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Sample records for definition bit score

  1. BitPAl: a bit-parallel, general integer-scoring sequence alignment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Joshua; Hernandez, Yozen; Benson, Gary

    2014-11-15

    Mapping of high-throughput sequencing data and other bulk sequence comparison applications have motivated a search for high-efficiency sequence alignment algorithms. The bit-parallel approach represents individual cells in an alignment scoring matrix as bits in computer words and emulates the calculation of scores by a series of logic operations composed of AND, OR, XOR, complement, shift and addition. Bit-parallelism has been successfully applied to the longest common subsequence (LCS) and edit-distance problems, producing fast algorithms in practice. We have developed BitPAl, a bit-parallel algorithm for general, integer-scoring global alignment. Integer-scoring schemes assign integer weights for match, mismatch and insertion/deletion. The BitPAl method uses structural properties in the relationship between adjacent scores in the scoring matrix to construct classes of efficient algorithms, each designed for a particular set of weights. In timed tests, we show that BitPAl runs 7-25 times faster than a standard iterative algorithm. Source code is freely available for download at http://lobstah.bu.edu/BitPAl/BitPAl.html. BitPAl is implemented in C and runs on all major operating systems. jloving@bu.edu or yhernand@bu.edu or gbenson@bu.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. [Definition of the Diagnosis Osteomyelitis-Osteomyelitis Diagnosis Score (ODS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H G K; Tiemann, A H; Braunschweig, R; Diefenbeck, M; Bühler, M; Abitzsch, D; Haustedt, N; Walter, G; Schoop, R; Heppert, V; Hofmann, G O; Glombitza, M; Grimme, C; Gerlach, U-J; Flesch, I

    2011-08-01

    The disease "osteomyelitis" is characterised by different symptoms and parameters. Decisive roles in the development of the disease are played by the causative bacteria, the route of infection and the individual defense mechanisms of the host. The diagnosis is based on different symptoms and findings from the clinical history, clinical symptoms, laboratory results, diagnostic imaging, microbiological and histopathological analyses. While different osteomyelitis classifications have been published, there is to the best of our knowledge no score that gives information how sure the diagnosis "osteomyelitis" is in general. For any scientific study of a disease a valid definition is essential. We have developed a special osteomyelitis diagnosis score for the reliable classification of clinical, laboratory and technical findings. The score is based on five diagnostic procedures: 1) clinical history and risk factors, 2) clinical examination and laboratory results, 3) diagnostic imaging (ultrasound, radiology, CT, MRI, nuclear medicine and hybrid methods), 4) microbiology, and 5) histopathology. Each diagnostic procedure is related to many individual findings, which are weighted by a score system, in order to achieve a relevant value for each assessment. If the sum of the five diagnostic criteria is 18 or more points, the diagnosis of osteomyelitis can be viewed as "safe" (diagnosis class A). Between 8-17 points the diagnosis is "probable" (diagnosis class B). Less than 8 points means that the diagnosis is "possible, but unlikely" (class C diagnosis). Since each parameter can score six points at a maximum, a reliable diagnosis can only be achieved if at least 3 parameters are scored with 6 points. The osteomyelitis diagnosis score should help to avoid the false description of a clinical presentation as "osteomyelitis". A safe diagnosis is essential for the aetiology, treatment and outcome studies of osteomyelitis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Practical Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunghi, T.; Kaniewski, J.; Bussières, F.; Houlmann, R.; Tomamichel, M.; Wehner, S.D.C.; Zbinden, H

    2015-01-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Alice wishes to commit a secret bit to Bob. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through an asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is, however, possible when Alice and

  4. The OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging scoring system (PsAMRIS): definitions of key pathologies, suggested MRI sequences, and preliminary scoring system for PsA Hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; McQueen, Fiona; Wiell, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance image scoring system (PsAMRIS) for evaluation of inflammatory and destructive changes in PsA hands, which was developed by the international OMERACT MRI in inflammatory arthritis group. MRI definitions of important...... pathologies in peripheral PsA and suggestions concerning appropriate MRI sequences for use in PsA hands are also provided....

  5. Scoring predictive models using a reduced representation of proteins: model and energy definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogolari, Federico; Pieri, Lidia; Dovier, Agostino; Bortolussi, Luca; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro; Viglino, Paolo

    2007-03-23

    Reduced representations of proteins have been playing a keyrole in the study of protein folding. Many such models are available, with different representation detail. Although the usefulness of many such models for structural bioinformatics applications has been demonstrated in recent years, there are few intermediate resolution models endowed with an energy model capable, for instance, of detecting native or native-like structures among decoy sets. The aim of the present work is to provide a discrete empirical potential for a reduced protein model termed here PC2CA, because it employs a PseudoCovalent structure with only 2 Centers of interactions per Amino acid, suitable for protein model quality assessment. All protein structures in the set top500H have been converted in reduced form. The distribution of pseudobonds, pseudoangle, pseudodihedrals and distances between centers of interactions have been converted into potentials of mean force. A suitable reference distribution has been defined for non-bonded interactions which takes into account excluded volume effects and protein finite size. The correlation between adjacent main chain pseudodihedrals has been converted in an additional energetic term which is able to account for cooperative effects in secondary structure elements. Local energy surface exploration is performed in order to increase the robustness of the energy function. The model and the energy definition proposed have been tested on all the multiple decoys' sets in the Decoys'R'us database. The energetic model is able to recognize, for almost all sets, native-like structures (RMSD less than 2.0 A). These results and those obtained in the blind CASP7 quality assessment experiment suggest that the model compares well with scoring potentials with finer granularity and could be useful for fast exploration of conformational space. Parameters are available at the url: http://www.dstb.uniud.it/~ffogolari/download/.

  6. Influences of definition ambiguity on hospital performance indicator scores: examples from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anema, Helen A.; van der Veer, Sabine N.; Kievit, Job; Krol-Warmerdam, Elly; Fischer, Claudia; Steyerberg, Ewout; Dongelmans, Dave A.; Reidinga, Auke C.; Klazinga, Niek S.; de Keizer, Nicolet F.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and unambiguously defined performance indicators are fundamental to objective and comparable measurements of hospitals' quality of care. In two separate case studies (intensive care and breast cancer care), we investigated if differences in definition interpretation of performance

  7. Superconducting frustration bit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A frustration bit element is proposed for a conventional superconducting circuit. • It is composed of π-junctions. • It mimics the multiband superconductor. - Abstract: A basic design is proposed for a classical bit element of a superconducting circuit that mimics a frustrated multiband superconductor and is composed of an array of π-Josephson junctions (π-junction). The phase shift of π provides the lowest energy for one π-junction, but neither a π nor a zero phase shift gives the lowest energy for an assembly of π-junctions. There are two chiral states that can be used to store one bit information. The energy scale for reading and writing to memory is of the same order as the junction energy, and is thus in the same order of the driving energy of the circuit. In addition, random access is also possible

  8. 32-Bit FASTBUS computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blossom, J.M.; Hong, J.P.; Kellner, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is building a 32-bit FASTBUS computer using the NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR 32032 central processing unit (CPU) and containing 16 million bytes of memory. The board can act both as a FASTBUS master and as a FASTBUS slave. It contains a custom direct memory access (DMA) channel which can perform 80 million bytes per second block transfers across the FASTBUS

  9. Entre grafos y bits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Boserman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este texto se propone ahondar en las intersecciones de lo analógico y lo digital, en el encuentro de la baja y la alta tecnología. Tomando consciencia de la materialidad de ambas esferas para pensar desde ahí en objetos, prácticas de dibujo y documentación que puedan aportar otras formulaciones aplicables a métodos de investigación. Entre grafos y bits, diseccionaremos un objeto, el #relatograma, analizaremos su ecología y propondremos una reflexión acerca de su condición digital que genera paisajes por agregación #coreograma, explorando así su capacidad de ser reporte y aporte cognitivo. Between graphs and bits  Abstract This paper delves into the intersections of analogue and digital cultures, at the points at which low and high technology converge. While acknowledging the materiality of these two spheres, I aim to produce an enquiry into objects, drawings and documentation practices that can contribute to developing new research methods. Among graphs and bits, I will dissect one object: the #relatograma, in order to analyze its ecology and propose a critical reflection on its digital condition and its ability to produce aggregated landscapes, or what I define as #coreograma. I will thereby explore its ability to be share information and produce knowledge. Keywords: Material culture; research methods; digital objects; drawing; #relatograma.

  10. Value of the SYNTAX score for periprocedural myocardial infarction according to WHO and the third universal definition of myocardial infarction: insights from the TWENTE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tandjung, K.; Tandjung, K.; Lam, M.K.; Sen, H.; de Man, F.H.; Louwerenburg, H.; Stoel, M.; van Houwelingen, G.; Linssen, G.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; von Birgelen, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The SYNTAX score is a tool to quantify the complexity of coronary artery disease. We investigated the relation between the SYNTAX score and the occurrence of a periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) according to the historical definition of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the

  11. Use break-even analysis to optimize bit runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Applying a technique known as break-even analysis during the bit selection process enables the operator to more definitively estimate drilling costs. The break-even chart can be used in a variety of ways to evaluate bit and operating parameter alternatives. Frequent application of this technique significantly improves the user's understanding of drilling economics and their ability to plan more effective drilling programs. This paper reports on several examples of drilling cost estimates obtained through application of the break-even analysis, which determines the bit performance required to match established drilling cost records in similar applications. It is especially helpful when new bit features are being considered for the first time. Two common examples with today's rolling cutter bits are changes from steel teeth to tungsten carbide inserts (TCI) and O-ring to metal bearing seals

  12. Polytrauma Defined by the New Berlin Definition: A Validation Test Based on Propensity-Score Matching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chien, Peng-Chen; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2017-09-11

    Background: Polytrauma patients are expected to have a higher risk of mortality than that obtained by the summation of expected mortality owing to their individual injuries. This study was designed to investigate the outcome of patients with polytrauma, which was defined using the new Berlin definition, as cases with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥ 3 for two or more different body regions and one or more additional variables from five physiologic parameters (hypotension [systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mmHg], unconsciousness [Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8], acidosis [base excess ≤ -6.0], coagulopathy [partial thromboplastin time ≥ 40 s or international normalized ratio ≥ 1.4], and age [≥70 years]). Methods: We retrieved detailed data on 369 polytrauma patients and 1260 non-polytrauma patients with an overall Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 18 who were hospitalized between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2015 for the treatment of all traumatic injuries, from the Trauma Registry System at a level I trauma center. Patients with burn injury or incomplete registered data were excluded. Categorical data were compared with two-sided Fisher exact or Pearson chi-square tests. The unpaired Student t -test and the Mann-Whitney U -test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data and non-normally distributed data, respectively. Propensity-score matched cohort in a 1:1 ratio was allocated using the NCSS software with logistic regression to evaluate the effect of polytrauma on patient outcomes. Results: The polytrauma patients had a significantly higher ISS than non-polytrauma patients (median (interquartile range Q1-Q3), 29 (22-36) vs. 24 (20-25), respectively; p Polytrauma patients had a 1.9-fold higher odds of mortality than non-polytrauma patients (95% CI 1.38-2.49; p polytrauma patients, polytrauma patients had a substantially longer hospital length of stay (LOS). In addition, a higher proportion of polytrauma patients were admitted to the intensive

  13. Quantum dynamics of quantum bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha

    2011-01-01

    The theory of coherent oscillations of the matrix elements of the density matrix of the two-state system as a quantum bit is presented. Different calculation methods are elaborated in the case of a free quantum bit. Then the most appropriate methods are applied to the study of the density matrices of the quantum bits interacting with a classical pumping radiation field as well as with the quantum electromagnetic field in a single-mode microcavity. The theory of decoherence of a quantum bit in Markovian approximation is presented. The decoherence of a quantum bit interacting with monoenergetic photons in a microcavity is also discussed. The content of the present work can be considered as an introduction to the study of the quantum dynamics of quantum bits. (review)

  14. Smart BIT/TSMD Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    integracion . Smart BIT/TSMD provides Rome Laboratory with a laboratory testbed to evaluate and assess the individual characteristics as well as the integration...that assessment. These windows are color-keyed to tie together multiple windows for the same Smart BIT techniques. The display of the neural net- work... Multiple accelerometer icons of any type may therefore be placed (non-overlapping) in the accelerometer Time Line region. The BIT Time Line Editor allows

  15. Superconducting quantum bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooij, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting devices can be used to explore the boundaries between the quantum and classical worlds, and could also have applications in quantum information. The quantum world looks very different to the ordinary world. A quantum particle can, for instance, be in two places simultaneously, while its speed and position cannot both be measured with complete accuracy at the same time. Moreover, if its mass is small enough, a quantum particle can tunnel through energy barriers that its classical counterparts could never cross. Physicists are comfortable with the use of quantum mechanics to describe atomic and subatomic particles. However, in recent years we have discovered that micron-sized objects that have been produced using standard semiconductor-fabrication techniques - objects that are small on everyday scales but large compared with atoms - can also behave as quantum particles. These artificial quantum objects might one day be used as 'quantum bits' in a quantum computer that could perform certain computational tasks much faster than any classical computing device. Before then, however, these devices will allow us to explore the interface between the quantum and classical worlds, and to study how interactions with external degrees of freedom lead to a gradual disappearance of quantum behaviour. (U.K.)

  16. The value of the injury severity score in pediatric trauma: Time for a new definition of severe injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B; Gestring, Mark L; Leeper, Christine M; Sperry, Jason L; Peitzman, Andrew B; Billiar, Timothy R; Gaines, Barbara A

    2017-06-01

    The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is the most commonly used injury scoring system in trauma research and benchmarking. An ISS greater than 15 conventionally defines severe injury; however, no studies evaluate whether ISS performs similarly between adults and children. Our objective was to evaluate ISS and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) to predict mortality and define optimal thresholds of severe injury in pediatric trauma. Patients from the Pennsylvania trauma registry 2000-2013 were included. Children were defined as younger than 16 years. Logistic regression predicted mortality from ISS for children and adults. The optimal ISS cutoff for mortality that maximized diagnostic characteristics was determined in children. Regression also evaluated the association between mortality and maximum AIS in each body region, controlling for age, mechanism, and nonaccidental trauma. Analysis was performed in single and multisystem injuries. Sensitivity analyses with alternative outcomes were performed. Included were 352,127 adults and 50,579 children. Children had similar predicted mortality at ISS of 25 as adults at ISS of 15 (5%). The optimal ISS cutoff in children was ISS greater than 25 and had a positive predictive value of 19% and negative predictive value of 99% compared to a positive predictive value of 7% and negative predictive value of 99% for ISS greater than 15 to predict mortality. In single-system-injured children, mortality was associated with head (odds ratio, 4.80; 95% confidence interval, 2.61-8.84; p 0.05). For multisystem injury, all body region AIS scores were associated with mortality except extremities. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated ISS greater than 23 to predict need for full trauma activation, and ISS greater than 26 to predict impaired functional independence were optimal thresholds. An ISS greater than 25 may be a more appropriate definition of severe injury in children. Pattern of injury is important, as only head and chest injury drive mortality

  17. A Holistic Approach to Bit Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld Maj-Britt Olmütz

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents three main results for a holistic approach to bit preservation, where the ultimate goal is to find the optimal bit preservation strategy for specific digital material that must be digitally preserved. Digital material consists of sequences of bits, where a bit is a binary digit...... which can have the value 0 or 1. Bit preservation must ensure that the bits remain intact and readable in the future, but bit preservation is not concerned with how bits can be interpreted as e.g. an image. A holistic approach to bit preservation includes aspects that influence the final choice of a bit...... a holistic approach and include aspects of digital representation, confidentiality, availability, bit safety and costs when defining requirements for the bit preservation. Analysis of such requirements and choice of the final bit preservation solution can be supported by the three main results presented...

  18. The Rhode Island Life Saving Score (RILSS)--a proposed life-saving definition for EMS and emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kenneth A; Sullivan, Francis M

    2013-12-03

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Emergency Medicine staff are often described as life-saving providers, but there is no generally accepted objective definition of a life saved by these providers. Therefore, a proposed definition is described. Development of this definition began with conceptual rules, followed by a survey of physician EMS medical directors, and then by the development of a tool to implement the definition, and measure its validity and reliability through a review of 100 critical care transport EMS patient charts.

  19. ABCD3-I score and the risk of early or 3-month stroke recurrence in tissue- and time-based definitions of TIA and minor stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Lukas; Ferrari, Julia; Krebs, Stefan; Boehme, Christian; Toell, Thomas; Matosevic, Benjamin; Tinchon, Alexander; Brainin, Michael; Gattringer, Thomas; Sommer, Peter; Thun, Peter; Willeit, Johann; Lang, Wilfried; Kiechl, Stefan; Knoflach, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Changing definition of TIA from time to a tissue basis questions the validity of the well-established ABCD3-I risk score for recurrent ischemic cerebrovascular events. We analyzed patients with ischemic stroke with mild neurological symptoms arriving TIA or minor stroke, in the prospective multi-center Austrian Stroke Unit Registry. Patients were retrospectively categorized according to a time-based (symptom duration below/above 24 h) and tissue-based (without/with corresponding brain lesion on CT or MRI) definition of TIA or minor stroke. Outcome parameters were early stroke during stroke unit stay and 3-month ischemic stroke. Of the 5237 TIA and minor stroke patients with prospectively documented ABCD3-I score, 2755 (52.6%) had a TIA by the time-based and 2183 (41.7%) by the tissue-based definition. Of the 2457 (46.9%) patients with complete 3-month followup, corresponding numbers were 1195 (48.3%) for the time- and 971 (39.5%) for the tissue-based definition of TIA. Early and 3-month ischemic stroke occurred in 1.1 and 2.5% of time-based TIA, 3.8 and 5.9% of time-based minor stroke, 1.2 and 2.3% of tissue-based TIA as well as in 3.1 and 5.5% of tissue-based minor stroke patients. Irrespective of the definition of TIA and minor stroke, the risk of early and 3-month ischemic stroke steadily increased with increasing ABCD3-I score points. The ABCD3-I score performs equally in TIA patients in tissue- as well as time-based definition and the same is true for minor stroke patients.

  20. BIT/External Test Figures of Merit and Demonstration Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    111111 II * 0 IJ! E ii 6 A L 5.2.3 BIT caaiij.-The built-ln~tost I81T) capability $hall be Incorporated as required by the contrato assure...ETE physical characteristics arc straight forward and require no unique methodology for analysis or demonstration. 24 iU, VI T 3.2 DEFINITION OF

  1. String bit models for superstring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    The authors extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. They mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei invariant theory in (D - 2) + 1 dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in D - 2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in D dimensional space-time enjoying the full N = 2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring

  2. String bit models for superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.

    1995-12-31

    The authors extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. They mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei invariant theory in (D {minus} 2) + 1 dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in D {minus} 2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in D dimensional space-time enjoying the full N = 2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring.

  3. Bits and q-bits as versatility measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R.C. Piqueira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Using Shannon information theory is a common strategy to measure any kind of variability in a signal or phenomenon. Some methods were developed to adapt information entropy measures to bird song data trying to emphasize its versatility aspect. This classical approach, using the concept of bit, produces interesting results. Now, the original idea developed in this paper is to use the quantum information theory and the quantum bit (q-bit concept in order to provide a more complete vision of the experimental results.Usar a teoria da informação de Shannon é uma estratégia comum para medir todo tipo de variabilidade em um sinal ou fenômeno. Alguns métodos foram desenvolvidos para adaptar a medida de entropia informacional a dados de cantos de pássaro, tentando enfatizar seus aspectos de versatilidade. Essa abordagem clássica, usando o conceito de bit, produz resultados interessantes. Agora, a idéia original desenvolvida neste artigo é usar a teoria quântica da informação e o conceito de q-bit, com a finalidade de proporcionar uma visão mais completa dos resultados experimentais.

  4. Flexible Bit Preservation on a National Basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results from The Danish National Bit Repository project. The project aim was establishment of a system that can offer flexible and sustainable bit preservation solutions to Danish cultural heritage institutions. Here the bit preservation solutions must include support...... of bit safety as well as other requirements like e.g. confidentiality and availability. The Danish National Bit Repository is motivated by the need to investigate and handle bit preservation for digital cultural heritage. Digital preservation relies on the integrity of the bits which digital material...

  5. Cheat Sensitive Quantum Bit Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We give an example of an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive non-relativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  6. Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    2004-04-16

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We describe an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive nonrelativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  7. Corrected RMS Error and Effective Number of Bits for Sinewave ADC Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome J. Blair

    2002-01-01

    A new definition is proposed for the effective number of bits of an ADC. This definition removes the variation in the calculated effective bits when the amplitude and offset of the sinewave test signal is slightly varied. This variation is most pronounced when test signals with amplitudes of a small number of code bin widths are applied to very low noise ADC's. The effectiveness of the proposed definition is compared with that of other proposed definitions over a range of signal amplitudes and noise levels

  8. Improved Iris Recognition through Fusion of Hamming Distance and Fragile Bit Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Karen P; Bowyer, Kevin W; Flynn, Patrick J

    2011-12-01

    The most common iris biometric algorithm represents the texture of an iris using a binary iris code. Not all bits in an iris code are equally consistent. A bit is deemed fragile if its value changes across iris codes created from different images of the same iris. Previous research has shown that iris recognition performance can be improved by masking these fragile bits. Rather than ignoring fragile bits completely, we consider what beneficial information can be obtained from the fragile bits. We find that the locations of fragile bits tend to be consistent across different iris codes of the same eye. We present a metric, called the fragile bit distance, which quantitatively measures the coincidence of the fragile bit patterns in two iris codes. We find that score fusion of fragile bit distance and Hamming distance works better for recognition than Hamming distance alone. To our knowledge, this is the first and only work to use the coincidence of fragile bit locations to improve the accuracy of matches.

  9. Method of making imbalanced compensated drill bit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett, J.F.; Warren, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for making a drill bit of the type having a bearing zone on a side portion of a bit body and a cutting zone with cutters mounted on the bit body. It comprises: mounting a preselected number of cutters within the cutting zone on the bit body; generating a model of the geometry of the bit body and cutters mounted thereon; calculating the imbalance force which would occur in the bit body under defined drilling parameters; using the imbalance force and model to calculate the position of at least one additional cutter which when mounted within the cutting zone on the bit body in the calculated position would create a net imbalance force directed towards the bearing zone; and mounting an additional cutter within the cutting zone on the bit body in the position so calculated

  10. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-30

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  11. Bit-coded regular expression parsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Henglein, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    the DFA-based parsing algorithm due to Dub ´e and Feeley to emit the bits of the bit representation without explicitly materializing the parse tree itself. We furthermore show that Frisch and Cardelli’s greedy regular expression parsing algorithm can be straightforwardly modified to produce bit codings...

  12. A holistic approach to bit preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of taking a holistic approach to bit preservation when setting out to find an optimal bit preservation solution for specific digital materials. In the last decade there has been an increasing awareness that bit preservation, which ...

  13. Insecurity of imperfect quantum bit seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    Quantum bit seal is a way to encode a classical bit quantum mechanically so that everyone can obtain non-zero information on the value of the bit. Moreover, such an attempt should have a high chance of being detected by an authorized verifier. Surely, a reader looks for a way to get the maximum amount of information on the sealed bit and at the same time to minimize her chance of being caught. And a verifier picks a sealing scheme that maximizes his chance of detecting any measurement of the sealed bit. Here, I report a strategy that passes all measurement detection procedures at least half of the time for all quantum bit sealing schemes. This strategy also minimizes a reader's chance of being caught under a certain scheme. In this way, I extend the result of Bechmann-Pasquinucci et al. by proving that quantum seal is insecure in the case of imperfect sealed bit recovery

  14. Parity Bit Replenishment for JPEG 2000-Based Video Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Olivier Devaux

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper envisions coding with side information to design a highly scalable video codec. To achieve fine-grained scalability in terms of resolution, quality, and spatial access as well as temporal access to individual frames, the JPEG 2000 coding algorithm has been considered as the reference algorithm to encode INTRA information, and coding with side information has been envisioned to refresh the blocks that change between two consecutive images of a video sequence. One advantage of coding with side information compared to conventional closed-loop hybrid video coding schemes lies in the fact that parity bits are designed to correct stochastic errors and not to encode deterministic prediction errors. This enables the codec to support some desynchronization between the encoder and the decoder, which is particularly helpful to adapt on the fly pre-encoded content to fluctuating network resources and/or user preferences in terms of regions of interest. Regarding the coding scheme itself, to preserve both quality scalability and compliance to the JPEG 2000 wavelet representation, a particular attention has been devoted to the definition of a practical coding framework able to exploit not only the temporal but also spatial correlation among wavelet subbands coefficients, while computing the parity bits on subsets of wavelet bit-planes. Simulations have shown that compared to pure INTRA-based conditional replenishment solutions, the addition of the parity bits option decreases the transmission cost in terms of bandwidth, while preserving access flexibility.

  15. Mourning in Bits and Stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    We mourn our dead, publicly and privately, online and offline. Cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites make up parts of todays intricately weaved and interrelated network of death, grief and memorialization practices [1]–[5]. Whether cut in stone or made of bits, graves, cemeteries......, memorials, monuments, websites and social networking services (SNS) all are alterable, controllable and adaptive. They represent a certain rationale contrary to the emotive state of mourning (e.g. gravesites function as both spaces of internment and places of spiritual and emotional recollection). Following...... and memorialization by discussing the publicly and privately digital and social death from a spatial, temporal, physical and digital angle. Further the paper will reflect on how to encompass shifting trends and technologies in ‘traditional’ spaces of mourning and remembrance....

  16. In bits, bytes and stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    The digital spheres of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Social Network Services (SNS) are influencing 21st. century death. Today the dying and the bereaved attend mourning and remembrance both online and offline. Combined, the cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites...... designs'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites, applications and software services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by discourses of publics, economics, power, technology and culture. Designers, programmers, stakeholders and potential end-users often...... the respondents and interviewees are engaged with a prototype design that encompasses digitally enhanced experiences and interactions regarding mourning, memory and remembrance. The design is situated in a traditional public place of death, the Almen Cemetery of Aalborg in Denmark....

  17. A systematic literature review of US definitions, scoring systems and validity according to the OMERACT filter for tendon lesion in RA and other inflammatory joint diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, María; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Bruyn, George A W; Möller, Ingrid; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Wakefield, Richard J; Naredo, Esperanza

    2012-07-01

    To present the published data concerning the US assessment of tendon lesions as well as the US metric properties investigated in inflammatory arthritis. A systematic literature search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library was performed. Selection criteria were original articles in the English language reporting US, Doppler, tenosynovitis and other tendon lesions in patients with RA and other inflammatory arthritis. Data extraction focused on the definition and quantification of US-detected tenosynovitis and other tendon abnormalities and the metric properties of US according to the OMERACT filter for evaluating the above tendon lesions. Thirty-three of 192 identified articles were included in the review. Most articles were case series (42%) or case-control (33%) studies describing hand and/or foot tenosynovitis in RA patients. The majority of older articles used only B-mode, whereas the most recent studies have incorporated Doppler mode. Definition of tenosynovitis or other tendon lesion was provided in 70% of the evaluated studies. Most of the studies (61%) used a binary score for evaluating tendon abnormalities. Concerning the OMERACT filter, 24 (73%) articles dealt with construct validity. The comparator most commonly used was clinical assessment and MRI. There were few studies assessing criterion validity. Some studies evaluated reliability (36%), responsiveness (21%) and feasibility (12%). US seems a promising tool for evaluating inflammatory tendon lesions. However, further validation is necessary for implementation in clinical practice and trials.

  18. FastBit Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng

    2007-08-02

    An index in a database system is a data structure that utilizes redundant information about the base data to speed up common searching and retrieval operations. Most commonly used indexes are variants of B-trees, such as B+-tree and B*-tree. FastBit implements a set of alternative indexes call compressed bitmap indexes. Compared with B-tree variants, these indexes provide very efficient searching and retrieval operations by sacrificing the efficiency of updating the indexes after the modification of an individual record. In addition to the well-known strengths of bitmap indexes, FastBit has a special strength stemming from the bitmap compression scheme used. The compression method is called the Word-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) code. It reduces the bitmap indexes to reasonable sizes and at the same time allows very efficient bitwise logical operations directly on the compressed bitmaps. Compared with the well-known compression methods such as LZ77 and Byte-aligned Bitmap code (BBC), WAH sacrifices some space efficiency for a significant improvement in operational efficiency. Since the bitwise logical operations are the most important operations needed to answer queries, using WAH compression has been shown to answer queries significantly faster than using other compression schemes. Theoretical analyses showed that WAH compressed bitmap indexes are optimal for one-dimensional range queries. Only the most efficient indexing schemes such as B+-tree and B*-tree have this optimality property. However, bitmap indexes are superior because they can efficiently answer multi-dimensional range queries by combining the answers to one-dimensional queries.

  19. Stinger Enhanced Drill Bits For EGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrand, Christopher J. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Skeem, Marcus R. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Crockett, Ron B. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Hall, David R. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-04-29

    The project objectives were to design, engineer, test, and commercialize a drill bit suitable for drilling in hard rock and high temperature environments (10,000 meters) likely to be encountered in drilling enhanced geothermal wells. The goal is provide a drill bit that can aid in the increased penetration rate of three times over conventional drilling. Novatek has sought to leverage its polycrystalline diamond technology and a new conical cutter shape, known as the Stinger®, for this purpose. Novatek has developed a fixed bladed bit, known as the JackBit®, populated with both shear cutter and Stingers that is currently being tested by major drilling companies for geothermal and oil and gas applications. The JackBit concept comprises a fixed bladed bit with a center indenter, referred to as the Jack. The JackBit has been extensively tested in the lab and in the field. The JackBit has been transferred to a major bit manufacturer and oil service company. Except for the attached published reports all other information is confidential.

  20. Factorization of a 512-bit RSA modulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.H. Cavallar; W.M. Lioen (Walter); H.J.J. te Riele (Herman); B. Dodson; A.K. Lenstra (Arjen); P.L. Montgomery; B. Murphy

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOn August 22, 1999, we completed the factorization of the 512--bit 155--digit number RSA--155 with the help of the Number Field Sieve factoring method (NFS). This is a new record for factoring general numbers. Moreover, 512--bit RSA keys are frequently used for the protection of

  1. Efficient Bit-to-Symbol Likelihood Mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce E.; Nakashima, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation is an efficient algorithm designed to perform bit-to-symbol and symbol-to-bit likelihood mappings that represent a significant portion of the complexity of an error-correction code decoder for high-order constellations. Recent implementation of the algorithm in hardware has yielded an 8- percent reduction in overall area relative to the prior design.

  2. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth / For Kids / Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! Print en español ¡ ...

  3. High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    images via 8 bit depth codecs in the following way. First, an input 16 bit depth image is mapped into 8 bit depth images, e.g., the first image contains only the most significant bytes (MSB image) and the second one contains only the least significant bytes (LSB image). Then each image is compressed.......264/AVC codecs, which are usually available in efficient implementations, and compare their rate-distortion performance with JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and H.265/HEVC codecs supporting direct compression of infrared images in 16 bit depth format. A preliminary result shows that two 8 bit H.264/AVC codecs can...

  4. Bit-string scattering theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1990-01-29

    We construct discrete space-time coordinates separated by the Lorentz-invariant intervals h/mc in space and h/mc{sup 2} in time using discrimination (XOR) between pairs of independently generated bit-strings; we prove that if this space is homogeneous and isotropic, it can have only 1, 2 or 3 spacial dimensions once we have related time to a global ordering operator. On this space we construct exact combinatorial expressions for free particle wave functions taking proper account of the interference between indistinguishable alternative paths created by the construction. Because the end-points of the paths are fixed, they specify completed processes; our wave functions are born collapsed''. A convenient way to represent this model is in terms of complex amplitudes whose squares give the probability for a particular set of observable processes to be completed. For distances much greater than h/mc and times much greater than h/mc{sup 2} our wave functions can be approximated by solutions of the free particle Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. Using a eight-counter paradigm we relate this construction to scattering experiments involving four distinguishable particles, and indicate how this can be used to calculate electromagnetic and weak scattering processes. We derive a non-perturbative formula relating relativistic bound and resonant state energies to mass ratios and coupling constants, equivalent to our earlier derivation of the Bohr relativistic formula for hydrogen. Using the Fermi-Yang model of the pion as a relativistic bound state containing a nucleon-antinucleon pair, we find that (G{sub {pi}N}{sup 2}){sup 2} = (2m{sub N}/m{sub {pi}}){sup 2} {minus} 1. 21 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Bit-string scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    We construct discrete space-time coordinates separated by the Lorentz-invariant intervals h/mc in space and h/mc 2 in time using discrimination (XOR) between pairs of independently generated bit-strings; we prove that if this space is homogeneous and isotropic, it can have only 1, 2 or 3 spacial dimensions once we have related time to a global ordering operator. On this space we construct exact combinatorial expressions for free particle wave functions taking proper account of the interference between indistinguishable alternative paths created by the construction. Because the end-points of the paths are fixed, they specify completed processes; our wave functions are ''born collapsed''. A convenient way to represent this model is in terms of complex amplitudes whose squares give the probability for a particular set of observable processes to be completed. For distances much greater than h/mc and times much greater than h/mc 2 our wave functions can be approximated by solutions of the free particle Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. Using a eight-counter paradigm we relate this construction to scattering experiments involving four distinguishable particles, and indicate how this can be used to calculate electromagnetic and weak scattering processes. We derive a non-perturbative formula relating relativistic bound and resonant state energies to mass ratios and coupling constants, equivalent to our earlier derivation of the Bohr relativistic formula for hydrogen. Using the Fermi-Yang model of the pion as a relativistic bound state containing a nucleon-antinucleon pair, we find that (G πN 2 ) 2 = (2m N /m π ) 2 - 1. 21 refs., 1 fig

  6. Bit Loading Algorithms for Cooperative OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Bo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the resource allocation problem for an OFDM cooperative network with a single source-destination pair and multiple relays. Assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all links in the entire network, we propose several bit and power allocation schemes aiming at minimizing the total transmission power under a target rate constraint. First, an optimal and efficient bit loading algorithm is proposed when the relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel permutation, in which the subchannels are reallocated at relay nodes, is considered. An optimal subchannel permutation algorithm is first proposed and then an efficient suboptimal algorithm is considered to achieve a better complexity-performance tradeoff. A distributed bit loading algorithm is also proposed for ad hoc networks. Simulation results show that significant performance gains can be achieved by the proposed bit loading algorithms, especially when subchannel permutation is employed.

  7. FastBit: Interactively Searching Massive Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Chen, Jacqueline; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Geddes, Cameron; Gu, Junmin; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Koegler, Wendy; Lauret, Jerome; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Otoo, Ekow; Perevoztchikov, Victor; Poskanzer, Arthur; Prabhat,; Rubel, Oliver; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alexander; Stockinger, Kurt; Weber, Gunther; Zhang, Wei-Ming

    2009-06-23

    As scientific instruments and computer simulations produce more and more data, the task of locating the essential information to gain insight becomes increasingly difficult. FastBit is an efficient software tool to address this challenge. In this article, we present a summary of the key underlying technologies, namely bitmap compression, encoding, and binning. Together these techniques enable FastBit to answer structured (SQL) queries orders of magnitude faster than popular database systems. To illustrate how FastBit is used in applications, we present three examples involving a high-energy physics experiment, a combustion simulation, and an accelerator simulation. In each case, FastBit significantly reduces the response time and enables interactive exploration on terabytes of data.

  8. Bit Loading Algorithms for Cooperative OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gui

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the resource allocation problem for an OFDM cooperative network with a single source-destination pair and multiple relays. Assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all links in the entire network, we propose several bit and power allocation schemes aiming at minimizing the total transmission power under a target rate constraint. First, an optimal and efficient bit loading algorithm is proposed when the relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel permutation, in which the subchannels are reallocated at relay nodes, is considered. An optimal subchannel permutation algorithm is first proposed and then an efficient suboptimal algorithm is considered to achieve a better complexity-performance tradeoff. A distributed bit loading algorithm is also proposed for ad hoc networks. Simulation results show that significant performance gains can be achieved by the proposed bit loading algorithms, especially when subchannel permutation is employed.

  9. Factorization of a 768-Bit RSA Modulus

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinjung, Thorsten; Aoki, Kazumaro; Franke, Jens; Lenstra, Arjen K.; Thome, Emmanuel; Bos, Joppe Willem; Gaudry, Pierrick; Kruppa, Alexander; Montgomery, Peter L.; Osvik, Dag Arne; Riele, Herman Te; Timofeev, Andrey; Zimmermann, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com; International audience; This paper reports on the factorization of the 768-bit number RSA-768 by the number field sieve factoring method and discusses some implications for RSA.

  10. Quantum bit commitment with misaligned reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrow, Aram; Oliveira, Roberto; Terhal, Barbara M.

    2006-01-01

    Suppose that Alice and Bob define their coordinate axes differently, and the change of reference frame between them is given by a probability distribution μ over SO(3). We show that this uncertainty of reference frame is of no use for bit commitment when μ is uniformly distributed over a (sub)group of SO(3), but other choices of μ can give rise to a partially or even arbitrarily secure bit commitment

  11. Bit-Grooming: Shave Your Bits with Razor-sharp Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, C. S.; Silver, J.

    2017-12-01

    Lossless compression can reduce climate data storage by 30-40%. Further reduction requires lossy compression that also reduces precision. Fortunately, geoscientific models and measurements generate false precision (scientifically meaningless data bits) that can be eliminated without sacrificing scientifically meaningful data. We introduce Bit Grooming, a lossy compression algorithm that removes the bloat due to false-precision, those bits and bytes beyond the meaningful precision of the data.Bit Grooming is statistically unbiased, applies to all floating point numbers, and is easy to use. Bit-Grooming reduces geoscience data storage requirements by 40-80%. We compared Bit Grooming to competitors Linear Packing, Layer Packing, and GRIB2/JPEG2000. The other compression methods have the edge in terms of compression, but Bit Grooming is the most accurate and certainly the most usable and portable.Bit Grooming provides flexible and well-balanced solutions to the trade-offs among compression, accuracy, and usability required by lossy compression. Geoscientists could reduce their long term storage costs, and show leadership in the elimination of false precision, by adopting Bit Grooming.

  12. High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-08-01

    Future infrared remote sensing systems, such as monitoring of the Earth's environment by satellites, infrastructure inspection by unmanned airborne vehicles etc., will require 16 bit depth infrared images to be compressed and stored or transmitted for further analysis. Such systems are equipped with low power embedded platforms where image or video data is compressed by a hardware block called the video processing unit (VPU). However, in many cases using two 8-bit VPUs can provide advantages compared with using higher bit depth image compression directly. We propose to compress 16 bit depth images via 8 bit depth codecs in the following way. First, an input 16 bit depth image is mapped into 8 bit depth images, e.g., the first image contains only the most significant bytes (MSB image) and the second one contains only the least significant bytes (LSB image). Then each image is compressed by an image or video codec with 8 bits per pixel input format. We analyze how the compression parameters for both MSB and LSB images should be chosen to provide the maximum objective quality for a given compression ratio. Finally, we apply the proposed infrared image compression method utilizing JPEG and H.264/AVC codecs, which are usually available in efficient implementations, and compare their rate-distortion performance with JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and H.265/HEVC codecs supporting direct compression of infrared images in 16 bit depth format. A preliminary result shows that two 8 bit H.264/AVC codecs can achieve similar result as 16 bit HEVC codec.

  13. Stochastic p -Bits for Invertible Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Faria, Rafatul; Sutton, Brian M.; Datta, Supriyo

    2017-07-01

    Conventional semiconductor-based logic and nanomagnet-based memory devices are built out of stable, deterministic units such as standard metal-oxide semiconductor transistors, or nanomagnets with energy barriers in excess of ≈40 - 60 kT . In this paper, we show that unstable, stochastic units, which we call "p -bits," can be interconnected to create robust correlations that implement precise Boolean functions with impressive accuracy, comparable to standard digital circuits. At the same time, they are invertible, a unique property that is absent in standard digital circuits. When operated in the direct mode, the input is clamped, and the network provides the correct output. In the inverted mode, the output is clamped, and the network fluctuates among all possible inputs that are consistent with that output. First, we present a detailed implementation of an invertible gate to bring out the key role of a single three-terminal transistorlike building block to enable the construction of correlated p -bit networks. The results for this specific, CMOS-assisted nanomagnet-based hardware implementation agree well with those from a universal model for p -bits, showing that p -bits need not be magnet based: any three-terminal tunable random bit generator should be suitable. We present a general algorithm for designing a Boltzmann machine (BM) with a symmetric connection matrix [J ] (Ji j=Jj i) that implements a given truth table with p -bits. The [J ] matrices are relatively sparse with a few unique weights for convenient hardware implementation. We then show how BM full adders can be interconnected in a partially directed manner (Ji j≠Jj i) to implement large logic operations such as 32-bit binary addition. Hundreds of stochastic p -bits get precisely correlated such that the correct answer out of 233 (≈8 ×1 09) possibilities can be extracted by looking at the statistical mode or majority vote of a number of time samples. With perfect directivity (Jj i=0 ) a small

  14. An efficient parallel pseudorandom bit generator based on an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bit sequences pass all of the NIST SP800-22 statistical tests. ... local map, the chaotic behaviours of which depend only on the local map parameter, ..... 3, 4, ..., N. Thus, one-bit change of a 64-bit IV can result in 8(N − 2) + 1 bits change for 32N ...

  15. High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    .264/AVC codecs, which are usually available in efficient implementations, and compare their rate-distortion performance with JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and H.265/HEVC codecs supporting direct compression of infrared images in 16 bit depth format. A preliminary result shows that two 8 bit H.264/AVC codecs can...

  16. Bits extraction for palmprint template protection with Gabor magnitude and multi-bit quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Meiru; Shao, X.; Ruan, Qiuqi; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method of fixed-length binary string extraction (denoted by LogGM_DROBA) from low-resolution palmprint image for developing palmprint template protection technology. In order to extract reliable (stable and discriminative) bits, multi-bit equal-probability-interval

  17. Ultra low bit-rate speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ramasubramanian, V

    2015-01-01

    "Ultra Low Bit-Rate Speech Coding" focuses on the specialized topic of speech coding at very low bit-rates of 1 Kbits/sec and less, particularly at the lower ends of this range, down to 100 bps. The authors set forth the fundamental results and trends that form the basis for such ultra low bit-rates to be viable and provide a comprehensive overview of various techniques and systems in literature to date, with particular attention to their work in the paradigm of unit-selection based segment quantization. The book is for research students, academic faculty and researchers, and industry practitioners in the areas of speech processing and speech coding.

  18. Bit-padding information guided channel hopping

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2011-02-01

    In the context of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications, we propose a bit-padding information guided channel hopping (BP-IGCH) scheme which breaks the limitation that the number of transmit antennas has to be a power of two based on the IGCH concept. The proposed scheme prescribes different bit-lengths to be mapped onto the indices of the transmit antennas and then uses padding technique to avoid error propagation. Numerical results and comparisons, on both the capacity and the bit error rate performances, are provided and show the advantage of the proposed scheme. The BP-IGCH scheme not only offers lower complexity to realize the design flexibility, but also achieves better performance. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Introduction to bit slices and microprogramming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dam, A.

