WorldWideScience

Sample records for definition phase shuttle

  1. Quantum Shuttle in Phase Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotny, Tomas; Donarini, Andrea; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: We present a quantum theory of the shuttle instability in electronic transport through a nanostructure with a mechanical degree of freedom. A phase space formulation in terms of the Wigner function allows us to identify a crossover from the tunneling to the shuttling regime, thus...... extending the previously found classical results to the quantum domain. Further, a new dynamical regime is discovered, where the shuttling is driven exclusively by the quantum noise....

  2. A suggested classification system for standard on-orbit shuttle flight phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    The definition of standard flight segments of phases, representing flight profile components which can be combined in various sequences to satisfy particular objectives, is a necessity for simplifying operational procedures and for minimizing the cost of flight planning, software development, and training. The critical elements are (1) a greater variety of generic segment types that may be incorporated into a given flight profile, (2) a greater variability of the order in which segments may be combined to construct a particular flight profile, and (3) a greater variation of detail within a given generic segment type. All of these variations arise basically from shuttle payload characteristics. They are manifested in a number of ways, including changes in the shuttle configuration from one flight to another.

  3. Definition of air quality measurements for monitoring space shuttle launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    A description of a recommended air quality monitoring network to characterize the impact on ambient air quality in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) (area) of space shuttle launch operations is given. Analysis of ground cloud processes and prevalent meteorological conditions indicates that transient HCl depositions can be a cause for concern. The system designed to monitor HCl employs an extensive network of inexpensive detectors combined with a central analysis device. An acid rain network is also recommended. A quantitative measure of projected minimal long-term impact involves the limited monitoring of NOx and particulates. All recommended monitoring is confined ti KSC property.

  4. Alternate space shuttle concepts study: Design requirements and phased programs evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A study to determine program and technical alternatives to the design of the space shuttle orbiter is described. The alternatives include a phased approach, involving orbiter development and operation with an expendable booster for an interim period, as well as design variations to the basic vehicle. The space shuttle orbiter configurations and predicted performance parameters are presented.

  5. Definition Study for Space Shuttle Experiments Involving Large, Steerable Millimeter-Wave Antenna Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The potential uses and techniques for the shuttle spacelab Millimeter Wave Large Aperture Antenna Experiment (MWLAE) are documented. Potential uses are identified: applications to radio astronomy, the sensing of atmospheric turbulence by its effect on water vapor line emissions, and the monitoring of oil spills by multifrequency radiometry. IF combining is preferable to RF combining with respect to signal to noise ratio for communications receiving antennas of the size proposed for MWLAE. A design approach using arrays of subapertures is proposed to reduce the number of phase shifters and mixers for uses which require a filled aperture. Correlation radiometry and a scheme utilizing synchronous Dicke switches and IF combining are proposed as potential solutions.

  6. Phased Array Ultrasonic Evaluation of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Nozzle Weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Steve; Engel, J.; Kimbrough, D.; Suits, M.; Hopson, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the phased array ultrasonic evaluation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) nozzle weld. Details are given on the nondestructive testing evaluation approach, conventional shear wave and phased array techniques, and an x-ray versus phased array risk analysis. The field set-up was duplicated to the greatest extent possible in the laboratory and the phased array ultrasonic technique was developed and validated prior to weld evaluation. Results are shown for the phased array ultrasonic evaluation and conventional ultrasonic evaluation results.

  7. Space shuttle main engine definition (phase B). Volume 5: Valves and interconnects. [for space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1971-01-01

    The steady state thermodynamic cycle balance of the single preburner staged combustion engine, coupled with dynamic transient analyses, dictated in detail the location and requirements for each valve defined in this volume. Valve configuration selections were influenced by overall engine and vehicle system weight and failure mode determinations. Modulating valve actuators are external to the valve and are line replaceable. Development and satisfactory demonstration of a high pressure dynamic shaft seal has made this configuration practical. Pneumatic motor driven actuators that use engine pumped hydrogen gas as the working fluid are used. The helium control system is proposed as a module containing a cluster of solenoid actuated valves. The separable couplings and flanges are designed to assure minimum leakage with minimum coupling weight. The deflection of the seal surface in the flange is defined by finite element analysis that has been confirmed with test data. The seal design proposed has passed preliminary pressure cycling and thermal cycling tests.

  8. Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination of Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzle Weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.; Engel, J.; Kimbrough, D.; Suits, M.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination that was developed for the examination of a limited access circumferential Inconel 718 fusion weld of a Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzle - Cone. The paper discusses the selection and formation criteria used for the phased array focal laws, the reference standard that simulated hardware conditions, the examination concept, and results. Several unique constraints present during this examination included limited probe movement to a single axis and one-sided access to the weld.

  9. Computation of Space Shuttle high-pressure cryogenic turbopump ball bearing two-phase coolant flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Sen

    1990-01-01

    A homogeneous two-phase fluid flow model, implemented in a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver using computational fluid dynamics methodology is described. The application of the model to the analysis of the pump-end bearing coolant flow of the high-pressure oxygen turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine is studied. Results indicate large boiling zones and hot spots near the ball/race contact points. The extent of the phase change of the liquid oxygen coolant flow due to the frictional and viscous heat fluxes near the contact areas has been investigated for the given inlet conditions of the coolant.

  10. Phases definition in marketing export process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Dragan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The result of export marketing process depends on its five phases. The first phase-revision of export capacities, inner view on advantages and defects of company concerning export possibilities. The second phase-identification of export strategy market penetration. The forth phase-preparing for the marketing campaign (action. The fifth phase-carrying out the above mentioned activities. This study shows the structure and contents of the mentioned phases. At the end, export marketing analyzed DPV is given as the example.

  11. Rocket motor exhaust products generated by the space shuttle vehicle during its launch phase (1976 design data)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The principal chemical species emitted and/or entrained by the rocket motors of the space shuttle vehicle during the launch phase of its trajectory are considered. Results are presented for two extreme trajectories, both of which were calculated in 1976.

  12. A diabatic definition of geometric phase effects

    CERN Document Server

    Izmaylov, Artur F; Joubert-Doriol, Loic

    2016-01-01

    Electronic wave-functions in the adiabatic representation acquire nontrivial geometric phases (GPs) when corresponding potential energy surfaces undergo conical intersection (CI). To define dynamical effects arising from the GP presence in the nuclear quantum dynamics we explore a removal of the GP via modification of the underlying diabatic representation. Using an absolute value function of diabatic couplings we remove the GP while preserving adiabatic potential energy surfaces and CI. We assess GP effects in dynamics of a two-dimensional linear vibronic coupling model both for ground and excited state dynamics. Results are compared with those obtained with a conventional removal of the GP by ignoring double-valued boundary conditions of the real electronic wave-functions. Interestingly, GP effects appear similar in two approaches only for the low energy dynamics, while the new approach does not have substantial GP effects in the ultra-fast excited state dynamics.

  13. Environmentally Compatible Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor for Space Shuttle Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    USA-SRB Element is responsible for the assembly and refurbishment of the non-motor components of the SRB as part of Space Shuttle. Thrust Vector Control (TVC) frames structurally support components of the TVC system located in the aft skirt of the SRB. TVC frames are exposed to the seacoast environment after refurbishment and, also, to seawater immersion after splashdown, and during tow-back to CCAFS-Hangar AF refurbishment facilities. During refurbishment operations it was found that numerous TVC frames were experiencing internal corrosion and coating failures, both from salt air and seawater intrusions. Inspectors using borescopes would visually examine the internal cavities of the complicated aluminum alloy welded tubular structure. It was very difficult for inspectors to examine cavity corners and tubing intersections and particularly, to determine the extent of the corrosion and coating anomalies. Physical access to TVC frame internal cavities for corrosion removal and coating repair was virtually impossible, and an improved method using a Liquid (water based) Vapor-phase Corrosion Inhibitor (LVCI) for preventing initiation of new corrosion, and mitigating and/or stopping existing corrosion growth was recommended in lieu of hazardous paint solvents and high VOC / solvent based corrosion inhibitors. In addition, the borescopic inspection method used to detect corrosion, and/or coating anomalies had severe limitations because of part geometry, and an improved non-destructive inspection (NDI) method using Neutron Radiography (N-Ray) was also recommended.

  14. Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer: mission status after the Definition Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Dmitri; Barabash, Stas; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Dougherty, Michele; Erd, Christian; Fletcher, Leigh; Gare, Philippe; Gladstone, Randall; Grasset, Olivier; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Sarri, Giuseppe; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Witasse, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a powerful particle environment package (PEP), a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The mission scenario will include a Jovian tour with multiple flybys of Callisto and Ganymede, the phase with more than 20 degrees inclination orbits, and two Europa flybys. The Ganymede tour will include high (5000 km) and low (500 km) almost polar orbits around the moon. The mission scenario has evolved slightly during the definition phase, reassuring that the mission will still be able to fulfil all major science objectives. The talk will give an overview of the mission status at the end of the definition phase, focusing on the evolution of science performance and payload synergies in achieving the mission goals.

  15. Subcarrier phase recovery performance in bent-pipe mode of Shuttle data transmission. [on Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Ku-band return link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, T. M.; Braun, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    The subcarrier phase recovery is analyzed for the bent-pipe mode of Space Shuttle detached-payload data transmission on the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Ku-band return link. The high-power component of the subcarrier modulation is unrestored payload data, either at baseband or modulating another subcarrier. At the receiver a Costas loop recovers the subcarrier phase. To analyze its performance in the baseband case, we obtain the loop S-curve, the power spectral density of the equivalent noise process, and the loop phase error variance.

  16. Definition of Astrobiology with Liquid Phase Change and Dynamic Cyclic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yas.

    2010-04-01

    Definition of astrobiology is required for three factors of combined inorganic and organic materials of fossils, dynamic changes of gas-liquid-solid phases as min-water Earth with cycle, and space and time factors also in deep space.

  17. National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). Project definition study: Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1995-02-15

    This report describes a five-year plan for the construction and commissioning of a reliable and versatile NBTF facility for the production of high-quality, high-yield radioisotopes for research, biomedical, and industrial applications. The report is organized in nine sections providing, in consecutive order, responses to the nine questions posed by the U.S. Department of Energy in its solicitation for the NBTF Project Definition Study. In order to preserve direct correspondence (e.g., Sec. 3 = 3rd item), this Introduction is numbered {open_quotes}0.{close_quotes} Accelerator and facility designs are covered in Section 1 (Accelerator Design) and Section 2 (Facility Design). Preliminary estimates of capital costs are detailed in Section 3 (Design and Construction Costs). Full licensing requirements, including federal, state, and local ordinances, are discussed in Section 4 (Permits). A plan for the management of hazardous materials to be generated by NBTF is presented in Section 5 (Waste Management). An evaluation of NBTF`s economic viability and its potential market impact is detailed in Section 6(Business Plan), and is complemented by the plans in Section 7 (Operating Plan) and Section 8 (Radioisotope Plan). Finally, a plan for NBTF`s research, education, and outreach programs is presented in Section 9 (Research and Education Programs).

  18. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Phase C report: Oxygen-hydrogen RCS/OMS integration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, A. E.; Regnier, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    A comparison of the concepts of auxiliary propulsion systems proposed for the space shuttle vehicle is discussed. An evaluation of the potential of integration between the reaction control system and the orbit maneuvering system was conducted. Numerous methods of implementing the various levels of integration were evaluated. Preferred methods were selected and design points were developed for two fully integrated systems, one partially integrated system, and one separate system.

  19. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Phase C and E report: Storable propellants, RCS/OMS/APU integration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglim, D. D.; Bruns, A. E.; Perryman, D. C.; Wieland, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Auxiliary propulsion concepts for application to the space shuttle are compared. Both monopropellant and bipropellant earth storable reaction control systems were evaluated. The fundamental concepts evaluated were: (1) monopropellant and bipropellant systems installed integrally within the vehicle, (2) fuel systems installed modularly in nose and wing tip pods, and (3) fuel systems installed modularly in nose and fuselage pods. Numerous design variations within these three concepts were evaluated. The system design analysis and methods for implementing each of the concepts are reported.

  20. Absolute Definition of Phase Shift in the Elastic Scattering of a Particle from Compound Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, A.

    1961-01-01

    The projection of the target wave function on the total wave function of a scattered particle interacting with the target system is used to define an absolute phase shift including any multiples of pi. With this definition of the absolute phase shift, one can prove rigorously in the limit of zero energy for s-wave electrons scattered from atomic hydrogen that the triplet phase shift must approach a nonzero multiple of pi. One can further show that at least one pi of this phase shift is not connected with the existence of a bound state of the H- ion.

  1. Shuttle requests

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, the shuttle requests: for official visits or bidders' conferences on the CERN site; towards/from the airport or central Geneva; for long distances, shall be made via Fm.Support@cern.ch or by calling 77777. The radio taxi will still be reachable at 76969. TS/FM Group

  2. CERN Shuttle

    CERN Multimedia

    General Infrastructure Services Department

    2011-01-01

    As of Monday 21 February, a new schedule will come into effect for the Airport Shuttle (circuit No. 4) at the end of the afternoon: Last departure at 7:00 pm from Main Buildig, (Bldg. 500) to Airport (instead of 5:10 p.m.); Last departure from Airport to CERN, Main Buildig, (Bldg. 500), at 7:30 p.m. (instead of 5:40 p.m.). Group GS-IS

  3. Magnetometer instrument team studies for the definition phase of the outer planets grand tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The work performed by the magnetic fields investigation team during the mission definition phases of the Outer Planets Grand Tour (OPGT) and the Mariner Jupiter Saturn (MJS) Missions is reported. This work involved three tasks: (1) defining the objectives of the magnetic fields investigations, (2) defining the magnetometer systems required to meet these objectives, and (3) developing and testing hardware elements in certain mission-specific areas.

  4. STS-74 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-74 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-eighth flight since the return-to-flight, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-74; three Phase 11 SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2026, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-076. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-51, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO51 A for the left SRB, and 360TO51 B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform life sciences investigations. The Russian Docking Module (DM) was berthed onto the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) using the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), and the Orbiter docked to the Mir with the DM. When separating from the Mir, the Orbiter undocked, leaving the DM attached to the Mir. The two solar arrays, mounted on the DM, were delivered for future Russian installation to the Mir. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the GLO experiment (GLO-4)/Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment Payload (PASDE) (GPP), the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT)) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  5. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, A.

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  6. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-08-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  7. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  8. Shuttle requests

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that, to improve the service we provide, a new telephone number - 72500 - has been set up for all shuttle requests concerning: journeys within the CERN site, i.e. official visits or bidders' conferences; journeys to or from the airport or city centre; long-distance journeys. However, it will still be possible to submit requests in writing to Fm.Support@cern. The radio taxi can also still be reached on 76969. The TS/FM group would also like to inform you that details of all light logistics services (transport of persons, distribution and collection of parcels up to 1 tonne, distribution and collection of mail) can be found on the group's website: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/fm/fm.htm TS/FM Group 160239

  9. On the definition of laser threshold of nanoscale lasers by phase space reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Xavier, Hachair; Lippi, Gian-Lucca; David, Elvira; Gratiet, Luc Le; Lemaître, Aristide; Izo, Abram; Sagnes, Isabelle; Robert-Philip, Isabelle; Beveratos, Alexios

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale lasers sustain few optical modes and contain few emitting dipoles, in contrast to macroscopic lasers. Due to the strong confinement, the fraction of spontaneous emission $\\beta$ funneled into the useful mode is high (of the order of few 10$^{-1}$) and the threshold defined as an abrupt kink in the light in- light out curve becomes ill-defined. Alternative definitions based on photon statistics have been proposed to define the onset of stimulated emission in such light sources. In this paper, we propose a definition based on an analysis of the laser dynamics by reconstructing laser trajectories in phase space as a function of excitation power. Threshold is unambiguously defined by a change in the trajectory's shape and in the area contained inside the trajectory. This change is shown theoretically and subsequently observed experimentally in photonic crystal lasers.

  10. Space Shuttle flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinar, W. J.; Kubiak, E. T.; Peters, W. H.; Saldana, R. L.; Smith, E. E., Jr.; Stegall, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is a control stabilized vehicle with control provided by an all digital, fly-by-wire flight control system. This paper gives a description of the several modes of flight control which correspond to the Shuttle mission phases. These modes are ascent flight control (including open loop first stage steering, the use of four computers operating in parallel and inertial guidance sensors), on-orbit flight control (with a discussion of reaction control, phase plane switching logic, jet selection logic, state estimator logic and OMS thrust vector control), entry flight control and TAEM (terminal area energy management to landing). Also discussed are redundancy management and backup flight control.

  11. Shot noise of a quantum shuttle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotny, Tomas; Donarini, Andrea; Flindt, Christian

    2004-01-01

    even in the quantum limit, confirming that shuttling is universally a low noise phenomenon. In approaching the semiclassical limit, the Fano factor shows a giant enhancement (Fsimilar or equal to10(2)) at the shuttling threshold, consistent with predictions based on phase-space representations......We formulate a theory for shot noise in quantum nanoelectromechanical systems. As a specific example, the theory is applied to a quantum shuttle, and the zero-frequency noise, measured by the Fano factor F, is computed. F reaches very low values (Fsimilar or equal to10(-2)) in the shuttling regime...

  12. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    Decision making in early transportation planning must be responsive to complex value systems representing various policies and objectives. The assessment of alternative transportation concepts during the early initial phases of the system life cycle, when supportive research and technology development activities are defined, requires estimates of transportation, environmental, and socio-economic impacts throughout the system life cycle, which is a period of some 40 or 50 years. A unified methodological framework for comparing intercity passenger and freight transportation systems is described and is extended to include the comparison of long term transportation trends arising from implementation of the various R & D programs. The attributes of existing and future transportation systems are reviewed in order to establish measures for comparison, define value functions, and attribute weightings needed for comparing alternative policy actions for furthering transportation goals. Comparison criteria definitions and an illustrative example are included.

  13. Probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle. Phase 3: A study of the potential of losing the vehicle during nominal operation. Volume 2: Integrated loss of vehicle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare; Frank, Michael V.; Gerez, Luis; Mcfadden, Richard H.; Collins, Erin P.; Ballesio, Jorge; Appignani, Peter L.; Karns, James J.

    1995-01-01

    The application of the probabilistic risk assessment methodology to a Space Shuttle environment, particularly to the potential of losing the Shuttle during nominal operation is addressed. The different related concerns are identified and combined to determine overall program risks. A fault tree model is used to allocate system probabilities to the subsystem level. The loss of the vehicle due to failure to contain energetic gas and debris, to maintain proper propulsion and configuration is analyzed, along with the loss due to Orbiter, external tank failure, and landing failure or error.

  14. An assessment of space shuttle flight software development processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    In early 1991, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Office of Space Flight commissioned the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council (NRC) to investigate the adequacy of the current process by which NASA develops and verifies changes and updates to the Space Shuttle flight software. The Committee for Review of Oversight Mechanisms for Space Shuttle Flight Software Processes was convened in Jan. 1992 to accomplish the following tasks: (1) review the entire flight software development process from the initial requirements definition phase to final implementation, including object code build and final machine loading; (2) review and critique NASA's independent verification and validation process and mechanisms, including NASA's established software development and testing standards; (3) determine the acceptability and adequacy of the complete flight software development process, including the embedded validation and verification processes through comparison with (1) generally accepted industry practices, and (2) generally accepted Department of Defense and/or other government practices (comparing NASA's program with organizations and projects having similar volumes of software development, software maturity, complexity, criticality, lines of code, and national standards); (4) consider whether independent verification and validation should continue. An overview of the study, independent verification and validation of critical software, and the Space Shuttle flight software development process are addressed. Findings and recommendations are presented.

  15. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  16. Purdue University National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition phase. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.A.

    1995-02-15

    The proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) will house a high-current accelerator dedicated to production of short-lived radionuclides for biomedical and scientific research. The NBTF will play a vital role in repairing and maintaining the United States` research infrastructure for generation of essential accelerator-based radioisotopes. If properly designed and managed, the NBTF should also achieve international recognition as a Center-of-Excellence for research on radioisotope production methods and for associated education and training. The current report documents the results of a DOE-funded NBTF Project Definition Phase study carried out to better define the technical feasibility and projected costs of establishing and operating the NBTF. This report provides an overview of recommended Facility Design and Specifications, including Accelerator Design, Building Design, and the associated Construction Cost Estimates and Schedule. It is recommended that the NBTF be established as an integrated, comprehensive facility for meeting the diverse production, research, and educational missions set forth in previous documents. Based on an analysis of the projected production demands that will be placed on the NBTF, it appears that a 70 MeV, 1 mA, negative ion cyclotron will offer a good balance between production capabilities and the costs of accelerator purchase and operation. A preliminary architectural plan is presented for a facility designed specifically to fulfill the functions of the NBTF in a cost-effective manner. This report also presents a detailed analysis of the Required Federal State, and Local Permits that may be needed to establish the NBTF, along with schedules and cost estimates for obtaining these permits. The Handling, Storage, and Disposal of Radioactive Waste will pose some significant challenges in the operation of the NBTF, but at this stage of planning the associated problems do not appear to be prohibitive.

  17. New capillary number definition for displacement of residual nonwetting phase in natural fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQuaimi, B. I.; Rossen, W. R.

    2017-06-01

    We propose a new capillary number for flow in fractures starting with a force balance on a trapped ganglion in a fracture. The new definition is validated with laboratory experiments using five distinctive model fractures. Capillary desaturation curves were generated experimentally using water-air forced imbibition. The residual saturation-capillary number relationship obtained from different fractures, which vary in aperture and roughness, can be represented approximately by a single curve in terms of the new definition of the capillary number. They do not fit a single trend using the conventional definition of the capillary number.

  18. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I. Interim definition of terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.D.; Dong, R.G.

    1980-12-19

    This report documents interim definitions of terms in the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). Intent is to establish a common-based terminology integral to the probabilistic methods that predict more realistically the behavior of nuclear power plants during an earthquake. These definitions are a response to a request by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards at its meeting held November 15-16, 1979.

  19. Space Shuttle-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicles, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  20. Space Shuttle Vehicle Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicle, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds. The SRB's provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  1. MSFC shuttle lightning research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The shuttle mesoscale lightning experiment (MLE), flown on earlier shuttle flights, and most recently flown on the following space transportation systems (STS's), STS-31, -32, -35, -37, -38, -40, -41, and -48, has continued to focus on obtaining additional quantitative measurements of lightning characteristics and to create a data base for use in demonstrating observation simulations for future spaceborne lightning mapping systems. These flights are also providing design criteria data for the design of a proposed shuttle MLE-type lightning research instrument called mesoscale lightning observational sensors (MELOS), which are currently under development here at MSFC.

  2. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  3. Evaluation of a metal shear web selectively reinforced with filamentary composites for space shuttle application. Phase 3 Summary report: Shear web component testing and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, J. H.; Straayer, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Three large scale advanced composite shear web components were tested and analyzed to evaluate application of the design concept to a space shuttle orbiter thrust structure. The shear web design concept consisted of a titanium-clad + or - 45 deg boron/epoxy web laminate stiffened with vertical boron/epoxy reinforced aluminum stiffeners. The design concept was evaluated to be efficient and practical for the application that was studied. Because of the effects of buckling deflections, a requirement is identified for shear buckling resistant design to maximize the efficiency of highly-loaded advanced composite shear webs. An approximate analysis of prebuckling deflections is presented and computer-aided design results, which consider prebuckling deformations, indicate that the design concept offers a theoretical weight saving of 31 percent relative to all metal construction. Recommendations are made for design concept options and analytical methods that are appropriate for production hardware.

  4. Shuttle Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Inventory Management System (SIMS) consists of series of integrated support programs providing supply support for both Shuttle program and Kennedy Space Center base opeations SIMS controls all supply activities and requirements from single point. Programs written in COBOL.

  5. Designing the Space Shuttle Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, James; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David; VanHooser, Kathrine; Wlzyn, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The major elements of the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System include two reusable solid rocket motors integrated into recoverable solid rocket boosters, an expendable external fuel and oxidizer tank, and three reusable Space Shuttle Main Engines. Both the solid rocket motors and space shuttle main engines ignite prior to liftoff, with the solid rocket boosters separating about two minutes into flight. The external tank separates after main engine shutdown and is safely expended in the ocean. The SSME's, integrated into the Space Shuttle Orbiter aft structure, are reused after post landing inspections. Both the solid rocket motors and the space shuttle main engine throttle during early ascent flight to limit aerodynamic loads on the structure. The configuration is called a stage and a half as all the propulsion elements are active during the boost phase, and the SSME's continue operation to achieve orbital velocity approximately eight and a half minutes after liftoff. Design and performance challenges were numerous, beginning with development work in the 1970 s. The solid rocket motors were large, and this technology had never been used for human space flight. The SSME s were both reusable and very high performance staged combustion cycle engines, also unique to the Space Shuttle. The multi body side mount configuration was unique and posed numerous integration and interface challenges across the elements. Operation of the system was complex and time consuming. This paper discusses a number of the system level technical challenges including development and operations.

  6. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine a unified methodological framework for the comparison of intercity passenger and freight transportation systems; (2) to review the attributes of existing and future transportation systems for the purpose of establishing measures of comparison. These objectives were made more specific to include: (1) development of a methodology for comparing long term transportation trends arising from implementation of various R&D programs; (2) definition of value functions and attribute weightings needed for further transportation goals.

  7. Evaluation of a metal shear web selectively reinforced with filamentary composites for space shuttle application. Phase 1 summary report: Shear web design development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, J. H.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1972-01-01

    An advanced composite shear web design concept was developed for the Space Shuttle orbiter main engine thrust beam structure. Various web concepts were synthesized by a computer-aided adaptive random search procedure. A practical concept is identified having a titanium-clad + or - 45 deg boron/epoxy web plate with vertical boron/epoxy reinforced aluminum stiffeners. The boron-epoxy laminate contributes to the strength and stiffness efficiency of the basic web section. The titanium-cladding functions to protect the polymeric laminate parts from damaging environments and is chem-milled to provide reinforcement in selected areas. Detailed design drawings are presented for both boron/epoxy reinforced and all-metal shear webs. The weight saving offered is 24% relative to all-metal construction at an attractive cost per pound of weight saved, based on the detailed designs. Small scale element tests substantiate the boron/epoxy reinforced design details in critical areas. The results show that the titanium-cladding reliably reinforces the web laminate in critical edge load transfer and stiffener fastener hole areas.

  8. The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 interacts with DDX5, co-localizes with it in the cytoplasm during the G2/M phase of the cycle, and affects its shuttling during mRNP export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Seong-Gene

    2012-03-01

    DDX3 is involved in RNA transport, translational control, proliferation of RNA viruses, and cancer progression. From yeast two-hybrid screening using the C-terminal region of DDX3 as a bait, the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX5 was cloned. In immunofluorescence analysis, DDX3 and DDX5 were mainly co-localized in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, cytoplasmic levels of DDX5 increased in the G(2) /M phase and consequently protein-protein interaction also increased in the cytoplasmic fraction. DDX3 was highly phosphorylated at its serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues in the steady state, but not phosphorylated at the serine residue(s) in the G(2) /M phase. DDX5 was less phosphorylated in the G(1) /S phase; however, it was highly phosphorylated at serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues in the G(2) /M phase. PP2A treatment of the cytoplasmic lysate from G(2) /M phase cells positively affected the interaction between DDX3 and DDX5, whereas, PTP1B treatment did not. In an analysis involving recombinant His-DDX3 and His-DDX5, PP2A pretreatment of His-DDX5 increased the interaction with endogenous DDX3, and vice versa. Furthermore, the results of GST pull-down experiments support the conclusion that dephosphorylation of serine and/or threonine residues in both proteins enhanced protein-protein interactions. UV cross-linking experiments showed that DDX3 and DDX5 are involved in mRNP export. Additionally, DDX3 knockdown blocked the shuttling of DDX5 to the nucleus. These data demonstrate a novel interaction between DDX3 and DDX5 through the phosphorylation of both proteins, especially in the G(2) /M phase, and suggest a novel combined mechanism of action, involving RNP remodeling and splicing, for DEAD-box RNA helicases involved in mRNP export.

  9. Phase Transitions in Definite Total Spin States of Two-Component Fermi Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurovsky, Vladimir A

    2017-05-19

    Second-order phase transitions have no latent heat and are characterized by a change in symmetry. In addition to the conventional symmetric and antisymmetric states under permutations of bosons and fermions, mathematical group-representation theory allows for non-Abelian permutation symmetry. Such symmetry can be hidden in states with defined total spins of spinor gases, which can be formed in optical cavities. The present work shows that the symmetry reveals itself in spin-independent or coordinate-independent properties of these gases, namely as non-Abelian entropy in thermodynamic properties. In weakly interacting Fermi gases, two phases appear associated with fermionic and non-Abelian symmetry under permutations of particle states, respectively. The second-order transitions between the phases are characterized by discontinuities in specific heat. Unlike other phase transitions, the present ones are not caused by interactions and can appear even in ideal gases. Similar effects in Bose gases and strong interactions are discussed.

  10. Nanoparticle shuttle memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alex Karlwalter [Kensington, CA

    2012-03-06

    A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

  11. Shuttle Case Study Collection Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    As a continuation from summer 2012, the Shuttle Case Study Collection has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. Decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle is gathered into a single database to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes. The goal is to provide additional engineering materials that enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. During this second phase of the project, the Shuttle Case Study Collection website was developed. Extensive HTML coding to link downloadable documents, videos, and images was required, as was training to learn NASA's Content Management System (CMS) for website design. As the final stage of the collection development, the website is designed to allow for distribution of information to the public as well as for case study report submissions from other educators online.

  12. Shuttle Propulsion Overview - The Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The major elements of the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System include two reusable solid rocket motors integrated into recoverable solid rocket boosters, an expendable external fuel and oxidizer tank, and three reusable Space Shuttle Main Engines. Both the solid rocket motors and space shuttle main engines ignite prior to liftoff, with the solid rocket boosters separating about two minutes into flight. The external tank separates, about eight and a half minutes into the flight, after main engine shutdown and is safely expended in the ocean. The SSME's, integrated into the Space Shuttle Orbiter aft structure, are reused after post landing inspections. The configuration is called a stage and a half as all the propulsion elements are active during the boost phase, with only the SSME s continuing operation to achieve orbital velocity. Design and performance challenges were numerous, beginning with development work in the 1970's. The solid rocket motors were large, and this technology had never been used for human space flight. The SSME s were both reusable and very high performance staged combustion cycle engines, also unique to the Space Shuttle. The multi body side mount configuration was unique and posed numerous integration and interface challenges across the elements. Operation of the system was complex and time consuming. This paper describes the design challenges and key areas where the design evolved during the program.

  13. Definition of the Semisubmersible Floating System for Phase II of OC4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Masciola, M.; Song, H.; Goupee, A.; Coulling, A.; Luan, C.

    2014-09-01

    Phase II of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) project involved modeling of a semisubmersible floating offshore wind system as shown below. This report documents the specifications of the floating system, which were needed by the OC4 participants for building aero-hydro-servo-elastic models.

  14. W.A. Parish Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture and Sequestration Project Phase 1 Definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armpriester, Anthony; Smith, Roger; Scheriffius, Jeff; Smyth, Rebecca; Istre, Michael

    2014-02-01

    For a secure and sustainable energy future, the United States (U.S.) must reduce its dependence on imported oil and reduce its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). To meet these strategic challenges, the U.S. wiU have to create fundamentally new technologies with performance levels far beyond what is now possible. Developing advanced post-combustion clean coal technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} from existing coal-fired power plants can play a major role in the country's transition to a sustainable energy future, especially when coupled with CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR). Pursuant to these goals, NRG Energy, Inc. (NRG) submitted an application and entered into a cost-shared collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Round 3 of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) to advance low-emission coal technologies. The objective of the NRG W A Parish Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture and Sequestration Demonstration Project is to establish the technical feasibility and economic viability of post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture using flue gas from an existing pulverized coal-fired boiler integrated with geologic sequestration via an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process. To achieve these objectives, the project will be executed in three phases. Each phase represents a distinct aspect of the project execution. The project phases are: • Phase I. Project Definition/Front-End Engineering Design (FEED) • Phase ll. Detailed Engineering, Procurement & Construction • Phase III. Demonstration and Monitoring The purpose of Phase I is to develop the project in sufficient detail to facilitate the decision-making process in progressing to the next stage of project delivery. Phase n. This report provides a complete summary of the FEED study effort, including pertinent project background information, the scope of facilities covered, decisions, challenges, and considerations made regarding configuration and

  15. Phase transitions in definite total spin states of two-component Fermi gases

    CERN Document Server

    Yurovsky, Vladimir A

    2016-01-01

    Symmetry under permutations of indistinguishable particles, contained in each medium, is one of the fundamental symmetries. Generally, a change in symmetry affects the medium's thermodynamic properties, leading to phase transitions. Permutation symmetry can be changed since, in addition to the conventional symmetric and anti-symmetric states under permutations of bosons and fermions, mathematical group-representation theory allows for non-Abelian permutation symmetry. Such symmetry can be hidden in states with defined total spins of spinor gases, which can be formed in optical cavities. However, the thermodynamic effects of non-Abelian symmetry are unknown. The present work shows that the symmetry reveals itself in spin-independent or coordinate-independent properties of these gases, namely as non-Abelian entropy in thermodynamic properties. In weakly interacting Fermi gases, saturated and unsaturated phases appear associated with fermionic and non-Abelian symmetry under permutations of particle states, respe...

  16. Reentry guidance for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, W.; Sohoni, V.

    1973-01-01

    An explicit guidance scheme is outlined which provides the appropriate energy management in order for the shuttle orbiter to reach any location within the required footprint. Considering the orbiter as entering the earth's atmosphere, expressions for the downrange, crossrange, and the time of the termination of the entry phase as functions of the control variables are developed. Performing an order-of-magnitude analysis of the terms in these expressions, only dominant terms are retained. Analytical expressions for the elements of the sensitivity matrix which represents the partial derivatives of the desired range with respect to control variables are formulated. Using the Gauss-Jordan inversion technique, the required change in guidance commands as a function of the deviations in the downrange and crossrange are explicitly computed.

  17. Reentry guidance for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, W.; Sohoni, V.

    1973-01-01

    An explicit guidance scheme is outlined which provides the appropriate energy management in order for the shuttle orbiter to reach any location within the required footprint. Considering the orbiter as entering the earth's atmosphere, expressions for the downrange, crossrange, and the time of the termination of the entry phase as functions of the control variables are developed. Performing an order-of-magnitude analysis of the terms in these expressions, only dominant terms are retained. Analytical expressions for the elements of the sensitivity matrix which represents the partial derivatives of the desired range with respect to control variables are formulated. Using the Gauss-Jordan inversion technique, the required change in guidance commands as a function of the deviations in the downrange and crossrange are explicitly computed.

  18. Phase 1 of the North Site cleanup: Definition of product streams. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorini, S.; Merriam, N.

    1994-03-01

    Various materials and equipment have accumulated at the Western Research Institute (WRI) North Site Facility since its commissioning in 1968. This facility was built by the US Bureau of Mines, transferred to the US Energy Research Development Administration (ERDA) in 1976, and transferred once again to the US Department of Energy (DOE) shortly thereafter. In 1983, the North Site Facility became part of WRI. The materials that have accumulated over the years at the site have been stored in drums, tanks, and open piles. They vary from oil shale, tar sand, and coal feedstocks to products and materials associated with in situ simulation and surface process developments associated with these feedstocks. The majority of these materials have been associated with DOE North Site activities and work performed at the North Site under DOE-WRI cooperative agreement contracts. In phase I of the North Site Facility cleanup project, these materials were sampled and evaluated to determine their chemical characteristics for proper disposal or use in accordance with current local, state, and federal regulations. Phase I of the North Site Facility cleanup project involved dividing the stored materials into product streams and dividing each product stream into composite groups. Composite groups contain materials known to be similar in composition, source, and process exposure. For each composite group, materials, which are representative of the composite, were selected for sampling, compositing, and analysis.

  19. The space shuttle ascent vehicle aerodynamic challenges configuration design and data base development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, C. C.; Young, J. C.; Roberts, B. B.; Craig, M. K.; Hamilton, J. T.; Boyle, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The phase B Space Shuttle systems definition studies resulted in a generic configuration consisting of a delta wing orbiter, and two solid rocket boosters (SRB) attached to an external fuel tank (ET). The initial challenge facing the aerodynamic community was aerodynamically optimizing, within limits, this configuration. As the Shuttle program developed and the sensitivities of the vehicle to aerodynamics were better understood the requirements of the aerodynamic data base grew. Adequately characterizing the vehicle to support the various design studies exploded the size of the data base to proportions that created a data modeling/management challenge for the aerodynamicist. The ascent aerodynamic data base originated primarily from wind tunnel test results. The complexity of the configuration rendered conventional analytic methods of little use. Initial wind tunnel tests provided results which included undesirable effects from model support tructure, inadequate element proximity, and inadequate plume simulation. The challenge to improve the quality of test results by determining the extent of these undesirable effects and subsequently develop testing techniques to eliminate them was imposed on the aerodynamic community. The challenges to the ascent aerodynamics community documented are unique due to the aerodynamic complexity of the Shuttle launch. Never before was such a complex vehicle aerodynamically characterized. The challenges were met with innovative engineering analyses/methodology development and wind tunnel testing techniques.

  20. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  1. Time management displays for shuttle countdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Arthur E.; Hadaller, H. Greg; Ricci, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Intelligent Launch Decision Support System project is developing a Time Management System (TMS) for the NASA Test Director (NTD) to use for time management during Shuttle terminal countdown. TMS is being developed in three phases: an information phase; a tool phase; and an advisor phase. The information phase is an integrated display (TMID) of firing room clocks, of graphic timelines with Ground Launch Sequencer events, and of constraints. The tool phase is a what-if spreadsheet (TMWI) for devising plans for resuming from unplanned hold situations. It is tied to information in TMID, propagates constraints forward and backward to complete unspecified values, and checks the plan against constraints. The advisor phase is a situation advisor (TMSA), which proactively suggests tactics. A concept prototype for TMSA is under development. The TMID is currently undergoing field testing. Displays for TMID and TMWI are described. Descriptions include organization, rationale for organization, implementation choices and constraints, and use by NTD.

  2. Shuttle sonic boom - Technology and predictions. [environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, P. F.; Wilhold, G. A.; Jones, J. H.; Garcia, F., Jr.; Hicks, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Because the shuttle differs significantly in both geometric and operational characteristics from conventional supersonic aircraft, estimation of sonic boom characteristics required a new technology base. The prediction procedures thus developed are reviewed. Flight measurements obtained for both the ascent and entry phases of the Apollo 15 and 16 and for the ascent phase only of the Apollo 17 missions are presented which verify the techniques established for application to shuttle. Results of extensive analysis of the sonic boom overpressure characteristics completed to date are presented which indicate that this factor of the shuttle's environmental impact is predictable, localized, of short duration and acceptable. Efforts are continuing to define the shuttle sonic boom characteristics to a fine level of detail based on the final system design.

  3. Shuttle Lesson Learned - Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This is a script for a video about toxicology and the space shuttle. The first segment is deals with dust in the space vehicle. The next segment will be about archival samples. Then we'll look at real time on-board analyzers that give us a lot of capability in terms of monitoring for combustion products and the ability to monitor volatile organics on the station. Finally we will look at other issues that are about setting limits and dealing with ground based lessons that pertain to toxicology.

  4. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  5. Space Shuttle Cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. Stennisphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  6. History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This technical history is intended to provide a technical audience with an introduction to the rendezvous and proximity operations history of the Space Shuttle Program. It details the programmatic constraints and technical challenges encountered during shuttle development in the 1970s and over thirty years of shuttle missions. An overview of rendezvous and proximity operations on many shuttle missions is provided, as well as how some shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations systems and flight techniques evolved to meet new programmatic objectives. This revised edition provides additional information on Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo/Soyuz. Some chapters on the Space Shuttle have been updated and expanded. Four special focus chapters have been added to provide more detailed information on shuttle rendezvous. A chapter on the STS-39 mission of April/May 1991 describes the most complex deploy/retrieve mission flown by the shuttle. Another chapter focuses on the Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions. A third chapter gives the reader a detailed look at the February 2010 STS-130 mission to the International Space Station. The fourth chapter answers the question why rendezvous was not completely automated on the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle vehicles.

  7. Shuttle Repair Tools Automate Vehicle Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Successfully building, flying, and maintaining the space shuttles was an immensely complex job that required a high level of detailed, precise engineering. After each shuttle landed, it entered a maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) phase. Each system was thoroughly checked and tested, and worn or damaged parts replaced, before the shuttle was rolled out for its next mission. During the MRO period, workers needed to record exactly what needed replacing and why, as well as follow precise guidelines and procedures in making their repairs. That meant traceability, and with it lots of paperwork. In 2007, the number of reports generated during electrical system repairs was getting out of hand-placing among the top three systems in terms of paperwork volume. Repair specialists at Kennedy Space Center were unhappy spending so much time at a desk and so little time actually working on the shuttle. "Engineers weren't spending their time doing technical work," says Joseph Schuh, an electrical engineer at Kennedy. "Instead, they were busy with repetitive, time-consuming processes that, while important in their own right, provided a low return on time invested." The strain of such inefficiency was bad enough that slow electrical repairs jeopardized rollout on several occasions. Knowing there had to be a way to streamline operations, Kennedy asked Martin Belson, a project manager with 30 years experience as an aerospace contractor, to co-lead a team in developing software that would reduce the effort required to document shuttle repairs. The result was System Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART) software. SMART is a tool for aggregating and applying information on every aspect of repairs, from procedures and instructions to a vehicle s troubleshooting history. Drawing on that data, SMART largely automates the processes of generating repair instructions and post-repair paperwork. In the case of the space shuttle, this meant that SMART had 30 years worth of operations

  8. Space shuttle digital flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minott, G. M.; Peller, J. B.; Cox, K. J.

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle digital, fly by wire, flight control system presents an interesting challenge in avionics system design. In residence in each of four redundant general purpose computers at lift off are the guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for the entire flight. The mission is divided into several flight segments: first stage ascent, second stage ascent; abort to launch site, abort once around; on orbit operations, entry, terminal area energy management; and approach and landing. The FCS is complicated in that it must perform the functions to fly the shuttle as a boost vehicle, as a spacecraft, as a reentry vehicle, and as a conventional aircraft. The crew is provided with both manual and automatic modes of operations in all flight phases including touchdown and rollout.

  9. Space Shuttle development update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, V.

    1984-01-01

    The development efforts, since the STS-4 flight, in the Space Shuttle (SS) program are presented. The SS improvements introduced in the last two years include lower-weight loads, communication through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, expanded extravehicular activity capability, a maneuvering backpack and the manipulator foot restraint, the improvements in thermal projection system, the 'optional terminal area management targeting' guidance software, a rendezvous system with radar and star tracker sensors, and improved on-orbit living conditions. The flight demonstrations include advanced launch techniques (e.g., night launch and direct insertion to orbit); the on-orbit demonstrations; and added entry and launching capabilities. The entry aerodynamic analysis and entry flight control fine tuning are described. Reusability, improved ascent performance, intact abort and landing flexibility, rollout control, and 'smart speedbrakes' are among the many improvements planned for the future.

