibiotics and antihelminthic treatment. The histology showed numerous pinworms in the lumen of the appendix and invasion of the pinworms of the submucosal layer and the wall of the appendix.

  13. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...

  14. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  15. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas

  16. Functional definition of the N450 event-related brain potential marker of conflict processing: a numerical stroop study

    OpenAIRE

    Szűcs, Denes; Soltész, F

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several conflict processing studies aimed to dissociate neuroimaging phenomena related to stimulus and response conflict processing. However, previous studies typically did not include a paradigm-independent measure of either stimulus or response conflict. Here we have combined electro-myography (EMG) with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in order to determine whether a particularly robust marker of conflict processing, the N450 ERP effect usually related to the activity of t...

  17. Sexting and the Definition Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrense-Dias, Yara; Berchtold, André; Surís, Joan-Carles; Akre, Christina

    2017-11-01

    Sexting among youths has become a necessary topic of interest in research because of the negative consequences that this activity could create, especially when content is shared with others. Indeed, this loss of control could lead to humiliation, (cyber)bullying, or harassment. The development of new technologies, press coverage, and increase of prevalence rates could also explain the growth of interest in sexting. However, its definition is still a gray area. This review examines the different definitions of sexting used in the literature and its correlates. Several elements of the definition of sexting were assessed: actions (sending, receiving, and forwarding); media types (text, images, and videos); sexual characteristics; and transmission modes. Nine databases were searched for studies on sexting among youths up to 18 years of age. Eighteen studies published between 2012 and 2015 were included. Prevalence rates of sexting ranged between .9% and 60% partly depending on the definition. Most studies assessed sending, but when sending and receiving were measured, prevalence rates were higher for receiving. Some articles found associations with age, gender, race, sexual behavior, romantic relationships, risky behaviors, online activity, psychological difficulties, and social pressure. Finding a consensus regarding the definition is essential to assess accurately the activity and adapt prevention. Adolescents' interpretations of the activity are important as sexting could be used as a sexual behavior between two consenting persons. Prevention strategies should focus on sexting that goes wrong when it is forwarded to a third party and when it occurs in a context of pressure or harassment. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effects of Compensatory Auditory Stimulation and High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) on Tinnitus Perception - A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henin, Simon; Fein, Dovid; Smouha, Eric; Parra, Lucas C

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus correlates with elevated hearing thresholds and reduced cochlear compression. We hypothesized that reduced peripheral input leads to elevated neuronal gain resulting in the perception of a phantom sound. The purpose of this pilot study was to test whether compensating for this peripheral deficit could reduce the tinnitus percept acutely using customized auditory stimulation. To further enhance the effects of auditory stimulation, this intervention was paired with high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS). A randomized sham-controlled, single blind study was conducted in a clinical setting on adult participants with chronic tinnitus (n = 14). Compensatory auditory stimulation (CAS) and HD-tDCS were administered either individually or in combination in order to access the effects of both interventions on tinnitus perception. CAS consisted of sound exposure typical to daily living (20-minute sound-track of a TV show), which was adapted with compressive gain to compensate for deficits in each subject's individual audiograms. Minimum masking levels and the visual analog scale were used to assess the strength of the tinnitus percept immediately before and after the treatment intervention. CAS reduced minimum masking levels, and visual analog scale trended towards improvement. Effects of HD-tDCS could not be resolved with the current sample size. The results of this pilot study suggest that providing tailored auditory stimulation with frequency-specific gain and compression may alleviate tinnitus in a clinical population. Further experimentation with longer interventions is warranted in order to optimize effect sizes.

  19. Mark III LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definition. Generic technical activity B-10. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, M.B.; Kudrick, J.A.

