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Sample records for definite noun phrase

  1. Noun-Phrase Indexing, Pronouns, and the "Definite Article."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Geoffrey

    Chomsky has suggested that certain lexical items, which he calls "referential items," should be given integer markers (or "indices") and that the noun-phrase deletion transformation which creates reflexive pronouns should be limited to cases where the noun-phrase to be deleted is fully identical to the antecedent noun-phrase,…

  2. The Arabic noun phrase : a minimalist approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, Joost Merijn

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a model of the Arabic noun phrase from a minimalist perspective. It provides an analysis of many phenomena in the Arabic noun phrase, such as the construct state, adjectival agreement, definiteness inheritance, the formation of deverbal nouns and participles, etc.

  3. The Noun Phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    it shows that the noun phrase word order patterns of any human language can be derived from three universal ordering principles and, furthermore, that these are all elaborations of one general iconic ordering strategy according to which elements that belong together semantically tend to occur together...... the occurrence of adjectives as a major word class in the part-of-speech system of a language. The book aims for accessibility and assumes no knowledge of a particular formal or functional theory of grammar. It addresses professional linguists and students of linguistics of all theoretical persuasions...

  4. The Noun Phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    it shows that the noun phrase word order patterns of any human language can be derived from three universal ordering principles and, furthermore, that these are all elaborations of one general iconic ordering strategy according to which elements that belong together semantically tend to occur together...... the occurrence of adjectives as a major word class in the part-of-speech system of a language. The book aims for accessibility and assumes no knowledge of a particular formal or functional theory of grammar. It addresses professional linguists and students of linguistics of all theoretical persuasions...

  5. Noun Phrase in Bahasa Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Yulia Ningsih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contained research about the analysis of the text of Bahasa Indonesia speech with the Systemic Functional Linguistic approach (LFS. The aim of this article was identifying elements of forming noun phrases as the participants which represented processes in clauses, functions, as well as the distribution of its position in the clause. The research method used was qualitative research with the method of data analysis in the form of 60 clauses through the approach of LFS. The 60 clauses data were taken from the text of the speech of UNJ Rector, which was then analyzed into 100 phrases in the noun. According to the LFS method, it finds that the noun phrase is formed by elements of the noun classes. From the 100 noun phrases analyzed, there are 100 nouns that have different functions in each process. There are 86 nouns represent the material process, 5 nouns represent the relational process, 4 nouns represent the verbal process, 3 nouns represent mental processes, and 2 nouns represent the existential process. The study also finds that in the form of the lexicon, the same noun with the different distribution of its position will result in different functions in the representation process.

  6. Noun Phrase in Bahasa Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahmi Yulia Ningsih; Chandra Kurniawan Wiharja

    2017-01-01

    ...). The aim of this article was identifying elements of forming noun phrases as the participants which represented processes in clauses, functions, as well as the distribution of its position in the clause...

  7. Explaining word order in the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1990-01-01

    This article argues that word order in the noun phrase is largely determined by three iconic principles of constituent ordering. The patterns that these principles predict for simple noun phrases are tested against data from various existing samples. It appears that the predicted patterns are all...

  8. Explaining word order in the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1990-01-01

    This article argues that word order in the noun phrase is largely determined by three iconic principles of constituent ordering. The patterns that these principles predict for simple noun phrases are tested against data from various existing samples. It appears that the predicted patterns are all...... attested, with the exception of those stated to be nonexistent (or rare) by Greenberg's Universal 18. Some apparent counterexamples are examined in some detail and it is shown that they involve constituents that are not an integral part of the simple noun phrase....

  9. The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    (last section from 'Introduction' of The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar) The previous sections have shown that there are basically three proposals concerning the way NPs should be analysed in F(D)G: 1. the analysis according to “classical FG” (Dik 1997); 2. the analysis proposed in FDG...... treatment of noun phrases. Hengeveld takes the prototypical noun phrase as his point of departure, which he defines as an NP with a nominal head that denotes a concrete, first-order entity by lexical means and is used referentially rather than ascriptively. He then discusses examples of non-prototypical NPs...... earlier studies. The authors assume a process interpretation of the F(D)G model in which matters of form and order are interlaced. Their contribution is particularly concerned with agreement phenomena in the German noun phrase, which is noted for its morphological complexity. They show that their model...

  10. NPtool, a detector of English noun phrases

    CERN Document Server

    Voutilainen, A

    1995-01-01

    NPtool is a fast and accurate system for extracting noun phrases from English texts for the purposes of e.g. information retrieval, translation unit discovery, and corpus studies. After a general introduction, the system architecture is presented in outline. Then follows an examination of a recently written Constraint Syntax. An evaluation report concludes the paper.

  11. Generic noun phrases in mother-child conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, A; Gelman, S A

    1998-02-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g. Tigers are fierce) are of interest for their semantic properties: they capture 'essential' properties, are timeless, and are context-free. The present study examines use of generic noun phrases by preschool children and their mothers. Mother-child pairs were videotaped while looking through a book of animal pictures. Each page depicted either a single instance of a particular category (e.g. one crab) or multiple instances of a particular category (e.g. many crabs). The results indicated a striking difference in how generics vs. non-generics were distributed, both in the speech of mothers and in the speech of preschool children. Whereas the form of non-generic noun phrases was closely linked to the structure of the page (i.e. singular noun phrases were used more often when a single instance was presented; plural noun phrases were used more often when multiple instances were presented), the form of generic noun phrases was independent of the information depicted (e.g. plural noun phrases were as frequent when only one instance was presented as when multiple instances were presented). We interpret the data as providing evidence that generic noun phrases differ in their semantics and conceptual organization from non-generic noun phrases, both in the input to young children and in children's own speech. Thus, this simple linguistic device may provide input to, and a reflection of, children's early developing notion of 'kinds'.

  12. Effects on Text Simplification: Evaluation of Splitting Up Noun Phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Gondy; Kauchak, David; Hogue, Alan

    2016-01-01

    To help increase health literacy, we are developing a text simplification tool that creates more accessible patient education materials. Tool development is guided by a data-driven feature analysis comparing simple and difficult text. In the present study, we focus on the common advice to split long noun phrases. Our previous corpus analysis showed that easier texts contained shorter noun phrases. Subsequently, we conducted a user study to measure the difficulty of sentences containing noun phrases of different lengths (2-gram, 3-gram, and 4-gram); noun phrases of different conditions (split or not); and, to simulate unknown terms, pseudowords (present or not). We gathered 35 evaluations for 30 sentences in each condition (3 × 2 × 2 conditions) on Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N = 12,600). We conducted a 3-way analysis of variance for perceived and actual difficulty. Splitting noun phrases had a positive effect on perceived difficulty but a negative effect on actual difficulty. The presence of pseudowords increased perceived and actual difficulty. Without pseudowords, longer noun phrases led to increased perceived and actual difficulty. A follow-up study using the phrases (N = 1,350) showed that measuring awkwardness may indicate when to split noun phrases. We conclude that splitting noun phrases benefits perceived difficulty but hurts actual difficulty when the phrasing becomes less natural.

  13. Unsupervised Key-phrase Extraction using Noun Phrases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shailendra Singh Kathait; Shubhrita Tiwari; Anubha Varshney; Ajit Sharma

    2017-01-01

    .... The automated key phrase generation of resources helps in the information retrieval. To generate the key phrases for texts from all possible domains, the need is an automated approach that would extract the key ideas directly from the text itself...

  14. Noun-Phrase Analysis in Unrestricted Text for Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, D A; Evans, David A.; Zhai, Chengxiang

    1996-01-01

    Information retrieval is an important application area of natural-language processing where one encounters the genuine challenge of processing large quantities of unrestricted natural-language text. This paper reports on the application of a few simple, yet robust and efficient noun-phrase analysis techniques to create better indexing phrases for information retrieval. In particular, we describe a hybrid approach to the extraction of meaningful (continuous or discontinuous) subcompounds from complex noun phrases using both corpus statistics and linguistic heuristics. Results of experiments show that indexing based on such extracted subcompounds improves both recall and precision in an information retrieval system. The noun-phrase analysis techniques are also potentially useful for book indexing and automatic thesaurus extraction.

  15. Learning Noun Phrase Anaphoricity in Coreference Resolution via Label Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Dong Zhou; Fang Kong

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of noun phrase anaphoricity might be profitably exploited in coreference resolution to bypass the resolution of non-anaphoric noun phrases. However, it is surprising to notice that recent attempts to incorporate automatically acquired anaphoricity information into coreference resolution systems have been far from expectation. This paper proposes a global learning method in determining the anaphoricity of noun phrases via a label propagation algorithm to improve learning-based coreference resolution. In order to eliminate the huge computational burden in the label propagation algorithm, we employ the weighted support vectors as the critical instances to represent all the anaphoricity-labeled NP instances in the training texts. In addition, two kinds of kernels, i.e., the feature-based RBF (Radial Basis Function) kernel and the convolution tree kernel with approximate matching, are explored to compute the anaphoricity similarity between two noun phrases. Experiments on the ACE2003 corpus demonstrate the great effectiveness of our method in anaphoricity determination of noun phrases and its application in learning-based coreference resolution.

  16. Case Markers in Mongolian: A Means for Encoding Null Constituents in Noun Phrase and Relative Clause

    OpenAIRE

    Tseden Otgonsuren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the capacity of the case markers in the Mongolian language, as a relative element, to generate any finite noun phrase or relative clause based on their syntactic function or relationship. In Mongolian, there are two different approaches to generate noun phrases: parataxis and hypotaxis. According to my early observation, if the noun phrase generated through the parataxis, is the complement of the postpositional phrase, the head word of the relevant noun phrase can be tru...

  17. Introduction (of 'The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar')

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Velasco, Daniel; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The articles in this volume analyse the noun phrase within the framework of Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), the successor to Simon C. Dik’s Functional Grammar (FG). The Noun Phrase was the main conference theme of the 11th International Conference on Functional Grammar, which took place......, the most recent treatment of NPs by Dik in terms of “classical FG” was published (posthumously) in 1997, in the first volume of The Theory of Functional Grammar. Given the fact that FDG presents a strongly revised version of Dikkian FG with respect to rules, variables, representations and overall design...

  18. Noun-Phrase Analysis in Unrestricted Text for Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, David A.; Zhai, Chengxiang

    1996-01-01

    Information retrieval is an important application area of natural-language processing where one encounters the genuine challenge of processing large quantities of unrestricted natural-language text. This paper reports on the application of a few simple, yet robust and efficient noun-phrase analysis techniques to create better indexing phrases for information retrieval. In particular, we describe a hybrid approach to the extraction of meaningful (continuous or discontinuous) subcompounds from ...

  19. Case Markers in Mongolian: A Means for Encoding Null Constituents in Noun Phrase and Relative Clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseden Otgonsuren

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the capacity of the case markers in the Mongolian language, as a relative element, to generate any finite noun phrase or relative clause based on their syntactic function or relationship. In Mongolian, there are two different approaches to generate noun phrases: parataxis and hypotaxis. According to my early observation, if the noun phrase generated through the parataxis, is the complement of the postpositional phrase, the head word of the relevant noun phrase can be truncated. In other words, since this head noun is governed by case marker in its null form to generate the postpositional phrase, the head noun can be encoded.  The second approach generates two different types of noun phrases in their structures: free structured and non-free structured noun phrases. Of them, the free structured noun phrase allows any syntactic transformations in their internal structure based on the senses of the case markers which denote a relation. That is to say, the null constituents in this type of noun phrases can be encoded to generate an extended alternative of the noun phrase and a relative clause.

  20. Learning theories for noun-phrase sentiment composition

    OpenAIRE

    Petrakis, S.; Klenner, M

    2011-01-01

    The work presented here is an approach to Sentiment Analy- sis from a rule-based, compositional perspective. The proposed approach is characterized by three major points: (a) rules are automatically learned from annotated corpora using Inductive Logic Programming and represented as Prolog sets of clauses, (b) the focus is on the noun-phrase (NP) level, and (c) learning is performed on deep-parsed structures. We describe the process of annotating a collection of some 3000 German NPs of medi...

  1. Automatic Titling of Electronic Documents with Noun Phrase Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    LOPEZ, Cédric; Prince, Violaine; Roche, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Automatic titling (i.e. providing titles) is one of key domains of Web site accessibility. This paper provides an approach allowing the automatic titling of texts (e.g. emails, fora, etc.) relying on the morphosyntactic study of human written titles in a corpus of various texts. The method is developed in four stages: Corpus acquisition, candidate sentences determination for titling, noun phrase extraction in the candidate sentences, and finally, selecting a particular...