  10. Shuttle entry guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, J. C.; Graves, C. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the entry guidance for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This guidance provides the steering commands for trajectory control from initial penetration of the earth's atmosphere until the terminal area guidance is activated at an earth-relative speed of 2500 fps. At this point, the Orbiter is at a distance of about 50 nmi from the runway threshold, and at an altitude of about 80,000 ft. The entry guidance design is based on an analytic solution of the equations of motion defining the drag acceleration profile that meets the terminal criteria of the entry flight while maintaining the flight within systems and operational constraints. Guidance commands, which are based on a control law that ensures damping of oscillatory type trajectory motion, are computed to steer the Orbiter to this drag acceleration profile.

  11. Assessment of severe malaria in a multicenter, phase III, RTS, S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine trial: case definition, standardization of data collection and patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vekemans Johan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effective malaria vaccine, deployed in conjunction with other malaria interventions, is likely to substantially reduce the malaria burden. Efficacy against severe malaria will be a key driver for decisions on implementation. An initial study of an RTS, S vaccine candidate showed promising efficacy against severe malaria in children in Mozambique. Further evidence of its protective efficacy will be gained in a pivotal, multi-centre, phase III study. This paper describes the case definitions of severe malaria used in this study and the programme for standardized assessment of severe malaria according to the case definition. Methods Case definitions of severe malaria were developed from a literature review and a consensus meeting of expert consultants and the RTS, S Clinical Trial Partnership Committee, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Malaria Clinical Trials Alliance. The same groups, with input from an Independent Data Monitoring Committee, developed and implemented a programme for standardized data collection. The case definitions developed reflect the typical presentations of severe malaria in African hospitals. Markers of disease severity were chosen on the basis of their association with poor outcome, occurrence in a significant proportion of cases and on an ability to standardize their measurement across research centres. For the primary case definition, one or more clinical and/or laboratory markers of disease severity have to be present, four major co-morbidities (pneumonia, meningitis, bacteraemia or gastroenteritis with severe dehydration are excluded, and a Plasmodium falciparum parasite density threshold is introduced, in order to maximize the specificity of the case definition. Secondary case definitions allow inclusion of co-morbidities and/or allow for the presence of parasitaemia at any density. The programmatic implementation of standardized case assessment included a clinical

  12. Assessment of severe malaria in a multicenter, phase III, RTS, S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine trial: case definition, standardization of data collection and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekemans, Johan; Marsh, Kevin; Greenwood, Brian; Leach, Amanda; Kabore, William; Soulanoudjingar, Solange; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Ansong, Daniel; Evans, Jennifer; Sacarlal, Jahit; Bejon, Philip; Kamthunzi, Portia; Salim, Nahya; Njuguna, Patricia; Hamel, Mary J; Otieno, Walter; Gesase, Samwel; Schellenberg, David

    2011-08-04

    An effective malaria vaccine, deployed in conjunction with other malaria interventions, is likely to substantially reduce the malaria burden. Efficacy against severe malaria will be a key driver for decisions on implementation. An initial study of an RTS, S vaccine candidate showed promising efficacy against severe malaria in children in Mozambique. Further evidence of its protective efficacy will be gained in a pivotal, multi-centre, phase III study. This paper describes the case definitions of severe malaria used in this study and the programme for standardized assessment of severe malaria according to the case definition. Case definitions of severe malaria were developed from a literature review and a consensus meeting of expert consultants and the RTS, S Clinical Trial Partnership Committee, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Malaria Clinical Trials Alliance. The same groups, with input from an Independent Data Monitoring Committee, developed and implemented a programme for standardized data collection.The case definitions developed reflect the typical presentations of severe malaria in African hospitals. Markers of disease severity were chosen on the basis of their association with poor outcome, occurrence in a significant proportion of cases and on an ability to standardize their measurement across research centres. For the primary case definition, one or more clinical and/or laboratory markers of disease severity have to be present, four major co-morbidities (pneumonia, meningitis, bacteraemia or gastroenteritis with severe dehydration) are excluded, and a Plasmodium falciparum parasite density threshold is introduced, in order to maximize the specificity of the case definition. Secondary case definitions allow inclusion of co-morbidities and/or allow for the presence of parasitaemia at any density. The programmatic implementation of standardized case assessment included a clinical algorithm for evaluating seriously sick children

  13. Space Shuttle Strategic Planning Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbraten, Gordon L.; Henderson, Edward M.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program is aggressively flying the Space Shuttle manifest for assembling the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Completing this flight manifest while concurrently transitioning to the Exploration architecture creates formidable challenges; the most notable of which is retaining critical skills within the Shuttle Program workforce. The Program must define a strategy that will allow safe and efficient fly-out of the Shuttle, while smoothly transitioning Shuttle assets (both human and facility) to support early flight demonstrations required in the development of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) and Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicles (Ares I). The Program must accomplish all of this while maintaining the current level of resources. Therefore, it will be necessary to initiate major changes in operations and contracting. Overcoming these challenges will be essential for NASA to fly the Shuttle safely, accomplish the Vision for Space Exploration, and ultimately meet the national goal of maintaining a robust space program. This paper will address the Space Shuttle Program s strategy and its current status in meeting these challenges.

  14. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John

    2004-01-01

    Boeing-Canoga Park (BCP) and NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) are developing an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) for use on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will improve Shuttle safety by reducing the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the powered ascent phase of a Shuttle mission. This is a phased approach that consists of an upgrade to the current Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) to add turbomachinery synchronous vibration protection and addition of a separate Health Management Computer (HMC) that will utilize advanced algorithms to detect and mitigate predefined engine anomalies. The purpose of the Shuttle AHMS is twofold; one is to increase the probability of successfully placing the Orbiter into the intended orbit, and the other is to increase the probability of being able to safely execute an abort of a Space Transportation System (STS) launch. Both objectives are achieved by increasing the useful work envelope of a Space Shuttle Main Engine after it has developed anomalous performance during launch and the ascent phase of the mission. This increase in work envelope will be the result of two new anomaly mitigation options, in addition to existing engine shutdown, that were previously unavailable. The added anomaly mitigation options include engine throttle-down and performance correction (adjustment of engine oxidizer to fuel ratio), as well as enhanced sensor disqualification capability. The HMC is intended to provide the computing power necessary to diagnose selected anomalous engine behaviors and for making recommendations to the engine controller for anomaly mitigation. Independent auditors have assessed the reduction in Shuttle ascent risk to be on the order of 40% with the combined system and a three times improvement in mission success.

  15. Space Shuttle Program Legacy Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Share lessons learned on Space Shuttle Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) culture, processes, and products that can guide future enterprises to improve mission success and minimize the risk of catastrophic failures. Present the chronology of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) S&MA organization over the 40-year history of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and identify key factors and environments which contributed to positive and negative performance.

  16. Final Results of Shuttle MMOD Impact Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J. L.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database documents damage features on each Orbiter thought to be from micrometeoroids (MM) or orbital debris (OD). Data is divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection systems along with other miscellaneous regions. The combined number of records in the database is nearly 3000. Each database record provides impact feature dimensions, location on the vehicle and relevant mission information. Additional detail on the type and size of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive spectroscopic analysis results are available. Guidelines are described which were used in determining whether impact damage is from micrometeoroid or orbital debris impact based on the findings from scanning electron microscopy chemical analysis. Relationships assumed when converting from observed feature sizes in different shuttle materials to particle sizes will be presented. A small number of significant impacts on the windows, radiators and wing leading edge will be highlighted and discussed in detail, including the hypervelocity impact testing performed to estimate particle sizes that produced the damage.

  17. Shuttle Atlantis Landing at Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    NASA's Space Shuttle Atlantis touched down on the lakebed runway at Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert Tuesday, 3 December 1985 at 1:33:49 p.m. Pacific Standard Time, concluding the STS 61-B international mission. The eight-day mission successfully deployed three communications satellites including the Mexican Morelos B, the Australian Aussat 2 and an RCA Satcom K-2 satellite. In addition, two spacewalks were performed to experiment with construction of structures in space. Crew of the 61-B mission included Commander Brewster H. Shaw, Jr.; Pilot Bryan D. O'Connor; Mission Specialists Mary L. Cleave, Sherwood C. Spring and Jerry L. Ross; and Payload Specialists Rudolfo Neri Vela of Mexico and Charles Walker of McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories

  18. Shuttle Discovery Landing at Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery mission lands at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards AFB, California, early Saturday morning, 18 March 1989. Touchdown was at 6:35:49 a.m. PST and wheel stop was at 6:36:40 a.m. on runway 22. Controllers chose the concrete runway for the landing in order to make tests of braking and nosewheel steering. The STS-29 mission was very successful, completing the launch of a Tracking and Data Relay communications satellite, as well as a range of scientific experiments. Discovery's five-man crew was led by Commander Michael L. Coats, and included pilot John E. Blaha and mission specialists James P. Bagian, Robert C. Springer, and James F. Buchli. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout

  19. Microbiological Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah; Castro, Victoria A.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of being the centerpiece of NASA s human spacecraft, the Space Shuttle will retire. This highly successful program provided many valuable lessons for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Major microbiological risks to crewmembers include food, water, air, surfaces, payloads, animals, other crewmembers, and ground support personnel. Adverse effects of microorganisms are varied and can jeopardize crew health and safety, spacecraft systems, and mission objectives. Engineering practices and operational procedures can minimize the negative effects of microorganisms. To minimize problems associated with microorganisms, appropriate steps must begin in the design phase of new spacecraft or space habitats. Spacecraft design must include requirements to control accumulation of water including humidity, leaks, and condensate on surfaces. Materials used in habitable volumes must not contribute to microbial growth. Use of appropriate materials and the implementation of robust housekeeping that utilizes periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Air filtration can ensure low levels of bioaerosols and particulates in the breathing air. The use of physical and chemical steps to disinfect drinking water coupled with filtration can provide safe drinking water. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. The advances in knowledge of living and working onboard the Space Shuttle formed the foundation for environmental microbiology requirements and operations for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Research conducted during the Space Shuttle Program resulted in an improved understanding of the effects of spaceflight on human physiology, microbial properties, and specifically the host-microbe interactions. Host-microbe interactions are substantially affected by spaceflight. Astronaut immune

  20. SCOPE1: a randomised phase II/III multicentre clinical trial of definitive chemoradiation, with or without cetuximab, in carcinoma of the oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffurth John N

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care for patients with oesophageal cancer unsuitable for surgery due to the presence of co-morbidity or extent of disease, and is a standard treatment option for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. Modern regimens of chemoradiotherapy can lead to significant long-term survival. However the majority of patients will die of their disease, most commonly with local progression/recurrence of their tumours. Cetuximab may overcome one of the principal mechanisms of tumour radio-resistance, namely tumour repopulation, in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. The purpose of this research is first to determine whether the addition of cetuximab to definitive chemoradiotherapy for treatment of patients with non-metastatic carcinoma of the oesophagus is active (in terms of failure-free rate, safe, and feasible within the context of a multi-centre randomised controlled trial in the UK. If the first stage is successful then the trial will continue to accrue sufficient patients to establish whether the addition of cetuximab to the standard treatment improves overall survival. Methods/Design SCOPE1 is a two arm, open, randomised multicentre Phase II/III trial. Eligible patients will have histologically confirmed carcinoma of the oesophagus and have been chosen to receive definitive chemoradiotherapy by an accredited multidisciplinary team including a specialist Upper GI surgeon. 420 patients will be randomised to receive definitive chemoradiotherapy with or without cetuximab using a 1:1 allocation ratio. During Phase II of the study, the trial will assess safety (toxicity, activity (failure-free rate and feasibility (recruitment rate and protocol dose modifications/delays in 90 patients in the experimental arm. If the experimental arm is found to be active, safe, and feasible by the Independent Data Monitoring Committee then recruitment will continue into Phase III. This second

  1. ]Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Shuttle program is one of the most complex engineering activities undertaken anywhere in the world at the present time. The Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) was chartered in September 1999 by NASA to provide an independent review of the Space Shuttle sub-systems and maintenance practices. During the period from October through December 1999, the team led by Dr. McDonald and comprised of NASA, contractor, and DOD experts reviewed NASA practices, Space Shuffle anomalies, as well as civilian and military aerospace experience. In performing the review, much of a very positive nature was observed by the SIAT, not the least of which was the skill and dedication of the workforce. It is in the unfortunate nature of this type of review that the very positive elements are either not mentioned or dwelt upon. This very complex program has undergone a massive change in structure in the last few years with the transition to a slimmed down, contractor-run operation, the Shuttle Flight Operations Contract (SFOC). This has been accomplished with significant cost savings and without a major incident. This report has identified significant problems that must be addressed to maintain an effective program. These problems are described in each of the Issues, Findings or Observations summarized, and unless noted, appear to be systemic in nature and not confined to any one Shuttle sub-system or element. Specifics are given in the body of the report, along with recommendations to improve the present systems.

  2. Definition of contrast enhancement phases of the liver using a perfluoro-based microbubble agent, perflubutane microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunichi, Sasaki; Hiroko, Iijima; Fuminori, Moriyasu; Waki, Hidehiko

    2009-11-01

    To define the contrast enhancement phases in the liver with perflubutane microbubbles, the liver enhancement time-intensity curves were investigated in 14 healthy volunteers. The agent was injected intravenously as a bolus and the liver was imaged with an ultrasound scanner as long as 4h after the injection. Time-intensity curves from the hepatic artery, the intrahepatic portal vein, the hepatic vein and the parenchyma of the liver were obtained from the liver ultrasound images. The arrival of the agent in the hepatic artery, the portal vein and the hepatic vein were visually distinguishable and the mean arrival times were 19.2, 24.3 and 32.2 s after the injection, respectively. The signal intensity in these vessels increased rapidly after the arrival of the contrast and gradually reverted to baseline after the peak. In contrast, within 5 min after the injection, the intensity in the parenchyma increased and reached a plateau, which persisted for at least 2h. The contrast enhancement phases in the liver with perflubutane microbubbles could be defined as two major phases-a vascular phase, in which the vessels are enhanced between 15 s and 10 min after injection, and a Kupffer phase, in which the parenchyma is enhanced 10 min after injection. The vascular phase is divided into three subphases: the arterial phase (15 to 45 s after injection); the portal phase (45 s to 1 min after injection); and the vasculo-Kupffer phase (1 to 10 min after injection).

  3. The models of phase transformations definition in the software Deform and their effect on the output values from the numerical simulation of gear thermal processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Benesova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the aid of DEFORM® software it is possible to conduct numerical simulation of workpiece phase composition during and upon heat treatment. The computation can be based on either the graphical representation of TTT diagram of the steel in question or one of the mathematical models integrated in the software, the latter being applicable if the required constants are known. The present paper gives an evaluation of differences between results of numerical simulations with various definitions of phase transformation for the heat treatment of a gearwheel and a specially prepared specimen of simple shape. It was found that the preparation of input data in terms of thorough mapping of characteristics of the material is essential. 

  4. Space shuttle and life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1980's, some 200 Spacelab missions will be flown on space shuttle in earth-orbit. Within these 200 missions, it is planned that at least 20 will be dedicated to life sciences research, projects which are yet to be outlined by the life sciences community. Objectives of the Life Sciences Shuttle/Spacelab Payloads Program are presented. Also discussed are major space life sciences programs including space medicine and physiology, clinical medicine, life support technology, and a variety of space biology topics. The shuttle, spacelab, and other life sciences payload carriers are described. Concepts for carry-on experiment packages, mini-labs, shared and dedicated spacelabs, as well as common operational research equipment (CORE) are reviewed. Current NASA planning and development includes Spacelab Mission Simulations, an Announcement of Planning Opportunity for Life Sciences, and a forthcoming Announcement of Opportunity for Flight Experiments which will together assist in forging a Life Science Program in space.

  5. Changes to the shuttle circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    To fit with passengers expectation, there will be some changes to the shuttle circuits as from Monday 10 October. See details on http://cern.ch/ShuttleService (on line on 7 October). Circuit No. 5 is cancelled as circuit No. 1 also stops at Bldg. 33. In order to guarantee shorter travel times, circuit No. 1 will circulate on Meyrin site only and circuit No. 2, with departures from Bldg. 33 and 500, on Prévessin site only. Site Services Section

  6. Shuttle Propulsion Overview to NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the early morning on Saturday, February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke up during entry. After extensive investigation of the accident and recommendations made by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board, President Bush gave the vision for space exploration for NASA, which include return the Space Shuttle to flight as soon as practical, complete assembly of the ISS by the end of the decade, initiate robotic missions to the moon no later than 2008, develop a new Crew Exploration Vehicle, conduct first robotic, then human missions to Mars and extend human exploration across the solar system.

  7. Definition and Counting of Configurational Microstates in Steady-State Two-Phase Flows in Pore Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Marios S. Valavanides; Tryfon Daras

    2016-01-01

    Steady-state two-phase flow in porous media is a process whereby a wetting phase displaces a non-wetting phase within a pore network. It is an off-equilibrium stationary process—in the sense that it is maintained in dynamic equilibrium at the expense of energy supplied to the system. The efficiency of the process depends on its spontaneity, measurable by the rate of global entropy production. The latter has been proposed to comprise two components: the rate of mechanical energy dissipation at...

  8. Phase II evaluation of clinical coding schemes: completeness, taxonomy, mapping, definitions, and clarity. CPRI Work Group on Codes and Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J R; Carpenter, P; Sneiderman, C; Cohn, S; Chute, C G; Warren, J

    1997-01-01

    To compare three potential sources of controlled clinical terminology (READ codes version 3.1, SNOMED International, and Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) version 1.6) relative to attributes of completeness, clinical taxonomy, administrative mapping, term definitions and clarity (duplicate coding rate). The authors assembled 1929 source concept records from a variety of clinical information taken from four medical centers across the United States. The source data included medical as well as ample nursing terminology. The source records were coded in each scheme by an investigator and checked by the coding scheme owner. The codings were then scored by an independent panel of clinicians for acceptability. Codes were checked for definitions provided with the scheme. Codes for a random sample of source records were analyzed by an investigator for "parent" and "child" codes within the scheme. Parent and child pairs were scored by an independent panel of medical informatics specialists for clinical acceptability. Administrative and billing code mapping from the published scheme were reviewed for all coded records and analyzed by independent reviewers for accuracy. The investigator for each scheme exhaustively searched a sample of coded records for duplications. SNOMED was judged to be significantly more complete in coding the source material than the other schemes (SNOMED* 70%; READ 57%; UMLS 50%; *p < .00001). SNOMED also had a richer clinical taxonomy judged by the number of acceptable first-degree relatives per coded concept (SNOMED* 4.56, UMLS 3.17; READ 2.14, *p < .005). Only the UMLS provided any definitions; these were found for 49% of records which had a coding assignment. READ and UMLS had better administrative mappings (composite score: READ* 40.6%; UMLS* 36.1%; SNOMED 20.7%, *p < .00001), and SNOMED had substantially more duplications of coding assignments (duplication rate: READ 0%; UMLS 4.2%; SNOMED* 13.9%, *p < .004) associated with a loss of clarity

  9. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study. [for space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, G. K.

    1976-01-01

    The results of several studies Space Shuttle communication system are summarized. These tasks can be divided into the following categories: (1) phase multiplexing for two- and three-channel data transmission, (2) effects of phase noise on the performance of coherent communication links, (3) analysis of command system performance, (4) error correcting code tradeoffs, (5) signal detection and angular search procedure for the shuttle Ku-band communication system, and (6) false lock performance of Costas loop receivers.

  10. The Italy's D.P.C. - I.N.G.V. Project UNREST: Realization of an integrated method for the definition of the unrest phases at Campi Flegrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, Lucia; Del Pezzo, Edoardo

    2010-05-01

    In this poster we present the framework of the Project "UNREST" and the preliminary results obtained in the first 18 months of activity. The Campi Flegrei resurgent caldera, where several hundred thousands people live, have been characterized during last decades by several bradiseismic crises which determined the partial evacuation of the population, as for the crises in 1969-72 and 1982-84. Recent studies have revealed a process of unrest which continues since the fifties, and which presents characteristics similar to the several centuries-decades long unrest period which led to the last eruption in AD 1538. In the frame of last INGV-DPC Agreement a method has been developed, which allows accounting of any information and associated uncertainty coming from historical, field, and modelling studies, and from the monitoring network, providing a probability on the state of the volcano and on the occurrence of an eruption. In the present project this method is explored and developed, particularly through the experimentation of methods for the definition of reference parameters and thresholds, and of criteria and procedures to make it an operational tool useful for volcano surveillance and crisis management. The research in the project include the following points: a) Definition of the reference database for the validation of models of pre-eruptive dynamics. The database will include geologic, geophysic, geochemical, hydrological and hystorical data. b) Quantitative analysis of measured signals, and formulation of hypotheses on source mechanisms. c) Definition of a general conceptual model for the magma-rocks-geothermal system at Campi Flegrei. d) Physico-mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of the magmatic and geothermal process dynamics, and of the space-time relationships between such dynamics and the geophysical and geochemical signals measured at the surface. e) Definition of the critical parameters for the definition of the different unrest phases, and

  11. Definition and Counting of Configurational Microstates in Steady-State Two-Phase Flows in Pore Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios S. Valavanides

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Steady-state two-phase flow in porous media is a process whereby a wetting phase displaces a non-wetting phase within a pore network. It is an off-equilibrium stationary process—in the sense that it is maintained in dynamic equilibrium at the expense of energy supplied to the system. The efficiency of the process depends on its spontaneity, measurable by the rate of global entropy production. The latter has been proposed to comprise two components: the rate of mechanical energy dissipation at constant temperature (a thermal entropy component, Q/T, in the continuum mechanics scale and the configurational entropy (a Boltzmann–Gibbs entropy component, klnW, due to the existence of a canonical ensemble of flow configurations, physically admissible to the externally imposed macrostate conditions. Here, we propose an analytical model to account the number of microstates, lnW, in two-phase flows in pore networks. Combinatorial analysis is implemented to evaluate the number of identified microstates per physically admissible internal flow arrangement, compatible with the imposed steady-state flow conditions. Then, Stirling’s approximation is applied to downscale the large factorial numbers. Finally, the number of microstates is estimated by contriving an appropriate mixing scheme over the canonical ensemble of the physically admissible flow configurations. Indicative computations are furnished.

  12. Aerothermodynamic data base. Data file contents report, phase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Space shuttle aerothermodynamic data, collected from a continuing series of wind tunnel tests, are permanently stored with the Data Management Services (DMS) system. Information pertaining to current baseline configuration definition is also stored. Documentation of DMS processed data arranged sequentially and by space shuttle configuration is listed to provide an up-to-date record of all applicable aerothermodynamic data collected, processed, or summarized during the space shuttle program. Tables provide survey information to the various space shuttle managerial and technical levels.

  13. Measurement of hold-up volumes in reverse-phase liquid chromatography Definition and comparison between static and dynamic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Kazakevich, Yuri; Guiochon, Georges

    2007-08-17

    The hold-up volumes, V(M) of two series of RPLC adsorbents were measured using three different approaches. The first method is based on the difference between the volumes of the empty column tube (150x4.6mm) and of the material packed inside the column. It is considered as giving the correct value of V(M). This method combines the results of the BET characterization of the adsorbent before packing (giving the specific pore volume), of carbon element analysis (giving the mass fraction of silica and alkyl bonded chains), of Helium pycnometry (providing silica density), and of inverse size exclusion chromatography (ISEC) performed on the packed column (yielding the interparticle volume). The second method is static pycnometry, which consists in weighing the masses of the chromatographic column filled with two distinct solvents of different densities. The last method is based on the thermodynamic definition of the hold-up volume and uses the dynamic minor disturbance method (MDM) with binary eluents. The experimental results of these three non-destructive methods are compared. They exhibit significant, systematic differences. Pycnometry underestimates V(M) by a few percent for adsorbents having a high carbon content. The results of the MDM method depend strongly on the choice of the binary solution used and may underestimate or overestimate V(M). The hold-up volume V(M) of the RPLC adsorbents tested is best measured by the MDM method using a mixture of ethanol and water.

  14. On-board B-ISDN fast packet switching architectures. Phase 2: Development. Proof-of-concept architecture definition report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyy, Dong-Jye; Redman, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    For the next-generation packet switched communications satellite system with onboard processing and spot-beam operation, a reliable onboard fast packet switch is essential to route packets from different uplink beams to different downlink beams. The rapid emergence of point-to-point services such as video distribution, and the large demand for video conference, distributed data processing, and network management makes the multicast function essential to a fast packet switch (FPS). The satellite's inherent broadcast features gives the satellite network an advantage over the terrestrial network in providing multicast services. This report evaluates alternate multicast FPS architectures for onboard baseband switching applications and selects a candidate for subsequent breadboard development. Architecture evaluation and selection will be based on the study performed in phase 1, 'Onboard B-ISDN Fast Packet Switching Architectures', and other switch architectures which have become commercially available as large scale integration (LSI) devices.

  15. A Phase 1/2 Study of Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Using Docetaxel, Nedaplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil (DNF-R) for Esophageal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yasushi; Hirakawa, Masahiro; Okagawa, Yutaka; Osuga, Takahiro; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Miyanishi, Koji; Kobune, Masayoshi; Takimoto, Rishu [Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Sagawa, Tamotsu [Division of Gastroenterology, Hokkaido Cancer Center, Sapporo (Japan); Hori, Masakazu; Someya, Masanori; Nakata, Kensei; Sakata, Koh-ichi [Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Takayama, Tetsuji [Department of Gastroenterology and Oncology, University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Kato, Junji, E-mail: jkato@sapmed.ac.jp [Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patient survival in esophageal cancer (EC) remains poor. The purpose of this study was to investigate a regimen of definitive chemoradiation therapy (CRT) that exerts good local control of EC. We performed a phase 1/2 study to assess the safety and efficacy of CRT with docetaxel, nedaplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (DNF-R). Methods and Materials: Eligible patients presented with stage IB to IV EC. Patients received 2 cycles of docetaxel (20, 30, or 40 mg/m{sup 2}) and nedaplatin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) on days 1 and 8 and a continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m{sup 2}/day) on days 1 to 5 and 8 to 12, every 5 weeks, with concurrent radiation therapy (59.4 Gy/33 fractions). The recommended dose (RD) was determined using a 3 + 3 design. Results: In the phase 1 study, the dose-limiting toxicities were neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. The RD of docetaxel was determined to be 20 mg/m{sup 2}. In the phase 2 study, grade 3 to 4 acute toxicities included neutropenia (42.8%), febrile neutropenia (7.14%), thrombocytopenia (17.9%), and esophagitis (21.4%). Grade 3 to 4 late radiation toxicity included esophagostenosis (10.7%). The complete response rate was 82.1% (95% confidence interval: 67.9-96.3%). Both the median progression-free survival and overall survival were 41.2 months. Conclusions: DNF-R showed good tolerability and strong antitumor activity, suggesting that it is a potentially effective therapeutic regimen for EC.

  16. Space Shuttle Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threat Assessment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J.; Christiansen, E.

    Prior to each shuttle mission, Meteoroid and orbital Debris (M/OD) threat assessments are performed to determine the critical penetration risk for the orbiter vehicle, the radiator tube leak risk &the window replacement risk. Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the assessment. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). An M/OD risk analysis is typically performed in support of orbiter Cargo Integration Reviews (CIR) and Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR). Three types of M/OD risk are assessed. The most important involves the calculation of "critical" penetration risk, defined as penetrations that may result in the catastrophic loss of vehicle and crew. Critical failure criteria have been established though detailed engineering evaluations by NASA and Boeing. The radiator assessment is concerned with premature end-of- mission due to loss of a coolant loop. The window assessment is a postflight maintenance and logistics issue. The result s are provided to the Space Shuttle Vehicle Engineering Office (MV) the Space and Life Science Directorate (SA) at JSC. This paper will document the inputs used in the critical penetration analysis for CIR, FRR, and post-flight assessments, it will also serve as a reference for the Space Shuttle Orbiter finite element model (FEM) surface property definitions that are used in M/OD threat assessments.

  17. Space Shuttle and Hypersonic Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years of human spaceflight have been characterized by the aerospace operations of the Soyuz, of the Space Shuttle and, more recently, of the Shenzhou. The lessons learned of this past half decade are important and very significant. Particularly interesting is the scenario that is downstream from the retiring of the Space Shuttle. A number of initiatives are, in fact, emerging from in the aftermath of the decision to terminate the Shuttle program. What is more and more evident is that a new era is approaching: the era of the commercial usage and of the commercial exploitation of space. It is probably fair to say, that this is the likely one of the new frontiers of expansion of the world economy. To make a comparison, in the last 30 years our economies have been characterized by the digital technologies, with examples ranging from computers, to cellular phones, to the satellites themselves. Similarly, the next 30 years are likely to be characterized by an exponential increase of usage of extra atmospheric resources, as a result of more economic and efficient way to access space, with aerospace transportation becoming accessible to commercial investments. We are witnessing the first steps of the transportation of future generation that will drastically decrease travel time on our Planet, and significantly enlarge travel envelope including at least the low Earth orbits. The Steve Jobs or the Bill Gates of the past few decades are being replaced by the aggressive and enthusiastic energy of new entrepreneurs. It is also interesting to note that we are now focusing on the aerospace band, that lies on top of the aeronautical shell, and below the low Earth orbits. It would be a mistake to consider this as a known envelope based on the evidences of the flights of Soyuz, Shuttle and Shenzhou. Actually, our comprehension of the possible hypersonic flight regimes is bounded within really limited envelopes. The achievement of a full understanding of the hypersonic flight

  18. Space Shuttle and Hypersonic Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years of human spaceflight have been characterized by the aerospace operations of the Soyuz, of the Space Shuttle and, more recently, of the Shenzhou. The lessons learned of this past half decade are important and very significant. Particularly interesting is the scenario that is downstream from the retiring of the Space Shuttle. A number of initiatives are, in fact, emerging from in the aftermath of the decision to terminate the Shuttle program. What is more and more evident is that a new era is approaching: the era of the commercial usage and of the commercial exploitation of space. It is probably fair to say, that this is the likely one of the new frontiers of expansion of the world economy. To make a comparison, in the last 30 years our economies have been characterized by the digital technologies, with examples ranging from computers, to cellular phones, to the satellites themselves. Similarly, the next 30 years are likely to be characterized by an exponential increase of usage of extra atmospheric resources, as a result of more economic and efficient way to access space, with aerospace transportation becoming accessible to commercial investments. We are witnessing the first steps of the transportation of future generation that will drastically decrease travel time on our Planet, and significantly enlarge travel envelope including at least the low Earth orbits. The Steve Jobs or the Bill Gates of the past few decades are being replaced by the aggressive and enthusiastic energy of new entrepreneurs. It is also interesting to note that we are now focusing on the aerospace band, that lies on top of the aeronautical shell, and below the low Earth orbits. It would be a mistake to consider this as a known envelope based on the evidences of the flights of Soyuz, Shuttle and Shenzhou. Actually, our comprehension of the possible hypersonic flight regimes is bounded within really limited envelopes. The achievement of a full understanding of the hypersonic flight

  19. Space Shuttle Main Engine control system. [hydraulic actuator with digital control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, P. F.; Searle, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine is a reusable, high-performance rocket engine being developed by the Rocketdyne Div. of Rockwell International to satisfy the operational requirements of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle. The design incorporates a hydraulically actuated, closed-loop servosystem controlled and monitored by a programmable electronic digital controller. The controller accepts vehicle commands for the various engine operational phases, positions the appropriate valves, monitors the engine for the required performance precisions and conditions, and provides redundancy management.

  20. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  1. Structural Definition and Mass Estimation of Lunar Surface Habitats for the Lunar Architecture Team Phase 2 (LAT-2) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Wu, K, Chauncey; Smith, Russell W.

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Architecture Team Phase 2 study defined and assessed architecture options for a Lunar Outpost at the Moon's South Pole. The Habitation Focus Element Team was responsible for developing concepts for all of the Habitats and pressurized logistics modules particular to each of the architectures, and defined the shapes, volumes and internal layouts considering human factors, surface operations and safety requirements, as well as Lander mass and volume constraints. The Structures Subsystem Team developed structural concepts, sizing estimates and mass estimates for the primary Habitat structure. In these studies, the primary structure was decomposed into a more detailed list of components to be sized to gain greater insight into concept mass contributors. Structural mass estimates were developed that captured the effect of major design parameters such as internal pressure load. Analytical and empirical equations were developed for each structural component identified. Over 20 different hard-shell, hybrid expandable and inflatable soft-shell Habitat and pressurized logistics module concepts were sized and compared to assess structural performance and efficiency during the study. Habitats were developed in three categories; Mini Habs that are removed from the Lander and placed on the Lunar surface, Monolithic habitats that remain on the Lander, and Habitats that are part of the Mobile Lander system. Each category of Habitat resulted in structural concepts with advantages and disadvantages. The same modular shell components could be used for the Mini Hab concept, maximizing commonality and minimizing development costs. Larger Habitats had higher volumetric mass efficiency and floor area than smaller Habitats (whose mass was dominated by fixed items such as domes and frames). Hybrid and pure expandable Habitat structures were very mass-efficient, but the structures technology is less mature, and the ability to efficiently package and deploy internal subsystems

  2. An Operational Definition of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Guershon; Koichu, Boris

    2010-01-01

    An operational definition offered in this paper posits learning as a multi-dimensional and multi-phase phenomenon occurring when individuals attempt to solve what they view as a problem. To model someone's learning accordingly to the definition, it suffices to characterize a particular sequence of that person's disequilibrium-equilibrium phases in…

  3. Space Shuttle Main Engine Public Test Firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A new NASA Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) roars to the approval of more than 2,000 people who came to John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on July 25 for a flight-certification test of the SSME Block II configuration. The engine, a new and significantly upgraded shuttle engine, was delivered to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida for use on future shuttle missions. Spectators were able to experience the 'shake, rattle and roar' of the engine, which ran for 520 seconds - the length of time it takes a shuttle to reach orbit.

  4. Serum albumin acts as a shuttle to enhance cholesterol efflux from cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; de la Llera-Moya, Margarita; Drazul-Schrader, Denise; Phillips, Michael C; Kellner-Weibel, Ginny; Rothblat, George H

    2013-03-01

    An important mechanism contributing to cell cholesterol efflux is aqueous transfer in which cholesterol diffuses from cells into the aqueous phase and becomes incorporated into an acceptor particle. Some compounds can enhance diffusion by acting as shuttles transferring cholesterol to cholesterol acceptors, which act as cholesterol sinks. We have examined whether particles in serum can enhance cholesterol efflux by acting as shuttles. This task was accomplished by incubating radiolabeled J774 cells with increasing concentrations of lipoprotein-depleted sera (LPDS) or components present in serum as shuttles and a constant amount of LDL, small unilamellar vesicles, or red blood cells (RBC) as sinks. Synergistic efflux was measured as the difference in fractional efflux in excess of that predicted by the addition of the individual efflux values of sink and shuttle alone. Synergistic efflux was obtained when LPDS was incubated with cells and LDL. When different components of LPDS were used as shuttles, albumin produced synergistic efflux, while apoA-I did not. A synergistic effect was also obtained when RBC was used as the sink and albumin as shuttle. The previously observed negative association of albumin with coronary artery disease might be linked to reduced cholesterol shuttling that would occur when serum albumin levels are low.

  5. Current Noise Spectrum of a Quantum Shuttle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian; Novotny, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2005-01-01

    We present a method for calculating the full current noise spectrum S(omega) for the class of nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) that can be described by a Markovian generalized master equation. As a specific example we apply the method to a quantum shuttle. The noise spectrum of the shuttle h...

  6. Shuttle onboard IMU alignment methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The current approach to the shuttle IMU alignment is based solely on the Apollo Deterministic Method. This method is simple, fast, reliable and provides an accurate estimate for the present cluster to mean of 1,950 transformation matrix. If four or more star sightings are available, the application of least squares analysis can be utilized. The least squares method offers the next level of sophistication to the IMU alignment solution. The least squares method studied shows that a more accurate estimate for the misalignment angles is computed, and the IMU drift rates are a free by-product of the analysis. Core storage requirements are considerably more; estimated 20 to 30 times the core required for the Apollo Deterministic Method. The least squares method offers an intermediate solution utilizing as much data that is available without a complete statistical analysis as in Kalman filtering.

  7. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, P; Helin, K

    2000-01-01

    To elicit the transcriptional response following intra- or extracellular stimuli, the signals need to be transmitted to their site of action within the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors is a mechanism mediating this process. The activation and inactivation...... of the transcriptional response is essential for cells to progress through the cell cycle in a normal manner. The involvement of cytoplasmic and nuclear accessory molecules, and the general nuclear membrane transport components, are essential for this process. Although nuclear import and export for different...... transcription factor families are regulated by similar mechanisms, there are several differences that allow for the specific activation of each transcription factor. This review discusses the general import and export pathways found to be common amongst many different transcription factors, and highlights...

  8. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, P; Helin, K

    2000-01-01

    To elicit the transcriptional response following intra- or extracellular stimuli, the signals need to be transmitted to their site of action within the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors is a mechanism mediating this process. The activation and inactivation...... transcription factor families are regulated by similar mechanisms, there are several differences that allow for the specific activation of each transcription factor. This review discusses the general import and export pathways found to be common amongst many different transcription factors, and highlights...... of the transcriptional response is essential for cells to progress through the cell cycle in a normal manner. The involvement of cytoplasmic and nuclear accessory molecules, and the general nuclear membrane transport components, are essential for this process. Although nuclear import and export for different...

  9. Space Shuttle RTOS Bayesian Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. Terry; Beling, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    With shrinking budgets and the requirements to increase reliability and operational life of the existing orbiter fleet, NASA has proposed various upgrades for the Space Shuttle that are consistent with national space policy. The cockpit avionics upgrade (CAU), a high priority item, has been selected as the next major upgrade. The primary functions of cockpit avionics include flight control, guidance and navigation, communication, and orbiter landing support. Secondary functions include the provision of operational services for non-avionics systems such as data handling for the payloads and caution and warning alerts to the crew. Recently, a process to selection the optimal commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) real-time operating system (RTOS) for the CAU was conducted by United Space Alliance (USA) Corporation, which is a joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin, the prime contractor for space shuttle operations. In order to independently assess the RTOS selection, NASA has used the Bayesian network-based scoring methodology described in this paper. Our two-stage methodology addresses the issue of RTOS acceptability by incorporating functional, performance and non-functional software measures related to reliability, interoperability, certifiability, efficiency, correctness, business, legal, product history, cost and life cycle. The first stage of the methodology involves obtaining scores for the various measures using a Bayesian network. The Bayesian network incorporates the causal relationships between the various and often competing measures of interest while also assisting the inherently complex decision analysis process with its ability to reason under uncertainty. The structure and selection of prior probabilities for the network is extracted from experts in the field of real-time operating systems. Scores for the various measures are computed using Bayesian probability. In the second stage, multi-criteria trade-off analyses are performed between the scores

  10. Space Shuttle Orbiter-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration is an orbiter cutaway view with callouts. The orbiter is both the brains and heart of the Space Transportation System (STS). About the same size and weight as a DC-9 aircraft, the orbiter contains the pressurized crew compartment (which can normally carry up to seven crew members), the huge cargo bay, and the three main engines mounted on its aft end. There are three levels to the crew cabin. Uppermost is the flight deck where the commander and the pilot control the mission. The middeck is where the gallery, toilet, sleep stations, and storage and experiment lockers are found for the basic needs of weightless daily living. Also located in the middeck is the airlock hatch into the cargo bay and space beyond. It is through this hatch and airlock that astronauts go to don their spacesuits and marned maneuvering units in preparation for extravehicular activities, more popularly known as spacewalks. The Space Shuttle's cargo bay is adaptable to hundreds of tasks. Large enough to accommodate a tour bus (60 x 15 feet or 18.3 x 4.6 meters), the cargo bay carries satellites, spacecraft, and spacelab scientific laboratories to and from Earth orbit. It is also a work station for astronauts to repair satellites, a foundation from which to erect space structures, and a hold for retrieved satellites to be returned to Earth. Thermal tile insulation and blankets (also known as the thermal protection system or TPS) cover the underbelly, bottom of the wings, and other heat-bearing surfaces of the orbiter to protect it during its fiery reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. The Shuttle's 24,000 individual tiles are made primarily of pure-sand silicate fibers, mixed with a ceramic binder. The solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are designed as an in-house Marshall Space Flight Center project, with United Space Boosters as the assembly and refurbishment contractor. The solid rocket motor (SRM) is provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  11. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  12. Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy With Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil (DCF-R) in Advanced Esophageal Cancer: A Phase 2 Trial (KDOG 0501-P2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Katsuhiko, E-mail: k.higu@kitasato-u.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University East Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Komori, Shouko [Department of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Tanabe, Satoshi [Department of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University East Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Katada, Chikatoshi [Department of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Azuma, Mizutomo [Department of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University East Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Ishiyama, Hiromichi [Department of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Sasaki, Tohru; Ishido, Kenji [Department of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University East Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Katada, Natsuya [Department of Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Hayakawa, Kazushige [Department of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Koizumi, Wasaburo [Department of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University East Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: A previous phase 1 study suggested that definitive chemoradiation therapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (DCF-R) is tolerable and active in patients with advanced esophageal cancer (AEC). This phase 2 study was designed to confirm the efficacy and toxicity of DCF-R in AEC. Methods and Materials: Patients with previously untreated thoracic AEC who had T4 tumors or M1 lymph node metastasis (M1 LYM), or both, received intravenous infusions of docetaxel (35 mg/m{sup 2}) and cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) on day 1 and a continuous intravenous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m{sup 2}/day) on days 1 to 5, every 2 weeks, plus concurrent radiation. The total radiation dose was initially 61.2 Gy but was lowered to multiple-field irradiation with 50.4 Gy to decrease esophagitis and late toxicity. Consequently, the number of cycles of DCF administered during radiation therapy was reduced from 4 to 3. The primary endpoint was the clinical complete response (cCR) rate. Results: Characteristics of the 42 subjects were: median age, 62 years; performance status, 0 in 14, 1 in 25, 2 in 3; TNM classification, T4M0 in 20, non-T4M1LYM in 12, T4M1LYM in 10; total scheduled radiation dose: 61.2 Gy in 12, 50.4 Gy in 30. The cCR rate was 52.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.3%-67.5%) overall, 33.3% in the 61.2-Gy group, and 60.0% in the 50.4-Gy group. The median progression-free survival was 11.1 months, and the median survival was 29.0 months with a survival rate of 43.9% at 3 years. Grade 3 or higher major toxicity consisted of leukopenia (71.4%), neutropenia (57.2%), anemia (16.7%), febrile neutropenia (38.1%), anorexia (31.0%), and esophagitis (28.6%). Conclusions: DCF-R frequently caused myelosuppression and esophagitis but was highly active and suggested to be a promising regimen in AEC. On the basis of efficacy and safety, a radiation dose of 50.4 Gy is recommended for further studies of DCF-R.