    1981-01-01

    Bit-slice logic blocks are fourth-generation LSI components which are natural extensions of traditional mulitplexers, registers, decoders, counters, ALUs, etc. Their functionality is controlled by microprogramming, typically to implement CPUs and peripheral controllers where both speed and easy programmability are required for flexibility, ease of implementation and debugging, etc. Processors built from bit-slice logic give the designer an alternative for approaching the programmibility of traditional fixed-instruction-set microprocessors with a speed closer to that of hardwired random logic. (orig.)

  20. Entropy of a bit-shift channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggen, Stan; Balakirsky, Vladimir; Denteneer, Dee; Egner, Sebastian; Hollmann, Henk; Tolhuizen, Ludo; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    2006-01-01

    We consider a simple transformation (coding) of an iid source called a bit-shift channel. This simple transformation occurs naturally in magnetic or optical data storage. The resulting process is not Markov of any order. We discuss methods of computing the entropy of the transformed process, and

  1. An efficient parallel pseudorandom bit generator based

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, an asymmetric coupled map lattice (CML) combining sawtooth map as a local map is presented and its chaotic behaviours are analysed. Based on this asymmetric CML, a pseudorandom bit generator (PRBG) is proposed. The specific parameters of the system that make complicated floating-point computation ...

  2. Linear, Constant-rounds Bit-decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reistad, Tord; Toft, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    When performing secure multiparty computation, tasks may often be simple or difficult depending on the representation chosen. Hence, being able to switch representation efficiently may allow more efficient protocols. We present a new protocol for bit-decomposition: converting a ring element x ∈ ℤ M...

  3. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics for string-bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    The authors develop possible versions of supersymmetric single particle quantum mechanics, with application to superstring-bit models in view. The authors focus principally on space dimensions d = 1,2,4,8, the transverse dimensionalities of superstring in 3, 4, 7, 10 space-time dimensions. These are the cases for which classical superstring makes sense, and also the values of d for which Hooke's force law is compatible with the simplest superparticle dynamics. The basic question they address is: when is it possible to replace such harmonic force laws with more general ones, including forces which vanish at large distances? This is an important question because forces between string-bits that do not fall off with distance will almost certainly destroy cluster decomposition. They show that the answer is affirmative for d = 1,2, negative for d = 8, and so far inconclusive for d = 4

  4. Acquisition and Retaining Granular Samples via a Rotating Coring Bit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    This device takes advantage of the centrifugal forces that are generated when a coring bit is rotated, and a granular sample is entered into the bit while it is spinning, making it adhere to the internal wall of the bit, where it compacts itself into the wall of the bit. The bit can be specially designed to increase the effectiveness of regolith capturing while turning and penetrating the subsurface. The bit teeth can be oriented such that they direct the regolith toward the bit axis during the rotation of the bit. The bit can be designed with an internal flute that directs the regolith upward inside the bit. The use of both the teeth and flute can be implemented in the same bit. The bit can also be designed with an internal spiral into which the various particles wedge. In another implementation, the bit can be designed to collect regolith primarily from a specific depth. For that implementation, the bit can be designed such that when turning one way, the teeth guide the regolith outward of the bit and when turning in the opposite direction, the teeth will guide the regolith inward into the bit internal section. This mechanism can be implemented with or without an internal flute. The device is based on the use of a spinning coring bit (hollow interior) as a means of retaining granular sample, and the acquisition is done by inserting the bit into the subsurface of a regolith, soil, or powder. To demonstrate the concept, a commercial drill and a coring bit were used. The bit was turned and inserted into the soil that was contained in a bucket. While spinning the bit (at speeds of 600 to 700 RPM), the drill was lifted and the soil was retained inside the bit. To prove this point, the drill was turned horizontally, and the acquired soil was still inside the bit. The basic theory behind the process of retaining unconsolidated mass that can be acquired by the centrifugal forces of the bit is determined by noting that in order to stay inside the interior of the bit, the

  5. Single Bit Radar Systems for Digital Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Øystein

    2017-01-01

    Small, low cost, radar systems have exciting applications in monitoring and imaging for the industrial, healthcare and Internet of Things (IoT) sectors. We here explore, and show the feasibility of, several single bit square wave radar architectures; that benefits from the continuous improvement in digital technologies for system-on-chip digital integration. By analysis, simulation and measurements we explore novel and harmonic-rich continuous wave (CW), stepped-frequency CW (SFCW) and freque...

  6. Rate Control for MPEG-4 Bit Stream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振洲; 李桂苓

    2003-01-01

    For a very long time video processing dealt exclusively with fixed-rate sequences of rectangular shaped images. However, interest has been recently moving toward a more flexible concept in which the subject of the processing and encoding operations is a set of visual elements organized in both time and space in a flexible and arbitrarily complex way. The moving picture experts group (MPEG-4) standard supports this concept and its verification model (VM) encoder has adopted scalable rate control (SRC) as the rate control scheme, which is based on the spatial domain and compatible with constant bit rate (CBR) and variable bit rate (VBR). In this paper,a new rate control algorithm based on the DCT domain instead of the pixel domain is presented. More-over, macroblock level rate control scheme to compute the quantization step for each macroblock has been adopted. The experimental results show that the new algorithm can achieve a much better result than the original one in both peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the coding bits, and that the new algorithm is more flexible than test model 5 (TM5) rate control algorithm.

  7. Development of an RSFQ 4-bit ALU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Baek, S. H.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, K. R.; Jung, K. R.; Lim, H. Y.; Park, J. H.; Han, T. S.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed and tested an RSFQ 4-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) based on half adder cells and de switches. ALU is a core element of a computer processor that performs arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words. The designed ALU had limited operation functions of OR, AND, XOR, and ADD. It had a pipeline structure. We have simulated the circuit by using Josephson circuit simulation tools in order to reduce the timing problem, and confirmed the correct operation of the designed ALU. We used simulation tools of XIC TM ,WRspice TM , and Julia. The fabricated 4-bit ALU circuit had a size of 3000 calum X 1500, and the chip size was 5 mm X 5 mm. The test speeds were 1000 kHz and 5 GHz. For high-speed test, we used an eye-diagram technique. Our 4-bit ALU operated correctly up to 5 GHz clock frequency. The chip was tested at the liquid-helium temperature.

  8. Drilling bits for deep drilling and process for their manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhode, H.; Juergens, R.; Feenstra, R.; Busking, B.E.

    1978-11-30

    The invention concerns a drilling head or a drilling bit for use in deep drilling in underground formations and particularly concerns a drilling bit with a drilling bit body, which has a shank and a hollow space, which is connected with a duct extending through the shank. The drilling bit body has several separate cutting elements for removing material from the floor of a borehole and hydraulic devices for cooling and/or cleaning the cutting elements are provided.

  9. Lathe tool bit and holder for machining fiberglass materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, L. E. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A lathe tool and holder combination for machining resin impregnated fiberglass cloth laminates is described. The tool holder and tool bit combination is designed to accommodate a conventional carbide-tipped, round shank router bit as the cutting medium, and provides an infinite number of cutting angles in order to produce a true and smooth surface in the fiberglass material workpiece with every pass of the tool bit. The technique utilizes damaged router bits which ordinarily would be discarded.

  10. Method to manufacture bit patterned magnetic recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeymaekers, Bart; Sinha, Dipen N

    2014-05-13

    A method to increase the storage density on magnetic recording media by physically separating the individual bits from each other with a non-magnetic medium (so-called bit patterned media). This allows the bits to be closely packed together without creating magnetic "cross-talk" between adjacent bits. In one embodiment, ferromagnetic particles are submerged in a resin solution, contained in a reservoir. The bottom of the reservoir is made of piezoelectric material.

  11. Bit selection using field drilling data and mathematical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, M. S.; Ridha, S.; Hosseini, S. J.; Meyghani, B.; Emamian, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    A drilling process will not be complete without the usage of a drill bit. Therefore, bit selection is considered to be an important task in drilling optimization process. To select a bit is considered as an important issue in planning and designing a well. This is simply because the cost of drilling bit in total cost is quite high. Thus, to perform this task, aback propagation ANN Model is developed. This is done by training the model using several wells and it is done by the usage of drilling bit records from offset wells. In this project, two models are developed by the usage of the ANN. One is to find predicted IADC bit code and one is to find Predicted ROP. Stage 1 was to find the IADC bit code by using all the given filed data. The output is the Targeted IADC bit code. Stage 2 was to find the Predicted ROP values using the gained IADC bit code in Stage 1. Next is Stage 3 where the Predicted ROP value is used back again in the data set to gain Predicted IADC bit code value. The output is the Predicted IADC bit code. Thus, at the end, there are two models that give the Predicted ROP values and Predicted IADC bit code values.

  12. Superior metastasis-free survival for patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated with definitive radiation therapy compared to radical prostatectomy: A propensity score-matched analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Markovina, MD, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: For high-risk prostate cancer (HR-PCa in men with a life expectancy of at least 10 years, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends radiation therapy (RT plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT with category 1 evidence or radical prostatectomy (RP as an acceptable initial therapy. Randomized evidence regarding which therapy is optimal for disease control is lacking for men with HR-PCa. We performed a propensity-score-matched comparison of outcomes for men with localized HR-PCa treated with primary RT or RP. Methods and materials: The medical records of patients with localized HR-PCa who were treated at our institution between 2002 and 2011 were reviewed. Patient and disease characteristics, treatment details, and outcomes were collected. A combination of nearest-neighbor propensity score matching on age, Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 comorbidity index, prostate-specific antigen, biopsy Gleason scores, and clinical T-stage as well as exact matching on prostate-specific antigen, biopsy Gleason scores, and clinical T-stage was performed. Outcomes were measured from diagnosis. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare metastasis-free and overall survival. Results: A total of 246 patients were identified with 62 propensity-score-matched pairs. ADT was administered to 6.5% and 80.6% of patients receiving RP and RT, respectively. Five-year rates of metastasis for RP and RT were 33% and 8.9%, respectively (P = .003. Overall survival was not different. Delay of salvage therapy was longer for patients undergoing primary RT (P < .001. Findings were similar when only those patients who did not receive ADT were compared. Conclusions: At our institution, treatment with primary RT resulted in superior metastasis-free survival over RP. This was not accompanied by an improvement in OS.

  13. Image processing on the image with pixel noise bits removed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Keh-Shih; Wu, Christine

    1992-06-01

    Our previous studies used statistical methods to assess the noise level in digital images of various radiological modalities. We separated the pixel data into signal bits and noise bits and demonstrated visually that the removal of the noise bits does not affect the image quality. In this paper we apply image enhancement techniques on noise-bits-removed images and demonstrate that the removal of noise bits has no effect on the image property. The image processing techniques used are gray-level look up table transformation, Sobel edge detector, and 3-D surface display. Preliminary results show no noticeable difference between original image and noise bits removed image using look up table operation and Sobel edge enhancement. There is a slight enhancement of the slicing artifact in the 3-D surface display of the noise bits removed image.

  14. A 16 bit camac ADC with memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikne, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    A 16 bit camac-programmable analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with incorporated memory and sampling clock is described. This single-width camac module is especially suited for autonomous, multi-sample data acquisition with high precision. The ADC itself is a hybrid, the ADC76 from Burr-Brown, featuring a programmable input range and direct parallel output in two's complement form. The input programming is done by means of dual-in-line switches, giving input spans from 1.25 V to 20 V, unipolar or bipolar. The outline of the programming of the ADC input and the calibration of the unit is given

  15. Investigation of PDC bit failure base on stick-slip vibration analysis of drilling string system plus drill bit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiqiang; Xie, Dou; Xie, Bing; Zhang, Wenlin; Zhang, Fuxiao; He, Lei

    2018-03-01

    The undesired stick-slip vibration is the main source of PDC bit failure, such as tooth fracture and tooth loss. So, the study of PDC bit failure base on stick-slip vibration analysis is crucial to prolonging the service life of PDC bit and improving ROP (rate of penetration). For this purpose, a piecewise-smooth torsional model with 4-DOF (degree of freedom) of drilling string system plus PDC bit is proposed to simulate non-impact drilling. In this model, both the friction and cutting behaviors of PDC bit are innovatively introduced. The results reveal that PDC bit is easier to fail than other drilling tools due to the severer stick-slip vibration. Moreover, reducing WOB (weight on bit) and improving driving torque can effectively mitigate the stick-slip vibration of PDC bit. Therefore, PDC bit failure can be alleviated by optimizing drilling parameters. In addition, a new 4-DOF torsional model is established to simulate torsional impact drilling and the effect of torsional impact on PDC bit's stick-slip vibration is analyzed by use of an engineering example. It can be concluded that torsional impact can mitigate stick-slip vibration, prolonging the service life of PDC bit and improving drilling efficiency, which is consistent with the field experiment results.

  16. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics for string bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    We develop possible versions of supersymmetric single-particle quantum mechanics, with application to superstring-bit models in view. We focus principally on space dimensions d=1,2,4,8, the transverse dimensionalities of superstring in 3, 4, 6, and 10 space-time dimensions. These are the cases for which open-quotes classicalclose quotes superstring makes sense, and also the values of d for which Hooke close-quote s force law is compatible with the simplest superparticle dynamics. The basic question we address is the following: When is it possible to replace such harmonic force laws with more general ones, including forces which vanish at large distances? This is an important question because forces between string bits that do not fall off with distance will almost certainly destroy cluster decomposition. We show that the answer is affirmative for d=1,2, negative for d=8, and so far inconclusive for d=4. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Video Synchronization With Bit-Rate Signals and Correntropy Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pereira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach for the synchronization of video streams using correntropy. Essentially, the time offset is calculated on the basis of the instantaneous transfer rates of the video streams that are extracted in the form of a univariate signal known as variable bit-rate (VBR. The state-of-the-art approach uses a window segmentation strategy that is based on consensual zero-mean normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC. This strategy has an elevated computational complexity, making its application to synchronizing online data streaming difficult. Hence, our proposal uses a different window strategy that, together with the correntropy function, allows the synchronization to be performed for online applications. This provides equivalent synchronization scores with a rapid offset determination as the streams come into the system. The efficiency of our approach has been verified through experiments that demonstrate its viability with values that are as precise as those obtained by ZNCC. The proposed approach scored 81 % in time reference classification against the equivalent 81 % of the state-of-the-art approach, requiring much less computational power.

  18. Comparison of 12-bit and 8-bit gray scale resolution in MR imaging of the CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.J.; Bakke, S.J.; Smevik, B.; Hald, J.K.; Moen, G.; Rudenhed, B.; Abildgaard, A.

    1992-01-01

    A reduction in gray scale resolution of digital images from 12 to 8 bits per pixel usually means halving the storage space needed for the images. Theoretically, important diagnostic information may be lost in the process. We compared the sensitivity and specificity achieved by 4 radiologists in reading laser-printed films of original 12-bit MR images and cathode ray tube displays of the same images which had been compressed to 8 bits per pixel using a specially developed computer program. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves showed no significant differences between film reading and screen reading. A paired 2-tailed t-test, applied on the data for actually positive cases, showed that the combined, average performance of the reviewers was significantly better at screen reading than at film reading. No such differences were found for actually negative cases. Some individual differences were found, but it is concluded that gray scale resolution of MR images may be reduced from 12 to 8 bits per pixel without any significant reduction in diagnostic information. (orig.)

  19. A digital divider with extension bits for position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masaki; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Digitizing errors produced in a digital divider for position-sensitive detectors have been reduced by adding extension bits to data bits. A relation between the extension bits and the data bits to obtain perfect position uniformity is also given. A digital divider employing 10 bit ADCs and 6 bit extension circuits has been constructed. (orig.)

  20. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation, in order to use their resources for preservation in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework...... for systematically analysing institutions technical and organisational requirements for a remote bit repository. Instead of viewing a bit repository simply as Archival Storage for the institutions repositories, we argue for viewing it as consisting of a subset of functions from all entities defined by the OAIS...... Reference Model. The work is motivated by and used in a current Danish feasibility study for establishing a national bit repository. The study revealed that depending on their missions and the collections they hold, the institutions have varying requirements e.g. for bit safety, accessibility...

  1. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation in order to use their resources for preservation n in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework...... for systematically analysing the technical and organizational requirements of institutions for a remote bit repository. Instead of viewing a bit repository simply as Archival Storage for the institutions’ repositories, we argue for viewing it as consisting of a subset of functions from all entities defined...... by the OAIS Reference Model. The work is motivated by and used in a current Danish feasibility study for establishing a national bit repository. The study revealed that depending on their missions and the collections they hold, the institutions have varying requirements, such as for bit safety, accessibility...

  2. Bit-commitment-based quantum coin flipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Ashwin; Shor, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we focus on a special framework for quantum coin-flipping protocols, bit-commitment-based protocols, within which almost all known protocols fit. We show a lower bound of 1/16 for the bias in any such protocol. We also analyze a sequence of multiround protocols that tries to overcome the drawbacks of the previously proposed protocols in order to lower the bias. We show an intricate cheating strategy for this sequence, which leads to a bias of 1/4. This indicates that a bias of 1/4 might be optimal in such protocols, and also demonstrates that a more clever proof technique may be required to show this optimality

  3. Cost of remembering a bit of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiuchiù; , D.; López-Suárez, M.; Neri, I.; Diamantini, M. C.; Gammaitoni, L.

    2018-05-01

    In 1961, Landauer [R. Landauer, IBM J. Res. Develop. 5, 183 (1961), 10.1147/rd.53.0183] pointed out that resetting a binary memory requires a minimum energy of kBT ln(2 ) . However, once written, any memory is doomed to lose its content if no action is taken. To avoid memory losses, a refresh procedure is periodically performed. We present a theoretical model and an experiment on a microelectromechanical system to evaluate the minimum energy required to preserve one bit of information over time. Two main conclusions are drawn: (i) in principle, the energetic cost to preserve information for a fixed time duration with a given error probability can be arbitrarily reduced if the refresh procedure is performed often enough, and (ii) the Heisenberg uncertainty principle sets an upper bound on the memory lifetime.

  4. Second quantization in bit-string physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1992-08-01

    Using a new fundamental theory based on bit-strings we derived a finite and discrete version of the solutions of the free one particle Dirac equation as segmented trajectories with steps of length h/mc along the forward and backward light cones executed at velocity ±c. Interpreting the statistical fluctuations which cause the bends in these segmented trajectories as emission and absorption of radiation, these solutions are analagous to a fermion propagator in a second quantized theory. This allows us to interpret the mass parameter in the step length as the physical mass of the free particle. The radiation in interaction with it has the usual harmonic oscillator structure of a second quantized theory. We sketch on these free particle masses can be generated gravitationally using the combinatorial hierarchy sequence (3,10,137,2 127 +136), and some of the predictive consequences

  5. Balance, Sustainable Development, and Integration: Innovative Path for BIT Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng Huaqun

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral investment treaties (BITs) have emerged as one of the most remarkable recent developments in international law and the hot topic of international lawyers. The author indicates that in the history of BIT practice, there is an issue on imbalance and/or un-equality between developed states and developing states due to historical and practical reasons. Under the economic globalization the main clauses of BITs have been further developed to the traditional track elaborately designed by d...

  6. Development and testing of a Mudjet-augmented PDC bit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Alan (TerraTek, Inc.); Chahine, Georges (DynaFlow, Inc.); Raymond, David Wayne; Matthews, Oliver (Security DBS); Grossman, James W.; Bertagnolli, Ken (US Synthetic); Vail, Michael (US Synthetic)

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a project to develop technology to integrate passively pulsating, cavitating nozzles within Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bits for use with conventional rig pressures to improve the rock-cutting process in geothermal formations. The hydraulic horsepower on a conventional drill rig is significantly greater than that delivered to the rock through bit rotation. This project seeks to leverage this hydraulic resource to extend PDC bits to geothermal drilling.

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Memristance Defined Exponential Model for Multi-bits Titanium Dioxide Memristor Memory Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAOUD, A. A. D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to store multiple bits in a single memristor based memory cell is a key feature for high-capacity memory packages. Studying multi-bit memristor circuits requires high accuracy in modelling the memristance change. A memristor model based on a novel definition of memristance is proposed. A design of a single memristor memory cell using the proposed model for the platinum electrodes titanium dioxide memristor is illustrated. A specific voltage pulse is used with varying its parameters (amplitude or pulse width to store different number of states in a single memristor. New state variation parameters associated with the utilized model are provided and their effects on write and read processes of memristive multi-states are analysed. PSPICE simulations are also held, and they show a good agreement with the data obtained from the analysis.

  8. Quantum bit commitment with cheat sensitive binding and approximate sealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Bing; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Wan, Zong-Jie

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a cheat-sensitive quantum bit commitment scheme based on single photons, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob. Here, Bob’s probability of success at cheating as obtains the committed bit before the opening phase becomes close to \\frac{1}{2} (just like performing a guess) as the number of single photons used is increased. And if Alice alters her committed bit after the commitment phase, her cheating will be detected with a probability that becomes close to 1 as the number of single photons used is increased. The scheme is easy to realize with present day technology.

  9. Improved Bit Rate Control for Real-Time MPEG Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranata Sugiri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The alteration of compressed video bitstream due to embedding of digital watermark tends to produce unpredictable video bit rate variations which may in turn lead to video playback buffer overflow/underflow or transmission bandwidth violation problems. This paper presents a novel bit rate control technique for real-time MPEG watermarking applications. In our experiments, spread spectrum watermarks are embedded in the quantized DCT domain without requantization and motion reestimation to achieve fast watermarking. The proposed bit rate control scheme evaluates the combined bit lengths of a set of multiple watermarked VLC codewords, and successively replaces watermarked VLC codewords having the largest increase in bit length with their corresponding unmarked VLC codewords until a target bit length is achieved. The proposed method offers flexibility and scalability, which are neglected by similar works reported in the literature. Experimental results show that the proposed bit rate control scheme is effective in meeting the bit rate targets and capable of improving the watermark detection robustness for different video contents compressed at different bit rates.

  10. FPGA implementation of bit controller in double-tick architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobylecki, Michał; Kania, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the two original architectures of programmable bit controllers built on FPGAs. Programmable Logic Controllers (which include, among other things programmable bit controllers) built on FPGAs provide a efficient alternative to the controllers based on microprocessors which are expensive and often too slow. The presented and compared methods allow for the efficient implementation of any bit control algorithm written in Ladder Diagram language into the programmable logic system in accordance with IEC61131-3. In both cases, we have compared the effect of the applied architecture on the performance of executing the same bit control program in relation to its own size.

  11. Multiple Memory Structure Bit Reversal Algorithm Based on Recursive Patterns of Bit Reversal Permutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. L. B. Adikaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for online/inline data processing efficient Fourier analysis becomes more and more relevant. Due to the fact that the bit reversal process requires considerable processing time of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT algorithm, it is vital to optimize the bit reversal algorithm (BRA. This paper is to introduce an efficient BRA with multiple memory structures. In 2009, Elster showed the relation between the first and the second halves of the bit reversal permutation (BRP and stated that it may cause serious impact on cache performance of the computer, if implemented. We found exceptions, especially when the said index mapping was implemented with multiple one-dimensional memory structures instead of multidimensional or one-dimensional memory structure. Also we found a new index mapping, even after the recursive splitting of BRP into equal sized slots. The four-array and the four-vector versions of BRA with new index mapping reported 34% and 16% improvement in performance in relation to similar versions of Linear BRA of Elster which uses single one-dimensional memory structure.

  12. Bit-Wise Arithmetic Coding For Compression Of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Aaron

    1996-01-01

    Bit-wise arithmetic coding is data-compression scheme intended especially for use with uniformly quantized data from source with Gaussian, Laplacian, or similar probability distribution function. Code words of fixed length, and bits treated as being independent. Scheme serves as means of progressive transmission or of overcoming buffer-overflow or rate constraint limitations sometimes arising when data compression used.

  13. Report on ignitability testing of ''no-flow'' push bit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    Testing was done to determine if an ignition occurs during a sixty foot drop of a Universal Sampler onto a push-mode bit in a flammable gas environment. Ten drops each of the sampler using both a push-mode and rotary mode insert onto a push-mode bit were completed. No ignition occurred during any of the drops

  14. Circuit and interconnect design for high bit-rate applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, H.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents circuit and interconnect design techniques and design flows that address the most difficult and ill-defined aspects of the design of ICs for high bit-rate applications. Bottlenecks in interconnect design, circuit design and on-chip signal distribution for high bit-rate

  15. The bit's the thing : PDC bits are the sparkly new best friend of drillers everywhere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.

    2008-09-15

    Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters were introduced to the oil and gas industry in 1972. The drill bit technology has made significant advances since its introduction, and the PDC bits are now more widely used than conventional roller cone bits. This article discussed new PDC drill bits designed to have rates of penetration (ROP) of over 1000 feet an hour, run distances of up to 22,000 feet, and have cumulative depths of 180,000 feet. A diamond volume management (DVM) system is used to place the diamond where it is needed for specific applications. Designed by Precise Drilling Component Ltd, the bits are accompanied by thermo stable cutters developed to increase the stability of the PDC bits. Precise Drilling Component is now supplying the drilling equipment to major international oil companies. The company has also developed new abrasion-resistant cutters and improved hydraulics that have increased durability and stability, as well as lower drilling costs. The PDC cutters are able to remove rock more efficiently than the grinding and gouging actions of roller bits, which translates into faster penetration rates and longer bit lives. PDC bits are increasingly being used in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations as the tungsten carbide matrix used for the PDC bits is able to withstand the abrasive sands encountered in oil sands wellbores. It was concluded that the PDC drill bits will continue to be optimized for use in harsh oil sands conditions. New optimization features and analytical models for improving drilling efficiency were also outlined. 4 figs.

  16. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account.

  17. Individual Drilling Bit Design and Optimization in Mahu Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wenbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are three sets of gravels in Mahu region. The gravels formation is characterized by high heterogeneity, high abrasiveness and poor drillability. It is so difficult to optimize bit that restrict seriously the overall exploration and development process. The compressive strength, internal friction angle, and drillability of the formation are tested to check the rock mechanical characteristic profile established by logging data. The individual bit design is carried out by the 3D simulation technology. A new PDC bit type is designed to form the drill bit series for Mahu area. Single PDC bit increases 90% of the drilling footage. The trip average footage is improved 3.45 times, the horizontal section average penetration increased 34.8%. The technical achievements have greatly improved economic development benefits of Mahu region by improving drilling speed and saving drilling costs.

  18. IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY DENGAN METODE LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT (LSB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miftakul Amin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Security in delivering a secret message is an important factor in the spread of information in cyberspace. Protecting that message to be delivered to the party entitled to, should be made a message concealment mechanism. The purpose of this study was to hide a secret text message into digital images in true color 24 bit RGB format. The method used to insert a secret message using the LSB (Least Significant Bit by replacing the last bit or 8th bit in each RGB color component. RGB image file types option considering that messages can be inserted capacity greater than if use a grayscale image, this is because in one pixel can be inserted 3 bits message. Tests provide results that are hidden messages into a digital image does not reduce significantly the quality of the digital image, and the message has been hidden can be extracted again, so that messages can be delivered to the recipient safely.

  19. A Novel Least Significant Bit First Processing Parallel CRC Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujie Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In HDLC serial communication protocol, CRC calculation can first process the most or least significant bit of data. Nowadays most CRC calculation is based on the most significant bit (MSB first processing. An algorithm of the least significant bit (LSB first processing parallel CRC is proposed in this paper. Based on the general expression of the least significant bit first processing serial CRC, using state equation method of linear system, we derive a recursive formula by the mathematical deduction. The recursive formula is applicable to any number of bits processed in parallel and any series of generator polynomial. According to the formula, we present the parallel circuit of CRC calculation and implement it with VHDL on FPGA. The results verify the accuracy and effectiveness of this method.

  20. A Memristor as Multi-Bit Memory: Feasibility Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bass

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of emerging memristor materials for advanced electrical devices such as multi-valued logic is expected to outperform today's binary logic digital technologies. We show here an example for such non-binary device with the design of a multi-bit memory. While conventional memory cells can store only 1 bit, memristors-based multi-bit cells can store more information within single device thus increasing the information storage density. Such devices can potentially utilize the non-linear resistance of memristor materials for efficient information storage. We analyze the performance of such memory devices based on their expected variations in order to determine the viability of memristor-based multi-bit memory. A design of read/write scheme and a simple model for this cell, lay grounds for full integration of memristor multi-bit memory cell.

  1. Installation of MCNP on 64-bit parallel computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meginnis, A.B.; Hendricks, J.S.; McKinney, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP has been successfully ported to two 64-bit workstations, the SGI and DEC Alpha. We found the biggest problem for installation on these machines to be Fortran and C mismatches in argument passing. Correction of these mismatches enabled, for the first time, dynamic memory allocation on 64-bit workstations. Although the 64-bit hardware is faster because 8-bytes are processed at a time rather than 4-bytes, we found no speed advantage in true 64-bit coding versus implicit double precision when porting an existing code to the 64-bit workstation architecture. We did find that PVM multiasking is very successful and represents a significant performance enhancement for scientific workstations

  2. A little bit of legal history

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    On Monday 18 October, a little bit of legal history will be made when the first international tripartite agreement between CERN and its two Host States is signed. This agreement, which has been under negotiation since 2004, clarifies the working conditions of people employed by companies contracted to CERN. It will facilitate the management of service contracts both for CERN and its contractors.   Ever since 1965, when CERN first crossed the border into France, the rule of territoriality has applied. This means that anyone working for a company contracted to CERN whose job involves crossing the border is subject to the employment legislation of both states. The new agreement simplifies matters by making only one legislation apply per contract, that of the country in which most of the work is carried out. This is good for CERN, it’s good for the companies, and it’s good for their employees. It is something that all three parties to the agreement have wanted for some time, and I...

  3. A bit faster : ReedHycalog focuses new drill bit technology on the needs of western Canadian drillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, P.

    2009-06-15

    ReedHycalog, a division of National Oilwell Varco Inc., is advancing its drill bit technology and is setting performance records in an effort to meet the needs of drillers in western Canada. This article described the company's new drill bit technology. Through its motor series polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) bits, ReedHycalog developed and commercialized several unique and proprietary drill bit features that reduced variations in torque. This lowered the risk of stick-slip while improving lateral stability, directional control and drilling efficiency. The design of the motor series bits was reviewed along with laboratory and field testing. Smooth torque was identified as one of the greatest challenges when drilling with a drill bit on a directional assembly. Test results revealed that there are 4 distinct characteristics for optimal steerable motor performance, such as smooth torque control components (TCC) that were specifically positioned in the cone of the bit to prevent cutter over engagement reducing in torque fluctuations for optimal tool face control; optimized cutter backrakes that provided high penetration rates in rotating mode, while TCCs were optimized to control torque when sliding; gauge inserts for lateral control that provided a low-friction bearing surface; and laterally exposed gauge cutters that cleaned up the hole in rotating mode, and a tapered upper section that reduced gauge pad interference while in sliding mode. The motor series bits performed extremely well in the vertical, build and horizontal intervals with multiple operators. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  4. Application of a 16-bit microprocessor to the digital control of machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issaly, Alain

    1979-01-01

    After an overview of machine tools (various types, definition standardization, associated technologies for motors and position sensors), this research thesis describes the principles of computer-based digital control: classification of machine tool command systems, machining programming, programming languages, dialog function, interpolation function, servo-control function, tool compensation function. The author reports the application of a 16-bit microprocessor to the computer-based digital control of a machine tool: feasibility, selection of microprocessor, hardware presentation, software development and description, machining mode, translation-loading mode

  5. Modern X86 assembly language programming 32-bit, 64-bit, SSE, and AVX

    CERN Document Server

    Kusswurm, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Modern X86 Assembly Language Programming shows the fundamentals of x86 assembly language programming. It focuses on the aspects of the x86 instruction set that are most relevant to application software development. The book's structure and sample code are designed to help the reader quickly understand x86 assembly language programming and the computational capabilities of the x86 platform. Major topics of the book include the following: 32-bit core architecture, data types, internal registers, memory addressing modes, and the basic instruction setX87 core architecture, register stack, special

  6. Integer Representations towards Efficient Counting in the Bit Probe Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Greve, Mark; Pandey, Vineet

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We consider the problem of representing numbers in close to optimal space and supporting increment, decrement, addition and subtraction operations efficiently. We study the problem in the bit probe model and analyse the number of bits read and written to perform the operations, both...... in the worst-case and in the average-case. A counter is space-optimal if it represents any number in the range [0,...,2 n  − 1] using exactly n bits. We provide a space-optimal counter which supports increment and decrement operations by reading at most n − 1 bits and writing at most 3 bits in the worst......-case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such representation which supports these operations by always reading strictly less than n bits. For redundant counters where we only need to represent numbers in the range [0,...,L] for some integer L bits, we define the efficiency...

  7. Fitness Probability Distribution of Bit-Flip Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicano, Francisco; Sutton, Andrew M; Whitley, L Darrell; Alba, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Bit-flip mutation is a common mutation operator for evolutionary algorithms applied to optimize functions over binary strings. In this paper, we develop results from the theory of landscapes and Krawtchouk polynomials to exactly compute the probability distribution of fitness values of a binary string undergoing uniform bit-flip mutation. We prove that this probability distribution can be expressed as a polynomial in p, the probability of flipping each bit. We analyze these polynomials and provide closed-form expressions for an easy linear problem (Onemax), and an NP-hard problem, MAX-SAT. We also discuss a connection of the results with runtime analysis.

  8. An Image Encryption Method Based on Bit Plane Hiding Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin; LI Zhitang; TU Hao

    2006-01-01

    A novel image hiding method based on the correlation analysis of bit plane is described in this paper. Firstly, based on the correlation analysis, different bit plane of a secret image is hided in different bit plane of several different open images. And then a new hiding image is acquired by a nesting "Exclusive-OR" operation on those images obtained from the first step. At last, by employing image fusion technique, the final hiding result is achieved. The experimental result shows that the method proposed in this paper is effective.

  9. The Economics of BitCoin Price Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Ciaian; Miroslava Rajcaniova; d'Artis Kancs

    2014-01-01

    This is the first article that studies BitCoin price formation by considering both the traditional determinants of currency price, e.g., market forces of supply and demand, and digital currencies specific factors, e.g., BitCoin attractiveness for investors and users. The conceptual framework is based on the Barro (1979) model, from which we derive testable hypotheses. Using daily data for five years (2009–2015) and applying time-series analytical mechanisms, we find that market forces and Bit...

  10. Validity of the rheumatoid arthritis impact of disease (RAID) score and definition of cut-off points for disease activity states in a population-based European cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaffi, Fausto; Di Carlo, Marco; Vojinovic, Jelena; Tincani, Angela; Sulli, Alberto; Soldano, Stefano; Andreoli, Laura; Dall'Ara, Francesca; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Simić Pašalić, Katarina; Balčune, Ineta; Ferraz-Amaro, Iván; Tlustochowicz, Malgorzata; Butrimienė, Irena; Punceviciene, Egle; Toroptsova, Natalia; Grazio, Simeon; Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Masaryk, Pavol; Otsa, Kati; Bernardes, Miguel; Boyadzhieva, Vladimira; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2017-05-24

    To assess the validity of the rheumatoid arthritis impact of disease (RAID) for measuring disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine cut-off values for defining the disease activity states. A total of 622 RA patients from an European database have been included. Cross-validation was based on assessment of convergent and discriminant validity. Optimal cut-offs were determined against external criteria by calculating the respective 25th and 75th percentiles mean values of RAID. External criteria included definitions for remission (REM), low disease activity (LDA), moderate disease activity (MDA) and high disease activity (HDA), cut-offs of the 28-joint disease activity score-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) score. The RAID showed a moderate degree of correlation with respect to DAS28-CRP (rho=0.417; Pdisease was very good with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.847 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.816 to 0.878; Pdisease activity groups, we propose the following cut-off values for REM: RAID ≤3; for LDA: RAID >3 and ≤4; for MDA: RAID >4 and ≤6; for HDA: RAID >6. Mean RAID differed significantly between patients classified as REM, LDA, MDA or HDA (P=0.001). The cut-offs revealed good measurement characteristics in cross-validation analysis, had great discriminatory performance in distinguishing patients with different levels of disease activity and are suited for widespread use in everyday practice application and research. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Bit Error Rate Minimizing Channel Shortening Equalizers for Single Carrier Cyclic Prefixed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Richard K; Vanbleu, Koen; Ysebaert, Geert

    2007-01-01

    .... Previous work on channel shortening has largely been in the context of digital subscriber lines, a wireline system that allows bit allocation, thus it has focused on maximizing the bit rate for a given bit error rate (BER...

  12. 2014 Metro, Oregon 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are LiDAR orthorectified aerial photographs (8-bit GeoTIFF format) within the Oregon Lidar Consortium Portland project area. The imagery coverage is...

  13. Pseudo-random bit generator based on Chebyshev map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, B. P.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study a pseudo-random bit generator based on two Chebyshev polynomial maps. The novel derivative algorithm shows perfect statistical properties established by number of statistical tests.

  14. Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Atsushi; Amano, Kazuya; Inoue, Masaki; Hirano, Kunihito; Naito, Sunao; Someya, Hiroyuki; Oowada, Isao; Kurashige, Takayuki; Shiki, Masaru; Yoshimori, Shigeru; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Random number generators in digital information systems make use of physical entropy sources such as electronic and photonic noise to add unpredictability to deterministically generated pseudo-random sequences. However, there is a large gap between the generation rates achieved with existing physical sources and the high data rates of many computation and communication systems; this is a fundamental weakness of these systems. Here we show that good quality random bit sequences can be generated at very fast bit rates using physical chaos in semiconductor lasers. Streams of bits that pass standard statistical tests for randomness have been generated at rates of up to 1.7 Gbps by sampling the fluctuating optical output of two chaotic lasers. This rate is an order of magnitude faster than that of previously reported devices for physical random bit generators with verified randomness. This means that the performance of random number generators can be greatly improved by using chaotic laser devices as physical entropy sources.

  15. 2015 Big Windy, Oregon 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are LiDAR orthorectified aerial photographs (8-bit GeoTIFF format) within the Oregon Lidar Consortium Big Windy project area. The imagery coverage is...

  16. Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentino, M.; Santori, C.; Spillane, S. M.; Beausoleil, R. G.; Munro, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Random-bit generators (RBGs) are key components of a variety of information processing applications ranging from simulations to cryptography. In particular, cryptographic systems require 'strong' RBGs that produce high-entropy bit sequences, but traditional software pseudo-RBGs have very low entropy content and therefore are relatively weak for cryptography. Hardware RBGs yield entropy from chaotic or quantum physical systems and therefore are expected to exhibit high entropy, but in current implementations their exact entropy content is unknown. Here we report a quantum random-bit generator (QRBG) that harvests entropy by measuring single-photon and entangled two-photon polarization states. We introduce and implement a quantum tomographic method to measure a lower bound on the 'min-entropy' of the system, and we employ this value to distill a truly random-bit sequence. This approach is secure: even if an attacker takes control of the source of optical states, a secure random sequence can be distilled

  17. Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H

    2013-11-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented.

  18. Content Progressive Coding of Limited Bits/pixel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Forchhammer, Søren

    1999-01-01

    A new lossless context based method for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images is proposed. Progressive coding is achieved by separating the image into contelnt layers. Digital maps are compressed up to 3 times better than GIF.......A new lossless context based method for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images is proposed. Progressive coding is achieved by separating the image into contelnt layers. Digital maps are compressed up to 3 times better than GIF....

  19. Comparison and status of 32 bit backplane bus architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    With the introduction of 32 bit microprocessors several new 32 bit backplane bus architectures have been developed and are in the process for standardization. Among these are Future Bus (IEEE P896.1), VME-Bus (IEEE 1014), MULTIBUS II, Nu-Bus and Fastbus (IEEE 960). The paper describes and compares the main features of these bus architectures and mentions the status of national and international standardization efforts

  20. Comparison of statistical sampling methods with ScannerBit, the GAMBIT scanning module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Gregory D. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McKay, James; Scott, Pat [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Farmer, Ben; Conrad, Jan [AlbaNova University Centre, Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Roebber, Elinore [McGill University, Department of Physics, Montreal, QC (Canada); Putze, Antje [LAPTh, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Collaboration: The GAMBIT Scanner Workgroup

    2017-11-15

    We introduce ScannerBit, the statistics and sampling module of the public, open-source global fitting framework GAMBIT. ScannerBit provides a standardised interface to different sampling algorithms, enabling the use and comparison of multiple computational methods for inferring profile likelihoods, Bayesian posteriors, and other statistical quantities. The current version offers random, grid, raster, nested sampling, differential evolution, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and ensemble Monte Carlo samplers. We also announce the release of a new standalone differential evolution sampler, Diver, and describe its design, usage and interface to ScannerBit. We subject Diver and three other samplers (the nested sampler MultiNest, the MCMC GreAT, and the native ScannerBit implementation of the ensemble Monte Carlo algorithm T-Walk) to a battery of statistical tests. For this we use a realistic physical likelihood function, based on the scalar singlet model of dark matter. We examine the performance of each sampler as a function of its adjustable settings, and the dimensionality of the sampling problem. We evaluate performance on four metrics: optimality of the best fit found, completeness in exploring the best-fit region, number of likelihood evaluations, and total runtime. For Bayesian posterior estimation at high resolution, T-Walk provides the most accurate and timely mapping of the full parameter space. For profile likelihood analysis in less than about ten dimensions, we find that Diver and MultiNest score similarly in terms of best fit and speed, outperforming GreAT and T-Walk; in ten or more dimensions, Diver substantially outperforms the other three samplers on all metrics. (orig.)

  1. SpecBit, DecayBit and PrecisionBit. GAMBIT modules for computing mass spectra, particle decay rates and precision observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athron, Peter; Balazs, Csaba [Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); Dal, Lars A.; Gonzalo, Tomas E. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Edsjoe, Joakim; Farmer, Ben [AlbaNova University Centre, Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Kvellestad, Anders [NORDITA, Stockholm (Sweden); McKay, James; Scott, Pat [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Putze, Antje [Universite de Savoie, CNRS, LAPTh, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Rogan, Chris [Harvard University, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Weniger, Christoph [University of Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); White, Martin [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Collaboration: The GAMBIT Models Workgroup

    2018-01-15

    We present the GAMBIT modules SpecBit, DecayBit and PrecisionBit. Together they provide a new framework for linking publicly available spectrum generators, decay codes and other precision observable calculations in a physically and statistically consistent manner. This allows users to automatically run various combinations of existing codes as if they are a single package. The modular design allows software packages fulfilling the same role to be exchanged freely at runtime, with the results presented in a common format that can easily be passed to downstream dark matter, collider and flavour codes. These modules constitute an essential part of the broader GAMBIT framework, a major new software package for performing global fits. In this paper we present the observable calculations, data, and likelihood functions implemented in the three modules, as well as the conventions and assumptions used in interfacing them with external codes. We also present 3-BIT-HIT, a command-line utility for computing mass spectra, couplings, decays and precision observables in the MSSM, which shows how the three modules can easily be used independently of GAMBIT. (orig.)