  2. The Effect of Anaphoric References and Noun Phrase Organizers on Paragraph Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Anne Stevens

    1978-01-01

    According to a theory of textual cohesion, anaphoric references and noun phrase organizers may serve as cohesive ties linking separate sentences into unified paragraphs. This study revealed that only the noun phrase organizer condition was significant in promoting comprehension and indicated no difference in time scores by paragraph condition.…

  3. Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. "blue car") in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative…

  4. Case Markers in Mongolian: A Means for Encoding Null Constituents in Noun Phrase and Relative Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgonsuren, Tseden

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the capacity of the case markers in the Mongolian language, as a relative element, to generate any finite noun phrase or relative clause based on their syntactic function or relationship. In Mongolian, there are two different approaches to generate noun phrases: parataxis and hypotaxis. According to my early observation, if…

  5. MEDLINE Abstracts Classification Based on Noun Phrases Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rico, Fernando; Vicedo, José-Luis; Rubio-Sánchez, María-Consuelo

    Many algorithms have come up in the last years to tackle automated text categorization. They have been exhaustively studied, leading to several variants and combinations not only in the particular procedures but also in the treatment of the input data. A widely used approach is representing documents as Bag-Of-Words (BOW) and weighting tokens with the TFIDF schema. Many researchers have thrown into precision and recall improvements and classification time reduction enriching BOW with stemming, n-grams, feature selection, noun phrases, metadata, weight normalization, etc. We contribute to this field with a novel combination of these techniques. For evaluation purposes, we provide comparisons to previous works with SVM against the simple BOW. The well known OHSUMED corpus is exploited and different sets of categories are selected, as previously done in the literature. The conclusion is that the proposed method can be successfully applied to existing binary classifiers such as SVM outperforming the mixture of BOW and TFIDF approaches.

  6. Extracting Noun Phrases from Large-Scale Texts A Hybrid Approach and Its Automatic Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, K; Chen, Kuang-hua; Chen, Hsin-Hsi

    1994-01-01

    To acquire noun phrases from running texts is useful for many applications, such as word grouping,terminology indexing, etc. The reported literatures adopt pure probabilistic approach, or pure rule-based noun phrases grammar to tackle this problem. In this paper, we apply a probabilistic chunker to deciding the implicit boundaries of constituents and utilize the linguistic knowledge to extract the noun phrases by a finite state mechanism. The test texts are SUSANNE Corpus and the results are evaluated by comparing the parse field of SUSANNE Corpus automatically. The results of this preliminary experiment are encouraging.

  7. Leveraging syntax to better capture the semantics of elliptical coordinated compound noun phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Catherine; Rindflesch, Tom

    2017-08-01

    Full-text scientific articles are increasingly available, but capturing the meaning conveyed within an article automatically remains a bottleneck for semantic search and reasoning systems. In this paper we consider elliptical coordinated compound noun phrases that authors use to save space in an article. Systems that do not attend to coordination would incorrectly interpret "breast or lung cancer" as a body part (breast) and a disease (lung cancer) rather than two diseases. The algorithmic approach introduced in this paper uses a generate-and-test strategy where candidate expansions for forward, backward and complex ellipses are generated from syntactic dependencies. Dependencies are also used to create a dictionary of non-coordinated noun phrases that is used during the test phrase. Experiments on 21,280 full-text articles show that more than a million noun phrases were impacted by coordinated ellipses. The system achieves 73.07% precision, 75.38% recall, 74.23% F-score and 94.72% accuracy for new noun phrases in the development set. The precision was higher for backward (82.62 vs. 78.63) and forward expansions (64.82 vs. 60.17) and lower for complex expansions (63.41 vs. 72.59) in a test set. On average 10.79% of all noun phrases would be missed if coordination were not resolved, which corresponds to 48 new noun phrases per article in the journal Carcinogenesis, 52 new phrases per article in Diabetes, and 56 new phrases per article in Endocrinology. Results also show coordinated ellipses are more prevalent in abstracts (12.31% of all noun phrases) than in the body of an article (10.70%). To further test the generalizability of this approach the system (without modification) was used on two new collections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rule Based Machine Translation of Noun Phrases from Punjabi to English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaljeet Kaur Batra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents automatic translation of noun phrases from Punjabi to English using transfer approach. The system has analysis, translation and synthesis component. The steps involved are pre processing, tagging, ambiguity resolution, translation and synthesis of words in target language. The accuracy is calculated for each step and the overall accuracy of the system is calculated to be about 85% for a particular type of noun phrases.

  9. "THE BACON" Not "the Bacon": How Children and Adults Understand Accented and Unaccented Noun Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments examine whether adults and 4- and 5-year-old children use the presence or absence of accenting to guide their interpretation of noun phrases (e.g., "the bacon") with respect to the discourse context. Unaccented nouns tend to refer to contextually accessible referents, while accented variants tend to be used for less…

  10. Noun combination in interlanguage typology effects in complex determiner phrases

    CERN Document Server

    Bongartz, Christiane

    2002-01-01

    This study examines effects of L1 typology on the interlanguage of L2 learners of English. Czech learners use phrasal constructs (the song about love) significantly more often than Chinese learners, who prefer noun+noun compounds (the love song). Determiner properties and the process of noun incorporation systematically relate both options.

  11. The proper name in the structure of the noun phrase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Pronińska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse Italian nominal groups containing proper nouns. The article discusses two syntagma types with elliptical structure noun + proper noun> as well as analogical structures where the common and proper nouns are joined by the preposition “di”. The classification and analysis of nominal groups have been carried out on the basis of the function of the proper noun in the syntagma. Two groups of syntagmas have been distinguished: one with the proper noun functioning as a superordinate constituent and one with the proper noun functioning as a modifier. In the former type (where the proper noun is a superordinate constituent, the common noun functions as a descriptive or restrictive appositive. The syntagmas, where the proper noun functions as a modifier, are of particularly diverse character. In such cases, the possibility to paraphrase them by means of the analysed structures constitutes an additional criterion. Consequently, three syntagma types have been distinguished as represented by the following examples: il progetto Leonardo (which does not allow for an alternative synonymous version, *il progetto di Leonardo, il governo Monti (where the prepositional structure il governo di Monti may be used interchangeably and un quadro di Rubens (which does not allow for an alternative synonymous version with the ellipsis of the preposition “di” *un quadro Rubens.

  12. The Role of Sustained Attention in the Production of Conjoined Noun Phrases: An Individual Differences Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Suzanne R; Meyer, Antje S; Roelofs, Ardi

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon sustained attention when they plan single noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot") and perform a manual arrow categorization task. In addition, we investigated whether speakers also recruit sustained attention when they produce conjoined noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot and the bucket") describing two pictures, that is, when both the first and second task are linguistic. We found that sustained attention correlated with the proportion of abnormally slow phrase-production responses. Individuals with poor sustained attention displayed a greater number of very slow responses than individuals with better sustained attention. Importantly, this relationship was obtained both for the production of single phrases while performing a nonlinguistic manual task, and the production of noun phrase conjunctions in referring to two spatially separated objects. Inhibition and updating abilities were also measured. These scores did not correlate with our measure of sustained attention, suggesting that sustained attention and executive control are distinct. Overall, the results suggest that planning conjoined noun phrases involves sustained attention, and that language production happens less automatically than has often been assumed.

  13. Brazilian Portuguese noun phrases: An optimality theoretic perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberta Pires de Oliveira; Henriëtte de Swart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine the nominal system in Brazilian Portuguese (BrP), a challenge to cross-linguistic studies which rely on the generalization that a language that has indefinites should not have bare nouns...

  14. Descriptive and discourse-referential modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that adnominal modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase can be divided into two major subcategories: descriptive modifiers and discourse-referential modifiers. Whereas descriptive modifiers can be subdivided into classifying, qualifying, quantifying and localizing......), (ii) the special relationship between localizing and discourse-referential modifiers (section 5), and (iii) semantic and morpho-syntactic parallels between modifier categories in the noun phrase and the clause (section 6). In addition this sample-based typological study shows (contra Hawkins...

  15. Order in the noun phrase of the languages of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1998-01-01

    according to which pre- or postnominal placement of (certain) noun modifiers is a function of the order of Object and Verb (Greenberg 1966; Hawkins 1983; Dryer 1988, 1992, this volume; Rijkhoff 1990a). Sections 5-7 compare the NP-internal ordering patterns as they occur in [i] the languages of Europe...

  16. Polysynthesis in Hueyapan Nahuatl: The Status of Noun Phrases, Basic Word Order, and Other Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pharao Hansen, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    This article presents data showing that the syntax of the Nahuatl dialect spoken in Hueyapan, Morelos, Mexico has traits of nonconfigurationality: free word order and free pro-drop, with predicate-initial word order being pragmatically neutral. It permits discontinuous noun phrases and has...... no naturally occurring true quantifiers, suggesting that noun phrases in Hueyapan Nahuatl are adjuncts rather than actual arguments. These findings are contrasted with those of an earlier study by Jeffrey MacSwan, who concludes that Nahuatl syntax has relatively fixed subject-verb-object word order....... It is suggested that the differences observed between the two Nahuatl varieties may be a result of methodological problems in MacSwan's collection of data, skewing it in the direction of a more rigid syntax....

  17. Polysynthesis in Hueyapan Nahuatl: The Status of Noun Phrases, Basic Word Order, and Other Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pharao Hansen, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    This article presents data showing that the syntax of the Nahuatl dialect spoken in Hueyapan, Morelos, Mexico has traits of nonconfigurationality: free word order and free pro-drop, with predicate-initial word order being pragmatically neutral. It permits discontinuous noun phrases and has....... It is suggested that the differences observed between the two Nahuatl varieties may be a result of methodological problems in MacSwan's collection of data, skewing it in the direction of a more rigid syntax....

  18. Automatic extraction of syntactic patterns for dependency parsing in noun phrase chunks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Colhon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a method for automatic extraction of syntactic patterns that are used to develop a dependency parsing method. The patterns have been extracted from a corpus automatically annotated for tokens, sentences’ borders, parts of speech and noun phrases, and manually annotated for dependency relations between words. The evaluation shows promising results in the case of an order-free language.

  19. Heavy noun phrase constructions in the Afrikaans novel 'n Ander Land: a cognitive account of a stylistic feature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beard, Luna

    2005-01-01

    This article focusses on one grammatical construction, namely heavy noun phrase (NP) constructions in Afrikaans, and more specifically on those instances encountered in the Afrikaans novel 'n Ander Land by Karel Schoeman...

  20. Inter-subject variability modulates phonological advance planning in the production of adjective-noun phrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violaine eMichel Lange

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on advance phonological planning in adjective-noun phrases (NPs presents diverging results: while many experimental studies suggest that the entire NP is encoded before articulation, other results favour a span of encoding limited to the first word. Although cross-linguistic differences in the structure of adjective-noun phrases may account for some of these contrasting results, divergences have been reported even among similar languages and syntactic structures. Here we examined whether inter-individual differences account for variability in the span of phonological planning in the production of French NPs, where previous results indicated encoding limited to the first word. The span of phonological encoding is tested with the picture-word interference (PWI paradigm using phonological distractors related to the noun or to the adjective of the NPs. In Experiment 1, phonological priming effects were limited to the first word in adjective NPs whichever the position of the adjective (pre-nominal or post-nominal. Crucially, phonological priming effects on the second word interacted with speakers´ production speed suggesting different encoding strategies for participants. In Experiment 2, we tested this hypothesis further with a larger group of participants. Results clearly showed that slow and fast initialising participants presented different phonological priming patterns on the last element of adjective-noun phrases: while the first word was primed by a distractor for all speakers, only the slow speaker group presented a priming effect on the second element of the NP. These results show that the span of phonological encoding is modulated by inter-individual strategies: in experimental paradigms some speakers plan word by word whereas others encode beyond the initial word. We suggest that the diverging results reported in the literature on advance phonological planning may partly be reconciled in light of the present results.

  1. Error-Driven Pruning of Treebank Grammars for Base Noun Phrase Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Cardie, C; Cardie, Claire; Pierce, David

    1998-01-01

    Finding simple, non-recursive, base noun phrases is an important subtask for many natural language processing applications. While previous empirical methods for base NP identification have been rather complex, this paper instead proposes a very simple algorithm that is tailored to the relative simplicity of the task. In particular, we present a corpus-based approach for finding base NPs by matching part-of-speech tag sequences. The training phase of the algorithm is based on two successful techniques: first the base NP grammar is read from a ``treebank'' corpus; then the grammar is improved by selecting rules with high ``benefit'' scores. Using this simple algorithm with a naive heuristic for matching rules, we achieve surprising accuracy in an evaluation on the Penn Treebank Wall Street Journal.

  2. Early acquisition of gender agreement in the Spanish noun phrase: starting small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Nativist and constructivist accounts differ in their characterization of children's knowledge of grammatical categories. In this paper we present research on the process of acquisition of a particular grammatical system, gender agreement in the Spanish noun phrase, in children under three years of age. The design of the longitudinal study employed presents some variations in relation to classical studies. The aim was to obtain a large corpus of NP data which would allow different types of analysis of the children's productions to be carried out. Intra-individual variability in early NP types was analyzed and measured, and an elicitation task for adjectives was used. Results show that the acquisition of NP and gender agreement is a complex process which advances as the children gradually integrate different pieces of evidence: phonological, distributional and functional. The reduction of variability as the grammatical process advances is a key feature for its explanation.