  13. Latent Virus Reactivation in Space Shuttle Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Latent virus reactivation was measured in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected 2-4 months before launch, 10 days before launch (L-10), 2-3 hours after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+14), and 120 days after landing (R+120). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was measured in these samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA was measured in the 381 saliva samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the 66 urine samples collected from these subjects. Fourteen astronauts shed EBV DNA in 21% of their saliva samples before, during, and after flight, and 7 astronauts shed VZV in 7.4% of their samples during and after flight. It was interesting that shedding of both EBV and VZV increased during the flight phase relative to before or after flight. In the case of CMV, 32% of urine samples from 8 subjects contained DNA of this virus. In normal healthy control subjects, EBV shedding was found in 3% and VZV and CMV were found in less than 1% of the samples. The circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol measured before, during, and after space flight did not show any significant difference between flight phases. These data show that increased reactivation of latent herpes viruses may be associated with decreased immune system function, which has been reported in earlier studies as well as in these same subjects (data not reported here).

  14. Advantages of a round-body shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, James P.; Wells, William L.; Lepsch, Roger A., Jr.; Huffman, Jarrett K.; Macconochie, Ian O.

    1989-01-01

    A cylindrical fuselage cross-section SSTOV representing the design generation beyond the current NASA Space Shuttle has been projected capable of reducing the cost of payload delivery to orbit while increasing mission scope. Due to its intrinsically greater wetted-area and structural weight efficiencies, this cylindrical vehicle would carry 40 percent greater payload than the Space Shuttle system despite a 20-percent lower gross liftoff weight. A LOX/hydrocarbon fuel combination would be employed during the early portion of flight, thereupon shifting to LOX/hydrogen. The cylindrical SSTOV would have eight times the volume of the Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  15. Shuttle Upgrade Program: Tile TPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Stewart, David A.; DiFiore, Robert; Irby, Ed; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the areas where the thermal protection system on the Space Shuttle Orbiter could be improved is the RSI (Reusable Surface Insulation) tile. The improvement would be in damage resistance that would reduce the resultant maintenance and inspection required. It has performed very well in every other aspect. Improving the system's damage resistance has been the subject of much research over the past several years. One of the results of that research was a new system developed for damage prone areas on the orbiter (i.e., base heat shield). That system, designated as TUFI, Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation, was successfully demonstrated as an experiment on the Orbiter and is now baselined for the base heat shield. This paper describes the results of a current research program to further improve the TUFI tile system, thus making it applicable to more areas on the orbiter. The way to remove the current limitations of the TUFI system (i.e., weight or thermal conductivity differences between it and the baseline tile (LI-900)) is to improve the characteristics of LI-900 or AETB-8. Specifically this paper describes the results of two efforts. The first shows performance data of an improved LI-900 system involving the application of TUFI and the second describes data that shows a reduced difference in thermal conductivity between the advanced TUFI substrate (AETB-8) now used on the orbiter and LI-900.

  16. Bringing Definitions into High Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John

    2010-01-01

    Why do definitions play such a central role in mathematics? It may seem obvious that precision about the terms one uses is necessary in order to use those terms reasonably (while reasoning). Definitions are chosen so as to be definite about the terms one uses, but also to make both the statement of, and the reasoning to justify, theorems as…

  17. The space shuttle program technologies and accomplishments

    CERN Document Server

    Sivolella, Davide

    2017-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Space Shuttle in its many different roles as orbital launch platform, orbital workshop, and science and technology laboratory. It focuses on the technology designed and developed to support the missions of the Space Shuttle program. Each mission is examined, from both the technical and managerial viewpoints. Although outwardly identical, the capabilities of the orbiters in the late years of the program were quite different from those in 1981. Sivolella traces the various improvements and modifications made to the shuttle over the years as part of each mission story. Technically accurate but with a pleasing narrative style and simple explanations of complex engineering concepts, the book provides details of many lesser known concepts, some developed but never flown, and commemorates the ingenuity of NASA and its partners in making each Space Shuttle mission push the boundaries of what we can accomplish in space. Using press kits, original papers, newspaper and magazine articles...

  18. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Influenza A Virus Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1, nucleoprotein (NP, nonstructural protein (NS1, and nuclear export protein (NEP, summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses.

  19. CERN Shuttles - Enlarged Regular Shuttle Services as from 8/02/2010

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    As of Monday 8 February 2010, please note the enhancement of the regular shuttle services: - with now two shuttles dedicated to the transportation within and between both CERN sites, Meyrin and Prevessin with bus stop at more buildings - To and from the Geneva airport every hour (from building 500) to complement the TPG bus Y For timetable details, please click here: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/RegularShuttleTimetable_Feb2010.htm GS-SEM

  20. Space Shuttle Program Tin Whisker Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimi, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of tin whiskers (TW) on space shuttle hardware led to a program to investigate and removal and mitigation of the source of the tin whiskers. A Flight Control System (FCS) avionics box failed during vehicle testing, and was routed to the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot for testing and disassembly. The internal inspection of the box revealed TW growth visible without magnification. The results of the Tiger Team that was assembled to investigate and develop recommendations are reviewed in this viewgraph presentation.

  1. Kinetic simulation of malate-aspartate and citrate-pyruvate shuttles in association with Krebs cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korla, Kalyani; Vadlakonda, Lakshmipathi; Mitra, Chanchal K

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we have kinetically simulated two mitochondrial shuttles, malate-aspartate shuttle (used for transferring reducing equivalents) and citrate-pyruvate shuttle (used for transferring carbon skeletons). However, the functions of these shuttles are not limited to the points mentioned above, and they can be used in different arrangements to meet different cellular requirements. Both the shuttles are intricately associated with Krebs cycle through the metabolites involved. The study of this system of shuttles and Krebs cycle explores the response of the system in different metabolic environments. Here, we have simulated these subsets individually and then combined them to study the interactions among them and to bring out the dynamics of these pathways in focus. Four antiports and a pyruvate pump were modelled along with the metabolic reactions on both sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Michaelis-Menten approach was extended for deriving rate equations of every component of the system. Kinetic simulation was carried out using ordinary differential equation solver in GNU Octave. It was observed that all the components attained steady state, sooner or later, depending on the system conditions. Progress curves and phase plots were plotted to understand the steady state behaviour of the metabolites involved. A comparative analysis between experimental and simulated data show fair agreement thus validating the usefulness and applicability of the model.

  2. 高清CT容积螺旋穿梭技术在儿童法洛四联症临床路径中的价值%The value of volume helical shuttle of high-definition CT in clinical path of tetralogy of Fallot in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冬生; 孙凤伟; 范丽娟; 张立仁; 李旭; 杨丕丕

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究高清CT(HDCT)容积螺旋穿梭技术(VHS)对儿童法洛四联症(TOF)的诊断能力及其在临床路径中的价值.方法 88例术前行HDCT VHS扫描及超声心动图(ECHO)检查诊断为TOF的学龄前儿童,男51例,女37例,年龄1个月~10岁,中位年龄1岁.60例经手术证实,对比分析HDCT VHS与ECHO对TOF基本畸形,血流动力学及其他心内、外病变的显示能力,计算HDCT辐射剂量(mSv).结果 室间隔缺损(VSD)位置,HDCT诊断符合率95.0% (57/60),ECHO诊断符合率90.0% (54/60);测量VSD大小,HDCT数值小于ECHO,P<0.05,差异有统计学意义.判断TOF畸形VSD血流方向时,HDCT均显示VSD右向左分流,符合率100%(60/60),15例同时显示左向右分流,而ECHO均显示双向低速分流.右心室心肌肥厚性狭窄、流出道狭窄、肺动脉瓣狭窄畸形共99处,HDCT、ECHO与手术三者基本一致.McGoon比值,HDCT测量值大于ECHO,P<0.01,差异有统计学意义.主动脉骑跨畸形,HDCT与ECHO骑跨程度符合率均为98.3% (59/60),各误诊1例.其他心内畸形,如房间隔缺损、卵圆孔未闭等共37处,VHS漏诊25处,ECHO漏诊8处.其他心外畸形如一侧肺动脉的狭窄或闭锁、体-肺侧支血管、冠状动脉异常及动脉导管未闭等共88处,HDCT诊断符合率98.8% (87/88),ECHO诊断符合率59.1%(52/88).HDCT平均有效剂量为(1.58±0.43)mSv.结论 HDCT VHS诊断TOF有明显的优势,多组扫描数据能准确、直观地反映心内、外解剖畸形,辐射剂量在可接受的范围内.HDCT VHS与ECHO结合可作为儿童TOF术前确诊与鉴别诊断以及制定手术方案的临床路径.%Objective To discuss the value of volume helical shuttle(VHS) of high-definition CT(HDCT) in diagnosis and clinical path of tetralogy of Fallot(TOF).Methods 88 preschool children with TOF were examined with VHS of HDCT and echocardiography(ECHO).60 children were received surgery.Based on surgical data,the results of VHS of HDCT were compared with

  3. Definitely Life but not Definitively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Joan D.; Perry, Randall S.

    2006-12-01

    Although there have been attempts at a definition of life from many disciplines, none is accepted by all as definitive. Some people believe that it is impossible to define ‘life’ adequately at the moment. We agree with this point of view on linguistic grounds, examining the different types of definition, the contexts in which they are used and their relative usefulness as aids to arriving at a scientific definition of life. We look at some of the more recent definitions and analyse them in the light of our criteria for a good definition. We argue that since there are so many linguistic and philosophical difficulties with such a definition of life, what is needed is a series of working descriptions, which are suited to the audience and context in which they are used and useful for the intended purpose. We provide some ideas and examples of the forms these may take.

  4. Long-term results and recurrence patterns from SCOPE-1: a phase II/III randomised trial of definitive chemoradiotherapy +/− cetuximab in oesophageal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, T; Hurt, C N; Falk, S; Gollins, S; Staffurth, J; Ray, R; Bridgewater, J A; Geh, J I; Cunningham, D; Blazeby, J; Roy, R; Maughan, T; Griffiths, G; Mukherjee, S

    2017-01-01

    Background: The SCOPE-1 study tested the role of adding cetuximab to conventional definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT), and demonstrated greater toxicity and worse survival outcomes. We present the long-term outcomes and patterns of recurrence. Methods: SCOPE-1 was a phase II/III trial in which patients were randomised to cisplatin 60 mg m−2 (day 1) and capecitabine 625 mg m−2 bd (days 1–21) for four cycles +/− cetuximab 400 mg m−2 day 1 then by 250 mg m−2 weekly. Radiotherapy consisted of 50 Gy/25# given concurrently with cycles 3 and 4. Recruitment was between February 2008 and February 2012, when the IDMC recommended closure on the basis of futility. Results: About 258 patients (dCRT=129; dCRT+cetuximab (dCRT+C)=129) were recruited from 36 centres. About 72.9% (n=188) had squamous cell histology. The median follow-up (IQR) was 46.2 (35.9–48.3) months for surviving patients. The median overall survival (OS; months; 95% CI) was 34.5 (24.7–42.3) in dCRT and 24.7 (18.6–31.3) in dCRT+C (hazard ratio (HR)=1.25, 95% CIs: 0.93–1.69, P=0.137). Median progression-free survival (PFS; months; 95% CI) was 24.1 (15.3–29.9) and 15.9 (10.7–20.8) months, respectively (HR=1.28, 95% CIs: 0.94–1.75; P=0.114). On multivariable analysis only earlier stage, full-dose RT, and higher cisplatin dose intensity were associated with improved OS. Conclusions: The mature analysis demonstrates that the dCRT regimen used in the study provided useful survival outcomes despite its use in patients who were largely unfit for surgery or who had inoperable disease. Given the competing risk of systemic and local failure, future studies should continue to focus on enhancing local control as well as optimising systemic therapy. PMID:28196063

  5. Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer - Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the ORFEUS mission is to launch a deployable/retrievable astronomical platform and obtain ultraviolet spectra for both astrophysically interesting sources and the intervening interstellar medium. Also, the IMAX cameras will obtain footage of both the Shuttle and the ORFEUS-SPAS satellite during the deployment/retrieval operations phase of the ORFEUS-SPAS mission.

  6. A new method for hardware/software integration of strategic systems - Case study of the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, S. I.; Ionescu, T. V.; Henley, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced system integrated self-test has been developed to provide dynamic checkout of all critical subsystems and hardware/software interfaces of the Space Shuttle during pre-launch ground testing. The system modifies hardware sensor data to represent a real flight scenario. This modified data then drives the flight software. The system was sucessfully utilized for three phases of Space Shuttle testing, and will be expanded for use as a maintenance tool.

  7. STS-31 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-31 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-34/LWT-27), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) (designated as BI-037). The primary objective of the mission was to place the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into a 330 nmi. circular orbit having an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), IMAX Crew Compartment Camera, and Ion Arc payloads. In addition, 12 development test objectives (DTO's) and 10 detailed supplementary objectives (DSO's) were assigned to the flight. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystems during the mission are summarized, and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Space Shuttle Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  8. Space Shuttle Avionics: a Redundant IMU On-Board Checkout and Redundancy Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckern, R. A.; Brown, D. G.; Dove, D. W.; Gilmore, J. P.; Landey, M. E.; Musoff, H.; Amand, J. S.; Vincent, K. T., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A failure detection and isolation philosophy applicable to multiple off-the-shelf gimbaled IMUs are discussed. The equations developed are implemented and evaluated with actual shuttle trajectory simulations. The results of these simulations are presented for both powered and unpowered flight phases and at operational levels of four, three, and two IMUs. A multiple system checkout philosophy is developed and simulation results presented. The final task develops a laboratory test plan and defines the hardware and software requirements to implement an actual multiple system and evaluate the interim study results for space shuttle application.

  9. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  10. An Analysis of Shuttle Crew Scheduling Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    From the early years of the Space Shuttle program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle crews have had a timeline of activities to guide them through their time on-orbit. Planners used scheduling constraints to build timelines that ensured the health and safety of the crews. If a constraint could not be met it resulted in a violation. Other agencies of the federal government also have scheduling constraints to ensure the safety of personnel and the public. This project examined the history of Space Shuttle scheduling constraints, constraints from Federal agencies and branches of the military and how these constraints may be used as a guide for future NASA and private spacecraft. This was conducted by reviewing rules and violations with regard to human aerospace scheduling constraints, environmental, political, social and technological factors, operating environment and relevant human factors. This study includes a statistical analysis of Shuttle Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) related violations to determine if these were a significant producer of constraint violations. It was hypothesized that the number of SCSC violations caused by EVA activities were a significant contributor to the total number of violations for Shuttle/ISS missions. Data was taken from NASA data archives at the Johnson Space Center from Space Shuttle/ISS missions prior to the STS-107 accident. The results of the analysis rejected the null hypothesis and found that EVA violations were a significant contributor to the total number of violations. This analysis could help NASA and commercial space companies understand the main source of constraint violations and allow them to create constraint rules that ensure the safe operation of future human private and exploration missions. Additional studies could be performed to evaluate other variables that could have influenced the scheduling violations that were analyzed.

  11. STS-129 shuttle crew visits Stennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Members of the STS-129 space shuttle crew visited NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center on Jan. 19 to share details of their November visit to the International Space Station. During their 11-day mission aboard shuttle Atlantis, crew members delivered equipment, supplies and spare parts to the ISS. Following their mission report, astronauts visited with Stennis employees during a brief reception. Astronauts visiting Stennis were Pilot Barry Wilmore, Mission Specialist Randy Bresnik, Commander Charles Hobaugh and Mission Specialists Mike Foreman and Robert Satcher.

  12. Post-Shuttle EVA Operations on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Witt, Vincent; Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the One EVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more

  13. Legacy of the Space Shuttle from an Aerodynamic and Aerothermodynamic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Fred W.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system heating environment is described from a design stand point that began in the early 1970s. The desire for a light weight, reusable heat shield required the development of new technology, relative to previous manned spacecraft, and a systems approach to the design of the vehicle, entry guidance, and thermal protection system. Several unanticipated issues had to be resolved in both the entry and ascent phases of flight, which are discussed at a high level. During the life of the Program, significant improvements in computing power and numerical methods have been applied to Space Shuttle aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic issues, with the Shuttle Program often being the motivation, and or sponsor of the analysis development.

  14. Neuroretinitis -- definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007624.htm Neuroretinitis - definition To use the sharing features on this page, ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial ...

  15. Market Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplow, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Market definition has long held a central place in competition law. This entry surveys recent analytical work that has called the market definition paradigm into question on a number of fronts: whether the process is feasible, whether market share threshold tests are coherent, whether the hypothetical monopolist test in merger guidelines is counterproductive, and whether and when the frequent focus on cross-elasticities is useful.

  16. Neutron dosimetric measurements in shuttle and MIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, G

    2001-06-01

    Detector packages consisting of thermoluminescence detectors (TLD), nuclear emulsions and plastic track detectors were exposed at identical positions inside MIR space station and on shuttle flights inside Spacelab and Spacehab during different phases of the solar cycle. The objectives of the investigations are to provide data on charge and energy spectra of heavy ions, and the contribution of events with low-energy deposit (protons, electrons, gamma, etc.) to the dose, as well as the contribution of secondaries, such as nuclear disintegration stars and neutrons. For neutron dosimetry 6LiF (TLD600) and 7LiF (TLD700) chips were used both of which have almost the same response to gamma rays but different response to neutrons. Neutrons in space are produced mainly in evaporation and knock-on processes with energies mainly of 1-10 MeV and up to several 100 MeV, respectively. The energy spectrum undergoes continuous changes toward greater depth in the attenuating material until an equilibrium is reached. In equilibrium, the spectrum is a wide continuum extending down to thermal energies to which the 6LiF is sensitive. Based on the difference of absorbed doses in the 6LiF and 7LiF chips, thermal neutron fluxes from 1 to 2.3 cm-2 s-1 are calculated using the assumption that the maximum induced dose in TLD600 for 1 neutron cm-2 is 1.6 x 10(-10) Gy (Horowitz and Freeman, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 157 (1978) 393). It is assumed that the flux of high-energy neutrons is at least of that quantity. Tissue doses were calculated taking as a mean ambient absorbed dose per neutron 6 x10(-12) Gy cm2 (for a10 MeV neutron). The neutron equivalent doses for the above-mentioned fluxes are 52 micro Gy d-1 and 120 micro Gy d-1. In recent experiments, a personal neutron dosimeter was integrated into the dosimeter packages. First results of this dosimeter which is based on nuclear track detectors with converter foils are reported. For future measurements, a scintillator counter with

  17. STS-41 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-41 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle, Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-39/LWT-32), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-040. The primary objective of the STS-41 mission was to successfully deploy the Ulysses/inertial upper stage (IUS)/payload assist module (PAM-S) spacecraft. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Spectrometer, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Space Life Sciences Training Program Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Voice Command System (VCS), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Radiation Monitoring Experiment - 3 (RME-3), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Air Force Maui Optical Calibration Test (AMOS), and Intelsat Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) payloads. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  18. STS-52 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-12-01

    The STS-52 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fifty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET (designated as ET-55/LWT-48); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2034 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-054. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L027A for the left SRB and 360Q027B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully deploy the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS-2) and to perform operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-1 (USMP-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Attitude Sensor Package (ASP), the Canadian Experiments-2 (CANEX-2), the Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE), the Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPP), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX), the Physiological System Experiment (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG-Block 2), the Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE), and the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) payloads.

  19. Shuttle Imaging Radar Survey Mission C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Abstract: Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) was part of an imaging radar system that was flown on board two Space Shuttle flights (9 - 20 April, 1994 and 30...

  20. Rockwell Fails in Response to Shuttle Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the contingent media relations policy employed by Rockwell International, the prime contractor for the United States space shuttle program, following the January 28, 1986, destruction of the Challenger. Analyzes Rockwell's response through a theoretical model of crisis perception and Rockwell's policy in relation to the mass media. (MS)

  1. Reliability of a Shuttle reaction timer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Russell D.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Rashid, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Reaction, movement, and task times refer to the times needed to initially respond to a stimulus, make the specific movement, and complete the entire task. This study evaluated the reliability of a simple reaction timer designed to mimic a Space Shuttle task (turning on an overhead switch).

  2. Shuttle Transportation System Case-Study Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah

    2012-01-01

    A case-study collection was developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Using lessons learned and documented by NASA KSC engineers, analysts, and contractors, decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle was gathered into a single database. The goal was to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes and to enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. Suggested formats were created to assist both external educators and internal NASA employees to develop and contribute their own case-study reports to share with other educators and students. Via group project, class discussion, or open-ended research format, students will be introduced to the unique decision making process related to Shuttle missions and development. Teaching notes, images, and related documents will be made accessible to the public for presentation of Space Shuttle reports. Lessons investigated included the engine cutoff (ECO) sensor anomaly which occurred during mission STS-114. Students will be presented with general mission infom1ation as well as an explanation of ECO sensors. The project will conclude with the design of a website that allows for distribution of information to the public as well as case-study report submissions from other educators online.

  3. Shuttle Imaging Radar Survey Mission C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) was part of an imaging radar system that was flown on board two Space Shuttle flights (9 - 20 April, 1994 and 30 September - 11...

  4. AMS gets lift on space shuttle Discovery

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    AMS-02, the CERN-recognized experiment that will seek dark matter, missing matter and antimatter in Space aboard the International Space Station (ISS), has recently got the green light to be part of the STS-134 NASA mission in 2010. Installation of AMS detectors in the Prévessin experiment hall.In a recent press release, NASA announced that the last or last-but-one mission of the Space Shuttle programme would be the one that will deliver AMS, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, to the International Space Station. The Space Shuttle Discovery is due to lift off in July 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and its mission will include the installation of AMS to the exterior of the space station, using both the shuttle and station arms. "It wasn’t easy to get a lift on the Space Shuttle from the Bush administration," says professor Samuel Ting, spokesperson of the experiment, "since during his administration all the funds for space research w...

  5. Optimal Wafer Cutting in Shuttle Layout Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisted, Lasse; Pisinger, David; Altman, Avri

    2011-01-01

    A major cost in semiconductor manufacturing is the generation of photo masks which are used to produce the dies. When producing smaller series of chips it can be advantageous to build a shuttle mask (or multi-project wafer) to share the startup costs by placing different dies on the same mask...

  6. Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) Solar Spectral Irradiance V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) level-2 irradiance data are available for eight space shuttle missions flown between 1989 and 1996. SSBUV, a...

  7. Macro Level Simulation Model Of Space Shuttle Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Space Shuttle Processing Simulation Model; 2) Knowledge Acquisition; 3) Simulation Input Analysis; 4) Model Applications in Current Shuttle Environment; and 5) Model Applications for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV's). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  8. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  9. Space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control design equations. Volume 3: Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control design equations are presented. The space-shuttle mission includes three relatively distinct guidance phases which are discussed; atmospheric boost, which is characterized by an adaptive guidance law; extra-atmospheric activities; and re-entry activities, where aerodynamic surfaces are the principal effectors. Guidance tasks include pre-maneuver targeting and powered flight guidance, where powered flight is defined to include the application of aerodynamic forces as well as thruster forces. A flow chart which follows guidance activities throughout the mission from the pre-launch phase through touchdown is presented. The main guidance programs and subroutines used in each phase of a typical rendezvous mission are listed. Detailed software requirements are also presented.

  10. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) for the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, D. L.; Blacklock, K.; Langhenry, M. T.

    1988-01-01

    The recertification of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) and Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) has included an extensive rewriting of the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL). The evolution of the groundrules and methodology used in the analysis is discussed and compared to standard FMEA techniques. Especially highlighted are aspects of the FMEA/CIL which are unique to the analysis of an SRM. The criticality category definitions are presented and the rationale for assigning criticality is presented. The various data required by the CIL and contribution of this data to the retention rationale is also presented. As an example, the FMEA and CIL for the SRM nozzle assembly is discussed in detail. This highlights some of the difficulties associated with the analysis of a system with the unique mission requirements of the Space Shuttle.

  11. Verification of the Space Shuttle entry GN&C system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoften, J. D. A.; Moyles, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The certification procedures for the initial Shuttle flight are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the entry guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) verification, comprising tests, analysis, demonstration, inspection, and simulation. Flow diagrams for the verification and operational flight sequences are provided, along with a block diagram of the GNC circuitry interfaces. The development of the test matrix software for the GNC is outlined, noting the constant interplay between software verification and spacecraft reconfiguration to meet simulated performance requirements. Comparison of GNC performance predictions with actual entry flight data showed a good match in all performance areas except for sideslip excursions, bank overshoots, an area of transonic buffet, and an increased lift/drag ratio in the preflare to landing flight phase.

  12. Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical motion of photonic devices driven by optical forces provides a profound means of coupling between optical fields. The current focus of these optomechanical effects has been on cavity optomechanics systems in which co-localized optical and mechanical modes interact strongly to enable wave-mixing between photons and phonons and backaction cooling of mechanical modes. Alternatively, extended mechanical modes can also induce strong nonlocal effects on propagating optical fields or multiple localized optical modes at distances. Here, we demonstrate a novel multi-cavity optomechanical device: a "photon see-saw", in which torsional optomechanical motion can shuttle photons between two photonic crystal nanocavities. The resonance frequencies of the two cavities, one on each side of the see-saw, are modulated anti-symmetrically by the device's rotation. Pumping photons into one cavity excites optomechanical self-oscillation which strongly modulates the inter-cavity coupling and shuttles photons to the other...

  13. Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical motion of photonic devices driven by optical forces provides a profound means of coupling between optical fields. The current focus of these optomechanical effects has been on cavity optomechanics systems in which co-localized optical and mechanical modes interact strongly to enable wave mixing between photons and phonons, and backaction cooling of mechanical modes. Alternatively, extended mechanical modes can also induce strong non-local effects on propagating optical fields or multiple localized optical modes at distances. Here, we demonstrate a multicavity optomechanical device in which torsional optomechanical motion can shuttle photons between two photonic crystal nanocavities. The resonance frequencies of the two cavities, one on each side of this 'photon see-saw', are modulated antisymmetrically by the device's rotation. Pumping photons into one cavity excites optomechanical self-oscillation, which strongly modulates the inter-cavity coupling and shuttles photons to the other empty cavity during every oscillation cycle in a well-regulated fashion.

  14. Space Shuttle security policies and programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle vehicle consists of the orbiter, external tank, and two solid rocket boosters. In dealing with security two major protective categories are considered, taking into account resource protection and information protection. A review is provided of four basic programs which have to be satisfied. Aspects of science and technology transfer are discussed. The restrictions for the transfer of science and technology information are covered under various NASA Management Instructions (NMI's). There were two major events which influenced the protection of sensitive and private information on the Space Shuttle program. The first event was a manned space flight accident, while the second was the enactment of a congressional bill to establish the rights of privacy. Attention is also given to national resource protection and national defense classified operations.

  15. Shuttle Kit Freezer Refrigeration Unit Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The refrigerated food/medical sample storage compartment as a kit to the space shuttle orbiter is examined. To maintain the -10 F in the freezer kit, an active refrigeration unit is required, and an air cooled Stirling Cycle refrigerator was selected. The freezer kit contains two subsystems, the refrigeration unit, and the storage volume. The freezer must provide two basic capabilities in one unit. One requirement is to store 215 lbs of food which is consumed in a 30-day period by 7 people. The other requirement is to store 128.3 lbs of medical samples consisting of both urine and feces. The unit can be mounted on the lower deck of the shuttle cabin, and will occupy four standard payload module compartments on the forward bulkhead. The freezer contains four storage compartments.

  16. Shuttle Performance: Lessons Learned, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, J. P. (Compiler); Jones, J. J. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Beginning with the first orbital flight of the Space Shuttle, a great wealth of flight data became available to the aerospace community. These data were immediately subjected to analyses by several different groups with different viewpoints and motivations. The results were collected and presented in several papers in the subject areas of ascent and entry aerodynaics; guidance, navigation, and control; aerothermal environment prediction; thermal protection systems; and measurement techniques.

  17. Cryogenic Michelson Interferometer on the Space Shuttle

    OpenAIRE

    Wellard, Stan; Blakeley, Jeff; Brown, Steven; Bartschi, Brent

    1993-01-01

    A helium-cooled interferometer was flown aboard shuttle ifight STS-39. This interferometer, along with its sister radiometer, set new benchmarks for the quantity and quality of data collected. The interferometer generated approximately 150,000 interferograms during the course of the ifight. Data was collected at tangent heights from the earth's surface to celestial targets. The interferograms encoded spectral data from aurora, earth limb, and earth terminator scenes. The interfemmeter collect...

  18. A Simplified Shuttle Irradiation Facility for ATR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Alma Joseph; Laflin, S. T.

    1999-09-01

    During the past fifteen years there has been a steady increase in the demand for radioisotopes in nuclear medicine and a corresponding decline in the number of reactors within the U.S. capable of producing them. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the largest operating test reactor in the U.S., but its isotope production capabilities have been limited by the lack of an installed isotope shuttle irradiation system. A concept for a simple “low cost” shuttle irradiation facility for ATR has been developed. Costs were reduced (in comparison to previous ATR designs) by using a shielded trough of water installed in an occupiable cubicle as a shielding and contamination control barrier for the send and receive station. This shielding concept also allows all control valves to be operated by hand and thus the need for an automatic control system was eliminated. It was determined that 4 – 5 ft of water would be adequate to shield the isotopes of interest while shuttles are transferred to a small carrier. An additional feature of the current design is a non-isolatable by-pass line, which provides a minimum coolant flow to the test region regardless of which control valves are opened or closed. This by-pass line allows the shuttle facility to be operated without bringing reactor coolant water into the cubicle except for send and receive operations. The irradiation position selected for this concept is a 1.5 inch “B” hole (B-11). This position provides neutron fluxes of approximately: 1.6 x 1014 (<0.5 eV) and 4.0 x 1013 (>0.8 MeV) n/cm2*sec.

  19. Space shuttle entry terminal area energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A historical account of the development for Shuttle's Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) is presented. A derivation and explanation of logic and equations are provided as a supplement to the well documented guidance computation requirements contained within the official Functional Subsystem Software Requirements (FSSR) published by Rockwell for NASA. The FSSR contains the full set of equations and logic, whereas this document addresses just certain areas for amplification.

  20. STS-68 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-68 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-65; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2026 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated BI-067. The RSRMs that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W040A for the left SRB and 360W040B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-2 (SRL-2). The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations of the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), and five Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  1. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan D.; Water, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) has the leading role for NASA s preliminary conceptual launch vehicle design and performance analysis. Over the past several years the ACO Earth-to-Orbit Team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a multitude of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). NASA plans to continue human space exploration and space station utilization. Launch vehicles used for heavy lift cargo and crew will be needed. One of the current leading concepts for future heavy lift capability is an inline one and a half stage concept using solid rocket boosters (SRB) and based on current Shuttle technology and elements. Potentially, the quickest and most cost-effective path towards an operational vehicle of this configuration is to make use of a demonstrator vehicle fabricated from existing shuttle assets and relying upon the existing STS launch infrastructure. Such a demonstrator would yield valuable proof-of-concept data and would provide a working test platform allowing for validated systems integration. Using shuttle hardware such as existing RS-25D engines and partial MPS, propellant tanks derived from the External Tank (ET) design and tooling, and four-segment SRB s could reduce the associated upfront development costs and schedule when compared to a concept that would rely on new propulsion technology and engine designs. There are potentially several other additional benefits to this demonstrator concept. Since a concept of this type would be based on man-rated flight proven hardware components, this demonstrator has the potential to evolve into the first iteration of heavy lift crew or cargo and serve as a baseline for block upgrades. This vehicle could also serve as a demonstration

  2. ISS and Shuttle Payload Research Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Kyle A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's ISS and Spacecraft Processing Directorate (UB) is charged with the performance of payload development for research originating through NASA, ISS international partners, and the National Laboratory. The Payload Development sector of the Directorate takes biological research approved for on orbit experimentation from its infancy stage and finds a way to integrate and implement that research into a payload on either a Shuttle sortie or Space Station increment. From solicitation and selection, to definition, to verification, to integration and finally to operations and analysis, Payload Development is there every step of the way. My specific work as an intern this summer has consisted of investigating data received by separate flight and ground control Advanced Biological Research Systems (ABRS) units for Advanced Plant Experiments (APEX) and Cambium research. By correlation and analysis of this data and specific logbook information I have been working to explain changes in environmental conditions on both the flight and ground control unit. I have then, compiled all of that information into a form that can be presentable to the Principal Investigator (PI). This compilation allows that PI scientist to support their findings and add merit to their research. It also allows us, as the Payload Developers, to further inspect the ABRS unit and its performance

  3. CERN Shuttles - NEW Regular Shuttle Services as from 11/01/2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    As of Monday 11 January a new regular shuttle service (from Monday to Friday) will be available to facilitate transportation: Within and between both CERN sites, Meyrin and Prevessin; To and from the following LHC points: ATLAS, ALICE, CMS, LHCb. For further details, please consult the timetable for this service. We should also like to take this opportunity to encourage you to use the new regular TPG Y bus service rather than the special on-demand CERN transport service to and from Geneva Airport whenever possible. The TPG buses run from 06:00 to 00:30. For further details, please consult the TPG timetable. Please do not hesitate to give us your feedback on the shuttle services: e-mail to veronique.marchal@cern.ch. In case of problems with the shuttles, please contact 75411. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  4. Range safety signal propagation through the SRM exhaust plume of the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, F. P.; Davies, A. R.; Rajasekhar, P. S.; Thompson, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical predictions of plume interference for the space shuttle range safety system by solid rocket booster exhaust plumes are reported. The signal propagation was calculated using a split operator technique based upon the Fresnel-Kirchoff integral, using fast Fourier transforms to evaluate the convolution and treating the plume as a series of absorbing and phase-changing screens. Talanov's lens transformation was applied to reduce aliasing problems caused by ray divergence.

  5. Shuttle Ku-band bent-pipe implementation considerations. [for Space Shuttle digital communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, B. H.; Seyl, J. W.; Huth, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for relay of data-modulated subcarriers from Shuttle payloads through the Shuttle Ku-band communications subsystem (and subsequently through a tracking and data relay satellite system to a ground terminal). The novelty is that a channel originally provided for baseband digital data is shown to be suitable for this purpose; the resulting transmission scheme is referred to as a narrowband bent-pipe scheme. Test results demonstrating the validity of the narrowband bent-pipe mode are presented, and limitations on system performance are described.

  6. Multiple latent viruses reactivate in astronauts during Space Shuttle missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S K; Laudenslager, M L; Stowe, R P; Crucian, B E; Sams, C F; Pierson, D L

    2014-10-01

    Latent virus reactivation and diurnal salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured prospectively in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration (12-16 days) Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected during each of these phases. Antiviral antibodies and viral load (DNA) were measured for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Three astronauts did not shed any virus in any of their samples collected before, during, or after flight. EBV was shed in the saliva in all of the remaining 14 astronauts during all 3 phases of flight. Seven of the 14 EBV-shedding subjects also shed VZV during and after the flight in their saliva samples, and 8 of 14 EBV-shedders also shed CMV in their urine samples before, during, and after flight. In 6 of 14 crewmembers, all 3 target viruses were shed during one or more flight phases. Both EBV and VZV DNA copies were elevated during the flight phase relative to preflight or post-flight levels. EBV DNA in peripheral blood was increased preflight relative to post-flight. Eighteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Approximately 2-5% of controls shed EBV while none shed VZV or CMV. Salivary cortisol measured preflight and during flight were elevated relative to post-flight. In contrast DHEA decreased during the flight phase relative to both preflight and post-flight. As a consequence, the molar ratio of the area under the diurnal curve of cortisol to DHEA with respect to ground (AUCg) increased significantly during flight. This ratio was unrelated to viral shedding. In summary, three herpes viruses can reactivate individually or in combination during spaceflight.

  7. TNT equivalency study for space shuttle (EOS). Volume 1: Management summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The existing TNT equivalency criterion for LO2/LH2 propellant is reevaluated. It addresses the static, on-pad phase of the space shuttle launch operations and was performed to determine whether the use of a TNT equivalency criterion lower than that presently used (60%) could be substantiated. The large quantity of propellant on-board the space shuttle, 4 million pounds, was considered of prime importance to the study. A qualitative failure analysis of the space shuttle (EOS) on the launch pad was made because it was concluded that available test data on the explosive yield of LO2/LH2 propellant was insufficient to support a reduction in the present TNT equivalency value, considering the large quantity of propellant used in the space shuttle. The failure analysis had two objectives. The first was to determine whether a failure resulting in the total release of propellant could occur. The second was to determine whether, if such a failure did occur, ignition could be delayed long enough to allow the degree of propellant mixing required to produce an explosion of 60% TNT equivalency since the explosive yield of this propellant is directly related to the quantities of LH2 and LO2 mixed at the time of the explosion.

  8. STS-46 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-10-01

    The STS-46 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET, designated ET-48 (LWT-41); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2032, 2033, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-052. The lightweight/redesigned SRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360W025A for the left RSRM and 360L025B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) payload and perform the operations of the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) and the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Material 3/Thermal Energy Management Processes 2A-3 (EOIM-3/TEMP 2A-3). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Consortium for Material Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-2 and 3 (CONCAP-2 and CONCAP-3), Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE), Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF), and Ultraviolet Plume Instrumentation (UVPI). In addition to summarizing subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Also included in the discussion is a reference to the assigned tracking number as published on the Problem Tracking List. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

  9. STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-03-01

    The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  10. Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM) - Application Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Howard; Straube, Tim; Madsen, Jennifer; Ricard, Mike

    2002-01-01

    One of the most demanding tasks that must be performed by the Space Shuttle flight crew is the process of determining whether, when and where to abort the vehicle should engine or system failures occur during ascent or entry. Current Shuttle abort procedures involve paging through complicated paper checklists to decide on the type of abort and where to abort. Additional checklists then lead the crew through a series of actions to execute the desired abort. This process is even more difficult and time consuming in the absence of ground communications since the ground flight controllers have the analysis tools and information that is currently not available in the Shuttle cockpit. Crew workload specifically abort procedures will be greatly simplified with the implementation of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) project. The intent of CAU is to maximize crew situational awareness and reduce flight workload thru enhanced controls and displays, and onboard abort assessment and determination capability. SAFM was developed to help satisfy the CAU objectives by providing the crew with dynamic information about the capability of the vehicle to perform a variety of abort options during ascent and entry. This paper- presents an overview of the SAFM application. As shown in Figure 1, SAFM processes the vehicle navigation state and other guidance information to provide the CAU displays with evaluations of abort options, as well as landing site recommendations. This is accomplished by three main SAFM components: the Sequencer Executive, the Powered Flight Function, and the Glided Flight Function, The Sequencer Executive dispatches the Powered and Glided Flight Functions to evaluate the vehicle's capability to execute the current mission (or current abort), as well as more than IS hypothetical abort options or scenarios. Scenarios are sequenced and evaluated throughout powered and glided flight. Abort scenarios evaluated include Abort to Orbit (ATO), Transatlantic

  11. Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power unit status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, M.; Loken, G.; Horton, J.; Lukens, W.; Scott, W.; Baughman, J.; Bauch, T.

    An overview of the United States Space Shuttle Orbiter APU, which provides power to the Orbiter vehicle hydraulic system, is presented. Three complete APU systems, each with its own separate fuel system, supply power to three dedicated hydraulic systems. These in turn provide power to all Orbiter vehicle critical flight functions including launch, orbit, reentry, and landing. The basic APU logic diagram is presented. The APU includes a hydrazine-powered turbine that drives a hydraulic pump and various accessories through a high-speed gearbox. The APU also features a sophisticated thermal management system designed to ensure safe and reliable operation in the various launch, orbit, reentry, and landing environments.

  12. Langley's Space Shuttle Technology: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champine, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography documents most of the major publications, research reports, journal articles, presentations, and contractor reports, which have been published since the inception of the Space Shuttle Technology Task Group at the NASA Langley Reseach Center on July 11, 1969. This research work was performed in house by the Center staff or under contract, monitored by the Center staff. The report is arranged according to method of publication: (1) NASA Formal Reports; (2) Contractor Reports; and (3) Articles and Conferences. Disciplines covered are in the areas of aerothermodynamics, structures, dynamics and aeroelasticity, environmental, and materials. The publications are listed without abstracts for quick reference and planning.

  13. Space shuttle main engine hardware simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, H. G.; Hampton, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Huntsville Simulation Laboratory (HSL) provides a simulation facility to test and verify the space shuttle main engine (SSME) avionics and software system using a maximum complement of flight type hardware. The HSL permits evaluations and analyses of the SSME avionics hardware, software, control system, and mathematical models. The laboratory has performed a wide spectrum of tests and verified operational procedures to ensure system component compatibility under all operating conditions. It is a test bed for integration of hardware/software/hydraulics. The HSL is and has been an invaluable tool in the design and development of the SSME.

  14. Redox shuttles for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-11-04

    Compounds may have general Formula IVA or IVB. ##STR00001## where, R.sup.8, R.sup.9, R.sup.10, and R.sup.11 are each independently selected from H, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO.sub.2, alkyl, haloalkyl, and alkoxy groups; X and Y are each independently O, S, N, or P; and Z' is a linkage between X and Y. Such compounds may be used as redox shuttles in electrolytes for use in electrochemical cells, batteries and electronic devices.

  15. NASA management of the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, F.

    1975-01-01

    The management system and management technology described have been developed to meet stringent cost and schedule constraints of the Space Shuttle Program. Management of resources available to this program requires control and motivation of a large number of efficient creative personnel trained in various technical specialties. This must be done while keeping track of numerous parallel, yet interdependent activities involving different functions, organizations, and products all moving together in accordance with intricate plans for budgets, schedules, performance, and interaction. Some techniques developed to identify problems at an early stage and seek immediate solutions are examined.

  16. Space shuttle program: Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory. Volume 7: Logistics management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The logistics management plan for the shuttle avionics integration laboratory defines the organization, disciplines, and methodology for managing and controlling logistics support. Those elements requiring management include maintainability and reliability, maintenance planning, support and test equipment, supply support, transportation and handling, technical data, facilities, personnel and training, funding, and management data.

  17. Space shuttle/payload interface analysis (study 2.4). Volume 2: Space shuttle traffic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plough, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The transfer is reported of the capability to perform capture/cost analyses to MSFC. Space shuttle performance and direct costs, tug characteristics, reliability, and cost data were provided by NASA. The launch vehicle, mission models, payloads, and computer programs are discussed along with capture/cost analysis, and cost estimates. For Vol. 1, see N74-12493.