  2. SpecBit, DecayBit and PrecisionBit: GAMBIT modules for computing mass spectra, particle decay rates and precision observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athron, Peter; Balázs, Csaba; Dal, Lars A.; Edsjö, Joakim; Farmer, Ben; Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Kvellestad, Anders; McKay, James; Putze, Antje; Rogan, Chris; Scott, Pat; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin

    2018-01-01

    We present the GAMBIT modules SpecBit, DecayBit and PrecisionBit. Together they provide a new framework for linking publicly available spectrum generators, decay codes and other precision observable calculations in a physically and statistically consistent manner. This allows users to automatically run various combinations of existing codes as if they are a single package. The modular design allows software packages fulfilling the same role to be exchanged freely at runtime, with the results presented in a common format that can easily be passed to downstream dark matter, collider and flavour codes. These modules constitute an essential part of the broader GAMBIT framework, a major new software package for performing global fits. In this paper we present the observable calculations, data, and likelihood functions implemented in the three modules, as well as the conventions and assumptions used in interfacing them with external codes. We also present 3-BIT-HIT, a command-line utility for computing mass spectra, couplings, decays and precision observables in the MSSM, which shows how the three modules can easily be used independently of GAMBIT.

  3. Sleep stage classification with low complexity and low bit rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkala, Jussi; Värri, Alpo; Hasan, Joel; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Müller, Kiti

    2009-01-01

    Standard sleep stage classification is based on visual analysis of central (usually also frontal and occipital) EEG, two-channel EOG, and submental EMG signals. The process is complex, using multiple electrodes, and is usually based on relatively high (200-500 Hz) sampling rates. Also at least 12 bit analog to digital conversion is recommended (with 16 bit storage) resulting in total bit rate of at least 12.8 kbit/s. This is not a problem for in-house laboratory sleep studies, but in the case of online wireless self-applicable ambulatory sleep studies, lower complexity and lower bit rates are preferred. In this study we further developed earlier single channel facial EMG/EOG/EEG-based automatic sleep stage classification. An algorithm with a simple decision tree separated 30 s epochs into wakefulness, SREM, S1/S2 and SWS using 18-45 Hz beta power and 0.5-6 Hz amplitude. Improvements included low complexity recursive digital filtering. We also evaluated the effects of a reduced sampling rate, reduced number of quantization steps and reduced dynamic range on the sleep data of 132 training and 131 testing subjects. With the studied algorithm, it was possible to reduce the sampling rate to 50 Hz (having a low pass filter at 90 Hz), and the dynamic range to 244 microV, with an 8 bit resolution resulting in a bit rate of 0.4 kbit/s. Facial electrodes and a low bit rate enables the use of smaller devices for sleep stage classification in home environments.

  4. Test plan for core sampling drill bit temperature monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    At WHC, one of the functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System division is sampling waste tanks to characterize their contents. The push-mode core sampling truck is currently used to take samples of liquid and sludge. Sampling of tanks containing hard salt cake is to be performed with the rotary-mode core sampling system, consisting of the core sample truck, mobile exhauster unit, and ancillary subsystems. When drilling through the salt cake material, friction and heat can be generated in the drill bit. Based upon tank safety reviews, it has been determined that the drill bit temperature must not exceed 180 C, due to the potential reactivity of tank contents at this temperature. Consequently, a drill bit temperature limit of 150 C was established for operation of the core sample truck to have an adequate margin of safety. Unpredictable factors, such as localized heating, cause this buffer to be so great. The most desirable safeguard against exceeding this threshold is bit temperature monitoring . This document describes the recommended plan for testing the prototype of a drill bit temperature monitor developed for core sampling by Sandia National Labs. The device will be tested at their facilities. This test plan documents the tests that Westinghouse Hanford Company considers necessary for effective testing of the system

  5. Diamond bits for directional drilling of wells and technology of using them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V P; Steblev, B Ye; Sumaneyev, N N

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics are presented for a diamond bit for directional drilling ADN-08. Technology of using it is described, as well as cutter bits for directional drilling. Based on specially developed technique, the economic effect of using the diamond bits is calculated. This indicates that the use of the diamond bits in rocks of the VIII category significantly improves the quality of directional drilling.

  6. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-03-23

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.

  7. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.

  8. Design of the 12-bit Delta-Sigma Modulator using SC Technique for Vibration Sensor Output Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pavlik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the design of the 12-bit Delta-Sigma modulator using switched capacitors (SC technique. The modulator serves to vibration sensor output processing. The first part describes the Delta-Sigma modulator parameters definition. Results of the proposed topology ideal model were presented as well. Next, the Delta-Sigma modulator circuitry on the transistor level was done. The ONSemiconductor I2T100 0.7 um CMOS technology was used for design. Then, the Delta-Sigma modulator nonidealities were simulated and implemented into the MATLAB ideal model of the modulator. The model of real Delta-Sigma modulator was derived. Consequently, modulator coefficients were optimized. Finally, the corner analysis of the Delta-Sigma modulator with the optimized coefficients was simulated. The value of SNDR = 82.2 dB (ENOB = 13.4 bits was achieved.

  9. Hanford coring bit temperature monitor development testing results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, D.

    1995-05-01

    Instrumentation which directly monitors the temperature of a coring bit used to retrieve core samples of high level nuclear waste stored in tanks at Hanford was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Monitoring the temperature of the coring bit is desired to enhance the safety of the coring operations. A unique application of mature technologies was used to accomplish the measurement. This report documents the results of development testing performed at Sandia to assure the instrumentation will withstand the severe environments present in the waste tanks

  10. How to Convert a Flavor of Quantum Bit Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crepeau, Claude; Legare, Frédéric; Salvail, Louis

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we show how to convert a statistically binding but computationally concealing quantum bit commitment scheme into a computationally binding but statistically concealing QBC scheme. For a security parameter n, the construction of the statistically concealing scheme requires O(n2......) executions of the statistically binding scheme. As a consequence, statistically concealing but computationally binding quantum bit commitments can be based upon any family of quantum one-way functions. Such a construction is not known to exist in the classical world....

  11. Bit-wise arithmetic coding for data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the problem of compressing a uniformly quantized independent and identically distributed (IID) source. We present a new compression technique, bit-wise arithmetic coding, that assigns fixed-length codewords to the quantizer output and uses arithmetic coding to compress the codewords, treating the codeword bits as independent. We examine the performance of this method and evaluate the overhead required when used block-adaptively. Simulation results are presented for Gaussian and Laplacian sources. This new technique could be used as the entropy coder in a transform or subband coding system.

  12. Cloning the entanglement of a pair of quantum bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Navez, Patrick; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that any quantum operation that perfectly clones the entanglement of all maximally entangled qubit pairs cannot preserve separability. This 'entanglement no-cloning' principle naturally suggests that some approximate cloning of entanglement is nevertheless allowed by quantum mechanics. We investigate a separability-preserving optimal cloning machine that duplicates all maximally entangled states of two qubits, resulting in 0.285 bits of entanglement per clone, while a local cloning machine only yields 0.060 bits of entanglement per clone

  13. Radioactive tracer system to indicate drill bit wear or failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive tracer system for indicating drill bit wear or failure utilizing radioactive krypton 85 in clathrate form, in the form of water-soluble kryptonates, or dissolved grease, is described. Preferably the radioactive krypton is placed so that when drill bit wear or failure occurs, the radioactive krypton 85 is relased and effectively becomes diffused in the circulating drilling fluid. At the surface, the radioactive krypton 85 gas is separated from the circulating drilling fluid by gas-mud separating means and is transported as a gas to a counting chamber where an accurate radioactivity count of beta rays released from the krypton is obtained. (Patent Office Record)

  14. How to deal with malleability of BitCoin transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrychowicz, Marcin; Dziembowski, Stefan; Malinowski, Daniel; Mazurek, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    BitCoin transactions are malleable in a sense that given a transaction an adversary can easily construct an equivalent transaction which has a different hash. This can pose a serious problem in some BitCoin distributed contracts in which changing a transaction's hash may result in the protocol disruption and a financial loss. The problem mostly concerns protocols, which use a "refund" transaction to withdraw a deposit in a case of the protocol interruption. In this short note, we show a gener...

  15. Generating bit reversed numbers for calculating fast fourier transform

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.

    prerequisite of these methods are that data elements be available for shuffling in an array. Thus in a software environment, if the input data values are to be read from a file, reordering can be done only after al1 the values have been read into the array.... Alternately, data values can be read and placed directly at respective bit reversed positions by generating bit reversed addresses. Such a method can help in real-time data acquisition and FFT calculation. Thus, an efficient method of generating sequence...

  16. Development of a jet-assisted polycrystalline diamond drill bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pixton, D.S.; Hall, D.R.; Summers, D.A.; Gertsch, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    A preliminary investigation has been conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility and potential economic benefits of a new type of drill bit. This bit transmits both rotary and percussive drilling forces to the rock face, and augments this cutting action with high-pressure mud jets. Both the percussive drilling forces and the mud jets are generated down-hole by a mud-actuated hammer. Initial laboratory studies show that rate of penetration increases on the order of a factor of two over unaugmented rotary and/or percussive drilling rates are possible with jet-assistance.

  17. 14 CFR 1215.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (TDRSS) Use and Reimbursement Policy for Non-U.S. Government Users § 1215.102 Definitions. (a) User. Any non-U.S. Government representative or entity who contracts with NASA to use TDRSS services. (b) TDRSS... user ground system/TDRSS interface. (c) Bit stream. The digital electronic signals acquired by TDRSS...

  18. Refinements of multi-track Viterbi bit-detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekstra, A.P.; Coene, W.M.J.; Immink, A.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    In optical storage, data can be arranged on the disc in a meta-spiral consisting of a large number of bit-rows with a small track-pitch. Successive revolutions of the meta-spiral are separated by a narrow guard band. For high storage densities, such a system results in severe 2-D inter-symbol

  19. Bitlis Bibliophil Association and One-Book Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yücel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with Bitlis Bibliophil Association and One-Book Project which was established in January of the current year by a group of volunteer including several professions such as students, librarians, sociologists, engineers, civil cervants, teachers, bankers, poets, jorunalists, accountants.

  20. 2015 Southwest Florida RCD30 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These files contain imagery data collected with an RCD30 camera as 8-bit RGBN TIFF images. Imagery was required 1000m seaward of the land/water interface or to laser...

  1. Architecture of 32 bit CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jove, T.M.; Ayguade, E.; Valero, M.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we describe the main topics about the architecture of the best known 32-bit CISC microprocessors; i80386, MC68000 family, NS32000 series and Z80000. We focus on the high level languages support, operating system design facilities, memory management, techniques to speed up the overall performance and program debugging facilities. (Author)

  2. 2015 Florida Panhandle RCD30 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These files contain imagery data collected with an RCD30 camera as 8-bit RGBN TIFF images. Imagery was required 1000m seaward of the land/water interface or to laser...

  3. Quantum measurement and entanglement of spin quantum bits in diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfaff, W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a set of experiments that explore the possible realisation of a macroscopic quantum network based on solid-state quantum bits. Such a quantum network would allow for studying quantum mechanics on large scales (meters, or even kilometers), and can open new possibilities for

  4. "Material interactions": from atoms & bits to entangled practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna

    and intellectually stimulating panel moderated by Prof. Mikael Wiberg consisting of a number of scholars with a well-developed view on digital materialities to fuel a discussion on material interactions - from atoms & bits to entangled practices. These scholars include: Prof. Hiroshi Ishii, Prof. Paul Dourish...

  5. Presettable up-down CAMAC counter for 24 bit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, K.; Meyer, U.; Weidhase, F.

    1976-01-01

    A module containing a presettable binary up-down CAMAC counter for 24 bit is described. The use of dataway is discussed. As an example for application in nuclear physics, control of beam position by the up-down counter is illustrated

  6. Factoring estimates for a 1024-bit RSA modulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Tromer, E.; Shamir, A.; Kortsmit, W.J.P.M.; Dodson, B.; Hughes, J.; Leyland, P.; Laih, Chi Sung

    2003-01-01

    We estimate the yield of the number field sieve factoring algorithm when applied to the 1024-bit composite integer RSA-1024 and the parameters as proposed in the draft version [17] of the TWIRL hardware factoring device [18]. We present the details behind the resulting improved parameter choices

  7. BitTorrent's dilemma: Enhancing reciprocity or reducing inequity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, A.L.; D'Acunto, L.; Meulpolder, M.; Pouwelse, J.A.; Epema, D.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Enhancing reciprocity has been one of the primary motivations for the design of incentive policies in BitTorrent-like P2P systems. Reciprocity implies that peers need to contribute their bandwidth to other peers if they want to receive bandwidth in return. However, the over-provisioning that

  8. Radiation hardened COTS-based 32-bit microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, N.; Brown, R.; Cronauer, T.; Phan, H.

    1999-01-01

    A high performance radiation hardened 32-bit RISC microprocessor based upon a commercial single chip CPU has been developed. This paper presents the features of radiation hardened microprocessor, the methods used to radiation harden this device, the results of radiation testing, and shows that the RAD6000 is well-suited for the vast majority of space applications. (authors)

  9. KEAMANAN CITRA DENGAN WATERMARKING MENGGUNAKAN PENGEMBANGAN ALGORITMA LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Kurniawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Image security is a process to save digital. One method of securing image digital is watermarking using Least Significant Bit algorithm. Main concept of image security using LSB algorithm is to replace bit value of image at specific location so that created pattern. The pattern result of replacing the bit value of image is called by watermark. Giving watermark at image digital using LSB algorithm has simple concept so that the information which is embedded will lost easily when attacked such as noise attack or compression. So need modification like development of LSB algorithm. This is done to decrease distortion of watermark information against those attacks. In this research is divided by 6 process which are color extraction of cover image, busy area search, watermark embed, count the accuracy of watermark embed, watermark extraction, and count the accuracy of watermark extraction. Color extraction of cover image is process to get blue color component from cover image. Watermark information will embed at busy area by search the area which has the greatest number of unsure from cover image. Then watermark image is embedded into cover image so that produce watermarked image using some development of LSB algorithm and search the accuracy by count the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio value. Before the watermarked image is extracted, need to test by giving noise and doing compression into jpg format. The accuracy of extraction result is searched by count the Bit Error Rate value.

  10. Designing the optimal bit: balancing energetic cost, speed and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Gopalkrishnan, Manoj; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Jones, Nick S

    2017-08-01

    We consider the challenge of operating a reliable bit that can be rapidly erased. We find that both erasing and reliability times are non-monotonic in the underlying friction, leading to a trade-off between erasing speed and bit reliability. Fast erasure is possible at the expense of low reliability at moderate friction, and high reliability comes at the expense of slow erasure in the underdamped and overdamped limits. Within a given class of bit parameters and control strategies, we define 'optimal' designs of bits that meet the desired reliability and erasing time requirements with the lowest operational work cost. We find that optimal designs always saturate the bound on the erasing time requirement, but can exceed the required reliability time if critically damped. The non-trivial geometry of the reliability and erasing time scales allows us to exclude large regions of parameter space as suboptimal. We find that optimal designs are either critically damped or close to critical damping under the erasing procedure.

  11. Different Mass Processing Services in a Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Zierau, Eld

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how a general bit repository mass processing service using different programming models and platforms can be specified. Such a service is needed in large data archives, especially libraries, where different ways of doing mass processing is needed for different digital...

  12. Analysis of bit-rock interaction during stick-slip vibrations using PDC cutting force model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P.A.; Teodoriu, C. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    Drillstring vibration is one of the limiting factors maximizing the drilling performance and also causes premature failure of drillstring components. Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit enhances the overall drilling performance giving the best rate of penetrations with less cost per foot but the PDC bits are more susceptible to the stick slip phenomena which results in high fluctuations of bit rotational speed. Based on the torsional drillstring model developed using Matlab/Simulink for analyzing the parametric influence on stick-slip vibrations due to drilling parameters and drillstring properties, the study of relations between weight on bit, torque on bit, bit speed, rate of penetration and friction coefficient have been analyzed. While drilling with the PDC bits, the bit-rock interaction has been characterized by cutting forces and the frictional forces. The torque on bit and the weight on bit have both the cutting component and the frictional component when resolved in horizontal and vertical direction. The paper considers that the bit is undergoing stick-slip vibrations while analyzing the bit-rock interaction of the PDC bit. The Matlab/Simulink bit-rock interaction model has been developed which gives the average cutting torque, T{sub c}, and friction torque, T{sub f}, values on cutters as well as corresponding average weight transferred by the cutting face, W{sub c}, and the wear flat face, W{sub f}, of the cutters value due to friction.

  13. Modular trigger processing The GCT muon and quiet bit system

    CERN Document Server

    Stettler, Matthew; Hansen, Magnus; Iles, Gregory; Jones, John; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The CMS Global Calorimeter Trigger system's HCAL Muon and Quiet bit reformatting function is being implemented with a novel processing architecture. This architecture utilizes micro TCA, a modern modular communications standard based on high speed serial links, to implement a processing matrix. This matrix is configurable in both logical functionality and data flow, allowing far greater flexibility than current trigger processing systems. In addition, the modular nature of this architecture allows flexibility in scale unmatched by traditional approaches. The Muon and Quiet bit system consists of two major components, a custom micro TCA backplane and processing module. These components are based on Xilinx Virtex5 and Mindspeed crosspoint switch devices, bringing together state of the art FPGA based processing and Telcom switching technologies.

  14. Finger Vein Recognition Based on a Personalized Best Bit Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gongping; Xi, Xiaoming; Yin, Yilong

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns have recently been recognized as an effective biometric identifier. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on a personalized best bit map (PBBM). Our method is rooted in a local binary pattern based method and then inclined to use the best bits only for matching. We first present the concept of PBBM and the generating algorithm. Then we propose the finger vein recognition framework, which consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PBBM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PBBM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition. PMID:22438735

  15. Wear Detection of Drill Bit by Image-based Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukeri, Maziyah; Zulhilmi Paiz Ismadi, Mohd; Rahim Othman, Abdul; Kamaruddin, Shahrul

    2018-03-01

    Image processing for computer vision function plays an essential aspect in the manufacturing industries for the tool condition monitoring. This study proposes a dependable direct measurement method to measure the tool wear using image-based analysis. Segmentation and thresholding technique were used as the means to filter and convert the colour image to binary datasets. Then, the edge detection method was applied to characterize the edge of the drill bit. By using cross-correlation method, the edges of original and worn drill bits were correlated to each other. Cross-correlation graphs were able to detect the difference of the worn edge despite small difference between the graphs. Future development will focus on quantifying the worn profile as well as enhancing the sensitivity of the technique.

  16. The 40 Gbps cascaded bit-interleaving PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyncke, A.; Torfs, G.; Van Praet, C.; Verbeke, M.; Duque, A.; Suvakovic, D.; Chow, H. K.; Yin, X.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a 40 Gbps cascaded bit-interleaving passive optical network (CBI-PON) is proposed to achieve power reduction in the network. The massive number of devices in the access network makes that power consumption reduction in this part of the network has a major impact on the total network power consumption. Starting from the proven BiPON technology, an extension to this concept is proposed to introduce multiple levels of bit-interleaving. The paper discusses the CBI protocol in detail, as well as an ASIC implementation of the required custom CBI Repeater and End-ONT. From the measurements of this first 40 Gbps ASIC prototype, power consumption reduction estimates are presented.

  17. Very low bit rate voice for packetized mobile applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittle, C.D.; Malone, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that transmitting digital voice via packetized mobile communications systems that employ relatively short packet lengths and narrow bandwidths often necessitates very low bit rate coding of the voice data. Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing an efficient voice coding system operating at 800 bits per second (bps). The coding scheme is a modified version of the 2400 bps NSA LPC-10e standard. The most significant modification to the LPC-10e scheme is the vector quantization of the line spectrum frequencies associated with the synthesis filters. An outline of a hardware implementation for the 800 bps coder is presented. The speech quality of the coder is generally good, although speaker recognition is not possible. Further research is being conducted to reduce the memory requirements and complexity of the vector quantizer, and to increase the quality of the reconstructed speech. This work may be of use dealing with nuclear materials

  18. Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slope be utilized in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However, comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of the masking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated...... with the same frequency. In bit-rate reduction systems the masker would be the audio signal and the probe signal would represent the quantization noise. Masking curves have been determined for sinusoids and 1-Bark-wide noise maskers in order to investigate the risk of CMR, when quantizing depths are fixed...... in accordance with psycho-acoustical principles. Masker frequencies of 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz have been investigated, and the masking of pure tone probes has been determined in the first four 1/3 octaves above the masker. Modulation frequencies between 6 and 20 Hz were used with a modulation depth of 0...

  19. b.i.t. Bremerhaven: Thin Clients entlasten Schulen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Schulamt Bremerhaven zentralisiert die Verwaltungs-IT und schafft dadurch Freiräume für pädagogische und organisatorische Herausforderungen. Pflege und Support der neuen Infrastruktur übernimmt der Dienstleister b.i.t. Bremerhaven, die Thin Clients kommen vom Bremer Hersteller IGEL Technology. Ganztagsschulen, das 12-jährige Abitur, PISA, der Wegfall der Orientierungsstufe - deutsche Schulen müssen derzeit zahlreiche organisatorische und pädagogische Herausforderungen bewältigen. Um die neuen Strukturen umsetzen zu können, werden zusätzliche Ressourcen benötigt. Das Schulamt Bremerhaven hat gemeinsam mit dem Dienstleister b.i.t. Bremerhaven (Betrieb für Informationstechnologie) eine intelligente Lösung gefunden, wie sich die benötigten finanziellen Freiräume schaffen lassen.

  20. Analysis of Button Bit Wear and Performance of Down-The-Hole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael O. Mensah

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... revealed that wear of rock drill bit is influenced by rock properties. ... equivalent quartz content and silica content are dominant rock properties affecting wear rate of bit button of DTH drill. ..... Cutting, Drilling and Blasting: Rock.

  1. Optical Switching and Bit Rates of 40 Gbit/s and above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackaert, A.; Demester, P.; O'Mahony, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optical switching in WDM networks introduces additional aspects to the choice of single channel bit rates compared to WDM transmission systems. The mutual impact of optical switching and bit rates of 40 Gbps and above is discussed....

  2. VCSEL Scaling, Laser Integration on Silicon, and Bit Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    especially the laser. Highly compact directly modulated lasers ( DMLs ) have been researched to meet this goal. The most favored technology will likely be...question of which achieves lower bit energy, a DML or a continuous-wave (CW) laser coupled to an integrated modulator. Transceiver suppliers are also...development that can utilize high efficiency DMLs that reach very high modulation speed. Oxide-VCSELs [1] do not yet take full advantage of the

  3. Purely Functional Compressed Bit Vectors with Applications and Implementations

    OpenAIRE

    Kaasinen, Joel

    2011-01-01

    The study of compressed data structures strives to represent information on a computer concisely — using as little space as possible. Compressed bit vectors are the simplest compressed data structure. They are used as a basis for more complex data structures with applications in, for example, computational biology. Functional programming is a programming paradigm that represents computation using functions without side-effects (such as mutation). Data structures that are representable in...

  4. Parallel-Bit Stream for Securing Iris Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed Mostafa; Maher Mansour; Heba Saad

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics-based authentication schemes have usability advantages over traditional password-based authentication schemes. However, biometrics raises several privacy concerns, it has disadvantages comparing to traditional password in which it is not secured and non revocable. In this paper, we propose a fast method for securing revocable iris template using parallel-bit stream watermarking to overcome these problems. Experimental results prove that the proposed method has low computation time ...

  5. A Note on 5-bit Quadratic Permutations’ Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Božilov, Dušan; Bilgin, Begül; Sahin, Hacı Ali

    2017-01-01

    Classification of vectorial Boolean functions up to affine equivalence is used widely to analyze various cryptographic and implementation properties of symmetric-key algorithms. We show that there exist 75 affine equivalence classes of 5-bit quadratic permutations. Furthermore, we explore important cryptographic properties of these classes, such as linear and differential properties and degrees of their inverses, together with multiplicative complexity and existence of uniform threshold reali...

  6. 16-Bit RISC Processor Design for Convolution Application

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Nandakumar Shardul

    2013-01-01

    In this project, we propose a 16-bit non-pipelined RISC processor, which is used for signal processing applications. The processor consists of the blocks, namely, program counter, clock control unit, ALU, IDU and registers. Advantageous architectural modifications have been made in the incremented circuit used in program counter and carry select adder unit of the ALU in the RISC CPU core. Furthermore, a high speed and low power modified modifies multiplier has been designed and introduced in ...

  7. A short introduction to bit-string physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1997-06-01

    This paper starts with a personal memoir of how some significant ideas arose and events took place during the period from 1972, when the author first encountered Ted Bastin, to 1979, when the author proposed the foundation of ANPA. He then discusses program universe, the fine structure paper and its rejection, the quantitative results up to ANPA 17 and take a new look at the handy-dandy formula. Following the historical material is a first pass at establishing new foundations for bit-string physics. An abstract model for a laboratory notebook and a historical record are developed, culminating in the bit-string representation. The author set up a tic-toc laboratory with two synchronized clocks and shows how this can be used to analyze arbitrary incoming data. This allows him to discuss (briefly) finite and discrete Lorentz transformations, commutation relations, and scattering theory. Earlier work on conservation laws in 3- and 4-events and the free space Dirac and Maxwell equations is cited. The paper concludes with a discussion of the quantum gravity problem from his point of view and speculations about how a bit-string theory of strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational unification could take shape

  8. Digital Signal Processing For Low Bit Rate TV Image Codecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. R.

    1987-06-01

    In view of the 56 KBPS digital switched network services and the ISDN, low bit rate codecs for providing real time full motion color video are under various stages of development. Some companies have already brought the codecs into the market. They are being used by industry and some Federal Agencies for video teleconferencing. In general, these codecs have various features such as multiplexing audio and data, high resolution graphics, encryption, error detection and correction, self diagnostics, freezeframe, split video, text overlay etc. To transmit the original color video on a 56 KBPS network requires bit rate reduction of the order of 1400:1. Such a large scale bandwidth compression can be realized only by implementing a number of sophisticated,digital signal processing techniques. This paper provides an overview of such techniques and outlines the newer concepts that are being investigated. Before resorting to the data compression techniques, various preprocessing operations such as noise filtering, composite-component transformation and horizontal and vertical blanking interval removal are to be implemented. Invariably spatio-temporal subsampling is achieved by appropriate filtering. Transform and/or prediction coupled with motion estimation and strengthened by adaptive features are some of the tools in the arsenal of the data reduction methods. Other essential blocks in the system are quantizer, bit allocation, buffer, multiplexer, channel coding etc.

  9. On the Lorentz invariance of bit-string geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1995-09-01

    We construct the class of integer-sided triangles and tetrahedra that respectively correspond to two or three discriminately independent bit-strings. In order to specify integer coordinates in this space, we take one vertex of a regular tetrahedron whose common edge length is an even integer as the origin of a line of integer length to the open-quotes pointclose quotes and three integer distances to this open-quotes pointclose quotes from the three remaining vertices of the reference tetrahedron. This - usually chiral - integer coordinate description of bit-string geometry is possible because three discriminately independent bit-strings generate four more; the Hamming measures of these seven strings always allow this geometrical interpretation. On another occasion we intend to prove the rotational invariance of this coordinate description. By identifying the corners of these figures with the positions of recording counters whose clocks are synchronized using the Einstein convention, we define velocities in this space. This suggests that it may be possible to define boosts and discrete Lorentz transformations in a space of integer coordinates. We relate this description to our previous work on measurement accuracy and the discrete ordered calculus of Etter and Kauffman (DOC)

  10. High performance 14-bit pipelined redundant signed digit ADC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Swina; Pandey, Sujata

    2016-01-01

    A novel architecture of a pipelined redundant-signed-digit analog to digital converter (RSD-ADC) is presented featuring a high signal to noise ratio (SNR), spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) and signal to noise plus distortion (SNDR) with efficient background correction logic. The proposed ADC architecture shows high accuracy with a high speed circuit and efficient utilization of the hardware. This paper demonstrates the functionality of the digital correction logic of 14-bit pipelined ADC at each 1.5 bit/stage. This prototype of ADC architecture accounts for capacitor mismatch, comparator offset and finite Op-Amp gain error in the MDAC (residue amplification circuit) stages. With the proposed architecture of ADC, SNDR obtained is 85.89 dB, SNR is 85.9 dB and SFDR obtained is 102.8 dB at the sample rate of 100 MHz. This novel architecture of digital correction logic is transparent to the overall system, which is demonstrated by using 14-bit pipelined ADC. After a latency of 14 clocks, digital output will be available at every clock pulse. To describe the circuit behavior of the ADC, VHDL and MATLAB programs are used. The proposed architecture is also capable of reducing the digital hardware. Silicon area is also the complexity of the design. (paper)

  11. Tit-Bits, New Journalism, and early Sherlock Holmes fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann K. McClellan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Strand's more popular sister magazine, Tit-Bits, played a significant role in establishing Sherlock Holmes as a literary and cultural icon, particularly through its use of participatory practices, cross-promotion, and transmedia storytelling. I argue that Tit-Bits' late 19th-century New Journalism techniques like contests and prizes, inquiry columns, correspondence, and internal advertising fostered a corporately devised participatory fandom that directly contributed to Sherlock Holmes's popularity. Tit-Bits audiences were invited and encouraged to imagine new scenarios for their favorite character that were validated through publication. Such practices not only created a unique identity for Sherlock Holmes fandom but also directly contributed to the creation and maintenance of Holmes's fictional world. With fandom studies reaching more and more audiences—both academic and popular—historicizing early fan practices like the early publication and reception of the Sherlock Holmes stories provides important insight into how audiences have historically responded to, and interacted with, fictional characters, and how they helped sustain and expand those characters' fictional worlds.

  12. Application of morphological bit planes in retinal blood vessel extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraz, M M; Basit, A; Barman, S A

    2013-04-01

    The appearance of the retinal blood vessels is an important diagnostic indicator of various clinical disorders of the eye and the body. Retinal blood vessels have been shown to provide evidence in terms of change in diameter, branching angles, or tortuosity, as a result of ophthalmic disease. This paper reports the development for an automated method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. A unique combination of methods for retinal blood vessel skeleton detection and multidirectional morphological bit plane slicing is presented to extract the blood vessels from the color retinal images. The skeleton of main vessels is extracted by the application of directional differential operators and then evaluation of combination of derivative signs and average derivative values. Mathematical morphology has been materialized as a proficient technique for quantifying the retinal vasculature in ocular fundus images. A multidirectional top-hat operator with rotating structuring elements is used to emphasize the vessels in a particular direction, and information is extracted using bit plane slicing. An iterative region growing method is applied to integrate the main skeleton and the images resulting from bit plane slicing of vessel direction-dependent morphological filters. The approach is tested on two publicly available databases DRIVE and STARE. Average accuracy achieved by the proposed method is 0.9423 for both the databases with significant values of sensitivity and specificity also; the algorithm outperforms the second human observer in terms of precision of segmented vessel tree.

  13. Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for each single feature component, yet the binary string—concatenation of all coded feature components—is not optimal. In this paper, we present a detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA principle, which assigns more bits to discriminative features and fewer bits to nondiscriminative features. We further propose a dynamic programming (DP approach and a greedy search (GS approach to achieve DROBA. Experiments of DROBA on the FVC2000 fingerprint database and the FRGC face database show good performances. As a universal method, DROBA is applicable to arbitrary biometric modalities, such as fingerprint texture, iris, signature, and face. DROBA will bring significant benefits not only to the template protection systems but also to the systems with fast matching requirements or constrained storage capability.

  14. SOLAR TRACKER CERDAS DAN MURAH BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER 8 BIT ATMega8535

    OpenAIRE

    I Wayan Sutaya; Ketut Udy Ariawan

    2016-01-01

    prototipe produk solar tracker cerdas berbasis mikrokontroler AVR 8 bit. Solar tracker ini memasukkan filter digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) pada bagian program. Memprogram filter ini membutuhkan perkalian 32 bit sedangkan prosesor yang tersedia pada mikrokontroler yang dipakai adalah 8 bit. Proses perkalian ini hanya bisa dilakukan pada mikrokontroler 8 bit dengan menggunakan bahasa assembly yang merupakan bahasa level hardware. Solar tracker cerdas yang menggunakan mikrokontroler 8 ...

  15. Effects of plastic bits on the condition and behaviour of captive-reared pheasants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D A; Davis, C

    2010-03-27

    Between 2005 and 2007, data were collected from game farms across England and Wales to examine the effects of the use of bits on the physiological condition and behaviour of pheasants. On each site, two pheasant pens kept in the same conditions were randomly allocated to either use bits or not. The behaviour and physiological conditions of pheasants in each treatment pen were assessed on the day of bitting and weekly thereafter until release. Detailed records of feed usage, medications and mortality were also kept. Bits halved the number of acts of bird-on-bird pecking, but they doubled the incidence of headshaking and scratching. Bits caused nostril inflammation and bill deformities in some birds, particularly after seven weeks of age. In all weeks after bitting, feather condition was poorer in non-bitted pheasants than in those fitted with bits. Less than 3 per cent of bitted birds had damaged skin, but in the non-bitted pens this figure increased over time to 23 per cent four weeks later. Feed use and mortality did not differ between bitted and non-bitted birds.

  16. Surgical drill system and surgical drill bit to be used therein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margallo Balbas, E.; Wieringa, P.A.; French, P.J.; Lee, R.A.; Breedveld, P.

    2007-01-01

    Surgical drill system comprising a mechanical drill bit and means for imaging the vicinity of the drill bit tip, said means comprising: at least one optical fiber having a distal end and a proximal end, said distal end being located adjacent said drill bit tip, an optical processing unit, said

  17. Allegheny County Walk Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Walk Score measures the walkability of any address using a patented system developed by the Walk Score company. For each 2010 Census Tract centroid, Walk Score...

  18. The digital agenda of virtual currencies: Can BitCoin become a global currency?

    OpenAIRE

    CIAIAN PAVEL; RAJCANIOVA MIROSLAVA; KANCS D'ARTIS

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies and analyzes BitCoin features which may facilitate BitCoin to become a global currency, as well as characteristics which may impede the use of BitCoin as a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value, and compares BitCoin with standard currencies with respect to the main functions of money. Among all analyzed BitCoin features, the extreme price volatility stands out most clearly compared to standard currencies. In order to understand the reasons for such e...

  19. Universality and clustering in 1 + 1 dimensional superstring-bit models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    We construct a 1+1 dimensional superstring-bit model for D=3 Type IIB superstring. This low dimension model escapes the problem encountered in higher dimension models: (1) It possesses full Galilean supersymmetry; (2) For noninteracting Polymers of bits, the exactly soluble linear superpotential describing bit interactions is in a large universality class of superpotentials which includes ones bounded at spatial infinity; (3) The latter are used to construct a superstring-bit model with the clustering properties needed to define an S-matrix for closed polymers of superstring-bits

  20. A preliminary study on the containment building integrity following BIT removal for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Young; Song, Dong Soo; Byun, Choong Sub

    2008-01-01

    Boron Injection Tank(BIT) is a component of the Safety Injection System, which its sole function is to provide concentrated boric acid to the reactor coolant in order to mitigate the consequences of postulated main steamline break accidents. Although BIT plays an important role in mitigating the accident, high concentration of 20,000ppm causes valve leakage, clog of precipitation and continuous heat tracing have to be provided. For the removal of BIT, benchmarking analysis is performed between COPATTA code used in final safety analysis report and CONTEMPT code to be used this study. CONTEMPT is well compatible with COPATTA. The sensitivity study for integrity is performed for the three cases of full double ended rupture at 102% power with diesel generator failure, 3.4m 3 and 2400ppm BIT, 3.4m 3 and 0ppm BIT and no volume of BIT. The results show that the deactivation of BIT is plausible for success

  1. Modeling of Bit Error Rate in Cascaded 2R Regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    and the regenerating nonlinearity is investigated. It is shown that an increase in nonlinearity can compensate for an increase in noise figure or decrease in signal power. Furthermore, the influence of the improvement in signal extinction ratio along the cascade and the importance of choosing the proper threshold......This paper presents a simple and efficient model for estimating the bit error rate in a cascade of optical 2R-regenerators. The model includes the influences of of amplifier noise, finite extinction ratio and nonlinear reshaping. The interplay between the different signal impairments...

  2. Pseudo-random bit generator based on lag time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, M.; Campos-Cantón, E.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present a pseudo-random bit generator (PRBG) based on two lag time series of the logistic map using positive and negative values in the bifurcation parameter. In order to hidden the map used to build the pseudo-random series we have used a delay in the generation of time series. These new series when they are mapped xn against xn+1 present a cloud of points unrelated to the logistic map. Finally, the pseudo-random sequences have been tested with the suite of NIST giving satisfactory results for use in stream ciphers.

  3. Extending Landauer's bound from bit erasure to arbitrary computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David

    The minimal thermodynamic work required to erase a bit, known as Landauer's bound, has been extensively investigated both theoretically and experimentally. However, when viewed as a computation that maps inputs to outputs, bit erasure has a very special property: the output does not depend on the input. Existing analyses of thermodynamics of bit erasure implicitly exploit this property, and thus cannot be directly extended to analyze the computation of arbitrary input-output maps. Here we show how to extend these earlier analyses of bit erasure to analyze the thermodynamics of arbitrary computations. Doing this establishes a formal connection between the thermodynamics of computers and much of theoretical computer science. We use this extension to analyze the thermodynamics of the canonical ``general purpose computer'' considered in computer science theory: a universal Turing machine (UTM). We consider a UTM which maps input programs to output strings, where inputs are drawn from an ensemble of random binary sequences, and prove: i) The minimal work needed by a UTM to run some particular input program X and produce output Y is the Kolmogorov complexity of Y minus the log of the ``algorithmic probability'' of Y. This minimal amount of thermodynamic work has a finite upper bound, which is independent of the output Y, depending only on the details of the UTM. ii) The expected work needed by a UTM to compute some given output Y is infinite. As a corollary, the overall expected work to run a UTM is infinite. iii) The expected work needed by an arbitrary Turing machine T (not necessarily universal) to compute some given output Y can either be infinite or finite, depending on Y and the details of T. To derive these results we must combine ideas from nonequilibrium statistical physics with fundamental results from computer science, such as Levin's coding theorem and other theorems about universal computation. I would like to ackowledge the Santa Fe Institute, Grant No

  4. 32 bit digital optical computer - A hardware update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Peter S.; Carter, James A., III; Stone, Richard V.; Pape, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    Such state-of-the-art devices as multielement linear laser diode arrays, multichannel acoustooptic modulators, optical relays, and avalanche photodiode arrays, are presently applied to the implementation of a 32-bit supercomputer's general-purpose optical central processing architecture. Shannon's theorem, Morozov's control operator method (in conjunction with combinatorial arithmetic), and DeMorgan's law have been used to design an architecture whose 100 MHz clock renders it fully competitive with emerging planar-semiconductor technology. Attention is given to the architecture's multichannel Bragg cells, thermal design and RF crosstalk considerations, and the first and second anamorphic relay legs.

  5. Quantum Bit Commitment and the Reality of the Quantum State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, R.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum bit commitment is insecure in the standard non-relativistic quantum cryptographic framework, essentially because Alice can exploit quantum steering to defer making her commitment. Two assumptions in this framework are that: (a) Alice knows the ensembles of evidence E corresponding to either commitment; and (b) system E is quantum rather than classical. Here, we show how relaxing assumption (a) or (b) can render her malicious steering operation indeterminable or inexistent, respectively. Finally, we present a secure protocol that relaxes both assumptions in a quantum teleportation setting. Without appeal to an ontological framework, we argue that the protocol's security entails the reality of the quantum state, provided retrocausality is excluded.

  6. Single-board 32-bit computer for the FASTBUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellner, R.; Blossom, J.M.; Hong, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is building a 32bit computer on a FASTBUS board. It will use the National Semiconductor 32032 chip set, including the demand-paged memory management, floating point slave processor and interrupt control chips. The board will support 4 megabytes of memory which can be accessed by the processor over an on-board execution bus at processor speeds and which can be accessed by the FASTBUS at 80 megabytes per second. A windowed, direct memory access mechanism allows transfers of up to all of the memory

  7. Distribution of digital games via BitTorrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Bauer, Kevin; Veitch, Robert W. D.

    2011-01-01

    distribution across game titles and game genres. This paper presents the first large-scale, open-method analysis of the distribution of digital game titles, which was conducted by monitoring the BitTorrent peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing protocol. The sample includes 173 games and a collection period of three...... months from late 2010 to early 2011. With a total of 12.6 million unique peers identified, it is the largest examination of game piracy via P2P networks to date. The study provides findings that reveal the magnitude of game piracy, the time-frequency of game torrents, which genres that get pirated...

  8. A 32-bit NMOS microprocessor with a large register file

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherburne, R. W., Jr.; Katevenis, M. G. H.; Patterson, D. A.; Sequin, C. H.

    1984-10-01

    Two scaled versions of a 32-bit NMOS reduced instruction set computer CPU, called RISC II, have been implemented on two different processing lines using the simple Mead and Conway layout rules with lambda values of 2 and 1.5 microns (corresponding to drawn gate lengths of 4 and 3 microns), respectively. The design utilizes a small set of simple instructions in conjunction with a large register file in order to provide high performance. This approach has resulted in two surprisingly powerful single-chip processors.

  9. Bayesian signal reconstruction for 1-bit compressed sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yingying; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    The 1-bit compressed sensing framework enables the recovery of a sparse vector x from the sign information of each entry of its linear transformation. Discarding the amplitude information can significantly reduce the amount of data, which is highly beneficial in practical applications. In this paper, we present a Bayesian approach to signal reconstruction for 1-bit compressed sensing and analyze its typical performance using statistical mechanics. As a basic setup, we consider the case that the measuring matrix Φ has i.i.d entries and the measurements y are noiseless. Utilizing the replica method, we show that the Bayesian approach enables better reconstruction than the l 1 -norm minimization approach, asymptotically saturating the performance obtained when the non-zero entry positions of the signal are known, for signals whose non-zero entries follow zero mean Gaussian distributions. We also test a message passing algorithm for signal reconstruction on the basis of belief propagation. The results of numerical experiments are consistent with those of the theoretical analysis. (paper)

  10. Device-independent bit commitment based on the CHSH inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharon, N; Massar, S; Pironio, S; Silman, J

    2016-01-01

    Bit commitment and coin flipping occupy a unique place in the device-independent landscape, as the only device-independent protocols thus far suggested for these tasks are reliant on tripartite GHZ correlations. Indeed, we know of no other bipartite tasks, which admit a device-independent formulation, but which are not known to be implementable using only bipartite nonlocality. Another interesting feature of these protocols is that the pseudo-telepathic nature of GHZ correlations—in contrast to the generally statistical character of nonlocal correlations, such as those arising in the violation of the CHSH inequality—is essential to their formulation and analysis. In this work, we present a device-independent bit commitment protocol based on CHSH testing, which achieves the same security as the optimal GHZ-based protocol, albeit at the price of fixing the time at which Alice reveals her commitment. The protocol is analyzed in the most general settings, where the devices are used repeatedly and may have long-term quantum memory. We also recast the protocol in a post-quantum setting where both honest and dishonest parties are restricted only by the impossibility of signaling, and find that overall the supra-quantum structure allows for greater security. (paper)

  11. Giga-bit optical data transmission module for Beam Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Roedne, L T; Cenkeramaddi, L R; Jiao, L

    Particle accelerators require electronic instrumentation for diagnostic, assessment and monitoring during operation of the transferring and circulating beams. A sensor located near the beam provides an electrical signal related to the observable quantity of interest. The front-end electronics provides analog-to-digital conversion of the quantity being observed and the generated data are to be transferred to the external digital back-end for data processing, and to display to the operators and logging. This research project investigates the feasibility of radiation-tolerant giga-bit data transmission over optic fibre for beam instrumentation applications, starting from the assessment of the state of the art technology, identification of challenges and proposal of a system level solution, which should be validated with a PCB design in an experimental setup. Radiation tolerance of 10 kGy (Si) Total Ionizing Dose (TID) over 10 years of operation, Bit Error Rate (BER) 10-6 or better. The findings and results of th...