  3. Nouns and Verbs: A Comparison of Definitional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Johnson, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation is a study of the definitional style of nouns and verbs in typically developing school-age children. A total of 30 children in upper-elementary grades provided verbal definitions for 10 common high-frequency nouns (e.g., apple, boat, baby) and 10 common high- frequency verbs (e.g., climb, sing, throw). All definitions…

  4. Comparison of single-word and adjective-noun phrase production using event-related brain potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Violaine Michel

    2015-01-01

    53 msec longer than single noun (1W) production. Waveform amplitude and topographic analyses carried out on stimulus- and response-aligned ERPs indicated that the two conditions differed in a late time-window, with a topographic pattern for 2W lasting from 300 to 480 msec after picture presentation......The present study builds upon findings from event-related potential (ERP) studies of single word production in order to shed light onto the mechanisms underlying the production of dual-word adjective-noun phrases (NPs). In a first experiment, we tested for potential differences elicited by visual...... stimuli varying in complexity -black and white line drawings, coloured line drawings, and arrays of drawings-in participants producing single nouns. Whilst naming latencies were similar for single noun production between visual stimuli conditions, ERPs differed between drawing arrays and single drawings...

  5. The Syntax and Semantics of Purepecha Noun Phrases and the Mass/Count Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Rojas Maldonado, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Purepecha (isolate, central Western Mexico) nouns can be assigned to one of three classes depending on their inherent number characteristics: count nouns denote atomic units, mass nouns denote plural entities and count-mass nouns (Doetjes 1997) denote sets that contain pluralities and atomic units as well. This tri-partite distinction guides the…

  6. The Morphosyntactic Structure of the Noun and Verb Phrases in Dholuo/Kiswahili Code Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael Anyango Ojanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Code switching, the use of any two or more languages or dialects interchangeably in a single communication context, is a common linguistic practice owing to the trend of multilingualism in the world today. In many situations of language in contact, constituents of one language can be found within the constituents of another language in a number of linguistic phenomenon namely lexical borrowing, transferring, interference, code switching and diffusion (Annamalai, 1989. Codeswitching is one of the linguistic phenomenon claimed to be the most prevalent and common mode of interaction among multilingual speakers. Brock and Eastman (1971 suggest that topic discussed influences the choice of the language. Nouns and verbs have been found to be the most code switched elements in bilingual exchange. The study took a qualitative approach with the descriptive research design. It was guided by the Matrix Language Frame Model which was formulated by Myers-Scotton in1993. This model expounds on the realization and structure of the major word classes as used in code switching. Data was collected in Nyangeta Zone, Winam Division of Kisumu East District. Winam Division is mostly inhabited by elite Dholuo L1 speakers. A sample of twenty four teachers was purposively selected to provide data needed for the study. Focus group discussion was used to collect a corpus of Dholuo/Kiswahili data which was recorded through audio taping. The recorded data was then analyzed morphosyntactaically using the Matrix Language Frame Model. The data revealed that the noun and verb phrases were realized under three categories: Matrix Language Island constituent (ML Island ML+EL and Embedded Language Island (EL Island. Keywords: Code switching, multilingualism, morphosyntactic

  7. Variable types for meaning assembly: a logical syntax for generic noun phrases introduced by most

    CERN Document Server

    Retoré, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a way to compute the meanings associated with sentences with generic noun phrases corresponding to the generalized quantifier most. We call these generics specimens and they resemble stereotypes or prototypes in lexical semantics. The meanings are viewed as logical formulae that can thereafter be interpreted in your favourite models. To do so, we depart significantly from the dominant Fregean view with a single untyped universe. Indeed, our proposal adopts type theory with some hints from Hilbert \\epsilon-calculus (Hilbert, 1922; Avigad and Zach, 2008) and from medieval philosophy, see e.g. de Libera (1993, 1996). Our type theoretic analysis bears some resemblance with ongoing work in lexical semantics (Asher 2011; Bassac et al. 2010; Moot, Pr\\'evot and Retor\\'e 2011). Our model also applies to classical examples involving a class, or a generic element of this class, which is not uttered but provided by the context. An outcome of this study is that, in the minimalism-contextualism debate, ...

  8. Establishing generalized, productive verb-noun phrase usage in a manual language system with moderately handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlan, G R; Brenn-White, B; Lentz, A; Hodur, P; Egger, D; Frankoff, D

    1982-02-01

    Strategies for producing generalized language skills continue to be of considerable interest to those working with severely language-delayed children. Research on generalized instruction-following suggested that strategies employing linguistic elements (verbs, nouns, adjectives, etc.) arranged in systematic combination matrices were successful in producing generalized and novel responses among handicapped children. The efficacy of a training matrix in the development of expressive verb-noun phrase usage was demonstrated. Two of the three students showed considerable gains in trained responses as well as predicted, novel responses, while a third who had much less training, showed some gains. Increases were also found in the overall development of expressive language tests. This approach is discussed in relation to other experimental approaches to language development.

  9. Le Juge de paix et le gardien de la paix, ou le probleme de la determination dans le complement du nom ("Le juge de paix et le gardien de la paix," or the Problem of Determination in the Object of a Noun Phrase).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, R.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an analysis of noun phrases in which the definite article is used and omitted. Several studies are reviewed and two types of occurrences are distinguished: direct (agent, instrument, object) and oblique (locative, dative). The relationships, perceptible in the deep structure, are blurred in the transformations leading to surface…

  10. nouns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linguists haven't yet found a universal definition for it, although a variety of descriptions have .... The most basic concept is that while masculine nouns may be applied to females as well as ...... Morphological classes and grammatical organisation. ... Structure et fonne des emprunts lexicaux francais dans la langue grecque.

  11. Using noun phrases for navigating biomedical literature on Pubmed: how many updates are we losing track of?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikrishna, Devabhaktuni; Coram, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    Author-supplied citations are a fraction of the related literature for a paper. The "related citations" on PubMed is typically dozens or hundreds of results long, and does not offer hints why these results are related. Using noun phrases derived from the sentences of the paper, we show it is possible to more transparently navigate to PubMed updates through search terms that can associate a paper with its citations. The algorithm to generate these search terms involved automatically extracting noun phrases from the paper using natural language processing tools, and ranking them by the number of occurrences in the paper compared to the number of occurrences on the web. We define search queries having at least one instance of overlap between the author-supplied citations of the paper and the top 20 search results as citation validated (CV). When the overlapping citations were written by same authors as the paper itself, we define it as CV-S and different authors is defined as CV-D. For a systematic sample of 883 papers on PubMed Central, at least one of the search terms for 86% of the papers is CV-D versus 65% for the top 20 PubMed "related citations." We hypothesize these quantities computed for the 20 million papers on PubMed to differ within 5% of these percentages. Averaged across all 883 papers, 5 search terms are CV-D, and 10 search terms are CV-S, and 6 unique citations validate these searches. Potentially related literature uncovered by citation-validated searches (either CV-S or CV-D) are on the order of ten per paper--many more if the remaining searches that are not citation-validated are taken into account. The significance and relationship of each search result to the paper can only be vetted and explained by a researcher with knowledge of or interest in that paper.

  12. The Wives and Sisters of Sahagun: Word Order of Latin and Romance Synonyms in Possessive Noun Phrases in the Formulae of Medieval Iberian Notarial Documents--"Uxor vs. Mulier" and "Soror vs. Germana," a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to find and trace word order patterns in Possessive Noun Phrases ("PNP's") in formulaic language within notarial documents dating from the tenth through the thirteenth centuries, originating from the Monastery of Sahagun, Leon, Spain. The overall results show clear trends, which reveal a diachronic process that…

  13. The Wives and Sisters of Sahagun: Word Order of Latin and Romance Synonyms in Possessive Noun Phrases in the Formulae of Medieval Iberian Notarial Documents--"Uxor vs. Mulier" and "Soror vs. Germana," a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to find and trace word order patterns in Possessive Noun Phrases ("PNP's") in formulaic language within notarial documents dating from the tenth through the thirteenth centuries, originating from the Monastery of Sahagun, Leon, Spain. The overall results show clear trends, which reveal a diachronic process that…

  14. Asymmetries in the acquisition of definite and indefinite NPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Angeliek; Harrigan, Kaitlyn; de Villiers, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Definite noun phrases are typically associated with established discourse referents familiar to speaker and hearer, while indefinite noun phrases are used to introduce new ones. The literature shows that children overuse the up to the age of 5 when referring to a new discourse entity, where the targ

  15. Noun Phrase Structure and Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna; Vikner, Sten

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the etymologically related words so and such (English); så and sådan (Danish); and so and solch (German). Similarities and differences that have to be accounted for cross-linguistically are i. position (pre- or post- indefinite article), ii. agreement morphology (in Danish and German...

  16. The Inherent Capability of Nouns to Function as Locatives: A New Criterion for Identifying Chinese Nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jerome P.

    Two linguistic propositions provide the subject matter for this discussion. The first is that all nouns can serve as locatives. This is exemplified in the locative structure of Chinese nouns, mostly with the overt markers of locative suffixes, just as English nouns are used as such in the form of prepositional phrases, or as Japanese nouns are…

  17. THE DISCUSSION OF NOUN COMPLEMENTS WITH NO SUFFIXES AND THE RELATION BETWEEN WORD CLASSES AND PHRASES TAKISIZ AD TAMLAMASI TARTIŞMASI VE TÜR – ÖBEK İLİŞKİSİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner KERİMOĞLU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion of compound nouns with no suffixes has an important place in Turkish grammar writing. Recently, it is seen that this discussion has come to an end and the constructions like tahta kaşık “wooden spoon”, altın kolye “golden necklace” are accepted as adjective complements. In this study, firstly these discussions are evaluated and then the roles of word classes in phrases are discussed with regard to nouns and adjectives. Takısız ad tamlaması tartışması Türkçe dil bilgisi yazımında önemli bir yere sahiptir. Son yıllarda bu konuyla ilgili tartışmaların azaldığı ve akademik yayınların çoğunda tahta kaşık, altın kolye dizilişindeki yapıların sıfat tamlaması kabul edildiği görülmektedir. Bu çalışmada takısız ad tamlaması tartışmaları değerlendirildikten sonra, kelime türlerinin öbek kurmadaki rolleri sıfat ve ad türleri temelinde tartışılmaktadır.

  18. PROMOTION OF NON-SUBJECT NOUN PHRASE TO SUBJECT IN CLAUSE OF SABU LANGUAGE, SABU RAIJUA REGENCY, EAST NUSA TENGGARA PROVINCE

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    I Nyoman Sukendra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive-qualitative one exploring the relation of non subject THAT was promoted to the slot of subject. From the syntactic point of view, two informants were considered adequate in the present study. The reason was that the Sabu language ‘Bahasa Sabu (hereinafter referred to as BS, as a langue, was homogenous in nature. The data needed were collected through observation and interview. The words, phrases, clauses and sentences focused on the topic of the study were note taken. In addition, the data were also collected by recording the speeches made by the BS speakers and the informants using a tape recorder and an electronic recorder. In this manner, it was possible to obtain as many data as possible. From the analysis, it was found that the clausal construction in BS could promote the non subject NP to the subject as the original subject could not be deleted. The other finding was that the promotion of the non-subject NP could be promoted to the slot of subject in the transitive and intransitive clauses. The clausal construction which could allow the promotion of the non-subject NP to the clausal construction was the clausal construction which had semantic roles as the MOTION, AFFECT, and CORPOREAL verbs. The clausal construction which could not allow the non-subject NP to be promoted to the subject was the instrumental clausal construction whose verb was realized by the verb hernabi ‘tutup’ [close].

  19. Symmetry and phrase definition: Ginastera’s First Piano Sonata, op. 22, II mov.

    OpenAIRE

    Carballo, Erick

    2013-01-01

    The article evaluates the usefulness of the twelve-tone analytical approach when applied to the second movement of Alberto Ginastera’s first Piano Sonata, Op. 22 (1952). Based on the results from this evaluation, it postulates a new analytical approach grounded on two main principles. The first principle is the recognition of symmetrical pitch-class sets and their rapport with the establishment of phrase structures. The second principle deals with the combination of tonal and atonal gestures ...