  18. Digital flight control software design requirements. [for space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The objective of the integrated digital flight control system is to provide rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effects by using an executive routine/function subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN and C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are shown. Attitude maneuver routines that interface with the DFCS are also described.

  19. A novel mask-based approach to improve low-k1 corner and angle definition in alternating-aperture phase-shift mask structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kent H.; Siefers, David; MacDonald, Susan; Buck, Peter D.

    2005-05-01

    A novel approach to improve the imaging of the critical magnetic pole structure in the disk drive read head is introduced. A 90-degree sub-resolution opening is added to an alternating aperture phase shift mask to reduce a strong proximity effect in the non-Manhattan tapered section, while maintaining the enhanced printability of the linear segment of the pole region.. Simulation indicates that this opening provides a method to correct the observed distortion in the printed edge without reducing the effectiveness of the altPSM character of the pole itself. We have designed test patterns with this concept and built photomasks to evaluate mask manufacturability and to empirically test the impact of the 90-degree window on final pattern fidelity on wafer. Preliminary results indicate positive correction effects, as well as some potential issues which may be resolved using additional, established correction approaches.

  20. HPLC Characterization of Phenol-Formaldehyde Resole Resin Used in Fabrication of Shuttle Booster Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Philip R.

    1999-01-01

    A reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method was developed to rapidly fingerprint a phenol-formaldehyde resole resin similar to Durite(R) SC-1008. This resin is used in the fabrication of carbon-carbon composite materials from which Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster nozzles are manufactured. A knowledge of resin chemistry is essential to successful composite processing and performance. The results indicate that a high quality separation of over 35 peaks in 25 minutes were obtained using a 15 cm Phenomenex LUNA C8 bonded reverse phase column, a three-way water-acetonitrile-methanol nonlinear gradient, and LTV detection at 280 nm.

  1. Mission Possible: BioMedical Experiments on the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, E.; Kreutzberg, K.

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical research, both applied and basic, was conducted on every Shuttle mission from 1981 to 2011. The Space Shuttle Program enabled NASA investigators and researchers from around the world to address fundamental issues concerning living and working effectively in space. Operationally focused occupational health investigations and tests were given priority by the Shuttle crew and Shuttle Program management for the resolution of acute health issues caused by the rigors of spaceflight. The challenges of research on the Shuttle included: limited up and return mass, limited power, limited crew time, and requirements for containment of hazards. The sheer capacity of the Shuttle for crew and equipment was unsurpassed by any other launch and entry vehicle and the Shuttle Program provided more opportunity for human research than any program before or since. To take advantage of this opportunity, life sciences research programs learned how to: streamline the complicated process of integrating experiments aboard the Shuttle, design experiments and hardware within operational constraints, and integrate requirements between different experiments and with operational countermeasures. We learned how to take advantage of commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and developed a hardware certification process with the flexibility to allow for design changes between flights. We learned the importance of end-to-end testing for experiment hardware with humans-in-the-loop. Most importantly, we learned that the Shuttle Program provided an excellent platform for conducting human research and for developing the systems that are now used to optimize research on the International Space Station. This presentation will include a review of the types of experiments and medical tests flown on the Shuttle and the processes that were used to manifest and conduct the experiments. Learning Objective: This paper provides a description of the challenges related to launching and implementing biomedical

  2. Legacy of Biomedical Research During the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided many opportunities to study the role of spaceflight on human life for over 30 years and represented the longest and largest US human spaceflight program. Outcomes of the research were understanding the effect of spaceflight on human physiology and performance, countermeasures, operational protocols, and hardware. The Shuttle flights were relatively short, Biomedical research was conducted on the Space Shuttle using various vehicle resources. Specially constructed pressurized laboratories called Spacelab and SPACEHAB housed many laboratory instruments to accomplish experiments in the Shuttle s large payload bay. In addition to these laboratory flights, nearly every mission had dedicated human life science research experiments conducted in the Shuttle middeck. Most Shuttle astronauts participated in some life sciences research experiments either as test subjects or test operators. While middeck experiments resulted in a low sample per mission compared to many Earth-based studies, this participation allowed investigators to have repetition of tests over the years on successive Shuttle flights. In addition, as a prelude to the International Space Station (ISS), NASA used the Space Shuttle as a platform for assessing future ISS hardware systems and procedures. The purpose of this panel is to provide an understanding of science integration activities required to implement Shuttle research, review biomedical research, characterize countermeasures developed for Shuttle and ISS as well as discuss lessons learned that may support commercial crew endeavors. Panel topics include research integration, cardiovascular physiology, neurosciences, skeletal muscle, and exercise physiology. Learning Objective: The panel provides an overview from the Space Shuttle Program regarding research integration, scientific results, lessons learned from biomedical research and countermeasure development.

  3. Supercharged two-cycle engines employing novel single element reciprocating shuttle inlet valve mechanisms and with a variable compression ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesen, Bernard (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to novel reciprocating shuttle inlet valves, effective with every type of two-cycle engine, from small high-speed single cylinder model engines, to large low-speed multiple cylinder engines, employing spark or compression ignition. Also permitting the elimination of out-of-phase piston arrangements to control scavenging and supercharging of opposed-piston engines. The reciprocating shuttle inlet valve (32) and its operating mechanism (34) is constructed as a single and simple uncomplicated member, in combination with the lost-motion abutments, (46) and (48), formed in a piston skirt, obviating the need for any complex mechanisms or auxiliary drives, unaffected by heat, friction, wear or inertial forces. The reciprocating shuttle inlet valve retains the simplicity and advantages of two-cycle engines, while permitting an increase in volumetric efficiency and performance, thereby increasing the range of usefulness of two-cycle engines into many areas that are now dominated by the four-cycle engine.

  4. Detailed design specification for the ALT Shuttle Information Extraction Subsystem (SIES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouette, G. L.; Fitzpatrick, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) shuttle information extraction system (SIES) is described in terms of general requirements and system characteristics output products and processing options, output products and data sources, and system data flow. The ALT SIES is a data reduction system designed to satisfy certain data processing requirements for the ALT phase of the space shuttle program. The specific ALT SIES data processing requirements are stated in the data reduction complex approach and landing test data processing requirements. In general, ALT SIES must produce time correlated data products as a result of standardized data reduction or special purpose analytical processes. The main characteristics of ALT SIES are: (1) the system operates in a batch (non-interactive) mode; (2) the processing is table driven; (3) it is data base oriented; (4) it has simple operating procedures; and (5) it requires a minimum of run time information.

  5. Astronaut Franklin Chang-Diaz organizes shuttle mail message

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    On Discovery's aft flight deck, Astronaut Franklin R. Chang-Diaz begins to organize what was believed to be among the longest mail messages in Shuttle history. Though early Shuttle flights could brag of longer teleprinted messages, the Thermal Imaging Printing Systems's day four correspondence, most of which is out of frame here, is a record length for recent flights.

  6. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of a molecular shuttle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panman, M.R.; Bodis, P.; Shaw, D.J.; Bakker, B.H.; Newton, A.C.; Kay, E.R.; Leigh, D.A.; Buma, W.J.; Brouwer, A.M.; Woutersen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy is used to investigate the inter-component motion of an ultraviolet-triggered two-station molecular shuttle. The operation cycle of this molecular shuttle involves several intermediate species, which are observable in the amide I and amide II regions of the mid

  7. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Off-Loaded at Redstone Arsenal Airfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is off-loaded Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  8. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Arrives at Redstone Arsenal Airfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise atop a 747 landing at Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  9. Optimal guidance for the space shuttle transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    A guidance method for the space shuttle's transition from hypersonic entry to subsonic cruising flight is presented. The method evolves from a numerical trajectory optimization technique in which kinetic energy and total energy (per unit weight) replace velocity and time in the dynamic equations. This allows the open end-time problem to be transformed to one of fixed terminal energy. In its ultimate form, E-Guidance obtains energy balance (including dynamic-pressure-rate damping) and path length control by angle-of-attack modulation and cross-range control by roll angle modulation. The guidance functions also form the basis for a pilot display of instantaneous maneuver limits and destination. Numerical results illustrate the E-Guidance concept and the optimal trajectories on which it is based.

  10. Energy management during the space shuttle transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    An approach to calculating optimal, gliding flight paths of the type associated with the space shuttle's transition from entry to cruising flight is presented. Kinetic energy and total energy (per unit weight) replace velocity and time in the dynamic equations, reducing the dimension and complexity of the problem. The capability for treating integral and terminal penalties (as well as Mach number effects) is retained in the numerical optimization; hence, stability and control boundaries can be observed as trajectories to the desired final energy, flight path angle, and range are determined. Numerical results show that the jump to the front-side of the L/D curve need not be made until the end of the transition and that the dynamic model provides a conservative range estimate. Alternatives for real time trajectory control are discussed.

  11. Radar error statistics for the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Radar error statistics of C-band and S-band that are recommended for use with the groundtracking programs to process space shuttle tracking data are presented. The statistics are divided into two parts: bias error statistics, using the subscript B, and high frequency error statistics, using the subscript q. Bias errors may be slowly varying to constant. High frequency random errors (noise) are rapidly varying and may or may not be correlated from sample to sample. Bias errors were mainly due to hardware defects and to errors in correction for atmospheric refraction effects. High frequency noise was mainly due to hardware and due to atmospheric scintillation. Three types of atmospheric scintillation were identified: horizontal, vertical, and line of sight. This was the first time that horizontal and line of sight scintillations were identified.

  12. Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M. [Mathematical and Statistical Computing Laboratory, Division of Computational Bioscience, Center for Information Technology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Shvartsman, Stanislav Y. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.

  13. Space shuttle crew training at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    From 13 to 16 October, the crew of NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-134 came to CERN for a special physics training programme. Invited here by Samuel Ting, they will deliver the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) detector to the International Space Station (ISS).   The STS134 crew in the Lodge at the Aiguille du Midi wearing CERN fleeces. From left to right: Captain Mark Kelly, US Navy; Pilot Gregory Johnson, USAF ret.; Mission Specialist Andrew Feustel; Mission Specialist Mike Fincke, USAF, Mission Specialist Gregory Chamitoff and Mission Specialist Roberto Vittori, ESA and Italian Air Force. Headed by Commander Mark Kelly, a US Navy captain, the crew included pilot Gregory Johnson, a US Air Force (USAF) colonel, and mission specialists Mike Fincke (also a USAF Colonel), Andrew Feustel, and Gregory Chamitoff of NASA, as well as Colonel Roberto Vittori of the European Space Agency (ESA). Two flight directors, Gary Horlache and Derek Hassmann of NASA, and the engineer responsible for the Ext...

  14. Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2015-08-01

    A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.

  15. Potential improvements to the Shuttle through evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, Maxime A.; Smith, O. G.

    1993-01-01

    A possible series of evolutionary changes in the Space Shuttle are discussed that would increase both safety and performance while simultaneously decreasing the cost of operations. It is argued that major savings in operations costs can be achieved by employing electromechanical actuators in the hydraulic system and by making an architectural change to isolate the critical flight control processing system from other hardware. Minor modifications to existing Orbiters would enable the system to carry about 8000-10,000 more pounds to any given orbit. A more powerful, more reliable, and completely reusable booster should be developed, and reliability and safety improvements should be made. The SSMEs should be removed from the Orbiter and installed in a recoverable pod that would be attached to the rear of the ET.

  16. Notch sensitivity of space shuttle tile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted at room temperature to determine the notch sensitivity of the thermal protection tile for the space shuttle. Two types of RSI tile were studied: LI-900 and LI-2200. Three point bend specimens were cut from discarded tiles in the in-plane (ip) and through-the-thickness (ttt) directions. They were tested with or without a sharp notch. The LI-900 (ip and ttt) specimens were not very notch sensitive, but the LI-2200 (ip and ttt) specimens were. The LI-2200 material showed about a 35 percent reduction in strength due to the presence of the notch. This reduction in strength should be considered in the design of mechanically fastened tile concepts.

  17. A Phase II Study of Bevacizumab in Combination With Definitive Radiotherapy and Cisplatin Chemotherapy in Untreated Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Carcinoma: Preliminary Results of RTOG 0417

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefter, Tracey E., E-mail: tracey.schefter@ucdenver.edu [University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Winter, Kathryn [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kwon, Janice S. [University of British Columbia and BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Stuhr, Kelly [Anschutz Cancer Pavilion, Aurora, CO (United States); Balaraj, Khalid [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Yaremko, Brian P. [University of Western Ontario, London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON (Canada); Small, William [The Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Gaffney, David K. [University of Utah Health Science Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Concurrent cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. RTOG 0417 was a Phase II study exploring the safety and efficacy of the addition of bevacizumab to standard CRT. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients with bulky tumors (Stage IB-IIIB) were treated with once-weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) chemotherapy and standard pelvic radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Bevacizumab was administered at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks for three cycles. Treatment-related serious adverse event (SAE) and other adverse event (AE) rates within the first 90 days from treatment start were determined. Treatment-related SAEs were defined as any Grade {>=}4 vaginal bleeding or thrombotic event or Grade {>=}3 arterial event, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, or bowel/bladder perforation, or any Grade 5 treatment-related death. Treatment-related AEs included all SAEs and Grade 3 or 4 GI toxicity persisting for >2 weeks despite medical intervention, Grade 4 neutropenia or leukopenia persisting for >7 days, febrile neutropenia, Grade 3 or 4 other hematologic toxicity, and Grade 3 or 4 GI, renal, cardiac, pulmonary, hepatic, or neurologic AEs. All AEs were scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria (CTCAE) v 3.0 (MedDRA version 6.0). Results: A total of 60 patients from 28 institutions were enrolled between 2006 and 2009, and of these, 49 patients were evaluable. The median follow-up was 12.4 months (range, 4.6-31.4 months).The median age was 45 years (range, 22-80 years). Most patients had FIGO Stage IIB (63%) and were of Zubrod performance status of 0 (67%). 80% of cases were squamous. There were no treatment-related SAEs. There were 15 (31%) protocol-specified treatment-related AEs within 90 days of treatment start; the most common were hematologic (12/15; 80%). 18 (37%) occurred during treatment or follow-up at any time. 37 of the 49 patients (76%) had cisplatin and bevacizumab

  18. The Legacy of Space Shuttle Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Christopher J.; Loveall, James B.; Orr, James K.; Klausman, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The initial goals of the Space Shuttle Program required that the avionics and software systems blaze new trails in advancing avionics system technology. Many of the requirements placed on avionics and software were accomplished for the first time on this program. Examples include comprehensive digital fly-by-wire technology, use of a digital databus for flight critical functions, fail operational/fail safe requirements, complex automated redundancy management, and the use of a high-order software language for flight software development. In order to meet the operational and safety goals of the program, the Space Shuttle software had to be extremely high quality, reliable, robust, reconfigurable and maintainable. To achieve this, the software development team evolved a software process focused on continuous process improvement and defect elimination that consistently produced highly predictable and top quality results, providing software managers the confidence needed to sign each Certificate of Flight Readiness (COFR). This process, which has been appraised at Capability Maturity Model (CMM)/Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level 5, has resulted in one of the lowest software defect rates in the industry. This paper will present an overview of the evolution of the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) project and processes over thirty years, an argument for strong statistical control of software processes with examples, an overview of the success story for identifying and driving out errors before flight, a case study of the few significant software issues and how they were either identified before flight or slipped through the process onto a flight vehicle, and identification of the valuable lessons learned over the life of the project.

  19. Sequential (gemcitabine/vinorelbine and concurrent (gemcitabine radiochemotherapy with FDG-PET-based target volume definition in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: first results of a phase I/II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanzel Sven

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD of gemcitabine every two weeks concurrent to radiotherapy, administered during an aggressive program of sequential and simultaneous radiochemotherapy for locally advanced, unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and to evaluate the efficacy of this regime in a phase II study. Methods 33 patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled in a combined radiochemotherapy protocol. 29 patients were assessable for evaluation of toxicity and tumor response. Treatment included two cycles of induction chemotherapy with gemcitabine (1200 mg/m2 and vinorelbine (30 mg/m2 at day 1, 8 and 22, 29 followed by concurrent radiotherapy (2.0 Gy/d; total dose 66.0 Gy and chemotherapy with gemcitabine every two weeks at day 43, 57 and 71. Radiotherapy planning included [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET based target volume definition. 10 patients were included in the phase I study with an initial gemcitabine dose of 300 mg/m2. The dose of gemcitabine was increased in steps of 100 mg/m2 until the MTD was realized. Results MTD was defined for the patient group receiving gemcitabine 500 mg/m2 due to grade 2 (next to grade 3 esophagitis in all patients resulting in a mean body weight loss of 5 kg (SD = 1.4 kg, representing 8% of the initial weight. These patients showed persisting dysphagia 3 to 4 weeks after completing radiotherapy. In accordance with expected complications as esophagitis, dysphagia and odynophagia, we defined the MTD at this dose level, although no dose limiting toxicity (DLT grade 3 was reached. In the phase I/II median follow-up was 15.7 months (4.1 to 42.6 months. The overall response rate after completion of therapy was 64%. The median overall survival was 19.9 (95% CI: [10.1; 29.7] months for all eligible patients. The median disease-free survival for all patients was 8.7 (95% CI: [2.7; 14.6] months. Conclusion

  20. Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Shuttle Decision Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Hamlin, Teri, L.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assist in the decision making for the shuttle design and operation. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a comprehensive, structured, and disciplined approach to identifying and analyzing risk in complex systems and/or processes that seeks answers to three basic questions: (i.e., what can go wrong? what is the likelihood of these occurring? and what are the consequences that could result if these occur?) The purpose of the Shuttle PRA (SPRA) is to provide a useful risk management tool for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to identify strengths and possible weaknesses in the Shuttle design and operation. SPRA was initially developed to support upgrade decisions, but has evolved into a tool that supports Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR) and near real-time flight decisions. Examples of the use of PRA for the shuttle are reviewed.

  1. Shuttle Risk Progression: Use of the Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to Show Reliability Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri L.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), as well as future manned spaceflight programs, to understand the early mission risk and progression of risk as the program gains insights into the integrated vehicle through flight. The risk progression is important to the SSP as part of the documentation of lessons learned. The risk progression is important to future programs to understand reliability growth and the first flight risk. This analysis uses the knowledge gained from 30 years of operational flights and the current Shuttle PRA to calculate the risk of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) at significant milestones beginning with the first flight. Key flights were evaluated based upon historical events and significant re-designs. The results indicated that the Shuttle risk tends to follow a step function as opposed to following a traditional reliability growth pattern where risk exponentially improves with each flight. In addition, it shows that risk can increase due to trading safety margin for increased performance or due to external events. Due to the risk drivers not being addressed, the risk did not improve appreciably during the first 25 flights. It was only after significant events occurred such as Challenger and Columbia, where the risk drivers were apparent, that risk was significantly improved. In addition, this paper will show that the SSP has reduced the risk of LOCV by almost an order of magnitude. It is easy to look back afte r 30 years and point to risks that are now obvious, however; the key is to use this knowledge to benefit other programs which are in their infancy stages. One lesson learned from the SSP is understanding risk drivers are essential in order to considerably reduce risk. This will enable the new program to focus time and resources on identifying and reducing the significant risks. A comprehensive PRA, similar to that of the Shuttle PRA, is an effective tool quantifying risk drivers if support from all of the stakeholders is

  2. Particulate environment around the shuttle as determined by the particle analysis cameras for shuttle (PACS) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B. David; Yates, G. Kenneth; Ahmadjian, Mark; Miranda, Henry

    1987-01-01

    The Particle Analysis Cameras for Shuttle (PACS) Experiment was flown on Mission STS61C (Columbia) in January 1986. This experiment involved a pair of cameras in a stereo viewing configuration and an associated strobe light flash to permit particle observation during the entire orbit. Although only one camera functioned properly, significant trends and particle counts were still obtained from the film data. We report here the preliminary analysis and conclusions from that mission.

  3. CERN Shuttles – TRAM arrival – Two additional shuttles as from 2 May 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    General Infrastructure Services Department

    2011-01-01

    With the TRAM’s arrival at CERN and to facilitate mobility inside CERN, the GS Department is reinforcing CERN's shuttle services and will provide users with two additional shuttles from/to Building 33 (CERN Reception) as from Monday 2 May: Circuit No. 5: serving the Meyrin site (approx. every 15 minutes) •\tfrom 7·30 to 9·15 •\tfrom 11·30 to 13·28 (serving restaurants Nos.1 and 2) •\tfrom 16·30 to 18·35   Circuit No. 6: serving the Prevessin site (approx. every 20 minutes) •\tfrom 7·30 to 9·10 •\tfrom 11·30 to 13·28 (serving restaurants Nos. 1, 2 and 3) •\tfrom 16·30 to 18·23 For further details, please consult the timetable for these circuits at the following url: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/SEM/ls/ShuttleService/ Please do not hesitate to give us your feedback...

  4. Animal life support transporters for Shuttle/Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, W. E.; Hunt, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    Two transporter devices have been developed by the NASA Ames Research Center, primarily for the purpose of stowing small vertebrates and primates in the mid-deck avionics bay of the Shuttle during launch and re-entry. These animals will be used in Life Science Spacelab experiments. Stowage in the mid-deck area will reduce animal exposure to the high noise levels existing in Spacelab during launch; further, the possible exposure of the animals to high temperatures in Spacelab during re-entry and post-landing will be eliminated. The transporters will provide experimenters more timely access to their animals during experiment-critical, pre-launch, and post-landing periods. Rechargeable batteries in the transporters will provide life support system functions for the animals during periods of transfer and during mission phases in which power is temporarily unavailable. The transporters have been successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. Integrated testing of the transporters was performed in the Space Mission Development III (SMD III) Simulation at the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  5. Remote observations of reentering spacecraft including the space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Cagle, Melinda F.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Gibson, David M.

    Flight measurement is a critical phase in development, validation and certification processes of technologies destined for future civilian and military operational capabilities. This paper focuses on several recent NASA-sponsored remote observations that have provided unique engineering and scientific insights of reentry vehicle flight phenomenology and performance that could not necessarily be obtained with more traditional instrumentation methods such as onboard discrete surface sensors. The missions highlighted include multiple spatially-resolved infrared observations of the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter during hypersonic reentry from 2009 to 2011, and emission spectroscopy of comparatively small-sized sample return capsules returning from exploration missions. Emphasis has been placed upon identifying the challenges associated with these remote sensing missions with focus on end-to-end aspects that include the initial science objective, selection of the appropriate imaging platform and instrumentation suite, target flight path analysis and acquisition strategy, pre-mission simulations to optimize sensor configuration, logistics and communications during the actual observation. Explored are collaborative opportunities and technology investments required to develop a next-generation quantitative imaging system (i.e., an intelligent sensor and platform) with greater capability, which could more affordably support cross cutting civilian and military flight test needs.

  6. Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science.

  7. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling activity of ataxin-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Macedo-Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type-3, also known as Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD, is one of many inherited neurodegenerative disorders caused by polyglutamine-encoding CAG repeat expansions in otherwise unrelated genes. Disease protein misfolding and aggregation, often within the nucleus of affected neurons, characterize polyglutamine disorders. Several evidences have implicated the nucleus as the primary site of pathogenesis for MJD. However, the molecular determinants for the nucleocytoplasmic transport of human ataxin-3 (Atx3, the protein which is mutated in patients with MJD, are not characterized. In order to characterize the nuclear shuttling activity of Atx3, we performed yeast nuclear import assays and found that Atx3 is actively imported into the nucleus, by means of a classical nuclear localizing sequence formed by a cluster of lysine and arginine residues. On the other hand, when active nuclear export was inhibited using leptomycin B, a specific inhibitor of the nuclear export receptor CRM1, both endogenous Atx3 and transfected GFP-Atx3 accumulated inside the nucleus of a subpopulation of COS-7 cells, whereas both proteins are normally predominant in the cytoplasm. Additionally, using a Rev(1.4-GFP nuclear export assay, we performed an extensive analysis of six putative aliphatic nuclear export motifs identified in Atx3 amino acid sequence. Although none of the tested peptide sequences were found to drive nuclear export when isolated, we have successfully mapped the region of Atx3 responsible for its CRM1-independent nuclear export activity. Curiously, the N-terminal Josephin domain alone is exported into the cytoplasm, but the nuclear export activity of Atx3 is significantly enhanced in a longer construct that is truncated after the two ubiquitin interaction motifs, upstream from the polyQ tract. Our data show that Atx3 is actively imported to and exported from the cell nucleus, and that its nuclear export activity is dependent on a motif

  8. Development of a prototype specialist shuttle vehicle for chipped woodfuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This report gives details of a project to develop and test a specialist chip shuttle vehicle for conveying woodchips out of the forest with the aim of reducing the cost of woodfuel production. The design objectives are described and include the need to allow easy transfer of the chips from the chipper to the shuttle and on into haulage units, good performance and manoeuvrability on and off roads, and high-tip capacity. Estimates of the improved production and reduced woodfuel production costs are discussed along with the anticipated satisfactory operation of the chipper-shuttle combination in a forestry site.

  9. NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) - The application of ATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Lorenz G.; Jenkins, Henry C.; Mauceri, A. Jack

    1990-01-01

    The concept of the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) developed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Program is described. The function of the NSLD at Cape Canaveral is to perform the acceptance and diagnostic testing of the Shuttle's space-rated line-replaceable units and shop-replaceable units (SRUs). The NSLD includes a comprehensive electronic automatic test station, program development stations, and assorted manufacturing support equipment (including thermal and vibration test equipment, special test equipment, and a card SRU test system). The depot activities also include the establishment of the functions for manufacturing of mechanical parts, soldering, welding, painting, clean room operation, procurement, and subcontract management.

  10. Shuttle Planning for Link Closures in Urban Public Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hurk, Evelien; Koutsopoulos, Haris N.; Wilson, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Urban public transport systems must periodically close certain links for maintenance, which can have significant effects on the service provided to passengers. In practice, the effects of closures are mitigated by replacing the closed links with a simple shuttle service. However, alternative...... cost, which includes transfers and frequency-dependent waiting time costs. This model is applied to a shuttle design problem based on a real-world case study of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority network of Boston, Massachusetts. The results show that additional shuttle routes can reduce...

  11. Effect of periodic inflow on speed-controlled shuttle bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior of a shuttle bus controlled the speed when passengers come periodically at the origin. We propose the nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of the speed-controlled bus with the periodic inflow. The bus schedule is closely connected to the motion. The motion of the speed-controlled bus is affected by the periodic inflow. The motion of the shuttle bus depends highly on both speed control and periodic inflow. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions by varying both periodic inflow and speed control. We clarify the dependence of the bus motion on both speed control and periodic inflow.

  12. Shuttle Planning for Link Closures in Urban Public Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hurk, Evelien; Koutsopoulos, Haris N.; Wilson, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Urban public transport systems must periodically close certain links for maintenance, which can have significant effects on the service provided to passengers. In practice, the effects of closures are mitigated by replacing the closed links with a simple shuttle service. However, alternative...... cost, which includes transfers and frequency-dependent waiting time costs. This model is applied to a shuttle design problem based on a real-world case study of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority network of Boston, Massachusetts. The results show that additional shuttle routes can reduce...

  13. Shuttle operations simulation model programmers'/users' manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    The prospective user of the shuttle operations simulation (SOS) model is given sufficient information to enable him to perform simulation studies of the space shuttle launch-to-launch operations cycle. The procedures used for modifying the SOS model to meet user requirements are described. The various control card sequences required to execute the SOS model are given. The report is written for users with varying computer simulation experience. A description of the components of the SOS model is included that presents both an explanation of the logic involved in the simulation of the shuttle operations cycle and a description of the routines used to support the actual simulation.

  14. A survey of load methodologies for shuttle orbiter payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. C.; Garba, J. A.; Salama, M.; Trubert, M.

    1981-01-01

    Loads methods currently being used to design planetary spacecraft to be launched on the shuttle orbiter are summarized. Experiences gained from expendable launch vehicle payloads are used to develop methodologies for the space shuttle orbiter payloads. The objectives for the development of a new methodology for the shuttle payloads are to reduce the cost and schedule for the payload load analysis by decoupling the payload analysis from the launch vehicle to the maximum extent possible. Methods are described for payload member load estimation or obtaining upper bounds for dynamic loads, as well as load prediction or calculating actual transient member load time histories.

  15. Longitudinal dynamic stability of a shuttle vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, N. X.; Laitone, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical study of the longitudinal dynamic stability of a nonrolling, lifting vehicle gliding at hypersonic speeds. The analysis applies to shuttle vehicles designed for operating up to the rim of a planetary atmosphere. A general nondimensional time transformation is introduced to derive a unified second-order linear differential equation for the angle of attack, valid for all types of reentry of a general type of vehicle. The stability of motion is discussed for two fundamental regimes of flight that are based on widely different assumptions. For near ballistic entry along a straight line trajectory, the equation reduces to a confluent hypergeometric equation, the solution of which can be expressed in terms of Whittaker's function. Using a theorem in the theory of stability of differential equations, criteria for damped oscillations are derived. It is shown that the aerodynamic criteria for stability are the same as for the case of ballistic entry. In addition, for each vehicle configuration, and specified planetary atmosphere, there exists an altitude range where the angle of attack frequency is nearly equal to the orbital frequency causing instability in pitch. This resonance instability is due to the ellipticity of the orbit. Criteria for eccentricity instability are derived.

  16. H2O2 space shuttle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  17. Presenting the Shuttle Main Engine Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreur, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Originally, this project was to produce an animated Powerpoint presentation of the 'Shuttle Engine and its Software' and to produce a web page with animation including the same materials but with greater detail in the description of the software. The principal emphasis was to be on the web page. Midway through the first year of the project, we were advised by the technical coordinator of this work at MSFC to concentrate on the web page alone. Also, the project was expanded to include a web presentation of the MRECS (Modular Rocket Control System). For the SSME project, the web page presentation has been completed. The integration of the animation into the web page is complete although we have been asked to speed up the animation. Also, the addition of greater detail to the description of the SSME controller software has been added. Much of the work on this program was done by students as their task for their senior project course, the capstone course of their program of study. The students gained a great deal from this project. They have learned to use VISIO, POWERPOINT, PHOTOSHOP, and several web page software packages. The starting point for this project was a PowerPoint presentation by the PI while on a Summer Faculty Fellowship at MSFC. For this project, about half of the drawings of the SSME were improved and about half were completely redrawn. The original still drawings have been animated to illustrate the fuel flow through the SSME system.

  18. Space shuttle SRM field joint: Review paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad Gharouni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to Challenger space shuttle accident in 1986, significant research has been done concerning structural behavior of field joints in solid rocket boosters (SRB. The structural deformations between the clevis inner leg and the tang (male-to-female parts of joint, the sealing of the O-ring to prevent the hot gas in joints, has been neglected causing the failure of the vehicle. Redesigning the field joint in SRB engine by accurate analysis of dynamic and thermal loads and by design of insulator and good O-ring, the leakiness of combustion hot gases was eliminated. Some parts of field joint such as capture feature (CF and its third O-ring, J-leg insulator and shim were added to redesigned field joint. Also, some adjustments in sealing system and pins were done to promote the efficiency of the field joint. Due to different experimental analysis on assembled field joints with default imperfections, redesigned joints operated well. These redesigned field joints are commonly used in aerospace and mechanical structures. This paper investigates the original and the redesigned field joints with additional explanations of different parts of the redesigned joints.

  19. IMPORTANT NOTICE: Cancellation of shuttle Circuit 3

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Circuit 3 of the CERN Shuttle Service (Point 5), which has served CMS since the start of LS1, will be cancelled with effect from Tuesday 16 April. This decision has been taken in consultation with CMS, as the circuit was seldom used.   In response to increasing demand for Circuit 1 - Meyrin and feedback from passengers, the two Circuit 3 journeys will be switched to Circuit 1 – Meyrin (see new timetable below): Mornings: Four journeys instead of three. Circuit 1 now starts at 8:10 (instead of 8:19 a.m.) and runs until 9:27 a.m. (instead of 9:16 a.m.). Lunchtimes: Five journeys in place between 12:10 p.m. and 1:47 p.m. Evenings: Circuit starts at 5:23 p.m. (instead of 5:03 p.m.) and ends at 6:20 p.m. at Building 33. Please note that the circuit will depart from Building 13 instead of Building 33.  

  20. Copernicus Architecture, Phase I: Requirements Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    training and education needs, we must start by envisioning and docu- menting the requirements most critical to the success of our SEW Navy professionals...who are trained and educated throughout their careers with emphasis on SEW. By increasing promotion opportunities, briefing screening boards about...COPERNICUS AS A NORMAL PART OF ACQUISITION REVIEW PROCESS — FOSTER COTS/COTS — NAVY SPOC FOR ARCHITECTURAL ISSUES WITH DOD, DCA, ET AL. ^ ä Navy’s C*I

  1. The Phoretic Motion Experiment (PME) definition phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Neste, S. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The aerosol generator and the charge flow devices (CFD) chamber which were designed for zero-gravity operation was analyzed. Characteristics of the CFD chamber and aerosol generator which would be useful for cloud physics experimentation in a one-g as well as a zero-g environment are documented. The Collision type of aerosol generator is addressed. Relationships among the various input and output parameters are derived and subsequently used to determine the requirements on the controls of the input parameters to assure a given error budget of an output parameter. The CFD chamber operation in a zero-g environment is assessed utilizing a computer simulation program. Low nuclei critical supersaturation and high experiment accuracies are emphasized which lead to droplet growth times extending into hundreds of seconds. The analysis was extended to assess the performance constraints of the CFD chamber in a one-g environment operating in the horizontal mode.

  2. Photopolarimetry team outer planets mission definition phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The work is reported of the Photopolarimetry Team in identifying scientific objectives for photometer/polarimeter experiments for outer planet flyby missions. A discussion of the scientific objectives which can be attained with a photometer/polarimeter experiment, and summaries of the special studies which were performed for the Photopolarimetry Team are presented along with a description of the photometer/polarimeter design which was developed for the Meteoroid Detection Team.

  3. Shuttle program. MCC level C formulation requirements: Shuttle TAEM guidance and flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Level C requirements for the shuttle orbiter terminal area energy management (TAEM) guidance and flight control functions to be incorporated into the Mission Control Center entry profile planning processor are defined. This processor will be used for preentry evaluation of the entry through landing maneuvers, and will include a simplified three degree-of-freedom model of the body rotational dynamics that is necessary to account for the effects of attitude response on the trajectory dynamics. This simulation terminates at TAEM-autoland interface.

  4. Product definition data interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchfield, B.; Downey, P.

    1984-01-01

    The development and application of advanced Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology in aerospace industry is discussed. New CAD/CAM capabilities provide the engineer and production worker with tools to produce better products and significantly improve productivity. This technology is expanding in all phases of engineering and manufacturing with large potential for improvements in productivity. The integration of CAD and CAM systematically to insure maximum utility throughout the U.S. Aerospace Industry, its large community of supporting suppliers, and the Department of Defense aircraft overhaul and repair facilities is outlined. The need for a framework for exchange of digital product definition data, which serves the function of the conventional engineering drawing is emphasized.

  5. Shuttle Electrical Power Analysis Program (SEPAP) distribution circuit analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation was made of the operating parameters of the shuttle electrical power distribution circuit under load conditions encountered during a normal Sortie 2 Mission with emphasis on main periods of liftoff and landing.

  6. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of a molecular shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panman, Matthijs R; Bodis, Pavol; Shaw, Danny J; Bakker, Bert H; Newton, Arthur C; Kay, Euan R; Leigh, David A; Buma, Wybren Jan; Brouwer, Albert M; Woutersen, Sander

    2012-02-14

    Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy is used to investigate the inter-component motion of an ultraviolet-triggered two-station molecular shuttle. The operation cycle of this molecular shuttle involves several intermediate species, which are observable in the amide I and amide II regions of the mid-IR spectrum. Using ab initio calculations on specific parts of the rotaxane, and by comparing the transient spectra of the normal rotaxane with that of the N-deuterated version, we can assign the observed vibrational modes of each species occurring during the shuttling cycle in an unambiguous way. The complete time- and frequency-dependent data set is analyzed using singular value decomposition (SVD). Using a kinetic model to describe the time-dependent concentrations of the transient species, we derive the absorption spectra associated with each stage in the operation cycle of the molecular shuttle, including the recombination of the charged species.

  7. Shuttle entry guidance revisited using nonlinear geometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1994-11-01

    The entry guidance law for the space shuttle orbiter is revisited using nonlinear geometric methods. The shuttle guidance concept is to track a reference drag trajectory that has been designed to lead a specified range and velocity. It is shown that the approach taken in the original derivation of the shuttle entry guidance has much in common with the more recently developed feedback linearization method of differential geometric control. Using the feedback linearization method, however, an alternative, potentially superior, guidance law was formulated. Comparing the two guidance laws based performance domains in state space, taking into account the nonlinear dynamics, the alternative guidance law achieves the desired performance over larger domains in state space; the stability domain of the laws are similar. With larger operating domain for the shuttle or some other entry vehicle, the alternative guidance law should be considered.

  8. Space Shuttle processing - A case study in artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollikarimi, Cindy; Gargan, Robert; Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    A scheduling system incorporating AI is described and applied to the automated processing of the Space Shuttle. The unique problem of addressing the temporal, resource, and orbiter-configuration requirements of shuttle processing is described with comparisons to traditional project management for manufacturing processes. The present scheduling system is developed to handle the late inputs and complex programs that characterize shuttle processing by incorporating fixed preemptive scheduling, constraint-based simulated annealing, and the characteristics of an 'anytime' algorithm. The Space-Shuttle processing environment is modeled with 500 activities broken down into 4000 subtasks and with 1600 temporal constraints, 8000 resource constraints, and 3900 state requirements. The algorithm is shown to scale to very large problems and maintain anytime characteristics suggesting that an automated scheduling process is achievable and potentially cost-effective.

  9. Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System Anomaly Detection: A Case Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The space shuttle main engine (SSME) is part of the Main Propnlsion System (MPS) which is an extremely complex system containing several sub-systems and components,...

  10. Space shuttle recommendations based on aircraft maintenance experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, J. M.; Fox, C. L.

    1972-01-01

    Space shuttle design recommendations based on aircraft maintenance experience are developed. The recommendations are specifically applied to the landing gear system, nondestructive inspection techniques, hydraulic system design, materials and processes, and program support.

  11. Astronaut Judith Resnik in the Shuttle mission simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Judith A. Resnik, 41-D mission specialist, prepares to climb some steps leading to the flight deck portion of JSC's Shuttle mission simulator (SMS) in preparation for training for her 41-D mission.

  12. A programmable power processor for a 25 kW power module. [on Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustka, R. E.; Lanier, J. R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents the concept and major design problems of a programmable power processor for the 25 kW electrical power system for the Shuttle Orbiter. The load will be handled by three parallel power stages operated in phase sequence with each power transistor having its own commutating diode and filter inductor. The power stages will be run at a fixed frequency of 10 kHz with the 'on'-time variable up to 100%. The input filter bank in the breadboard programmable power processor is planned to be a series-parallel combination of tantalum cased tantalum wet-slug capacitors.

  13. STS-26 crew in JSC Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers model the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) for entry and launch phases before a training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Pictured (left to right) are Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, Pilot Richard O. Covey, MS John M. Lounge, and MS George D. Nelson. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew is scheduled to check out the new partial pressure suits and crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  14. Gas Pressure Measurements on Space Shuttle Mission-39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    there have been numerous in-situ experiments designed to measure the gaseous contamination near the Shuttle [Green et al., 1985; Erlers et al., 1984...engines [ Erlers , 1984; Machuzak et al., 1993; Hunton, 19941. Engine-related pressure spikes were investigated by Narcisi et al. [19831, Wulf and von Zahn...Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1976. Erlers , H.K.F., S. Jacobs, L. Leger, and E. Miller (1984) Space Shuttle contamination measurements from

  15. Exodus - Distributed artificial intelligence for Shuttle firing rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Expert System for Operations Distributed Users (EXODUS), a knowledge-based artificial intelligence system developed for the four Firing Rooms at the Kennedy Space Center. EXODUS is used by the Shuttle engineers and test conductors to monitor and control the sequence of tasks required for processing and launching Shuttle vehicles. In this paper, attention is given to the goals and the design of EXODUS, the operational requirements, and the extensibility of the technology.

  16. Autonomous integrated GPS/INS navigation experiment for OMV. Phase 1: Feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Triveni N.; Priovolos, George J.; Rhodehamel, Harley

    1990-01-01

    The phase 1 research focused on the experiment definition. A tightly integrated Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) navigation filter design was analyzed and was shown, via detailed computer simulation, to provide precise position, velocity, and attitude (alignment) data to support navigation and attitude control requirements of future NASA missions. The application of the integrated filter was also shown to provide the opportunity to calibrate inertial instrument errors which is particularly useful in reducing INS error growth during times of GPS outages. While the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) provides a good target platform for demonstration and for possible flight implementation to provide improved capability, a successful proof-of-concept ground demonstration can be obtained using any simulated mission scenario data, such as Space Transfer Vehicle, Shuttle-C, Space Station.

  17. Smart drugs: green shuttle or real drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, L; Borghesi, B; Canali, C; Andrenacci, M; Basso, M; Federici, S; Labra, M

    2013-11-01

    We have combined morphological, molecular, and chemical techniques in order to identify the plant and chemical composition of some last-generation smart drugs, present on the market under the following names: Jungle Mistic Incense, B-52, Blendz, and Kratom 10x. Micromorphological analyses of botanical fragments allowed identification of epidermal cells, stomata, trichomes, starch, crystals, and pollen. DNA barcoding was carried out by the plastidial gene rbcL and the spacer trnH-psbA as universal markers. The combination of morphological and molecular data revealed a mixture of plants from different families, including aromatic species, viz., Lamiaceae and Turneraceae. GC-MS and LC-MS analyses on ethanol or methanol extracts showed the presence of synthetic cannabinoids, including JWH-250 in Jungle, JWH-122 in B-52, and JWH-073 and JWH-018 in Blendz. In Kratom 10x, only the indole alkaloid mitragynine was detected. All the identified synthetic cannabinoids, apart from mitragynine, are under the restriction of law in Italy (TU 309/90). Synthetic cannabinoid crystals were also identified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which also detected other foreign organic chemicals, probably preservatives or antimycotics. In Kratom only leaf fragments from Mitragyna speciosa, containing the alkaloid mitragynine, were found. In the remaining products, aromatic plant species have mainly the role of hiding synthetic cannabinoids, thus acting as a "green shuttle" rather than as real drugs. Such a multidisciplinary approach is proposed as a method for the identification of herbal blends of uncertain composition, which are widely marketed in "headshops" and on the Internet, and represent a serious hazard to public health.