  12. Reexamination of quantum bit commitment: The possible and the impossible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Kretschmann, Dennis; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2007-01-01

    Bit commitment protocols whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone are generally held to be impossible. We give a strengthened and explicit proof of this result. We extend its scope to a much larger variety of protocols, which may have an arbitrary number of rounds, in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged, and which may include aborts and resets. Moreover, we do not consider the receiver to be bound to a fixed 'honest' strategy, so that 'anonymous state protocols', which were recently suggested as a possible way to beat the known no-go results, are also covered. We show that any concealing protocol allows the sender to find a cheating strategy, which is universal in the sense that it works against any strategy of the receiver. Moreover, if the concealing property holds only approximately, the cheat goes undetected with a high probability, which we explicitly estimate. The proof uses an explicit formalization of general two-party protocols, which is applicable to more general situations, and an estimate about the continuity of the Stinespring dilation of a general quantum channel. The result also provides a natural characterization of protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unlimited available technology and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present such a protocol whose security, perhaps surprisingly, relies on decoherence in the receiver's laboratory

  13. Reexamination of quantum bit commitment: The possible and the impossible

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Kretschmann, Dennis; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2007-09-01

    Bit commitment protocols whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone are generally held to be impossible. We give a strengthened and explicit proof of this result. We extend its scope to a much larger variety of protocols, which may have an arbitrary number of rounds, in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged, and which may include aborts and resets. Moreover, we do not consider the receiver to be bound to a fixed “honest” strategy, so that “anonymous state protocols,” which were recently suggested as a possible way to beat the known no-go results, are also covered. We show that any concealing protocol allows the sender to find a cheating strategy, which is universal in the sense that it works against any strategy of the receiver. Moreover, if the concealing property holds only approximately, the cheat goes undetected with a high probability, which we explicitly estimate. The proof uses an explicit formalization of general two-party protocols, which is applicable to more general situations, and an estimate about the continuity of the Stinespring dilation of a general quantum channel. The result also provides a natural characterization of protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unlimited available technology and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present such a protocol whose security, perhaps surprisingly, relies on decoherence in the receiver’s laboratory.

  14. Implementation of RSA 2048-bit and AES 256-bit with Digital Signature for Secure Electronic Health Record Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Sadikin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the implementation of encryption and digital signature technique for electronic health record to prevent cybercrime such as robbery, modification and unauthorised access. In this research, RSA 2048-bit algorithm, AES 256-bit and SHA 256 will be implemented in Java programming language. Secure Electronic Health Record Information (SEHR application design is intended to combine given services, such as confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and nonrepudiation. Cryptography is used to ensure the file records and electronic documents for detailed information on the medical past, present and future forecasts that have been given only to the intended patients. The document will be encrypted using an encryption algorithm based on NIST Standard. In the application, there are two schemes, namely the protection and verification scheme. This research uses black-box testing and whitebox testing to test the software input, output, and code without testing the process and design that occurs in the system.We demonstrated the implementation of cryptography in SEHR. The implementation of encryption and digital signature in this research can prevent archive thievery.

  15. Scoring ultrasound synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Terslev, Lene; Aegerter, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop a consensus-based ultrasound (US) definition and quantification system for synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A multistep, iterative approach was used to: (1) evaluate the baseline agreement on defining and scoring synovitis according to the usual practice...

  16. Scaling vectors of attoJoule per bit modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorger, Volker J.; Amin, Rubab; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Ma, Zhizhen; Dalir, Hamed; Khan, Sikandar

    2018-01-01

    Electro-optic modulation performs the conversion between the electrical and optical domain with applications in data communication for optical interconnects, but also for novel optical computing algorithms such as providing nonlinearity at the output stage of optical perceptrons in neuromorphic analog optical computing. While resembling an optical transistor, the weak light-matter-interaction makes modulators 105 times larger compared to their electronic counterparts. Since the clock frequency for photonics on-chip has a power-overhead sweet-spot around tens of GHz, ultrafast modulation may only be required in long-distance communication, not for short on-chip links. Hence, the search is open for power-efficient on-chip modulators beyond the solutions offered by foundries to date. Here, we show scaling vectors towards atto-Joule per bit efficient modulators on-chip as well as some experimental demonstrations of novel plasmonic modulators with sub-fJ/bit efficiencies. Our parametric study of placing different actively modulated materials into plasmonic versus photonic optical modes shows that 2D materials overcompensate their miniscule modal overlap by their unity-high index change. Furthermore, we reveal that the metal used in plasmonic-based modulators not only serves as an electrical contact, but also enables low electrical series resistances leading to near-ideal capacitors. We then discuss the first experimental demonstration of a photon-plasmon-hybrid graphene-based electro-absorption modulator on silicon. The device shows a sub-1 V steep switching enabled by near-ideal electrostatics delivering a high 0.05 dB V-1 μm-1 performance requiring only 110 aJ/bit. Improving on this demonstration, we discuss a plasmonic slot-based graphene modulator design, where the polarization of the plasmonic mode aligns with graphene’s in-plane dimension; where a push-pull dual-gating scheme enables 2 dB V-1 μm-1 efficient modulation allowing the device to be just 770 nm

  17. Brownian motion properties of optoelectronic random bit generators based on laser chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Wang, Yuncai; Wang, Yongge

    2016-07-11

    The nondeterministic property of the optoelectronic random bit generator (RBG) based on laser chaos are experimentally analyzed from two aspects of the central limit theorem and law of iterated logarithm. The random bits are extracted from an optical feedback chaotic laser diode using a multi-bit extraction technique in the electrical domain. Our experimental results demonstrate that the generated random bits have no statistical distance from the Brownian motion, besides that they can pass the state-of-the-art industry-benchmark statistical test suite (NIST SP800-22). All of them give a mathematically provable evidence that the ultrafast random bit generator based on laser chaos can be used as a nondeterministic random bit source.

  18. Shuttle bit rate synchronizer. [signal to noise ratios and error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, D. C.; Fultz, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    A shuttle bit rate synchronizer brassboard unit was designed, fabricated, and tested, which meets or exceeds the contractual specifications. The bit rate synchronizer operates at signal-to-noise ratios (in a bit rate bandwidth) down to -5 dB while exhibiting less than 0.6 dB bit error rate degradation. The mean acquisition time was measured to be less than 2 seconds. The synchronizer is designed around a digital data transition tracking loop whose phase and data detectors are integrate-and-dump filters matched to the Manchester encoded bits specified. It meets the reliability (no adjustments or tweaking) and versatility (multiple bit rates) of the shuttle S-band communication system through an implementation which is all digital after the initial stage of analog AGC and A/D conversion.

  19. AcEST: BP920339 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. AcEST: DK946291 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. AcEST: BP914811 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. AcEST: BP920666 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. AcEST: DK958455 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. Fatigue life of drilling bit bearings under arbitrary random loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talimi, M.; Farshidi, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    A fatigue analysis was conducted in order to estimate the bearing life of a roller cone rock bit under arbitrary random loads. The aim of the study was to reduce bearing failures that can interrupt well operations. Fatigue was considered as the main reason for bearing failure. The expected value of cumulative fatigue damage was used to estimate bearing life. An equation was used to express the relation between bearing life and bearing load when the bearing was subjected to a steady load and constant speed. The Palmgren-Miner hypothesis was used to determine the ultimate tensile strength of the material. The rain flow counting principle was used to determine distinct amplitude cycles. Hertzian equations were used to determine maximum stress loads. Fourier series were used to obtain simple harmonic functions for estimating stress-life relations. It was concluded that the method can be used during the well planning phase to prevent bearing failures. 6 refs.

  17. Geneva University - Superconducting flux quantum bits: fabricated quantum objects

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Lundi 29 janvier 2007 COLLOQUE DE LA SECTION DE PHYSIQUE 17 heures - Auditoire Stueckelberg Superconducting flux quantum bits: fabricated quantum objects Prof. Hans Mooij / Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology The quantum conjugate variables of a superconductor are the charge or number of Cooper pairs, and the phase of the order parameter. In circuits that contain small Josephson junctions, these quantum properties can be brought forward. In Delft we study so-called flux qubits, superconducting rings that contain three small Josephson junctions. When a magnetic flux of half a flux quantum is applied to the loop, there are two states with opposite circulating current. For suitable junction parameters, a quantum superposition of those macroscopic states is possible. Transitions can be driven with resonant microwaves. These quantum ...

  18. ALAT SOLAR TRACKER BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER 8 BIT ATMega8535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sutaya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian yang telah dilakukan ini adalah membuat prototipe alat solar tracker. Alat ini berfungsi untuk menggerakkan modul sel surya sehingga permukaan sel surya bisa terkena sinar matahari secara maksimal. Saat ini sel surya di Indonesia banyak terpasang secara statis atau tidak dilengkapi alat solar tracker sehingga energi matahari tidak diterima secara maksimal. Hal ini menyebabkan sel surya yang terpasang di beberapa daerah di Indonesia tidak memberikan manfaat yang optimal. Alat solar tracker yang dihasilkan pada penelitian ini diharapkan sebagai solusi dari permasalahan yang ada saat ini. Mikrokontroler 8 bit ATMega8535 yang digunakan sebagai otak utama dari alat solar tracker menjadikan alat ini menjadi berbiaya murah. Serta teknik memprogram dengan bahasa assembly menjadikan alat ini tahan terhadap kegagalan sistem. Solar tracker ini sudah bisa beroperasi dengan baik dan cocok digunakan pada modul sel surya berukuran kecil.

  19. Bitlis Etnografya Müzesi'nde Bulunan Geleneksel Giysiler

    OpenAIRE

    Sökmen, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, Bitlis Etnografya Müzesi'nde sergilenmekte olan geleneksel giysilerin kumaş, renk, süsleme ve teknik özelliklerinin tanıtımı amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda ilgili makamlardan yazılı izin alınarak müze vitrinlerinde sergilenmekte olan ve depolarda koruma altına alınan giysilerin fotoğrafları çekilmiş, gerekli ölçümleri yapılarak teknik özellikleri belirlenmiş, hammadde ve süsleme özellikleri incelenmiştir. Müzede bulunan geleneksel giysi örnekleri yeterince zengin olma...

  20. A low power 12-bit ADC for nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, R.; Landis, D.; Madden, N.; Silver, E.; LeGros, M.

    1992-10-01

    A low power, successive approximation, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for low rate, low cost, battery powered applications is described. The ADC is based on a commercial 50 mW successive approximation CMOS device (CS5102). An on-chip self-calibration circuit reduces the inherent differential nonlinearity to 7%. A further reduction of the differential nonlinearity to 0.5% is attained with a four bit Gatti function. The Gatti function is distributed to minimize battery power consumption. All analog functions reside with the ADC while the noisy digital functions reside in the personal computer based histogramming memory. Fiber optic cables carry afl digital information between the ADC and the personal computer based histogramming memory

  1. Measurement accuracy, bit-strings, Manthey's quaternions, and RRQM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1995-01-01

    The author continues the discussion started last year. By now three potentially divergent research programs have surfaced in ANPA: (1) the Bastin-Kilmister understanding of the combinatorial hierarchy (Clive's open-quotes Menshevikclose quotes position); (2) the author's bit-string open-quotes Theory of Everythingclose quotes (which Clive has dubbed open-quotes Bolshevikclose quotes); (3) Manthey's cycle hierarchy based on co-occurrence and mutual exclusion that Clive helped him map onto quaternions (as an yet unnamed heresy?). Unless a common objective can be found, these three points of view will continue to diverge. The authors suggests the reconstruction of relativistic quantum mechanism (RRQM) as a reasonable, and attainable, goal that might aid convergence rather than divergence

  2. Bit-string physics: A novel theory of everything

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1994-08-01

    We encode the quantum numbers of the standard model of quarks and leptons using constructed bitstrings of length 256. These label a grouting universe of bit-strings of growing length that eventually construct a finite and discrete space-time with reasonable cosmological properties. Coupling constants and mass ratios, computed from closure under XOR and a statistical hypothesis, using only ℎ, c and m p to fix our units of mass, length and time in terms of standard (meterkilogram-second) metrology, agree with the first four to seven significant figures of accepted experimental results. Finite and discrete conservation laws and commutation relations insure the essential characteristics of relativistic quantum mechanics, including particle-antiparticle pair creation. The correspondence limit in (free space) Maxwell electromagnetism and Einstein gravitation is consistent with the Feynman-Dyson-Tanimura ''proof.''

  3. Bit-string physics: A novel theory of everything

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1994-08-01

    We encode the quantum numbers of the standard model of quarks and leptons using constructed bitstrings of length 256. These label a grouting universe of bit-strings of growing length that eventually construct a finite and discrete space-time with reasonable cosmological properties. Coupling constants and mass ratios, computed from closure under XOR and a statistical hypothesis, using only {h_bar}, c and m{sub p} to fix our units of mass, length and time in terms of standard (meterkilogram-second) metrology, agree with the first four to seven significant figures of accepted experimental results. Finite and discrete conservation laws and commutation relations insure the essential characteristics of relativistic quantum mechanics, including particle-antiparticle pair creation. The correspondence limit in (free space) Maxwell electromagnetism and Einstein gravitation is consistent with the Feynman-Dyson-Tanimura ``proof.``

  4. A Fast Dynamic 64-bit Comparator with Small Transistor Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua-Chin Wang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a 64-bit fast dynamic CMOS comparator with small transistor count. Major features of the proposed comparator are the rearrangement and re-ordering of transistors in the evaluation block of a dynamic cell, and the insertion of a weak n feedback inverter, which helps the pull-down operation to ground. The simulation results given by pre-layout tools, e.g. HSPICE, and post-layout tools, e.g. TimeMill, reveal that the delay is around 2.5 ns while the operating clock rate reaches 100 MHz. A physical chip is fabricated to verify the correctness of our design by using UMC (United Microelectronics Company 0.5 μm (2P2M technology.

  5. Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew

    2003-01-01

    A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the

  6. "Push back" technique: A simple method to remove broken drill bit from the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Devendra K; Sharma, Siddhartha

    2015-11-18

    Broken drill bits can be difficult to remove from the proximal femur and may necessitate additional surgical exploration or special instrumentation. We present a simple technique to remove a broken drill bit that does not require any special instrumentation and can be accomplished through the existing incision. This technique is useful for those cases where the length of the broken drill bit is greater than the diameter of the bone.

  7. Computer-Aided Design for Built-In-Test (CADBIT) - BIT Library. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    TECHNIQUE: ON-BOARD RONI CATEGORY: LONG TUTORIA \\L PAG E 5 of 14I SUBCATEGORY: BIT TECHNIQUE ATTRIBUTES DATA TYPE: TEXT El LIST E] TABLE [ GRAPHIC E...SHIFT REGISTER (MISR) CATEGORY: LONG TUTORIA -L PAGE i Of 13 SUBCATEGORY: BIT TECH-{MQUE ATTRIBUTES DATA TYPE: TEXT LIST El TABLE GRAPHIC E EQUATIONS...ELEMENT DATA SHEET BIT TECHNIQUE: UTILIZING REDUNDANCY CATEGORY: LONG TUTORIA L PAGE 9 of 10 SUBCATEGORY: PARTS DATA TABLE DATA TYPE: TEXT F1 UST C3

  8. The Zhongshan Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Guo, Jianming; Wang, Hang; Wang, Guomin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the zero ischemia era of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), a new anatomic classification system (ACS) is needed to adjust to these new surgical techniques. We devised a novel and simple ACS, and compared it with the RENAL and PADUA scores to predict the risk of NSS outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated 789 patients who underwent NSS with available imaging between January 2007 and July 2014. Demographic and clinical data were assessed. The Zhongshan (ZS) score consisted of three parameters. RENAL, PADUA, and ZS scores are divided into three groups, that is, high, moderate, and low scores. For operative time (OT), significant differences were seen between any two groups of ZS score and PADUA score (all P RENAL showed no significant difference between moderate and high complexity in OT, WIT, estimated blood loss, and increase in SCr. Compared with patients with a low score of ZS, those with a high or moderate score had 8.1-fold or 3.3-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL score, patients with a high or moderate score had 5.7-fold or 1.9-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL and PADUA scores. ZS score could be used to reflect the surgical complexity and predict the risk of surgical complications in patients undergoing NSS. PMID:25654399

  9. Proposed first-generation WSQ bit allocation procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.

    1993-09-08

    The Wavelet/Scalar Quantization (WSQ) gray-scale fingerprint image compression algorithm involves a symmetric wavelet transform (SWT) image decomposition followed by uniform scalar quantization of each subband. The algorithm is adaptive insofar as the bin widths for the scalar quantizers are image-specific and are included in the compressed image format. Since the decoder requires only the actual bin width values -- but not the method by which they were computed -- the standard allows for future refinements of the WSQ algorithm by improving the method used to select the scalar quantizer bin widths. This report proposes a bit allocation procedure for use with the first-generation WSQ encoder. In previous work a specific formula is provided for the relative sizes of the scalar quantizer bin widths in terms of the variances of the SWT subbands. An explicit specification for the constant of proportionality, q, that determines the absolute bin widths was not given. The actual compression ratio produced by the WSQ algorithm will generally vary from image to image depending on the amount of coding gain obtained by the run-length and Huffman coding, stages of the algorithm, but testing performed by the FBI established that WSQ compression produces archival quality images at compression ratios of around 20 to 1. The bit allocation procedure described in this report possesses a control parameter, r, that can be set by the user to achieve a predetermined amount of lossy compression, effectively giving the user control over the amount of distortion introduced by quantization noise. The variability observed in final compression ratios is thus due only to differences in lossless coding gain from image to image, chiefly a result of the varying amounts of blank background surrounding the print area in the images. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the proposed method`s effectiveness.

  10. The Digital Agenda of Virtual Currencies. Can BitCoin Become a Global Currency?

    OpenAIRE

    KANCS D'ARTIS; CIAIAN PAVEL; MIROSLAVA RAJCANIOVA

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies and analyzes BitCoin features which may facilitate Bitcoin to become a global currency, as well as characteristics which may impede the use of BitCoin as a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value, and compares BitCoin with standard currencies with respect to the main functions of money. Among all analyzed BitCoin features, the extreme price volatility stands out most clearly compared to standard currencies. In order to understand the reasons for such e...

  11. Bit-depth scalable video coding with new inter-layer prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Jui-Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid advances in the capture and display of high-dynamic range (HDR image/video content make it imperative to develop efficient compression techniques to deal with the huge amounts of HDR data. Since HDR device is not yet popular for the moment, the compatibility problems should be considered when rendering HDR content on conventional display devices. To this end, in this study, we propose three H.264/AVC-based bit-depth scalable video-coding schemes, called the LH scheme (low bit-depth to high bit-depth, the HL scheme (high bit-depth to low bit-depth, and the combined LH-HL scheme, respectively. The schemes efficiently exploit the high correlation between the high and the low bit-depth layers on the macroblock (MB level. Experimental results demonstrate that the HL scheme outperforms the other two schemes in some scenarios. Moreover, it achieves up to 7 dB improvement over the simulcast approach when the high and low bit-depth representations are 12 bits and 8 bits, respectively.

  12. Exploration of Least Significant Bit Based Watermarking and Its Robustness against Salt and Pepper Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaldeep Joshi; Rajkumar Yadav; Sachin Allwadhi

    2016-01-01

    Image steganography is the best aspect of information hiding. In this, the information is hidden within an image and the image travels openly on the Internet. The Least Significant Bit (LSB) is one of the most popular methods of image steganography. In this method, the information bit is hidden at the LSB of the image pixel. In one bit LSB steganography method, the total numbers of the pixels and the total number of message bits are equal to each other. In this paper, the LSB method of image ...

  13. Designing embedded systems with 32-bit PIC microcontrollers and MikroC

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Dogan

    2013-01-01

    The new generation of 32-bit PIC microcontrollers can be used to solve the increasingly complex embedded system design challenges faced by engineers today. This book teaches the basics of 32-bit C programming, including an introduction to the PIC 32-bit C compiler. It includes a full description of the architecture of 32-bit PICs and their applications, along with coverage of the relevant development and debugging tools. Through a series of fully realized example projects, Dogan Ibrahim demonstrates how engineers can harness the power of this new technology to optimize their embedded design

  14. EnhancedBit: Unleashing the potential of the unchoking policy in the BitTorrent  protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Atlidakis, V; Delis, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a modification to the BitTorrent protocol related to its peer unchoking policy. In particular, we apply a novel optimistic unchoking approach that improves the quality of inter-connections amongst peers, i.e., increases the number of directly-connected and interested-in-cooperation peers without penalizing underutilized and/or idle peers. Our optimistic unchoking policy takes into consideration the number of clients currently interested in downloading from a peer that is to be unchoked. Our conjecture is that peers having few clients interested in downloading data from them, should be favored with optimistic unchoke intervals. This enables the peers in question to receive data since they become unchoked faster and in turn, they will trigger the interest of additional clients. In contrast, peers with plenty of "interested" clients should enjoy a lower priority to be selected as planned optimistic unchoked, since these peers likely have enough data to forward; nevertheless, they receiv...

  15. Enumerating bone marrow blasts from nonerythroid cellularity improves outcome prediction in myelodysplastic syndromes and permits a better definition of the intermediate risk category of the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Xavier; Arenillas, Leonor; Luño, Elisa; Senent, Leonor; Arnan, Montserrat; Ramos, Fernando; Pedro, Carme; Tormo, Mar; Montoro, Julia; Díez-Campelo, María; Blanco, María Laura; Arrizabalaga, Beatriz; Xicoy, Blanca; Bonanad, Santiago; Jerez, Andrés; Nomdedeu, Meritxell; Ferrer, Ana; Sanz, Guillermo F; Florensa, Lourdes

    2017-07-01

    The Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) has been recognized as the score with the best outcome prediction capability in MDS, but this brought new concerns about the accurate prognostication of patients classified into the intermediate risk category. The correct enumeration of blasts is essential in prognostication of MDS. Recent data evidenced that considering blasts from nonerythroid cellularity (NECs) improves outcome prediction in the context of IPSS and WHO classification. We assessed the percentage of blasts from total nucleated cells (TNCs) and NECs in 3924 MDS patients from the GESMD, 498 of whom were MDS with erythroid predominance (MDS-E). We assessed if calculating IPSS-R by enumerating blasts from NECs improves prognostication of MDS. Twenty-four percent of patients classified into the intermediate category were reclassified into higher-risk categories and showed shorter overall survival (OS) and time to AML evolution than those who remained into the intermediate one. Likewise, a better distribution of patients was observed, since lower-risk patients showed longer survivals than previously whereas higher-risk ones maintained the outcome expected in this poor prognostic group (median OS < 20 months). Furthermore, our approach was particularly useful for detecting patients at risk of dying with AML. Regarding MDS-E, 51% patients classified into the intermediate category were reclassified into higher-risk ones and showed shorter OS and time to AML. In this subgroup of MDS, IPSS-R was capable of splitting our series in five groups with significant differences in OS only when blasts were assessed from NECs. In conclusion, our easy-applicable approach improves prognostic assessment of MDS patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Preparation and comparitive analysis of MCNP thermal libraries for liquid hydrogen and deuterium using NJOY97 on 32 bit and 64 bit computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Y. S.; Kim, J. D.; Kil, C. S.; Jang, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    The scattering laws and MCNP thermal libraries for liquid hydrogen and deuterium are comparatively calculated on HP715 (32-bit computer) and SGI IP27 (64-bit computer) using NJOY97. The results are also compared with the experimental data. In addition, MCNP calculations for the nuclear design of a cold neutron source at HANARO are performed with the newly generated MCNP thermal libraries from two different computers and the results are compared

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of guys Hospital stroke score (allen score) in acute supratentorial thrombotic/haemorrhagic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulfiqar, A.; Toori, K. U.; Khan, S. S.; Hamza, M. I. M.; Zaman, S. U.

    2006-01-01

    A consecutive series of 103 patients, 58% male with mean age of 62 year (range 40-75 years), admitted with supratentorial stroke in our teaching hospital were studied. All patients had Computer Tomography scan brain done after clinical evaluation and application of Allen stroke score. Computer Tomography Scan confirmed thrombotic stroke in 55 (53%) patients and haemorrhagic stroke in 48 (47%) patients. Out of the 55 patients with definitive thrombotic stroke on Computer Tomography Scan, Allen stroke score suggested infarction in 67%, haemorrhage in 6% and remained inconclusive in 27% of cases. In 48 patients with definitive haemorrhagic stroke on Computer Tomography Scan, Allen stroke score suggested haemorrhage in 60%, infarction in 11% and remained inconclusive in 29% of cases. The overall accuracy of Allen stroke score was 66%. (author)

  18. A Novel Nondestructive Bit-Line Discharging Scheme for Deep Submicrometer STT-RAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeinali, Behzad; Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Raghavan, Praveen

    . In this paper, we propose a novel non-destructive self-reference sensing scheme for STT-RAM. The proposed technique overcomes the large bit-to-bit variation of MTJ resistance. In the proposed scheme, the stored value in the STTRAM cell preserves, hence, the long write-back operation is eliminated. Besides...

  19. Towards the generation of random bits at terahertz rates based on a chaotic semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Random bit generators (RBGs) are important in many aspects of statistical physics and crucial in Monte-Carlo simulations, stochastic modeling and quantum cryptography. The quality of a RBG is measured by the unpredictability of the bit string it produces and the speed at which the truly random bits can be generated. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random numbers at high data rates as they are only limited by electronic hardware speed, but their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. It is widely accepted that the core of any true RBG must be an intrinsically non-deterministic physical process, e.g. measuring thermal noise from a resistor. Owing to low signal levels, such systems are highly susceptible to bias, introduced by amplification, and to small nonrandom external perturbations resulting in a limited generation rate, typically less than 100M bit/s. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having delayed optical feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300Gbit/s. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.

  20. Towards the generation of random bits at terahertz rates based on a chaotic semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Random bit generators (RBGs) are important in many aspects of statistical physics and crucial in Monte-Carlo simulations, stochastic modeling and quantum cryptography. The quality of a RBG is measured by the unpredictability of the bit string it produces and the speed at which the truly random bits can be generated. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random numbers at high data rates as they are only limited by electronic hardware speed, but their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. It is widely accepted that the core of any true RBG must be an intrinsically non-deterministic physical process, e.g. measuring thermal noise from a resistor. Owing to low signal levels, such systems are highly susceptible to bias, introduced by amplification, and to small nonrandom external perturbations resulting in a limited generation rate, typically less than 100M bit/s. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having delayed optical feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300Gbit/s. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.

  1. Enhanced bit rate-distance product impulse radio ultra-wideband over fiber link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We report on a record distance and bit rate-wireless impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) link with combined transmission over a 20 km long fiber link. We are able to improve the compliance with the regulated frequency emission mask and achieve bit rate-distance products as high as 16 Gbit/s·m....

  2. On algorithmic equivalence of instruction sequences for computing bit string functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We

  3. On algorithmic equivalence of instruction sequences for computing bit string functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We

  4. Dispersion Tolerance of 40 Gbaud Multilevel Modulation Formats with up to 3 bits per Symbol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Tokle, Torger; Geng, Yan

    2006-01-01

    We present numerical and experimental investigations of dispersion tolerance for multilevel phase- and amplitude modulation with up to 3 bits per symbol at a symbol rate of 40 Gbaud......We present numerical and experimental investigations of dispersion tolerance for multilevel phase- and amplitude modulation with up to 3 bits per symbol at a symbol rate of 40 Gbaud...

  5. Possibility, impossibility, and cheat sensitivity of quantum-bit string commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhrman, H.; Christandl, M.; Hayden, P.; Lo, H.-K.; Wehner, S.

    2008-01-01

    Unconditionally secure nonrelativistic bit commitment is known to be impossible in both the classical and the quantum worlds. But when committing to a string of n bits at once, how far can we stretch the quantum limits? In this paper, we introduce a framework for quantum schemes where Alice commits

  6. Up to 20 Gbit/s bit-rate transparent integrated interferometric wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1996-01-01

    We present a compact and optimised multiquantum-well based, integrated all-active Michelson interferometer for 26 Gbit/s optical wavelength conversion. Bit-rate transparent operation is demonstrated with a conversion penalty well below 0.5 dB at bit-rates ranging from 622 Mbit/s to 20 Gbit/s....

  7. Warped Discrete Cosine Transform-Based Low Bit-Rate Block Coding Using Image Downsampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertürk Sarp

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents warped discrete cosine transform (WDCT-based low bit-rate block coding using image downsampling. While WDCT aims to improve the performance of conventional DCT by frequency warping, the WDCT has only been applicable to high bit-rate coding applications because of the overhead required to define the parameters of the warping filter. Recently, low bit-rate block coding based on image downsampling prior to block coding followed by upsampling after the decoding process is proposed to improve the compression performance for low bit-rate block coders. This paper demonstrates that a superior performance can be achieved if WDCT is used in conjunction with image downsampling-based block coding for low bit-rate applications.

  8. Changes realized from extended bit-depth and metal artifact reduction in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glide-Hurst, C.; Chen, D.; Zhong, H.; Chetty, I. J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health Systems, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: High-Z material in computed tomography (CT) yields metal artifacts that degrade image quality and may cause substantial errors in dose calculation. This study couples a metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithm with enhanced 16-bit depth (vs standard 12-bit) to quantify potential gains in image quality and dosimetry. Methods: Extended CT to electron density (CT-ED) curves were derived from a tissue characterization phantom with titanium and stainless steel inserts scanned at 90-140 kVp for 12- and 16-bit reconstructions. MAR was applied to sinogram data (Brilliance BigBore CT scanner, Philips Healthcare, v.3.5). Monte Carlo simulation (MC-SIM) was performed on a simulated double hip prostheses case (Cerrobend rods embedded in a pelvic phantom) using BEAMnrc/Dosxyz (400 000 0000 histories, 6X, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} beam traversing Cerrobend rod). A phantom study was also conducted using a stainless steel rod embedded in solid water, and dosimetric verification was performed with Gafchromic film analysis (absolute difference and gamma analysis, 2% dose and 2 mm distance to agreement) for plans calculated with Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA, Eclipse v11.0) to elucidate changes between 12- and 16-bit data. Three patients (bony metastases to the femur and humerus, and a prostate cancer case) with metal implants were reconstructed using both bit depths, with dose calculated using AAA and derived CT-ED curves. Planar dose distributions were assessed via matrix analyses and using gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm. Results: For 12-bit images, CT numbers for titanium and stainless steel saturated at 3071 Hounsfield units (HU), whereas for 16-bit depth, mean CT numbers were much larger (e.g., titanium and stainless steel yielded HU of 8066.5 {+-} 56.6 and 13 588.5 {+-} 198.8 for 16-bit uncorrected scans at 120 kVp, respectively). MC-SIM was well-matched between 12- and 16-bit images except downstream of the Cerrobend rod, where 16-bit dose was {approx}6

  9. Case histories of roller cone core bit application in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlem, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The increased interest in deep crystalline rock drilling projects has resulted in a requirement for premium coring bits which are effective in such a harsh and abrasive environment. Hard formation roller cone insert bits have traditionally and constantly performed well in crystalline rock. As a result, the application of state of the art roller cone rock bit technology to the design and development of core bits has made crystalline coring projects more viable than ever before. This paper follows the development of roller cone core bits by examining their use on project such as HDR (Hot Dry Rock, Los Alamos); NAGRA (Nuclear Waste Disposal Wells in Switzerland); Camborne School of Mines Geothermal Project in Cornwall, UK; Deep Gas Project in Sweden; and the KTB Deep Drilling Project in West Germany

  10. New roller cone bits with unique nozzle designs reduce drilling costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffitt, S.R.; Pearce, D.E.; Ivie, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that selection of the optimum rock bit design to achieve the lowest drilling cost in a given application is often difficult due to a large number of rock bit performance considerations. However, in a majority of applications increased penetration rate is the key consideration in reducing drilling costs. Discovery of a new bit design concept has led to the development of roller cone bits that achieve significant penetration rate increases using superior hydraulic nozzle designs. Prototype designs have achieved 20 to 40% increases in penetration rate with comparable footage drilled when tested in 6 1/2, 8 1/2, 8-3/4, 9-7/8 and 12 1/4 IADC 437, 517 and 537 type bits in the U.S., North Sea, Italy, and Oman. Second-generation designs tested in a full-scale drilling laboratory have delivered 70% increases in penetration rates

  11. Simple proof of the impossibility of bit commitment in generalized probabilistic theories using cone programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Jamie; Selby, John

    2018-04-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic task, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob such that she cannot later change the value of the bit, while, simultaneously, the bit is hidden from Bob. It is known that ideal bit commitment is impossible within quantum theory. In this work, we show that it is also impossible in generalized probabilistic theories (under a small set of assumptions) by presenting a quantitative trade-off between Alice's and Bob's cheating probabilities. Our proof relies crucially on a formulation of cheating strategies as cone programs, a natural generalization of semidefinite programs. In fact, using the generality of this technique, we prove that this result holds for the more general task of integer commitment.

  12. A CAMAC display module for fast bit-mapped graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In many data acquisition and analysis facilities for nuclear physics research, utilities for the display of two-dimensional (2D) images and spectra on graphics terminals suffer from low speed, poor resolution, and limit accuracy. Developed of CAMAC bit-mapped graphics modules for this purpose has been discouraged in the past by the large device count needed and the long times required to load the image data from the host computer into the CAMAC hardware; particularly since many such facilities have been designed to support fast DMA block transfers only for data acquisition into the host. This paper describes the design and implementation of a prototype CAMAC graphics display module with a resolution of 256x256 pixels at eight colours for which all components can be easily accommodated in a single-width package. Employed is a hardware technique which reduces the number of programmed CAMAC data transfer operations needed for writing 2D images into the display memory by approximately an order of magnitude, with attendant improvements in the display speed and CPU time consumption. Hardware and software details are given together with sample results. Information on the performance of the module in a typical VAX/MBD data acquisition environment is presented, including data on the mutual effects of simultaneous data acquisition traffic. Suggestions are made for further improvements in performance. (orig.)

  13. Bit Level Synchronized MAC Protocol for Multireader RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namboodiri Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of multiple RFID readers in close proximity results in interference between the readers. This issue is termed the reader collision problem and cannot always be solved by assigning them to different frequency channels due to technical and regulatory limitations. The typical solution is to separate the operation of such readers across time. This sequential operation, however, results in a long delay to identify all tags. We present a bit level synchronized (BLSync MAC protocol for multi-reader RFID networks that allows multiple readers to operate simultaneously on the same frequency channel. The BLSync protocol solves the reader collision problem by allowing all readers to transmit the same query at the same time. We analyze the performance of using the BLSync protocol and demonstrate benefits of 40%–50% in terms of tag reading delay for most settings. The benefits of BLSync, first demonstrated through analysis, are then validated and quantified through simulations on realistic reader-tag layouts.

  14. Constellation labeling optimization for bit-interleaved coded APSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xingyu; Mo, Zijian; Wang, Zhonghai; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the constellation and mapping optimization for amplitude phase shift keying (APSK) modulation, which is deployed in Digital Video Broadcasting Satellite - Second Generation (DVB-S2) and Digital Video Broadcasting - Satellite services to Handhelds (DVB-SH) broadcasting standards due to its merits of power and spectral efficiency together with the robustness against nonlinear distortion. The mapping optimization is performed for 32-APSK according to combined cost functions related to Euclidean distance and mutual information. A Binary switching algorithm and its modified version are used to minimize the cost function and the estimated error between the original and received data. The optimized constellation mapping is tested by combining DVB-S2 standard Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes in both Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation (BICM) and BICM with iterative decoding (BICM-ID) systems. The simulated results validate the proposed constellation labeling optimization scheme which yields better performance against conventional 32-APSK constellation defined in DVB-S2 standard.

  15. Hill Cipher and Least Significant Bit for Image Messaging Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Husnul Arif

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of information through cyberspace has many benefits as an example fast estimated time, unlimited physical distance and space limits, etc. But in these activities can also pose a security risk for confidential information. It is necessary for the safety that can be used to protect data transmitted through the Internet. Encryption algorithm that used to encrypt message to be sent (plaintext into messages that have been randomized (ciphertext is cryptography and steganography algorithms. In application of cryptographic techniques that will be used is Hill Cipher. The technique is combined with steganography techniques Least Significant Bit. The result of merging techniques can maintain the confidentiality of messages because people who do not know the secret key used will be difficult to get the message contained in the stego-image and the image that has been inserted can not be used as a cover image. Message successfully inserted and extracted back on all samples with a good image formats * .bmp, * .png , * .jpg at a resolution of 512 x 512 pixels , 256 x 256 pixels. MSE and PSNR results are not influenced file format or file size, but influenced by dimensions of image. The larger dimensions of the image, then the smaller MSE that means error of image gets smaller.

  16. Transforming networking within the ESIP Federation using ResearchBit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists increasingly need interdisciplinary teams to solve their research problems. Currently, geoscientists use Research Networking (RN) systems to connect with each other and find people of similar and dissimilar interests. As we shift to digitally mediated scholarship, we need innovative methods for scholarly communication. Formal methods for scholarly communication are undergoing vast transformation owing to the open-access movement and reproducible research. However, informal scholarly communication that takes place at professional society meetings and conferences, like AGU, has received limited research attention relying primarily on serendipitous interaction. The ResearchBit project aims to fundamentally improve informal methods of scholarly communication by leveraging the serendipitous interactions of researchers and making them more aware of co-located potential collaborators with mutual interests. This presentation will describe our preliminary hardware testing done at the Federation for Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Summer meeting this past July and the initial recommendation system design. The presentation will also cover the cultural shifts and hurdles to introducing new technology, the privacy concerns of tracking technology and how we are addressing those new issues.

  17. A short impossibility proof of quantum bit commitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiribella, Giulio, E-mail: gchiribella@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Quantum Information, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University (China); D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro, E-mail: dariano@unipv.it [QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Perinotti, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.perinotti@unipv.it [QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Schlingemann, Dirk, E-mail: d.schlingemann@tu-bs.de [ISI Foundation, Quantum Information Theory Unit, Viale S. Severo 65, 10133 Torino (Italy); Werner, Reinhard, E-mail: Reinhard.Werner@itp.uni-hannover.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2013-06-17

    Bit commitment protocols, whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone, are generally held to be impossible on the basis of a concealment–bindingness tradeoff (Lo and Chau, 1997 [1], Mayers, 1997 [2]). A strengthened and explicit impossibility proof has been given in D'Ariano et al. (2007) [3] in the Heisenberg picture and in a C{sup ⁎}-algebraic framework, considering all conceivable protocols in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged. In the present Letter we provide a new impossibility proof in the Schrödinger picture, greatly simplifying the classification of protocols and strategies using the mathematical formulation in terms of quantum combs (Chiribella et al., 2008 [4]), with each single-party strategy represented by a conditioned comb. We prove that assuming a stronger notion of concealment—for each classical communication history, not in average—allows Alice's cheat to pass also the worst-case Bob's test. The present approach allows us to restate the concealment–bindingness tradeoff in terms of the continuity of dilations of probabilistic quantum combs with the metric given by the comb discriminability-distance.

  18. A short impossibility proof of quantum bit commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Bit commitment protocols, whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone, are generally held to be impossible on the basis of a concealment–bindingness tradeoff (Lo and Chau, 1997 [1], Mayers, 1997 [2]). A strengthened and explicit impossibility proof has been given in D'Ariano et al. (2007) [3] in the Heisenberg picture and in a C ⁎ -algebraic framework, considering all conceivable protocols in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged. In the present Letter we provide a new impossibility proof in the Schrödinger picture, greatly simplifying the classification of protocols and strategies using the mathematical formulation in terms of quantum combs (Chiribella et al., 2008 [4]), with each single-party strategy represented by a conditioned comb. We prove that assuming a stronger notion of concealment—for each classical communication history, not in average—allows Alice's cheat to pass also the worst-case Bob's test. The present approach allows us to restate the concealment–bindingness tradeoff in terms of the continuity of dilations of probabilistic quantum combs with the metric given by the comb discriminability-distance.

  19. Statistical mechanics approach to 1-bit compressed sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yingying; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Compressed sensing is a framework that makes it possible to recover an N-dimensional sparse vector x∈R N from its linear transformation y∈R M of lower dimensionality M 1 -norm-based signal recovery scheme for 1-bit compressed sensing using statistical mechanics methods. We show that the signal recovery performance predicted by the replica method under the replica symmetric ansatz, which turns out to be locally unstable for modes breaking the replica symmetry, is in good consistency with experimental results of an approximate recovery algorithm developed earlier. This suggests that the l 1 -based recovery problem typically has many local optima of a similar recovery accuracy, which can be achieved by the approximate algorithm. We also develop another approximate recovery algorithm inspired by the cavity method. Numerical experiments show that when the density of nonzero entries in the original signal is relatively large the new algorithm offers better performance than the abovementioned scheme and does so with a lower computational cost. (paper)

  20. High Bit-Depth Medical Image Compression With HEVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Saurin S; Ruiz, Damian; Kalva, Hari; Fernandez-Escribano, Gerardo; Adzic, Velibor

    2018-03-01

    Efficient storing and retrieval of medical images has direct impact on reducing costs and improving access in cloud-based health care services. JPEG 2000 is currently the commonly used compression format for medical images shared using the DICOM standard. However, new formats such as high efficiency video coding (HEVC) can provide better compression efficiency compared to JPEG 2000. Furthermore, JPEG 2000 is not suitable for efficiently storing image series and 3-D imagery. Using HEVC, a single format can support all forms of medical images. This paper presents the use of HEVC for diagnostically acceptable medical image compression, focusing on compression efficiency compared to JPEG 2000. Diagnostically acceptable lossy compression and complexity of high bit-depth medical image compression are studied. Based on an established medically acceptable compression range for JPEG 2000, this paper establishes acceptable HEVC compression range for medical imaging applications. Experimental results show that using HEVC can increase the compression performance, compared to JPEG 2000, by over 54%. Along with this, a new method for reducing computational complexity of HEVC encoding for medical images is proposed. Results show that HEVC intra encoding complexity can be reduced by over 55% with negligible increase in file size.