    1984-08-01

    This report, prepared by the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and its consultants at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides a discussion of LOCA-related suppression pool hydrodynamic loads in boiling water reactor (BWR) facilities with the Mark III pressure-suppression containment design. Its issuance completes NRC Generic Technical Activity B-10, Behavior of BWR Mark III Containment. On the basis of certain large-scale tests conducted between 1973 and 1979, the General Electric Company developed LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definitions for use in the design of the standard Mark III containment. The staff and its consultants have reviewed these load definitions and their bases and conclude that, with a few specified changes, the proposed load definitions provide conservative loading conditions. The staff approved acceptance criteria for LOCA-related hydrodynamic loads are provided in an appendix

  20. Mark III LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definition. Generic technical activity B-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This report, prepared by the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and its consultants at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides a discussion of LOCA-related suppression pool hydrodynamic loads in boiling water reactor (BWR) facilities with the Mark III pressure-suppression containment design. Its issuance completes NRC Generic Technical Activity B-10, Behavior of BWR Mark III Containment. On the basis of certain large-scale tests conducted between 1973 and 1979, the General Electric Company developed LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definitions for use in the design of the standard Mark III containment. The staff and its consultants have reviewed these load definitions and their bases conclude that, with a few specified changes, the proposed load definitions provide conservative loading conditions. The staff-approved acceptance criteria for LOCA-related hydrodynamic loads are provided in Appendix C of this report

  1. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  2. Amyand's hernia-a vermiform appendix presenting in an inguinal hernia: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlidis Theodoros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A vermiform appendix in an inguinal hernia, inflamed or not, is known as Amyand's hernia. Here we present a case series of four men with Amyand's hernia. Case presentations We retrospectively studied 963 Caucasian patients with inguinal hernia who were admitted to our surgical department over a 12-year period. Four patients presented with Amyand's hernia (0.4%. A 32-year-old Caucasian man had an inflamed vermiform appendix in his hernial sac (acute appendicitis, presenting as an incarcerated right groin hernia, and underwent simultaneous appendectomy and Bassini suture hernia repair. Two patients, Caucasian men aged 36 and 43 years old, had normal appendices in their sacs, which clinically appeared as non-incarcerated right groin hernias. Both underwent a plug-mesh hernia repair without appendectomy. The fourth patient, a 25-year-old Caucasian man with a large but not inflamed appendix in his sac, had a plug-mesh hernia repair with appendectomy. Conclusion A hernia surgeon may encounter unexpected intraoperative findings, such as Amyand's hernia. It is important to be prepared and apply the appropriate treatment.

  3. The definition of cross polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Arthur

    1973-01-01

    There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice....

  4. Definition of invariants in 3-D application: study of the number of jets in e+e- events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proriol, J.

    1993-01-01

    In e + e - events, the jets have a spherical 3D symmetry. The usual method to tag the number of jets is the clusterization using classical algorithms. A set of invariants is defined for 3D objects with a spherical symmetry. These new invariants are used to study the number of jets in e + e - events. (K.A.) 5 refs.; 2 figs

  5. Virtual Netherlands : Geo-visualizations for interactive spatial planning and decision-making: From Wow to impact. Definition study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedijk, van A.; Velde, van de R.J.; Pleizier, I.D.; Hoogerwerf, T.C.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.; Baltussen, W.H.M.; Jansen, J.; Wynia, P.; Uum, van J.H.; Wilgenburg, van R.

    2006-01-01

    Dit onderzoekt maakt deel uit van het project virtueel Nederland. Het uitgangspunt van deze studie is: de ruimtelijke planning van Nederland levert betere resultaten op, als gebruik gemaakt wordt van ruimtelijke verbeelding, zoals google earth die biedt, waarin samenwerken: Vrije Universiteit,

  6. Negotiating a Shared Definition of Curriculum Integration: A Self-Study of Two Teacher Educators from Different Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Smith, Leigh K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this self-study was to critically consider the authors' individual thinking and practices as they worked toward a shared understanding of connecting science and literacy during instruction. As teacher educators from different disciplines, this work required them to carefully and recurrently examine their individual understandings of the…

  7. Definitions of Idioms in Preadolescents, Adolescents, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yen-Ling; Marinellie, Sally A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand the current literature on word definitions by focusing on definitions of idioms provided by several age groups. Preadolescents, young adolescents, older adolescents, and adults wrote definitions for 10 frequently used idioms and also rated their familiarity with the idiomatic expressions. Participants'…

  8. Interactive web visualization tools to the results interpretation of a seismic risk study aimed at the emergency levels definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Gutierrez, V.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.