  18. Replication of Space-Shuttle Computers in FPGAs and ASICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the replication of the functionality of the onboard space-shuttle general-purpose computers (GPCs) in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The purpose of the replication effort is to enable utilization of proven space-shuttle flight software and software-development facilities to the extent possible during development of software for flight computers for a new generation of launch vehicles derived from the space shuttles. The replication involves specifying the instruction set of the central processing unit and the input/output processor (IOP) of the space-shuttle GPC in a hardware description language (HDL). The HDL is synthesized to form a "core" processor in an FPGA or, less preferably, in an ASIC. The core processor can be used to create a flight-control card to be inserted into a new avionics computer. The IOP of the GPC as implemented in the core processor could be designed to support data-bus protocols other than that of a multiplexer interface adapter (MIA) used in the space shuttle. Hence, a computer containing the core processor could be tailored to communicate via the space-shuttle GPC bus and/or one or more other buses.

  19. Brand-new signage for the CERN shuttles

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    If, after reading the title of this article, you're striving to remember what the signs for the CERN shuttles look like, then you just hit the nail on the head: we bet that only a few people can actually do so. In order to make it easier for CERN users to move around the CERN sites, a graphic restyling of the shuttle signage has been implemented. You will start to see the new timetables in the coming days.   Larisa Kuchina, a graphic designer in the Communication Group, restyled the shuttle signage to make it more visible and intelligible. “I was inspired by the very clear and user friendly interface of the Geneva Public Transport system (TPG)”, explains Larisa. “Each timetable will also include the corresponding shuttle route. We will soon introduce new road signs for shuttle stops to make sure they are visible from a distance”. There are currently four shuttle lines, serving 28,000 passengers since February 2010: two of them operate between Meyrin and Pr...

  20. Space Shuttle GN and C Development History and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, Douglas; Hattis, Phil; Ruppert, John; Gavert, Don

    2011-01-01

    Completion of the final Space Shuttle flight marks the end of a significant era in Human Spaceflight. Developed in the 1970 s, first launched in 1981, the Space Shuttle embodies many significant engineering achievements. One of these is the development and operation of the first extensive fly-by-wire human space transportation Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) System. Development of the Space Shuttle GN&C represented first time inclusions of modern techniques for electronics, software, algorithms, systems and management in a complex system. Numerous technical design trades and lessons learned continue to drive current vehicle development. For example, the Space Shuttle GN&C system incorporated redundant systems, complex algorithms and flight software rigorously verified through integrated vehicle simulations and avionics integration testing techniques. Over the past thirty years, the Shuttle GN&C continued to go through a series of upgrades to improve safety, performance and to enable the complex flight operations required for assembly of the international space station. Upgrades to the GN&C ranged from the addition of nose wheel steering to modifications that extend capabilities to control of the large flexible configurations while being docked to the Space Station. This paper provides a history of the development and evolution of the Space Shuttle GN&C system. Emphasis is placed on key architecture decisions, design trades and the lessons learned for future complex space transportation system developments. Finally, some of the interesting flight operations experience is provided to inform future developers of flight experiences.

  1. Backup Alignment Devices on Shuttle: Heads-Up Display or Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Space Shuttle was built to withstand multiple failures while still keeping the crew and vehicle safe. Although the design of the Space Shuttle had a great deal of redundancy built into each system, there were often additional ways to keep systems in the best configuration if a failure were to occur. One such method was to use select pieces of hardware in a way for which they were not primarily intended. The primary function of the Heads-Up Display (HUD) was to provide the crew with a display of flight critical information during the entry phase. The primary function of the Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) was to provide the crew an optical alignment capability for rendezvous and docking phases. An alignment device was required to keep the Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) well aligned for a safe Entry; nominally this alignment device would be the two on-board Star Trackers. However, in the event of a Star Tracker failure, the HUD or COAS could also be used as a backup alignment device, but only if the device had been calibrated beforehand. Once the HUD or COAS was calibrated and verified then it was considered an adequate backup to the Star Trackers for entry IMU alignment. There were procedures in place and the astronauts were trained on how to accurately calibrate the HUD or COAS and how to use them as an alignment device. The calibration procedure for the HUD and COAS had been performed on many Shuttle missions. Many of the first calibrations performed were for data gathering purposes to determine which device was more accurate as a backup alignment device, HUD or COAS. Once this was determined, the following missions would frequently calibrate the HUD in order to be one step closer to having the device ready in case it was needed as a backup alignment device.

  2. Shuttle TPS thermal performance and analysis methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, W. E.; Mcbride, D. U.; Armour, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal performance of the thermal protection system was approximately as predicted. The only extensive anomalies were filler bar scorching and over-predictions in the high Delta p gap heating regions of the orbiter. A technique to predict filler bar scorching has been developed that can aid in defining a solution. Improvement in high Delta p gap heating methodology is still under study. Minor anomalies were also examined for improvements in modeling techniques and prediction capabilities. These include improved definition of low Delta p gap heating, an analytical model for inner mode line convection heat transfer, better modeling of structure, and inclusion of sneak heating. The limited number of problems related to penetration items that presented themselves during orbital flight tests were resolved expeditiously, and designs were changed and proved successful within the time frame of that program.

  3. Numerical methods for the simulation of complex multi-body flows with applications for the integrated Space Shuttle vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William M.

    1992-01-01

    This project forms part of the long term computational effort to simulate the time dependent flow over the integrated Space Shuttle vehicle (orbiter, solid rocket boosters (SRB's), external tank (ET), and attach hardware) during its ascent mode for various nominal and abort flight conditions. Due to the limitations of experimental data such as wind tunnel wall effects and the difficulty of safely obtaining valid flight data, numerical simulations are undertaken to supplement the existing data base. This data can then be used to predict the aerodynamic behavior over a wide range of flight conditions. Existing computational results show relatively good overall comparison with experiments but further refinement is required to reduce numerical errors and to obtain finer agreements over a larger parameter space. One of the important goals of this project is to obtain better comparisons between numerical simulations and experiments. In the simulations performed so far, the geometry has been simplified in various ways to reduce the complexity so that useful results can be obtained in a reasonable time frame due to limitations in computer resources. In this project, the finer details of the major components of the Space Shuttle are modeled better by including more complexity in the geometry definition. Smaller components not included in early Space Shuttle simulations will now be modeled and gridded.

  4. An overview of Space Shuttle anthropometry and biomechanics research with emphasis on STS/Mir recumbent seat system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klute, Glenn K.; Stoycos, Lara E.

    1994-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory (ABL) at JSC conducts multi-disciplinary research focusing on maximizing astronaut intravehicular (IVA) and extravehicular (EVA) capabilities to provide the most effective work conditions for manned space flight and exploration missions. Biomechanics involves the measurement and modeling of the strength characteristics of the human body. Current research for the Space Shuttle Program includes the measurement of torque wrench capability during weightlessness, optimization of foot restraint, and hand hold placement, measurements of the strength and dexterity of the pressure gloved hand to improve glove design, quantification of the ability to move and manipulate heavy masses (6672 N or 1500 lb) in weightlessness, and verification of the capability of EVA crewmembers to perform Hubble Space Telescope repair tasks. Anthropometry is the measurement and modeling of the dimensions of the human body. Current research for the Space Shuttle Program includes the measurement of 14 anthropometric parameters of every astronaut candidate, identification of EVA finger entrapment hazards by measuring the dimensions of the gloved hand, definition of flight deck reach envelopes during launch and landing accelerations, and measurement of anthropometric design parameters for the recumbent seat system required for the Shuttle/Mir mission (STS-71, Spacelab M) scheduled for Jun. 1995.

  5. Orthostatic Intolerance After ISS and Space Shuttle Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M C; Feiveson, Alan H; Stein, Sydney; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular deconditioning apparently progresses with flight duration, resulting in a greater incidence of orthostatic intolerance following long-duration missions. Therefore, we anticipated that the proportion of astronauts who could not complete an orthostatic tilt test (OTT) would be higher on landing day and the number of days to recover greater after International Space Station (ISS) than after Space Shuttle missions. There were 20 ISS and 65 Shuttle astronauts who participated in 10-min 80° head-up tilt tests 10 d before launch, on landing day (R+0), and 3 d after landing (R+3). Fisher's Exact Test was used to compare the ability of ISS and Shuttle astronauts to complete the OTT. Cox regression was used to identify cardiovascular parameters associated with OTT completion and mixed model analysis was used to compare the change and recovery rates between groups. The proportion of astronauts who completed the OTT on R+0 (2 of 6) was less in ISS than in Shuttle astronauts (52 of 65). On R+3, 13 of 15 and 19 of 19 of the ISS and Shuttle astronauts, respectively, completed the OTT. An index comprised of stroke volume and diastolic blood pressure provided a good prediction of OTT completion and was altered by spaceflight similarly for both astronaut groups, but recovery was slower in ISS than in Shuttle astronauts. The proportion of ISS astronauts who could not complete the OTT on R+0 was greater and the recovery rate slower after ISS compared to Shuttle missions. Thus, mission planners and crew surgeons should anticipate the need to tailor scheduled activities and level of medical support to accommodate protracted recovery after long-duration microgravity exposures.

  6. Space shuttle with common fuel tank for liquid rocket booster and main engines (supertanker space shuttle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    An operation and schedule enhancement is shown that replaces the four-body cluster (Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO), external tank, and two solid rocket boosters) with a simpler two-body cluster (SSO and liquid rocket booster/external tank). At staging velocity, the booster unit (liquid-fueled booster engines and vehicle support structure) is jettisoned while the remaining SSO and supertank continues on to orbit. The simpler two-bodied cluster reduces the processing and stack time until SSO mate from 57 days (for the solid rocket booster) to 20 days (for the liquid rocket booster). The areas in which liquid booster systems are superior to solid rocket boosters are discussed. Alternative and future generation vehicles are reviewed to reveal greater performance and operations enhancements with more modifications to the current methods of propulsion design philosophy, e.g., combined cycle engines, and concentric propellant tanks.

  7. Shuttle Ground Support Equipment (GSE) T-0 Umbilical to Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Flight Elements Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Kichak, Robert A.; McManamen, John P.; Kramer-White, Julie; Raju, Ivatury S.; Beil, Robert J.; Weeks, John F.; Elliott, Kenny B.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked with assessing the validity of an alternate opinion that surfaced during the investigation of recurrent failures at the Space Shuttle T-0 umbilical interface. The most visible problem occurred during the Space Transportation System (STS)-112 launch when pyrotechnics used to separate Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Hold-Down Post (HDP) frangible nuts failed to fire. Subsequent investigations recommended several improvements to the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) and processing changes were implemented, including replacement of ground-half cables and connectors between flights, along with wiring modifications to make critical circuits quad-redundant across the interface. The alternate opinions maintained that insufficient data existed to exonerate the design, that additional data needed to be gathered under launch conditions, and that the interface should be further modified to ensure additional margin existed to preclude failure. The results of the assessment are contained in this report.

  8. Phase Computations and Phase Models for Discrete Molecular Oscillators.

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Alper; Şuvak, Önder

    2012-01-01

    RESEARCH Open Access Phase computations and phase models for discrete molecular oscillators Onder Suvak* and Alper Demir Abstract Background: Biochemical oscillators perform crucial functions in cells, e.g., they set up circadian clocks. The dynamical behavior of oscillators is best described and analyzed in terms of the scalar quantity, phase. A rigorous and useful definition for phase is based on the so-called isochrons of oscillators. Phase computation techniques for ...

  9. Outline of a Twenty-Five Year Plan for Development and Deployment of A Catapult for A Third Generation Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, John M.

    2002-01-01

    This report reviews the rationale for catapult assist in the launching a third generation space shuttle. It then furnishes lists of early design decisions, questions whose answers are prerequisite to later design decisions, preliminary inventories of carriage levitation and carriage propulsion concepts, phases of the project and major milestones, and some sources of expertise to support the project.

  10. Shuttle Ku-band and S-band communications implementation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, J. G.; Huth, G. K.; Nilsen, P. W.; Polydoros, A.; Simon, M. K.; Weber, C. L.

    1980-05-01

    Various aspects of the shuttle orbiter S-band network communication system, the S-band payload communication system, and the Ku-band communication system are considered. A method is proposed for obtaining more accurate S-band antenna patterns of the actual shuttle orbiter vehicle during flight because the preliminary antenna patterns using mock-ups are not realistic that they do not include the effects of additional appendages such as wings and tail structures. The Ku-band communication system is discussed especially the TDRS antenna pointing accuracy with respect to the orbiter and the modifications required and resulting performance characteristics of the convolutionally encoded high data rate return link to maintain bit synchronizer lock on the ground. The TDRS user constraints on data bit clock jitter and data asymmetry on unbalanced QPSK with noisy phase references are included. The S-band payload communication system study is outlined including the advantages and experimental results of a peak regulator design built and evaluated by Axiomatrix for the bent-pipe link versus the existing RMS-type regulator. The nominal sweep rate for the deep-space transponder of 250 Hz/s, and effects of phase noise on the performance of a communication system are analyzed.

  11. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  12. MCC level C formulation requirements. Shuttle TAEM guidance and flight control, STS-1 baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, G. L.; Montez, M. N.

    1980-01-01

    The TAEM guidance and body rotational dynamics models required for the MCC simulation of the TAEM mission phase are defined. This simulation begins at the end of the entry phase and terminates at TAEM autoland interface. The logic presented is the required configuration for the first shuttle orbital flight (STS-1). The TAEM guidance is simulated in detail. The rotational dynamics simulation is a simplified model that assumes that the commanded rotational rates can be achieved in the integration interval. Thus, the rotational dynamics simulation is essentially a simulation of the autopilot commanded rates and integration of these rates to determine orbiter attitude. The rotational dynamics simulation also includes a simulation of the speedbrake deflection. The body flap and elevon deflections are computed in the orbiter aerodynamic simulation.

  13. Integrated digital flight-control system for the space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The integrated digital flight control system is presented which provides rotational and translational control of the space shuttle orbiter in all phases of flight: from launch ascent through orbit to entry and touchdown, and during powered horizontal flights. The program provides a versatile control system structure while maintaining uniform communications with other programs, sensors, and control effectors by using an executive routine/functional subroutine format. The program reads all external variables at a single point, copies them into its dedicated storage, and then calls the required subroutines in the proper sequence. As a result, the flight control program is largely independent of other programs in the GN&C computer complex and is equally insensitive to the characteristics of the processor configuration. The integrated structure of the control system and the DFCS executive routine which embodies that structure are described along with the input and output. The specific estimation and control algorithms used in the various mission phases are given.

  14. Advanced Microbial Check Valve development. [for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.; Putnam, D. F.; Sauer, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Microbial Check Valve (MCV) is a flight qualified assembly that provides bacteriologically safe drinking water for the Space Shuttle. The 1-lb unit is basically a canister packed with an iodinated ion-exchange resin. The device is used to destroy organisms in a water stream as the water passes through it. It is equally effective for fluid flow in either direction and its primary method of disinfection is killing rather than filtering. The MCV was developed to disinfect the fuel cell water and to prevent back contamination of stored potable water on the Space Shuttle. This paper reports its potential for space applications beyond the basic Shuttle mission. Data are presented that indicate the MCV is suitable for use in advanced systems that NASA has under development for the reclamation of humidity condensate, wash water and human urine.

  15. Effect of speedup delay on shuttle bus schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the bus schedule in the shuttle bus transportation system controlled by speedup. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamic motion of the bus. The motion of a shuttle bus depends on the inflow rate of passengers and the delayed speedup control. The delayed speedup control has an important effect on the dynamic motion of the bus. We present the delayed map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus with the delayed speedup control. The bus motion changes from a stable state, through a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state by the delayed speedup control. The return map of the tour time displays a smooth closed curve and the bus motion is quasi-periodic. The dynamic transition to the quasi-periodic motion changes greatly with the delay time. We clarify the effect of the delayed speedup control on the bus schedule.

  16. Maintaining space shuttle safety within an environment of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael A.

    1999-09-01

    In the 10 years since the Challenger accident, NASA has developed a set of stable and capable processes to prepare the Space Shuttle for safe launch and return. Capitalizing on the extensive experience gained from a string of over 50 successful flights, NASA today is changing the way it does business in an effort to reduce cost. A single Shuttle Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC) has been chosen to operate the Shuttle. The Government role will change from direct "oversight" to "insight" gained through understanding and measuring the contractor's processes. This paper describes the program management changes underway and the NASA Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) organization's philosophy, role, and methodology for pursuing this new approach. It describes how audit and surveillance will replace direct oversight and how meaningful performance metrics will be implemented.

  17. Dynamic characterization and analysis of space shuttle SRM solid propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufferd, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    The dynamic response properties of the space shuttle solid rocket moter (TP-H1148) propellant were characterized and the expected limits of propellant variability were established. Dynamic shear modulus tests conducted on six production batches of TP-H1148 at various static and dynamic strain levels over the temperature range from 40 F to 90 F. A heat conduction analysis and dynamic response analysis of the space shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM) were also conducted. The dynamic test results show significant dependence on static and dynamic strain levels and considerable batch-to-batch and within-batch variability. However, the results of the SRM dynamic response analyses clearly demonstrate that the stiffness of the propellant has no consequential on the overall SRM dynamic response. Only the mass of the propellant needs to be considered in the dynamic analysis of the space shuttle SRM.

  18. Redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Chen, Zonghai; Wang, Qingzheng

    2010-12-14

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries. The redox shuttles are capable of thousands hours of overcharge tolerance and have a redox potential at about 3-5.5 V vs. Li and particularly about 4.4-4.8 V vs. Li. Accordingly, in one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising an alkali metal salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and a redox shuttle additive that is an aromatic compound having at least one aromatic ring with four or more electronegative substituents, two or more oxygen atoms bonded to the aromatic ring, and no hydrogen atoms bonded to the aromatic ring; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  19. Origin and development of ablator for Space Shuttle external tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, L.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) represents the largest element of the Space Shuttle transportation system. The ET is the fuel tank which contains cryogenic propellants, including liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The task of providing a suitable Thermal Protection System (TPS) which is mass producible for the ET represented a challenge for the aerospace industry. The difficulties were compounded by stringent insulation and ablation requirements for the materials to maintain their integrity over a wide range of operating temperatures during prelaunch and ascent. Attention is given to the configuration of the Space Shuttle system, the configuration of the external tank, the initial ET TPS concept, TPS materials and processes concepts, design rationale, TPS materials structural considerations, material and processes development, development tests, material/process verification, and flight results.

  20. Reusable, flyback liquid rocket booster for the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Mark G.

    1989-08-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary design for an unmanned, reusable, flyback liquid rocket booster (LRB) as an evolutionary follow-on to the Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB). Previous Shuttle liquid-propellant booster concepts are reviewed in order to gain insight into these designs. The operating costs, environmental impacts, and abort options of the SRB are discussed. The LRB flight profile and advantages of LRB use are discussed. The preliminary design for the LRB is outlined in detail using calculations and drawings. This design maximizes the use of existing hardware and proven technology to minimize cost and development time. The LRB design is presented as a more capable, more environmentally acceptable, and safer Shuttle booster.

  1. Managing Toxicological Risks: The Legacy of Shuttle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Space toxicology greatly matured as a result of research and operations associated with the Shuttle. Materials offgassing had been a manageable concern since the Apollo days, but we learned to pay careful attention to compounds that could escape containment, to combustion events, to toxic propellants, to overuse of utility compounds, and to microbial and human metabolites. We also learned that flying real-time hardware to monitor air pollutants was a pathway with unanticipated speed bumps. Each new orbiter was tested for any excess offgassing products that could pollute the air during flight. In the late 1990s toxicologists and safety experts developed a 5-level toxicity rating system to guide containment of toxic compounds. This system is now in use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Several combustion events during Shuttle Mir and also during Shuttle free-flight impelled toxicologists to identify hardware capable of monitoring toxic products; however, rapid adaptation of the hardware for the unique conditions of spaceflight caused unexpected missteps. Current and planned combustion analyzers would be useful to commercial partners that wish to manage the risk of health effects from thermal events. Propellants received special attention during the Shuttle program because of the possibility of bringing them into the habitable volume on extravehicular activity suits. Monitors for the airlocks were developed to mitigate this risk. Utility materials, such as lubricants, posed limited toxicological problems because water was not recovered. One clearly documented case of microbial metabolites polluting the Shuttle atmosphere was noted, and this has implications for commercial flights and control of microbes. Finally, carbon dioxide, the major human metabolite, episodically presented air quality problems aboard Shuttle, especially when nominal air flows were obstructed. Commercial vehicles must maintain robust air circulation given the anticipated high density

  2. Overview of aerothermodynamic loads definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, Raymond E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Aerothermodynamic Loads Definition Study is to develop methods of accurately predicting the operating environment in advanced Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) propulsion systems, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) powerhead. Development of time averaged and time dependent three dimensional viscous computer codes as well as experimental verification and engine diagnostic testing are considered to be essential in achieving that objective. Time-averaged, nonsteady, and transient operating loads must all be well defined in order to accurately predict powerhead life. Described here is work in unsteady heat flow analysis, improved modeling of preburner flow, turbulence modeling for turbomachinery, computation of three dimensional flow with heat transfer, and unsteady viscous multi-blade row turbine analysis.

  3. Descent guidance and mission planning for space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle descent mission planning, mission design, deorbit targeting, and entry guidance have necessarily become interrelated because of the nature of the Orbiter's design and mission requirements. The desired descent trajectory has been formulated in a drag acceleration/relative velocity state space since nearly all of the vehicle's highly constraining flight limitations can be uniquely represented in this plane. Constraints and flight requirements that affect the descent are described. The guidance logic which allows the Orbiter to follow the designed trajectory, the impacts of contingency aborts and flightcrew interaction are discussed. The mission planning and guidance techniques remain essentially unchanged through the Shuttle flight test program and subsequent operational flights.

  4. Space Shuttle Damper System for Ground Wind Load Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G. D.; Holt, J. R.; Chang, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    An active damper system which was originally developed for a 5.5% Saturn IB/Skylab Ground Winds Model was modified and used for similar purposes in a Space Shuttle model. A second damper system which was originally used in a 3% Saturn V/Dry Workshop model was also modified and made compatible with the Space Shuttle model to serve as a back-up system. Included in this final report are descriptions of the modified damper systems and the associated control and instrumentation.

  5. New timetable for a Regular morning and evening shuttle

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Starting from 31 March 2008, for one month, a new timetable for a regular morning and evening shuttle serving LHC Points 2 and 5 will be put in place. You can find all the corresponding details on the FM group WEB page: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/fm/logistique/shuttle_timetable.htm Please note that during April, all other requests for transport from Meyrin and Prévessin to the LHC Points via tel. 76969 during the day (between 8:30 and 17:30) will not be met. TS/FM group Tel. 160239

  6. New timetable for a morning and evening regular shuttle

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the 31st of March 2008 and for one month, a new timetable for a morning and evening regular shuttle serving LHC Points 2 and 5, will be put in place. You can find all the corresponding details in the FM group WEB page http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/fm/logistique/shuttle_timetable.htm Please note that during April, every other request of transfer from Meyrin and Prevessin towards LHC Points reaching the 76969 during the day (between 8:30 and 17:30) will not be satisfied. TS/FM group 160239

  7. A fast pneumatic sample-shuttle with attenuated shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Biancalana, Valerio; Stiaccini, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    We describe a home-built pneumatic shuttle suitable for the fast displacement of samples in the vicinity of a highly sensitive atomic magnetometer. The samples are magnetized at 1 T using a Halbach assembly of magnets. The device enables the remote detection of free induction decay in ultra-low-field and zero-field NMR experiments, in relaxometric measurements and in other applications involving the displacement of magnetized samples within time intervals as short as a few tens of milliseconds. Other possible applications of fast sample shuttling exist in radiological studies, where samples have to be irradiated and then analyzed in a 'cold' environment.

  8. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-4) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-4 launch time on June 27, 1982, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given as well as the wind and thermodynamic parameters measured at the surface and aloft in the SRB descent/impact ocean area. Final meteorological tapes, which consist of wind descent were constructed. The STS-4 ascent meteorological data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center in response to shuttle task agreement No. 989-13-22-368 with Johnson Space Center.

  9. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-9) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents a summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-9 launch time on November 28, 1983, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. The final meteorological tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-9 vehicle ascent has been constructed. The STS-9 ascent meteorological data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center in response to Shuttle task agreement No. 561-81-22-368 with Johnson Space Center.

  10. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-13) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Jasper, G.; Batts, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-13 launch time on April 6, 1984, at Kennedy Space Center Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final meteorological tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-13 vehicle ascent was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center in response to shuttle task agreement No. 561-81-22-368 with Johnson Space Center.

  11. Replacement Capability Options for the United States Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    first designed for reuse ” (NASA, 2000). 1. United States Space Shuttle Program (1981–2011) The first operational Space Shuttle was Columbia (OV-102...Week article on China’s future plans for their Long March Launch vehicles, “China is developing three basic rocket modules, with diameters of 2.25... wastewater , which will burn up with the spacecraft when it re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere. The Cargo Module can hold 1,000 to 1,700 kilograms (2,205

  12. Electrostatic Noise in the Plasma Environment Around the Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1995-01-01

    The Langmuir probe flown as part of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) package aboard the space shuttle flight STS-62 was used to determine plasma potential fluctuations in the vicinity of the shuttle. The broadband noise was observed at frequencies 250 - 20,000 Hz. Measurements were performed in ram conditions; thus, it seems reasonable to believe that the influence of spacecraft operations on plasma parameters was absolutely negligible. The average spectrum of fluctuations is in agreement with theoretical predictions. The influence on the observed spectra of arcing generated by high negative bias voltages applied to solar cell samples is briefly discussed.

  13. Condition monitoring helps make the Space Shuttle Main Engine reusable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, W. P.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a reusable, high-performance liquid-propellant rocket engine being developed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle. The SSME has been designed for long life, rapid postflight maintenance, and a fast vehicle turnaround cycle of 160 hours. To meet the unique reusability requirements, the SSME considers maintainability and condition monitoring much as airlines do today. The condition monitoring capabilities designed into this engine are discussed with major emphasis on internal inspection and techniques which ensure the reusability of the SSME.

  14. Space Shuttle Orbiter logistics - Managing in a dynamic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfroe, Michael B.; Bradshaw, Kimberly

    1990-01-01

    The importance and methods of monitoring logistics vital signs, logistics data sources and acquisition, and converting data into useful management information are presented. With the launch and landing site for the Shuttle Orbiter project at the Kennedy Space Center now totally responsible for its own supportability posture, it is imperative that logistics resource requirements and management be continually monitored and reassessed. Detailed graphs and data concerning various aspects of logistics activities including objectives, inventory operating levels, customer environment, and data sources are provided. Finally, some lessons learned from the Shuttle Orbiter project and logistics options which should be considered by other space programs are discussed.

  15. Shuttle performance enhancement using an uprated OMS engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallini, Charles J.; Boyd, William C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) has been investigated as the basis for an enhancement of Shuttle operational flexibility. The Johnson Space Center has given attention to an upgrading of the OME through the use of a gas generator-driven turbopump to raise engine specific impulse. Hardware tests have demonstrated the projected performance gains, which will yield an enhanced, intact ascent-abort capability, as well an an improved on-orbit payload and altitude capability. Attention is given to the application of these capabilities to the Hubble Space Telescope's deployment.

  16. Flight Dynamics Operations: Methods and Lessons Learned from Space Shuttle Orbit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutri-Kohart, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Officer is responsible for trajectory maintenance of the Space Shuttle. This paper will cover high level operational considerations, methodology, procedures, and lessons learned involved in performing the functions of orbit and rendezvous Flight Dynamics Officer and leading the team of flight dynamics specialists during different phases of flight. The primary functions that will be address are: onboard state vector maintenance, ground ephemeris maintenance, calculation of ground and spacecraft acquisitions, collision avoidance, burn targeting for the primary mission, rendezvous, deorbit and contingencies, separation sequences, emergency deorbit preparation, mass properties coordination, payload deployment planning, coordination with the International Space Station, and coordination with worldwide trajectory customers. Each of these tasks require the Flight Dynamics Officer to have cognizance of the current trajectory state as well as the impact of future events on the trajectory plan in order to properly analyze and react to real-time changes. Additionally, considerations are made to prepare flexible alternative trajectory plans in the case timeline changes or a systems failure impact the primary plan. The evolution of the methodology, procedures, and techniques used by the Flight Dynamics Officer to perform these tasks will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to how specific Space Shuttle mission and training simulation experiences, particularly off-nominal or unexpected events such as shortened mission durations, tank failures, contingency deorbit, navigation errors, conjunctions, and unexpected payload deployments, have influenced the operational procedures and training for performing Space Shuttle flight dynamics operations over the history of the program. These lessons learned can then be extended to future vehicle trajectory operations.

  17. A model for the shuttle motions of puerarin and daidzin inside the cavity of β-cyclodextrin in aqueous acetic acid: insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyang; Feng, Wei; Li, Cong; Lv, Yongqin; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-01-01

    Acetic acid acts as one component of the mobile phase to influence separation of puerarin from daidzin when using β-cyclodextrin-substituted media. In this work considering an explicit acetic acid solution, host-guest complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with puerarin and daidzin were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Computational results indicate different shuttle motions of puerarin and daidzin inside the cavity of β-CD. A model detailing the shuttle motion was constructed, and the relationships between shuttle depth and guest rotation angles, hydrogen bonds, and host-guest interaction energies were analyzed. The results can be used to explain the chromatographic retention mechanisms of puerarin and daidzin with β-CD, and to explore the complexity of host-guest interactions involving β-CD.

  18. Fuzzy logic application for modeling man-in-the-loop space shuttle proximity operations. M.S. Thesis - MIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    A software pilot model for Space Shuttle proximity operations is developed, utilizing fuzzy logic. The model is designed to emulate a human pilot during the terminal phase of a Space Shuttle approach to the Space Station. The model uses the same sensory information available to a human pilot and is based upon existing piloting rules and techniques determined from analysis of human pilot performance. Such a model is needed to generate numerous rendezvous simulations to various Space Station assembly stages for analysis of current NASA procedures and plume impingement loads on the Space Station. The advantages of a fuzzy logic pilot model are demonstrated by comparing its performance with NASA's man-in-the-loop simulations and with a similar model based upon traditional Boolean logic. The fuzzy model is shown to respond well from a number of initial conditions, with results typical of an average human. In addition, the ability to model different individual piloting techniques and new piloting rules is demonstrated.

  19. Historical centres: changing definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lazzarotti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War, the architectural and planning culture has been showing a fluctuating attention to the theme of historical centres and their enhancement. First of all this uneven progress explains the difficulty to reach a homogeneous definition and this is still lacking. During a long phase of this period, the historical parts of the town were considered as objects to be preserved in an integral way, as urban monuments. This is mostly due to the high symbolic value of these settlements, that represent fundamental landmarks. Identity building and empowerment of local communities are indispensable conditions for any development programme, especially in the case of centres or other historic environments at risk of abandonment. The progressive evolution of this concept brings awareness of the impossibility of separating – either in analytical or in planning terms ­ historical centres from their urban and territorial contexts, which are linked by mutual, deep relationships. This article attempts to retrace the steps signaled by the publication of international documents and conventions, from the Charter of Gubbio (1960 to the Charter of Krakow and the European Landscape Convention (2000; they obviously represent particular points of view, not exhaustive of the richness of the positions in the debate, but extremely significant in terms of diffusion and consensus.

  20. Hermes flight control center: Definition status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letalle, Pierre

    1990-10-01

    The Hermes Flight Control Center (HFCC) located in Toulouse (France) is described. The center is the third in the world after the American center in Houston and the Soviet center in Kaliningrad. All the Hermes elements, both on board and on the ground will be coordinated by the HFCC for all phases of each mission. Aspects of the detailed definition phase still in the requirements analysis subphase are described. Diagrams are used to illustrate the interplay between the different systems.

  1. Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: Definition and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantone, Domenico; De Angelis, Floriana; Doshi, Anisha; Chataway, Jeremy

    2016-06-01

    Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) is diagnosed retrospectively and involves a clinical course characterized by a progressive accumulation of neurological disability, independent of relapses, following an initial relapsing-remitting (RR) phase. Our incomplete understanding of the pathological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) may explain why, to date, there is no definitive imaging or laboratory test that is able to inform us when the disease is clearly entering into a progressive phase and why the vast majority of clinical trials testing immunosuppressant and immunomodulating drugs in SPMS patients has so far yielded disappointing or mixed results. Here we discuss the definition(s) of SPMS and how it may vary, outcome measurements (current and emerging) and modern trial design.

  2. Shuttle tanker and offloading operations at FPSO/FSU`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    During 1997, the Offshore Safety Division (OSD) of the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) initiated a study into the marine risks associated with the operation of shuttle tankers at offshore export facilities and in the vicinity of offshore installations. The study was aimed at obtaining substantive information on the nature and scope of the marine risks, and the conclusions in report form (Ref.1 - `Close Proximity Study`) were made widely available to the Offshore Industry through UKOOA or IMCA. The specific objective of the `Close Proximity Study` was to assess the risks of collision during close proximity operations involving shuttle tankers at offshore locations. The secondary objective was to identify suitable standards of control and mitigation so that the risks of collision are reduced to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). The concerns arising out of the `Close Proximity Study` combined with a number of contact incidents occurring during 1997 involving shuttle tankers and FPSO/FSU`s during offloading operations prompted the OSD to draw their concerns to the attention of the Offshore Operators of FPSO/FSU`s and particularly the UKOOA FPSO Workgroup. The information and advice contained in this report was aimed at assisting the UKOOA FPSO Work Group in assessing the risks associated with activities connected with shuttle tanker and offloading operations at FPSO/FSU`s. (author)

  3. Shuttle Program Information Management System (SPIMS) data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Program Information Management System (SPIMS) is a computerized data base operations system. The central computer is the CDC 170-730 located at Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas. There are several applications which have been developed and supported by SPIMS. A brief description is given.

  4. Applying reliability models to the maintenance of Space Shuttle software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneidewind, Norman F.

    1992-01-01

    Software reliability models provide the software manager with a powerful tool for predicting, controlling, and assessing the reliability of software during maintenance. We show how a reliability model can be effectively employed for reliability prediction and the development of maintenance strategies using the Space Shuttle Primary Avionics Software Subsystem as an example.

  5. Behavioral Health and Performance Operations During the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beven, G.; Holland, A.; Moomaw, R.; Sipes, W.; Vander Ark, S.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the Columbia STS 107 disaster in 2003, the Johnson Space Center s Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) became involved in Space Shuttle Operations on an as needed basis, occasionally acting as a consultant and primarily addressing crew-crew personality conflicts. The BHP group also assisted with astronaut selection at every selection cycle beginning in 1991. Following STS 107, an event that spawned an increased need of behavioral health support to STS crew members and their dependents, BHP services to the Space Shuttle Program were enhanced beginning with the STS 114 Return to Flight mission in 2005. These services included the presence of BHP personnel at STS launches and landings for contingency support, a BHP briefing to the entire STS crew at L-11 months, a private preflight meeting with the STS Commander at L-9 months, and the presence of a BHP consultant at the L-1.5 month Family Support Office briefing to crew and family members. The later development of an annual behavioral health assessment of all active astronauts also augmented BHP s Space Shuttle Program specific services, allowing for private meetings with all STS crew members before and after each mission. The components of each facet of these BHP Space Shuttle Program support services will be presented, along with valuable lessons learned, and with recommendations for BHP involvement in future short duration space missions

  6. Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air Insulation Redesign Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Carroll, Paul; Head, Kenneth; Fasheh, John; Stuart, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air Insulation redesign was required to prevent the reoccurance of the STS-111 High Pressure Speed Sensor In-Flight Anomaly. The STS-111 In-Flight Anomaly Failure Investigation Team's initial redesign of the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Pump End Ball Bearing Liquid Air Insulation failed the certification test by producing Liquid Air. The certification test failure indicated not only the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Liquid Air Insulation, but all other Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air Insulation. This paper will document the original Space Shuttle Main Engine Liquid Air STS-111 In-Flight Anomaly investigation, the heritage Space Shuttle Main Engine Insulation certification testing faults, the techniques and instrumentation used to accurately test the Liquid Air Insulation systems on the Stennis Space Center SSME test stand, the analysis techniques used to identify the Liquid Air Insulation problem areas and the analytical verification of the redesign before entering certification testing, Trade study down selected to three potential design solutions, the results of the development testing which down selected the final Liquid Air Redesign are also documented within this paper.

  7. Remote control circuit breaker evaluation testing. [for space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemko, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    Engineering evaluation tests were performed on several models/types of remote control circuit breakers marketed in an attempt to gain some insight into their potential suitability for use on the space shuttle vehicle. Tests included the measurement of several electrical and operational performance parameters under laboratory ambient, space simulation, acceleration and vibration environmental conditions.

  8. The physiological consequences of acceleration during shuttle running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenhead, R; French, D; Thompson, K G; Hayes, P R

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the acceleration demands associated with changing direction and the subsequent physiological consequences of acceleration during running at 3 submaximal speeds. 10 male professional footballers completed four 600 m running bouts at 3 speeds (2.50, 3.25 & 4.00 m·s(-1)). Each bout was in the format of either: i) 3 laps of a 200 m track (CON), ii) ten 60 m shuttles (S60), iii) twenty 30 m shuttles (S30), or iv) thirty 20 m shuttles (S20). Peak heart rate (HRPEAK), blood lactate concentration (BLa) and RPE (Borg CR-10) were recorded for each bout. A single change of direction required 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 s of acceleration at running speeds of 2.50, 3.25 and 4.00 m s(-1) respectively. An increase in time spent accelerating produced a linear increase in BLa (r=0.43-0.74) and RPE (r=0.81-0.93) at all speeds. Acceleration increases linearly with change of direction frequency during submaximal shuttle running. Increased time spent accelerating elicits proportional increases in perceived exertion, BLa and HRPEAK. The current study further underlines the need to consider acceleration when quantifying training load during activities involving numerous changes of direction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Remote control circuit breaker evaluation testing. [for space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemko, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    Engineering evaluation tests were performed on several models/types of remote control circuit breakers marketed in an attempt to gain some insight into their potential suitability for use on the space shuttle vehicle. Tests included the measurement of several electrical and operational performance parameters under laboratory ambient, space simulation, acceleration and vibration environmental conditions.

  10. New timetable for the CERN Shuttle service 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Due to the reduction of operational budgets, please note that as from 5 January 2015: Circuit 1 (Meyrin) will not run during lunch; Circuit 2 (Prévessin) will run two more times each day; Circuit 6 will no longer run.   For more information: http://cern.ch/ShuttleService.   Departmental Administrative Office

  11. The Flight of the Space Shuttle "Discovery" (STS-119)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, Arthur; Metz, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article is intended to model the ascent of the space shuttle for high school teachers and students. It provides a background for a sufficiently comprehensive description of the physics (kinematics and dynamics) of the March 16, 2009, "Discovery" launch. Our data are based on a comprehensive spreadsheet kindly sent to us by Bill Harwood, the…

  12. Inter-industry generic Lean Six Sigma project definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameijer, B.A.; Does, R.J.M.M.; de Mast, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The objective of this research is to provide practitioners with inter-industry applicable rules and guidelines for the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) project definition phase. This research resulted in 13 inter-industry generic project definitions that are divided by four performance dimensions: qua

  13. Inter-industry generic Lean Six Sigma project definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameijer, B.A.; Does, R.J.M.M.; de Mast, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The objective of this research is to provide practitioners with inter-industry applicable rules and guidelines for the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) project definition phase. This research resulted in 13 inter-industry generic project definitions that are divided by four performance dimensions: qua

  14. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized...... by non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process....

  15. Shuttle measured contaminant environment and modeling for payloads. Preliminary assessment of the space telescope environment in the shuttle bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    A baseline gaseous and particulate environment of the Shuttle bay was developed based on the various measurements which were made during the first four flights of the Shuttle. The environment is described by the time dependent pressure, density, scattered molecular fluxes, the column densities and including the transient effects of water dumps, engine firings and opening and closing of the bay doors. The particulate conditions in the ambient and on surfaces were predicted as a function of the mission time based on the available data. This basic Shuttle environment when combined with the outgassing and the particulate contributions of the payloads, can provide a description of the environment of a payload in the Shuttle bay. As an example of this application, the environment of the Space Telescope in the bay, which may be representative of the environment of several payloads, was derived. Among the many findings obtained in the process of modeling the environment, one is that the payloads environment in the bay is not substantially different or more objectionable than the self-generated environment of a large payload or spacecraft. It is, however, more severe during ground facilities operations, the first 15 to 20 hours of the flight, during and for a short period after ater was dumped overboard, and the reaction control engines are being fired.

  16. Use of Probabilistic Engineering Methods in the Detailed Design and Development Phases of the NASA Ares Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayssal, Safie; Weldon, Danny

    2008-01-01

    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of a space exploration program called Constellation to send crew and cargo to the international Space Station, to the moon, and beyond. As part of the Constellation program, a new launch vehicle, Ares I, is being developed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Designing a launch vehicle with high reliability and increased safety requires a significant effort in understanding design variability and design uncertainty at the various levels of the design (system, element, subsystem, component, etc.) and throughout the various design phases (conceptual, preliminary design, etc.). In a previous paper [1] we discussed a probabilistic functional failure analysis approach intended mainly to support system requirements definition, system design, and element design during the early design phases. This paper provides an overview of the application of probabilistic engineering methods to support the detailed subsystem/component design and development as part of the "Design for Reliability and Safety" approach for the new Ares I Launch Vehicle. Specifically, the paper discusses probabilistic engineering design analysis cases that had major impact on the design and manufacturing of the Space Shuttle hardware. The cases represent important lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Program and clearly demonstrate the significance of probabilistic engineering analysis in better understanding design deficiencies and identifying potential design improvement for Ares I. The paper also discusses the probabilistic functional failure analysis approach applied during the early design phases of Ares I and the forward plans for probabilistic design analysis in the detailed design and development phases.

  17. A study of aerodynamic heating distributions on a tip-fin controller installed on a Space Shuttle Orbiter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittliff, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The aerodynamic heating of a tip-fin controller mounted on a Space Shuttle Orbiter model was studied experimentally in the Calspan Advanced Technology Center 96 inch Hypersonic Shock Tunnel. A 0.0175 scale model was tested at Mach numbers from 10 to 17.5 at angles of attack typical of a shuttle entry. The study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1 testing a thermographic phosphor technique was used to qualitatively determine the areas of high heat-transfer rates. Based on the results of this phase, the model was instrumented with 40 thin-film resistance thermometers to obtain quantitative measurements of the aerodynamic heating. The results of the phase 2 testing indicate that the highest heating rates, which occur on the leading edge of the tip-fin controller, are very sensitive to angle of attack for alpha or = 30 deg. The shock wave from the leading edge of the orbiter wing impinges on the leading edge of the tip-fin controller resulting in peak values of h/h(Ref) in the range from 1.5 to 2.0. Away from the leading edge, the heat-transfer rates never exceed h/h(Ref) = 0.25 when the control surface, is not deflected. With the control surface deflected 20 deg, the heat-transfer rates had a maximum value of h/h(Ref) = 0.3. The heating rates are quite nonuniform over the outboard surface and are sensitive to angle of attack.