  1. A Fast Soft Bit Error Rate Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ait-Idir Tarik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have suggested in a previous publication a method to estimate the Bit Error Rate (BER of a digital communications system instead of using the famous Monte Carlo (MC simulation. This method was based on the estimation of the probability density function (pdf of soft observed samples. The kernel method was used for the pdf estimation. In this paper, we suggest to use a Gaussian Mixture (GM model. The Expectation Maximisation algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of this mixture. The optimal number of Gaussians is computed by using Mutual Information Theory. The analytical expression of the BER is therefore simply given by using the different estimated parameters of the Gaussian Mixture. Simulation results are presented to compare the three mentioned methods: Monte Carlo, Kernel and Gaussian Mixture. We analyze the performance of the proposed BER estimator in the framework of a multiuser code division multiple access system and show that attractive performance is achieved compared with conventional MC or Kernel aided techniques. The results show that the GM method can drastically reduce the needed number of samples to estimate the BER in order to reduce the required simulation run-time, even at very low BER.

  2. Feasibility Study of 8-Bit Microcontroller Applications for Ethernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Gulbinovič

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility study of 8-bit microcontroller applications for Ethernet is presented. Designed device is based on ATmega32 microcontroller and 10 Mbps Ethernet controller ENC28J60. Device is simulated as mass queuing theoretical model with ticket booking counter. Practical explorations are accomplished and characteristics are determined. Practical results are compared to theoretical ones. Program code and device packet processing speed optimization are discussed. Microcontroller packet processing speed and packet latency depend on packet size. For ICMP protocol packet processing speed varies 1.4–2.1 Mbps, latency – 0.8–8.4 ms. UDP protocol packet processing speed varies 1.3–1.8 Mbps, latency – 1.1–9.6 ms. Packet processing speed depends on compilation settings and program code compression level. Best results are reached on optimization le­vel ‑O3, then speed increased ~3% but program code size increased 68% comparing to –Os optimization level.Article in Lithuanian

  3. How to score questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, W.K.B.; Ten Berge, J.M.F.; Hendriks, A.A.J.

    The standard practice in scoring questionnaires consists of adding item scores and standardizing these sums. We present a set of alternative procedures, consisting of (a) correcting for the acquiescence variance that disturbs the structure of the questionnaire; (b) establishing item weights through

  4. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  5. Why informatics and general science need a conjoint basic definition of information

    OpenAIRE

    Orthuber, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    First the basic definition of information as a selection from a set of possibilities resp. domain is recalled. This also applies to digital information. The bits of digital information are parts of number sequences which represent a selection from a set of possibilities resp. domain. For faultless conversation sender and receiver of information must have the same definition of the domain (e.g. of language vocabulary). Up to now the definition of the domain and of its elements is derived from ...

  6. Pediatric siMS score: A new, simple and accurate continuous metabolic syndrome score for everyday use in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rade; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Stojan, George; Vukovic, Ana; Mitrovic, Katarina; Todorovic, Sladjana; Soldatovic, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The dichotomous nature of the current definition of metabolic syndrome (MS) in youth results in loss of information. On the other hand, the calculation of continuous MS scores using standardized residuals in linear regression (Z scores) or factor scores of principal component analysis (PCA) is highly impractical for clinical use. Recently, a novel, easily calculated continuous MS score called siMS score was developed based on the IDF MS criteria for the adult population. To develop a Pediatric siMS score (PsiMS), a modified continuous MS score for use in the obese youth, based on the original siMS score, while keeping the score as simple as possible and retaining high correlation with more complex scores. The database consisted of clinical data on 153 obese (BMI ≥95th percentile) children and adolescents. Continuous MS scores were calculated using Z scores and PCA, as well as the original siMS score. Four variants of PsiMS score were developed in accordance with IDF criteria for MS in youth and correlation of these scores with PCA and Z score derived MS continuous scores was assessed. PsiMS score calculated using formula: (2xWaist/Height) + (Glucose(mmol/l)/5.6) + (triglycerides(mmol/l)/1.7) + (Systolic BP/130)-(HDL(mmol/l)/1.02) showed the highest correlation with most of the complex continuous scores (0.792-0.901). The original siMS score also showed high correlation with continuous MS scores. PsiMS score represents a practical and accurate score for the evaluation of MS in the obese youth. The original siMS score should be used when evaluating large cohorts consisting of both adults and children.

  7. Checklist for Evaluating SREB-SCORE Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This checklist is based on "Evaluation Criteria for SREB-SCORE Learning Objects" and is designed to help schools and colleges determine the quality and effectiveness of learning objects. It is suggested that each learning object be rated to the extent to which it meets the criteria and the SREB-SCORE definition of a learning object. A learning…

  8. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  9. The Virtual Solar Observatory at Eight and a Bit!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Alisdair R.; VSO Team

    2011-05-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) was the first virtual observatory in the solar and heliophysics data space. It first saw the light of day in 2003 with a mission to serve the solar physics community by enabling homogenous access to heterogeneous data, and hiding the gory details of doing so from the user. The VSO pioneered what was to become the "Small Box" methodology, setting out to provide only the services required to navigate the user to the data and then letting them directly transferred the data from the data providers. After eight and a bit years the VSO now serves data from 72 different instruments covering a multitude of space and ground based observatories, including data from SDO. Dealing with the volume of data from SDO has proved to be our most difficult challenge, forcing us from the small box approach to one where the various VSO sites not only serve SDO data, but are central to the distribution of the data within the US and to Europe and other parts of the world. With SDO data serving mostly in place we are now working on integration with the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) and including a number of new solar data sets in the VSO family. We have a complete VSO search interface in IDL now, enabling searching, downloading and processing solar data, all be done without leaving the IDL command line, and will be releasing a brand new web interface providing users and data providers, with the ability to create far more detailed and instrument specific searches. Eight years on and the VSO has plenty of work in front of it.

  10. A preliminary study on the containment building integrity following BIT removal for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Young; Song, Dong Soo; Byun, Choong Sub [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Boron Injection Tank(BIT) is a component of the Safety Injection System, which its sole function is to provide concentrated boric acid to the reactor coolant in order to mitigate the consequences of postulated main steamline break accidents. Although BIT plays an important role in mitigating the accident, high concentration of 20,000ppm causes valve leakage, clog of precipitation and continuous heat tracing have to be provided. For the removal of BIT, benchmarking analysis is performed between COPATTA code used in final safety analysis report and CONTEMPT code to be used this study. CONTEMPT is well compatible with COPATTA. The sensitivity study for integrity is performed for the three cases of full double ended rupture at 102% power with diesel generator failure, 3.4m{sup 3} and 2400ppm BIT, 3.4m{sup 3} and 0ppm BIT and no volume of BIT. The results show that the deactivation of BIT is plausible for success.

  11. Minimal-post-processing 320-Gbps true random bit generation using physical white chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anbang; Wang, Longsheng; Li, Pu; Wang, Yuncai

    2017-02-20

    Chaotic external-cavity semiconductor laser (ECL) is a promising entropy source for generation of high-speed physical random bits or digital keys. The rate and randomness is unfortunately limited by laser relaxation oscillation and external-cavity resonance, and is usually improved by complicated post processing. Here, we propose using a physical broadband white chaos generated by optical heterodyning of two ECLs as entropy source to construct high-speed random bit generation (RBG) with minimal post processing. The optical heterodyne chaos not only has a white spectrum without signature of relaxation oscillation and external-cavity resonance but also has a symmetric amplitude distribution. Thus, after quantization with a multi-bit analog-digital-convertor (ADC), random bits can be obtained by extracting several least significant bits (LSBs) without any other processing. In experiments, a white chaos with a 3-dB bandwidth of 16.7 GHz is generated. Its entropy rate is estimated as 16 Gbps by single-bit quantization which means a spectrum efficiency of 96%. With quantization using an 8-bit ADC, 320-Gbps physical RBG is achieved by directly extracting 4 LSBs at 80-GHz sampling rate.

  12. A Novel Digital Background Calibration Technique for 16 bit SHA-less Multibit Pipelined ADC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swina Narula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a high resolution of 16 bit and high speed of 125MS/s, multibit Pipelined ADC with digital background calibration is presented. In order to achieve low power, SHA-less front end is used with multibit stages. The first and second stages are used here as a 3.5 bit and the stages from third to seventh are of 2.5 bit and last stage is of 3-bit flash ADC. After bit alignment and truncation of total 19 bits, 16 bits are used as final digital output. To precise the remove linear gain error of the residue amplifier and capacitor mismatching error, a digital background calibration technique is used, which is a combination of signal dependent dithering (SDD and butterfly shuffler. To improve settling time of residue amplifier, a special circuit of voltage separation is used. With the proposed digital background calibration technique, the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR has been improved to 97.74 dB @30 MHz and 88.9 dB @150 MHz, and the signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR has been improved to 79.77 dB @ 30 MHz, and 73.5 dB @ 150 MHz. The implementation of the Pipelined ADC has been completed with technology parameters of 0.18μm CMOS process with 1.8 V supply. Total power consumption is 300 mW by the proposed ADC.

  13. Diamonds are forever: drill bit advances may offer cheaper and stronger alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.

    2001-02-01

    The rise to prominence of polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) and diamond-impregnated drill bits, slowly providing stiff competition to the roller-cone type bits that for many years was the standard in the drilling industry, is discussed. A roller-cone drill bit, although much improved by heat treatment of the metal and the addition of tungsten carbide, is still mostly steel. It works by crushing the rock by overcoming its compressive strength, whereas PDC drill bits shear the rock away in a manner similar to scraping ice from a car windshield. PDC bits typically have three to six cutting surfaces, each one edged with a row of polycrystalline diamond cutters, bonded to a tungsten carbide base by a process called microwave sintering. Compared to roller cones, PDCs drill at least twice as fast, especially in the soft rock and clay where they have been used principally. In addition to saving rig time, PDC bits can handle longer runs; in the right application it is possible to drill the total depth of a well with only one bit. The microwave-sintered tungsten carbide also has higher corrosion resistance than the same material bonded under high pressure; PDCs are also less subject to mechanical failure than roller cones which use moveable bearings, seals and rotating cones. 1 photo.

  14. Credit Scoring Problem Based on Regression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Khassawneh, Bashar Suhil Jad Allah

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This thesis provides an explanatory introduction to the regression models of data mining and contains basic definitions of key terms in the linear, multiple and logistic regression models. Meanwhile, the aim of this study is to illustrate fitting models for the credit scoring problem using simple linear, multiple linear and logistic regression models and also to analyze the found model functions by statistical tools. Keywords: Data mining, linear regression, logistic regression....

  15. The Design of a Single-Bit CMOS Image Sensor for Iris Recognition Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keunyeol Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-bit CMOS image sensor (CIS that uses a data processing technique with an edge detection block for simple iris segmentation. In order to recognize the iris image, the image sensor conventionally captures high-resolution image data in digital code, extracts the iris data, and then compares it with a reference image through a recognition algorithm. However, in this case, the frame rate decreases by the time required for digital signal conversion of multi-bit digital data through the analog-to-digital converter (ADC in the CIS. In order to reduce the overall processing time as well as the power consumption, we propose a data processing technique with an exclusive OR (XOR logic gate to obtain single-bit and edge detection image data instead of multi-bit image data through the ADC. In addition, we propose a logarithmic counter to efficiently measure single-bit image data that can be applied to the iris recognition algorithm. The effective area of the proposed single-bit image sensor (174 × 144 pixel is 2.84 mm2 with a 0.18 μm 1-poly 4-metal CMOS image sensor process. The power consumption of the proposed single-bit CIS is 2.8 mW with a 3.3 V of supply voltage and 520 frame/s of the maximum frame rates. The error rate of the ADC is 0.24 least significant bit (LSB on an 8-bit ADC basis at a 50 MHz sampling frequency.

  16. A Model of Computation for Bit-Level Concurrent Computing and Programming: APEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiro, Takashi; Tsuchida, Kensei

    A concurrent model of computation and a language based on the model for bit-level operation are useful for developing asynchronous and concurrent programs compositionally, which frequently use bit-level operations. Some examples are programs for video games, hardware emulation (including virtual machines), and signal processing. However, few models and languages are optimized and oriented to bit-level concurrent computation. We previously developed a visual programming language called A-BITS for bit-level concurrent programming. The language is based on a dataflow-like model that computes using processes that provide serial bit-level operations and FIFO buffers connected to them. It can express bit-level computation naturally and develop compositionally. We then devised a concurrent computation model called APEC (Asynchronous Program Elements Connection) for bit-level concurrent computation. This model enables precise and formal expression of the process of computation, and a notion of primitive program elements for controlling and operating can be expressed synthetically. Specifically, the model is based on a notion of uniform primitive processes, called primitives, that have three terminals and four ordered rules at most, as well as on bidirectional communication using vehicles called carriers. A new notion is that a carrier moving between two terminals can briefly express some kinds of computation such as synchronization and bidirectional communication. The model's properties make it most applicable to bit-level computation compositionally, since the uniform computation elements are enough to develop components that have practical functionality. Through future application of the model, our research may enable further research on a base model of fine-grain parallel computer architecture, since the model is suitable for expressing massive concurrency by a network of primitives.

  17. The Design of a Single-Bit CMOS Image Sensor for Iris Recognition Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keunyeol; Song, Minkyu; Kim, Soo Youn

    2018-02-24

    This paper presents a single-bit CMOS image sensor (CIS) that uses a data processing technique with an edge detection block for simple iris segmentation. In order to recognize the iris image, the image sensor conventionally captures high-resolution image data in digital code, extracts the iris data, and then compares it with a reference image through a recognition algorithm. However, in this case, the frame rate decreases by the time required for digital signal conversion of multi-bit digital data through the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in the CIS. In order to reduce the overall processing time as well as the power consumption, we propose a data processing technique with an exclusive OR (XOR) logic gate to obtain single-bit and edge detection image data instead of multi-bit image data through the ADC. In addition, we propose a logarithmic counter to efficiently measure single-bit image data that can be applied to the iris recognition algorithm. The effective area of the proposed single-bit image sensor (174 × 144 pixel) is 2.84 mm² with a 0.18 μm 1-poly 4-metal CMOS image sensor process. The power consumption of the proposed single-bit CIS is 2.8 mW with a 3.3 V of supply voltage and 520 frame/s of the maximum frame rates. The error rate of the ADC is 0.24 least significant bit (LSB) on an 8-bit ADC basis at a 50 MHz sampling frequency.

  18. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  19. Time-space modal logic for verification of bit-slice circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, Hiromi

    1996-03-01

    The major goal of this paper is to propose a new modal logic aiming at formal verification of bit-slice circuits. The new logic is called as time-space modal logic and its major feature is that it can handle two transition relations: one for time transition and the other for space transition. As for a verification algorithm, a symbolic model checking algorithm of the new logic is shown. This could be applicable to verification of bit-slice microprocessor of infinite bit width and 1D systolic array of infinite length. A simple benchmark result shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. Inadvertently programmed bits in Samsung 128 Mbit flash devices: a flaky investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, G.

    2002-01-01

    JPL's X2000 avionics design pioneers new territory by specifying a non-volatile memory (NVM) board based on flash memories. The Samsung 128Mb device chosen was found to demonstrate bit errors (mostly program disturbs) and block-erase failures that increase with cycling. Low temperature, certain pseudo- random patterns, and, probably, higher bias increase the observable bit errors. An experiment was conducted to determine the wearout dependence of the bit errors to 100k cycles at cold temperature using flight-lot devices (some pre-irradiated). The results show an exponential growth rate, a wide part-to-part variation, and some annealing behavior.

  1. Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment via pre- and post-selected quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Bing; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Li, Zi-Chen; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ya-Tao

    2014-01-01

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment is a most important and realizable quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol. By taking advantage of quantum mechanism, it can achieve higher security than classical bit commitment. In this paper, we propose a QBC schemes based on pre- and post-selected quantum states. The analysis indicates that both of the two participants' cheat strategies will be detected with non-zero probability. And the protocol can be implemented with today's technology as a long-term quantum memory is not needed.

  2. Optimization of rock-bit life based on bearing failure criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feav, M.J.; Thorogood, J.L.; Whelehan, O.P.; Williamson, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent advances in rock-bit seal technology have allowed greater predictability of bearing life. Cone loss following bearing failure incurs costs related to remedial activities. A risk analysis approach, incorporating bearing-life relationships and the inter-dependence of drilling events, is used to formulate a bit-run cost-optimization method. The procedure enables a choice to be made between elastomeric and metal seals on a lowest-replacement-cost basis. The technique also provides a formal method for assessing the opportunity cost for using a device to detect bit-bearing failures downhole

  3. Bit Error Rate Performance of a MIMO-CDMA System Employing Parity-Bit-Selected Spreading in Frequency Nonselective Rayleigh Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude D'Amours

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We analytically derive the upper bound for the bit error rate (BER performance of a single user multiple input multiple output code division multiple access (MIMO-CDMA system employing parity-bit-selected spreading in slowly varying, flat Rayleigh fading. The analysis is done for spatially uncorrelated links. The analysis presented demonstrates that parity-bit-selected spreading provides an asymptotic gain of 10log(Nt dB over conventional MIMO-CDMA when the receiver has perfect channel estimates. This analytical result concurs with previous works where the (BER is determined by simulation methods and provides insight into why the different techniques provide improvement over conventional MIMO-CDMA systems.

  4. High bit rate germanium single photon detectors for 1310nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamons, J. A.; Carroll, M. S.

    2008-04-01

    There is increasing interest in development of high speed, low noise and readily fieldable near infrared (NIR) single photon detectors. InGaAs/InP Avalanche photodiodes (APD) operated in Geiger mode (GM) are a leading choice for NIR due to their preeminence in optical networking. After-pulsing is, however, a primary challenge to operating InGaAs/InP single photon detectors at high frequencies1. After-pulsing is the effect of charge being released from traps that trigger false ("dark") counts. To overcome this problem, hold-off times between detection windows are used to allow the traps to discharge to suppress after-pulsing. The hold-off time represents, however, an upper limit on detection frequency that shows degradation beginning at frequencies of ~100 kHz in InGaAs/InP. Alternatively, germanium (Ge) single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPAD) have been reported to have more than an order of magnitude smaller charge trap densities than InGaAs/InP SPADs2, which allowed them to be successfully operated with passive quenching2 (i.e., no gated hold off times necessary), which is not possible with InGaAs/InP SPADs, indicating a much weaker dark count dependence on hold-off time consistent with fewer charge traps. Despite these encouraging results suggesting a possible higher operating frequency limit for Ge SPADs, little has been reported on Ge SPAD performance at high frequencies presumably because previous work with Ge SPADs has been discouraged by a strong demand to work at 1550 nm. NIR SPADs require cooling, which in the case of Ge SPADs dramatically reduces the quantum efficiency of the Ge at 1550 nm. Recently, however, advantages to working at 1310 nm have been suggested which combined with a need to increase quantum bit rates for quantum key distribution (QKD) motivates examination of Ge detectors performance at very high detection rates where InGaAs/InP does not perform as well. Presented in this paper are measurements of a commercially available Ge APD

  5. LD Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Disability Quarterly, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The position paper (1981) of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities presents a revised definition of learning disabilities and identifies issues and concerns (such as the limitation to children and the exclusion clause) associated with the definition included in P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. (DB)

  6. An electrically reprogrammable 1024 bits MNOS ROM using MNOS-SOS e/d technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackowiak, E.; Le Goascoz, V.

    1976-01-01

    A 1024 bits fully decoded electrically writable and erasable non volatile ROM is described. Memory cells and peripheral circuits are made using P channel silicon on sapphire enhancement depletion technology [fr

  7. A Methodology and Tool for Investigation of Artifacts Left by the BitTorrent Client

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Venčkauskas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The BitTorrent client application is a popular utility for sharing large files over the Internet. Sometimes, this powerful utility is used to commit cybercrimes, like sharing of illegal material or illegal sharing of legal material. In order to help forensics investigators to fight against these cybercrimes, we carried out an investigation of the artifacts left by the BitTorrent client. We proposed a methodology to locate the artifacts that indicate the BitTorrent client activity performed. Additionally, we designed and implemented a tool that searches for the evidence left by the BitTorrent client application in a local computer running Windows. The tool looks for the four files holding the evidence. The files are as follows: *.torrent, dht.dat, resume.dat, and settings.dat. The tool decodes the files, extracts important information for the forensic investigator and converts it into XML format. The results are combined into a single result file.

  8. Quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, Fabio Alencar; Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we propose a quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states. The protocol is described and its security against brute force and quantum cloning machine attack is analyzed

  9. Quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Fábio Alencar; Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2008-02-01

    In this work, we propose a quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states. The protocol is described and its security against brute force and quantum cloning machine attack is analyzed.

  10. Semifragile Speech Watermarking Based on Least Significant Bit Replacement of Line Spectral Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Nematollahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various techniques for speech watermarking based on modifying the linear prediction coefficients (LPCs; however, the estimated and modified LPCs vary from each other even without attacks. Because line spectral frequency (LSF has less sensitivity to watermarking than LPC, watermark bits are embedded into the maximum number of LSFs by applying the least significant bit replacement (LSBR method. To reduce the differences between estimated and modified LPCs, a checking loop is added to minimize the watermark extraction error. Experimental results show that the proposed semifragile speech watermarking method can provide high imperceptibility and that any manipulation of the watermark signal destroys the watermark bits since manipulation changes it to a random stream of bits.

  11. Accurate Bit Error Rate Calculation for Asynchronous Chaos-Based DS-CDMA over Multipath Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddoum, Georges; Roviras, Daniel; Chargé, Pascal; Fournier-Prunaret, Daniele

    2009-12-01

    An accurate approach to compute the bit error rate expression for multiuser chaosbased DS-CDMA system is presented in this paper. For more realistic communication system a slow fading multipath channel is considered. A simple RAKE receiver structure is considered. Based on the bit energy distribution, this approach compared to others computation methods existing in literature gives accurate results with low computation charge. Perfect estimation of the channel coefficients with the associated delays and chaos synchronization is assumed. The bit error rate is derived in terms of the bit energy distribution, the number of paths, the noise variance, and the number of users. Results are illustrated by theoretical calculations and numerical simulations which point out the accuracy of our approach.

  12. Improved method of generating bit reversed numbers for calculating fast fourier transform

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.

    Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an important tool required for signal processing in defence applications. This paper reports an improved method for generating bit reversed numbers needed in calculating FFT using radix-2. The refined algorithm takes...

  13. FastBit: an efficient indexing technology for accelerating data-intensive science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kesheng

    2005-01-01

    FastBit is a software tool for searching large read-only datasets. It organizes user data in a column-oriented structure which is efficient for on-line analytical processing (OLAP), and utilizes compressed bitmap indices to further speed up query processing. Analyses have proven the compressed bitmap index used in FastBit to be theoretically optimal for onedimensional queries. Compared with other optimal indexing methods, bitmap indices are superior because they can be efficiently combined to answer multi-dimensional queries whereas other optimal methods can not. In this paper, we first describe the searching capability of FastBit, then briefly highlight two applications that make extensive use of FastBit, namely Grid Collector and DEX

  14. FastBit: An Efficient Indexing Technology For AcceleratingData-Intensive Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng

    2005-06-27

    FastBit is a software tool for searching large read-only data sets. It organizes user data in a column-oriented structure which is efficient for on-line analytical processing (OLAP), and utilizes compressed bitmap indices to further speed up query processing. Analyses have proven the compressed bitmap index used in FastBit to be theoretically optimal for one-dimensional queries. Compared with other optimal indexing methods, bitmap indices are superior because they can be efficiently combined to answer multi-dimensional queries whereas other optimal methods cannot. In this paper, we first describe the searching capability of FastBit, then briefly highlight two applications that make extensive use of FastBit, namely Grid Collector and DEX.

  15. FastBit: an efficient indexing technology for accelerating data-intensive science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kesheng

    2005-01-01

    FastBit is a software tool for searching large read-only datasets. It organizes user data in a column-oriented structure which is efficient for on-line analytical processing (OLAP), and utilizes compressed bitmap indices to further speed up query processing. Analyses have proven the compressed bitmap index used in FastBit to be theoretically optimal for onedimensional queries. Compared with other optimal indexing methods, bitmap indices are superior because they can be efficiently combined to answer multi-dimensional queries whereas other optimal methods can not. In this paper, we first describe the searching capability of FastBit, then briefly highlight two applications that make extensive use of FastBit, namely Grid Collector and DEX.

  16. On the relationships between higher and lower bit-depth system measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Stephen D.; Haefner, David P.; Doe, Joshua M.

    2018-04-01

    The quality of an imaging system can be assessed through controlled laboratory objective measurements. Currently, all imaging measurements require some form of digitization in order to evaluate a metric. Depending on the device, the amount of bits available, relative to a fixed dynamic range, will exhibit quantization artifacts. From a measurement standpoint, measurements are desired to be performed at the highest possible bit-depth available. In this correspondence, we described the relationship between higher and lower bit-depth measurements. The limits to which quantization alters the observed measurements will be presented. Specifically, we address dynamic range, MTF, SiTF, and noise. Our results provide guidelines to how systems of lower bit-depth should be characterized and the corresponding experimental methods.

  17. Single-chip pulse programmer for magnetic resonance imaging using a 32-bit microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Shinya; Domalain, Thierry; Kose, Katsumi

    2007-08-01

    A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pulse programmer has been developed using a single-chip microcontroller (ADmicroC7026). The microcontroller includes all the components required for the MRI pulse programmer: a 32-bit RISC CPU core, 62 kbytes of flash memory, 8 kbytes of SRAM, two 32-bit timers, four 12-bit DA converters, and 40 bits of general purpose I/O. An evaluation board for the microcontroller was connected to a host personal computer (PC), an MRI transceiver, and a gradient driver using interface circuitry. Target (embedded) and host PC programs were developed to enable MRI pulse sequence generation by the microcontroller. The pulse programmer achieved a (nominal) time resolution of approximately 100 ns and a minimum time delay between successive events of approximately 9 micros. Imaging experiments using the pulse programmer demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach.

  18. Klasifikasi Bit-Plane Noise untuk Penyisipan Pesan pada Teknik Steganography BPCS Menggunakan Fuzzy Inference Sistem Mamdani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Hidayat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bit-Plane Complexity Segmentation (BPCS is a fairly new steganography technique. The most important process in BPCS is the calculation of complexity value of a bit-plane. The bit-plane complexity is calculated by looking at the amount of bit changes contained in a bit-plane. If a bit-plane has a high complexity, the bi-plane is categorized as a noise bit-plane that does not contain valuable information on the image. Classification of the bit-plane using the set cripst set (noise/not is not fair, where a little difference of the value will significantly change the status of the bit-plane. The purpose of this study is to apply the principles of fuzzy sets to classify the bit-plane into three sets that are informative, partly informative, and the noise region. Classification of the bit-plane into a fuzzy set is expected to classify the bit-plane in a more objective approach and ultimately message capacity of the images can be improved by using the Mamdani fuzzy inference to take decisions which bit-plane will be replaced with a message based on the classification of bit-plane and the size of the message that will be inserted. This research is able to increase the capability of BPCS steganography techniques to insert a message in bit-pane with more precise so that the container image quality would be better. It can be seen that the PSNR value of original image and stego-image is only slightly different.

  19. SOLAR TRACKER CERDAS DAN MURAH BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER 8 BIT ATMega8535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sutaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available prototipe produk solar tracker cerdas berbasis mikrokontroler AVR 8 bit. Solar tracker ini memasukkan filter digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response pada bagian program. Memprogram filter ini membutuhkan perkalian 32 bit sedangkan prosesor yang tersedia pada mikrokontroler yang dipakai adalah 8 bit. Proses perkalian ini hanya bisa dilakukan pada mikrokontroler 8 bit dengan menggunakan bahasa assembly yang merupakan bahasa level hardware. Solar tracker cerdas yang menggunakan mikrokontroler 8 bit sebagai otak utama pada penelitian ini menjadikan produk ini berbiaya rendah. Pengujian yang dilakukan menunjukkan bahwa solar tracker cerdas dibandingkan dengan solar tracker biasa mempunyai perbedaan konsumsi daya baterai yang sangat signifikan yaitu terjadi penghematan sebesar 85 %. Besar penghematan konsumsi daya ini tentunya bukan sebuah angka konstan melainkan tergantung seberapa besar noise yang dikenakan pada alat solar tracker. Untuk sebuah perlakuan yang sama, maka semakin besar noise semakin besar pula perbedaan penghematan konsumsi daya pada solar tracker yang cerdas. Kata-kata kunci: solar tracker, filter digital, mikrokontroler 8 bit, konsumsi daya Abstract This research had made a prototype of smart solar tracker product based on microcontroller AVR 8 bit. The solar tracker used digital filter IIR (Infinite Impulse Response on its software. Filter programming needs 32 bit multiplication but the processor inside of the microcontroller that used in this research is 8 bit. This multiplication is only can be solved on microcontroller 8 bit by using assembly language in programming. The language is a hardware level language. The smart solar tracker using the microcontroller 8 bit as a main brain in this research made the product had a low cost. The test results show that the comparison in saving of baterai power consumption between the smart solar tracker and the normal one is 85 %. The percentage of the saving indubitably is not a constant

  20. HIGH-POWER TURBODRILL AND DRILL BIT FOR DRILLING WITH COILED TUBING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; David Glowka; Man Mohan Rai; David Conroy; Tim Beaton; Rocky Seale; Joseph Hanna; Smith Neyrfor; Homer Robertson

    2008-03-31

    Commercial introduction of Microhole Technology to the gas and oil drilling industry requires an effective downhole drive mechanism which operates efficiently at relatively high RPM and low bit weight for delivering efficient power to the special high RPM drill bit for ensuring both high penetration rate and long bit life. This project entails developing and testing a more efficient 2-7/8 in. diameter Turbodrill and a novel 4-1/8 in. diameter drill bit for drilling with coiled tubing. The high-power Turbodrill were developed to deliver efficient power, and the more durable drill bit employed high-temperature cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. This project teams Schlumberger Smith Neyrfor and Smith Bits, and NASA AMES Research Center with Technology International, Inc (TII), to deliver a downhole, hydraulically-driven power unit, matched with a custom drill bit designed to drill 4-1/8 in. boreholes with a purpose-built coiled tubing rig. The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory has funded Technology International Inc. Houston, Texas to develop a higher power Turbodrill and drill bit for use in drilling with a coiled tubing unit. This project entails developing and testing an effective downhole drive mechanism and a novel drill bit for drilling 'microholes' with coiled tubing. The new higher power Turbodrill is shorter, delivers power more efficiently, operates at relatively high revolutions per minute, and requires low weight on bit. The more durable thermally stable diamond drill bit employs high-temperature TSP (thermally stable) diamond cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. Expectations are that widespread adoption of microhole technology could spawn a wave of 'infill development' drilling of wells spaced between existing wells, which could tap potentially billions of barrels of bypassed oil at shallow depths in mature producing areas. At the same time, microhole

  1. Traffic management mechanism for intranets with available-bit-rate access to the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahbub; Sirisena, Harsha R.; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    1997-10-01

    The design of a traffic management mechanism for intranets connected to the Internet via an available bit rate access- link is presented. Selection of control parameters for this mechanism for optimum performance is shown through analysis. An estimate for packet loss probability at the access- gateway is derived for random fluctuation of available bit rate of the access-link. Some implementation strategies of this mechanism in the standard intranet protocol stack are also suggested.

  2. Euclidean Geometry Codes, minimum weight words and decodable error-patterns using bit-flipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn; Jonsson, Bergtor

    2005-01-01

    We determine the number of minimum wigth words in a class of Euclidean Geometry codes and link the performance of the bit-flipping decoding algorithm to the geometry of the error patterns.......We determine the number of minimum wigth words in a class of Euclidean Geometry codes and link the performance of the bit-flipping decoding algorithm to the geometry of the error patterns....

  3. Two-bit trinary full adder design based on restricted signed-digit numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J. U.; Awwal, A. A. S.; Karim, M. A.

    1994-08-01

    A 2-bit trinary full adder using a restricted set of a modified signed-digit trinary numeric system is designed. When cascaded together to design a multi-bit adder machine, the resulting system is able to operate at a speed independent of the size of the operands. An optical non-holographic content addressable memory based on binary coded arithmetic is considered for implementing the proposed adder.

  4. Area-efficient readout with 14-bit SAR-ADC for CMOS image sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sassi Ben

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a readout design for CMOS image sensors. It has been squeezed into a 7.5um pitch under a 0.28um 1P3M technology. The ADC performs one 14-bit conversion in only 1.5us and targets a theoretical DNL feature about +1.3/-1 at 14-bit accuracy. Correlated Double Sampling (CDS is performed both in the analog and digital domains to preserve the image quality.

  5. 16QAM transmission with 5.2 bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over transoceanic distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Cai, J-X; Batshon, H G; Davidson, C R; Sun, Y; Mazurczyk, M; Foursa, D G; Pilipetskii, A; Mohs, G; Bergano, Neal S

    2012-05-21

    We transmit 160 x 100 G PDM RZ 16 QAM channels with 5.2 bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 6,860 km. There are more than 3 billion 16 QAM symbols, i.e., 12 billion bits, processed in total. Using coded modulation and iterative decoding between a MAP decoder and an LDPC based FEC all channels are decoded with no remaining errors.

  6. Re-use of Low Bandwidth Equipment for High Bit Rate Transmission Using Signal Slicing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Spolitis, S.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    : Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates.......: Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates....

  7. Increasing the bit rate in OCDMA systems using pulse position modulation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Vahid R; Saghari, Poorya; Haghi, Mahta; Ebrahimi, Paniz; Willner, Alan E

    2007-09-17

    We have experimentally demonstrated two novel pulse position modulation techniques, namely Double Pulse Position Modulation (2-PPM) and Differential Pulse Position Modulation (DPPM) in Time-Wavelength OCDMA systems that will operate at a higher bit rate compared to traditional OOK-OCDMA systems with the same bandwidth. With 2-PPM technique, the number of active users will be more than DPPM while their bit rate is almost the same. Both techniques provide variable quality of service in OCDMA networks.

  8. Quantifying the Impact of Single Bit Flips on Floating Point Arithmetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, James J [ORNL; Mueller, Frank [North Carolina State University; Stoyanov, Miroslav K [ORNL; Webster, Clayton G [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    In high-end computing, the collective surface area, smaller fabrication sizes, and increasing density of components have led to an increase in the number of observed bit flips. If mechanisms are not in place to detect them, such flips produce silent errors, i.e. the code returns a result that deviates from the desired solution by more than the allowed tolerance and the discrepancy cannot be distinguished from the standard numerical error associated with the algorithm. These phenomena are believed to occur more frequently in DRAM, but logic gates, arithmetic units, and other circuits are also susceptible to bit flips. Previous work has focused on algorithmic techniques for detecting and correcting bit flips in specific data structures, however, they suffer from lack of generality and often times cannot be implemented in heterogeneous computing environment. Our work takes a novel approach to this problem. We focus on quantifying the impact of a single bit flip on specific floating-point operations. We analyze the error induced by flipping specific bits in the most widely used IEEE floating-point representation in an architecture-agnostic manner, i.e., without requiring proprietary information such as bit flip rates and the vendor-specific circuit designs. We initially study dot products of vectors and demonstrate that not all bit flips create a large error and, more importantly, expected value of the relative magnitude of the error is very sensitive on the bit pattern of the binary representation of the exponent, which strongly depends on scaling. Our results are derived analytically and then verified experimentally with Monte Carlo sampling of random vectors. Furthermore, we consider the natural resilience properties of solvers based on the fixed point iteration and we demonstrate how the resilience of the Jacobi method for linear equations can be significantly improved by rescaling the associated matrix.

  9. Bit Bang 4: Future of internet - Societal, business, governance and technological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Neuvo, Yrjö (ed.); Karvonen, Elina (ed.)

    2012-01-01

    Bit Bang – Future of the Internet: Societal, business, governance and technological aspects was the fourth multidisciplinary post-graduate course for doctoral students at Aalto University. Altogether 24 students were selected from five Aalto University Schools: School of Arts, Design and Architecture; School of Economics; School of Electrical Engineering; School of Engineering; and School of Science. Bit Bang is part of the MIDE (Multidisciplinary Institute of Digitalisation and Energy) resea...

  10. Instant MuseScore

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant MuseScore is written in an easy-to follow format, packed with illustrations that will help you get started with this music composition software.This book is for musicians who would like to learn how to notate music digitally with MuseScore. Readers should already have some knowledge about musical terminology; however, no prior experience with music notation software is necessary.

  11. A Symmetric Chaos-Based Image Cipher with an Improved Bit-Level Permutation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Fu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Very recently, several chaos-based image ciphers using a bit-level permutation have been suggested and shown promising results. Due to the diffusion effect introduced in the permutation stage, the workload of the time-consuming diffusion stage is reduced, and hence the performance of the cryptosystem is improved. In this paper, a symmetric chaos-based image cipher with a 3D cat map-based spatial bit-level permutation strategy is proposed. Compared with those recently proposed bit-level permutation methods, the diffusion effect of the new method is superior as the bits are shuffled among different bit-planes rather than within the same bit-plane. Moreover, the diffusion key stream extracted from hyperchaotic system is related to both the secret key and the plain image, which enhances the security against known/chosen plaintext attack. Extensive security analysis has been performed on the proposed scheme, including the most important ones like key space analysis, key sensitivity analysis, plaintext sensitivity analysis and various statistical analyses, which has demonstrated the satisfactory security of the proposed scheme

  12. Stereoscopic Visual Attention-Based Regional Bit Allocation Optimization for Multiview Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Qionghai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Stereoscopic Visual Attention- (SVA- based regional bit allocation optimization for Multiview Video Coding (MVC by the exploiting visual redundancies from human perceptions. We propose a novel SVA model, where multiple perceptual stimuli including depth, motion, intensity, color, and orientation contrast are utilized, to simulate the visual attention mechanisms of human visual system with stereoscopic perception. Then, a semantic region-of-interest (ROI is extracted based on the saliency maps of SVA. Both objective and subjective evaluations of extracted ROIs indicated that the proposed SVA model based on ROI extraction scheme outperforms the schemes only using spatial or/and temporal visual attention clues. Finally, by using the extracted SVA-based ROIs, a regional bit allocation optimization scheme is presented to allocate more bits on SVA-based ROIs for high image quality and fewer bits on background regions for efficient compression purpose. Experimental results on MVC show that the proposed regional bit allocation algorithm can achieve over % bit-rate saving while maintaining the subjective image quality. Meanwhile, the image quality of ROIs is improved by  dB at the cost of insensitive image quality degradation of the background image.

  13. The lod score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J

    2001-01-01

    The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  14. The Bayesian Score Statistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.; Kleijn, R.; Paap, R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a novel Bayesian test under a (noninformative) Jeffreys'priorspecification. We check whether the fixed scalar value of the so-calledBayesian Score Statistic (BSS) under the null hypothesis is aplausiblerealization from its known and standardized distribution under thealternative. Unlike

  15. South African Scoring System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-18

    Nov 18, 2014 ... for 80% (SASS score) and 75% (NOT) of the variation in the regression model. Consequently, SASS ... further investigation: spatial analyses of macroinvertebrate assemblages; and the use of structural and functional metrics. Keywords: .... conductivity levels was assessed using multiple linear regres- sion.

  16. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  17. Goal Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    The goal definition is the first phase of an LCA and determines the purpose of a study in detail. This chapter teaches how to perform the six aspects of a goal definition: (1) Intended applications of the results, (2) Limitations due to methodological choices, (3) Decision context and reasons...... for carrying out the study, (4) Target audience , (5) Comparative studies to be disclosed to the public and (6) Commissioner of the study and other influential actors. The instructions address both the conduct and reporting of a goal definition and are largely based on the ILCD guidance document (EC...

  18. Scope Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    The scope definition is the second phase of an LCA. It determines what product systems are to be assessed and how this assessment should take place. This chapter teaches how to perform a scope definition. First, important terminology and key concepts of LCA are introduced. Then, the nine items...... making up a scope definition are elaborately explained: (1) Deliverables. (2) Object of assessment, (3) LCI modelling framework and handling of multifunctional processes, (4) System boundaries and completeness requirements, (5) Representativeness of LCI data, (6) Preparing the basis for the impact...... assessment, (7) Special requirements for system comparisons, (8) Critical review needs and (9) Planning reporting of results. The instructions relate both to the performance and reporting of a scope definition and are largely based on ILCD....

  19. Credit scoring methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtek, Martin; Kočenda, Evžen

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, 3-4 (2006), s. 152-167 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : banking sector * credit scoring * discrimination analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2006 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1050_s_152_167.pdf

  20. Credit scoring for individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria DIMITRIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lending money to different borrowers is profitable, but risky. The profits come from the interest rate and the fees earned on the loans. Banks do not want to make loans to borrowers who cannot repay them. Even if the banks do not intend to make bad loans, over time, some of them can become bad. For instance, as a result of the recent financial crisis, the capability of many borrowers to repay their loans were affected, many of them being on default. That’s why is important for the bank to monitor the loans. The purpose of this paper is to focus on credit scoring main issues. As a consequence of this, we presented in this paper the scoring model of an important Romanian Bank. Based on this credit scoring model and taking into account the last lending requirements of the National Bank of Romania, we developed an assessment tool, in Excel, for retail loans which is presented in the case study.

  1. Communicating efficacy information based on composite scores in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela A; O'Donoghue, Amie C; Sullivan, Helen W; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Squire, Claudia; Parvanta, Sarah; Betts, Kevin R

    2016-04-01

    Drug efficacy can be measured by composite scores, which consist of two or more symptoms or other clinical components of a disease. We evaluated how individuals interpret composite scores in direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising. We conducted an experimental study of seasonal allergy sufferers (n=1967) who viewed a fictitious print DTC ad that varied by the type of information featured (general indication, list of symptoms, or definition of composite scores) and the presence or absence of an educational intervention about composite scores. We measured composite score recognition and comprehension, and perceived drug efficacy and risk. Ads that featured either (1) the composite score definition alone or (2) the list of symptoms or general indication information along with the educational intervention improved composite score comprehension. Ads that included the composite score definition or the educational intervention led to lower confidence in the drug's benefits. The composite score definition improved composite score recognition and lowered drug risk perceptions. Adding composite score information to DTC print ads may improve individuals' comprehension of composite scores and affect their perceptions of the drug. Providing composite score information may lead to more informed patient-provider prescription drug decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential Fault Analysis on CLEFIA with 128, 192, and 256-Bit Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Junko; Fukunaga, Toshinori

    This paper describes a differential fault analysis (DFA) attack against CLEFIA. The proposed attack can be applied to CLEFIA with all supported keys: 128, 192, and 256-bit keys. DFA is a type of side-channel attack. This attack enables the recovery of secret keys by injecting faults into a secure device during its computation of the cryptographic algorithm and comparing the correct ciphertext with the faulty one. CLEFIA is a 128-bit blockcipher with 128, 192, and 256-bit keys developed by the Sony Corporation in 2007. CLEFIA employs a generalized Feistel structure with four data lines. We developed a new attack method that uses this characteristic structure of the CLEFIA algorithm. On the basis of the proposed attack, only 2 pairs of correct and faulty ciphertexts are needed to retrieve the 128-bit key, and 10.78 pairs on average are needed to retrieve the 192 and 256-bit keys. The proposed attack is more efficient than any previously reported. In order to verify the proposed attack and estimate the calculation time to recover the secret key, we conducted an attack simulation using a PC. The simulation results show that we can obtain each secret key within three minutes on average. This result shows that we can obtain the entire key within a feasible computational time.