  20. Javanese Phrase Construction in Classical Books Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Masrukhi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When the system or structure of language is used and influenced by other languages, it is called interference, and it may ruin the concept of structures.   This research is about Arabic phrase construction that influenced Javanese phrase construction in classical books translation (TKK. This involvement appears when the concept of Arabic’s construction is translated literally into Javanese.   The research was carried out by applying theories of interference and translation. It’s analysis approach with contrastive analysis which is allegedly enabled errors to be predicted from a comparison between Arabic’s and Javanese’s phrase construction. The data were found and collected from several classical books in Arabic language (KKbA translated by different writers. The results show that Javanese phrase construction (as the target language, particularly, with noun phrases,  with adjectival phrases, with numeral phrases, and with prepositional phrases was influenced by Arabic’s murakkab or Arabic phrase construction (as the source language. Arabic has its own concept of phrase construction.  The phrase construction cannot be translated into Javanese directly through word-for-word translation or literal translation. Thus, Javanese in TKK became inconvenient and ungrammatical. Arabic phrase construction is flipped around (with noun phrases and adjectival phrases and prepositions are used and translated improperly or in the wrong position (with prepositional phrases. This research has many implications for further use, such as: for the identification and description of the deviation of  Javanese phrase construction which has been affected by direct translation from the Arabic language,  and furthermore, to increase the knowledge of those who are learning by increasing the realization and awareness in writing and translating (especially from Arabic to Javanese about the fact that  Arabic and Javanese  have their own regulations or

  1. Noun phrases: with or without an article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Montero Gálvez

    2014-12-01

    The proposed approaches and suggestions are in line with those proposed in a doctoral thesis that is currently in progress. Therefore, we should take into account that both this didactical proposal as well as the doctoral thesis on which it is based are not legitimised yet by the academic and scientific community. However, we are venturing to share this work because it may be helpful in the teaching and learning of Spanish as a Second Language.

  2. Chunk Tagger Statistical Recognition of Noun Phrases

    CERN Document Server

    Skut, W; Skut, Wojciech; Brants, Thorsten

    1998-01-01

    We describe a stochastic approach to partial parsing, i.e., the recognition of syntactic structures of limited depth. The technique utilises Markov Models, but goes beyond usual bracketing approaches, since it is capable of recognising not only the boundaries, but also the internal structure and syntactic category of simple as well as complex NP's, PP's, AP's and adverbials. We compare tagging accuracy for different applications and encoding schemes.

  3. The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , localizing and discourse-referential modifiers (in this approach the term “modifiers” includes both grammatical and lexical modifier categories). In his view, there should be no special slot for a modi-fier that specifies a subjective attitudinal meaning (Hengeveld’s R-modifiers), since such meanings can...

  4. Unpacking Noun-Noun Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Zlatev, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    In two complementary experiments we took an integrated approach to a set of tightly interwoven, yet rarely combined questions concerning the spontaneous interpretation of novel (unfamiliar) noun-noun compounds (NNCs) when encountered in isolation, and possible (re)interpretations of novel as well...

  5. Expresiones locativas modificadoras de sustantivo (Locative Expressions Modifying Nouns).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonder, John P.

    1979-01-01

    Elaborates on and updates the article "Derived Noun Phrases in Spanish Containing Locatives" by John P. Wonder and Alberto Eraso Guerrero (1976). Gives a detailed description of the uses of "ser" and "haber" in the locative expression. (NCR)

  6. Noun Preverbs in Complex Predicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pantcheva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I propose a syntax-based analysis of Persian complex predicates (a predicate consisting of a so called preverb and a light verb. I adopt the framework of the verbal First Phase Syntax developed by Ramchand (2008. I use complex predicates with the light verb zædæn `hit' to illustrate how this approach sheds light on some widely discussed issues in the literature. The problem I mainly focus on is the syntactic status of noun preverbs. In general, noun preverbs exhibit properties typically ascribed to direct objects (Samvelian 2001; 2004, while at the same time being distinct from real arguments of the verb (Megerdoomian 2006. I suggest that noun preverbs can occupy more than one position in the verbal phrase and show how this analysis captures their dual nature, as well as some other syntactic and semantic peculiarities.

  7. Count Nouns - Mass Nouns, Neat Nouns - Mess Nouns

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    Fred Landman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose and formalize a theory of the mass-count distinction in which the denotations of count nouns are built from non-overlapping generators, while the denotations of mass nouns are built from overlapping generators. Counting is counting of generators, and it will follow that counting is only correct on count denotations. I will show that the theory allows two kinds of mass nouns: mess mass nouns with denotations built from overlapping minimal generators, and neat mass nouns with denotations built from overlapping generators, where the overlap is not located in the minimal generators. Prototypical mass nouns like meat and mud are of the first kind. I will argue that mass nouns like furniture and kitchenware are of the second type. I will discuss several phenomena—all involving one way or the other explicitly or implicitly individual classifiers like stuks in Dutch—that show that both distinctions mass/count and mess/neat are linguistically robust. I will show in particular that nouns like kitchenware pattern in various ways like count nouns, and not like mess mass nouns, and that these ways naturally involve the neat structure of their denotation. I will also show that they are real mass nouns: they can involve measures in the way mess mass nouns can and count nouns cannot. I will discuss grinding interpretations of count nouns, here rebaptized fission interpretations, and argue that these interpretations differ in crucial ways from the interpretations of lexical mass nouns. The paper will end with a foundational problem raised by fission interpretations, and in the course of this, atomless interpretation domains will re-enter the scene through the back door.ReferencesBarner, D. & Snedeker, J. 2005. ‘Quantity judgements and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count’. Cognition 97: 41–66.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2004.06.009PMid:16139586Bunt, H. 1985. Mass Terms and Model Theoretic Semantics. Cambridge

  8. Exclusives, equatives and prosodic phrases in Samoan

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    Sasha Calhoun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the functions of prosodic phrasing in the Austronesian VSO language Samoan. Two types of sentences are investigated, exclusives (involving the particle 'na’o' ‘only’ and equatives. Two complementary methodologies were used, a production study and an acceptability judgment study, to examine the prosodic realisation and relative naturalness of different word orderings of the two sentence types. The particle 'na’o' has an unusual distribution: preceding the initial constituent, be it the verb or a fronted noun phrase; or following the verb, but only modifying the absolutive (object. It was found that post-verbal absolutives modified by 'na’o' are usually not preceded by a phrase boundary, unlike unmodified absolutives which are consistently preceded by a high phrase tone (H- (cf. Yu 2009. Equatives in Samoan involve clauses which are the juxtaposition of two noun phrases, one the rheme (focus and the other the theme (topic. It was found that rhemes are usually followed by a phrase break, while for themes this is optional. Rheme-theme order was strongly preferred to theme-rheme order. These findings are argued to show a close relationship between information structure, constituent ordering and prosodic phrasing in Samoan. The preferred order of constituents in Samoan is rheme-theme, with a high phrase tone marking the end of the rheme. The absolutive argument is strongly preferred to be at the start of the theme. This article is part of theSpecial Collection: Prosody and constituent structure

  9. Phrase frequency effects in language production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Janssen

    Full Text Available A classic debate in the psychology of language concerns the question of the grain-size of the linguistic information that is stored in memory. One view is that only morphologically simple forms are stored (e.g., 'car', 'red', and that more complex forms of language such as multi-word phrases (e.g., 'red car' are generated on-line from the simple forms. In two experiments we tested this view. In Experiment 1, participants produced noun+adjective and noun+noun phrases that were elicited by experimental displays consisting of colored line drawings and two superimposed line drawings. In Experiment 2, participants produced noun+adjective and determiner+noun+adjective utterances elicited by colored line drawings. In both experiments, naming latencies decreased with increasing frequency of the multi-word phrase, and were unaffected by the frequency of the object name in the utterance. These results suggest that the language system is sensitive to the distribution of linguistic information at grain-sizes beyond individual words.

  10. An application of the role-value distinction in mental space theory to the analysis of definite and indefinite noun phrases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Jensen, Helle

    2006-01-01

    Fauconnier (1994) foreslår en beskrivelse af fortolkningen af bestemte og ubestemte nominalsyntagmer. Formålet med denne artikel er at forklare hvordan Fauconnier's rolle-/værdidistinktion kan integreres i denne beskrivelse således at den på en ensartet og generel måde kan forklare fortolkningen ...

  11. Iceberg Semantics For Count Nouns And Mass Nouns: Classifiers, measures and portions

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    Fred Landman

    2016-12-01

    It is the analysis of complex NPs and their mass-count properties that is the focus of the second part of this paper. There I develop an analysis of English and Dutch pseudo- partitives, in particular, measure phrases like three liters of wine and classifier phrases like three glasses of wine. We will study measure interpretations and classifier interpretations of measures and classifiers, and different types of classifier interpretations: container interpretations, contents interpretations, and - indeed - portion interpretations. Rothstein 2011 argues that classifier interpretations (including portion interpretations of pseudo partitives pattern with count nouns, but that measure interpretations pattern with mass nouns. I will show that this distinction follows from the very basic architecture of Iceberg semantics.

  12. Minimal Interference from Possessor Phrases in the Production of Subject-Verb Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Janet L; Barss, Andrew; Barker, Jason E

    2016-01-01

    We explore the language production process by eliciting subject-verb agreement errors. Participants were asked to create complete sentences from sentence beginnings such as The elf's/elves' house with the tiny window/windows and The statue in the elf's/elves' gardens. These are subject noun phrases containing a head noun and controller of agreement (statue) and two nonheads, a "local noun" (window(s)/garden(s)), and a possessor noun (elf's/elves'). Past research has shown that a plural nonhead noun (an "attractor") within a subject noun phrase triggers the production of verb agreement errors, and further, that the nearer the attractor to the head noun, the greater the interference. This effect can be interpreted in terms of relative hierarchical distance from the head noun, or via a processing window account, which claims that during production, there is a window in which the head and modifying material may be co-active, and an attractor must be active at the same time as the head to give rise to errors. Using possessors attached at different heights within the same window, we are able to empirically distinguish these accounts. Possessors also allow us to explore two additional issues. First, case marking of local nouns has been shown to reduce agreement errors in languages with "rich" inflectional systems, and we explore whether English speakers attend to case. Secondly, formal syntactic analyses differ regarding the structural position of the possessive marker, and we distinguish them empirically with the relative magnitude of errors produced by possessors and local nouns. Our results show that, across the board, plural possessors are significantly less disruptive to the agreement process than plural local nouns. Proximity to the head noun matters: a possessor directly modifying the head noun induce a significant number of errors, but a possessor within a modifying prepositional phrase did not, though the local noun did. These findings suggest that proximity to a

  13. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    , Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...

  14. The Axial Part Phrase in Japanese

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    Kaori Takamine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the categorial status of spatial terms in locative/directional expressions in Japanese. I will show that a certain class of spatial terms have a distinct categorial status from both regular postpositions and nouns. On one hand, syntactic diagnostics such as doubling, coordination by to, and co-occurrence with demonstratives indicate that these spatial terms belong to a nominal category rather than to a postpositional category. On the other hand, the fact that these spatial terms are modified by range modifiers indicates that they are more similar to regular postpositions than to nouns. On the basis of these diagnostics, I will argue that spatial terms in Japanese need to be assigned a new category Axial Part Phrase which is proposed by Svenonius 2006.

  15. Machine Translation of Noun Phrases from English to Igala using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... for easier processing of concepts This clearly shows that ... research organizations and government agencies to .... first hybrid machine translation in 2009. English and ... sentence structure in the target language. There is no ...

  16. The Intonation of Noun Phrase Subjects and Clause- Modifying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    native Englishes, especially at the level of phonology, this study investigates the English intonation .... structure in speech (in which case, it performs a role similar to punctuation in writing), identify ..... Orlando: Harcourt. College Publishers.

  17. Coping with Uncertainty: Noun Phrase Interpretation and Early Semantic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mellish, Christopher Stuart

    1981-01-01

    A computer program which can "understand" natural language texts must have both syntactic knowledge about the language concerned and semantic knowledge of how what is written relates to its internal representation of the world. It has been a matter of some controversy how these sources of information can best be integrated to translate from an input text to a formal meaning representation. The controversy has concerned largely the question as to what degree of syntactic a...

  18. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advantage of this approach is that it provides a principled manner of choosing .... phrase structure can be expressed in terms of functional dependencies.8 It is important to note that functional ...... Szabolcsi, A. 1994. The noun phrase.

  19. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...

  20. Nouns to Define Homophobia

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    Adalberto Campo Arias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The term ‘homophobia’ was introduced in the academic context more than 40 years ago. However, its meaning has changed over time. Objective. To review the nouns used in the last twelve years to define homophobia. Methodology. The authors conducted a systematic search in Medline through Pubmed that included editorials, letters to editors, comments and narrative reviews, in English and Spanish. A qualitative analysis (Grounded theory was applied to analyze nouns used to define homophobia since 2001 through 2012. Results. Authors reviewed three papers including ten nouns to define homophobia, the most common noun was fear. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort with homosexuality. Conclusion. Fear is the most used word to describe homophobia. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort toward homosexuality.