  18. STS 133 Return Samples: Air Quality Aboard Shuttle (STS-133) and International Space Station (ULFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 canisters (mini-GSC or GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. The percent recoveries of the 3 surrogates (C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene) from the 2 Shuttle GSCs averaged 86, 100, and 87, respectively. Based on the end-of-mission sample, the Shuttle atmosphere was acceptable for human respiration.

  19. Modified definition of group velocity and electromagnetic energy conservation equation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Changbiao

    2013-01-01

    The classical definition of group velocity has two flaws: (a) the group velocity can be greater than the phase velocity in a non-dispersive medium; (b) the definition is not consistent with the principle of relativity. To remove the flaws, a modified definition is proposed. A criterion is set up to identify the justification of group velocity definition. A "superluminal power flow" is constructed to show that the electromagnetic energy conservation equation cannot uniquely define the power flow if the principle of Fermat is not taken into account.

  20. Death of the TonB Shuttle Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresock, Michael G; Savenkova, Marina I; Larsen, Ray A; Ollis, Anne A; Postle, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    A complex of ExbB, ExbD, and TonB couples cytoplasmic membrane (CM) proton motive force (pmf) to the active transport of large, scarce, or important nutrients across the outer membrane (OM). TonB interacts with OM transporters to enable ligand transport. Several mechanical models and a shuttle model explain how TonB might work. In the mechanical models, TonB remains attached to the CM during energy transduction, while in the shuttle model the TonB N terminus leaves the CM to deliver conformationally stored potential energy to OM transporters. Previous studies suggested that TonB did not shuttle based on the activity of a GFP-TonB fusion that was anchored in the CM by the GFP moiety. When we recreated the GFP-TonB fusion to extend those studies, in our hands it was proteolytically unstable, giving rise to potentially shuttleable degradation products. Recently, we discovered that a fusion of the Vibrio cholerae ToxR cytoplasmic domain to the N terminus of TonB was proteolytically stable. ToxR-TonB was able to be completely converted into a proteinase K-resistant conformation in response to loss of pmf in spheroplasts and exhibited an ability to form a pmf-dependent formaldehyde crosslink to ExbD, both indicators of its location in the CM. Most importantly, ToxR-TonB had the same relative specific activity as wild-type TonB. Taken together, these results provide conclusive evidence that TonB does not shuttle during energy transduction. We had previously concluded that TonB shuttles based on the use of an Oregon Green(®) 488 maleimide probe to assess periplasmic accessibility of N-terminal TonB. Here we show that the probe was permeant to the CM, thus permitting the labeling of the TonB N-terminus. These former results are reinterpreted in the context that TonB does not shuttle, and suggest the existence of a signal transduction pathway from OM to cytoplasm.

  1. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  2. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  3. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...

  4. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  5. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas prod

  6. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate during shuttle flight, entry and landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W.; Moore, T. P.; Uri, J.

    1993-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressures (BP) and heart rates (HR) were recorded on a series of early Shuttle flights during preflight and pre-entry, entry, landing and egress. There were no significant differences between flight and preflight values during routine activity. Systolic blood pressure was slightly elevated in the deorbit period and systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rates were all elevated with onset of gravitoinertial loads and remained so through egress. Two of seven subjects had orthostatic problems in egress but their data did not show significant differences from others except in heart rate. Comparison of this data to that from recent studies show even larger increase in HR/BP values during current deorbit and entry phases which is consistent with increased heat and weight loads imposed by added survival gear. Both value and limitations of ambulatory heart rate/blood pressure data in this situation are demonstrated.

  7. Range Systems Simulation for the NASA Shuttle: Emphasis on Disaster and Prevention Management During Lift-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Lisa; Sepulveda, Jose; Moraga, Reinaldo; Compton, Jeppie; Turner, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a decision-making system composed of a number of safety and environmental models for the launch phase of a NASA Space Shuttle mission. The components of this distributed simulation environment represent the different systems that must collaborate to establish the Expectation of Casualties (E(sub c)) caused by a failed Space Shuttle launch and subsequent explosion (accidental or instructed) of the spacecraft shortly after liftoff. This decision-making tool employs Space Shuttle reliability models, trajectory models, a blast model, weather dissemination systems, population models, amount and type of toxicants, gas dispersion models, human response functions to toxicants, and a geographical information system. Since one of the important features of this proposed simulation environment is to measure blast, toxic, and debris effects, the clear benefits is that it can help safety managers not only estimate the population at risk, but also to help plan evacuations, make sheltering decisions, establish the resources required to provide aid and comfort, and mitigate damages in case of a disaster.

  8. Microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence of shuttle-like BaMoO4 microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuruangrat Anukorn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Shuttle-like BaMoO4 microstructure has been successfully synthesized from Ba(N032·4H20 and Na2MoO4·2H2O as starting materials in ethylene glycol solvent containing 20 mL 5 M NaOH by microwave radiation at 180 W for 30 min. The as- synthesized BaMoO4 product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and photolumines­cence (PL spectroscopy. XRD patterns revealed that the products was tetragonal BaMoO4 phase. SEM and TEM characteriza­tion showed that the product had a shuttle-like BaMoO4 microstructure. PL of the shuttle-like BaMoO4 microstructure showed a maximum emission at 466 nm excited by 280 nm wavelength.

  9. Definition of intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shobhit; Siddiqui, Khurram A

    2011-01-01

    Defining intractable epilepsy is essential not only to identify up to 40% of patients refractory to pharmacological management, but also to facilitate selection and comparison of such patients for research purposes. The ideal definition still eludes us. Multiple factors including number of antiepileptic drug (AED) failures, seizure frequency and duration of unresponsiveness, etiology, and epilepsy syndromes are considered in formulating the definition of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Most definitions used in the literature agree on the number of AED failures, which seem to be 2 or 3, however, the seizure frequency and time factor are varied. The International League Against Epilepsy proposed a definition of drug-resistant epilepsy as a failure of adequate trials of 2 tolerated and appropriately chosen and used AED schedules. This for now, could provide an operational definition for clinical and research settings. However, with emergence of new data and novel treatments the criteria for intractability may change.

  10. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Candidate experiments definition and preliminary concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, R. V.; Hollinden, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning data for overall shuttle payload requirements assessments.

  11. Design and Implementation of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment on Space Shuttle Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, Theodoros A.; Micklos, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to better the understanding of high speed aerodynamics, a series of flight experiments were installed on Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-119 and STS-128 missions. This experiment, known as the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLTFE), provided the technical community with actual entry flight data from a known height protuberance at Mach numbers at and above Mach 15. Any such data above Mach 15 is irreproducible in a laboratory setting. Years of effort have been invested in obtaining this valuable data, and many obstacles had to be overcome in order to ensure the success of implementing an Orbiter modification. Many Space Shuttle systems were involved in the installation of appropriate components that revealed 'concurrent engineering' was a key integration tool. This allowed the coordination of all various parts and pieces which had to be sequenced appropriately and installed at the right time. Several issues encountered include Orbiter configuration and access, design requirements versus current layout, implementing the modification versus typical processing timelines, and optimizing the engineering design cycles and changes. Open lines of communication within the entire modification team were essential to project success as the team was spread out across the United States, from NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida, to NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas, to Boeing Huntington Beach, California among others. The forum permits the discussion of processing concerns from the design phase to the implementation phase, which eventually saw the successful flights and data acquisition on STS-119 in March 2009 and on STS-128 in September 2009.

  12. Mechanical work and efficiency of 5 + 5 m shuttle running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamparo, Paola; Pavei, Gaspare; Nardello, Francesca; Bartolini, Davide; Monte, Andrea; Minetti, Alberto E

    2016-10-01

    Acceleration and deceleration phases characterise shuttle running (SR) compared to constant speed running (CR); mechanical work is thus expected to be larger in the former compared to the latter, at the same average speed (v mean). The aim of this study was to measure total mechanical work (W tot (+) , J kg(-1) m(-1)) during SR as the sum of internal (W int (+) ) and external (W ext (+) ) work and to calculate the efficiency of SR. Twenty males were requested to perform shuttle runs over a distance of 5 + 5 m at different speeds (slow, moderate and fast) to record kinematic data. Metabolic data were also recorded (at fast speed only) to calculate energy cost (C, J kg(-1) m(-1)) and mechanical efficiency (eff(+) = W tot (+) C (-1)) of SR. Work parameters significantly increased with speed (P < 0.001): W ext (+)  = 1.388 + 0.337 v mean; W int (+)  = -1.002 + 0.853 v mean; W tot (+)  = 1.329 v mean. At the fastest speed C was 27.4 ± 2.6 J kg(-1) m(-1) (i.e. about 7 times larger than in CR) and eff(+) was 16.2 ± 2.0 %. W ext (+) is larger in SR than in CR (2.5 vs. 1.4 J kg(-1) m(-1) in the range of investigated speeds: 2-3.5 m s(-1)) and W int (+) , at fast speed, is about half of W tot (+) . eff(+) is lower in SR (16 %) than in CR (50-60 % at comparable speeds) and this can be attributed to a lower elastic energy reutilization due to the acceleration/deceleration phases over this short shuttle distance.

  13. Space Shuttle Orbiter entry guidance and control system sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H. W.; Powell, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    An approach has been developed to determine the guidance and control system sensitivity to off-nominal aerodynamics for the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry. This approach, which uses a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom interactive, digital simulation, has been applied to both the longitudinal and lateral-directional axes for a portion of the orbiter entry. Boundary values for each of the aerodynamic parameters have been identified, the key parameters have been determined, and system modifications that will increase system tolerance to off-nominal aerodynamics have been recommended. The simulations were judged by specified criteria and the performance was evaluated by use of key dependent variables. The analysis is now being expanded to include the latest shuttle guidance and control systems throughout the entry speed range.

  14. Development of high viscosity coatings for advanced Space Shuttle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalini, S. H.; Banas, R.; Creedon, J.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory studies for increasing the thermal resistance of high viscosity coatings for silica reusable surface insulation are presented. The coatings are intended for the reentry temperature associated with advanced Space Shuttle applications which will involve aerodynamic shear forces during entry from earth orbits. Coating viscosity was increased by (1) reduction in the concentration of the low viscosity additive B2O3; (2) reduction in the particle size of the constituent powders in coatings; and (3) addition of a high viscosity glass former (GeO2). A coating system was produced by combining the three methods which showed apparent higher viscosity than the current coating, while satisfying all the current Shuttle Orbiter coating requirements.

  15. New works in space. [Space Shuttle based manufacturing and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Goods and services that may be furnished by the Space Shuttle are described. A single multibeam antenna array capable of supplying satellite communication for 256 U.S. cities, a disaster warning network, and a TV link to remote areas is discussed. Attention is also given to such materials processing programs as crystal growth (for example, production of mercuric iodide crystals for gamma-ray detectors), eutectic growth of solid-solution crystals such as mercury-cadmium-telluride, manufacture of uniform latex spheres for medical applications, and development of small glass spheres for fusion power applications. In addition to the Space Telescope, a meter-class telescope on the Shuttle and a wide-field survey instrument are under study.

  16. Internet Based Simulations of Debris Dispersion of Shuttle Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2004-01-01

    The debris dispersion model (which dispersion model?) is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models are useful in understanding the complexity of launch and range operations. Modeling and simulation in this area mainly focuses on orbital dynamics and range safety concepts, including destruct limits, telemetry and tracking, and population risk. Particle explosion modeling is the process of simulating an explosion by breaking the rocket into many pieces. The particles are scattered throughout their motion using the laws of physics eventually coming to rest. The size of the foot print explains the type of explosion and distribution of the particles. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations of the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable modeling behaviors of Shuttle launches.

  17. EFFECT OF ELECTROSTATIC RESISTANCE ON THE SHUTTLE OF MICRORESONATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xuejin; HOU Licheng

    2008-01-01

    To improve the performance and reliability of microelectromechanical system's devices, it is necessary to understand the effect of friction which exists in the majority of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with a large ratio of surface area to their volume. The model of electrostatic tangential force of the shuttle in laterally driven comb microresonator is established based on the rule of energy conservation. The effects of microscale, surface roughness, applied voltage, and micro asperities or dents or holes formed in fabrication are investigated, and the electrostatic resistance between two charged moving plates is analyzed. The analytic results are coincident well with those of ANSYS simulation. It is found that the electrostatic resistance becomes high as the increase of the ratio of the shuttle width to the gap between moving plates and the relative surface roughness or the increment of the applied voltage.

  18. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-5) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents a summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-5 launch time on November 11, 1982, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. Also presented are the wind and thermodynamic parameters measured at the surface and aloft in he SRB descent/impact ocean area. Final meteorological tapes, which consist of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-5 vehicle ascent and SRB descent have been constructed. The STS-5 ascent meteorological data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center in response to Shuttle task agreement No. 936-53-22-368 with Johnson Space Center.

  19. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-7) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-7 launch time on June 18, 1983, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. Also presented are wind and thermodynamic parameters representative of surface and aloft conditions in the SRB descent/impact ocean area. Final meteorological tapes, which consist of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-7 vehicle ascent and Acoustic/SRB descent have been constructed. The STS-7 ascent meteorological data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center in response to Shuttle task agreement No. 936-53-22-368 with Johnson Space Center.

  20. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-6) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-6 launch time on April 4, 1983, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. Also presented are the wind and thermodynamic parameters measured at the surface and aloft in the SRB descent/impact ocean area. Final meteorological tapes, which consist of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-6 veicle ascent and SRB descent were constructed. The STS-6 ascent meteorological data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center in response to Shuttle task agreement No. 936-53-22-368 with Johnson Space Center.

  1. Error protection capability of space shuttle data bus designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proch, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Error protection assurance in the reliability of digital data communications is discussed. The need for error protection on the space shuttle data bus system has been recognized and specified as a hardware requirement. The error protection techniques of particular concern are those designed into the Shuttle Main Engine Interface (MEI) and the Orbiter Multiplex Interface Adapter (MIA). The techniques and circuit design details proposed for these hardware are analyzed in this report to determine their error protection capability. The capability is calculated in terms of the probability of an undetected word error. Calculated results are reported for a noise environment that ranges from the nominal noise level stated in the hardware specifications to burst levels which may occur in extreme or anomalous conditions.

  2. The case for a centralized repair depot for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    The first priority of the NSTS program is to make the Space Shuttle system fully operational and cost effective in providing routine access to space. In support of this priority an integrated logistics support system was planned, structured and is being implemented to support a launch-on-time goal of 95 percent. In achieving a 95 percent spares 'fill rate' in an environment of small fleet size, highly unique and high cost assets, significant spares cost can be incurred. A major portion of these costs are for the additional spares required when repair or acquisition times are lengthy. This paper provides a fundamental analysis of the costs and other factors involved in the spare and repair process and provides an optimized cost and process solution for the Space Shuttle program - a centralized repair depot located at KSC.

  3. Flight Experiment Verification of Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Scott A.; Berger, Karen T.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Boundary layer transition at hypersonic conditions is critical to the design of future high-speed aircraft and spacecraft. Accurate methods to predict transition would directly impact the aerothermodynamic environments used to size a hypersonic vehicle's thermal protection system. A transition prediction tool, based on wind tunnel derived discrete roughness correlations, was developed and implemented for the Space Shuttle return-to-flight program. This tool was also used to design a boundary layer transition flight experiment in order to assess correlation uncertainties, particularly with regard to high Mach-number transition and tunnel-to-flight scaling. A review is provided of the results obtained from the flight experiment in order to evaluate the transition prediction tool implemented for the Shuttle program.

  4. MCC level C formulation requirements. Shuttle TAEM targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, G. L.; Montez, M. N.

    1980-01-01

    The level C requirements for the shuttle orbiter terminal area energy management (TAEM) guidance and flight control functions to be incorporated into the Mission Control Center entry profile planning processor are described. This processor is used for preentry evaluation of the entry through landing maneuvers, and includes a simplified three degree-of-freedom model of the body rotational dynamics that is necessary to account for the effects of attitude response on the trajectory dynamics. This simulation terminates at TAEM-autoland interface.

  5. Aileron roll hysteresis effects on entry of space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Six-degree-of-freedom simulations of the space shuttle orbiter entry with control hysteresis were conducted on the NASA Langley Research Center interactive simulator known as the automatic reentry flight dynamics simulator. These simulations revealed that the vehicle can tolerate control hysteresis producing a + or - 50 percent change in the nominal aileron roll characteristics and an offset in the nominal characteristics equivalent to a + or - 5 deg aileron deflection with little increase in the reaction control system's fuel consumption.

  6. Bubble Behavior in Nucleate Boiling Experiment Aboard the Space Shuttle

    OpenAIRE

    Koeln, Justin P.; Boulware, Jeffrey C.; Ban, Heng

    2009-01-01

    Boiling dynamics in microgravity need to be better understood before heat transfer systems based on boiling mechanism can be developed for space applications. This paper presents the results of a nucleate boiling experiment aboard Space Shuttle Endeavor (STS- 108). The experiment utilized nickel-chromium resistance wire to boil water in microgravity, and the data was recorded with a CCD camera and six thermistors. This data was analyzed to determine the behavior of bubble formation, detachmen...

  7. The Digital Space Shuttle, 3D Graphics, and Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Julian E.; Keller, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    The Digital Shuttle is a knowledge management project that seeks to define symbiotic relationships between 3D graphics and formal knowledge representations (ontologies). 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content, in 2D and 3D CAD forms, and the capability to display systems knowledge. Because the data is so heterogeneous, and the interrelated data structures are complex, 3D graphics combined with ontologies provides mechanisms for navigating the data and visualizing relationships.

  8. The Digital Space Shuttle, 3D Graphics, and Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Julian E.; Keller, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    The Digital Shuttle is a knowledge management project that seeks to define symbiotic relationships between 3D graphics and formal knowledge representations (ontologies). 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content, in 2D and 3D CAD forms, and the capability to display systems knowledge. Because the data is so heterogeneous, and the interrelated data structures are complex, 3D graphics combined with ontologies provides mechanisms for navigating the data and visualizing relationships.

  9. Space shuttle contamination due to backflow from control motor exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S. J.; Chan, S. T. K.; Lee, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    Spacecraft contamination of the space shuttle orbiter and accompanying Spacelab payloads is studied. The scattering of molecules from the vernier engines and flash evaporator nozzle after impingement on the orbiter wing surfaces, and the backflow of molecules out of the flash evaporator nozzle plume flow field due to intermolecular collisions in the plume are the problems discussed. A method was formulated for dealing with these problems, and detailed results are given.

  10. RF environment survey of Space Shuttle related EEE frequency bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J.; Prigel, B.; Postelle, J.

    1977-01-01

    Radio frequency assignments within the continental United States in frequency bands between 121 MHz abd 65 GHz were surveyed and analyzed in order to determine current utilization of anticipated frequency bands for the shuttle borne electromagnetic environment experiment. Data from both government and nongovernment files were used. Results are presented in both narrative form and in histograms which show the total number of unclassified assignments versus frequency and total assigned power versus frequency.

  11. NASA's management concept for the Space Shuttle Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    An overview of the Shuttle Program organization and management concepts suggests the necessity of careful measurements of contractor schedules, cost and technical performance, and program modification control to keep both the development and operating cost of the Program at the lowest possible level. Maximum use of the contractors' own management systems and the utilization of new technologies, procedures and materials during space operations are also envisaged as contributors to the reduction of costs per flight to acceptable limits.

  12. Continuous Time Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of Kondo shuttling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Assaad, Fakher; Jarrell, Mark

    2010-03-01

    The Kondo shuttling problem is investigated by using the Continuous Time Quantum Monte Carlo method in both the anti-adiabatic limit φTK and the intermediate regime φ˜TK, where φ is the phonon modulation frequency and TK is the Kondo temperature. We investigate the potential emergence of Kondo effect or Kondo breakdown as a function of the phonon modulation frequency and electron-phonon coupling. This research is supported by grant OISE-0952300.

  13. PEMBELAJARAN LARI CEPAT DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN MODIFIKASI SHUTTLE RUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharjo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine "Is Modified Shuttle Run can improve learning outcomes Elementary School fifth grade students Cenggini 02 Subdistrict Balapulang Tegal 2014". This research method is a class action research by using two cycles, each cycle consisting of four stages, namely planning, tindakkan, observation and action planning refleksi..Pada second cycle associated with the results achieved in the first cycle acts as an improvement efforts of the cycle. The subjects of this study were fifth grade students of elementary Negri Cenggini 02. Research conducted includes three domains, namely affective, cognitive and psychomotor addition to the observations made during the process of the learning process takes place. The results showed the affective, cognitive and psychomotor well categorized shows that the learning outcomes quick run using a modified shuttle run a positive impact as seen on mastery learning outcomes of students who exceed the predetermined KKM 75 In the first cycle the average value of students 75 , 71 in the second cycle the average value of 78.60 students, mastery learning in the first cycle reaches 64.29%, while in the second cycle reaches 92.86% mastery learning .mean mastery learning students has increased by 28.57%. It is concluded that learning to run faster by using a modified shuttle run has a positive effect, which can increase student interest and motivation to learn.

  14. Hubble Servicing Challenges Drive Innovation of Shuttle Rendezvous Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John L.; Walker, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing, performed by Space Shuttle crews, has contributed to what is arguably one of the most successful astronomy missions ever flown. Both nominal and contingency proximity operations techniques were developed to enable successful servicing, while lowering the risk of damage to HST systems, and improve crew safety. Influencing the development of these techniques were the challenges presented by plume impingement and HST performance anomalies. The design of both the HST and the Space Shuttle was completed before the potential of HST contamination and structural damage by shuttle RCS jet plume impingement was fully understood. Relative navigation during proximity operations has been challenging, as HST was not equipped with relative navigation aids. Since HST reached orbit in 1990, proximity operations design for servicing missions has evolved as insight into plume contamination and dynamic pressure has improved and new relative navigation tools have become available. Servicing missions have provided NASA with opportunities to gain insight into servicing mission design and development of nominal and contingency procedures. The HST servicing experiences and lessons learned are applicable to other programs that perform on-orbit servicing and rendezvous, both human and robotic.

  15. A New Shuttle Plasmid That Stably Replicates in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kwon, Min-A; Choi, Sunwha; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Jungyeon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-10-01

    We have developed a new shuttle plasmid, designated as pLK1-MCS that can replicate in both Clostridium acetobutylicum and Escherichia coli, by combining the pUB110 and pUC19 plasmids. Plasmid pLK1-MCS replicated more stably than previously reported plasmids containing either the pIM13 or the pAMβ1 replicon in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure. The transfer frequency of pLK1-MCS into C. acetobutylicum was similar to the transfer frequency of other shuttle plasmids. We complemented C. acetobutylicum ML1 (that does not produce solvents such as acetone, butanol, and ethanol owing to loss of the megaplasmid pSOL1 harboring the adhE1-ctfAB-adc operon) by introducing pLK1-MCS carrying the adhE1-ctfAB-adc operon into C. acetobutylicum ML1. The transformed cells were able to resume anaerobic solvent production, indicating that the new shuttle plasmid has the potential for practical use in microbial biotechnology.

  16. Enhanced Software for Scheduling Space-Shuttle Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretta, Joseph A.; Johnson, Earl P.; Bierman, Rocky R.; Blanco, Juan; Boaz, Kathleen; Stotz, Lisa A.; Clark, Michael; Lebovitz, George; Lotti, Kenneth J.; Moody, James M.; Nguyen, Tony K.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Sargent, Susan; Shaw, Karma; Stoner, Mack D.; Stowell, Deborah S.; Young, Daniel A.; Tulley, James H., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The Ground Processing Scheduling System (GPSS) computer program is used to develop streamlined schedules for the inspection, repair, and refurbishment of space shuttles at Kennedy Space Center. A scheduling computer program is needed because space-shuttle processing is complex and it is frequently necessary to modify schedules to accommodate unanticipated events, unavailability of specialized personnel, unexpected delays, and the need to repair newly discovered defects. GPSS implements constraint-based scheduling algorithms and provides an interactive scheduling software environment. In response to inputs, GPSS can respond with schedules that are optimized in the sense that they contain minimal violations of constraints while supporting the most effective and efficient utilization of space-shuttle ground processing resources. The present version of GPSS is a product of re-engineering of a prototype version. While the prototype version proved to be valuable and versatile as a scheduling software tool during the first five years, it was characterized by design and algorithmic deficiencies that affected schedule revisions, query capability, task movement, report capability, and overall interface complexity. In addition, the lack of documentation gave rise to difficulties in maintenance and limited both enhanceability and portability. The goal of the GPSS re-engineering project was to upgrade the prototype into a flexible system that supports multiple- flow, multiple-site scheduling and that retains the strengths of the prototype while incorporating improvements in maintainability, enhanceability, and portability.

  17. Status of thermal NDT of space shuttle materials at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.; Hodges, Kenneth; Koshti, Ajay; Ryan, Daniel; Reinhardt, Walter W.

    2006-04-01

    Since the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, NASA has focused on improving advanced NDE techniques for the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels that comprise the orbiter's wing leading edge and nose cap. Various nondestructive inspection techniques have been used in the examination of the RCC, but thermography has emerged as an effective inspection alternative to more traditional methods. Thermography is a non-contact inspection method as compared to ultrasonic techniques which typically require the use of a coupling medium between the transducer and material. Like radiographic techniques, thermography can inspect large areas, but has the advantage of minimal safety concerns and the ability for single-sided measurements. Details of the analysis technique that has been developed to allow in situ inspection of a majority of shuttle RCC components is discussed. Additionally, validation testing, performed to quantify the performance of the system, will be discussed. Finally, the results of applying this technology to the Space Shuttle Discovery after its return from the STS-114 mission in July 2005 are discussed.

  18. Animation graphic interface for the space shuttle onboard computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey; Griffith, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Graphics interfaces designed to operate on space qualified hardware challenge software designers to display complex information under processing power and physical size constraints. Under contract to Johnson Space Center, MICROEXPERT Systems is currently constructing an intelligent interface for the LASER DOCKING SENSOR (LDS) flight experiment. Part of this interface is a graphic animation display for Rendezvous and Proximity Operations. The displays have been designed in consultation with Shuttle astronauts. The displays show multiple views of a satellite relative to the shuttle, coupled with numeric attitude information. The graphics are generated using position data received by the Shuttle Payload and General Support Computer (PGSC) from the Laser Docking Sensor. Some of the design considerations include crew member preferences in graphic data representation, single versus multiple window displays, mission tailoring of graphic displays, realistic 3D images versus generic icon representations of real objects, the physical relationship of the observers to the graphic display, how numeric or textual information should interface with graphic data, in what frame of reference objects should be portrayed, recognizing conditions of display information-overload, and screen format and placement consistency.

  19. The definition of cross polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Arthur

    1973-01-01

    There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice.......There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice....

  20. Apu/hydraulic/actuator Subsystem Computer Simulation. Space Shuttle Engineering and Operation Support, Engineering Systems Analysis. [for the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Major developments are examined which have taken place to date in the analysis of the power and energy demands on the APU/Hydraulic/Actuator Subsystem for space shuttle during the entry-to-touchdown (not including rollout) flight regime. These developments are given in the form of two subroutines which were written for use with the Space Shuttle Functional Simulator. The first subroutine calculates the power and energy demand on each of the three hydraulic systems due to control surface (inboard/outboard elevons, rudder, speedbrake, and body flap) activity. The second subroutine incorporates the R. I. priority rate limiting logic which limits control surface deflection rates as a function of the number of failed hydraulic. Typical results of this analysis are included, and listings of the subroutines are presented in appendicies.

  1. Death of the TonB shuttle hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael George Gresock

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A complex of ExbB, ExbD, and TonB transduces cytoplasmic membrane (CM proton motive force (pmf to outer membrane (OM transporters so that large, scarce, and important nutrients can be released into the periplasmic space for subsequent transport across the CM. TonB is the component that interacts with the OM transporters and enables ligand transport, and several mechanical models and a shuttle model explain how TonB might work. In the mechanical models, TonB remains attached to the CM during energy transduction, while in the shuttle model the TonB N terminus leaves the CM to deliver conformationally stored potential energy to OM transporters. Previous efforts to test the shuttle model by anchoring TonB to the CM by fusion to a large globular cytoplasmic protein have been hampered by the proteolytic susceptibility of the fusion constructs. Here we confirm that GFP-TonB, tested in a previous study by another laboratory, again gave rise to full-length TonB and slightly larger potentially shuttleable fragments that prevented unambiguous interpretation of the data. Recently, we discovered that a fusion of the Vibrio cholerae ToxR cytoplasmic domain to the N terminus of TonB was proteolytically stable. ToxR-TonB was able to be completely converted into a proteinase K-resistant conformation in response to loss of pmf in spheroplasts and exhibited an ability to form a pmf-dependent formaldehyde crosslink to ExbD, both indicators of its location in the CM. Most importantly, ToxR-TonB had the same relative specific activity as wild-type TonB. Taken together, these results provide the first conclusive evidence that TonB does not shuttle during energy transduction. The interpretations of our previous study, which concluded that TonB shuttled in vivo, were complicated by the fact that the probe used in those studies, Oregon Green® 488 maleimide, was permeant to the CM and could label proteins, including a TonB ∆TMD derivative, confined exclusively to the

  2. EtOH self-administration on shuttle box avoidance learning and extinction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarés, M A; Nadal, R A; Hernández-Torres, M; Ferré, N A

    1997-01-01

    The effects of ethanol on the acquisition and extinction of the two-way active avoidance response were examined in adult, male Wistar rats from two treatment groups, oral self-administration of alcohol solution (10% v/v ethanol and 3% w/v glucose in distilled water) and oral self-administration of control solution (3% w/v glucose in distilled water). Alcohol or control solutions were available 1 h per day during 15 days simultaneously with food, with free water for the rest of the day. Blood was drawn in the last day of this phase to evaluate blood ethanol levels (BEL). After this period, rats were tested in a two-bottle paradigm for 1 h per day and placed in a shuttle box immediately afterwards. This phase went lasted for 10 days. Subjects were trained to avoid an electric foot shock in the first 5 days (15 trials per day). Following this, half of the subjects were tested in an "easy extinction with punishment" (EEP) and the other half in a "difficult extinction with punishment" (DEP) of the avoidance response for the last 5 days. Alcohol accelerates the avoidance responding acquisition, and no significant effects of alcohol were seen in the extinction phase. Data are discussed in terms of the specificity of the effects of alcohol on learning.

  3. Studies and analyses of the space shuttle main engine. Failure information propagation model data base and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, A. E.

    1987-01-01

    The failure information propagation model (FIPM) data base was developed to store and manipulate the large amount of information anticipated for the various Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) FIPMs. The organization and structure of the FIPM data base is described, including a summary of the data fields and key attributes associated with each FIPM data file. The menu-driven software developed to facilitate and control the entry, modification, and listing of data base records is also discussed. The transfer of the FIPM data base and software to the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is described. Complete listings of all of the data base definition commands and software procedures are included in the appendixes.

  4. Interface definitions in literature: A reality check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parslov, Jakob Filippson; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2015-01-01

    on the definition and perception of a product interface within engineering design research which is the objective of this article. A structured literature review of interface definitions found within engineering design literature has been carried out. The different definitions were tabulated against four key issues......Companies that develop multi-technological products are challenged on their ability to obtain high product quality and short development lead times in today’s highly competitive and globalized markets. One of the main reasons for poor product quality is due to unidentified or poorly defined product...... interfaces during the design phase leading to unintended product behavior. In an effort to reduce the lead time and increase quality, companies may apply a modular product architecture, thus enabling parallel development and maturing of modules. Achieving a successful integration of the modules at the end...

  5. Space Shuttle main engine OPAD: The search for a hardware enhanced plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W. T.; Cooper, A. E.; Wallace, Tim L.; Buntine, W. L.; Whitaker, K. W.

    1993-01-01

    The process of applying spectroscopy to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) for plume diagnostics, as it exists today, originated at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and its implementation was assured largely through the efforts of Sverdrup AEDC, in Tullahoma, Tennessee. This team continues to lead and guide efforts in the plume diagnostics arena. The process, Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD), formed the basis for various activities in the development of ground-based systems as well as the development of in-flight plume spectroscopy. OPAD currently provides and will continue to provide valuable information relative to future systems definitions, instrumentation development, code validation, and data diagnostic processing. OPAD is based on the detection of anomalous atomic and molecular species in the SSME plume using two complete, stand-alone optical spectrometers. To-date OPAD has acquired data on 44 test firings of the SSME at the Technology Test Bed (TTB) at MSFC. The purpose of this paper will be to provide an introduction to the OPAD system by discussing the process of obtaining data as well as the methods of examining and interpreting the data. It will encompass such issues as selection of instrumentation correlation of data to nominal engine operation, investigation of SSME component erosion via OPAD spectral data, necessity and benefits of plume seeding, application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to data analysis, and the present status of efforts to quantify specie erosion utilizing standard plume and chemistry codes as well as radiative models currently under development.

  6. The discriminative power of the Interval Shuttle Run Test and the Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run Test for playing level of soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Verheijen, R.; Visscher, C.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the discriminative power of the recently developed Interval Shuttle Run Test (ISRT) and the widely used Maximal Multistage 20 m Shuttle Run Test (MMSRT) for soccer players at different levels of competition. The main difference between the tests is that

  7. Phases, phase equilibria, and phase rules in low-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, T., E-mail: timfrol@berkeley.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Mishin, Y., E-mail: ymishin@gmu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MSN 3F3, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    We present a unified approach to thermodynamic description of one, two, and three dimensional phases and phase transformations among them. The approach is based on a rigorous definition of a phase applicable to thermodynamic systems of any dimensionality. Within this approach, the same thermodynamic formalism can be applied for the description of phase transformations in bulk systems, interfaces, and line defects separating interface phases. For both lines and interfaces, we rigorously derive an adsorption equation, the phase coexistence equations, and other thermodynamic relations expressed in terms of generalized line and interface excess quantities. As a generalization of the Gibbs phase rule for bulk phases, we derive phase rules for lines and interfaces and predict the maximum number of phases than may coexist in systems of the respective dimensionality.

  8. Phases, phase equilibria, and phase rules in low-dimensional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, T; Mishin, Y

    2015-07-28

    We present a unified approach to thermodynamic description of one, two, and three dimensional phases and phase transformations among them. The approach is based on a rigorous definition of a phase applicable to thermodynamic systems of any dimensionality. Within this approach, the same thermodynamic formalism can be applied for the description of phase transformations in bulk systems, interfaces, and line defects separating interface phases. For both lines and interfaces, we rigorously derive an adsorption equation, the phase coexistence equations, and other thermodynamic relations expressed in terms of generalized line and interface excess quantities. As a generalization of the Gibbs phase rule for bulk phases, we derive phase rules for lines and interfaces and predict the maximum number of phases than may coexist in systems of the respective dimensionality.

  9. Phases and Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-09-01

    In discussing phase transitions, the first thing that we have to do is to define a phase. This is a concept from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, where a phase is defined as a homogeneous system. As a simple example, let us consider instant coffee. This consists of coffee powder dissolved in water, and after stirring it we have a homogeneous mixture, i.e., a single phase. If we add to a cup of coffee a spoonful of sugar and stir it well, we still have a single phase -- sweet coffee. However, if we add ten spoonfuls of sugar, then the contents of the cup will no longer be homogeneous, but rather a mixture of two homogeneous systems or phases, sweet liquid coffee on top and coffee-flavored wet sugar at the bottom...

  10. Time to Definitive Health-Related Quality of Life Score Deterioration in Patients with Resectable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Treated with FOLFOX4 versus Sequential Dose-Dense FOLFOX7 followed by FOLFIRI: The MIROX Randomized Phase III Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Hamidou

    Full Text Available We previously showed that a sequential chemotherapy with dose-dense oxaliplatin (FOLFOX7 and irinotecan (FOLFIRI; irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin is not superior to FOLFOX4 in patients at advanced stage of colorectal cancer with liver metastases. Here we aimed to determine whether time to health-related quality of life (HRQoL score definitive deterioration (TUDD differs by study arm.HRQoL was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-C30 at baseline and every 4 cycles until the end of the study or death. Functional scale, symptom scale, global health status, and financial difficulties were analyzed. The TUDD was defined as the time interval between randomization and the first decrease in HRQoL score ≥ 5-point with no further improvement in HRQoL score ≥ 5 points or any further HRQoL data. TUDD was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the long-rank test. Cox regression analyses were used to identify HRQoL items influencing TUDD. Sensitivity analyses were done using a multiple imputation method and different definitions of TUDD.Of the 284 patients, 171 (60.2% completed HRQoL questionnaires. Cox multivariate analysis showed no statistically significant difference in TUDD for most of the QLQ-C30 scales between treatments. Patients with dyspnea and those without symptoms at baseline had a significantly longer TUDD when there was a delay >12 months between diagnosis of the primary tumor and metastases (HR 0.48 [0.26-0.89] and when there was diarrhea (HR 0.59 [0.36-0.96], respectively.This study shows that TUDD does not differ significantly according to type of treatment. The TUDD method produces meaningful longitudinal HRQoL results that may facilitate effective clinical decision making in patients with mCRC.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00268398.

  11. Evaluation of Anomaly Detection Capability for Ground-Based Pre-Launch Shuttle Operations. Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodney Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This chapter will provide a thorough end-to-end description of the process for evaluation of three different data-driven algorithms for anomaly detection to select the best candidate for deployment as part of a suite of IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) technologies. These algorithms were deemed to be sufficiently mature enough to be considered viable candidates for deployment in support of the maiden launch of Ares I-X, the successor to the Space Shuttle for NASA's Constellation program. Data-driven algorithms are just one of three different types being deployed. The other two types of algorithms being deployed include a "nile-based" expert system, and a "model-based" system. Within these two categories, the deployable candidates have already been selected based upon qualitative factors such as flight heritage. For the rule-based system, SHINE (Spacecraft High-speed Inference Engine) has been selected for deployment, which is a component of BEAM (Beacon-based Exception Analysis for Multimissions), a patented technology developed at NASA's JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and serves to aid in the management and identification of operational modes. For the "model-based" system, a commercially available package developed by QSI (Qualtech Systems, Inc.), TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System) has been selected for deployment to aid in diagnosis. In the context of this particular deployment, distinctions among the use of the terms "data-driven," "rule-based," and "model-based," can be found in. Although there are three different categories of algorithms that have been selected for deployment, our main focus in this chapter will be on the evaluation of three candidates for data-driven anomaly detection. These algorithms will be evaluated upon their capability for robustly detecting incipient faults or failures in the ground-based phase of pre-launch space shuttle operations, rather than based oil heritage as performed in previous studies. Robust

  12. NASA/MOD Operations Impacts from Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Michael; Mattes, Gregory; Grabois, Michael; Griffith, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Operations plays a pivotal role in the success of any human spaceflight program. This paper will highlight some of the core tenets of spaceflight operations from a systems perspective and use several examples from the Space Shuttle Program to highlight where the success and safety of a mission can hinge upon the preparedness and competency of the operations team. Further, awareness of the types of operations scenarios and impacts that can arise during human crewed space missions can help inform design and mission planning decisions long before a vehicle gets into orbit. A strong operations team is crucial to the development of future programs; capturing the lessons learned from the successes and failures of a past program will allow for safer, more efficient, and better designed programs in the future. No matter how well a vehicle is designed and constructed, there are always unexpected events or failures that occur during space flight missions. Preparation, training, real-time execution, and troubleshooting are skills and values of the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) flight controller; these operational standards have proven invaluable to the Space Shuttle Program. Understanding and mastery of these same skills will be required of any operations team as technology advances and new vehicles are developed. This paper will focus on individual Space Shuttle mission case studies where specific operational skills, techniques, and preparedness allowed for mission safety and success. It will detail the events leading up to the scenario or failure, how the operations team identified and dealt with the failure and its downstream impacts. The various options for real-time troubleshooting will be discussed along with the operations team final recommendation, execution, and outcome. Finally, the lessons learned will be summarized along with an explanation of how these lessons were used to improve the operational preparedness of future flight control teams.

  13. An improved APU for the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenna, R.; Hagemann, D.; Loken, G.; Jonakin, J.; Baughman, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit has operated successfully on all four orbiter vehicles and all missions. The current Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) operational life is limited to 12 missions, and the APU turnaround time between flights is longer than originally anticipated. The objective of the Improved APU program is to increase life to 50 missions, reduce installed vehicle weight by 134 lb., and reduce turnaround time. This paper describes the design changes incorporated into the improved APU and the associated development testing.

  14. Shuttle cloning vectors for the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Gendel, S; Straus, N; Pulleyblank, D; Williams, J

    1983-01-01

    Hybrid plasmids capable of acting as shuttle cloning vectors in Escherichia coli and the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2 were constructed by in vitro ligation. DNA from the small endogenous plasmid of A. nidulans was combined with two E. coli vectors, pBR325 and pDPL13, to create vectors containing either two selectable antibiotic resistance markers or a single marker linked to a flexible multisite polylinker. Nonessential DNA was deleted from the polylinker containing plasmid pPLAN B2 t...

  15. Food and waste management biotechnology for the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Hunt, S. R.; Sauer, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Space-crew facilities for preparation, eating, personal hygiene and waste management are contained in one small area of the Shuttle Orbiter Mid-Deck, all the functional systems being interconnected. The paper discusses three major systems: (1) the Galley, which includes the personal hygiene station and food packages; (2) the Waste Collector, which includes provisions for male and female users, urine, feces and emesis collection in both a normal and contigency mode of operation; and (3) Biowaste Monitoring, which includes mass measurement and sampling. The technology improvement continues by assuring that the Orbiter systems have sufficient design flexibility to permit later improvements in operation and in function.

  16. Random Vibration of Space Shuttle Weather Protection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Elishakoff

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with random vibrations of the space shuttle weather protection systems. The excitation model represents a fit to the measured experimental data. The cross-spectral density is given as a convex combination of three exponential functions. It is shown that for the type of loading considered, the Bernoulli-Euler theory cannot be used as a simplified approach, and the structure will be more properly modeled as a Timoshenko beam. Use of the simple Bernoulli-Euler theory may result in an error of about 50% in determining the mean-square value of the bending moment in the weather protection system.

  17. Doppler OCT imaging of cytoplasm shuttle flow in Physarum polycephalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Alexander V; Priezzhev, Alexander V; Lauri, Janne; Myllylä, Risto

    2009-09-01

    The Doppler optical coherence tomography technique was applied to image the oscillatory dynamics of protoplasm in the strands of the plasmodium of slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Radial contractions of the gel-like walls of the strands and the velocity distributions in the sol-like endoplasm streaming along the plasmodial strands are imaged. The motility inhibitor effect of carbon dioxide on the cytoplasm shuttle flow and strand-wall contraction is shown. The optical attenuation coefficient of cytoplasm is estimated. 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  18. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-26) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Johnson, D. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-26 launch time on September 29, 1988, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida is given. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-26 vehicle ascent has been constructed. The STS-26 ascent atmospheric data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post-flight performance assessments.