  3. Video steganography based on bit-plane decomposition of wavelet-transformed video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Hideki; Furuta, Tomofumi; Niimi, Michiharu; Kawaguchi, Eiji

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents a steganography method using lossy compressed video which provides a natural way to send a large amount of secret data. The proposed method is based on wavelet compression for video data and bit-plane complexity segmentation (BPCS) steganography. BPCS steganography makes use of bit-plane decomposition and the characteristics of the human vision system, where noise-like regions in bit-planes of a dummy image are replaced with secret data without deteriorating image quality. In wavelet-based video compression methods such as 3-D set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm and Motion-JPEG2000, wavelet coefficients in discrete wavelet transformed video are quantized into a bit-plane structure and therefore BPCS steganography can be applied in the wavelet domain. 3-D SPIHT-BPCS steganography and Motion-JPEG2000-BPCS steganography are presented and tested, which are the integration of 3-D SPIHT video coding and BPCS steganography, and that of Motion-JPEG2000 and BPCS, respectively. Experimental results show that 3-D SPIHT-BPCS is superior to Motion-JPEG2000-BPCS with regard to embedding performance. In 3-D SPIHT-BPCS steganography, embedding rates of around 28% of the compressed video size are achieved for twelve bit representation of wavelet coefficients with no noticeable degradation in video quality.

  4. The Random Telegraph Signal Behavior of Intermittently Stuck Bits in SDRAMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugg, Andrew Michael; Burnell, Andrew J.; Duncan, Peter H.; Parker, Sarah; Ward, Jonathan J.

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports behavior analogous to the Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) seen in the leakage currents from radiation induced hot pixels in Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), but in the context of stuck bits in Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memories (SDRAMs). Our analysis suggests that pseudo-random sticking and unsticking of the SDRAM bits is due to thermally induced fluctuations in leakage current through displacement damage complexes in depletion regions that were created by high-energy neutron and proton interactions. It is shown that the number of observed stuck bits increases exponentially with temperature, due to the general increase in the leakage currents through the damage centers with temperature. Nevertheless, some stuck bits are seen to pseudo-randomly stick and unstick in the context of a continuously rising trend of temperature, thus demonstrating that their damage centers can exist in multiple widely spaced, discrete levels of leakage current, which is highly consistent with RTS. This implies that these intermittently stuck bits (ISBs) are a displacement damage phenomenon and are unrelated to microdose issues, which is confirmed by the observation that they also occur in unbiased irradiation. Finally, we note that observed variations in the periodicity of the sticking and unsticking behavior on several timescales is most readily explained by multiple leakage current pathways through displacement damage complexes spontaneously and independently opening and closing under the influence of thermal vibrations.

  5. Inter-track interference mitigation with two-dimensional variable equalizer for bit patterned media recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased track density in bit patterned media recording (BPMR causes increased inter-track interference (ITI, which degrades the bit error rate (BER performance. In order to mitigate the effect of the ITI, signals from multiple tracks can be equalized by a 2D equalizer with 1D target. Usually, the 2D fixed equalizer coefficients are obtained by using a pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS for training. In this study, a 2D variable equalizer is proposed, where various sets of 2D equalizer coefficients are predetermined and stored for different ITI patterns besides the usual PRBS training. For data detection, as the ITI patterns are unknown in the first global iteration, the main and adjacent tracks are equalized with the conventional 2D fixed equalizer, detected with Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR detector and decoded with low-density parity-check (LDPC decoder. Then using the estimated bit information from main and adjacent tracks, the ITI pattern for each island of the main track can be estimated and the corresponding 2D variable equalizers are used to better equalize the bits on the main track. This process is executed iteratively by feeding back the main track information. Simulation results indicate that for both single-track and two-track detection, the proposed 2D variable equalizer can achieve better BER and frame error rate (FER compared to that with the 2D fixed equalizer.

  6. The bit slice micro-processor 'GESPRO' as a project in the UA2 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Becam, C; Delanghe, J; Fest, H M; Lecoq, J; Martin, H; Mencik, M; MerkeI, B; Meyer, J M; Perrin, M; Plothow, H; Rampazzo, J P; Schittly, A

    1981-01-01

    The bit slice micro-processor GESPRO is a CAMAC module plugged into a standard Elliot system crate via which it communicates as a slave with its host computer. It has full control of CAMAC as a master unit. GESPRO is a 24 bit machine with multi-mode memory addressing capacity of 64K words. The micro-processor structure uses 5 buses including pipe-line registers to mask access time and 16 interrupt levels. The micro-program memory capacity is 2K (RAM) words of 48 bits each. A special hardwired module allows floating point, as well as integer, multiplication of 24*24 bits, result in 48 bits, in about 200 ns. This micro-processor could be used in the UA2 data acquisition chain and trigger system for the following tasks: (a) online data reduction, i.e. to read DURANDAL, process the information resulting in accepting or rejecting the event; (b) readout and analysis of the accepted data; (c) preprocess the data. The UA2 version of GESPRO is under construction, programs and micro-programs are under development. Hard...

  7. ParBiBit: Parallel tool for binary biclustering on modern distributed-memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Jorge; Expósito, Roberto R

    2018-01-01

    Biclustering techniques are gaining attention in the analysis of large-scale datasets as they identify two-dimensional submatrices where both rows and columns are correlated. In this work we present ParBiBit, a parallel tool to accelerate the search of interesting biclusters on binary datasets, which are very popular on different fields such as genetics, marketing or text mining. It is based on the state-of-the-art sequential Java tool BiBit, which has been proved accurate by several studies, especially on scenarios that result on many large biclusters. ParBiBit uses the same methodology as BiBit (grouping the binary information into patterns) and provides the same results. Nevertheless, our tool significantly improves performance thanks to an efficient implementation based on C++11 that includes support for threads and MPI processes in order to exploit the compute capabilities of modern distributed-memory systems, which provide several multicore CPU nodes interconnected through a network. Our performance evaluation with 18 representative input datasets on two different eight-node systems shows that our tool is significantly faster than the original BiBit. Source code in C++ and MPI running on Linux systems as well as a reference manual are available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/parbibit/.

  8. The bit slice micro-processor 'GESPRO' as a project in the UA2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becam, C.; Bernaudin, P.; Delanghe, J.; Mencik, M.; Merkel, B.; Plothow, H.; Fest, H.M.; Lecoq, J.; Martin, H.; Meyer, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The bit slice micro-processor GESPRO, as it is proposed for use in the UA 2 data acquisition chain and trigger system, is a CAMAC module plugged into a standard Elliott System crate via which it communicates as a slave with its host computer (ND, DEC). It has full control of CAMAC as a master unit. GESPRO is a 24 bit machine (150 ns effective cycle time) with multi-mode memory addressing capacity of 64 K words. The micro-processor structure uses 5 busses including pipe-line registers to mask access time and 16 interrupt levels. The micro-program memory capacity is 2 K (RAM) words of 48 bits each. A special hardwired module allows floating point (as well as integer) multiplication of 24 x 24 bits, result in 48 bits, in about 200 ns. This micro-processor could be used in the UA2 data acquisition chain and trigger system for the following tasks: a) online data reduction, i.e. to read DURANDAL (fast ADC's = the hardware trigger in the experiment), process the information (effective mass calculation, etc.) resulting in accepting or rejecting the event. b) read out and analysis of the accepted data (collect statistical information). c) preprocess the data (calculation of pointers, address decoding, etc.). The UA2 version of GESPRO is under construction, programs and micro-programs are under development. Hardware and software will be tested with simulated data. First results are expected in about one year from now. (orig.)

  9. Bounds on Minimum Energy per Bit for Optical Wireless Relay Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Raza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An optical wireless relay channel (OWRC is the classical three node network consisting of source, re- lay and destination nodes with optical wireless connectivity. The channel law is assumed Gaussian. This paper studies the bounds on minimum energy per bit required for reliable communication over an OWRC. It is shown that capacity of an OWRC is concave and energy per bit is monotonically increasing in square of the peak optical signal power, and consequently the minimum energy per bit is inversely pro- portional to the square root of asymptotic capacity at low signal to noise ratio. This has been used to develop upper and lower bound on energy per bit as a function of peak signal power, mean to peak power ratio, and variance of channel noise. The upper and lower bounds on minimum energy per bit derived in this paper correspond respectively to the decode and forward lower bound and the min-max cut upper bound on OWRC capacity

  10. Corrected multiple upsets and bit reversals for improved 1-s resolution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucker, G.J.; Stassinopoulos, E.G.; Stauffer, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work has studied the generation of single and multiple errors in control and irradiated static RAM samples (Harris 6504RH) which were exposed to heavy ions for relatively long intervals of time (minute), and read out only after the beam was shut off. The present investigation involved storing 4k x 1 bit maps every second during 1 min ion exposures at low flux rates of 10 3 ions/cm 2 -s in order to reduce the chance of two sequential ions upsetting adjacent bits. The data were analyzed for the presence of adjacent upset bit locations in the physical memory plane, which were previously defined to constitute multiple upsets. Improvement in the time resolution of these measurements has provided more accurate estimates of multiple upsets. The results indicate that the percentage of multiples decreased from a high of 17% in the previous experiment to less than 1% for this new experimental technique. Consecutive double and triple upsets (reversals of bits) were detected. These were caused by sequential ions hitting the same bit, with one or two reversals of state occurring in a 1-min run. In addition to these results, a status review for these same parts covering 3.5 years of imprint damage recovery is also presented

  11. A 9-Bit 50 MSPS Quadrature Parallel Pipeline ADC for Communication Receiver Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sounak; Banerjee, Swapna

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a pipeline Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) for superheterodyne receiver application. Several enhancement techniques have been applied in implementing the ADC, in order to relax the target specifications of its building blocks. The concepts of time interleaving and double sampling have been used simultaneously to enhance the sampling speed and to reduce the number of amplifiers used in the ADC. Removal of a front end sample-and-hold amplifier is possible by employing dynamic comparators with switched capacitor based comparison of input signal and reference voltage. Each module of the ADC comprises two 2.5-bit stages followed by two 1.5-bit stages and a 3-bit flash stage. Four such pipeline ADC modules are time interleaved using two pairs of non-overlapping clock signals. These two pairs of clock signals are in phase quadrature with each other. Hence the term quadrature parallel pipeline ADC has been used. These configurations ensure that the entire ADC contains only eight operational-trans-conductance amplifiers. The ADC is implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS process and supply voltage of 1.8 V. The proto-type is tested at sampling frequencies of 50 and 75 MSPS producing an Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of 6.86- and 6.11-bits respectively. At peak sampling speed, the core ADC consumes only 65 mW of power.

  12. College Math Assessment: SAT Scores vs. College Math Placement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Peres, Kathleen; Poirier, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Many colleges and university's use SAT math scores or math placement tests to place students in the appropriate math course. This study compares the use of math placement scores and SAT scores for 188 freshman students. The student's grades and faculty observations were analyzed to determine if the SAT scores and/or college math assessment scores…

  13. Estimating NHL Scoring Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Buttrey, Samuel E.; Washburn, Alan R.; Price, Wilson L.; Operations Research

    2011-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.2202/1559-0410.1334 We propose a model to estimate the rates at which NHL teams score and yield goals. In the model, goals occur as if from a Poisson process whose rate depends on the two teams playing, the home-ice advantage, and the manpower (power-play, short-handed) situation. Data on all the games from the 2008-2009 season was downloaded and processed into a form suitable for the analysis. The model...

  14. PENINGKATAN KINERJA PERANGKAT ELEKTRONIK BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER AVR 8 BIT DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN RTOS (REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sutaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengimplementasikan RTOS (Real Time Operating System pada perangkat elektronik berbasis mikrokontroler AVR 8 bit sehingga didapatkan peningkatan kinerja pada perangkat tersebut. RTOS yang digunakan adalah freeRTOS dimana RTOS ini mendukung mikrokontroler 8 bit, berukuran kecil, dan bersifat open source. Hasil penelitian ini berguna bagi praktisi-praktisi elektronika dalam hal menekan biaya produksi pembuatan perangkat elektronik berbasis mikrokontroler 8 bit karena resource yang digunakan bisa dikurangi. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode penelitian pengembangan (Research and development dengan cara membuat studi kasus perangkat elektronik yang berbasis mikrokontroler. Perangkat elektronik yang dibuat adalah unit kendali elektronik pada sepeda motor. Selanjutnya mikrokontroler pada perangkat ini diprogram dengan menggunakan dua skenario. Skenario pertama adalah tanpa menggunakan RTOS dan skenario kedua dengan menggunakan RTOS. Dari dua skenario ini dilakukan pengujian dan analisis untuk mengetahui besar peningkatan kinerja yang didapat.

  15. arXiv FlavBit: A GAMBIT module for computing flavour observables and likelihoods

    CERN Document Server

    Bernlochner, Florian U.; Dal, Lars A.; Farmer, Ben; Jackson, Paul; Kvellestad, Anders; Mahmoudi, Farvah; Putze, Antje; Rogan, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Serra, Nicola; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin

    2017-11-21

    Flavour physics observables are excellent probes of new physics up to very high energy scales. Here we present FlavBit, the dedicated flavour physics module of the global-fitting package GAMBIT. FlavBit includes custom implementations of various likelihood routines for a wide range of flavour observables, including detailed uncertainties and correlations associated with LHCb measurements of rare, leptonic and semileptonic decays of B and D mesons, kaons and pions. It provides a generalised interface to external theory codes such as SuperIso, allowing users to calculate flavour observables in and beyond the Standard Model, and then test them in detail against all relevant experimental data. We describe FlavBit and its constituent physics in some detail, then give examples from supersymmetry and effective field theory illustrating how it can be used both as a standalone library for flavour physics, and within GAMBIT.

  16. 10-bit rapid single flux quantum digital-to-analog converter for ac voltage standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maezawa, M; Hirayama, F

    2008-01-01

    Digital-to-analog (D/A) converters based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) technology are under development for ac voltage standard applications. We present design and test results on a prototype 10-bit version integrated on a single chip. The 10-bit chip includes over 6000 Josephson junctions and consumes a bias current exceeding 1 A. To reduce the effects of the high bias current on circuit operation, a custom design method was employed in part and large circuit blocks were divided into smaller ones. The 10-bit chips were fabricated and tested at low speed. The test results suggested that our design approach could manage large bias currents on the order of 1 A per chip

  17. Directed self-assembly of block copolymers for use in bit patterned media fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Rhys Alun; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Thomson, Thomas; Williams, Aled; Oakland, Chloe; Roberts, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of the bit size in conventional magnetic recording media is becoming increasingly difficult due to the superparamagnetic limit. Bit patterned media (BPM) has been proposed as a replacement technology as it will enable hard disk areal densities to increase past 1 Tb in −2 . Block copolymer directed self-assembly (BCP DSA) is the leading candidate for forming BPM due to its ability to create uniform patterns over macroscopic areas. Here we review the latest research into two different BCP DSA techniques: graphoepitaxy and chemoepitaxy (or chemical prepatterning). In addition to assessing their potential for forming high density bit patterns, we also review current approaches using these techniques for forming servo patterns, which are required for hard disk drive (HDD) operation. Finally, we review the current state of UV nanoimprint lithography, which is the favoured technique for enabling mass production of BPM HDDs. (topical review)

  18. Design and development of CAMAC 12 bit ADC/DAC dual purpose module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.G.; Gore, J.A.; Ramlal, V.; Matkar, U.V.; Lokare, R.N.; Yadav, M.L.; Ekambaram, M.; Gupta, A.K.; Datar, V.M.

    2013-01-01

    A dual function CAMAC module is designed for Pelletron Accelerator which can function as 12 bit 8 channels DAC or 12 bit 16 channels ADC. Spartan 2 series of FPGA is used for implementing the CAMAC interface logic as well as logic for ADC/DAC interface. The PCB has both the ADC and DAC mounted but the module can have only one function selected due to wiring constraint. Two different VHDL programs (one for the ADC and other for the DAC) reside on the EEPROM permitting selection of any one as per the functionality required. The module is working as a 12 bit DAC at BARC-TIFR Pelletron Linac Facility, successfully. (author)

  19. A facile approach for screening isolated nanomagnetic behavior for bit-patterned media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajah, Naganivetha; Ng, Vivian; Asbahi, Mohamed; Yakovlev, Nikolai L; Yang, Joel K W; Wong, Rick T J; Low, Kendrick W M

    2014-01-01

    Bit-patterned media (BPM) fabricated by the direct deposition of magnetic material onto prepatterned arrays of nanopillars is a promising approach for increasing magnetic recording of areal density. One of the key challenges of this approach is to identify and control the magnetic interaction between the bits (on top of the nanopillars) and the trench material between the pillars. Using independent techniques, including magnetic force microscopy, the variable-angle magneto-optic Kerr effect, and remanence curves, we were able to determine the presence and relative intensities of exchange and dipolar interactions in Co-Pd multilayer-based BPM fabricated by direct deposition. We found that for pitches of 30 nm or less, there were negligible exchange interactions, and the bits were found to be magnetically isolated. As we move to higher densities, the absence of exchange interactions indicates that direct deposition is a promising approach to BPM fabrication. (papers)

  20. Least reliable bits coding (LRBC) for high data rate satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderaar, Mark; Budinger, James; Wagner, Paul

    1992-01-01

    LRBC, a bandwidth efficient multilevel/multistage block-coded modulation technique, is analyzed. LRBC uses simple multilevel component codes that provide increased error protection on increasingly unreliable modulated bits in order to maintain an overall high code rate that increases spectral efficiency. Soft-decision multistage decoding is used to make decisions on unprotected bits through corrections made on more protected bits. Analytical expressions and tight performance bounds are used to show that LRBC can achieve increased spectral efficiency and maintain equivalent or better power efficiency compared to that of BPSK. The relative simplicity of Galois field algebra vs the Viterbi algorithm and the availability of high-speed commercial VLSI for block codes indicates that LRBC using block codes is a desirable method for high data rate implementations.

  1. A Bit Stream Scalable Speech/Audio Coder Combining Enhanced Regular Pulse Excitation and Parametric Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera-Palou, Felip; den Brinker, Albertus C.

    2007-12-01

    This paper introduces a new audio and speech broadband coding technique based on the combination of a pulse excitation coder and a standardized parametric coder, namely, MPEG-4 high-quality parametric coder. After presenting a series of enhancements to regular pulse excitation (RPE) to make it suitable for the modeling of broadband signals, it is shown how pulse and parametric codings complement each other and how they can be merged to yield a layered bit stream scalable coder able to operate at different points in the quality bit rate plane. The performance of the proposed coder is evaluated in a listening test. The major result is that the extra functionality of the bit stream scalability does not come at the price of a reduced performance since the coder is competitive with standardized coders (MP3, AAC, SSC).

  2. Worst-case residual clipping noise power model for bit loading in LACO-OFDM

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    2018-03-19

    Layered ACO-OFDM enjoys better spectral efficiency than ACO-OFDM, but its performance is challenged by residual clipping noise (RCN). In this paper, the power of RCN of LACO-OFDM is analyzed and modeled. As RCN is data-dependent, the worst-case situation is considered. A worst-case indicator is defined for relating the power of RCN and the power of noise at the receiver, wherein a linear relation is shown to be a practical approximation. An LACO-OFDM bit-loading experiment is performed to examine the proposed RCN power model for data rates of 6 to 7 Gbps. The experiment\\'s results show that accounting for RCN has two advantages. First, it leads to better bit loading and achieves up to 59% lower overall bit-error rate (BER) than when the RCN is ignored. Second, it balances the BER across layers, which is a desired property from a channel coding perspective.

  3. Image Watermarking Scheme for Specifying False Positive Probability and Bit-pattern Embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, Kohei; Nakamoto, Masayoshi; Muneyasu, Mitsuji; Ohno, Shuichi

    This paper treats a discrete wavelet transform(DWT)-based image watermarking with considering the false positive probability and bit-pattern embedding. We propose an iterative embedding algorithm of watermarking signals which are K sets pseudo-random numbers generated by a secret key. In the detection, K correlations between the watermarked DWT coefficients and watermark signals are computed by using the secret key. L correlations are made available for the judgment of the watermark presence with specified false positive probability, and the other K-L correlations are corresponding to the bit-pattern signal. In the experiment, we show the detection results with specified false positive probability and the bit-pattern recovery, and the comparison of the proposed method against JPEG compression, scaling down and cropping.

  4. A 12-bit 40 MS/s pipelined ADC with over 80 dB SFDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Qi; Yin Xiumei; Han Dandan; Yang Huazhong, E-mail: q-wei05@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-02-15

    This paper describes a 12-bit 40 MS/s calibration-free pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is optimized for high spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) performance and low power dissipation. With a 4.9 MHz sine wave input, the prototype ADC implemented in a 0.18-{mu}m 1P6M CMOS process shows measured differential nonlinearity and integral nonlinearity within 0.78 and 1.32 least significant bits at the 12-bit level without any trimming or calibration. The ADC, with a total die area of 3.1 x 2.1 mm{sup 2}, demonstrates a maximum signal-to-noise distortion ratio (SNDR) and SFDR of 66.32 and 83.38 dB, respectively, at a 4.9 MHz analog input and a power consumption of 102 mW from a 1.8 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. LDPC product coding scheme with extrinsic information for bit patterned media recoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkwon Jeong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the density limit of the current perpendicular magnetic storage system will soon be reached, bit patterned media recording (BPMR is a promising candidate for the next generation storage system to achieve an areal density beyond 1 Tb/in2. Each recording bit is stored in a fabricated magnetic island and the space between the magnetic islands is nonmagnetic in BPMR. To approach recording densities of 1 Tb/in2, the spacing of the magnetic islands must be less than 25 nm. Consequently, severe inter-symbol interference (ISI and inter-track interference (ITI occur. ITI and ISI degrade the performance of BPMR. In this paper, we propose a low-density parity check (LDPC product coding scheme that exploits extrinsic information for BPMR. This scheme shows an improved bit error rate performance compared to that in which one LDPC code is used.

  6. LDPC product coding scheme with extrinsic information for bit patterned media recoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongkwon; Lee, Jaejin

    2017-05-01

    Since the density limit of the current perpendicular magnetic storage system will soon be reached, bit patterned media recording (BPMR) is a promising candidate for the next generation storage system to achieve an areal density beyond 1 Tb/in2. Each recording bit is stored in a fabricated magnetic island and the space between the magnetic islands is nonmagnetic in BPMR. To approach recording densities of 1 Tb/in2, the spacing of the magnetic islands must be less than 25 nm. Consequently, severe inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-track interference (ITI) occur. ITI and ISI degrade the performance of BPMR. In this paper, we propose a low-density parity check (LDPC) product coding scheme that exploits extrinsic information for BPMR. This scheme shows an improved bit error rate performance compared to that in which one LDPC code is used.

  7. An Efficient Method for Image and Audio Steganography using Least Significant Bit (LSB) Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Ankit; Satam, Neha; Sood, Rakshak; Bade, Dattatray

    2013-09-01

    In order to improve the data hiding in all types of multimedia data formats such as image and audio and to make hidden message imperceptible, a novel method for steganography is introduced in this paper. It is based on Least Significant Bit (LSB) manipulation and inclusion of redundant noise as secret key in the message. This method is applied to data hiding in images. For data hiding in audio, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) both are used. All the results displayed prove to be time-efficient and effective. Also the algorithm is tested for various numbers of bits. For those values of bits, Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak-Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (PSNR) are calculated and plotted. Experimental results show that the stego-image is visually indistinguishable from the original cover-image when nsteganography process does not reveal presence of any hidden message, thus qualifying the criteria of imperceptible message.

  8. Adaptive bit plane quadtree-based block truncation coding for image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenda; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Qing

    2018-04-01

    Block truncation coding (BTC) is a fast image compression technique applied in spatial domain. Traditional BTC and its variants mainly focus on reducing computational complexity for low bit rate compression, at the cost of lower quality of decoded images, especially for images with rich texture. To solve this problem, in this paper, a quadtree-based block truncation coding algorithm combined with adaptive bit plane transmission is proposed. First, the direction of edge in each block is detected using Sobel operator. For the block with minimal size, adaptive bit plane is utilized to optimize the BTC, which depends on its MSE loss encoded by absolute moment block truncation coding (AMBTC). Extensive experimental results show that our method gains 0.85 dB PSNR on average compare to some other state-of-the-art BTC variants. So it is desirable for real time image compression applications.

  9. A Bit Stream Scalable Speech/Audio Coder Combining Enhanced Regular Pulse Excitation and Parametric Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus C. den Brinker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new audio and speech broadband coding technique based on the combination of a pulse excitation coder and a standardized parametric coder, namely, MPEG-4 high-quality parametric coder. After presenting a series of enhancements to regular pulse excitation (RPE to make it suitable for the modeling of broadband signals, it is shown how pulse and parametric codings complement each other and how they can be merged to yield a layered bit stream scalable coder able to operate at different points in the quality bit rate plane. The performance of the proposed coder is evaluated in a listening test. The major result is that the extra functionality of the bit stream scalability does not come at the price of a reduced performance since the coder is competitive with standardized coders (MP3, AAC, SSC.

  10. FlavBit. A GAMBIT module for computing flavour observables and likelihoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernlochner, Florian U. [Physikalisches Institut der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Chrzaszcz, Marcin [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Polish Academy of Sciences, H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Dal, Lars A. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Farmer, Ben [Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Jackson, Paul; White, Martin [University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); Kvellestad, Anders [NORDITA, Stockholm (Sweden); Mahmoudi, Farvah [Univ Lyon, Univ Lyon 1, ENS de Lyon, CNRS, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon UMR5574, Saint-Genis-Laval (France); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Putze, Antje [LAPTh, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Rogan, Christopher [Harvard University, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Scott, Pat [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Serra, Nicola [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Weniger, Christoph [University of Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: The GAMBIT Flavour Workgroup

    2017-11-15

    Flavour physics observables are excellent probes of new physics up to very high energy scales. Here we present FlavBit, the dedicated flavour physics module of the global-fitting package GAMBIT. FlavBit includes custom implementations of various likelihood routines for a wide range of flavour observables, including detailed uncertainties and correlations associated with LHCb measurements of rare, leptonic and semileptonic decays of B and D mesons, kaons and pions. It provides a generalised interface to external theory codes such as SuperIso, allowing users to calculate flavour observables in and beyond the Standard Model, and then test them in detail against all relevant experimental data. We describe FlavBit and its constituent physics in some detail, then give examples from supersymmetry and effective field theory illustrating how it can be used both as a standalone library for flavour physics, and within GAMBIT. (orig.)

  11. An Information-Theoretic Perspective on the Quantum Bit Commitment Impossibility Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Nagy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a different approach to pinpoint the causes for which an unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment protocol cannot be realized, beyond the technical details on which the proof of Mayers’ no-go theorem is constructed. We have adopted the tools of quantum entropy analysis to investigate the conditions under which the security properties of quantum bit commitment can be circumvented. Our study has revealed that cheating the binding property requires the quantum system acting as the safe to harbor the same amount of uncertainty with respect to both observers (Alice and Bob as well as the use of entanglement. Our analysis also suggests that the ability to cheat one of the two fundamental properties of bit commitment by any of the two participants depends on how much information is leaked from one side of the system to the other and how much remains hidden from the other participant.

  12. Twin-bit via resistive random access memory in 16 nm FinFET logic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Hong; Hsu, Meng-Yin; King, Ya-Chin; Lin, Chrong Jung

    2018-04-01

    A via resistive random access memory (RRAM) cell fully compatible with the standard CMOS logic process has been successfully demonstrated for high-density logic nonvolatile memory (NVM) modules in advanced FinFET circuits. In this new cell, the transition metal layers are formed on both sides of a via, given two storage bits per via. In addition to its compact cell area (1T + 14 nm × 32 nm), the twin-bit via RRAM cell features a low operation voltage, a large read window, good data retention, and excellent cycling capability. As fine alignments between mask layers become possible, the twin-bit via RRAM cell is expected to be highly scalable in advanced FinFET technology.

  13. Architecture and performance of radiation-hardened 64-bit SOS/MNOS memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliment, D.C.; Ronen, R.S.; Nielsen, R.L.; Seymour, R.N.; Splinter, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses the circuit architecture and performance of a nonvolatile 64-bit MNOS memory fabricated on silicon on sapphire (SOS). The circuit is a test vehicle designed to demonstrate the feasibility of a high-performance, high-density, radiation-hardened MNOS/SOS memory. The array is organized as 16 words by 4 bits and is fully decoded. It utilizes a two-(MNOS) transistor-per-bit cell and differential sensing scheme and is realized in PMOS static resistor load logic. The circuit was fabricated and tested as both a fast write random access memory (RAM) and an electrically alterable read only memory (EAROM) to demonstrate design and process flexibility. Discrete device parameters such as retention, circuit electrical characteristics, and tolerance to total dose and transient radiation are presented

  14. Worst-case residual clipping noise power model for bit loading in LACO-OFDM

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Chaaban, Anas; Shen, Chao; Elgala, Hany; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    Layered ACO-OFDM enjoys better spectral efficiency than ACO-OFDM, but its performance is challenged by residual clipping noise (RCN). In this paper, the power of RCN of LACO-OFDM is analyzed and modeled. As RCN is data-dependent, the worst-case situation is considered. A worst-case indicator is defined for relating the power of RCN and the power of noise at the receiver, wherein a linear relation is shown to be a practical approximation. An LACO-OFDM bit-loading experiment is performed to examine the proposed RCN power model for data rates of 6 to 7 Gbps. The experiment's results show that accounting for RCN has two advantages. First, it leads to better bit loading and achieves up to 59% lower overall bit-error rate (BER) than when the RCN is ignored. Second, it balances the BER across layers, which is a desired property from a channel coding perspective.

  15. Nanocrystalline, superhard, ductile ceramic coatings for roller-cone bit bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namavar, F.; Colter, P.; Karimy, H. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The established method for construction of roller bits utilizes carburized steel, frequently with inserted metal bearing surfaces. This construction provides the necessary surface hardness while maintaining other desirable properties in the core. Protective coatings are a logical development where enhanced hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and surface properties are required. The wear properties of geothermal roller-cone bit bearings could be further improved by application of protective ceramic hard coatings consisting of nanometer-sized crystallites. Nanocrystalline protective coatings provide the required combination of hardness and toughness which has not been available thus far using traditional ceramics having larger grains. Increased durability of roller-cone bit bearings will ultimately reduce the cost of drilling geothermal wells through increased durability.

  16. The International Bleeding Risk Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Laine, L.; Dalton, H.

    2017-01-01

    The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding.......The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding....

  17. Invariance of the bit error rate in the ancilla-assisted homodyne detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yuhsuke; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the minimum achievable bit error rate of the discrimination of binary coherent states with the help of arbitrary ancillary states. We adopt homodyne measurement with a common phase of the local oscillator and classical feedforward control. After one ancillary state is measured, its outcome is referred to the preparation of the next ancillary state and the tuning of the next mixing with the signal. It is shown that the minimum bit error rate of the system is invariant under the following operations: feedforward control, deformations, and introduction of any ancillary state. We also discuss the possible generalization of the homodyne detection scheme.

  18. Entropy of Bit-Stuffing-Induced Measures for Two-Dimensional Checkerboard Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Vaarby, Torben Strange

    2007-01-01

    A modified bit-stuffing scheme for two-dimensional (2-D) checkerboard constraints is introduced. The entropy of the scheme is determined based on a probability measure defined by the modified bit-stuffing. Entropy results of the scheme are given for 2-D constraints on a binary alphabet....... The constraints considered are 2-D RLL (d, infinity) for d = 2, 3 and 4 as well as for the constraint with a minimum 1-norm distance of 3 between Is. For these results the entropy is within 1-2% of an upper bound on the capacity for the constraint. As a variation of the scheme, periodic merging arrays are also...

  19. Programming 16-Bit PIC Microcontrollers in C Learning to Fly the PIC 24

    CERN Document Server

    Di Jasio, Lucio

    2011-01-01

    New in the second edition: * MPLAB X support and MPLAB C for the PIC24F v3 and later libraries * I2C™ interface * 100% assembly free solutions * Improved video, PAL/NTSC * Improved audio, RIFF files decoding * PIC24F GA1, GA2, GB1 and GB2 support   Most readers will associate Microchip's name with the ubiquitous 8-bit PIC microcontrollers but it is the new 16-bit PIC24F family that is truly stealing the scene. Orders of magnitude increases of performance, memory size and the rich peripheral set make programming these devices in C a must. This new guide by Microchip insid

  20. Performance Analysis for Bit Error Rate of DS- CDMA Sensor Network Systems with Source Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider M. AlSabbagh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The minimum energy (ME coding combined with DS-CDMA wireless sensor network is analyzed in order to reduce energy consumed and multiple access interference (MAI with related to number of user(receiver. Also, the minimum energy coding which exploits redundant bits for saving power with utilizing RF link and On-Off-Keying modulation. The relations are presented and discussed for several levels of errors expected in the employed channel via amount of bit error rates and amount of the SNR for number of users (receivers.

  1. Terahertz wave manipulation based on multi-bit coding artificial electromagnetic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiu-Sheng; Zhao, Ze-Jiang; Yao, Jian-Quan

    2018-05-01

    A polarization insensitive multi-bit coding artificial electromagnetic surface is proposed for terahertz wave manipulation. The coding artificial electromagnetic surfaces composed of four-arrow-shaped particles with certain coding sequences can generate multi-bit coding in the terahertz frequencies and manipulate the reflected terahertz waves to the numerous directions by using of different coding distributions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our coding artificial electromagnetic surfaces have strong abilities to reduce the radar cross section with polarization insensitive for TE and TM incident terahertz waves as well as linear-polarized and circular-polarized terahertz waves. This work offers an effectively strategy to realize more powerful manipulation of terahertz wave.

  2. Digitally Controlled Offline Converter with Galvanic Isolation Based on an 8-bit Microcontroller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an offline AC/DC converter with digital control and galvanic isolation that can be implemented using cheap commercially available components. An ATMEL ATTiny26 8-bit microcontroller is used to control the converter. The microcontroller is placed on the secondary side of the co......This paper presents an offline AC/DC converter with digital control and galvanic isolation that can be implemented using cheap commercially available components. An ATMEL ATTiny26 8-bit microcontroller is used to control the converter. The microcontroller is placed on the secondary side...

  3. Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Öhman, Filip; Bischoff, S.

    2003-01-01

    We derive an approximate analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded fiber links containing all-optical 2R-regenerators. A general analysis of the interplay between noise due to amplification and the degree of reshaping (nonlinearity) of the regenerator is performed.......We derive an approximate analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded fiber links containing all-optical 2R-regenerators. A general analysis of the interplay between noise due to amplification and the degree of reshaping (nonlinearity) of the regenerator is performed....

  4. Analysis of simultaneous multi-bit induced by a cosmic ray for onboard memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takashi; Mori, Masato

    1987-01-01

    Accompanying the development of intelligent onboard equipment using high density memories, the soft-error phenomenon, which is the bit upset induced by a cosmic ray, must be investigated. Especially, the simultaneous multi-bit error (SME) induced by a cosmic ray negligible on earth becomes remarkable in space use. This paper entimates the SME occurrence rate of memory chip by computer simulations and describes the results of the SME experiments using a cyclotron. The computer simulation and experiment results confirm the SME occurrence and show that layout of memory cells is important for the probability of SME occurrence. (author)

  5. Single-word multiple-bit upsets in static random access devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, R.; Pinkerton, S.D.; Lie, T.J.; Crawford, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    Energetic ions and protons can cause single event upsets (SEUs) in static random access memory (SRAM) cells. In some cases multiple bits may be upset as the result of a single event. Space-borne electronics systems incorporating high-density SRAM are vulnerable to single-word multiple-bit upsets (SMUs). The authors review here recent observations of SMU, present the results of a systematic investigation of the physical cell arrangements employed in several currently available SRAM device types, and discuss implications for the occurrence and mitigation of SMU

  6. Faithful remote state preparation using finite classical bits and a nonmaximally entangled state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Mingyong; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan

    2004-01-01

    We present many ensembles of states that can be remotely prepared by using minimum classical bits from Alice to Bob and their previously shared entangled state and prove that we have found all the ensembles in two-dimensional case. Furthermore we show that any pure quantum state can be remotely and faithfully prepared by using finite classical bits from Alice to Bob and their previously shared nonmaximally entangled state though no faithful quantum teleportation protocols can be achieved by using a nonmaximally entangled state

  7. Methods to ensure optimal off-bottom and drill bit distance under pellet impact drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Isaev, Ye D.; Vagapov, A. R.; Urnish, V. V.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rock for various purposes. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The paper presents the survey of methods ensuring an optimal off-bottom and a drill bit distance. The analysis of methods shows that the issue is topical and requires further research.

  8. Novel ultra-wideband photonic signal generation and transmission featuring digital signal processing bit error rate measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    We propose the novel generation of photonic ultra-wideband signals using an uncooled DFB laser. For the first time we experimentally demonstrate bit-for-bit DSP BER measurements for transmission of a 781.25 Mbit/s photonic UWB signal.......We propose the novel generation of photonic ultra-wideband signals using an uncooled DFB laser. For the first time we experimentally demonstrate bit-for-bit DSP BER measurements for transmission of a 781.25 Mbit/s photonic UWB signal....

  9. Protons and heavy ions induced stuck bits on large capacity RAMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duzellier, S; Falguere, D; Ecoffet, R [Centre National d` Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1994-12-31

    A semi-permanent imprint effect has been observed, on large capacity memories (static and dynamic), during heavy ion and proton irradiations. The experimental circumstances of stuck bits occurrence are described and the influence of irradiation conditions discussed. A total dose testing complete the investigation. (author). 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Rewritable 3D bit optical data storage in a PMMA-based photorefractive polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D.; Gu, M. [Swinburne Univ. of Tech., Hawthorn, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Micro-Photonics; Smallridge, A. [Victoria Univ., Melbourne (Australia). School of Life Sciences and Technology

    2001-07-04

    A cheap, compact, and rewritable high-density optical data storage system for CD and DVD applications is presented by the authors. Continuous-wave illumination under two-photon excitation in a new poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) based photorefractive polymer allows 3D bit storage of sub-Tbyte data. (orig.)

  11. A Formal Verification of the Alternating Bit Protocol in the Calculus of Constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezem, M.A.; Groote, J.F.

    We report on a formal verification of the Alternating Bit Protocol (ABP) in the Calculus of Constructions. We outline a semi-formal correctness proof of the ABP with sufficient detail to be formalised. Thereafter we show by examples how the formalised proof has been verified by the automated proof

  12. Bit-Vector Search Filtering with Application to a Kanji Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skala, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    dimensionality in geometric problems also causes their query languages to become expressive and inefficient. The IDSgrep kanji dictionary software approaches a highly expressive tree-matching query problem with a filtering technique set in 128-bit Hamming space. It can be a model for other highly expressive...

  13. Compact battery-less information terminal (CoBIT) for location-based support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takuichi; Itoh, Hideo; Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Nakashima, Hideyuki

    2002-06-01

    The target of ubiquitous computing environment is to support users to get necessary information and services in a situation-dependent form. Therefore, we propose a location-based information support system by using Compact Battery-less Information Terminal (CoBIT). A CoBIT can communicate with the environmental system and with the user by only the energy supply from the environment. It has a solar cell and get a modulated light from an environmental optical beam transmitter. The current from the solar cell is directly (or through passive circuit) introduced into an earphone, which generates sound for the user. The current is also used to make vibration, LED signal or electrical stimulus on the skin. The sizes of CoBITs are about 2cm in diameter, 3cm in length, which can be hanged on ears conveniently. The cost of it would be only about 1 dollar if produced massively. The CoBIT also has sheet type corner reflector, which reflect optical beam back in the direction of the light source. Therefore the environmental system can easily detect the terminal position and direction as well as some simple signs from the user by multiple cameras with infra-red LEDs. The system identifies the sign by the modulated patterns of the reflected light, which the user makes by occluding the reflector by hand. The environmental system also recognizes other objects using other sensors and displays video information on a nearby monitor in order to realize situated support.

  14. Bit Plane Coding based Steganography Technique for JPEG2000 Images and Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Kasana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Bit Plane Coding (BPC based steganography technique for JPEG2000 images and Motion JPEG2000 video is proposed. Embedding in this technique is performed in the lowest significant bit planes of the wavelet coefficients of a cover image. In JPEG2000 standard, the number of bit planes of wavelet coefficients to be used in encoding is dependent on the compression rate and are used in Tier-2 process of JPEG2000. In the proposed technique, Tier-1 and Tier-2 processes of JPEG2000 and Motion JPEG2000 are executed twice on the encoder side to collect the information about the lowest bit planes of all code blocks of a cover image, which is utilized in embedding and transmitted to the decoder. After embedding secret data, Optimal Pixel Adjustment Process (OPAP is applied on stego images to enhance its visual quality. Experimental results show that proposed technique provides large embedding capacity and better visual quality of stego images than existing steganography techniques for JPEG2000 compressed images and videos. Extracted secret image is similar to the original secret image.

  15. The effects of single bit quantization on direction of arrival estimation of UHF RFID tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiting, J.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2016-01-01

    Phased arrays can be used to estimate the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of UHF RFID tags. To save on energy consumption and hardware costs, in this paper we explore the possibility of using single bit analog-to-digital converters for our phased array setup. This setup consists of an off-the-shelf

  16. Optimal One Bit Time Reversal For UWB Impulse Radio In Multi-User Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hung Tuan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, with the purpose of further reducing the complexity of the system, while keeping its temporal and spatial focusing performance, we investigate the possibility of using optimal one bit time reversal (TR) system for impulse radio ultra wideband multi-user wireless communications...

  17. Increasing data distribution in BitTorrent networks by using network coding techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Patrik János; Sipos, Marton A.; Ekler, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Peer-to-peer networks are well known for their benefits when used for sharing data among multiple users. One of the most common protocols for shared data distribution is BitTorrent. Despite its popularity, it has some inefficiencies that affect the speed of the content distribution. In ...

  18. BetaBit: A fast generator of autocorrelated binary processes for geophysical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico

    2017-05-01

    We introduce a fast and efficient non-iterative algorithm, called BetaBit, to simulate autocorrelated binary processes describing the occurrence of natural hazards, system failures, and other physical and geophysical phenomena characterized by persistence, temporal clustering, and low rate of occurrence. BetaBit overcomes the simulation constraints posed by the discrete nature of the marginal distributions of binary processes by using the link existing between the correlation coefficients of this process and those of the standard Gaussian processes. The performance of BetaBit is tested on binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions (ACFs) corresponding to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes, respectively. An application to real-world sequences describing rainfall intermittency and the occurrence of strong positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index shows that BetaBit can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical ACF as well as signals with autoregressive moving average (ARMA) dependence structures. Extensions to cyclo-stationary processes accounting for seasonal fluctuations are also discussed.