  1. Priming the Interpretation of Noun-Noun Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffray, Claudine N.; Pickering, Martin J.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2007-01-01

    Noun-noun combinations like "dog scarf" are common in everyday discourse but often have more than one interpretation. How do language users arrive at an interpretation of the relationship between the two nouns? This paper reports three expression-picture matching experiments that used a priming paradigm to investigate the influence of modifier and…

  2. Noun-Noun Compounds in Italian Sports Column as a Proof of Tendencies in Modern Italian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szemberska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The compounding is a fundamental process of word formation and its importance to our understanding of language is crucial. The study of compounds for the last few years has been at the centre of attention in such areas of linguistics as computational approaches, psycholinguistics and language acquisition. Linguists advanced hypotheses not only regarding the construction of compounds, but also where they fit into the model of grammar. The paper attempts to answer some basic questions pertaining to lexical creativity in nominal compounding in Italian sports column. These include the definition of the concept, the types of noun-noun compounds in Modern Italian and a brief comparison of these types.

  3. Child Shona noun prefixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine R Sibanda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article falls under the broad area of child language acquisition and it aims to present an analysis of the acquisition of Shona noun class prefixes. The data collection procedures involved fortnightly observation and audio-recording of the spontaneous speech of three children who were acquiring Shona as a mother tongue. The results of this investigation confirm findings from earlier studies and show that noun class prefixes are acquired in three partially overlapping stages. In the first stage, nouns are produced without class prefixes and as time progresses, in the second stage, they are produced with them but in the form of an onsetless vowel. In the third stage, nouns are produced with full and phonologically appropriate class prefixes. The empirical and theoretical findings of this investigation are expected to broaden and deepen our knowledge of morphology and the phonology-morphology interface in the context of child language acquisition. As there are few descriptive and theoretical studies on the acquisition of Shona, this research recommends more studies on this subject.

  4. 1001 easy French phrases

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion for tourists and business travelers in France and other places where the French language is spoken, this book offers fast, effective communication. More than 1,000 basic words, phrases, and sentences cover everything from asking directions and renting a car to ordering dinner and finding a bank.Designed as a quick reference tool and an easy study guide, this inexpensive and easy-to-use book offers completely up-to-date terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. The contents are arranged for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shoppin

  5. Easy French phrase book over 700 phrases for everyday use

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Over 700 French phrases and sentences include terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. Designed as a quick reference and study guide, this up-to-date volume is organized for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shopping, emergencies, and other common circumstances. A phonetic pronunciation accompanies each phrase.

  6. Evidence for a Distinct Kind of Noun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Nancy N.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the spontaneous speech of four children and their parents for use of determiners with NP-type nouns and count nouns. Found that the parents made a clear distinction between the two kinds of nouns, omitting determiners with the NP-type nouns but not with the count nouns. The children all made the same distinction by four years of age. (HTH)

  7. Noun Countability; Count Nouns and Non-count Nouns, What are the Syntactic Differences Between them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar A. Alkazwini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Words that function as the subjects of verbs, objects of verbs or prepositions and which can have a plural form and possessive ending are known as nouns. They are described as referring to persons, places, things, states, or qualities and might also be used as an attributive modifier. In this paper, classes and subclasses of nouns shall be presented, then, noun countability branching into count and non-count nous shall be discussed. A number of present examples illustrating differences between count and non-count nouns and this includes determiner-head-co-occurrence restrictions of number, subject-verb agreement, in addition to some exceptions to this agreement rule shall be discussed. Also, the lexically inherent number in nouns and how inherently plural nouns are classified in terms of (+/- count are illustrated. This research will discuss partitive construction of count and non-count nouns, nouns as attributive modifier and, finally, conclude with the fact that there are syntactic difference between count and non-count in the English Language. Keywords: English Language, Nouns, Count, Non-count, Syntactic Differences, Proper Nouns

  8. 15000 useful phrases

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiser, Grenville

    1900-01-01

    This incredibly useful book will appeal to writers, public speakers and anyone else who would like to improve their vocabulary. It contains a huge number of phrases which you can use in everyday speech and at special occasions, which will help you express your thoughts, ideas and feelings in a brand new way. A classic reference work, this edition has been specially formatted for today's e-readers.

  9. Lexical and Buffer Effects in Reading and in Writing Noun-Noun Compound Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondini, Sara; Arcara, Giorgio; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Reading and writing Noun-Noun compound nouns was investigated in two Italian aphasic patients: one with phonological dyslexia and the other with phonological dysgraphia. The patients were required to read, write and repeat a list of Noun-Noun compounds and length-matched non-compound nouns. The dyslexic patient RF read compounds better than non-compounds, and his repetition was flawless for both categories. The dysgraphic patient DA wrote non-compounds better than compounds because of a deficit in keeping separate entries at the lemma level. Differential performance when processing compounds and non-compounds is the result of a deficit in different components within the mental lexicon architecture. PMID:22713388

  10. The Semantic Interpretation on Noun-Noun Modification by Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-06

    man FRcM MARS Ordinals the THREE men Quantifiers EVERY man Participles the APPROACHING man the DEFEATED man In the field of Computational Linguistics, a...In these cases, the head noun is derived from an underlying verb (i.e. meet, traverse, study, detect, amplify and teach ). The modifying noun can

  11. Mood, definiteness and specificity: a linguistic and a philosophical account of their similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Seibt, Johanna

    2006-01-01

    In this article we give a linguistic and a philosophical account of the relationship between some grammatical categories of the clause (realis) and the noun phrase (definiteness, specificity) that relate to the occurrence of an entity (thing, event) in the world of discourse. Our treatment differs...... in three important ways from previous work in this area. Firstly, we offer an explanation for both the symmetrical and the anti-symmetrical relations that appear to hold between (ir)realis mood and (in)definiteness. Secondly, we argue that any attempt to explain these relationships must make crucial...

  12. Some aspects of agreement with numeral phrases in Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Witkoś

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly analyze the agreement patterns in Polish constructions with quantified subjects and adjectival predicates/participles, and propose an account built on the nanosyntactic ideas regarding the nature of case, i.e., split Kase Phrase (Caha 2009, 2010. In the analysis we address the troublesome issues regarding the Genitive of Quantification, i.e., the source of Genitive on the nominal complement in structural contexts, and the optionality in agreement in case between the adjectival predicate/participle and the numeral (≥5, or the noun of the quantified subject. The essential part of our proposal is based on the articulated Kase Phrase in the functional sequence of the extended nominal projection and its role in the syntactic derivation of case in the spirit of nanosyntactic approach.

  13. A developmental analysis of generic nouns in Southern Peruvian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Bruce; Gelman, Susan A; Escalante, Carmen; Huayhua, Margarita; Puma, Rosalía

    2010-01-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g., "Cats like to drink milk") are a primary means by which adults express generalizations to children, yet they pose a challenging induction puzzle for learners. Although prior research has established that English speakers understand and produce generic noun phrases by preschool age, little is known regarding the cross-cultural generality of generic acquisition. Southern Peruvian Quechua provides a valuable comparison because, unlike English, it is a highly inflected language in which generics are marked by the absence rather than the presence of any linguistic markers. Moreover, Quechua is spoken in a cultural context that differs markedly from the highly educated, middle-class contexts within which earlier research on generics was conducted. We presented participants from 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 14-35, and 36-90 years of age) with two tasks that examined the ability to distinguish generic from non-generic utterances. In Study 1, even the youngest children understood generics as applying broadly to a category (like "all") and distinct from indefinite reference ("some"). However, there was a developmental lag before children understood that generics, unlike "all", can include exceptions. Study 2 revealed that generic interpretations are more frequent for utterances that (a) lack specifying markers and (b) are animate. Altogether, generic interpretations are found among the youngest participants, and may be a default mode of quantification. These data demonstrate the cross-cultural importance of generic information in linguistic expression.

  14. A Hybrid Model For Phrase Chunking Employing Artificial Immunity System And Rule Based Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu.M.S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural language Understanding (NLU, an important field of Artificial Intelligence (AI is concerned with the speech and language understanding between human and computer. Understanding language means knowing what concept a word or phrase stands for and how to link them to form meaningful sentence. Identification of phrases or phrase chunking is an important step in natural language understanding (NLU. Chunker identifies and divides sentences into syntactically correlated word groups. Question Answering (QA systems, another important application of Artificial Intelligence (AImostly requires retrieval of nouns or noun phrases as answers to the questions raised by the users. Also Chunking is an important preprocessing step in full parsing. Due to high ambiguity of natural language, exact parsing of text may become very complex. This ambiguity may be partially resolved by using chunking as an intermediate step. To the best of our knowledge no known work or tag set is available for phrase chunking in Malayalam. To separate the chunks in a document it must be labeled with parts-ofspeech (POS tags. POS Tagging is a difficult task in Malayalam as it is a complex and compounding language. In this paper we describe the application of artificial immunity system (AIS for chunking which is implemented and obtained an accurate output with 96% precision and 93% recall. This system istested on corpuses collected from reputed news papers and magazines. These corpuses contained documents from five different domains such as sports, health, agriculture, science and politics and each document contained sentences –simple, compound, complex-of various levels of complexity. POS tag set with 52 tags is developed for preparing the tagged corpus for Malayalam. The phrase tag set contains 20 phrase tags.

  15. Statistical Analysis of English Noun Suffixes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠灵

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the origin of English noun suffixes,including Old English,Latin,French and Greek.A statistical analysis of some typical noun suffixes is followed in two corpora,which focuses on their frequency and distribution.

  16. Abstract and concrete phrases processing differentially modulates cortico-spinal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorolli, Claudia; Jacquet, Pierre O; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Nicoletti, Roberto; Tessari, Alessia; Borghi, Anna M

    2012-12-07

    An important challenge of embodied theories is to explain the comprehension of abstract sentences. The aim of the present study was to scrutinize the role of the motor cortex in this process. We developed a new paradigm to study the abstract-concrete dimension by combining concrete (i.e., action-related) and abstract (i.e., non-action-related) verbs with nouns of graspable and non-graspable objects. Using these verb-noun combinations we performed a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) on the left primary motor cortex while participants performed a sentence sensibility task. Single-TMS pulses were delivered 250ms after verb or noun presentation in each of four combinations of abstract and concrete verbs and nouns. To evaluate cortico-spinal excitability we registered the electromyographic activity of the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. As to verb-noun integration, analysis of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after TMS pulse during noun presentation revealed greater peak-to-peak amplitude in phrases containing abstract rather than concrete verbs. Response times were also collected and showed that compatible (Concrete-Concrete and Abstract-Abstract) combinations were processed faster than mixed ones; moreover in combinations containing concrete verbs, participants were faster when the pulse was delivered on the first word (verb) than on the second one (noun). Results support previous findings showing early activation of hand-related areas after concrete verbs processing. The prolonged or delayed activation of the same areas by abstract verbs will be discussed in the framework of recent embodied theories based on multiple types of representation, particularly theories emphasizing the role of different acquisition mechanisms for concrete and abstract words (Borghi and Cimatti, 2009,2012).

  17. OVERGENERALIZATION IN SINGULAR/PLURAL NOUNS AND SUFFIXED NOUNS OF IELTS COURSE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharizi Matiini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the morphological overgeneralization of IELTS students. It focuses on the singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns that are overgeneralized by those students. Three students are chosen as the participants of the study by collecting their writing exercises. Three writing texts are gathered taken from several weeks and materials. The writings are analyzed by sorting the nouns they produced and categorizing them according to the singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns. The results reveal that the students over extended the rules of singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns. However, recovery occurs very varied in both singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns. They tend to be better in mentioning singular/plural nouns, yet they are being selective and careful in writing suffixed nouns. In conclusion, even though the language learners can mark their overgeneralization, it is still difficult for them to recover their errors. It is recommended here that longitudinal study that has more time to examine students recovery from overgeneralization can be conducted for the further study to give more detail evidence in students’ overgeneralizations. Keywords: overgeneralization, singular/plural nouns, suffixed nouns

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON COMPOUND NOUN AND SEMI-COMPOUND NOUN IN TURKEY TURKISH TÜRKİYE TÜRKÇESİNDE BİRLEŞİK İSİM VE YARI-BİRLEŞİK İSİM ÜZERİNE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR İNCELEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet AKÇATAŞ

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Compound nouns are nouns that are formed by two different words that come together by coalescing and taking a fixed form, gaining another meaning from their own. In this study, the semi-compound noun term is proposed for the phrases that are not fixed. After that, the semi-compound nouns are examined in terms of their structure. Then, how phrases establish the semi-compound nouns, passing to word level than phrases level, only by nominalisation, without having a fixed form is determined. After these examinations and identifications, the suffixes and postpositions that the semi-compound nouns have are emphasized. In the conclusion, by adding semi-compound nouns to the classification such as simple, derived and compound nouns a deficiency term and issue is put forward (simple noun, derived noun; compound noun, semi-compound noun. Birleşik isimler, iki farklı sözcüğün bir araya gelerek kendi anlamlarından farklı bir anlam oluşturacak biçimde kaynaşıp kalıplaşmasıyla oluşan isimlerdir. Bu çalışmada birleşik isim dışında kalan, kalıplaşmamış öbek yapıdaki isimler için yarı-birleşik isim terimi önerilmiştir. Daha sonra yarı-birleşik isimler, yapıları bakımından incelenmiş. Sözcük öbeklerinin, öbek düzleminden sözcük düzlemine geçerken, kalıplaşmadan, sadece isimleşerek yarı-birleşik isimleri nasıl kurduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu inceleme ve belirlemelerden sonra yarı-birleşik isimlerin aldıkları ek ve edatlar üzerinde durulmuştur. Sonuçta basit, türemiş ve birleşik isimler şeklindeki sınıflamaya yarı-birleşik isimler de eklenerek eksik kalmış bir terim ve konu ortaya konulmuştur (basit isim, türemiş isim; birleşik isim, yarı-birleşik isim.