  19. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-8) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Turner, R. E.; Batts, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-8 launch time on August 30, 1983, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. Also presented are wind and thermodynamic parameters representative of surface and aloft conditions in the SRB descent/impact ocean area. Final meteorological tapes, which consist of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-8 vehicle ascent and SRB descent/impact were constructed. The STS-8 ascent meteorological data tape was constructed.

  20. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-51A) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Jasper, G.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-51A launch time on November 8, 1984, are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is reported. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-51A vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-51A ascent atmospheric data tape is constructed to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments.

  1. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-11) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-11 launch time on February 3, 1984, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles are reported. Wind and thermodynamic parameters representative of surface and aloft conditions in the SRB descent/impact ocean area are presented. Meteorological tapes, which consist of wind and thermodynamic parameters vesus altitude, for STS-11 vehicle ascent and SRB descent/impact were constructed.

  2. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-1) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Jasper, G.; Brown, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions near space shuttle STS-1 launch time on April, 12, 1981, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are reported. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is presented. Also presented are the wind and thermodynamic parameters measured at the surface and aloft in the SRB descent/impact ocean area. Final meteorological data tapes for STS-1 vehicle ascent, and SRB descent have been constructed which consist of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude.

  3. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-51D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near the space shuttle STS-51D launch time on April 12, 1985, at Kennedy Space Center Florida is presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-51D vehicle ascent is constructed. The STS-51D ascent atmospheric data tape is compiled by Marshall Space Flight Center's Atmospheric Sciences Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post-flight performance assessments.

  4. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-51L) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Johnson, D. L.; Alexander, M.; Fichtl, G. H.; Batts, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    A summary is given of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-51L launch time on January 28, 1986, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-51L vehicle ascent has been constructed. The STS-51L ascent atmospheric data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Atmospheric Sciences Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post flight performance assessments.

  5. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-51C) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G.; Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-51C launch time on January 24, 1985, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles are presented. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-51C vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-51C ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments.

  6. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-51B) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-51B launch time on April 29, 1985, at Kennedy Space Center Florida is presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-51B vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-51B ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Atmospheric Sciences Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post flight performance assessments.

  7. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-3) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Brown, S. C.; Batts, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-3 launch time on March 22, 1982, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prlaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles and the wind and thermodynamic parameters measured at the surface and aloft in the SRB descent/impact ocean area are presented. Final meteorological tapes, which consist of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-3 vehicle ascent and SRB descent were constructed. The STS-3 ascent meteorological data tape is constructed.

  8. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-2) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Brown, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-2 launch time on November 12, 1981, or Kennedy Space Center, Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. Wind and thermodynamic parameters measured at the surface and aloft in the SRB descent/impact ocean area are also presented. Final meteorological tapes, which consist of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-2 vehicle ascent and SRB descent have been constructed. The STS-2 ascent meteorological data tape was constructed.

  9. Space Shuttle Orbiter leading edge structural subsystem thermal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, D. M.; Cunningham, J. A.; Frahm, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    An extensive qualification test program and the STS-1 flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter have provided the data necessary to verify the performance of the Orbiter thermal protection system. The reinforced carbon-carbon leading edge structural subsystem is used on areas of the orbiter where temperatures exceed 2300 F. The subsystem consists of the ROC nose cap and wing leading edge panels, metallic attachments, internal insulation, and interface tiles. Thermal response data from the qualification tests and the STS-1 flight, postflight inspection, and analytical predictions support the conclusion that the thermal performance of the subsystem verified the design.

  10. Space Shuttle propulsion performance reconstruction from flight data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    The aplication of extended Kalman filtering to estimating Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) performance, specific impulse, from flight data in a post-flight processing computer program. The flight data used includes inertial platform acceleration, SRB head pressure, and ground based radar tracking data. The key feature in this application is the model used for the SRBs, which represents a reference quasi-static internal ballistics model normalized to the propellant burn depth. Dynamic states of mass overboard and propellant burn depth are included in the filter model to account for real-time deviations from the reference model used. Aerodynamic, plume, wind and main engine uncertainties are included.

  11. Space Shuttle orbiter trimmed center-of-gravity extension study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scallion, W. I.; Phillips, W. P.

    1985-01-01

    Aerodynamic, heat transfer, and system design studies to determine removable modifications for the Space Shuttle orbiter that would extend its forward center-of-gravity triom capability are summarized. Wind-tunnel tests were conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0.25 to 20.3 to determine the most effective aerodynamic modifications. Heat transfer and system design studies determined the impact of the modifications on the thermal protection system and structural weight of the vehicle. The most effective modifications were in-fillet canards or a forward extension of the existing forward wing fillet.

  12. Space Shuttle OMS engine valve technology. [Orbital Maneuvering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, H.

    1974-01-01

    Valve technology program to determine shutoff valve concepts suitable for the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engine of the Space Shuttle. The tradeoff studies selected the electric torque motor operated dual poppet and ball valves as the most desirable valve concepts for the OMS Engine Shutoff Valve. A prototype of one of these concepts was built and subjected to a design verification program. A number of unique features were designed to include the required contamination insensitivity, operating fluid compatibility, decontamination capability, minimum maintenance requirement and long service life capability.

  13. Food and waste management biotechnology for the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Hunt, S. R.; Sauer, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Space-crew facilities for preparation, eating, personal hygiene and waste management are contained in one small area of the Shuttle Orbiter Mid-Deck, all the functional systems being interconnected. The paper discusses three major systems: (1) the Galley, which includes the personal hygiene station and food packages; (2) the Waste Collector, which includes provisions for male and female users, urine, feces and emesis collection in both a normal and contigency mode of operation; and (3) Biowaste Monitoring, which includes mass measurement and sampling. The technology improvement continues by assuring that the Orbiter systems have sufficient design flexibility to permit later improvements in operation and in function.

  14. Deployable radiators for waste heat dissipation from Shuttle payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, R. L.; Dietz, J. B.; Leach, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    Prototypes of two types of modularized, deployable radiator systems with a high degree of configuration and component commonality to minimize design, development and fabrication costs are currently under development for Shuttle payloads with high waste heat: a rigid radiator system which utilizes aluminum honeycomb panels that are deployed by a scissors mechanism; and two 'flexible' radiator systems which use panels constructed from flexible metal/dielectric composite materials that are deployed by 'unrolling' or 'extending' in orbit. Detail descriptions of these deployable radiator systems along with design and performance features are presented.

  15. Artificial intelligence techniques for scheduling Space Shuttle missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    Planning and scheduling of NASA Space Shuttle missions is a complex, labor-intensive process requiring the expertise of experienced mission planners. We have developed a planning and scheduling system using combinations of artificial intelligence knowledge representations and planning techniques to capture mission planning knowledge and automate the multi-mission planning process. Our integrated object oriented and rule-based approach reduces planning time by orders of magnitude and provides planners with the flexibility to easily modify planning knowledge and constraints without requiring programming expertise.

  16. Preliminary CALS Phase II Architecture. Volume 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-03

    IDEF ICAM Definition Languages 5 IDEFO ICAM Definition Language: Activity Modeling IDEFIX ICAM Definition Language: Data Modeling 3 IDS Integrated Design...level. At the Conceptual Description level, data are defined by an integrated semantic data model, such as those produced using the IDEFIX modeling...Architecture with the dominate focus on the data dictionary for the IWSDB, represented by an IDEFIX semantic data model. It is at this level that CALS Phase II

  17. Characterization of pMC11, a plasmid with dual origins of replication isolated from Lactobacillus casei MCJ and construction of shuttle vectors with each replicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhengjun; Lin, Jinzhong; Ma, Chengjie

    2014-01-01

    %. These vectors were employed to express a green fluorescent protein (GFP) using the promoter of S-layer protein SlpA from Lactobacillus acidophilus. And a growth-phase regulated expression of GFP was observed in different strains. In conclusion, these shuttle vectors provide efficient genetic tools for DNA...

  18. Human Factors Throughout the Life Cycle: Lessons Learned from the Shuttle Program. [Human Factors in Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    With the ending of the Space Shuttle Program, it is critical that we not forget the Human Factors lessons we have learned over the years. At every phase of the life cycle, from manufacturing, processing and integrating vehicle and payload, to launch, flight operations, mission control and landing, hundreds of teams have worked together to achieve mission success in one of the most complex, high-risk socio-technical enterprises ever designed. Just as there was great diversity in the types of operations performed at every stage, there was a myriad of human factors that could further complicate these human systems. A single mishap or close call could point to issues at the individual level (perceptual or workload limitations, training, fatigue, human error susceptibilities), the task level (design of tools, procedures and aspects of the workplace), as well as the organizational level (appropriate resources, safety policies, information access and communication channels). While we have often had to learn through human mistakes and technological failures, we have also begun to understand how to design human systems in which individuals can excel, where tasks and procedures are not only safe but efficient, and how organizations can foster a proactive approach to managing risk and supporting human enterprises. Panelists will talk about their experiences as they relate human factors to a particular phase of the shuttle life cycle. They will conclude with a framework for tying together human factors lessons-learned into system-level risk management strategies.

  19. Time to Definitive Health-Related Quality of Life Score Deterioration in Patients with Resectable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Treated with FOLFOX4 versus Sequential Dose-Dense FOLFOX7 followed by FOLFIRI: The MIROX Randomized Phase III Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidou, Zeinab; Chibaudel, Benoist; Hebbar, Mohamed; Hug de Larauze, Marine; André, Thierry; Louvet, Christophe; Brusquant, David; Garcia-Larnicol, Marie-Line; de Gramont, Aimery; Bonnetain, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We previously showed that a sequential chemotherapy with dose-dense oxaliplatin (FOLFOX7) and irinotecan (FOLFIRI; irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin) is not superior to FOLFOX4 in patients at advanced stage of colorectal cancer with liver metastases. Here we aimed to determine whether time to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) score definitive deterioration (TUDD) differs by study arm. Methods HRQoL was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 at baseline and every 4 cycles until the end of the study or death. Functional scale, symptom scale, global health status, and financial difficulties were analyzed. The TUDD was defined as the time interval between randomization and the first decrease in HRQoL score ≥ 5-point with no further improvement in HRQoL score ≥ 5 points or any further HRQoL data. TUDD was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the long-rank test. Cox regression analyses were used to identify HRQoL items influencing TUDD. Sensitivity analyses were done using a multiple imputation method and different definitions of TUDD. Results Of the 284 patients, 171 (60.2%) completed HRQoL questionnaires. Cox multivariate analysis showed no statistically significant difference in TUDD for most of the QLQ-C30 scales between treatments. Patients with dyspnea and those without symptoms at baseline had a significantly longer TUDD when there was a delay >12 months between diagnosis of the primary tumor and metastases (HR 0.48 [0.26–0.89]) and when there was diarrhea (HR 0.59 [0.36–0.96]), respectively. Conclusion This study shows that TUDD does not differ significantly according to type of treatment. The TUDD method produces meaningful longitudinal HRQoL results that may facilitate effective clinical decision making in patients with mCRC. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00268398 PMID:27310205

  20. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy - Quality and Reliability Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, James K.; Peltier, Daryl

    2010-01-01

    Thsi slide presentation reviews the avionics software system on board the space shuttle, with particular emphasis on the quality and reliability. The Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) provides automatic and fly-by-wire control of critical shuttle systems which executes in redundant computers. Charts given show the number of space shuttle flights vs time, PASS's development history, and other charts that point to the reliability of the system's development. The reliability of the system is also compared to predicted reliability.

  1. Sequential (gemcitabine/vinorelbine) and concurrent (gemcitabine) radiochemotherapy with FDG-PET-based target volume definition in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: first results of a phase I/II study

    OpenAIRE

    Stanzel Sven; Kaiser Hans J; Krohn Thomas; Reinartz Patrick; Pinkawa Michael; Piroth Marc; Gagel Bernd; Breuer Christian; Asadpour Branka; Schmachtenberg Axel; Eble Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD) of gemcitabine every two weeks concurrent to radiotherapy, administered during an aggressive program of sequential and simultaneous radiochemotherapy for locally advanced, unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to evaluate the efficacy of this regime in a phase II study. Methods 33 patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled in a combined radiochemotherapy protocol. 29 patien...

  2. Phase Automatic Compensation Method for Long-term Transmission of High-definition Video Signal%高清视频信号长线传输的相位自动补偿方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝学元

    2012-01-01

    为解决长线视频传输中画面拖尾现象,设计提出了一种相位自动补偿方法,利用标准脉冲结合高速FPGA器件预测相位差,并将差值经模拟延迟器在模拟信号发送前加以弥补,实现在接收端的同步.经实践检验,该方法可以较好地实现相位自动补偿,使画质更为清晰.%An automatic phase compensation method to solve the long-term video transmission screen tailing phenomenon is presented in this paper. A standard pulse combined with high-speed FPGA devices is used to measure the phase offset,and the offset can compensate by analog delay line before analog signal is sent to achieve the synchronization of the receiver. By experimental tests, this method can achieve automatic phase compensation, and make the picture clearly.

  3. High-Definition Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Andersen, Kristian G; Steinhubl, Steven R; Topol, Eric J

    2017-08-24

    The foundation for a new era of data-driven medicine has been set by recent technological advances that enable the assessment and management of human health at an unprecedented level of resolution-what we refer to as high-definition medicine. Our ability to assess human health in high definition is enabled, in part, by advances in DNA sequencing, physiological and environmental monitoring, advanced imaging, and behavioral tracking. Our ability to understand and act upon these observations at equally high precision is driven by advances in genome editing, cellular reprogramming, tissue engineering, and information technologies, especially artificial intelligence. In this review, we will examine the core disciplines that enable high-definition medicine and project how these technologies will alter the future of medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Borderline resectable pancreatic cancer - a definition and effective treatment strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Ebata, Tomoki; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Gen; Takahashi, Yuh; Kokuryo, Toshio; Tsunoda, Nobuyuki; Fukaya, Masahide; Uehara, Keisuke; Itatsu, Keita; Yoshioka, Yuichiro; Nagino, Masato

    2012-03-01

    The survival benefit of extended surgery for advanced pancreatic cancer has been denied by four randomized controlled trials. However, there still is confusion and conflict over the definition and effective treatment strategy for so-called locally advanced or borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. Although there are a number of reports that showed outcomes of preoperative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for this disease, the definitions and treatment regimens described in these studies vary. Moreover, all of the studies were Phase I / II trials or retrospective analysis, and there is no Phase III trial currently focused on this issue. It is urgently necessary to establish an international consensus on the definition of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. The usefulness of neoadjuvant treatment for this disease should also be elucidated in future clinical trials. In this review article, we discuss the current understanding and definition of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer, and the value of neoadjuvant treatment strategy for treating it.

  5. Lubrication of Space Shuttle Main Engine Turbopump Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Howard; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has three main engines that are used for propulsion into orbit. These engines are fed propellants by four turbopumps on each engine. A main element in the turbopump is the bearings supporting the rotor that spins the turbine blades and the pump impeller. These bearings are required to spin at very high speeds, support radial and thrust loads, and have high wear resistance without the benefit of lubrication. The liquid hydrogen and oxygen propellants flow through the bearings to cool the surfaces. The volatile nature of the propellants excludes any conventional means of lubrication. Lubrication for these bearings is provided by the ball separator inside the bearing. The separator is a composite material that supplies a transfer film of lubrication to the rings and balls. New separator materials and lubrication schemes have been investigated at Marshall Space Flight Center in a bearing test rig with promising results. Hybrid bearings with silicon nitride balls have also been evaluated. The use of hybrid, silicon nitride ball bearings in conjunction -with better separator materials has shown excellent results. The work that Marshall has done is being utilized in turbopumps flying on the space shuttle fleet and will be utilized in future space travel. This result of this work is valuable for all aerospace and commercial applications where high-speed bearings are used.

  6. TMZ-BioShuttle – a reformulated Temozolomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Waldeck, Manfred Wiessler, Volker Ehemann, Ruediger Pipkorn, Herbert Spring, Juergen Debus, Bernd Didinger, Gabriele Mueller, Joerg Langowski, Klaus Braun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of effective cytotoxic drugs whose side effect profile, efficacy, and long-term use in man are well understood and documented over decades of use in clinical routine e.g. in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM and the hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC. Both cancers are insensitive against most chemotherapeutic interventions; they have low response rates and poor prognoses. Some cytotoxic agents can be significantly improved by using modern technology of drug delivery or formulation. We succeeded to enhance the pharmacologic potency with simultaneous reduction of unwanted adverse reactions of the highly efficient chemotherapeutic temozolomide (TMZ as an example. The TMZ connection to transporter molecules (TMZ-BioShuttle resulted in a much higher pharmacological effect in glioma cell lines while using reduced doses. This permits the conclusion that a suitable chemistry could realize the ligation of pharmacologically active, but sensitive and highly unstable pharmaceutical ingredients without functional deprivation. The re-formulation of TMZ to TMZ-BioShuttle achieved a nearly 10-fold potential of the established pharmaceutic TMZ far beyond the treatment of brain tumors cells and results in an attractive reformulated drug with enhanced therapeutic index.

  7. Determination of shuttle orbiter center of gravity from flight measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, E. W.; Nicholson, J. Y.; Blanchard, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    Flight measurements of pitch, yaw, and roll rates and the resultant rotationally induced linear accelerations during three orbital maneuvers on Shuttle mission space transportation system (STS) 61-C were used to calculate the actual orbiter center-of-gravity location. The calculation technique reduces error due to lack of absolute calibration of the accelerometer measurements and compensates for accelerometer temperature bias and for the effects of gravity gradient. Accuracy of the technique was found to be limited by the nonrandom and asymmetrical distribution of orbiter structural vibration at the accelerometer mounting location. Fourier analysis of the vibration was performed to obtain the power spectral density profiles which show magnitudes in excess of 10(exp 4) ug (sup 2)/Hz for the actual vibration and over 500 ug (sup 2)/Hz for the filtered accelerometer measurements. The data from this analysis provide a characterization of the Shuttle acceleration environment which may be useful in future studies related to accelerometer system application and zero-g investigations or processes.

  8. Space Shuttle vernier thruster long-life chamber development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Douglas D.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) vernier thruster is a pressure fed engine that utilizes storable propellants to provide precise attitude control for the Orbiter. The current vernier thruster is life limited due to its chamber material. By developing an iridium-lined rhenium chamber for the vernier, substantial gains could be achieved in the operational life of the chamber. The present RCS vernier, its requirements, operating characteristics, and life limitations are described. The current technology status of iridium-lined rhenium is presented along with a description of the operational life capabilities to be gained from implementing this material into the design of a long life vernier chamber. Discussion of the proposed demonstration program to be performed by the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center to attain additional insight into the application of this technology to the RCS vernier, includes the technical objectives, approach, and program schedule. The plans for further development and integration with the Orbiter and the Shuttle system are also presented.

  9. Electromagnetic Radiation in the Plasma Environment Around the Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the SAMPIE (The Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment) program, the Langmuir probe (LP) was employed to measure plasma characteristics during the flight STS-62. The whole set of data could be divided into two parts: (1) low frequency sweeps to determine voltage-current characteristics and to find electron temperature and number density; (2) high frequency turbulence (HFT dwells) data caused by electromagnetic noise around the shuttle. The broadband noise was observed at frequencies 250-20,000 Hz. Measurements were performed in ram conditions; thus, it seems reasonable to believe that the influence of spacecraft operations on plasma parameters was minimized. The average spectrum of fluctuations is in agreement with theoretical predictions. According to purposes of SAMPIE, the samples of solar cells were placed in the cargo bay of the shuttle, and high negative bias voltages were applied to them to initiate arcing between these cells and surrounding plasma. The arcing onset was registered by special counters, and data were obtained that included the amplitudes of current, duration of each arc, and the number of arcs per one experiment. The LP data were analyzed for two different situations: with arcing and without arcing. Electrostatic noise spectra for both situations and theoretical explanation of the observed features are presented in this report.

  10. ISS and Space Shuttle Radiation Measurements at Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaza, Ramona; Welton, Andrew; Dunegan, Audrey; Lee, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    A summary of 2008-2011 ISS and Space Shuttle radiation dosimetry results for inside vehicle radiation monitoring in low-Earth orbit will be presented. Results include new data from ISS Expedition 22-25/20A radiation area monitors (RAM) and Shuttle Missions STS127-STS133 passive radiation dosimeters (PRD). ISS 20A radiation measurement locations included three Node 2 crew quarters locations at NOD2S5_CQ, NOD2P5_CQ and CQ-3 (Deck), as well as ESA Columbus, and JAXA Kibo locations. ISS 20A and STS127-STS133 missions were flown at 51.6 inclination with an altitude range of 330-350 km. The passive radiation results will be presented in terms of measured daily dose obtained using luminescence detectors (i.e., Al2O3:C, LiF:Mg,Ti and CaF2:Tm). In addition, preliminary results from the DOSIS 2 Project, in collaboration with the German Space Agency (DLR) will be presented. SRAG s participation to the DOSIS 2 exposure on ISS (11/16/2009-05/26/2010) involved passive radiation measurements at 10 different shielding locations inside the ESA Columbus Module.

  11. Prebiotics: why definitions matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutkins, Robert W; Krumbeck, Janina A; Bindels, Laure B; Cani, Patrice D; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C; Mills, David A; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2016-02-01

    The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative prebiotic substrates and the gut microbiota than previously considered. A consensus among scientists on the most appropriate definition of a prebiotic is necessary to enable continued use of the term.

  12. Definition of Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Authentication is considered a pre-requisite for communication security, but the definition of authentication is generally not agreed upon. Many attacks on authentication protocols are the result of misunderstanding of the goals of authentication. This state of affairs indicate limitations...... in theoretical understanding of the meanings of authentication. We provide a new insight in this direction and formalize it in CFPS (Common Framework for authentication Protocols' Specifications). CFPS provides a precise scope of definition for authentication protocols, which could make the design and analysis...

  13. Prebiotics: why definitions matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutkins, Robert W; Krumbeck, Janina A; Bindels, Laure B; Cani, Patrice D; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C; Mills, David A; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative prebiotic substrates and the gut microbiota than previously considered. A consensus among scientists on the most appropriate definition of a prebiotic is necessary to enable continued use of the term. PMID:26431716

  14. Definition of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sunik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This definition can be applied to information of every kind, level and complexity. Information is considered as the feature manifesting itself in the relations between certain real world
    entities. The real world has to be seen in terms of objects, actions, relations and properties.. The defintion is used as the basis of the Theory of Meaningful Information [1] that explains the nature and functionality of information and enables the production of relevant definitions regarding language and knowledge, which remain operative also in the case of non-human languages and
    knowledge systems.

  15. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  16. Definition of Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Authentication is considered a pre-requisite for communication security, but the definition of authentication is generally not agreed upon. Many attacks on authentication protocols are the result of misunderstanding of the goals of authentication. This state of affairs indicate limitations in the...

  17. Romanian definite article revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Paliga

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available I shall attempt to resume a long, almost endless discussion: the origin of the Romanian definite article. Any grammar of Romanian or any comparative grammar the Romance languages (e. g. Tagliavini 1977 always observes that Romanian, an iso­ lated case in the Romance family, has an agglutinated definite article. The typology is not indeed rare: Bulgarian, Albanian, Armenian, Basque and Swedish witness the same mechanism. We cannot approach the topic by analysing all these languages, yet a comparative analysis would be finally useful. In our case, it is obvious that Romanian cannot be isolated from Albanian and Bulgarian. A potential solution must explain the situation in ALL these three "Balkanic" languages, even if Romanian is not Balkanic stricto sensu1. The paper shall focus on the deep roots of the Romanian and Albanian definite arti­ cle, its typological relations with other linguistic areas, and shall attempt to explain this isolated situation in the field of Romance linguistics. For sure, the Romanian definite article mainly reflects the Latin heritage. Nevertheless, by saying only this, the tableau is not complete: some forms are not Latin but Pre-Latin, Thracian. This paper will try to substantiate this assertion.

  18. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed a

  19. The definition of sarcopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia in old age has been associated with a higher mortality, poor physical functioning, poor outcome of surgery and higher drug toxicity. There is no general consensus on the definition of sarcopenia. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to assess the implications of the use of

  20. Definition af primitiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten

    1997-01-01

    tidspunkt, kan der spares meget tid senere, hvor det er besværligt at definerer primitiverne helt om.I denne rapport er de primitiver, der skal bruges til Sydkrafts net gennemgået. Der er taget stilling til hver enkelt tilstand for de forskellige primitiver. Dette er gjort for at få en definition, som er...

  1. Definition of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Forward, 2015

    2015-01-01

    President Obama signed into law the Every Student Succeeds Act, the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, on December 10, 2015. "Learning Forward's focus in this new law is its improved definition of professional learning," said Stephanie Hirsh, executive director of Learning Forward. "We've long advocated…

  2. The definition of sarcopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia in old age has been associated with a higher mortality, poor physical functioning, poor outcome of surgery and higher drug toxicity. There is no general consensus on the definition of sarcopenia. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to assess the implications of the use of

  3. COPD: Definition and Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J.

    2014-01-01

    particles or gases. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients. The evolution of this definition and the diagnostic criteria currently in use are discussed. COPD is increasingly divided in subgroups or phenotypes based on specific features and association...

  4. Development of shuttle vectors for transformation of diverse Rickettsia species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Y Burkhardt

    Full Text Available Plasmids have been identified in most species of Rickettsia examined, with some species maintaining multiple different plasmids. Three distinct plasmids were demonstrated in Rickettsia amblyommii AaR/SC by Southern analysis using plasmid specific probes. Copy numbers of pRAM18, pRAM23 and pRAM32 per chromosome in AaR/SC were estimated by real-time PCR to be 2.0, 1.9 and 1.3 respectively. Cloning and sequencing of R. amblyommii AaR/SC plasmids provided an opportunity to develop shuttle vectors for transformation of rickettsiae. A selection cassette encoding rifampin resistance and a fluorescent marker was inserted into pRAM18 yielding a 27.6 kbp recombinant plasmid, pRAM18/Rif/GFPuv. Electroporation of Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia bellii with pRAM18/Rif/GFPuv yielded GFPuv-expressing rickettsiae within 2 weeks. Smaller vectors, pRAM18dRG, pRAM18dRGA and pRAM32dRGA each bearing the same selection cassette, were made by moving the parA and dnaA-like genes from pRAM18 or pRAM32 into a vector backbone. R. bellii maintained the highest numbers of pRAM18dRGA (13.3 - 28.1 copies, and R. parkeri, Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia montanensis contained 9.9, 5.5 and 7.5 copies respectively. The same species transformed with pRAM32dRGA maintained 2.6, 2.5, 3.2 and 3.6 copies. pRM, the plasmid native to R. monacensis, was still present in shuttle vector transformed R. monacensis at a level similar to that found in wild type R. monacensis after 15 subcultures. Stable transformation of diverse rickettsiae was achieved with a shuttle vector system based on R. amblyommii plasmids pRAM18 and pRAM32, providing a new research tool that will greatly facilitate genetic and biological studies of rickettsiae.

  5. Launch-Off-Need Shuttle Hubble Rescue Mission: Medical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Gillis, David; Ilcus, Linda; Perchonok, Michele; Polk, James; Brandt, Keith; Powers, Edward; Stepaniak, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Hubble repair mission (STS-125) is unique in that a rescue mission (STS-400) has to be ready to launch before STS-125 life support runs out should the vehicle become stranded. The shuttle uses electrical power derived from fuel cells that use cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen (CRYO) to run all subsystems including the Environmental Control System. If the STS-125 crew cannot return to Earth due to failure of a critical subsystem, they must power down all nonessential systems and wait to be rescued by STS-400. This power down will cause the cabin temperature to be 60 F or less and freeze the rest of the vehicle, preventing it from attempting a reentry. After an emergency has been declared, STS-125 must wait at least 7 days to power down since that is the earliest that STS-400 can be launched. Problem The delayed power down of STS-125 causes CYRO to be consumed at high rates and limits the survival time after STS-400 launches to 10 days or less. CRYO will run out sooner every day that the STS-400 launch is delayed (weather at launch, technical issues etc.). To preserve CRYO and lithium hydroxide (LiOH - carbon dioxide removal) the crew will perform no exercise to reduce their metabolic rates, yet each deconditioned STS-125 crewmember must perform an EVA to rescue himself. The cabin may be cold for 10 days, which may cause shivering, increasing the metabolic rate of the STS-125 crew. Solution To preserve LiOH, the STS-125 manifest includes nutrition bars with low carbohydrate content to maintain crew respiratory quotient (RQ) below 0.85 as opposed to the usual shuttle galley food which is rich in carbohydrates and keeps the RQ at approximately 0.95. To keep the crew more comfortable in the cold vehicle warm clothing also has been included. However, with no exercise and limited diet, the deconditioned STS-125 crew returning on STS-400 may not be able to egress the vehicle autonomously requiring a supplemented crash-and-rescue capability.

  6. Heat transfer tests of the NASA-MSC space shuttle configuration at the Langley Research Center Mach 8 Variable Density Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, L. E.; Sparks, V. W.; Bhadsavle, A. G.

    1971-01-01

    The experimental investigations performed on the NASA-Manned Spacecraft Center Space Shuttle orbiter and booster configurations at a Mach 8 variable density facility are presented. The test program was a series of aerothermodynamic wind tunnel tests that were run over a range of angles of attack, yaw angles, and Reynolds numbers. Objectives of the test program were to obtain heat transfer data over the NASA-Manned Spacecraft Center Space Shuttle orbiter, booster, and launch configurations for a range of angles of attack from - 20 to + 30 deg, yaw angles of 0 and + or - 6 deg, and Reynolds numbers of 0.6, 2.0, and 3.7 x one million. The phase-change coating technique was used to obtain heat transfer data. Information received from these tests will be instrumental in performing thermal protection systems studies and vehicle aerodynamic design.

  7. On some positive definite functions

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Rajendra; Jain, Tanvi

    2014-01-01

    We study the function $(1 - \\|x\\|)\\slash (1 - \\|x\\|^r),$ and its reciprocal, on the Euclidean space $\\mathbb{R}^n,$ with respect to properties like being positive definite, conditionally positive definite, and infinitely divisible.

  8. Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/nutritiondefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Nutrition This field of study focuses on foods and ...

  9. A long telephoto lens captured Space Shuttle Endeavour landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A long telephoto lens captured Space Shuttle Endeavour landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on May 1, 2001. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards would subsequently service the shuttle and mount it on a 747 for the ferry flight to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

  10. Linking the space shuttle and space stations early docking technologies from concept to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2017-01-01

    How could the newly authorized space shuttle help in the U.S. quest to build a large research station in Earth orbit? As a means of transporting goods, the shuttle could help supply the parts to the station. But how would the two entitles be physically linked? Docking technologies had to constantly evolve as the designs of the early space stations changed. It was hoped the shuttle would make missions to the Russian Salyut and American Skylab stations, but these were postponed until the Mir station became available, while plans for getting a new U. S. space station underway were stalled. In Linking the Space Shuttle and Space Stations, the author delves into the rich history of the Space Shuttle and its connection to these early space stations, culminating in the nine missions to dock the shuttle to Mir. By 1998, after nearly three decades of planning and operations, shuttle missions to Mir had resulted in: • A proven system to link up the space shuttle to a space station • Equipment and hands-on experienc...

  11. STS-26 MS Hilmers on fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers prepares to ascend a ladder representing the interdeck access hatch from the shuttle middeck to the flight deck. The STS-26 crew is training in the fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  12. First-ever evening public engine test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Thousands of people watch the first-ever evening public engine test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. The spectacular test marked Stennis Space Center's 20th anniversary celebration of the first Space Shuttle mission.

  13. In-line task 57: Component evaluation. [of circuit breakers, panel switches, etc. for space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Design analysis tests were performed on selected power switching components to determine the possible applicability of off-the-shelf hardware to space shuttles. Various characteristics were also evaluated in those devices to determine the most desirable properties for the space shuttle.

  14. STS-26 Commander Hauck poses on shuttle mockup aft flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck poses on shuttle mockup aft flight deck in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Hauck's right hand is propped on Onorbit Station control panel A2 remote manipulator system (RMS) translation hand control. Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  15. Effects of limited peripheral vision on shuttle sprint performance of soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, KAPM; Dijkstra, B; Visscher, C

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effect of limited peripheral vision oil the shuttle sprint performance of soccer players. Participants were 14 male soccer players of a student soccer club (M age = 22.1 yr., SD = 1.3 yr.). They performed a repeated shuttle sprint with full and limited peripheral vision. Mean

  16. Requirements for Carnitine Shuttle-Mediated Translocation of Mitochondrial Acetyl Moieties to the Yeast Cytosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmen M. van Rossum

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In many eukaryotes, the carnitine shuttle plays a key role in intracellular transport of acyl moieties. Fatty acid-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells employ this shuttle to translocate acetyl units into their mitochondria. Mechanistically, the carnitine shuttle should be reversible, but previous studies indicate that carnitine shuttle-mediated export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the yeast cytosol does not occur in vivo. This apparent unidirectionality was investigated by constitutively expressing genes encoding carnitine shuttle-related proteins in an engineered S. cerevisiae strain, in which cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA synthesis could be switched off by omitting lipoic acid from growth media. Laboratory evolution of this strain yielded mutants whose growth on glucose, in the absence of lipoic acid, was l-carnitine dependent, indicating that in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the cytosol occurred via the carnitine shuttle. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was identified as the predominant source of acetyl-CoA in the evolved strains. Whole-genome sequencing revealed mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (MCT1, nuclear-mitochondrial communication (RTG2, and encoding a carnitine acetyltransferase (YAT2. Introduction of these mutations into the nonevolved parental strain enabled l-carnitine-dependent growth on glucose. This study indicates intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA concentration and constitutive expression of carnitine shuttle genes as key factors in enabling in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units via the carnitine shuttle.

  17. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    Airborne research management and shuttle sortie planning at the Ames Research Center are reported. Topics discussed include: basic criteria and procedures for the formulation and approval of airborne missions; ASO management structure and procedures; experiment design, development, and testing aircraft characteristics and experiment interfaces; information handling for airborne science missions; mission documentation requirements; and airborne science methods and shuttle sortie planning.

  18. Christa McAuliffe and Dick Scobee in Shuttle mission simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Francis R. (Dick) Scobee, STS 51-L commander, briefs Payload specialist Sharon Christa McAuliffe about some of the flight systems of the Space Shuttle during a training session in JSC's Shuttle mission simulator. They are on the flight deck with McAuliffe seated at the pilot's station and Scobee at the commander's station.

  19. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    The management concepts and operating procedures are documented as they apply to the planning of shuttle spacelab operations. Areas discussed include: airborne missions; formulation of missions; management procedures; experimenter involvement; experiment development and performance; data handling; safety procedures; and applications to shuttle spacelab planning. Characteristics of the airborne science experience are listed, and references and figures are included.

  20. Alternative Suspension System for Space Shuttle Avionics Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biele, Frank H., III

    2010-01-01

    Engineers working in the Aerospace field under deadlines and strict budgets often miss the opportunity to design something that is considered new or innovative, favoring instead to use the tried-and-true design over those that may, in fact, be more efficient. This thesis examines an electronic equipment stowage shelf suspended from a frame in the cargo bay (mid fuselage) of the United States Space Transportation System (STS), the Space Shuttle, and 3 alternative designs. Four different designs are examined and evaluated. The first design is a conventional truss, representing the tried and true approach. The second is a cable dome type structure consisting of struts and pre-stressed wiring. The third and fourth are double layer tensegrity systems consisting of contiguous struts of the order k=1 and k=2 respectively.

  1. Photochemical water splitting mediated by a C1 shuttle

    KAUST Repository

    Alderman, N. P.

    2016-10-31

    The possibility of performing photochemical water splitting in a two-stage system, separately releasing the H and O components, has been probed with two separate catalysts and in combination with a formaldehyde/formate shuttling redox couple. In the first stage, formaldehyde releases hydrogen vigorously in the presence of an Na[Fe(CN)]·10HO catalyst, selectively affording the formate anion. In the second stage, the formate anion is hydro-genated back to formaldehyde by water and in the presence of a BiWO photocatalyst whilst releasing oxygen. Both stages operate at room temperature and under visible light irradiation. The two separate photocatalysts are compatible since water splitting can also be obtained in one-pot experiments with simultaneous H/O evolution.

  2. Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System - Flight experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the overall design of the Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The Orbiter ECLSS consists of six major subsystems which accomplish the functions of providing a habitable pressurized cabin atmosphere and removing gaseous contaminants, controlling the temperature of the cabin and vehicle components within acceptable ranges, providing fire detection and suppression capability, maintaining a supply of potable water, collecting and removing metabolic waste materials, and providing utilities and access for extravehicular activity. The operational experience is summarized for the 45 space flights accomplished to date during which the Orbiter ECLSS has been demonstrated to perform reliably, and has proved to have the flexibility to meet a variety of mission needs. Significant flight problems are described, along with the design or procedure changes which were implemented to resolve the problems.

  3. Flexible Plug Repair for Shuttle Wing Leading Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Sikora, Joseph; Smith, Russel; Rivers, H.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Fuller, Alan M.; Klacka, Robert; Reinders, Martin; Schwind, Francis; Sullivan, Brian; hide

    2012-01-01

    In response to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board report, a plug repair kit has been developed to enable astronauts to repair the space shuttle's wing leading edge (WLE) during orbit. The plug repair kit consists of several 17.78- cm-diameter carbon/silicon carbide (C/SiC) cover plates of various curvatures that can be attached to the refractory carbon-carbon WLE panels using a TZM refractory metal attach mechanism. The attach mechanism is inserted through the damage in the WLE panel and, as it is tightened, the cover plate flexes to conform to the curvature of the WLE panel within 0.050 mm. An astronaut installs the repair during an extravehicular activity (EVA). After installing the plug repair, edge gaps are checked and the perimeter of the repair is sealed using a proprietary material, developed to fill cracks and small holes in the WLE.

  4. Preflight and postflight microbiological results from 25 space shuttle crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Bassinger, Virginia J.; Molina, Thomas C.; Gunter, Emelie G.; Groves, Theron O.; Cioletti, Louis J.; Mishra, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical-microbiological investigations are an important aspect of the crew health stabilization program. To ensure that space crews have neither active nor latent infections, clinical specimens, including throat and nasal swabs and urine samples, are collected at 10 days (L-10) and 2days (L-2) before launch, and immediately after landing (L+0). All samples are examined for the presence of bacteria and fungi. In addition, fecal samples are collected at L-10 and examined for bacteria, fungi and parasites. This paper describes clinical-microbiological findings from 144 astronauts participating in 25 Space Shuttle missions spanning Space Transportation System (STS)-26 to STS-50. The spectrum of microbiological findings from the specimens included 25 bacterial and 11 fungal species. Among the bacteria isolated most frequently were Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Streptococcus agalactiae. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated fungal pathogen.

  5. Atmospheric Environment for Space Shuttle (STS-28) Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-28 launch time on August 8, 1989. STS-28 carried a Department of Defense payload and the flight azimuth is denoted by a reference flight azimuth, since the actual flight azimuth is not known. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-28 vehicle ascent was constructed and represents the best estimate of the launch environment to 400,000 ft altitude that was traversed by the STS-28 vehicle. The STS-28 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post-flight performance assessments.

  6. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-35) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    A summary is given of selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-35 launch time on December 2, 1990, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-35 vehicle ascent has been constructed. The STS-35 ascent atmospheric data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represents the best estimate of the launch environment to the 400,000-ft altitude that was traversed by the STS-35 vehicle.

  7. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-41D) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Jasper, G.; Batts, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-41D launch time on August 30, 1984, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given as well as wind and thermodynamic parameters representative of surface and aloft conditions in the SRB descent/impact ocean area. Final atmospheric tapes, which consist of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-41D vehicle ascent and SRB descent/impact were constructed. The STS-41D ascent meteorological data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Atmospheric Science Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post flight performance assessments.

  8. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-30) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-30 launch time on May 4, 1989, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-30 vehicle ascent has been constructed. The STS-30 ascent atmospheric data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post-flight performance assessments.

  9. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-37) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-37 launch time on 5 Apr. 1991 at KSC is presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (clouds), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-37 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-37 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represents the best estimate of the launch environment to the 400,000 ft. altitude that was traversed by the STS-37 vehicle.

  10. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-36) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-36 launch time on February 28, 1990, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida was presented. STS-36 carried a Department of Defense payload and the flight azimuth is not known. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-36 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-36 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represent the best estimate of the launch environment to the 400,000 feet altitude that was traversed by the STS-36 vehicle.

  11. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-33) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-33 at launch time. STS-33 carried a DOD payload and the flight azimuth is denoted by a reference flight azimuth, since the actual flight azimuth is not known. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (clouds), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-33 vehicle ascent, was constructed. The STS-33 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by NASA-Marshall to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represents the best estimates of the launch environment to the 400,000 ft altitude that was traversed by the STS-33 vehicle.

  12. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-34) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-34 launch time on October 18, 1989, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida is presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (clouds), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters vs. altitude, for STS-34 vehicle ascent was constructed to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post-flight performance assessments. It represents the best estimates of the launch environment to the 400,000 feet altitude that was traversed by the STS-34 vehicle.

  13. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-32) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-32 launch time on January 9, 1990, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (clouds), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is also presented. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-32 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-32 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represents the best estimate of the launch environment that was traversed by the STS-32 vehicle.

  14. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-43) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-43) launch time on August 2, 1991, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida is presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric profile, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-43 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-43 ascent atmospheric data profile was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consisted data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represents the best estimate of the launch environment to the 400,000-ft altitude that was traversed by the STS-43 vehicle.

  15. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-39) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle Atlantis STS-39 launch time on 28 April 1991, at Kennedy Space Center, FL. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-39 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-39 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by NASA-Marshall to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represents the best estimate of the launch environment to the 400,000 ft altitude that was traversed by the STS-39 vehicle.

  16. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-41G) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Jasper, G.; Batts, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions that were observed near Space Shuttle STS-41G launch time on October 5, 1984 at Kennedy Space Center in Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual obsrvations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape consisting of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude for STS-41G vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-41G ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed. The STS-41G ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Atmospheric Sciences Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post flight performance assessments.

  17. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-41) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-41 launch time on October 6, 1990, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (clouds), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-41 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-41 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represents the best estimate of the launch environment to the 400,000 ft altitude that was traversed by the STS-41 vehicle.

  18. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-38) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-38 launch time on November 15, 1990, at Kennedy Space Center is presented. STS-38 carried a Department of Defense payload and the flight azimuth in this report will be denoted by a reference flight azimuth, since the actual flight azimuth is not known. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observation (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is presented. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-38 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-38 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represents the best estimate of the launch environment to the 400,000-ft altitude that was traversed by the STS-38 vehicle.