  19. 0011-0030.IEEE 754: 64 Bit Double Precision FloatsThis.pdf | 01 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; reso; 021; 01; 0011-0030.IEEE 754: 64 Bit Double Precision FloatsThis.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 ...

  20. On a constant arising in the analysis of bit comparisons in quickselect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A (real) constant that appears as the factor of the leading term of the average number of bit comparisons required by quickselect, and was originally given in terms of complex numbers, is expressed using real numbers alone. A further representation is derived which is converging very quickly. Methods include residue ...

  1. A vertically integrated dynamic RAM-cell: Buried bit line memory cell with floating transfer layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.; Vertregt, Maarten

    1986-01-01

    A charge injection device has been realized in which charge can be injected on to an MOS-capacitor from a buried layer via an isolated transfer layer. The cell is positioned vertically between word and bit line. LOCOS (local oxidation) is used to isolate the cells and (deep) ion implantation to

  2. Kombinasi Steganografi Berbasis Bit Matching dan Kriptografi DES untuk Pengamanan Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Prasetiyo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini dilakukan kombinasi steganografi dan kriptografi untuk pengamanan data dengan tidak mengubah kualitas media cover. Metode steganografi yang digunakan dengan melakukan pencocokan bit pesan pada bit MSB citra. Proses pencocokan dilakukan secara divide and conquer. Hasil indeks posisi bit kemudian dienkripsi menggunakan algoritma kriptografi Data Encryption Standard (DES. Masukkan data berupa pesan teks, citra, dan kunci. Output yang dihasilkan berupa chiperteks posisi bit yang dapat digunakan untuk merahasiakan data. Untuk mengetahui isi pesan semula diperlukan kunci dan citra yang sama. Kombinasi yang dihasilkan dapat digunakan untuk pengamanan data. Kelebihan metode tersebut citra tidak mengalami perubahan kualitas dan kapasitas pesan yang disimpan dapat lebih besar dari citra. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan citra hitam putih maupun color dapat digunakan sebagai cover, kecuali citra 100% hitam dan 100% putih. Proses pencocokan pada warna citra yang bervariasi lebih cepat. Kerusakan pesan dengan penambahan noise salt and peper mulai terjadi pada nilai MSE 0,0067 dan gaussian mulai terjadi pada nilai MSE 0,00234. 

  3. Implementation of an FIR Band Pass Filter Using a Bit-Slice Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    SYSTEM ’ SOFTWARE FIRMWARE HARDWARE Figure 2.1 Instruction Levels CRef. 5] 16 are microprogrammed (firmware) to enable physical control signals to the...Controllers and ALUs, pp. 9, 30-42, 70-71, Garland STPM Press, 1981. 6. Wolfe, C.F., "Bit-slice Processors Come To Mainframe Design," Electronics

  4. Disc Bit Abrasion Parameters in TBM Tunnelling regarded exemplarily for the Gotthard Base Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund a Wax

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author presents Amund Bruland’s empirical approach to determine the disc bit abrasion of TBMs (Tunnel Boring Machines, transforms the respective empirical dependencies into approximated mathematical relations and verifies them exemplarily for the currently constructed Gotthard Base Tunnel.

  5. Mission 2 Solution: Requirements Engineering Education as a Central Theme in the BIT Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, C.; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    Design of integrated business-IT solutions is the main theme in the Business Information Technology programme (BIT) at the University of Twente. Our mission is to teach students to design solutions that are needed instead of solutions that are asked for. This makes requirements engineering an

  6. Design and Implementation of Decimation Filter for 13-bit Sigma-Delta ADC Based on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Khaleel Mohammed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 13 bit Sigma-Delta ADC for a signal band of 40K Hz is designed in MATLAB Simulink and then implemented using Xilinx system generator tool.  The first order Sigma-Delta modulator is designed to work at a signal band of 40 KHz at an oversampling ratio (OSR of 256 with a sampling frequency of 20.48 MHz. The proposed decimation filter design is consists of a second order Cascaded Integrator Comb filter (CIC followed by two finite impulse response (FIR filters. This architecture reduces the need for multiplication which is need very large area. This architecture implements a decimation ratio of 256 and allows a maximum resolution of 13  bits in the output of the filter. The decimation filter was designed  and  tested  in  Xilinx  system  generator  tool  which  reduces  the  design  cycle  by  directly generating efficient VHDL code. The results obtained show that the overall Sigma-Delta ADC is able to achieve an ENOB (Effective Number Of Bit of 13.71 bits and SNR of 84.3 dB

  7. A heterogeneous computing environment to solve the 768-bit RSA challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinjung, Thorsten; Bos, Joppe Willem; Lenstra, Arjen K.; Osvik, Dag Arne; Aoki, Kazumaro; Contini, Scott; Franke, Jens; Thomé, Emmanuel; Jermini, Pascal; Thiémard, Michela; Leyland, Paul; Montgomery, Peter L.; Timofeev, Andrey; Stockinger, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    In December 2009 the 768-bit, 232-digit number RSA-768 was factored using the number field sieve. Overall, the computational challenge would take more than 1700 years on a single, standard core. In the article we present the heterogeneous computing approach, involving different compute clusters and Grid computing environments, used to solve this problem.

  8. Using an FPGA for Fast Bit Accurate SoC Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkotte, P.T.; Holzenspies, P.K.F.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    In this paper we describe a sequential simulation method to simulate large parallel homo- and heterogeneous systems on a single FPGA. The method is applicable for parallel systems were lengthy cycle and bit accurate simulations are required. It is particularly designed for systems that do not fit

  9. A 10-bit 100 MSamples/s BiCMOS D/A Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Herald Holger; Tunheim, Svein Anders

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a 10-bit Digital-to-Analogue Converter (DAC) based on the current steering principle. The DAC is processed in a 0.8 micron BiCMOS process and is designed to operate at a sampling rate of 100MSamples/s. The DAC is intended for applications using direct digital synthesis...

  10. Dynamic detection-rate-based bit allocation with genuine interval concealment for binary biometric representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Meng-Hui; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin; Toh, Kar-Ann

    2013-06-01

    Biometric discretization is a key component in biometric cryptographic key generation. It converts an extracted biometric feature vector into a binary string via typical steps such as segmentation of each feature element into a number of labeled intervals, mapping of each interval-captured feature element onto a binary space, and concatenation of the resulted binary output of all feature elements into a binary string. Currently, the detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA) scheme is one of the most effective biometric discretization schemes in terms of its capability to assign binary bits dynamically to user-specific features with respect to their discriminability. However, we learn that DROBA suffers from potential discriminative feature misdetection and underdiscretization in its bit allocation process. This paper highlights such drawbacks and improves upon DROBA based on a novel two-stage algorithm: 1) a dynamic search method to efficiently recapture such misdetected features and to optimize the bit allocation of underdiscretized features and 2) a genuine interval concealment technique to alleviate crucial information leakage resulted from the dynamic search. Improvements in classification accuracy on two popular face data sets vindicate the feasibility of our approach compared with DROBA.

  11. Configurable Electronics with Low Noise and 14-bit Dynamic Range for Photodiode-based Photon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H; Yin, Z; Zhou, D; Cao, X; Li, Q; Liu, Y; Zou, F; Skaali, B; Awes, T C

    2006-01-01

    We describe the principles and measured performance characteristics of custom configurable 32-channel shaper/digitizer Front End Electronics (FEE) cards with 14-bit dynamic range for use with gain-adjustable photon detectors. The electronics has been designed for the PHOS calorimeter of ALICE with avalanche photodiode (APD) readout operated at -25 C ambient temperature and a signal shaping time of $1 {\\mu}s$. The electronics has also been adopted by the EMCal detector of ALICE with the same APD readout, but operated at an ambient temperature of +20 C and with a shaping time of 100ns. The CR-RC2 signal shapers on the FEE cards are implemented in discrete logic on a 10-layer board with two shaper sections for each input channel. The two shaper sections with gain ratio of 16:1 are digitized by 10-bit ADCs and provide an effective dynamic range of 14 bits. Gain adjustment for each individual APD is available through 32 bias voltage control registers of 10-bit range. The fixed gains and shaping times of the pole-z...

  12. 10-bit segmented current steering DAC in 90nm CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringas, R Jr; Dy, F; Gerasta, O J

    2015-01-01

    This special project presents a 10-Bit 1Gs/s 1.2V/3.3V Digital-to-Analog Converter using1 Poly 9 Metal SAED 90-nm CMOS Technology intended for mixed-signal and power IC applications. To achieve maximum performance with minimum area, the DAC has been implemented in 6+4 Segmentation. The simulation results show a static performance of ±0.56 LSB INL and ±0.79 LSB DNL with a total layout chip area of 0.683 mm 2 .The segmented architecture is implemented using two sub DAC's, which are the LSB and MSB section with certain number bits. The DAC is designed using 4-BitBinary Weighted DAC for the LSB section and 6-BitThermometer-coded DAC for the MSB section. The thermometer-coded architecture provides the most optimized results in terms of linearity through reducing the clock feed-through effect especially in hot switching between multiple transistors. The binary- weighted architecture gives better linearity output in higher frequencies with better saturation in current sources. (paper)

  13. The metabolic score: A decision making tool in diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2015-11-01

    The heterogeneity of diabetes mellitus, and the various metabolic abnormalities associated with it, are well known. Current management guidelines used to help choose glucose-lowering drugs in diabetes mellitus describe various drug classes in detail, but do not take the overall metabolic profile into consideration. To help physicians choose appropriate oral therapy, we propose a discrete metabolic score, based upon the presence and absence of metabolic comorbidities included in the definition of metabolic syndrome. This communication describes how to choose an appropriate oral antidiabetic drug using such a score. The metabolic score based decision making aid should be able to prove its utility in all health care settings, especially resource constrained societies.

  14. Multi-bits memory cell using degenerated magnetic states in a synthetic antiferromagnetic reference layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Akio; Yakushiji, Kay; Konoto, Makoto; Kubota, Hitoshi; Imamura, Hiroshi; Yuasa, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    We newly developed a magnetic memory cell having multi-bit function. The memory cell composed of a perpendicularly magnetized magnetic tunnel junction (MB-pMTJ) and a synthetic antiferromagnetic reference layer. The multi-bit function is realized by combining the freedom of states of the magnetic free layer and that in the antiferromagnetically coupled reference layer. The structure of the reference layer is (FeB/Ta/[Co/Pt]_3)/Ru/([Co/Pt]_6); the top and the bottom layers are coupled through Ru layer where the reference layer has two degrees of freedom of a head-to-head and a bottom-to-bottom magnetic configuration. A four-state memory cell is realized by combination of both degrees of freedom. The states in the reference layer however is hardly detected by the total resistance of MB-pMTJ, because the magnetoresistance effect in the reference layer is negligibly small. That implies that the resistance values for the different states in the reference layer are degenerated. On the other hand, the two different states in the reference layer bring different stray fields to the free layer, which generate two different minor loop with different switching fields. Therefore, the magnetic states in the reference layer can be differentiated by the two-step reading, before and after applying the appropriately pulsed magnetic field which can identify the initial state in the reference layer. This method is similar to distinguishing different magnetic states in an in-plane magnetized spin-valve element. We demonstrated that four different states in the MB-pMTJ can be distinguished by the two-step read-out. The important feature of the two-step reading is a practically large operation margins (large resistance change in reading) which is equal to that of a single MTJ. Even though the two-step reading is a destructive method by which 50% of the magnetic state is changed, this MB-pMTJ is promising for high density non-volatile memory cell with a minor cost of operation speed

  15. Very Low-Cost 80-Bit Chipless-RFID Tags Inkjet Printed on Ordinary Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Herrojo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a time-domain, chipless-RFID system with 80-bit tags inkjet-printed on ordinary DIN A4 paper. The tags, consisting of a linear chain of resonant elements (with as many resonators as the number of identification bits plus header bits, are read sequentially and by proximity (through near-field coupling. To this end, a transmission line, fed by a harmonic (interrogation signal tuned to the resonance frequency of the tag resonators (or close to it, is used as a reader. Thus, during reader operation, the tag chain is mechanically shifted over the transmission line so that the coupling between the line and the functional resonant elements of the tag chain is favored. Logic states that ‘1’ and ‘0’ are determined by the functionality and non-functionality (resonator detuning, respectively, of the resonant elements of the chain. Through near-field coupling, the transmission coefficient of the line is modulated and, as a result, the output signal is modulated in amplitude (AM, which is the identification code contained in the envelope function. As long as the tags are inkjet-printed on ordinary DIN A4 paper, the cost is minimal. Moreover, such tags can be easily programmed and erased, so that identical tags can be fabricated on a large scale (and programmed at a later stage, further reducing the cost of manufacture. The reported prototype tags, with 80 bits of information plus four header bits, demonstrate the potential of this approach, which is of particular interest to secure paper applications.

  16. Controlling torque and cutting costs: steerable drill bits deliver in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Steve; Garcia, Alexis; Amorim, Dalmo [ReedHycalog, Stonehouse (United Kingdom); Iramina, Wilson [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Herrera, Gabriel

    2008-07-01

    Tool face Control is widely regarded as one of the greatest directional drilling challenges with a Fixed Cutter (FC) drill bit on a Steerable Motor assembly. Tool face offset is proportional to the torque generated by the bit, and by nature, FC bits are capable of generating high levels of torque. If large changes in downhole torque are produced while drilling, this will cause rotation of the drill string, and loss of tool face orientation. This results in inefficient drilling and increases risk of bit and downhole tool damage. This paper examines the effect of various FC drill bit components to determine the key design requirements to deliver a smooth torque response and an improved directional performance. Included is a review of the results from comprehensive laboratory testing to determine the effectiveness of a number of different configurations of removable Torque Controlling Components (TCC). These, in combination with specific cutting structure layouts, combine to provide predictable torque response while optimized for high rates of penetration. In addition, unique gauge geometry is disclosed that was engineered to reduce drag and deliver improved borehole quality. This gauge design produces less torque when sliding and beneficial gauge pad interaction with the borehole when in rotating mode. Field performance studies from within Latin America clearly demonstrate that matching TCC, an optimized cutting structure, and gauge geometry to a steerable assembly delivers smooth torque response and improved directional control. Benefits with regard to improved stability are also discussed. Successful application has resulted in significant time and cost savings for the operator, demonstrating that Stability and Steerability improvements can be achieved with an increase in penetration rate. (author)

  17. Website-based PNG image steganography using the modified Vigenere Cipher, least significant bit, and dictionary based compression methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojali, Salman, Afan Galih; George

    2017-08-01

    Along with the development of information technology in meeting the needs, various adverse actions and difficult to avoid are emerging. One of such action is data theft. Therefore, this study will discuss about cryptography and steganography that aims to overcome these problems. This study will use the Modification Vigenere Cipher, Least Significant Bit and Dictionary Based Compression methods. To determine the performance of study, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) method is used to measure objectively and Mean Opinion Score (MOS) method is used to measure subjectively, also, the performance of this study will be compared to other method such as Spread Spectrum and Pixel Value differencing. After comparing, it can be concluded that this study can provide better performance when compared to other methods (Spread Spectrum and Pixel Value Differencing) and has a range of MSE values (0.0191622-0.05275) and PSNR (60.909 to 65.306) with a hidden file size of 18 kb and has a MOS value range (4.214 to 4.722) or image quality that is approaching very good.

  18. Bergy Bit and Melt Water Trajectories in Godthåbsfjord (SW Greenland) Observed by the Expendable Ice Tracker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlson, D.F.; Boone, W.; Meire, L.; Abermann, J.; Rysgaard, S.

    2017-01-01

    Icebergs and bergy bits makes up a significant component of the total freshwater flux from the Greenland Ice Sheet to the ocean. Observations of iceberg trajectories are biased toward larger icebergs and, as a result, the drift characteristics of smaller icebergs and bergy bits are poorly

  19. Diseño de multiplicador de 64 bits utilizando la técnica de barrido superpuesto

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo Ramírez, Luis

    1987-01-01

    Se presenta el desarrollo del novel algoritmo de multiplicación por barrido superpuesto de 3-bits, así como también los aspectos importantes del diseño de la arquitectura, redes lógicas y layout de un multiplicador de 64-bits utilizando como caso de estudio.

  20. Error statistics in a high-speed fibreoptic communication line with a phase shift of odd bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, Elena G

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of optical pulses through a fibreoptic communication line with a phase shift of odd bits is directly numerically simulated. It is shown that simple analytic expressions approximate well the error probability. The phase shift of odd bits in the initial sequence is statistically shown to decrease significantly the error probability in the communication line. (fibreoptic communication lines)

  1. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  2. Interpretation of chest radiographs with a high-resolution (2,000 x 2,000 x 12 bit) display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of high-resolution (2K x 2Kx 12 bit) display for interpretation of chest radiographs. Three radiologists chose a total of 165 chest radiographs to ensure representation of nine signs: apical pleural scarring, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial processes, atelectasis, pneumothorax, hilar mass, pleural effusion, pneumonia, and nodules. Each chest film was digitized to 4Kx 4Kx 12 bit and averaged to 2Kx 2Kx 12 bit and printed on a laser film printer. The 2K x 2K x 12-bit images were displayed and interactively windowed on a 2K x 2K x 12-bit high-resolution gray-scale cathode ray tube display. Six radiologists, none of whom participated in the case selection process, then interpreted a mixture of the screen film chest radiographs, the laser printed 2K chest radiographs, and the high resolution displayed 2K images

  3. ColliderBit. A GAMBIT module for the calculation of high-energy collider observables and likelihoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balazs, Csaba [Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); Buckley, Andy [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Dal, Lars A.; Krislock, Abram; Raklev, Are [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Farmer, Ben [AlbaNova University Centre, Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Jackson, Paul; Murnane, Daniel; White, Martin [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Kvellestad, Anders [NORDITA, Stockholm (Sweden); Putze, Antje [Universite de Savoie, LAPTh, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Rogan, Christopher [Harvard University, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Saavedra, Aldo [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); The University of Sydney, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies, Centre for Translational Data Science, School of Physics, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Scott, Pat [Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Weniger, Christoph [University of Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: The GAMBIT Scanner Workgroup

    2017-11-15

    We describe ColliderBit, a new code for the calculation of high energy collider observables in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). ColliderBit features a generic interface to BSM models, a unique parallelised Monte Carlo event generation scheme suitable for large-scale supercomputer applications, and a number of LHC analyses, covering a reasonable range of the BSM signatures currently sought by ATLAS and CMS. ColliderBit also calculates likelihoods for Higgs sector observables, and LEP searches for BSM particles. These features are provided by a combination of new code unique toColliderBit, and interfaces to existing state-of-the-art public codes. ColliderBit is both an important part of the GAMBIT framework for BSM inference, and a standalone tool for efficiently applying collider constraints to theories of new physics. (orig.)

  4. Validation of minor stroke definitions for thrombolysis decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tai Hwan; Hong, Keun-Sik; Choi, Jay Chol; Song, Pamela; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Juneyoung; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Lee, Kyung Bok; Cho, Yong-Jin; Saposnik, Gustavo; Han, Moon-Ku; Bae, Hee-Joon

    2013-05-01

    Patients with low National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores are frequently excluded from thrombolysis, but more than 25% of them remain disabled. We sought to define a validated minor stroke definition to reduce the inappropriate treatment exclusion. From an outcome database, untreated patients with an NIHSS score of 5 or less presenting within a 4.5-hour window were identified and 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) outcomes were analyzed according to individual isolated symptoms and total NIHSS scores. The validity of the following minor stroke definitions were assessed: (1) the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Tissue Plasminogen Activator (NINDS-TPA) trials' definition, (2) the total NIHSS score, varying a cutoff point from 0 to 4, and (3) our proposed definition that included an NIHSS score = 0 or an NIHSS score = 1 on the items of level of consciousness (LOC), gaze, facial palsy, sensory, or dysarthria. Of 647 patients, 172 patients (26.6%) had a 3-month unfavorable outcome (mRS score 2-6). Favorable outcome was achieved in more than 80% of patients with an NIHSS score of 1 or less or with an isolated symptom on the LOC, gaze, facial palsy, sensory, or dysarthria item. In contrast, unfavorable outcome proportion was more than 25% in patients with an NIHSS score of 2 or more. When the NINDS-TPA trials' definition, our definition, or the definition of an NIHSS score of 1 or less were applied, more than 75% of patients with an unfavorable outcome were defined as a non-minor stroke and less than 15% of patients with an unfavorable outcome were defined as a minor stroke. Implementation of an optimal definition of minor stroke into thrombolysis decision-making process would decrease the unfavorable outcomes in patients with low NIHSS scores. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting occupational personality test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Drakeley, R

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between students' actual test scores and their self-estimated scores on the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI; R. Hogan & J. Hogan, 1992), an omnibus personality questionnaire, was examined. Despite being given descriptive statistics and explanations of each of the dimensions measured, the students tended to overestimate their scores; yet all correlations between actual and estimated scores were positive and significant. Correlations between self-estimates and actual test scores were highest for sociability, ambition, and adjustment (r = .62 to r = .67). The results are discussed in terms of employers' use and abuse of personality assessment for job recruitment.

  6. Differences of wells scores accuracy, caprini scores and padua scores in deep vein thrombosis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatot, D.; Mardia, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is the venous thrombus in lower limbs. Diagnosis is by using venography or ultrasound compression. However, these examinations are not available yet in some health facilities. Therefore many scoring systems are developed for the diagnosis of DVT. The scoring method is practical and safe to use in addition to efficacy, and effectiveness in terms of treatment and costs. The existing scoring systems are wells, caprini and padua score. There have been many studies comparing the accuracy of this score but not in Medan. Therefore, we are interested in comparative research of wells, capriniand padua score in Medan.An observational, analytical, case-control study was conducted to perform diagnostic tests on the wells, caprini and padua score to predict the risk of DVT. The study was at H. Adam Malik Hospital in Medan.From a total of 72 subjects, 39 people (54.2%) are men and the mean age are 53.14 years. Wells score, caprini score and padua score has a sensitivity of 80.6%; 61.1%, 50% respectively; specificity of 80.65; 66.7%; 75% respectively, and accuracy of 87.5%; 64.3%; 65.7% respectively.Wells score has better sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than caprini and padua score in diagnosing DVT.

  7. How is the injury severity scored? a brief review of scoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ebrahimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of injured patients is a critical issue in pre-hospital and emergency departments. Trauma victims are usually young and the injuries may lead to mortality or severe morbidities. The severity of injury can be estimated by observing the anatomic and physiologic evidences. Scoring systems are used to present a scale of describing the severity of the injuries in the victims.We reviewed the evidences of famous scoring systems, the history of their development, applications and their evolutions. We searched electronic database PubMed and Google scholar with keywords: (trauma OR injury AND (severity OR intensity AND (score OR scale.In this paper, we are going to present a definition of scoring systems and discuss the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS and Injury Severity Score (ISS, the most acceptable systems, their applications and their advantages and limitations.Several injury-scoring methods have been introduced. Each method has specific features, advantages and disadvantages. The AIS is an anatomical-based scoring system, which provides a standard numerical scale of ranking and comparing injuries. The ISS was established as a platform for trauma data registry. ISS is also an anatomically-based ordinal scale, with a range of 1-75. Several databases and studies are formed based on ISS and are available for trauma management research.Although the ISS is not perfect, it is established as the basic platform of health services and public health researches. The ISS registering system can provide many opportunities for the development of efficient data recording and statistical analyzing models.

  8. A hybrid bit-encoding for SAT planning based on clique-partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Cristóbal; San Segundo, Pablo; Galán, Ramón

    2017-09-01

    Planning as satisfiability is one of the most efficient ways to solve classic automated planning problems. In SAT planning, the encoding used to convert the problem to a SAT formula is critical for the performance of the SAT solver. This paper presents a novel bit-encoding that reduces the number of bits required to represent actions in a SAT-based automated planning problem. To obtain such encoding we first build a conflict graph, which represents incompatibilities of pairs of actions, and bitwise encode the subsets of actions determined by a clique partition. This reduces the number of Boolean variables and clauses of the SAT encoding, while preserving the possibility of parallel execution of compatible (non-neighbor) actions. The article also describes an appropriate algorithm for selecting the clique partition for this application and compares the new encodings obtained over some standard planning problems.

  9. Performance of the JPEG Estimated Spectrum Adaptive Postfilter (JPEG-ESAP) for Low Bit Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Irving (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Frequency-based, pixel-adaptive filtering using the JPEG-ESAP algorithm for low bit rate JPEG formatted color images may allow for more compressed images while maintaining equivalent quality at a smaller file size or bitrate. For RGB, an image is decomposed into three color bands--red, green, and blue. The JPEG-ESAP algorithm is then applied to each band (e.g., once for red, once for green, and once for blue) and the output of each application of the algorithm is rebuilt as a single color image. The ESAP algorithm may be repeatedly applied to MPEG-2 video frames to reduce their bit rate by a factor of 2 or 3, while maintaining equivalent video quality, both perceptually, and objectively, as recorded in the computed PSNR values.

  10. Patterns in the distribution of digital games via BitTorrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Veitch, Robert W. D.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of illegal copies of computer games via digital networks forms the centre in one of the most heated debates in the international games environment, but there is minimal objective information available. Here the results of a large-scale, open-method analysis of the distribution...... of computer games via BitTorrent peer-to-peer file-sharing protocol is presented. 173 games were included, tracked over a period of three months from 2010 to 2011. A total of 12.6 million unique peers were identified across over 200 countries. Analysis indicates that the distribution of illegal copies...... of games follows distinct pattern, e.g., that a few game titles drive the traffic - the 10 most accessed games encompassed 42.7% of the number of peers tracked. The traffic is geographically localised - 20 countries encompassed 76.7% of the total. Geographic patterns in the distribution of BitTorrent peers...

  11. True random bit generators based on current time series of contact glow discharge electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Andrea Espinel; Allagui, Anis; Elwakil, Ahmed S.; Alawadhi, Hussain

    2018-05-01

    Random bit generators (RBGs) in today's digital information and communication systems employ a high rate physical entropy sources such as electronic, photonic, or thermal time series signals. However, the proper functioning of such physical systems is bound by specific constrains that make them in some cases weak and susceptible to external attacks. In this study, we show that the electrical current time series of contact glow discharge electrolysis, which is a dc voltage-powered micro-plasma in liquids, can be used for generating random bit sequences in a wide range of high dc voltages. The current signal is quantized into a binary stream by first using a simple moving average function which makes the distribution centered around zero, and then applying logical operations which enables the binarized data to pass all tests in industry-standard randomness test suite by the National Institute of Standard Technology. Furthermore, the robustness of this RBG against power supply attacks has been examined and verified.

  12. Novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-11-01

    Ergodic capacity and average bit error rate have been widely used to compare the performance of different wireless communication systems. As such recent scientific research and studies revealed strong impact of designing and implementing wireless technologies based on these two performance indicators. However and to the best of our knowledge, the direct links between these two performance indicators have not been explicitly proposed in the literature so far. In this paper, we propose novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate of an overall communication system using binary modulation schemes for signaling with a limited bandwidth and operating over generalized fading channels. More specifically, we show that these two performance measures can be represented in terms of each other, without the need to know the exact end-to-end statistical characterization of the communication channel. We validate the correctness and accuracy of our newly proposed relations and illustrated their usefulness by considering some classical examples. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. AES Encryption Algorithm Optimization Based on 64-bit Processor Android Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Jun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Algorithm implemented on the mobile phone is different from one on PC. It requires little storage space and low power consumption. Standard AES S-box design uses look up table,and has high complexity and high power consumption,so it needs to be optimized when used in mobile phones. In our optimization AES encryption algorithm,the packet length is expanded to 256 bits,which would increase the security of our algorithm; look up table is replaced by adding the affine transformation based on inversion,which would reduce the storage space; operation is changed into 16-bit input and 64-bit output by merging the three steps,namely SubWords,ShiftRows MixColumns and AddRoundKey,which would improve the operation efficiency of the algorithm. The experimental results show that our algorithm not only can greatly enhance the encryption strength,but also maintain high computing efficiency.

  14. Modern methods of drilling wells by large diameter bits and possible fields of application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, W

    1970-04-01

    For the needs of up-to-date mining in construction of shafts and mining installations, large diameter wells are often used. In the near future, application of this type of well will be of great importance in the oil industry for stimulation of oil and gas recovery by atomic explosion. Such wells can be used for mineral extraction from subsea and other accessible deposits. The presented state of drilling techniques and technology by large diameter bits is described and similarities and differences with deep-well drilling are pointed out. Some economical data indicate the advantage of drilling by large-diameter bits in comparison with standard methods of construction of shafts and mining installations.

  15. 3.56-bits/cm Compact Inkjet Printed and Application Specific Chipless RFID Tag

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Munawar M.

    2015-10-26

    © 2002-2011 IEEE. In this letter, a 28.5-bit chipless RFID tag, based on paper substrate and realized using inkjet printing technique is presented. Operating within ultrawideband, the tag occupies a compact size of 2 × 4 cm2. Focusing on applications requiring time and date identification, a novel encoding technique is presented that allows efficient frequency band allocation based on the number of required instances of time and date variables. A figure of merit (FOM) relating coding capacity and tag dimensions coined as code density is also introduced. A systematic design process followed by simulations and verified through measurements reveal a high code density of 3.56 bits/cm2 for the presented chipless tag.

  16. The 8 bits 100 MS/s Pipeline ADC for the INNOTEP Project – TWEPP-09

    CERN Document Server

    Crampon, S; Chanal, H; Lecoq, J; Mathez, H; Vert, P E

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the Analog to Digital Converter developed for the front end electronic of the IN2P3 INNOTEP project by the “pole microelectronique Rhone-Auvergne”. (Collaboration between LPC Clermont-Ferrand and IPNL Lyon). This ADC is a 4 stages 2.5 bits per stage pipe line with open loops track and holds and amplifiers. It runs at 100MSamples/s and has 8 bits resolution. The stages used two lines, the gain line and the comparison line, with most operators running in current. The main idea of this current line is to make a first step toward an all in current structure. Currently, this ADC is designed with a 0,35μm SiGe technology.

  17. A 14-bit 50 MS/s sample-and-hold circuit for pipelined ADC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Sen; Zhao Yiqiang; Pang Ruilong; Sheng Yun

    2014-01-01

    A high performance sample-and-hold (S/H) circuit used in a pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is presented. Capacitor flip-around architecture is used in this S/H circuit with a novel gain-boosted differential folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier. A double-bootstrapped switch is designed to improve the performance of the circuit. The circuit is implemented using a 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process. Measurement results show that the effective number of bits is 14.03 bits, the spurious free dynamic range is 94.62 dB, the signal to noise and distortion ratio is 86.28 dB, and the total harmonic distortion is −91:84 dB for a 5 MHz input signal with 50 MS/s sampling rate. A pipeline ADC with the designed S/H circuit has been implemented. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. A radiation-hardened 1K-bit dielectrically isolated random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandors, T.J.; Boarman, J.W.; Kasten, A.J.; Wood, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Dielectric Isolation has been used for many years as the bipolar technology for latch-up free, radiation hardened integrated circuits in strategic systems. The state-of-the-art up to this point has been the manufacture of MSI functions containing a maximum of several hundred isolated components. This paper discusses a 1024 Bit Random Access Memory chip containing over 4000 dielectrically isolated components which has been designed for strategic radiation environments. The process utilized and the circuit design of the 1024 Bit RAM have been previously discussed. The techniques used are similar to those employed for the MX digital integrated circuits except for specific items required to make this a true LSI technology. These techniques, along with electrical and radiation data for the RAM, are presented

  19. Feasibility of bit patterned media for HAMR at 5 Tb/in{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sumei, E-mail: wang3936@umn.edu; Ghoreyshi, Ali; Victora, R. H. [MINT, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    We have investigated the feasibility of BPM for HAMR via Finite Difference Time Domain and atomistic simulation and we have substantiated the feasibility of 5 Tb/in{sup 2} with two filling factors 25% and 56% even when the maximum on-track bit temperature is below the Curie temperature. The success of this underheated switching is attributed to sufficiently low anisotropy instead of reduction of Curie temperature. The temperature gradient in the cross-track direction is almost doubled if the optical head width is reduced by half, indicating the possibility of higher areal densities. Moreover, contrary to continuous media, we also found that the power absorption peaks at the bottom of the bit patterned FePt when the media is illuminated from above, which is probably due to stronger coupling there between FePt and the surrounding materials.

  20. Synchronization of random bit generators based on coupled chaotic lasers and application to cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Ido; Butkovski, Maria; Peleg, Yitzhak; Zigzag, Meital; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Rosenbluh, Michael; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2010-08-16

    Random bit generators (RBGs) constitute an important tool in cryptography, stochastic simulations and secure communications. The later in particular has some difficult requirements: high generation rate of unpredictable bit strings and secure key-exchange protocols over public channels. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random number sequences at high rates, however, their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. Recently, physical RBGs based on chaotic semiconductor lasers were shown to exceed Gbit/s rates. Whether secure synchronization of two high rate physical RBGs is possible remains an open question. Here we propose a method, whereby two fast RBGs based on mutually coupled chaotic lasers, are synchronized. Using information theoretic analysis we demonstrate security against a powerful computational eavesdropper, capable of noiseless amplification, where all parameters are publicly known. The method is also extended to secure synchronization of a small network of three RBGs.

  1. Observational Evidence for Two Cosmological Predictions Made by Bit-String Physics; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H. Pierre

    2001-01-01

    A decade ago bit-string physics predicted that the baryon/photon ratio at the time of nucleogenesis(eta)= 1 1/256(sup 4) and that the dark matter/baryonic matter ratio(Omega)(sub DM)/(Omega)(sub B)= 12.7. Accepting that the normalized Hubble constant is constrained observationally to lie in the range 0.6 and lt; h(sub 0) and lt; 0.8, this translates into a prediction that 0.325 and gt;(Omega)(sub M) and gt; 0.183. This and a prediction by E.D. Jones, using a model-independent argument and ideas with which bit-string physics is not inconsistent, that the cosmological constant(Omega)(sub(Lambda))= 0.6(+-) 0.1 are in reasonable agreement with recent cosmological observations, including the BOOMERANG data

  2. Room temperature solid-state quantum bit with second-long memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucsko, Georg; Maurer, Peter; Latta, Christian; Hunger, David; Jiang, Liang; Pastawski, Fernando; Yao, Norman; Bennet, Steven; Twitchen, Daniel; Cirac, Ignacio; Lukin, Mikhail

    2012-02-01

    Realization of stable quantum bits (qubits) that can be prepared and measured with high fidelity and that are capable of storing quantum information for long times exceeding seconds is an outstanding challenge in quantum science and engineering. Here we report on the realization of such a stable quantum bit using an individual ^13C nuclear spin within an isotopically purified diamond crystal at room temperature. Using an electronic spin associated with a nearby Nitrogen Vacancy color center, we demonstrate high fidelity initialization and readout of a single ^13C qubit. Quantum memory lifetime exceeding one second is obtained by using dissipative optical decoupling from the electronic degree of freedom and applying a sequence of radio-frequency pulses to suppress effects from the dipole-dipole interactions of the ^13C spin-bath. Techniques to further extend the quantum memory lifetime as well as the potential applications are also discussed.

  3. A new approach to quantum oblivious transfer and quantum bit commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Minh-Dung; Bellot, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this communication, we present our works on building quantum OT and BC protocols. The starting idea is to use non-orthogonal instead of orthogonal quantum states (|0>, |1>) to encode classical bits. Based on this coding, we propose a Weak Quantum Oblivious Transfer protocol, and by extending Crepeau's works, we can create a Quantum One-out-of-two Oblivious Transfer protocol that is secure against Alice and Bob cheating. A regular Bit Commitment protocol can then be built from our OOT protocol. Although the unconditional security of our BC and OOT protocols seem to contradict Mayers and Lo-Chau theorems, we conjecture that our protocols do not fit in the models of Mayers and Lo-Chau. (author)

  4. Surface Modification of AISI 440B Stainless Steel and its Influence on Surgical Drill Bits Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łępicka M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern invasive surgery is highly dependent on the performance of surgical instruments, understood as long-term efficiency arising from high resistance to wear and corrosion. In order to maintain sufficient reliability, surgical cutting instruments are often made of martensitic stainless steels. Nevertheless, the use of ferrous alloys in medical applications is still a concern due to their questionable corrosion and wear resistance. To extend their biocompatibility, improve stability in variable environmental conditions, improve ease of handling, and maximize their performance, diffusion layers and coatings are applied to the surface. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of TiN and diamond-like carbon (DLC surface modification on the performance of surgical drill bits, that is, wear and corrosion resistance, measured in model and field tests. Based on the findings presented, DLC layers can be recommended as anti-wear and anti-corrosion coatings for surgical drill bits.

  5. A 2 GS/s 8-bit folding and interpolating ADC in 90 nm CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Wenwei; Meng Qiao; Zhang Yi; Tang Kai

    2014-01-01

    A single-channel 2 GS/s 8-bit analog-to-digital converter in 90 nm CMOS process technology is presented. It utilizes cascade folding architecture, which incorporates an additional inter-stage sample-and-hold amplifier between the folding circuits to enhance the quantization time. It also uses the foreground on-chip digital-assisted calibration circuit to improve the linearity of the circuit. The post simulation results demonstrate that it has a differential nonlinearity < ±0.3 LSB and an integral nonlinearity < ±0.25 LSB at the Nyquist frequency. Moreover, 7.338 effective numbers of bits can be achieved at 2 GSPS. The whole chip area is 0.88 × 0.88 mm 2 with the pad. It consumes 210 mW from a 1.2 V single supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. X-band 5-bit MMIC phase shifter with GaN HEMT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pengpeng; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Zongjing; Geng, Miao; Zhang, Rong; Luo, Weijun

    2017-10-01

    The design approach and performance of a 5-bit digital phase shifter implemented with 0.25 μm GaN HEMT technology for X-band phased arrays are described. The switched filter and high-pass/low-pass networks are proposed in this article. For all 32 states of the 5-bit phase shifter, the RMS phase error less than 5.5°, RMS amplitude error less than 0.8 dB, insertion loss less than 12 dB and input/output return loss less than 8.5 dB are obtained overall 8-12 GHz. The continuous wave power capability is also measured, and a typical input RF P1dB data of 32 dBm is achieved at 8 GHz.

  7. Computing in the presence of soft bit errors. [caused by single event upset on spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that single-event-upsets (SEUs) due to cosmic rays are a significant source of single bit error in spacecraft computers. The physical mechanism of SEU, electron hole generation by means of Linear Energy Transfer (LET), it discussed with reference made to the results of a study of the environmental effects on computer systems of the Galileo spacecraft. Techniques for making software more tolerant of cosmic ray effects are considered, including: reducing the number of registers used by the software; continuity testing of variables; redundant execution of major procedures for error detection; and encoding state variables to detect single-bit changes. Attention is also given to design modifications which may reduce the cosmic ray exposure of on-board hardware. These modifications include: shielding components operating in LEO; removing low-power Schottky parts; and the use of CMOS diodes. The SEU parameters of different electronic components are listed in a table.

  8. Influence of transmission bit rate on performance of optical fibre communication systems with direct modulation of laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Moustafa F

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the influence of the transmission bit rate on the performance of optical fibre communication systems employing laser diodes subjected to high-speed direct modulation. The performance is evaluated in terms of the bit error rate (BER) and power penalty associated with increasing the transmission bit rate while keeping the transmission distance. The study is based on numerical analysis of the stochastic rate equations of the laser diode and takes into account noise mechanisms in the receiver. Correlation between BER and the Q-parameter of the received signal is presented. The relative contributions of the transmitter noise and the circuit and shot noises of the receiver to BER are quantified as functions of the transmission bit rate. The results show that the power penalty at BER = 10 -9 required to keep the transmission distance increases moderately with the increase in the bit rate near 1 Gbps and at high bias currents. In this regime, the shot noise is the main contributor to BER. At higher bit rates and lower bias currents, the power penalty increases remarkably, which comes mainly from laser noise induced by the pseudorandom bit-pattern effect.

  9. A Modified Differential Coherent Bit Synchronization Algorithm for BeiDou Weak Signals with Large Frequency Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhifeng; Liu, Jianye; Li, Rongbing; Zeng, Qinghua; Wang, Yi

    2017-07-04

    BeiDou system navigation messages are modulated with a secondary NH (Neumann-Hoffman) code of 1 kbps, where frequent bit transitions limit the coherent integration time to 1 millisecond. Therefore, a bit synchronization algorithm is necessary to obtain bit edges and NH code phases. In order to realize bit synchronization for BeiDou weak signals with large frequency deviation, a bit synchronization algorithm based on differential coherent and maximum likelihood is proposed. Firstly, a differential coherent approach is used to remove the effect of frequency deviation, and the differential delay time is set to be a multiple of bit cycle to remove the influence of NH code. Secondly, the maximum likelihood function detection is used to improve the detection probability of weak signals. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to analyze the detection performance of the proposed algorithm compared with a traditional algorithm under the CN0s of 20~40 dB-Hz and different frequency deviations. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional method with a frequency deviation of 50 Hz. This algorithm can remove the effect of BeiDou NH code effectively and weaken the influence of frequency deviation. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed algorithm, real data tests are conducted. The proposed algorithm is suitable for BeiDou weak signal bit synchronization with large frequency deviation.

  10. A novel image encryption algorithm based on synchronized random bit generated in cascade-coupled chaotic semiconductor ring lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiafu; Xiang, Shuiying; Wang, Haoning; Gong, Junkai; Wen, Aijun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel image encryption algorithm based on synchronization of physical random bit generated in a cascade-coupled semiconductor ring lasers (CCSRL) system is proposed, and the security analysis is performed. In both transmitter and receiver parts, the CCSRL system is a master-slave configuration consisting of a master semiconductor ring laser (M-SRL) with cross-feedback and a solitary SRL (S-SRL). The proposed image encryption algorithm includes image preprocessing based on conventional chaotic maps, pixel confusion based on control matrix extracted from physical random bit, and pixel diffusion based on random bit stream extracted from physical random bit. Firstly, the preprocessing method is used to eliminate the correlation between adjacent pixels. Secondly, physical random bit with verified randomness is generated based on chaos in the CCSRL system, and is used to simultaneously generate the control matrix and random bit stream. Finally, the control matrix and random bit stream are used for the encryption algorithm in order to change the position and the values of pixels, respectively. Simulation results and security analysis demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is effective and able to resist various typical attacks, and thus is an excellent candidate for secure image communication application.

  11. Web-page Prediction for Domain Specific Web-search using Boolean Bit Mask

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sukanta; Duttagupta, Rana; Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti

    2012-01-01

    Search Engine is a Web-page retrieval tool. Nowadays Web searchers utilize their time using an efficient search engine. To improve the performance of the search engine, we are introducing a unique mechanism which will give Web searchers more prominent search results. In this paper, we are going to discuss a domain specific Web search prototype which will generate the predicted Web-page list for user given search string using Boolean bit mask.