  19. Acquisition of Structure and Interpretation: Cases from Mandarin Bare and Non-Bare Noun Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiang-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Children's production of bare nominals is universal. When acquiring languages disallowing bare nominals, children will develop from the bare to the non-bare stage. However, Mandarin nominals may appear bare or non-bare in various positions with all kinds of interpretations. This dissertation conducts two acquisition studies to examine the…

  20. The Morphosyntactic Structure of the Noun and Verb Phrases in Dholuo/Kiswahili Code Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Jael Anyango Ojanga; Furaha Chai; James Mutiti

    2015-01-01

    Code switching, the use of any two or more languages or dialects interchangeably in a single communication context, is a common linguistic practice owing to the trend of multilingualism in the world today. In many situations of language in contact, constituents of one language can be found within the constituents of another language in a number of linguistic phenomenon namely lexical borrowing, transferring, interference, code switching and diffusion (Annamalai, 1989). Codeswitching is one of...

  1. On Children's Uses of "from,""by" and "with" in Oblique Noun Phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eve V.; Carpenter, Kathie L.

    1989-01-01

    A study of two- to six-year-olds' spontaneous uses of "from" to mark oblique agents showed that, while the two-year-olds produced "from" for agents and "with" for instruments in imitation, older subjects shifted to "by" for agents and kept "from" to mark locative sources. (Author/CB)

  2. On children's uses of from, by and with in oblique noun phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E V; Carpenter, K L

    1989-06-01

    This study was designed to follow up children's early spontaneous uses of from to mark oblique agents by giving 40 children (aged 2;5-6;1), and 10 adults, grammatical and ungrammatical sentences containing from, with, and by to imitate and to repair. As predicted, children's imitations and repairs showed that (a) 2-year-olds produce from for agents, and with for instruments in imitation; and (b) as children get older, they shift to by for agents in their repairs, and keep from to mark locative sources. These findings support the hypothesis that when children first try to express oblique agents, before acquisition of conventional by, they choose from for this purpose because agents, as instigators of actions, are conceived of as the source of the action and its result.

  3. Synchronic and diachronic evidence for parallels between noun phrases and sentences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Both formal and functional linguists have developed models in which clauses and NPs can at least partly be analyzed in a similar fashion. But whereas formal approaches to grammar have concentrated on similarities between the (underlying) syntactic structure of the NP and the clause (e.g. Jackendo....../clause model presented in Rijkhoff (2002), and [b] to give synchronic and diachronic evidence in favour of this particular model....

  4. The role of sustained attention in the production of conjoined noun phrases: An individual differences study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, S.R.; Meyer, A.S.; Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon

  5. The role of sustained attention in the production of conjoined noun phrases: An individual differences study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, S.R.; Meyer, A.S.; Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon su

  6. On the Grammar and Model-Theoretic Semantics of Children's Noun Phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppes, Patrick

    The paper shows informally how model-theoretical semantics may be used by a computer to give a straight-forward analysis of the meaning of children's language. This approach to semantics grows out of the main thrust of work in mathematical logic. It is discussed in the framework of generative grammar and is based on the application of the…

  7. Synchronic and diachronic evidence for parallels between noun phrases and sentences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Both formal and functional linguists have developed models in which clauses and NPs can at least partly be analyzed in a similar fashion. But whereas formal approaches to grammar have concentrated on similarities between the (underlying) syntactic structure of the NP and the clause (e.g. Jackendoff...

  8. Layers of root nouns in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2015-01-01

    The root-noun declension became productive in early Germanic, containing (I) inherited root nouns, (IIa) original substrate or loan words, and transitions from other declensions in (IIb) Proto-Germanic and (III) North Germanic. As ablaut was abolished, the inherited type would display ablaut grad...

  9. 13 CFR 142.6 - What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean? 142.6 Section 142.6 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.6 What does the phrase...

  10. Language, thought, and real nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, David; Inagaki, Shunji; Li, Peggy

    2009-06-01

    We test the claim that acquiring a mass-count language, like English, causes speakers to think differently about entities in the world, relative to speakers of classifier languages like Japanese. We use three tasks to assess this claim: object-substance rating, quantity judgment, and word extension. Using the first two tasks, we present evidence that learning mass-count syntax has little effect on the interpretation of familiar nouns between Japanese and English, and that speakers of these languages do not divide up referents differently along an individuation continuum, as claimed in some previous reports [Gentner, D., & Boroditsky, L. (2001). Individuation, relativity, and early word learning. In M. Bowerman, & S. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development (pp. 215-256). Cambridge University Press]. Instead, we argue that previous cross-linguistic differences [Imai, M., & Gentner, D. (1997). A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: Universal ontology and linguistic influence. Cognition, 62, 169-200] are attributable to "lexical statistics" [Gleitman, L., & Papafragou, A. (2005). Language and thought. In K. Holyoak, & R. Morrison (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning (pp. 633-661). Cambridge University Press]. Speakers of English are more likely to think that a novel ambiguous expression like "the blicket" refers to a kind of object (relative to speakers of Japanese) because speakers of English are likely to assume that "blicket" is a count noun rather than a mass noun, based on the relative frequency of each kind of word in English. This is confirmed by testing Mandarin-English bilinguals with a word extension task. We find that bilinguals tested in English with mass-count ambiguous syntax extend novel words like English monolinguals (and assume that a word like "blicket" refers to a kind of object). In contrast, bilinguals tested in Mandarin are significantly more likely to extend novel words by material. Thus, online

  11. Optimal Growth in Phrase Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Medeiros

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article claims that some familiar properties of phrase structure reflect laws of form. It is shown that optimal sequencing of recursive Merge operations so as to dynamically minimize c-command and containment relations in unlabeled branching forms leads to structural correlates of projection. Thus, a tendency for syntactic structures to pattern according to the X-bar schema (or other shapes exhibiting endocentricity and maximality of ‘non-head daughters’ is plausibly an emergent epiphenomenon of efficient computation. The specifier-head-complement configuration of X-bar theory is shown to be intimately connected to the Fibonacci sequence, suggesting connections with similar mathematical properties in optimal arboration and optimal packing elsewhere in nature.

  12. Separating the Chaff from the Oats: Evidence for a Conceptual Distinction between Count Noun and Mass Noun Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Erica L.; Wisniewski, Edward J.; Trindel, Kelly A.; Imai, Mutsumi

    2004-01-01

    The English language makes a grammatical distinction between count nouns and mass nouns. For example, count nouns but not mass nouns can be pluralized and can appear with the indefinite article. Some scholars dismiss the distinction as an arbitrary convention of language whereas others suggest that it is conceptually based. The present studies…

  13. Generic Adaptively Secure Searchable Phrase Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissel Zachary A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years searchable symmetric encryption has seen a rapid increase in query expressiveness including keyword, phrase, Boolean, and fuzzy queries. With this expressiveness came increasingly complex constructions. Having these facts in mind, we present an efficient and generic searchable symmetric encryption construction for phrase queries. Our construction is straightforward to implement, and is proven secure under adaptively chosen query attacks (CQA2 in the random oracle model with an honest-but-curious adversary. To our knowledge, this is the first encrypted phrase search system that achieves CQA2 security. Moreover, we demonstrate that our document collection preprocessing algorithm allows us to extend a dynamic SSE construction so that it supports phrase queries. We also provide a compiler theorem which transforms any CQA2-secure SSE construction for keyword queries into a CQA2-secure SSE construction that supports phrase queries.

  14. THE COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS BETWEEN ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    The noun in Albanian language classified as common and proper. The common nouns in turn divide into countable and uncountable. Collective nouns and substance nouns are subclasses of the other classes.  The structure of noun formation between Albanian and English on the general aspect of morphology and syntax still didn’t study in the way of comparative, contrast and generative. Those fields are our object of study. In Albanian and English we find some concepts of studies for noun for exam...

  15. Noun complement clauses as referential modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Cuba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent analyses propose that so-called noun complement clauses should be analyzed as a type of relative clause. In this paper, I present a number of complications for any analysis that equates noun complement clauses to relative clauses, and conclude that this type of analysis is on the wrong track. I present cross-linguistic evidence showing that the syntactic behavior of noun complement clauses does not pattern with relative clauses. Patterns of complementizer choice and complementizer drop as well as patterns involving main clause phenomena and extraction differ in the two constructions, which I argue is unexpected under a relative clause analysis that involves operator movement. Instead I present an alternative analysis in which I propose that the referentiality of a noun complement clause is linked to its syntactic behavior. Following recent work, I claim that referential clauses have a syntactically truncated left-periphery, and this truncation can account for the lack of main clause phenomena in noun complement clauses. I argue that the truncation analysis is also able to accommodate complementizer data patterns more easily than relative clause analyses that appeal to operator movement.

  16. Proper Nouns in Translation: Should They Be Translated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The translation of proper nouns is not as easy as that of other parts of speech as this is more challenging for certain reasons. The present article presents a descriptive study of proper nouns in translation, scrutinizing the challenges and exploring the solutions. Building on some scholars’ approach and suggestions from other researchers, the article clarifies the nature and problems of proper nouns in translation; it seeks to answer three questions: 1 Should proper nouns be translated? 2 What are the problems on the way of translation of the proper nouns? 3 How can the translator overcome such problems? Moreover, strategies applied by the researchers to make their translation easier are also discussed. It follows that translating proper nouns is not simple and there is little flexibility about translating proper nouns. Keywords: proper nouns, translation, strategies

  17. 轮机英语中动作名词的特征与翻译%The Characteristics of Action Noun in Marine Engineering English and its Translation Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘卫群

    2015-01-01

    动作名词是英语中动词名词化的一种体现,被广泛应用于轮机专业英语中.该文分析了动作名词的特征,指出英语动作名词词组形式结构和语义结构不一致是它区别于汉语词组的特征,也是它成为教学难点的原因,并探讨了它的翻译对策.%As one form of verbal nominalization in English,action noun is widely used in marine engineering English.This text makes an attempt to reveal its characteristics,and points out that the phrase of English action noun has different formal structure and semantic structure.This is different from the phrase of Chinese action noun,therefore becomes a block for Chinese students.Translation of phrase of English action noun is also explored.

  18. 汉语中的“名词串”句子研究%Study of "Noun String Sentences" in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶书琼

    2012-01-01

    汉语中存在着一类特殊的句式现象———"名词串"句子:句中没有动词性成分,而且完全由名词或名词性成分构成。通过简约性分析、认知分析和语境依赖性分析等三个方面的研究,并依据简约性原则、认知理论和语境理论论证其在语义解读上的可行性,继而通过观察、分析和比较,认为"名词串"句子在理解上最重要的依据是"语境(context)"。%In Chinese language exists a special sentence pattern——"noun string sentence": the sentences are composed of noun or noun phrases without verbs.The study explains noun string sentences from three aspects: parsimony principle analysis,cognitive analysis and context-dependent analysis.According to the parsimony principle,the cognitive theory and the context theory,the article demonstrates its feasibility in semantic interpretation,followed by an analysis and comparison of observation and suggests that the understanding of noun string sentences primarily depend on context.

  19. Bilinguals' Plausibility Judgments for Phrases with a Literal vs. Non-literal Meaning: The Influence of Language Brokering Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belem G. López

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that prior experience in language brokering (informal translation may facilitate the processing of meaning within and across language boundaries. The present investigation examined the influence of brokering on bilinguals' processing of two word collocations with either a literal or a figurative meaning in each language. Proficient Spanish-English bilinguals classified as brokers or non-brokers were asked to judge if adjective+noun phrases presented in each language made sense or not. Phrases with a literal meaning (e.g., stinging insect were interspersed with phrases with a figurative meaning (e.g., stinging insult and non-sensical phrases (e.g., stinging picnic. It was hypothesized that plausibility judgments would be facilitated for literal relative to figurative meanings in each language but that experience in language brokering would be associated with a more equivalent pattern of responding across languages. These predictions were confirmed. The findings add to the body of empirical work on individual differences in language processing in bilinguals associated with prior language brokering experience.