  19. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-29) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-29 launch time on March 13, 1989, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-29 vehicle ascent has been constructed. The STS-29 ascent atmospheric data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post-flight performance assessments.

  20. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-27) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Johnson, D. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    Selected articles on atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-27 launch time on December 2, 1988, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are summarized. STS-27 carried a Department of Defense payload and the flight azimuth in this report will be denoted by reference flight azimuth, since the actual flight azimuth is not known. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-27 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-27 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post-flight performance assessments.

  1. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-40) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-40) launch time on 5 Jun. 1991, at KSC is presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observation (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-40 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-40 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by MSFC's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represents the best estimate of the launch environment to the 400,000-ft altitude that was traversed by the STS-40 vehicle.

  2. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-31) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-31 launch time on April 24, 1990, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (clouds), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is also presented. The final atmospheric tape, which consists if wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-31 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-31 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represent the best estimated of the launch environment to the 400,000 feet altitude that was traversed by the STS-31 vehicle.

  3. Earth scenes in polarized light observed from the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Victor S.; Coulson, Kinsell L.

    1989-01-01

    By means of a pair of boresighted and synchronized cameras fitted with orthogonally oriented polarizing filters and carried aboard the Space Shuttle, a large number of polarized images of the earth's surface have been obtained from orbital altitude. Selected pairs of images, both in color and in black and white, have been digitized and computer-processed to yield analogous images in each of the three Stokes parameters necessary for characterizing the state of linear polarization of the emergent light. Many of the images show surface properties more distinctly in degree and plane of polarization than in simple intensity alone. It is believed that these are the first, and certainly the most extensive, set of polarized images of the earth ever obtained from space. Selected pairs of the images are presented here along with some early results of analysis.

  4. Plasma density fluctuations observed during Space Shuttle Orbiter water releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, J. S.; D'Angelo, N.; Kurth, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Observations by the Langmuir probe on the Plasma Diagnostics Package flown as part of the Spacelab 2 mission in the summer of 1985 show a strong increase in the level of turbulence near the Shuttle Orbiter during operations in which liquid water is released. The spectrum of the plasma density fluctuations peaks at the lowest frequencies measured (a few Hz) and extends up to a few kHz, near the lower hybrid frequency. Two potential mechanisms for generating the plasma turbulence are suggested which are both based on the production of water ions as a result of charge exchange with the ambient oxygen ions in the ionosphere. The first mechanism proposed is the ion-plasma instability which arises from the drift of the contaminant with respect to the ambient oxygen ions. The other mechanism proposed is the Ott-Farley instability, which is a result of the ring distribution formed by the 'pick-up' water ions.

  5. Shuttle-promoted nano-mechanical current switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Taegeun, E-mail: tsong@ictp.it; Kiselev, Mikhail N. [Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics Section, The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Gorelik, Leonid Y. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Shekhter, Robert I. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Kikoin, Konstantin [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2015-09-21

    We investigate electron shuttling in three-terminal nanoelectromechanical device built on a movable metallic rod oscillating between two drains. The device shows a double-well shaped electromechanical potential tunable by a source-drain bias voltage. Four stationary regimes controllable by the bias are found for this device: (i) single stable fixed point, (ii) two stable fixed points, (iii) two limit cycles, and (iv) single limit cycle. In the presence of perpendicular magnetic field, the Lorentz force makes possible switching from one electromechanical state to another. The mechanism of tunable transitions between various stable regimes based on the interplay between voltage controlled electromechanical instability and magnetically controlled switching is suggested. The switching phenomenon is implemented for achieving both a reliable active current switch and sensoring of small variations of magnetic field.

  6. Freight Shuttle System: Cross-Border Movement of Goods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levien, Mary

    2011-05-31

    The Freight Shuttle System (FSS) is designed to provide freight transportation services between those short and intermediate distance locations (within 600 miles) that are currently handling large volumes of freight traffic. Much like trucks, the FSS's transporters are autonomous: each transporter has its own propulsion and travels independently of other transporters. Inspired by railroads, each FSS transporter has steel wheels operating on a steel running surface and can carry either a standardsize freight container or an over-the-road truck trailer. However, unlike either rail or trucks, the FSS runs on an elevated, dedicated guideway to avoid the interference of other transportation systems. The objective of this report is to examine the potential viability for an alternative transportation system for trailers and containers in a multi-national, cross-border setting. The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region serves as the environment of this analysis.

  7. Strain System for the Motion Base Shuttle Mission Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, David C.; Van Vossen, Karl G.; Kunkel, Glenn W.; Wells, Larry W.

    2010-01-01

    The Motion Base Shuttle Mission Simulator (MBSMS) Strain System is an innovative engineering tool used to monitor the stresses applied to the MBSMS motion platform tilt pivot frames during motion simulations in real time. The Strain System comprises hardware and software produced by several different companies. The system utilizes a series of strain gages, accelerometers, orientation sensor, rotational meter, scanners, computer, and software packages working in unison. By monitoring and recording the inputs applied to the simulator, data can be analyzed if weld cracks or other problems are found during routine simulator inspections. This will help engineers diagnose problems as well as aid in repair solutions for both current as well as potential problems.

  8. NASDA next generation aquatic habitat for space shuttle and ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukawa, M.; Ochiai, T.; Kamigaichi, S.; Ishioka, N.; Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Sakimura, T.

    2003-10-01

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has more than 20 years of experience developing aquatic animal experiment facilities. We are now studying the next-generation aquatic animal experiment facility or the Aquatic Habitat (AQH) for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station use. A prototype breeding system was designed and tested. Medaka adult fish were able to mate and spawn in this closed circulatory breeding system, and the larvae grewto adult fish and spawned on the 45th day after hatching. The water quality-control system using nitrifying bacteria worked well throughout the medaka breeding test. For amphibians, we also conducted the African clawed toad ( Xenopus laevis) breeding test with the same specimen chambers, although a part of circulation loop was opened to air. Xenopus larvae grew and completed metamorphosis successfully in the small specimen chamber. The first metamorphic climax started on the 30th day and was completed on the 38th day.

  9. Review of delta wing space shuttle vehicle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    The unsteady aerodynamics of the delta planform, high cross range, shuttle orbiter were investigated. It has been found that these vehicles are subject to five unsteady flow phenomena that could compromise the flight dynamics. They are: (1) leeside shock induced separation, (2) sudden leading edge stall, (3) vortex burst, (4) bow shock-flap shock interaction, (5) forebody vorticity. Trajectory shaping is seen as the most powerful means of avoiding the detrimental effects of the stall phenomena. However, stall must be fixed or controlled when traversing the stall region. The other phenomena may be controlled by carefully programmed control deflections and some configuration modification. Ways to alter the occurrence of the various flow conditions are explored.

  10. Thermal design of the Space Shuttle External Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmbrod, J. D.; Vaniman, J. L.; Elam, B. F.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the engineering and manufacturing requirements leading to the final Thermal Protection System (TPS) for the External Tank (ET) is presented. The thermal design for the ET must be optimized, based on considerations of cost, weight, and application of the TPS. The significant thermal requirements include the structural and component temperature limits, the propellant quality, the minimization of ice and frost, no air liquefaction, and no film boiling. The TPS materials selected to meet the requirements are a low density closed cell foam (CPR-488) and two light-weight ablators (SLA-56 and MA-25s). The first four flights of the Space Shuttle (1981) will measure and evaluate external environmental, structural, propulsion, electrical, and engine performance data. The ET will be instrumented to measure acoustics, pressures, heat transfer, vibration, temperatures, and structural strains. TPS weight reductions are planned for future ETs through the use of a comprehensive thermal instrumentation system.

  11. Cathodic Protection Deployment on Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Lee M.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion protection of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters incorporates the use of cathodic protection(anodes) in concert with several coatings systems. The SRB design has large carbon/carbon composites(motor nozzle) electrically connected to an aluminum alloy structure. Early in the STS program, the aluminum structures incurred tremendous corrosive attack due primarily to the galvanic couple to the carbon/carbon nozzle at coating damage locations. Also contributing to the galvanic corrosion problem were stainless steel and titanium alloy components housed within the aluminum structures and electrically connected to the aluminum structures. This paper will highlight the evolution in the protection of the aluminum structures, providing historical information and summary data from the operation of the corrosion protection systems. Also, data and information will be included regarding the evaluation and deployment of inorganic zinc rich primers as anode area on the aluminum structures.

  12. Space shuttle observation of an unusual transient atmospheric emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Ziv, Baruch; Israelevich, Peter L.; Sentman, Davis D.; São-Sabbas, Fernanda T.; Devir, Adam D.; Sato, Mitsuteru; Rodger, Craig J.; Moalem, Meir; Greenberg, Eran; Yaron, Ofer

    2005-01-01

    We report an observation of an unusual transient luminous event (TLE) detected in the near IR, south of Madagascar above the Indian Ocean. The event was imaged from the space shuttle Columbia during the MEIDEX sprite campaign [Yair et al., 2004]. It was delayed 0.23 seconds from a preceding visual lightning flash which was horizontally displaced >1000 km from the event. The calculated brightness in the 860 (+/-50) nm filter was ~310 +/- 30 kR, and the morphology of the emitting volume did not resemble any known class of TLE (i.e., sprites, ELVES or halos). This TIGER event (Transient Ionospheric Glow Emission in Red) may constitute a new class of TLE, not necessarily induced by a near-by thunderstorm. We discuss possible generation mechanisms, including the conjugate sprite hypothesis caused by lightning at the magnetic mirror point, lightning-induced electron precipitation and an extraterrestrial source, meteoric or cometary.

  13. Multivariable control of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Neil J.; Appleby, Brent D.; Prakash, OM, II

    1991-01-01

    Linear controllers are designed to regulate the end effector of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) operating in position hold mode. Design techniques used include H2 and H-infinity optimization. The nonlinear SRMS is linearized by modeling the effects of the significant nonlinearities as uncertain parameters. Each regulator design is evaluated for robust stability using both the small gain theorem with an H-infinity norm and the less conservative mu-analysis test. Regulator designs offer significant improvement over the current system for the nominal plant. Unfortunately, the SRMS model suffers from lightly damped poles with real parametric uncertainty. Under such conditions, the mu-analysis test, which allows for complex perturbations, cannot guarantee robust stability.

  14. STS-26 crew in JSC Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers have donned their new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) for a training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Commander Frederick H. Hauck is in the center foreground. Hauck is flanked by fellow crewmembers (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) John M. Lounge, MS George D. Nelson, Pilot Richard O. Covey, and MS David C. Hilmers. Astronaut Steven R. Nagel, not assigned as crewmember but assisting in training, is at far right. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew is scheduled to check out the new partial pressure suits and crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  15. Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1992-01-01

    Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

  16. Atmospheric science experiments applicable to Space Shuttle Spacelab missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G. S.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Fichtl, G. H.; Vaughan, W. W.; Goodman, S. J.; Robertson, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    The present lack of a lower atmosphere research satellite program for the 1980s has prompted consideration of the Space Shuttle/Spacelab system as a means of flying sensor complements geared toward specific research problems, as well as continued instrument development. Three specific examples of possible science questions related to precipitation are discussed: (1) spatial structure of mesoscale cloud and precipitation systems, (2) lightning and storm development, and (3) cyclone intensification over oceanic regions. Examples of space sensors availab le to provide measurements needed in addressing these questions are also presented. Distinctive aspects of low-earth orbit experiments would be high resolution, multispectral sensing of atmospheric phenomena by complements of instruments, and more efficient sensor development through reflights of specific hardware packages.

  17. Space shuttle OMS helium regulator design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, H.; Kelly, T. L.; Lynch, R.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis, design, fabrication and design verification testing was conducted on the technological feasiblity of the helium pressurization regulator for the space shuttle orbital maneuvering system application. A prototype regulator was fabricated which was a single-stage design featuring the most reliable and lowest cost concept. A tradeoff study on regulator concepts indicated that a single-stage regulator with a lever arm between the valve and the actuator section would offer significant weight savings. Damping concepts were tested to determine the amount of damping required to restrict actuator travel during vibration. Component design parameters such as spring rates, effective area, contamination cutting, and damping were determined by test prior to regulator final assembly. The unit was subjected to performance testing at widely ranging flow rates, temperatures, inlet pressures, and random vibration levels. A test plan for propellant compatibility and extended life tests is included.

  18. Space Shuttle telemetry analysis by a real time expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, John F.

    1987-01-01

    During early manned spacecraft operations, the primary role of ground telemetry systems was data display to flight controllers. As manned spaceflights have increased in complexity, greater demands have been placed on flight controllers to simultaneously monitor systems and replan systems operations. This has led to interest in automated telemetry monitoring systems to decrease the workload on flight controllers. The Mission Operations Directorate at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center has developed a five layer model to integrate various monitoring and analysis technologies such as digital filtering, fault detection algorithms, and expert systems. The paper describes the five layer model and explains how it has been used to guide prototyping efforts at Mission Control. Results from some initial expert systems are presented. The paper also describes the integrated prototype currently under development which implements a real time expert system to assist flight controllers in the Mission Control Center in monitoring Space Shuttle communications systems.

  19. Atmospheric science experiments applicable to Space Shuttle Spacelab missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G. S.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Fichtl, G. H.; Vaughan, W. W.; Goodman, S. J.; Robertson, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    The present lack of a lower atmosphere research satellite program for the 1980s has prompted consideration of the Space Shuttle/Spacelab system as a means of flying sensor complements geared toward specific research problems, as well as continued instrument development. Three specific examples of possible science questions related to precipitation are discussed: (1) spatial structure of mesoscale cloud and precipitation systems, (2) lightning and storm development, and (3) cyclone intensification over oceanic regions. Examples of space sensors availab le to provide measurements needed in addressing these questions are also presented. Distinctive aspects of low-earth orbit experiments would be high resolution, multispectral sensing of atmospheric phenomena by complements of instruments, and more efficient sensor development through reflights of specific hardware packages.

  20. Shuttle imaging radar A analysis of land use in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Thomas A.; Woodwell, George M.

    1988-01-01

    Over large areas in the tropics, satellite imagery is the principal source of data on the area, current stature, and extent of disturbance of the forests. The information from imagery that covers large areas at low resolution is greatly enhanced when different types of imagery can be compared. The paper presents a comparison of data from Landsat MSS and from the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) L band HH polarization data for sites in the Amazon Basin. Results indicate that SIR-A backscatter from the undisturbed forest was lower than that from some disturbed areas and from flooded forests and that SIR-A brightness, increases nonlinearly with the Landsat normalized difference vegetation index. It is hypothesized that the brightest radar returns in southern Amazonia are from newly cleared forests that are littered with standing and fallen tree boles that function as corner reflectors; and that backscatter will diminish from disturbed areas over time as fields are burned repeatedly.

  1. A New Definition of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Alan; Korb, Kevin B.

    Creative artifacts can be generated by employing A-Life software, but programmers must first consider, explicitly or implicitly, what would count as creative. Most apply standard definitions that incorporate notions of novelty, value and appropriateness. Here we re-assess this approach. Some basic facts about creativity suggest criteria that guide us to a new definition of creativity. We briefly defend our definition against some plausible objections and explore the ways in which this new definition differs and improves upon the alternatives.

  2. A Definition of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we offer a formal definition of Artificial Intelligence and this directly gives us an algorithm for construction of this object. Really, this algorithm is useless due to the combinatory explosion. The main innovation in our definition is that it does not include the knowledge as a part of the intelligence. So according to our definition a newly born baby also is an Intellect. Here we differs with Turing's definition which suggests that an Intellect is a person with knowledge gai...

  3. Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor aluminum oxide investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomshield, Fred S.; Kraeutle, Karl J.; Stalnaker, Richard A.

    1994-10-01

    During the launch of STS-54, a 15 psi pressure blip was observed in the ballistic pressure trace of one of the two Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM). One possible scenario for the observed pressure increase deals with aluminum oxide slag formation in the RSRM. The purpose of this investigation was to examine changes which may have occurred in the aluminum oxide formation in shuttle solid propellant due to changes in the ammonium perchlorate. Aluminum oxide formation from three propellants, all having the same formulation, but containing ammonium perchlorate from different manufacturers, will be compared. Three methods have been used to look for possible differences among the propellants. The first method was to examine window bomb movies of the propellants burning at 100, 300 and 600 psia. The motor operating pressure during the pressure blip was around 600 psia. The second method used small samples of propellant which were fired in a combustion bomb which quenched the burning aluminum particles soon after they left the propellant surface. The bomb was fired in both argon and Nitrogen atmospheres at various pressures. Products from this device were examined by optical microscopy. The third method used larger propellant samples fired into a particle collection device which allowed the aluminum to react and combust more completely. This device was pressurized with Nitrogen to motor operating pressures. The collected products were subdivided into size fractions by screening and sedimentation and analyzed optically with an optical microscope. the results from all three methods indicate very small changes in the size distribution of combustion products.

  4. Berry phase in Heisenberg representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. A.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Lerner, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    We define the Berry phase for the Heisenberg operators. This definition is motivated by the calculation of the phase shifts by different techniques. These techniques are: the solution of the Heisenberg equations of motion, the solution of the Schrodinger equation in coherent-state representation, and the direct computation of the evolution operator. Our definition of the Berry phase in the Heisenberg representation is consistent with the underlying supersymmetry of the model in the following sense. The structural blocks of the Hamiltonians of supersymmetrical quantum mechanics ('superpairs') are connected by transformations which conserve the similarity in structure of the energy levels of superpairs. These transformations include transformation of phase of the creation-annihilation operators, which are generated by adiabatic cyclic evolution of the parameters of the system.

  5. Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/fitnessdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness To use the sharing features on ... the most of your exercise routine. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Activity Count Physical activity is ...

  6. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on ... of the minerals that you need. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Antioxidants Antioxidants are substances that ...

  7. Image Analysis Based on Soft Computing and Applied on Space Shuttle During the Liftoff Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominquez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve J.

    2007-01-01

    Imaging techniques based on Soft Computing (SC) and developed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have been implemented on a variety of prototype applications related to the safety operation of the Space Shuttle during the liftoff process. These SC-based prototype applications include detection and tracking of moving Foreign Objects Debris (FOD) during the Space Shuttle liftoff, visual anomaly detection on slidewires used in the emergency egress system for the Space Shuttle at the laJlIlch pad, and visual detection of distant birds approaching the Space Shuttle launch pad. This SC-based image analysis capability developed at KSC was also used to analyze images acquired during the accident of the Space Shuttle Columbia and estimate the trajectory and velocity of the foam that caused the accident.

  8. The Space Shuttle Decision: NASA's Search for a Reusable Space Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppenheimer, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    This significant new study of the decision to build the Space Shuttle explains the Shuttle's origins and early development. In addition to internal NASA discussions, this work details the debates in the late 1960s and early 1970s among policymakers in Congress, the Air Force, and the Office of Management and Budget over the roles and technical designs of the Shuttle. Examining the interplay of these organizations with sometimes conflicting goals, the author not only explains how the world's premier space launch vehicle came into being, but also how politics can interact with science, technology, national security, and economics in national government. The weighty policy decision to build the Shuttle represents the first component of the broader story: future NASA volumes will cover the Shuttle's development and operational histories.

  9. Maven The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Company, Sonatype

    2009-01-01

    Written by Maven creator Jason Van Zyl and his team at Sonatype, Maven: The Definitive Guide clearly explains how this popular tool can bring order to your software development projects. The first part of the book demonstrates Maven's capabilities through the development of several sample applications from ideation to deployment, and the second part offers a complete reference guide. Concise and to the point, this is the only guide you need to manage your project.

  10. The Logic of Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Wittgenstein , in his Philosophical Investigations (1953), observed that, for many phenomena, there are no necessary conditions common to all members of... Wittgenstein 1953: §66, p.27e). Wittgenstein refers to these overlapping similarities as “family resemblances” (Ibid., §67, p.27e). Few, if any, of...that is, we may resort to stipulative definition). But this is not necessary for the concept to be usable. Indeed, as Wittgenstein says, sometimes

  11. XMPP The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Andre, Peter; Smith, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This practical book provides everything you need to know about the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) -- the open technology for real-time communication used in instant messaging, Voice over IP, real-time collaboration, social networking, microblogging, lightweight middleware, cloud computing, and more. XMPP: The Definitive Guide walks you through the thought processes and design decisions involved in building a complete XMPP-enabled application, and adding real-time interfaces to existing applications.

  12. Definition Study PHARUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    definitie studie zijn gebruikt in het voorontwerp van het PHARUS systeem . TNO report STUDelft Page 6 ABSTRACT 3 SAMENVAlTING 4 CONTENTS 6 1 INTRODUCTION 9...University of Technology, Laboratory for Telecommunication and Remote Sensing Technology. FEL-TNO had tke lead and was responsible for the project management ...Aerospace Programs in Delft was responsible for the program management . The definition study PHARUS was started in the first half of 1988 and ended

  13. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 1 Arc-Second Digital Terrain Elevation Data - Global - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was a partnership between NASA and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). Flown aboard the NASA Space Shuttle...

  14. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 1 Arc-Second Digital Terrain Elevation Data - Global - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was a partnership between NASA and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). Flown aboard the NASA Space Shuttle...

  15. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 1 Arc and 3 Arc Second Digital Terrain Elevation Data - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was a partnership between NASA and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). Flown aboard the NASA Space Shuttle...

  16. Engineering Geodesy - Definition and Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Heiner; Schwieger, Volker; Wieser, Andreas; Niemeier, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    This article summarises discussions concerning the definition of "engineering geodesy" within the German Geodetic Commission. It is noted that engineering geodesy by means of its tasks, methods and characteristics is an application-oriented science whose research questions often arise from observed phenomena or from unsolved practical problems. In particular it is characterised by the professional handling of geometry-related problems in a cost-effective manner that includes comprehensive quality assessment at all phases of the problem solution - from planning through measurement to data processing and interpretation. The current methodical developments are primarily characterised by the increasing integration of the measurement and analysis into challenging construction, production and monitoring processes as well as by the transition to spatially continuous methods. A modern definition of engineering geodesy is proposed at the end of this article.

  17. Controversy around the definition of waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2009-11-20

    Full Text Available This paper presents the information concerning the definition of waste. Discussing the importance of the clear definition, ongoing debates, broad definition of waste, problems with the broad definition, interpretation, current waste management model...

  18. A New Definition of Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hongjun; CAO Sihua; LUO Li; FENG Tao; PAN Li; ZOU Zhiji

    2006-01-01

    Security experts have not formally defined the distinction between viruses and normal programs. The paper takes user's intension as the criteria for malice, gives a formal definition of viruses that aim at stealing or destroying files, and proposes an algorithm to detect virus correctly. Compared with traditional definitions, this new definition is easy to understand, covers more malwares, adapts development of virus technology, and defines virus on the spot. The paper has also analyzed more than 250 real viruses and finds that they are all in the domain of the new definition, this implies that the new definition has great practical significance.

  19. The impacts of mantle phase transitions and the iron spin crossover in ferropericlase on convective mixing—is the evidence for compositional convection definitive? New results from a Yin-Yang overset grid-based control volume model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnas, M. H.; Peltier, W. R.

    2015-08-01

    High-resolution seismic tomographic images from several subduction zones provide evidence for the inhibition of the downwelling of subducting slabs at the level of the 660 km depth seismic discontinuity. Furthermore, the inference of old (~140 Myr) sinking slabs below fossil subduction zones in the lower mantle has yet to be explained. We employ a control volume methodology to develop a new anelastically compressible model of three-dimensional thermal convection in the "mantle" of a terrestrial planet that fully incorporates the influence of large variations in material properties. The model also incorporates the influence of (1) multiple solid-solid pressure-induced phase transitions, (2) transformational superplasticity at 660 km depth, and (3) the high spin-low spin iron spin transition in ferropericlase at midmantle pressures. The message passing interface-parallelized code is successfully tested against previously published benchmark results. The high-resolution control volume models exhibit the same degree of radial layering as previously shown to be characteristic of otherwise identical 2-D axisymmetric spherical models. The layering is enhanced by the presence of moderate transformational superplasticity, and in the presence of the spin crossover in ferropericlase, stagnation of cold downwellings occurs in the range of spin crossover depths (~1700 km). Although this electronic spin transition has been suggested to be invisible seismically, recent high-pressure ab initio calculations suggest it to have a clear signature in body wave velocities which could provide an isochemical explanation of a seismological signature involving the onset of decorrelation between Vp and Vs that has come to be interpreted as requiring compositional layering.

  20. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 2: Preclinical and Early Phase Human Proof of Concept Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Matthew; Flynn, Alexandra; Preskorn, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    This series of columns has 3 main goals: (1) to explain class warnings as used by the United States Food and Drug Administration, (2) to increase awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients treated with antipsychotic medications, and (3) to understand why clinicians should refrain from immediately assuming a diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD) in patients treated with antipsychotics. The first column in this series began with the case of a 76-year-old man with major depressive disorder who developed orofacial dyskinesias while being treated with aripiprazole as an antidepressant augmentation strategy. It was alleged that a higher than intended dose of aripiprazole (ie, 20 mg/d for 2 wk followed by 10 mg/d for 4 wk instead of the intended dose of 2 mg/d) was the cause of the dyskinetic movements in this man, and the authors were asked to review the case and give their opinion. The principal basis for this theory of causation was the class warning about TD in the package insert for aripiprazole. The rationale for concluding aripiprazole caused TD in the 76-year-old man led to this series of columns about aripiprazole, its potential--if any--to cause TD, and the presence of a class warning about TD in its package insert. The central point is to illustrate why class warnings exist and their implications for practice. The first column in this series focused on the historical background, incidence, prevalence, risk factors, and clinical presentations of tardive and spontaneous dyskinesias and concluded with a discussion of diagnostic considerations explaining why clinicians should avoid making a diagnosis of TD until a thorough differential diagnosis has been considered. This second column in the series reviews the pharmacology of aripiprazole and the preclinical and phase I translational human studies that suggest aripiprazole should have a low to nonexistent risk of causing TD compared with other antipsychotics. The third column in the series

  1. Double quadriphase modulation/demodulation technique for three-channel communication link. [Space Shuttle-to-TDRS link example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, W. K.

    1977-01-01

    A modulation technique for a three-channel communication link is introduced. The structure of the modulator is such as to form an unbalanced quadriphase signal wherein the high rate data stream is bi-phase modulated on the in-phase carrier component, while the sum of the two lower rate signals is bi-phase modulated on the quadrature component of the same carrier. The sum of the two lower signals is, in turn, formed by modulating with the respective data streams the in-phase and the quadrature components of a square wave subcarrier. At the demodulator, the tracking of the carrier and the subcarrier is performed by two independent Costas loops. The demodulation of the high data rate signal is carried out after establishing the carrier reference signal, while the lower rate signals are demodulated after the subcarrier loop recovers the subcarrier. In this paper, the performance of the two loops is analyzed and the expressions for the tracking errors are derived. Finally, a numerical example pertaining to the Space Shuttle-to-TDRS Ku-band link is presented for illustration.

  2. NASADEM Initial Production Processing Results: Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Reprocessing with Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, S.; Agram, P. S.; Belz, J. E.; Crippen, R. E.; Gurrola, E. M.; Hensley, S.; Kobrick, M.; Lavalle, M.; Martin, J. M.; Neumann, M.; Nguyen, Q.; Rosen, P. A.; Shimada, J.; Simard, M.; Tung, W.

    2016-12-01

    NASADEM is a significant modernization of SRTM digital elevation model (DEM) data supported by the NASA MEaSUREs program. We are reprocessing the raw radar signal data using improved algorithms and incorporating ICESat and DEM data unavailable during the original processing. The NASADEM products will be freely-available through the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) at one-arcsecond spacing and delivered by continent: North America, South America, Australia, Eurasia, Africa, and Island Groups. We are in the production phase of the project. This involves radar interferometry (InSAR) processing on thousands of radar datatakes. New phase unwrapping and height ripple error correction (HREC) procedures are applied to the data. The resulting strip DEMs and ancillary information are passed to a back-end processor to create DEM mosaics and new geocoded single-swath products. Manual data quality assessment (QA) and fixes are performed at several steps in the processing chain. Post-production DEM void-filling is described in a companion AGU Fall Meeting presentation. The team completed the InSAR processing for all continents and the manual QA of the strip DEMs for more than half the world. North America strip DEM void areas are reduced by more than 50%. The ICESat data is used for height ripple error correction and as control for continent-scale adjustment of the strip DEMs. These ripples are due to uncompensated mast motion most pronounced after Shuttle roll angle adjustment maneuvers. After an initial assessment of the NASADEM production processing for the Americas, we further refined the selection of ICESat data for control by excluded data over glaciers, snow cover, forest clear cuts, and sloped areas. The HREC algorithm reduces the North America ICESat-SRTM bias from 80 cm to 3 cm and the RMS from 5m to 4m.

  3. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 5: PEP environmental specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This specification establishes the natural and induced environments to which the power extension package may be exposed during ground operations and space operations with the shuttle system. Space induced environments are applicable at the Orbiter attach point interface location. All probable environments are systematically listed according to each ground and mission phase.

  4. Pre-ischemic mitochondrial substrate constraint by inhibition of malate-aspartate shuttle preserves mitochondrial function after ischemia-reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Nichlas Riise; Yokota, Takashi; Støttrup, Nicolaj Brejnholt

    2017-01-01

    and early reperfusion by AOA treatment could prevent mitochondrial damage at later reperfusion. The AOA treatment preserved mitochondrial respiratory capacity with reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress during late reperfusion to the same extent as ischaemic preconditioning (IPC). However, AOA treatment...... of mitochondrial function during late reperfusion in an IR-injured heart. ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Pre-ischaemic administration of aminooxyacetate (AOA), an inhibitor of the malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS), provides cardioprotection against IR...... injury, although the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that a transient inhibition of the MAS during ischaemia and early reperfusion could preserve mitochondrial function at later phase of reperfusion in the IR-injured heart to the same extent as ischaemic preconditioning (IPC), which...

  5. Apache The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Laurie, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Apache is far and away the most widely used web server platform in the world. This versatile server runs more than half of the world's existing web sites. Apache is both free and rock-solid, running more than 21 million web sites ranging from huge e-commerce operations to corporate intranets and smaller hobby sites. With this new third edition of Apache: The Definitive Guide, web administrators new to Apache will come up to speed quickly, and experienced administrators will find the logically organized, concise reference sections indispensable, and system programmers interested in customizin

  6. Jenkins The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, John

    2011-01-01

    Streamline software development with Jenkins, the popular Java-based open source tool that has revolutionized the way teams think about Continuous Integration (CI). This complete guide shows you how to automate your build, integration, release, and deployment processes with Jenkins-and demonstrates how CI can save you time, money, and many headaches. Ideal for developers, software architects, and project managers, Jenkins: The Definitive Guide is both a CI tutorial and a comprehensive Jenkins reference. Through its wealth of best practices and real-world tips, you'll discover how easy it is

  7. Cassandra the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, Eben

    2011-01-01

    What could you do with data if scalability wasn't a problem? With this hands-on guide, you'll learn how Apache Cassandra handles hundreds of terabytes of data while remaining highly available across multiple data centers -- capabilities that have attracted Facebook, Twitter, and other data-intensive companies. Cassandra: The Definitive Guide provides the technical details and practical examples you need to assess this database management system and put it to work in a production environment. Author Eben Hewitt demonstrates the advantages of Cassandra's nonrelational design, and pays special

  8. Hadoop The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    White, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Hadoop: The Definitive Guide helps you harness the power of your data. Ideal for processing large datasets, the Apache Hadoop framework is an open source implementation of the MapReduce algorithm on which Google built its empire. This comprehensive resource demonstrates how to use Hadoop to build reliable, scalable, distributed systems: programmers will find details for analyzing large datasets, and administrators will learn how to set up and run Hadoop clusters. Complete with case studies that illustrate how Hadoop solves specific problems, this book helps you: Use the Hadoop Distributed

  9. Space Shuttle Range Safety Command Destruct System Analysis and Verification. Phase 2. Ordnance Options for a Space Shuttle Range Safety Command Destruct System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    carry an ultimate load of less than 4,000 pounds (oo = 38,000 psi for A356 -T6 aluminum ). A 750-grain/ foot LSC, on the other hand, will completely sever...of 2024-T81 aluminum , stiffened with internal ring frames at approximately 45-inch intervals (Fig. 3-1). The assumed deflection model shape for...holes in steel. This correlation has been extended here via limit analysis to predict the damage to the ET aluminum domes. Assuming that holing can be

  10. A self-discharge model of Lithium-Sulfur batteries based on direct shuttle current measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    . A simple but comprehensive mathematical model of the Li-S battery cell self-discharge based on the shuttle current was developed and is presented. The shuttle current values for the model parameterization were obtained from the direct shuttle current measurements. Furthermore, the battery cell depth......-of-discharge values were recomputed in order to account for the influence of the self-discharge and provide a higher accuracy of the model. Finally, the derived model was successfully validated against laboratory experiments at various conditions....

  11. A comparison of shuttle vernier engine plume contamination with CONTAM 3.4 code predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Carl R.; Jones, Thomas M.; Rao, Shankar M.; Linder, W. Kelly

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, using the CONTAM 3.2 code, it was predicted that the shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) and Vernier Reaction Control System (VRCS) engines could be potential contamination sources to sensitive surfaces located within the shuttle payload bay. Spaceflight test data on these engines is quite limited. Shuttle mission STS-32, the Long Duration Exposure Facility retrieval mission, was instrumented with an experiment that provided the design engineer with evidence that contaminant species from the VRCS engines can enter the payload bay. More recently, the most recent version of the analysis code, CONTAM 3.4, has re-examined the contamination potential of these engines.

  12. An overview of United States manned space flight from Mercury to the Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Technical considerations in the design, development and operation of United States manned spacecraft from Project Mercury to the Space Shuttle are reviewed. The design and mission philosophies, launch vehicle and spacecraft characteristics, mode of operation, flight results and influence on later programs are discussed for Project Mercury, and Gemini Apollo and Skylab programs, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and the Space Shuttle program. The Space Shuttle is shown to represent a major departure from the trend established in previous programs, requiring major advancements in the fields of flight control, thermal protection, and liquid-propellant rocket technology.

  13. Shuttling of the autoantigen La between nucleus and cell surface after uv irradiation of human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, M.; Chang, S.; Slor, H.; Kukulies, J.; Mueller, W.E. (Universitaet, Mainz (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-12-01

    During the past years we have established that the nuclear autoantigen La shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in tumor cells after inhibition of transcription or virus infection. We reinvestigated this shuttling using primary human keratinocytes from both healthy donors and patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. Ultraviolet irradiation resulted in both an inhibition of transcription and a translocation of La protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. After a prolonged inhibition of transcription La protein relocated into the nucleus and assembled with nuclear storage regions. The uv-induced shuttling included a translocation to the cell surface, where La protein colocalized with epidermal growth factor receptors.

  14. Framework for a space shuttle main engine health monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawman, Michael W.; Galinaitis, William S.; Tulpule, Sharayu; Mattedi, Anita K.; Kamenetz, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    A framework developed for a health management system (HMS) which is directed at improving the safety of operation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is summarized. An emphasis was placed on near term technology through requirements to use existing SSME instrumentation and to demonstrate the HMS during SSME ground tests within five years. The HMS framework was developed through an analysis of SSME failure modes, fault detection algorithms, sensor technologies, and hardware architectures. A key feature of the HMS framework design is that a clear path from the ground test system to a flight HMS was maintained. Fault detection techniques based on time series, nonlinear regression, and clustering algorithms were developed and demonstrated on data from SSME ground test failures. The fault detection algorithms exhibited 100 percent detection of faults, had an extremely low false alarm rate, and were robust to sensor loss. These algorithms were incorporated into a hierarchical decision making strategy for overall assessment of SSME health. A preliminary design for a hardware architecture capable of supporting real time operation of the HMS functions was developed. Utilizing modular, commercial off-the-shelf components produced a reliable low cost design with the flexibility to incorporate advances in algorithm and sensor technology as they become available.

  15. Gene Transfer in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Shuttle Phasmids to Enlightenment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, William R

    2014-04-01

    Infectious diseases have plagued humankind throughout history and have posed serious public health problems. Yet vaccines have eradicated smallpox and antibiotics have drastically decreased the mortality rate of many infectious agents. These remarkable successes in the control of infections came from knowing the causative agents of the diseases, followed by serendipitous discoveries of attenuated viruses and antibiotics. The discovery of DNA as genetic material and the understanding of how this information translates into specific phenotypes have changed the paradigm for developing new vaccines, drugs, and diagnostic tests. Knowledge of the mechanisms of immunity and mechanisms of action of drugs has led to new vaccines and new antimicrobial agents. The key to the acquisition of the knowledge of these mechanisms has been identifying the elemental causes (i.e., genes and their products) that mediate immunity and drug resistance. The identification of these genes is made possible by being able to transfer the genes or mutated forms of the genes into causative agents or surrogate hosts. Such an approach was limited in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the difficulty of transferring genes or alleles into M. tuberculosis or a suitable surrogate mycobacterial host. The construction of shuttle phasmids-chimeric molecules that replicate in Escherichia coli as plasmids and in mycobacteria as mycobacteriophages-was instrumental in developing gene transfer systems for M. tuberculosis. This review will discuss M. tuberculosis genetic systems and their impact on tuberculosis research.

  16. Psychosocial issues in space: results from Shuttle/Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Weiss, D. S.; Gushin, V.; Bostrom, A.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    Important psychosocial issues involving tension, cohesion, leader support, and displacement of negative emotions were evaluated in a 4 1/2-year study involving five U.S. and four Russian Shuttle/Mir space missions. Weekly mood and group climate questionnaires were completed by five U.S. astronauts, eight Russian cosmonauts, and 42 U.S. and 16 Russian mission control subjects. There were few findings that supported our hypothesized changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support in crew and ground subjects using various time models, although crewmembers reported decreasing leader support in the 2nd half of the missions, and astronauts showed some evidence of a novelty effect in the first few weeks. There was no evidence suggesting a 3rd quarter effect among crewmembers on any of the 21 subscales evaluated. In contrast, there was strong evidence to support the hypothesized displacement of tension and negative emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There were several significant differences in response between Americans vs. Russians, crewmembers vs. mission control personnel, and subjects in this study vs. people in comparable groups on Earth. Subject responses before, during, and after the missions were similar, and we did not find evidence for asthenia in space. Critical incidents that were reported generally dealt with events on-board the Mir and interpersonal conflicts, although most of the responses were from a relatively small number of subjects. Our findings have implications for future training and lead to a number of countermeasures.

  17. NDE of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patrick H.

    One of the most critical areas for inspection in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors is the bond between the steel case and rubber insulation in the region of the field joints. The tang-and-clevis geometry of the field joints is sufficiently complex to prohibit the use of resonance-based techniques. One approach we are investigating is to interrogate the steel-insulation bondline in the tang and clevis regions using surface-travelling waves. A low-frequency contact surface wave transmitting array transducer is under development at our laboratory for this purpose. The array is placed in acoustic contact with the steel and surface waves are launched on the inside surface or the clevis leg which propagate along the steel-insulation interface. As these surface waves propagate along the bonded surface, the magnitude of the ultrasonic energy leaking into the steel is monitored on the outer surface of the case. Our working hypothesis is that the magnitude of energy received at the outer surface of the case is dependent upon the integrity of the case-insulation bond, with less attenuation for propagation along a disbond due to imperfect acoustic coupling between the steel and rubber. Measurements on test specimens indicate a linear relationship between received signal amplitude and the length of good bend between the transmitter and receiver, suggesting the validity of this working hypothesis.

  18. Computerized Machine for Cutting Space Shuttle Thermal Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Luis E.; Reuter, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    A report presents the concept of a machine aboard the space shuttle that would cut oversized thermal-tile blanks to precise sizes and shapes needed to replace tiles that were damaged or lost during ascent to orbit. The machine would include a computer-controlled jigsaw enclosed in a clear acrylic shell that would prevent escape of cutting debris. A vacuum motor would collect the debris into a reservoir and would hold a tile blank securely in place. A database stored in the computer would contain the unique shape and dimensions of every tile. Once a broken or missing tile was identified, its identification number would be entered into the computer, wherein the cutting pattern associated with that number would be retrieved from the database. A tile blank would be locked into a crib in the machine, the shell would be closed (proximity sensors would prevent activation of the machine while the shell was open), and a "cut" command would be sent from the computer. A blade would be moved around the crib like a plotter, cutting the tile to the required size and shape. Once the tile was cut, an astronaut would take a space walk for installation.

  19. Shuttle infrared telescope facility pointing and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorell, K. R.; Barrows, W. F.; Matsumoto, Y. T.

    1981-01-01

    The Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is being designed as a 0.85 m cryogenically cooled telescope capable of a three order of magnitude improvement over currently available infrared instruments. The SIRTF requires that the image at the focal plane be stabilized to better than 0.25 arcsec with an absolute accuracy of 1.0 arcsec. Current pointing-mount performance simulations indicate that neither of these requirements can be met without additional stabilization. The SIRTF pointing and control system will utilize gyro outputs, star field position measurements from a focal plane fine guidance sensor, and a steerable secondary mirror to provide the necessary stabilization and pointing control. The charge coupled device fine guidance sensor tracks multiple stars simultaneously and, through the use of multistar processing algorithms in a high performance microcomputer, generates three-axis attitude errors and gyro-drift estimates to correct the pointing-mount gyros. A high-bandwidth feedforward loop, driven directly from the pointing-mount gyro package, controls the steering mirror in order to correct disturbances not compensated for by the pointing-mount control system. A prototype design for the SIRTF pointing and control system is described in detail. Performance analyses made using a digital simulation of the pointing and control system as well as experimental data obtained in laboratory and field test measurements are presented.

  20. Techniques and Tools of NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDanels, Steve J.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia accident investigation was a fusion of many disciplines into a single effort. From the recovery and reconstruction of the debris, Figure 1, to the analysis, both destructive and nondestructive, of chemical and metallurgical samples, Figure 2, a multitude of analytical techniques and tools were employed. Destructive and non-destructive testing were utilized in tandem to determine if a breach in the left wing of the Orbiter had occurred, and if so, the path of the resultant high temperature plasma flow. Nondestructive analysis included topometric scanning, laser mapping, and real-time radiography. These techniques were useful in constructing a three dimensional virtual representation of the reconstruction project, specifically the left wing leading edge reinforced carbon/carbon heat protectant panels. Similarly, they were beneficial in determining where sampling should be performed on the debris. Analytic testing included such techniques as Energy Dispersive Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA), Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analysis (ESCA), and X-Ray dot mapping; these techniques related the characteristics of intermetallics deposited on the leading edge of the left wing adjacent to the location of a suspected plasma breach during reentry. The methods and results of the various analyses, along with their implications into the accident, are discussed, along with the findings and recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Likewise, NASA's Return To Flight efforts are highlighted.