    2009-04-01

    Results of a seismic risk assessment study are often applied and interpreted by users unspecialised on the topic or lacking a scientific background. In this context, the availability of tools that help translating essentially scientific contents to broader audiences (such as decision makers or civil defence officials) as well as representing and managing results in a user-friendly fashion, are on indubitable value. On of such tools is the visualization tool VISOR-RISNA, a web tool developed within the RISNA project (financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre, Spain) for regional seismic risk assessment of Navarre and the subsequent development of emergency plans. The RISNA study included seismic hazard evaluation, geotechnical characterization of soils, incorporation of site effects to expected ground motions, vulnerability distribution assessment and estimation of expected damage distributions for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The main goal of RISNA was the identification of higher risk area where focusing detailed, local-scale risk studies in the future and the corresponding urban emergency plans. A geographic information system was used to combine different information layers, generate tables of results and represent maps with partial and final results. The visualization tool VISOR-RISNA is intended to facilitate the interpretation and representation of the collection of results, with the ultimate purpose of defining actuation plans. A number of criteria for defining actuation priorities are proposed in this work. They are based on combinations of risk parameters resulting from the risk study (such as expected ground motion and damage and exposed population), as determined by risk assessment specialists. Although the values that these parameters take are a result of the risk study, their distribution in several classes depends on the intervals defined by decision takers or civil defense officials. These criteria provide a ranking of

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study of a Validated Case Definition of Gulf War Illness in a Population-Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    neuropsychological [10, 11] , neurophysiological [10, 12] , auto- nomic [13] , brain imaging [7, 14–16] and functional status [17] measures, with...Craig Hill and Robert E. Mason. E. William Byrd Jr., Michael E. Murray, Helen Koo and a team of RTI staff contributed to the design of reproductive and...152: 992–1002. 19 Poblete PP, Araneta MRG, Sato PA, Hilio- poulos KM, Kamens DR, Morn CB, Zau AC, Gray GC: National study on reproductive outcomes

  10. The Definition of Groundwater Recharge Area Using GIS Approach -A Case Study of Choshuihsi Alluvial Fan, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, JuiPin; Chen, Yu Wen; Chang, Liang Cheng; Chiang, Chun Jung; Chen, Jui Er; Chen, You Cheng

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater recharge areas are regions with high permeability that accept surface water more readily than other regions. If the land use/cover were changed, it would affect the groundwater recharge. Also, if this area were polluted, the contamination easily infiltrates into the groundwater system. Therefore, the goal of this study is to delineate the recharge area of Choshuihsi Alluvial Fan. This study applies 6 recharge potential scale factors, including land use/land cover, soil, drainage density, annual average rainfall, hydraulic conductivity and aquifer thickness to estimate the infiltration ability and storage capacity of study area. The fundamental data of these factors were digitized using GIS (Geographic Information System) technology and their GIS maps were created. Then each of these maps was translated to a score map ranged from 1 to 100. Moreover, these score maps are integrated as a recharge potential map using arithmetic average, and this map shows recharge potential in 5 levels, such as very poor, poor, moderate, good and excellent. The result shows that majority of "good" and "excellent" areas is located at the top of the fan. This is because the land use of top-fan is agricultural and its surface soil type is gravel and coarse. The top-fan, which is close to mountain areas, has a higher average annual rainfall than other areas. Also, the aquifer thickness of top-fan is much thicker than other areas. The percentage of the areas ranged as "good" and above is 9.63% of total area, and most areas located at top-fan. As a result, we suggest that the top-fan of study area should be protected and more field surveys are required to accurately delineate the recharge area boundary.

  11. Motives for choosing and resigning from nursing by men and the definition of masculinity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczyńska, Urszula

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study is to establish the main motives for choosing nursing by men in Poland and the results for leaving the profession. Nursing is a profession less frequently chosen by men. On average, one person in ten working in nursing is a man, but in Poland this percentage is especially low, amounting to 1·8%. Qualitative research with a grounded theory approach. Individual semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The study included 17 licensed male nurses. Data were collected between January 2014-June 2015. The study revealed the most common motives for choosing nursing as declared by men: vocation, interest in medicine, accident and pragmatic motivation. The men for whom hegemonic masculinity constitutes the point of reference more frequently emphasize their interest in medicine and the pragmatic reasons for choosing nursing; they also more frequently try to gain managerial positions and higher income. The most common reason for men leaving the nursing profession was low income. Despite the common stereotype, men also choose nursing because of vocation and/or their willingness to help others, but they more frequently declare that chance was the direct reason for their choice of nursing, which helps reduce the dissonance associated with choosing a non-traditional male career path. Leaving the profession was associated with beliefs about its feminine dimension, but it seems that in Poland low income is a much more important reason for such a decision. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Appendix : airborne incidents : an econometric analysis of severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-19