  20. Bidirectional Synonym Ratings of 464 Noun Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, William B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Each of 464 noun pairs was rated for synonymy on a seven-point scale by college students to provide an extensive set of synonym pairs for use as stimuli in experiments, and to evaluate the effects of word encoding order on perceived synonymy. (SW)

  1. Word Sense Disambiguation Using English-Spanish Aligned Phrases over Comparable Corpora

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Amoros, David

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a WSD experiment based on bilingual English-Spanish comparable corpora in which individual noun phrases have been identified and aligned with their respective counterparts in the other language. The evaluation of the experiment has been carried out against SemCor. We show that, with the alignment algorithm employed, potential precision is high (74.3%), however the coverage of the method is low (2.7%), due to alignments being far less frequent than we expected. Contrary to our intuition, precision does not rise consistently with the number of alignments. The coverage is low due to several factors; there are important domain differences, and English and Spanish are too close languages for this approach to be able to discriminate efficiently between senses, rendering it unsuitable for WSD, although the method may prove more productive in machine translation.

  2. Inflection of modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives and adverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Orešnik

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a list of Modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, analysed into their respective stems and endings; the declension of the suffixed definite article is also included. Under each item it is stated which rules, if any, apply in the derivation of its grammatical forms. The following items of the list should be consulted for new phonological rules: (3, (11, (12, and (133. A grammatical innovation has been implemented in the list, namely the so-called REPLACING ENDINGS. These are not added after the last segment of the stem, as endings usually are, but replace the last segment(s of the stem. More is said on replacing endings in the Introduction.

  3. Locative prepositional phrases in severe aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, M; McCall, D; Shoosmith, L; Thomas, K; Katzenberger, K; Weber, C

    1993-07-01

    Six severely aphasic patients were trained on C-VIC, a computerized alternative communication system. Patients with both global and Broca's aphasia were able to produce and comprehend locative prepositions using C-VIC. The Broca's aphasic patients were able to produce and interpret symbol order correctly in C-VIC locative prepositional phrases, despite their difficulties in performing the same tasks using English. One patient's verbal production of locative prepositional phrases improved markedly after C-VIC training. These results suggest that the "mapping" impairment suffered by some Broca's aphasics may be ameliorated by use of alternative communication system, such as C-VIC.

  4. Noun-Inspiring Theme in Poetic Translation-On Noun Translation Governed by Theme of Classical Chinese Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Liang; ZENG Li-sha

    2014-01-01

    The presence of poetic noun is very common in classical Chinese poetry. And the absence of preposition and conjunc-tion leading to noun juxtaposition is one of the poetic aesthetic features. At present, most researches of poetic translatio on n base individual impression and perception, fail to comprehend the nouns of source text in categorization, and critical analysis on the translated nouns is not interpretable and verifiable. This paper, taking a perspective of poetic theme relevance, categorizes the po-etic noun from the indicative, descriptive and symbolic dimensions, proposes a poetic translation strategy called“aesthetic repro-duction of poetic theme”, and proves its necessity and rationality.

  5. Phrase Completions: An Alternative to Likert Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Gillespie, David

    2003-01-01

    Delineates the problems with Likert scales, with a particular emphasis on multidimensionality and coarse response categories, and proposes a new measurement method called "phrase completions," which has been designed to circumvent the problems inherent in Likert scales. Also conducts an exploratory test, in which Likert items were adapted to…

  6. On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

  7. On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

  8. A Lexical Phrase Grammar for ESL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, James R.

    1980-01-01

    Lexical phrases such as deictic locutions, phrasal constraints, sentence builders, and situational utterances are examined using categories from artificial intelligence. It is argued that these and other types of patterned speech should be carefully organized and given a greater place in English as a Second Language curricula than at present. (PMJ)

  9. On degree phrases and result clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkhoek, Paulien Dea

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two parts, one on degree phrases and one on result clauses. Sentence (1) below exemplifies a result clause construction: (1) Zij had zo mooi gezongen dat het publiek er stil van was she has so beautifully sang that the audience there silent of was ‘She had sung so beaut

  10. LOOSE PHRASE EXTRACTION WITH n-BEST ALIGNMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Yongzeng; Li Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Loose phrase extraction method is proposed and applied for phrase-based statistical machine translation. The method extracts phrase pairs that are not strictly consistent with word alignments. Two types of constraints on word positions are investigated for this method. Furthermore,n-best alignments are introduced for phrase extraction instead of the one-best. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline system, Pharaoh system, for both one-best and n-best alignments.

  11. When can a language have nouns and verbs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, J.

    2003-01-01

    a necessary condition for a language before it can have a major, distinct class of nouns. Ultimately I will argue that a language can only have distinct classes of verbs, nouns, and adjectives if the basic meaning of lexical items somehow encodes the prototypical properties of temporal and spatial entities......Whereas in most languages nouns and verbs are distinct lexical categories, there are also languages like Samoan, in which such a distinction does not seem to serve any descriptive purpose in the grammar. This contribution is an attempt to discover what distinguishes languages in which nouns...... and verbs are separate word classes from languages without a rigid noun/verb distinction. I will argue that transitivity plays an essential role in the parts-of-speech systems of languages across the globe in that a language can only have distinct classes of nouns and verbs if a subgroup of the basic...

  12. Can Intonational Phrase Structure Be Primed (Like Syntactic Structure)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Kristen M.; Konopka, Agnieszka E.; Watson, Duane G.

    2014-01-01

    In 3 experiments, we investigated whether intonational phrase structure can be primed. In all experiments, participants listened to sentences in which the presence and location of intonational phrase boundaries were manipulated such that the recording included either no intonational phrase boundaries, a boundary in a structurally dispreferred…

  13. LA FRASE NOMINAL NGÄBÉRE The Nominal Phrase Ngäbére

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Murillo Miranda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es el avance de una amplia investigación cuyo propósito es elaborar una gramática descriptiva de la lengua chibcha ngäbére. El artículo presenta las características particulares más relevantes de la frase nominal de dicha variante dialectal (hablada en Costa Rica, también en Panamá, y establece la relación con algunas de las características generales de otras lenguas chibchas ístmicas. El primer apartado del escrito es una introducción a la lengua ngäbére y a sus hablantes; el segundo presenta la morfología de los sustantivos, pronombres y otras clases de palabras que conforman la frase nominal; el tercer apartado trata de la sintaxis de la frase nominal y esboza, de manera sucinta, las relaciones gramaticales; el cuarto apartado es una conclusión valorativa de este trabajo.This work is a preview of a broader study whose goal is to create a descriptive grammar of the Chibchan language, Ngäbere. The article describes the most relevant features of the dialect's nominal phrase (spoken in Costa Rica and Panama and establishes the relationship with some of the general features of other Isthmian Chibchan languages. The first part of the report is an introduction to Ngäbere and it speakers; the second, describes the morphology of the nouns, pronouns, and other words that make up the nominal phrase; the third, is about the syntax of the nominal phrase and it outlines in a succinct manner, grammatical relationships; the last part is a critical conclusion of this work.

  14. Analysis of Japanese Compound Nouns using Collocational Information

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Y; Tanaka, H; Kobayasi, Yosiyuki; Takunaga, Takenobu; Tanaka, Hozumi

    1994-01-01

    Analyzing compound nouns is one of the crucial issues for natural language processing systems, in particular for those systems that aim at a wide coverage of domains. In this paper, we propose a method to analyze structures of Japanese compound nouns by using both word collocations statistics and a thesaurus. An experiment is conducted with 160,000 word collocations to analyze compound nouns of with an average length of 4.9 characters. The accuracy of this method is about 80%.

  15. A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Two Song-Teaching Methods: Holistic vs. Phrase-by-Phrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persellin, Diane; Bateman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of two song-teaching methods: holistic and phrase-by-phrase. Thirty-two first-grade children (n = 32) from two music classes in an urban elementary school were taught two folksongs. The first class (n = 16) was taught one song through the phrase-by-phrase method and another song through the…

  16. A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Two Song-Teaching Methods: Holistic vs. Phrase-by-Phrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persellin, Diane; Bateman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of two song-teaching methods: holistic and phrase-by-phrase. Thirty-two first-grade children (n = 32) from two music classes in an urban elementary school were taught two folksongs. The first class (n = 16) was taught one song through the phrase-by-phrase method and another song through the…

  17. Compositionality and the angular gyrus: A multi-voxel similarity analysis of the semantic composition of nouns and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Christine; Trueswell, John C; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive and neural systems that enable conceptual processing must support the ability to combine (and recombine) concepts to form an infinite number of ideas. Two candidate neural systems for conceptual combination-the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) and the left angular gyrus (AG)-have been characterized as "semantic hubs" due to both functional and anatomical properties; however, these two regions likely support different aspects of composition. Here we consider two hypotheses for the role of AG in conceptual combination, both of which differ from a putative role for the ATL in "feature-based" combinatorics (i.e., meaning derived by combining concepts' features). Firstly, we examine whether AG is more sensitive to function-argument relations of the sort that arise when a predicate is combined with its arguments. Secondly, we examine the non-mutually exclusive possibility that AG represents information carried on a verb in particular, whether this be information about event composition or about thematic relations denoted uniquely by verbs. We identified voxels that respond differentially to two-word versus one-word stimuli, and we measured the similarity of the patterns in these voxels evoked by (1) pairs of two-word phrases that shared a noun that was an argument, thus sharing function-argument composition (e.g. eats meat and with meat), in comparison with two-word phrases that shared only a noun, not an argument (e.g., eats meat and tasty meat); and (2) stimulus pairs that shared only an event (operationalized here as sharing a verb; e.g. eats meat and eats quickly), in comparison to both of the above. We found that activity patterns in left AG tracked information relating to the presence of an event-denoting verb in a pair of two-word phrases. We also found that the neural similarity in AG voxel patterns between two phrases sharing a verb correlated with subjects' ratings of how similar the meanings of those two verb phrases were. These findings

  18. Language-Specific Noun Bias: Evidence from Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Lei; Dollaghan, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Most evidence concerning cross-linguistic variation in noun bias, the preponderance of nouns in early expressive lexicons (Gentner, 1982), has come from comparisons of monolingual children acquiring different languages. Such designs are susceptible to a number of potential confounders, including group differences in developmental level and…

  19. Derivational Morphology of the Early Irish Verbal Noun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Randall Clark

    2012-01-01

    As is well known, the Insular Celtic languages (Irish, Scots Gaelic, Welsh, Breton and the now-extinct Manx and Cornish) utilize a class of verbal abstracts known as "verbal nouns" to perform the functions that are fulfilled in other Indo-European languages by infinitives and supines. Yet in many ways the Celtic verbal noun remains somewhat of an…

  20. Wolof Noun Classification: The Social Setting of Divergent Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Judith T.

    1978-01-01

    Ongoing change in Wolof noun classification is traced by comparing nineteenth-century linguistic evidence with modern sociolinguistic data. Upwardly mobile middle-aged men of high caste tend to reduce the noun class system, whereas other speakers tend to elaborate it. (Author/RM)

  1. Children Use Different Cues to Guide Noun and Verb Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Jane B.; Heard, M. Elaine; Ring, Kolette; Pai, Anushka; Sallquist, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Learning new words involves decoding both how a word fits the current situation and how it could be used in new situations. Three studies explore how two types of cues--sentence structure and the availability of multiple instances--affect children's extensions of nouns and verbs. In each study, 2.5-year-olds heard nouns, verbs, or no new word…

  2. The Trouble with Nouns and Verbs in Greek Fluent Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms;…

  3. Noun-Verb Ambiguity in Chronic Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according…

  4. A Corpus-based Analysis of English Noun Suffixes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a brief analysis of English suffixes. First, make a classification of the English noun suffixes etymologically; then, obtain the frequencies of each English noun suffixes in sub-corpus FR88 and WSJ88, and last draw a conclusion based on the statistics. That is from the word origins we can see its influences on English vocabulary.

  5. Noun-Verb Ambiguity in Chronic Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according…

  6. Verbs and nouns from a cross-linguistic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, J.

    2002-01-01

    It has often been claimed that all languages have major, distinct classes of verbs and nouns (see e.g. Robins 1967: 211; Schachter 1985: 6–7; Whaley 1997: 59). There is, however, growing evidence to suggest that the verb-noun distinction is scalar rather than discrete (Ross 1972, 1973), and that ...

  7. Deaf and hearing children's plural noun spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breadmore, Helen L; Olson, Andrew C; Krott, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines deaf and hearing children's spelling of plural nouns. Severe literacy impairments are well documented in the deaf, which are believed to be a consequence of phonological awareness limitations. Fifty deaf (mean chronological age 13;10 years, mean reading age 7;5 years) and 50 reading-age-matched hearing children produced spellings of regular, semiregular, and irregular plural nouns in Experiment 1 and nonword plurals in Experiment 2. Deaf children performed reading-age appropriately on rule-based (regular and semiregular) plurals but were significantly less accurate at spelling irregular plurals. Spelling of plural nonwords and spelling error analyses revealed clear evidence for use of morphology. Deaf children used morphological generalization to a greater degree than their reading-age-matched hearing counterparts. Also, hearing children combined use of phonology and morphology to guide spelling, whereas deaf children appeared to use morphology without phonological mediation. Therefore, use of morphology in spelling can be independent of phonology and is available to the deaf despite limited experience with spoken language. Indeed, deaf children appear to be learning about morphology from the orthography. Education on more complex morphological generalization and exceptions may be highly beneficial not only for the deaf but also for other populations with phonological awareness limitations.