  12. Direct kinematics solution architectures for industrial robot manipulators: Bit-serial versus parallel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kim, K.

    1991-01-01

    A Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) architecture for robot direct kinematic computation suitable for industrial robot manipulators was investigated. The Denavit-Hartenberg transformations are reviewed to exploit a proper processing element, namely an augmented CORDIC. Specifically, two distinct implementations are elaborated on, such as the bit-serial and parallel. Performance of each scheme is analyzed with respect to the time to compute one location of the end-effector of a 6-links manipulator, and the number of transistors required.

  13. Direct kinematics solution architectures for industrial robot manipulators: Bit-serial versus parallel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kim, K.

    A Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) architecture for robot direct kinematic computation suitable for industrial robot manipulators was investigated. The Denavit-Hartenberg transformations are reviewed to exploit a proper processing element, namely an augmented CORDIC. Specifically, two distinct implementations are elaborated on, such as the bit-serial and parallel. Performance of each scheme is analyzed with respect to the time to compute one location of the end-effector of a 6-links manipulator, and the number of transistors required.

  14. International Drug Discovery Science and Technology--BIT's Seventh Annual Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodovitz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    BIT's Seventh Annual International Drug Discovery Science and Technology Congress, held in Shanghai, included topics covering new therapeutic and technological developments in the field of drug discovery. This conference report highlights selected presentations on open-access approaches to R&D, novel and multifactorial targets, and technologies that assist drug discovery. Investigational drugs discussed include the anticancer agents astuprotimut-r (GlaxoSmithKline plc) and AS-1411 (Antisoma plc).

  15. 8-bit serial-parallel analog-to-digital converter for fast transient recorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulka, Z.; Nadachowski, M.; Zimek, Z.

    1990-08-01

    An 8-bit serial-parallel analog-to-digital converter with a sampling frequency 5 MHz is described. The most important circuits of the device are described and parameters are given. The converter is a central part of a transient recorder type TR-1 designed for recording pulse waveforms in measurements of the kinetics of chemical reactions which are radiation-induced using an electron linear accelerator. 9 refs., 9 figs. (author)

  16. Bits or Shots in Combat? The Generalized Deitchman Model of Guerrilla Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Kress, Moshe; MacKay, Niall J.

    2013-01-01

    Operations Research Letters, accepted. We generalize Deitchman's guerrilla warfare model to account for trade-off between intelligence ('bits') and firepower ('shots'). Intelligent targeting leads to aimed fire, absence of intelligence leads to unaimed fire, dependent on targets' density. We propose a new Lanchester-type model that mixes aimed with unaimed fire, the balance between these being determined by quality of information. We derive the model's conserved quantity, and use it ...

  17. Opportunistic Beamforming with Wireless Powered 1-bit Feedback Through Rectenna Array

    OpenAIRE

    Krikidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    This letter deals with the opportunistic beamforming (OBF) scheme for multi-antenna downlink with spatial randomness. In contrast to conventional OBF, the terminals return only 1-bit feedback, which is powered by wireless power transfer through a rectenna array. We study two fundamental topologies for the combination of the rectenna elements; the direct-current combiner and the radio-frequency combiner. The beam outage probability is derived in closed form for both combination schemes, by usi...

  18. Bit rate maximization for multicast LP-OFDM systems in PLC context

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga , Ali; Baudais , Jean-Yves; Hélard , Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    ISBN: 978-88-900984-8-2.; International audience; In this paper, we propose a new resource allocation algorithm based on linear precoding technique for multicast OFDM systems. Linear precoding technique applied to OFDM systems has already proved its ability to significantly increase the system throughput in a powerline communication (PLC) context. Simulations through PLC channels show that this algorithm outperforms the classical multicast method (up to 7.3% bit rate gain) and gives better pe...

  19. Unconditionally Secure Constant-Rounds Multi-party Computation for Equality, Comparison, Bits and Exponentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Toft, Tomas

    2006-01-01

    We show that if a set of players hold shares of a value aFp for some prime p (where the set of shares is written [a] p ), it is possible to compute, in constant rounds and with unconditional security, sharings of the bits of a, i.e., compute sharings [a 0] p , ..., [a ℓ− − 1] p such that ℓ = ⌈ lo...

  20. Detection and Symbol Synchronization for Multiple-bit Per Photon Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of detection and synchronization in a highly efficient direct detection optical communication system are reported. Results of measurements on this moderate-rate demonstration system capable of transmitting 2.5 bits/detected photon in low-background situations indicate that symbol slot synchronization is not a problem, and that a simple symbol detection scheme is adequate for this situation. This system is a candidate for interplanetary optical communications.

  1. Origin of magnetic switching field distribution in bit patterned media based on pre-patterned substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pfau , B; Günther , C.M.; Guehrs , E; Hauet , Thomas; Yang , H; Vinh , L.; Xu , X; Yaney , D; Rick , R; Eisebitt , S; Hellwig , O

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Using a combination of synchrotron radiation based magnetic imaging and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy we reveal systematic correlations between the magnetic switching field and the internal nanoscale structure of individual islands in bit patterned media fabricated by Co/Pd-multilayer deposition onto pre-patterned substrates. We find that misaligned grains at the island periphery are a common feature independent of the island switching field, while i...

  2. A Symmetric Key Cryptographic Technique Through Swapping Bits in Binary Field Using p-Box Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Subhranil Som; Soumasree Banerjee

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a symmetric key cryptographic algorithm named as “A Symmetric Key Cryptographic Technique Through Swapping Bits in Binary Field Using p-box Matrix“ is proposed. Secret sharing is a technique by which any information can be break down into small pieces. The secret can be reconstructed only when a sufficient number of pieces of shares are combined together; individual shares are of no use on their own. Traditional secret sharing scheme possesses high computational ...

  3. DarkBit. A GAMBIT module for computing dark matter observables and likelihoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringmann, Torsten; Dal, Lars A. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Conrad, Jan; Edsjoe, Joakim; Farmer, Ben [AlbaNova University Centre, Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Cornell, Jonathan M. [McGill University, Department of Physics, Montreal, QC (Canada); Kahlhoefer, Felix; Wild, Sebastian [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Kvellestad, Anders; Savage, Christopher [NORDITA, Stockholm (Sweden); Putze, Antje [LAPTh, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Scott, Pat [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Weniger, Christoph [University of Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); White, Martin [University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale, Parkville (Australia); Collaboration: The GAMBIT Dark Matter Workgroup

    2017-12-15

    We introduce DarkBit, an advanced software code for computing dark matter constraints on various extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics, comprising both new native code and interfaces to external packages. This release includes a dedicated signal yield calculator for gamma-ray observations, which significantly extends current tools by implementing a cascade-decay Monte Carlo, as well as a dedicated likelihood calculator for current and future experiments (gamLike). This provides a general solution for studying complex particle physics models that predict dark matter annihilation to a multitude of final states. We also supply a direct detection package that models a large range of direct detection experiments (DDCalc), and that provides the corresponding likelihoods for arbitrary combinations of spin-independent and spin-dependent scattering processes. Finally, we provide custom relic density routines along with interfaces to DarkSUSY, micrOMEGAs, and the neutrino telescope likelihood package nulike. DarkBit is written in the framework of the Global And Modular Beyond the Standard Model Inference Tool (GAMBIT), providing seamless integration into a comprehensive statistical fitting framework that allows users to explore new models with both particle and astrophysics constraints, and a consistent treatment of systematic uncertainties. In this paper we describe its main functionality, provide a guide to getting started quickly, and show illustrative examples for results obtained with DarkBit (both as a stand-alone tool and as a GAMBIT module). This includes a quantitative comparison between two of the main dark matter codes (DarkSUSY and micrOMEGAs), and application of DarkBit's advanced direct and indirect detection routines to a simple effective dark matter model. (orig.)

  4. Design and Demonstration of a 30 GHz 16-bit Superconductor RSFQ Microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-10

    efficiency of on-chip storage units implemented with superconductor Reciprocal Quantum Logic (RQL) using our RQL VHDL cell library tuned to the MIT...processor prototype implemented with the AIST/ISTEC 10 kA/cm sq. fabrication process. Our team has developed complete logical and physical designs of five...of key components of a 30 GHz 16-bit RSFQ processor prototype implemented with the AIST/ISTEC 10 kA/cm sq. fabrication process. Our team has

  5. Front-end data processing using the bit-sliced microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machen, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A state-of-the-art computing device, based upon the high-speed bit-sliced microprocessor, was developed into hardware for front-end data processing in both control and experiment applications at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The CAMAC Instrumentation Standard provides the framework for the high-speed hardware, allowing data acquisition and processing to take place at the data source in a CAMAC crate. 5 figures

  6. Rabbit System. Low cost, high reliability front end electronics featuring 16 bit dynamic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, G.; Droege, T.F.; Nelson, C.A. Jr.; Turner, K.J.; Ohska, T.K.

    1985-10-01

    A new crate-based front end system has been built which features low cost, compact packaging, command capability, 16 bit dynamic range digitization, and a high degree of redundancy. The crate can contain a variety of instrumentation modules, and is designed to be situated close to the detector. The system is suitable for readout of a large number of channels via parallel multiprocessor data acquisition

  7. A 13-Bits wilkinson analog-digital converter for NIM acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta Toledo, R.; Osorio Deliz, J.; Arista Romeu, E.; Fernandez, J.

    1994-01-01

    A new 13-bits Wilkinson analog-digital converter is described. The aim of this work is to describe the circuits of sample and hold, memory condensator loading and releasing PROM based control memory logic, zero level detection and correction. The converter is designed for the digital measurement of the peak amplitudes of pulses with statistical or periodical time distribution. The analog-digital converter may be used in spectrometric systems, multi-channel analysers or any similar PC based system

  8. Heavy-Ion Testing of the Freescale Qorivva 32-bit Automotive-Grade MCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Ted; Seidleck, Christina; Casey, Megan; LaBel, Ken

    2016-01-01

    We present single-event effects testing results from a commercially-available automotive microcontroller. We discuss the difficulties encountered testing with commercially-provided evaluation boards while attempting to classify the complex and varied failure modes of a modern 32-bit microcontroller. This work also describes some of the possible advantages to using off-the-shelf automotive-grade electronics for low-risk aerospace applications.

  9. Simplified Metrics Calculation for Soft Bit Detection in DVB-T2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Perez-Calderon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The constellation rotation and cyclic quadrature component delay (RQD technique has been adopted in the second generation terrestrial digital video broadcasting (DVB-T2 standard. It improves the system performance under severe propagation conditions, but introduces serious complexity problems in the hardware implementation of the detection process. In this paper, we present a simplified scheme that greatly reduces the complexity of the demapper by simplifying the soft bit metrics computation having a negligible overall system performance loss.

  10. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  11. [Prognostic scores for pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Alain

    2016-03-23

    Nine prognostic scores for pulmonary embolism (PE), based on retrospective and prospective studies, published between 2000 and 2014, have been analyzed and compared. Most of them aim at identifying PE cases with a low risk to validate their ambulatory care. Important differences in the considered outcomes: global mortality, PE-specific mortality, other complications, sizes of low risk groups, exist between these scores. The most popular score appears to be the PESI and its simplified version. Few good quality studies have tested the applicability of these scores to PE outpatient care, although this approach tends to already generalize in the medical practice.

  12. Compact FPGA-based beamformer using oversampled 1-bit A/D converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    A compact medical ultrasound beamformer architecture that uses oversampled 1-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converters is presented. Sparse sample processing is used, as the echo signal for the image lines is reconstructed in 512 equidistant focal points along the line through its in-phase and quadr......% of the available logic resources in a commercially available midrange FPGA, and to be able to operate at 129 MHz. Simulation of the architecture at 140 MHz provides images with a dynamic range approaching 60 dB for an excitation frequency of 3 MHz.......A compact medical ultrasound beamformer architecture that uses oversampled 1-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converters is presented. Sparse sample processing is used, as the echo signal for the image lines is reconstructed in 512 equidistant focal points along the line through its in......-phase and quadrature components. That information is sufficient for presenting a B-mode image and creating a color flow map. The high sampling rate provides the necessary delay resolution for the focusing. The low channel data width (1-bit) makes it possible to construct a compact beamformer logic. The signal...

  13. Iterative decoding of SOVA and LDPC product code for bit-patterned media recoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongkwon; Lee, Jaejin

    2018-05-01

    The demand for high-density storage systems has increased due to the exponential growth of data. Bit-patterned media recording (BPMR) is one of the promising technologies to achieve the density of 1Tbit/in2 and higher. To increase the areal density in BPMR, the spacing between islands needs to be reduced, yet this aggravates inter-symbol interference and inter-track interference and degrades the bit error rate performance. In this paper, we propose a decision feedback scheme using low-density parity check (LDPC) product code for BPMR. This scheme can improve the decoding performance using an iterative approach with extrinsic information and log-likelihood ratio value between iterative soft output Viterbi algorithm and LDPC product code. Simulation results show that the proposed LDPC product code can offer 1.8dB and 2.3dB gains over the one LDPC code at the density of 2.5 and 3 Tb/in2, respectively, when bit error rate is 10-6.

  14. Watermarking Techniques Using Least Significant Bit Algorithm for Digital Image Security Standard Solution- Based Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Muzakir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ease of deployment of digital image through the internet has positive and negative sides, especially for owners of the original digital image. The positive side of the ease of rapid deployment is the owner of that image deploys digital image files to various sites in the world address. While the downside is that if there is no copyright that serves as protector of the image it will be very easily recognized ownership by other parties. Watermarking is one solution to protect the copyright and know the results of the digital image. With Digital Image Watermarking, copyright resulting digital image will be protected through the insertion of additional information such as owner information and the authenticity of the digital image. The least significant bit (LSB is one of the algorithm is simple and easy to understand. The results of the simulations carried out using android smartphone shows that the LSB watermarking technique is not able to be seen by naked human eye, meaning there is no significant difference in the image of the original files with images that have been inserted watermarking. The resulting image has dimensions of 640x480 with a bit depth of 32 bits. In addition, to determine the function of the ability of the device (smartphone in processing the image using this application used black box testing. 

  15. Improving soft FEC performance for higher-order modulations via optimized bit channel mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häger, Christian; Amat, Alexandre Graell I; Brännström, Fredrik; Alvarado, Alex; Agrell, Erik

    2014-06-16

    Soft forward error correction with higher-order modulations is often implemented in practice via the pragmatic bit-interleaved coded modulation paradigm, where a single binary code is mapped to a nonbinary modulation. In this paper, we study the optimization of the mapping of the coded bits to the modulation bits for a polarization-multiplexed fiber-optical system without optical inline dispersion compensation. Our focus is on protograph-based low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes which allow for an efficient hardware implementation, suitable for high-speed optical communications. The optimization is applied to the AR4JA protograph family, and further extended to protograph-based spatially coupled LDPC codes assuming a windowed decoder. Full field simulations via the split-step Fourier method are used to verify the analysis. The results show performance gains of up to 0.25 dB, which translate into a possible extension of the transmission reach by roughly up to 8%, without significantly increasing the system complexity.

  16. An 8 bit 1 MS/s SAR ADC with 7.72-ENOB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jihai; Zhu, Zhiyong; Deng, Jinli; Xu, Weilin

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a low power 8-bit 1 MS/s SAR ADC with 7.72-bit ENOB. Without an op-amp, an improved segmented capacitor DAC is proposed to reduce the capacitance and the chip area. A dynamic latch comparator with output offset voltage storage technology is used to improve the precision. Adding an extra positive feedback in the latch is to increase the speed. What is more, two pairs of CMOS switches are utilized to eliminate the kickback noise introduced by the latch. The proposed SAR ADC was fabricated in SMIC 0.18 {{μ }}{{m}} CMOS technology. The measured results show that this design achieves an SFDR of 61.8 dB and an ENOB of 7.72 bits, and it consumes 67.5 μW with the FOM of 312 fJ/conversion-step at 1 MS/s sample under 1.8 V power supply. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61161003, 61264001, 61166004) and the Guangxi Key Laboratory of Precision Navigation Technology and Application Foundation (No. DH201501).

  17. Detection of LSB+/-1 steganography based on co-occurrence matrix and bit plane clipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Mojtaba; Aghaeinia, Hassan; Faez, Karim; Mehrabi, Mohammad Ali

    2010-01-01

    Spatial LSB+/-1 steganography changes smooth characteristics between adjoining pixels of the raw image. We present a novel steganalysis method for LSB+/-1 steganography based on feature vectors derived from the co-occurrence matrix in the spatial domain. We investigate how LSB+/-1 steganography affects the bit planes of an image and show that it changes more least significant bit (LSB) planes of it. The co-occurrence matrix is derived from an image in which some of its most significant bit planes are clipped. By this preprocessing, in addition to reducing the dimensions of the feature vector, the effects of embedding were also preserved. We compute the co-occurrence matrix in different directions and with different dependency and use the elements of the resulting co-occurrence matrix as features. This method is sensitive to the data embedding process. We use a Fisher linear discrimination (FLD) classifier and test our algorithm on different databases and embedding rates. We compare our scheme with the current LSB+/-1 steganalysis methods. It is shown that the proposed scheme outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in detecting the LSB+/-1 steganographic method for grayscale images.

  18. Validation of the VitaBit Sit–Stand Tracker: Detecting Sitting, Standing, and Activity Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie M. Berninger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (SB has detrimental consequences and cannot be compensated for through moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA. In order to understand and mitigate SB, tools for measuring and monitoring SB are essential. While current direct-to-customer wearables focus on PA, the VitaBit validated in this study was developed to focus on SB. It was tested in a laboratory and in a free-living condition, comparing it to direct observation and to a current best-practice device, the ActiGraph, on a minute-by-minute basis. In the laboratory, the VitaBit yielded specificity and negative predictive rates (NPR of above 91.2% for sitting and standing, while sensitivity and precision ranged from 74.6% to 85.7%. For walking, all performance values exceeded 97.3%. In the free-living condition, the device revealed performance of over 72.6% for sitting with the ActiGraph as criterion. While sensitivity and precision for standing and walking ranged from 48.2% to 68.7%, specificity and NPR exceeded 83.9%. According to the laboratory findings, high performance for sitting, standing, and walking makes the VitaBit eligible for SB monitoring. As the results are not transferrable to daily life activities, a direct observation study in a free-living setting is recommended.

  19. Aplikasi Steganografi Menggunakan LSB 4 Bit Sisipan dengan Kombinasi Algoritme Substitusi dan Vigenere Berbasis Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyagung Hernawandra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to implement steganography with 4 bit LSB method combined with Vigenere and substitution encryption algorithms. This combination strengthens the security of text messages that are inserted into the image because the message is already a ciphertext as the result of the Vigenere and substitution encryption process. This steganography is realized as an application that runs on Android devices. This application can insert text messages that contain space characters and a combination of uppercase letters in a digital image. Using this application, insertion of messages into images causes the increase of images size by an average of 12.77% of the original size from 10 sample images. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengaplikasikan steganografi dengan metode LSB 4 bit penyisipan yang digabungkan dengan algoritme enkripsi Vigenere dan substitusi. Penggunaan algoritme enkripsi ini memperkuat keamanan pesan teks yang disisipkan ke gambar karena pesan tersebut sudah berupa ciphertext hasil dari proses enkripsi dengan Vigenere dan substitusi. Pesan yang berisi karakter spasi dan kombinasi huruf besar kecil juga dapat disisipkan dalam citra digital. Steganografi ini diwujudkan sebagai aplikasi yang berjalan di devais Android. Dengan menggunakan aplikasi ini, penyisipan pesan dengan metode LSB 4 bit sisipan ke gambar menyebabkan penambahan besar gambar rata-rata 12,77% dari besar aslinya untuk 10 gambar uji.

  20. MEKANISME SEGMENTASI LAJU BIT PADA DYNAMIC ADAPTIVE STREAMING OVER HTTP (DASH UNTUK APLIKASI VIDEO STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Audy Bazly

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG- DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  1. Micromagnetic studies for bit patterned media above 2 Tbit/in.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kaiming; Wei Dan

    2012-01-01

    Bit patterned media (BPM) recording is a candidate for extremely high density magnetic recording. A micromagnetic model is built up to analyze the phase diagram of the correct-write-in condition in BPM above 2 Tb/in. 2 fabricated by lithography or ion irradiation methods. The target of the study is to acquire the relationship between the recording performance and the magnetic properties of the media. The medium includes the polycrystalline grains and grain boundary. In BPM fabricated by lithography with FCT structure, two phase diagrams of the correct-write-in condition are found for the anisotropy angular distribution Δθ, the ratio of tetragonal anisotropy K 22 to uniaxial anisotropy K 1 and the uniaxial anisotropy distribution ΔK 1 . In BPM fabricated by ion irradiation methods, two phase diagrams of the correct-write-in condition are analyzed for the ratio of saturation magnetization M' s /M s , anisotropy field H' k /H k and the exchange field H' ex /H ex in the ion irradiated region and the bit islands. - Research highlights: → Two types of BPM, regular or with irradiated regions, are studied using micromagnetics. → Optimum parameters are found for regular BPM with non-magnetic inter-bit spacing. → Recording phase diagrams versus M s , H k and A * in irradiated regions are found.

  2. A Preliminary Study on the Containment Integrity following BIT Removal for Kori NPP Unit 3,4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dong Soo; Byun, Choong Sup [KEPRI, Nuclear Power Generation Laboratory, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Jong Young [ENERGEO Inc., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The Boron Injection Tank (BIT) is to provide high concentrated boric acid to the reactor in order to mitigate the consequences of postulated Main Steam Line Break accidents (MSLB). Although BIT plays an important role in mitigating the accident, high concentration of 20,000ppm causes valve leakage, pipe clog, precipitation and continuous heat tracing have to be provided. This paper is for the feasibility study of containment integrity using CONTEMPT code for BIT removal of Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit 3, 4.

  3. A Preliminary Study on the Containment Integrity following BIT Removal for Kori NPP Unit 3,4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dong Soo; Byun, Choong Sup; Jo, Jong Young

    2008-01-01

    The Boron Injection Tank (BIT) is to provide high concentrated boric acid to the reactor in order to mitigate the consequences of postulated Main Steam Line Break accidents (MSLB). Although BIT plays an important role in mitigating the accident, high concentration of 20,000ppm causes valve leakage, pipe clog, precipitation and continuous heat tracing have to be provided. This paper is for the feasibility study of containment integrity using CONTEMPT code for BIT removal of Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit 3, 4

  4. Demonstrating Multi-bit Magnetic Memory in the Fe8 High Spin Molecule by Muon Spin Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Shafir, Oren; Keren, Amit; Maegawa, Satoru; Ueda, Miki; Amato, Alex; Baines, Chris

    2005-01-01

    We developed a method to detect the quantum nature of high spin molecules using muon spin rotation, and a three-step field cycle ending always with the same field. We use this method to demonstrate that the Fe8 molecule can remember 6 (possibly 8) different histories (bits). A wide range of fields can be used to write a particular bit, and the information is stored in discrete states. Therefore, Fe8 can be used as a model compound for Multi-bit Magnetic Memory. Our experiment also paves the w...

  5. Offset correction system for 128-channel self-triggering readout chip with in-channel 5-bit energy measurement functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otfinowski, P., E-mail: potfin@agh.edu.pl; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Kasinski, K.

    2015-04-21

    We report on a novel, two-stage 8-bit trimming solution dedicated for multichannel systems with reduced trim DAC area occupancy. The presented design was used for comparator offset correction in a 128-channel particle tracking, self-triggering readout system and manufactured in 180 nm CMOS process. The 8-bit trim DAC has a range of ±165 mV, current consumption of 3.2 µA and occupies an area of 37 µm×17 µm in each channel, which corresponds to a 6-bit conventional current steering DAC with similar linearity.

  6. Preliminary definition of improvement in juvenile arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, E H; Ruperto, N; Ravelli, A; Lovell, D J; Felson, D T; Martini, A

    1997-07-01

    To identify a core set of outcome variables for the assessment of children with juvenile arthritis (JA), to use the core set to develop a definition of improvement to determine whether individual patients demonstrate clinically important improvement, and to promote this definition as a single efficacy measure in JA clinical trials. A core set of outcome variables was established using a combination of statistical and consensus formation techniques. Variables in the core set consisted of 1) physician global assessment of disease activity; 2) parent/patient assessment of overall well-being; 3) functional ability; 4) number of joints with active arthritis; 5) number of joints with limited range of motion; and 6) erythrocyte sedimentation rate. To establish a definition of improvement using this core set, 21 pediatric rheumatologists from 14 countries met, and, using consensus formation techniques, scored each of 72 patient profiles as improved or not improved. Using the physicians' consensus as the gold standard, the chi-square, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated for each of 240 possible definitions of improvement. Definitions with sensitivity or specificity of definitions to discriminate between the effects of active agent and those of placebo, using actual trial data, was then observed. Each definition was also ranked for face validity, and the sum of the ranks was then multiplied by the kappa statistic. The definition of improvement with the highest final score was as follows: at least 30% improvement from baseline in 3 of any 6 variables in the core set, with no more than 1 of the remaining variables worsening by >30%. The second highest scoring definition was closely related to the first; the third highest was similar to the Paulus criteria used in adult rheumatoid arthritis trials, except with different variables. This indicates convergent validity of the process used. We propose a definition of improvement for JA. Use of a uniform definition will help

  7. D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P

    2013-03-01

    While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  9. Quadratic prediction of factor scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, T

    1999-01-01

    Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic

  10. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  11. Matching score based face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different

  12. Modelling sequentially scored item responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, W.

    2000-01-01

    The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is

  13. Correct mutual information, quantum bit error rate and secure transmission efficiency in Wojcik's eavesdropping scheme on ping-pong protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhanjun

    2004-01-01

    Comment: The wrong mutual information, quantum bit error rate and secure transmission efficiency in Wojcik's eavesdropping scheme [PRL90(03)157901]on ping-pong protocol have been pointed out and corrected

  14. Extension of the lod score: the mod score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerget-Darpoux, F

    2001-01-01

    In 1955 Morton proposed the lod score method both for testing linkage between loci and for estimating the recombination fraction between them. If a disease is controlled by a gene at one of these loci, the lod score computation requires the prior specification of an underlying model that assigns the probabilities of genotypes from the observed phenotypes. To address the case of linkage studies for diseases with unknown mode of inheritance, we suggested (Clerget-Darpoux et al., 1986) extending the lod score function to a so-called mod score function. In this function, the variables are both the recombination fraction and the disease model parameters. Maximizing the mod score function over all these parameters amounts to maximizing the probability of marker data conditional on the disease status. Under the absence of linkage, the mod score conforms to a chi-square distribution, with extra degrees of freedom in comparison to the lod score function (MacLean et al., 1993). The mod score is asymptotically maximum for the true disease model (Clerget-Darpoux and Bonaïti-Pellié, 1992; Hodge and Elston, 1994). Consequently, the power to detect linkage through mod score will be highest when the space of models where the maximization is performed includes the true model. On the other hand, one must avoid overparametrization of the model space. For example, when the approach is applied to affected sibpairs, only two constrained disease model parameters should be used (Knapp et al., 1994) for the mod score maximization. It is also important to emphasize the existence of a strong correlation between the disease gene location and the disease model. Consequently, there is poor resolution of the location of the susceptibility locus when the disease model at this locus is unknown. Of course, this is true regardless of the statistics used. The mod score may also be applied in a candidate gene strategy to model the potential effect of this gene in the disease. Since, however, it

  15. NASA Glenn Steady-State Heat Pipe Code GLENHP: Compilation for 64- and 32-Bit Windows Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Leonard K.; Geng, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    A new version of the NASA Glenn Steady State Heat Pipe Code, designated "GLENHP," is introduced here. This represents an update to the disk operating system (DOS) version LERCHP reported in NASA/TM-2000-209807. The new code operates on 32- and 64-bit Windows-based platforms from within the 32-bit command prompt window. An additional evaporator boundary condition and other features are provided.

  16. A High Resolution Switched Capacitor 1bit Sigma-Delta Modulator for Low-Voltage/Low-Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furst, Claus Efdmann

    1996-01-01

    A high resolution 1bit Sigma-Delta modulator for low power/low voltage applications is presented. The modulator operates at a supply of 1-1.5V, the current drain is 0.1mA. The maximum resolution is 87dB equivalent to 14 bits of resolution. This is achieved with a signal-band of 5kHz, over-samplin...

  17. A Fast Multiple Sampling Method for Low-Noise CMOS Image Sensors With Column-Parallel 12-bit SAR ADCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Kyu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast multiple sampling method for low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS applications with column-parallel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs. The 12-bit SAR ADC using the proposed multiple sampling method decreases the A/D conversion time by repeatedly converting a pixel output to 4-bit after the first 12-bit A/D conversion, reducing noise of the CIS by one over the square root of the number of samplings. The area of the 12-bit SAR ADC is reduced by using a 10-bit capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC with four scaled reference voltages. In addition, a simple up/down counter-based digital processing logic is proposed to perform complex calculations for multiple sampling and digital correlated double sampling. To verify the proposed multiple sampling method, a 256 × 128 pixel array CIS with 12-bit SAR ADCs was fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results shows that the proposed multiple sampling method reduces each A/D conversion time from 1.2 μs to 0.45 μs and random noise from 848.3 μV to 270.4 μV, achieving a dynamic range of 68.1 dB and an SNR of 39.2 dB.

  18. From Rasch scores to regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    Rasch models provide a framework for measurement and modelling latent variables. Having measured a latent variable in a population a comparison of groups will often be of interest. For this purpose the use of observed raw scores will often be inadequate because these lack interval scale propertie....... This paper compares two approaches to group comparison: linear regression models using estimated person locations as outcome variables and latent regression models based on the distribution of the score....

  19. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  20. The new designs of diamond drill bits for composite polymers tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Yu. Melentiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author explores the drilling operation of some new engineering materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP and other polymers that have an anisotropic structure, high-strength and elastic properties combined with low heat endurance. Such combination of properties makes impossible the simple transfer of the existing technologies for classic materials working to considered new class. At the same time, the existing tools cannot assure the specified quality of tooled products at the current productivity and tool life. Aim: The aim of this research is to increase the process efficiency of diamond drilling in composite polymers by developing the new designs of diamond drill bits. Materials and Methods: One of the most promising directions to solve this problem is the diamond coated abrasive type tool. This paper addresses and classifies the existing types of diamond drill bits according to their application and operation. The literature data analysis of known disadvantages during drilling operation, the quality of surface and joining face was performed. Results: The experimental researches of the author prove the negative meaning of the already known but kept out fact – the drill core blocking. The most important factors and structural features affecting the CFRP drilling process are revealed. The accounting of these factors allowed creating the set of unique designs of diamond drill bits for different purposes. The presented patented models has different allowance distribution schemes and cutting forces, thus satisfy the mechanical requirements of quality, productivity, tool life and hole geometry in the tooling of the specified material class.

  1. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-10-04

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  2. A 12-bit SAR ADC integrated on a multichannel silicon drift detector readout IC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schembari, F., E-mail: filippo.schembari@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, via Golgi 40, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bellotti, G.; Fiorini, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, via Golgi 40, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    A 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) addressed to Silicon-Drift Detectors (SDDs) multichannel readout ASICs for X- and gamma-ray applications is presented. Aiming at digitizing output multiplexed data from the upstream analog filters banks, the converter must ensure 11-bit accuracy and a sampling frequency of about 5 MS/s. The ADC architecture is the charge-redistribution (CR) successive-approximation register (SAR). A fully differential topology has also been chosen for better rejection of common-mode noise and disturbances. The internal DAC is made of binary-scaled capacitors, whose bottom plates are switched by the SAR logic to perform the binary search of the analog input value by means of the monotonic switching scheme. The A/D converter is integrated on SFERA, a multichannel ASIC fabricated in a standard CMOS 0.35 μm 3.3 V technology and it occupies an area of 0.42 mm{sup 2}. Simulated static performance shows monotonicity over the whole input–output characteristic. The description of the circuit topology and of inner blocks architectures together with the experimental characterization is here presented. - Highlights: • X- and γ-ray spectroscopy front-ends need to readout a high number of detectors. • Design efforts are increasingly oriented to compact and low-power ASICs. • A possible solution is the on-chip integration of the analog-to-digital converter. • A 12-bit CR successive-approximation-register ADC has been developed. • It is a suitable candidate as the digitizer to be integrated in multichannel ASICs.

  3. Reducing pure dephasing of quantum bits by collective encoding in quantum dot arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodecka, A; Machnikowski, P; Jacak, L

    2006-01-01

    We show that phonon-induced pure dephasing of an excitonic (charge) quantum bit in a quantum dot (QD) may be reduced by collective encoding of logical qubits in QD arrays. We define the logical qubit on an array of 2, 4 and 8 QDs, connecting the logical 0) state with the presence of excitons in the appropriately chosen half of dots and the logical 1) state with the other half of the dots occupied. We give quantitative estimates of the resulting total error of a single qubit operation for an InAs/GaAs system

  4. Real-time minimal-bit-error probability decoding of convolutional codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L.-N.

    1974-01-01

    A recursive procedure is derived for decoding of rate R = 1/n binary convolutional codes which minimizes the probability of the individual decoding decisions for each information bit, subject to the constraint that the decoding delay be limited to Delta branches. This new decoding algorithm is similar to, but somewhat more complex than, the Viterbi decoding algorithm. A real-time, i.e., fixed decoding delay, version of the Viterbi algorithm is also developed and used for comparison to the new algorithm on simulated channels. It is shown that the new algorithm offers advantages over Viterbi decoding in soft-decision applications, such as in the inner coding system for concatenated coding.

  5. Real-time minimal bit error probability decoding of convolutional codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. N.

    1973-01-01

    A recursive procedure is derived for decoding of rate R=1/n binary convolutional codes which minimizes the probability of the individual decoding decisions for each information bit subject to the constraint that the decoding delay be limited to Delta branches. This new decoding algorithm is similar to, but somewhat more complex than, the Viterbi decoding algorithm. A real-time, i.e. fixed decoding delay, version of the Viterbi algorithm is also developed and used for comparison to the new algorithm on simulated channels. It is shown that the new algorithm offers advantages over Viterbi decoding in soft-decision applications such as in the inner coding system for concatenated coding.

  6. Prise en charge du priapisme à bas débit vue tardivement : à propos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K. Kamel

    de ce travail est d'étudier les particularités cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutives ... Patients et Méthodes : Etude rétrospective portant sur une série de 28 cas de priapisme à bas débit vus .... on complétait par un frotti sanguin à la recherche de drépanocyte et ... consultation un mois après pour évaluer la fonction érectile.

  7. Power consumption analysis of constant bit rate data transmission over 3G mobile wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Le; Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the power consumption of data transmission with constant bit rate over 3G mobile wireless networks. Our work includes the description of the transition state machine in 3G networks, followed by the detailed energy consumption analysis and measurement results...... of the radio link power consumption. Based on these description and analysis, we propose power consumption model. The power model was evaluated on the smartphone Nokia N900, which follows a 3GPP Release 5 and 6 supporting HSDPA/HSPA data bearers. Further we propose method of parameters selection for 3GPP...... transition state machine that allows to decrease power consumption on the mobile device....

  8. All-optical bit magnitude comparator device using metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Lokendra; Chen, Nan-Kuang

    2017-12-01

    A plasmonic metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide has great success in confining the surface plasmon up to a deep subwavelength scale. The structure of a nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) using a plasmonic MIM waveguide has been analyzed. A one-bit magnitude comparator has been designed using an MZI and two linear control waveguides. The device works on the Kerr effect inside the plasmonics waveguide. The mathematical description of the device is explained. The simulation of the device is done using MATLAB® and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.

  9. Comparison of Bit Error Rate of Line Codes in NG-PON2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Horvath

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on simulation and comparison of line codes NRZ (Non Return to Zero, RZ (Return to Zero and Miller’s code for NG-PON2 (Next-Generation Passive Optical Network Stage 2 using. Our article provides solutions with Q-factor, BER (Bit Error Rate, and bandwidth comparison. Line codes are the most important part of communication over the optical fibre. The main role of these codes is digital signal representation. NG-PON2 networks use optical fibres for communication that is the reason why OptSim v5.2 is used for simulation.

  10. Opportunistic Beamforming with Wireless Powered 1-bit Feedback Through Rectenna Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikidis, Ioannis

    2015-11-01

    This letter deals with the opportunistic beamforming (OBF) scheme for multi-antenna downlink with spatial randomness. In contrast to conventional OBF, the terminals return only 1-bit feedback, which is powered by wireless power transfer through a rectenna array. We study two fundamental topologies for the combination of the rectenna elements; the direct-current combiner and the radio-frequency combiner. The beam outage probability is derived in closed form for both combination schemes, by using high order statistics and stochastic geometry.

  11. Image steganography based on 2k correction and coherent bit length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuliang; Guo, Yongning

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the edge of cover image is detected with Canny operator and secret data is embedded in edge pixels. Sorting method is used to randomize the edge pixels in order to enhance security. Coherent bit length L is determined by relevant edge pixels. Finally, the method of 2k correction is applied to achieve better imperceptibility in stego image. The experiment shows that the proposed method is better than LSB-3 and Jae-Gil Yu's in PSNR and capacity.

  12. A Model for the Two-dimensional no Isolated Bits Constraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby

    2006-01-01

    A stationary model is presented for the two-dimensional (2-D) no isolated bits (n.i.b.) constraint over an extended alphabet defined by the elements within 1 by 2 blocks. This block-wise model is based on a set of sufficient conditions for a Pickard random field (PRF) over an m-ary alphabet....... Iterative techniques are applied as part of determining the model parameters. Given two Markov chains describing a boundary, an algorithm is presented which determines whether a certain PRF consistent with the boundary exists. Iterative scaling is used as part of the algorithm, which also determines...

  13. Efficient quantum state transfer in an engineered chain of quantum bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Martin; Knill, Emanuel; Kapit, Eliot; Vissers, Michael R.; Pappas, David P.

    2016-03-01

    We present a method of performing quantum state transfer in a chain of superconducting quantum bits. Our protocol is based on engineering the energy levels of the qubits in the chain and tuning them all simultaneously with an external flux bias. The system is designed to allow sequential adiabatic state transfers, resulting in on-demand quantum state transfer from one end of the chain to the other. Numerical simulations of the master equation using realistic parameters for capacitive nearest-neighbor coupling, energy relaxation, and dephasing show that fast, high-fidelity state transfer should be feasible using this method.

  14. Elimination of two level fluctuators in superconducting quantum bits by an epitaxial tunnel barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seongshik; Cicak, Katarina; Kline, Jeffrey S.; Sillanpaeae, Mika A.; Osborn, Kevin D.; Whittaker, Jed D.; Simmonds, Raymond W.; Pappas, David P.

    2006-01-01

    Quantum computing based on Josephson junction technology is considered promising due to its scalable architecture. However, decoherence is a major obstacle. Here, we report evidence for improved Josephson quantum bits (qubits) using a single-crystal Al 2 O 3 tunnel barrier. We have found an ∼80% reduction in the density of the spectral splittings that indicate the existence of two-level fluctators (TLFs) in amorphous tunnel barriers. The residual ∼20% TLFs can be attributed to interfacial effects that may be further reduced by different electrode materials. These results show that decoherence sources in the tunnel barrier of Josephson qubits can be identified and eliminated

  15. FPGA-based Bit-Error-Rate Tester for SEU-hardened Optical Links

    CERN Document Server

    Detraz, S; Moreira, P; Papadopoulos, S; Papakonstantinou, I; Seif El Nasr, S; Sigaud, C; Soos, C; Stejskal, P; Troska, J; Versmissen, H

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of optical links for future High-Energy Physics experiments will require components qualified for use in radiation-hard environments. To cope with radiation induced single-event upsets, the physical layer protocol will include Forward Error Correction (FEC). Bit-Error-Rate (BER) testing is a widely used method to characterize digital transmission systems. In order to measure the BER with and without the proposed FEC, simultaneously on several devices, a multi-channel BER tester has been developed. This paper describes the architecture of the tester, its implementation in a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA device and discusses the experimental results.

  16. Bit-string physics a finite and discrete approach to natural philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Noyes, H Pierre

    2001-01-01

    We could be on the threshold of a scientific revolution. Quantum mechanics is based on unique, finite, and discrete events. General relativity assumes a continuous, curved space-time. Reconciling the two remains the most fundamental unsolved scientific problem left over from the last century. The papers of H Pierre Noyes collected in this volume reflect one attempt to achieve that unification by replacing the continuum with the bit-string events of computer science. Three principles are used: physics can determine whether two quantities are the same or different; measurement can tell something

  17. A quantum speedup in machine learning: finding an N-bit Boolean function for a classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seokwon; Lee, Jinhyoung; Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Changhyoup

    2014-01-01

    We compare quantum and classical machines designed for learning an N-bit Boolean function in order to address how a quantum system improves the machine learning behavior. The machines of the two types consist of the same number of operations and control parameters, but only the quantum machines utilize the quantum coherence naturally induced by unitary operators. We show that quantum superposition enables quantum learning that is faster than classical learning by expanding the approximate solution regions, i.e., the acceptable regions. This is also demonstrated by means of numerical simulations with a standard feedback model, namely random search, and a practical model, namely differential evolution. (paper)

  18. A minimum bit error-rate detector for amplify and forward relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aissa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new detector is being proposed for amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying system when communicating with the assistance of L number of relays. The major goal of this detector is to improve the bit error rate (BER) performance of the system. The complexity of the system is further reduced by implementing this detector adaptively. The proposed detector is free from channel estimation. Our results demonstrate that the proposed detector is capable of achieving a gain of more than 1-dB at a BER of 10 -5 as compared to the conventional minimum mean square error detector when communicating over a correlated Rayleigh fading channel. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Bit error rate testing of fiber optic data links for MMIC-based phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, K. A.; Kunath, R. R.; Daryoush, A. S.

    1990-01-01

    The measured bit-error-rate (BER) performance of a fiber optic data link to be used in satellite communications systems is presented and discussed. In the testing, the link was measured for its ability to carry high burst rate, serial-minimum shift keyed (SMSK) digital data similar to those used in actual space communications systems. The fiber optic data link, as part of a dual-segment injection-locked RF fiber optic link system, offers a means to distribute these signals to the many radiating elements of a phased array antenna. Test procedures, experimental arrangements, and test results are presented.

  20. Inclusive bit error rate analysis for coherent optical code-division multiple-access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Gilad; Sadot, Dan

    2002-06-01

    Inclusive noise and bit error rate (BER) analysis for optical code-division multiplexing (OCDM) using coherence techniques is presented. The analysis contains crosstalk calculation of the mutual field variance for different number of users. It is shown that the crosstalk noise depends deeply on the receiver integration time, the laser coherence time, and the number of users. In addition, analytical results of the power fluctuation at the received channel due to the data modulation at the rejected channels are presented. The analysis also includes amplified spontaneous emission (ASE)-related noise effects of in-line amplifiers in a long-distance communication link.