    This is the Appendix for Airborne Incidents: An Econometric Analysis of Severity Report. : Airborne loss of separation incidents occur when an aircraft breaches the defined separation limit (vertical and/or horizontal) with another aircraft or terrai...

  13. RMP Guidance for Warehouses - Appendix D: OSHA Guidance on PSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This text is taken directly from OSHA's appendix C to the Process Safety Management standard (29 CFR 1910.119). Compiled information required by this standard, including material safety data sheets (MSDS), is essential to process hazards analysis (PHA).

  14. SolarProTeam - Appendix; Solar production technology melts architects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The goal of the project was to provide the basis for eliminating the multiplication costs for specialised solar cell modules. The appendix presents examples of architectural designs for multiple function modules for use in a city. (ln)

  15. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart S of... - Decompression Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams and Compressed Air Pt. 1926, Subpt. S, App. A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 1926...

  16. 43 CFR Appendix C to Part 2 - Fee Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to requests made under the Privacy Act. Fees will not be charged under either the FOIA or the Privacy... are posted on DOI's FOIA home page (see Appendix B). If you do not have access to the Internet, please...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix to Part 162 - Reporting Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENHANCING CAPITAL INVESTMENT (PECI) Pt. 162, App. A Appendix to Part 162—Reporting Procedures A. General The.... Total Projected Life-Cycle Cost Avoidance. 4. PIA Post-Investment assessments, articles, pictures, and...

  18. Ingested metallic foreign body lodged in the appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old child ingested a metallic screw 3 months prior to admission. At laparotomy, the foreign body was found to be lodged inside the vermiform appendix, and was removed by appendicectomy.

  19. High definition versus standard definition white light endoscopy for detecting dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, S S; Subramanian, V; Butt, W M; Bejkar, G; Coleman, J; Mannath, J; Ragunath, K

    2015-01-01

    High-definition endoscopy systems provide superior image resolution. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of high definition compared with standard definition endoscopy system for detecting dysplastic lesions in patients with Barrett's esophagus. A retrospective cohort study of patients with non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus undergoing routine surveillance was performed. Data were retrieved from the central hospital electronic database. Procedures performed for non-surveillance indications, Barrett's esophagus Prague C0M1 classification with no specialized intestinal metaplasia on histology, patients diagnosed with any dysplasia or cancer on index endoscopy, and procedures using advanced imaging techniques were excluded. Logistic regression models were constructed to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals comparing outcomes with standard definition and high-definition systems. The high definition was superior to standard definition system in targeted detection of all dysplastic lesions (odds ratio 3.27, 95% confidence interval 1.27-8.40) as well as overall dysplasia detected on both random and target biopsies (odds ratio 2.36, 95% confidence interval 1.50-3.72). More non-dysplastic lesions were detected with the high-definition system (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.33). There was no difference between high definition and standard definition endoscopy in the overall (random and target) high-grade dysplasia or cancers detected (odds ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.83-1.04). Trainee endoscopists, number of biopsies taken, and male sex were all significantly associated with a higher yield for dysplastic lesions. The use of the high-definition endoscopy system is associated with better targeted detection of any dysplasia during routine Barrett's esophagus surveillance. However, high-definition endoscopy cannot replace random biopsies at present time. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  20. Information security risk analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2001-01-01

    Effective Risk AnalysisQualitative Risk AnalysisValue AnalysisOther Qualitative MethodsFacilitated Risk Analysis Process (FRAP)Other Uses of Qualitative Risk AnalysisCase StudyAppendix A: QuestionnaireAppendix B: Facilitated Risk Analysis Process FormsAppendix C: Business Impact Analysis FormsAppendix D: Sample of ReportAppendix E: Threat DefinitionsAppendix F: Other Risk Analysis OpinionsIndex