  8. Marker-based filtering of bilingual phrase pairs for SMT

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Martínez, Felipe; Way, Andy

    2009-01-01

    State-of-the-art statistical machine translation systems make use of a large translation table obtained after scoring a set of bilingual phrase pairs automatically extracted from a parallel corpus. The number of bilingual phrase pairs extracted from a pair of aligned sentences grows exponentially as the length of the sentences increases; therefore, the number of entries in the phrase table used to carry out the translation may become unmanageable, especially when online, ‘on demand’ translati...

  9. THE GENDER OF COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku; Xhevahire Topanica

    2016-01-01

    In Albanian and English we have three kinds of gender: masculine, feminine and neuter.  In Albanian language we have this concept for gender: “Gjinia është një nga kategoritë gramatikore më karakteristikë për emrat në gjuhën shqipe. Nga natyra e saj, ajo dallohet nga kategoritë e tjera të emrit, nga numri, rasa dhe nga kategoritë e shquarsisë dhe të pashquarsisë, sepse i kundërvihet mashkullore-femërore dhe asnjanëse...”[1], it’s same and with English: “a grouping of nouns and pronouns into c...

  10. Rejoindre une phrase, s’y poursuivre

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Comment vivons-nous avec les phrases (et pas nécessairement avec les récits synthétiques) que nous lisons ou que nous avons lues ? Comment les citations littéraires deviennent-elles l’occasion d’une orientation intérieure de notre expérience ? Cet article souligne le mouvement esthétique par lequel nous pouvons être attirés vers des possibilités authentiques de nous-mêmes dans l’acte même de la lecture. Pour ainsi faire, il offre une vision dynamique du « style » et explore la logique de la l...

  11. Literary authorship attribution with phrase-structure fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cranenburgh, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    We present a method of authorship attribution and stylometry that exploits hierarchical information in phrase-structures. Contrary to much previous work in stylometry, we focus on content words rather than function words. Texts are parsed to obtain phrase-structures, and compared with texts to be an

  12. The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperley, David

    2005-01-01

    Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

  13. MORPHOPHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF THE C'LELA NOUN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M A ALIERO

    morphophonological processes such as vowel copying, metathesis, vowel lengthening, ... It is to be noted that in the C'lela writing system, noun prefixes are marked with the .... ordering of segments, mainly of sounds or syllables in a word.

  14. some remarks on nouns' participation in Bantu languages syntactic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brilliant study. Evidence for this claim abounds in the studies of pioneering as .... structure, the noun alone contributes more than two-thirds of the entire burden ...... or referential universe fundamentally into human and non-human categories.

  15. On search guide phrase compilation for recommending home medical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang

    2010-01-01

    To help people find desired home medical products (HMPs), we developed an intelligent personal health record (iPHR) system that can automatically recommend HMPs based on users' health issues. Using nursing knowledge, we pre-compile a set of "search guide" phrases that provides semantic translation from words describing health issues to their underlying medical meanings. Then iPHR automatically generates queries from those phrases and uses them and a search engine to retrieve HMPs. To avoid missing relevant HMPs during retrieval, the compiled search guide phrases need to be comprehensive. Such compilation is a challenging task because nursing knowledge updates frequently and contains numerous details scattered in many sources. This paper presents a semi-automatic tool facilitating such compilation. Our idea is to formulate the phrase compilation task as a multi-label classification problem. For each newly obtained search guide phrase, we first use nursing knowledge and information retrieval techniques to identify a small set of potentially relevant classes with corresponding hints. Then a nurse makes the final decision on assigning this phrase to proper classes based on those hints. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques by compiling search guide phrases from an occupational therapy textbook.

  16. Implementation of the common phrase index method on the phrase query for information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, Triyah; Zaman, Badrus; Werdiningsih, Indah

    2017-08-01

    As the development of technology, the process of finding information on the news text is easy, because the text of the news is not only distributed in print media, such as newspapers, but also in electronic media that can be accessed using the search engine. In the process of finding relevant documents on the search engine, a phrase often used as a query. The number of words that make up the phrase query and their position obviously affect the relevance of the document produced. As a result, the accuracy of the information obtained will be affected. Based on the outlined problem, the purpose of this research was to analyze the implementation of the common phrase index method on information retrieval. This research will be conducted in English news text and implemented on a prototype to determine the relevance level of the documents produced. The system is built with the stages of pre-processing, indexing, term weighting calculation, and cosine similarity calculation. Then the system will display the document search results in a sequence, based on the cosine similarity. Furthermore, system testing will be conducted using 100 documents and 20 queries. That result is then used for the evaluation stage. First, determine the relevant documents using kappa statistic calculation. Second, determine the system success rate using precision, recall, and F-measure calculation. In this research, the result of kappa statistic calculation was 0.71, so that the relevant documents are eligible for the system evaluation. Then the calculation of precision, recall, and F-measure produces precision of 0.37, recall of 0.50, and F-measure of 0.43. From this result can be said that the success rate of the system to produce relevant documents is low.

  17. On directionality of phrase structure building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-02-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in The minimalist program. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in building syntactic structures. Here I suggest that by looking at the elementary restrictions that apply to Merge (i.e., selection and licensing of functional features), we could conclude that a re-orientation of the syntactic derivation (from bottom-up/right-left to top-down/left-right) is necessary to make the theory simpler, especially for long-distance (filler-gap) dependencies, and is also empirically more adequate. If the structure building operations would assemble lexical items in the order they are pronounced (Phillips in Order and structure. PhD thesis, MIT, 1996; Chesi in Phases and cartography in linguistic computation: Toward a cognitively motivated computational model of linguistic competence. PhD thesis, Università di Siena, 2004; Chesi in Competence and computation: Toward a processing friendly minimalist grammar. Unipress, Padova, 2012), on-line performance data could better fit the grammatical model, without resorting to external "performance factors." The phase-based, top-down (and, as a consequence, left-right) Minimalist Grammar here discussed goes in this direction, ultimately showing how strong Islands (Huang in Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar. PhD thesis, MIT, 1982) and intervention effects (Gordon et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 27:1411-1423, 2001, Gordon et al. in J Mem Lang 51:97-114, 2004) could be better explained in structural terms assuming this unconventional derivational direction.

  18. A Rule-Based Approach To Prepositional Phrase Attachment Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Brill, E; Brill, Eric; Resnik, Philip

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new corpus-based approach to prepositional phrase attachment disambiguation, and present results comparing performance of this algorithm with other corpus-based approaches to this problem.

  19. Identifying synonymy between relational phrases using word embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhung T H; Miwa, Makoto; Tsuruoka, Yoshimasa; Tojo, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    Many text mining applications in the biomedical domain benefit from automatic clustering of relational phrases into synonymous groups, since it alleviates the problem of spurious mismatches caused by the diversity of natural language expressions. Most of the previous work that has addressed this task of synonymy resolution uses similarity metrics between relational phrases based on textual strings or dependency paths, which, for the most part, ignore the context around the relations. To overcome this shortcoming, we employ a word embedding technique to encode relational phrases. We then apply the k-means algorithm on top of the distributional representations to cluster the phrases. Our experimental results show that this approach outperforms state-of-the-art statistical models including latent Dirichlet allocation and Markov logic networks.

  20. Nouns in early lexicons: evidence, explanations and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K; Hampson, J; Shaw, L K

    1993-02-01

    Many theories of grammatical and lexical acquisition assume that children learn predominantly nouns, and specifically names of objects, when they first begin to acquire words in the second year. We show that the noun bias in early vocabularies is far from universal, and that it rests only in part on the acquisition of object names. An analysis of vocabulary composition from 45 children at 1;8 indicates that more nouns are acquired than all other word classes, but that of the nouns acquired only about half are the names of basic level object classes (BLOCs). An examination of the use of nouns in mother-child discourse shows that non-object words referencing locations, actions and events, for example, are used in distinctive pragmatic and grammatical contexts which might enable a child to grasp the word's use and eventually its meaning. It is concluded that a theory of lexical acquisition in discourse context is required to explain word learning at all levels and for all word types. Implications for semantic bootstrapping theories are considered.

  1. Assigning phrase breaks from part-of-speech sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Alan W.; Taylor, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    One of the important stages in the process of turning unmarked text into speech is the assignment of appropriate phrase break boundaries. Phrase break boundaries are important to later modules including accent assignment, duration control and pause insertion. A number of different algorithms have been proposed for such a task, ranging from the simple to the complex. These different algorithms require different information such as part of speech tags, syntax and even ...

  2. Verbal behavior in Alzheimer disease patients: Analysis of phrase repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Francisca Cecato

    Full Text Available Abstract Language problems in the elderly with AD are due to the fact that deterioration occurs not only in semantic memory, but in a group of cognitive factors, evidenced by a deficiency in search strategies for linguistic information. Objectives: To evaluate phrase repetition in two cognitive tests, the MMSE and MoCA, in a group of Alzheimer disease patients (AD and normal controls. Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted involving 20 patients who sought medical assistance at a geriatric institute in Jundiaí, São Paulo. The subjects underwent a detailed clinical examination and neuropsychometric evaluation. All subjects with AD met DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Ten patients received a diagnosis of AD and 10 were healthy subjects, forming the control group (CG. Results: All participants correctly answered the phrase from the MMSE (phrase 1. The MoCA phrases (phrases 2 and 3 were correct in 80% and 90%, respectively in the CG and in 40% and 50%, respectively in the AD group. Conclusions: The MoCA test proved more effective in evaluating the echoic behavior in AD patients compared to the MMSE. The simpler phrase repetition task in the MMSE was found to be less sensitive in detecting mild language decline in AD patients.

  3. Predicting human brain activity associated with the meanings of nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom M; Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Carlson, Andrew; Chang, Kai-Min; Malave, Vicente L; Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2008-05-30

    The question of how the human brain represents conceptual knowledge has been debated in many scientific fields. Brain imaging studies have shown that different spatial patterns of neural activation are associated with thinking about different semantic categories of pictures and words (for example, tools, buildings, and animals). We present a computational model that predicts the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neural activation associated with words for which fMRI data are not yet available. This model is trained with a combination of data from a trillion-word text corpus and observed fMRI data associated with viewing several dozen concrete nouns. Once trained, the model predicts fMRI activation for thousands of other concrete nouns in the text corpus, with highly significant accuracies over the 60 nouns for which we currently have fMRI data.

  4. Portmanteau Constructions, Phrase Structure, and Linearization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Brian Hok-Shing

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual code-switching which involves language-pairs with contrasting head-complement orders (i.e., head-initial vs. head-final), a head may be lexicalized from both languages with its complement sandwiched in the middle. These so-called "portmanteau" sentences (Nishimura, 1985, 1986; Sankoff et al., 1990, etc.) have been attested for decades, but they had never received a systematic, formal analysis in terms of current syntactic theory before a few recent attempts (Hicks, 2010, 2012). Notwithstanding this lack of attention, these structures are in fact highly relevant to theories of linearization and phrase structure. More specifically, they challenge binary-branching (Kayne, 1994, 2004, 2005) as well as the Antisymmetry hypothesis (ibid.). Not explained by current grammatical models of code-switching, including the Equivalence Constraint (Poplack, 1980), the Matrix Language Frame Model (Myers-Scotton, 1993, 2002, etc.), and the Bilingual Speech Model (Muysken, 2000, 2013), the portmanteau construction indeed looks uncommon or abnormal, defying any systematic account. However, the recurrence of these structures in various datasets and constraints on them do call for an explanation. This paper suggests an account which lies with syntax and also with the psycholinguistics of bilingualism. Assuming that linearization is a process at the Sensori-Motor (SM) interface (Chomsky, 2005, 2013), this paper sees that word order is not fixed in a syntactic tree but it is set in the production process, and much information of word order rests in the processor, for instance, outputting a head before its complement (i.e., head-initial word order) or the reverse (i.e., head-final word order). As for the portmanteau construction, it is the output of bilingual speakers co-activating two sets of head-complement orders which summon the phonetic forms of the same word in both languages. Under this proposal, the underlying structure of a portmanteau construction is as simple as an

  5. Portmanteau constructions, phrase structure and linearization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hok-Shing Chan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In bilingual code-switching which involves language-pairs with contrasting head-complement orders (i.e. head-initial vs head-final, a head may be lexicalized from both languages with its complement sandwiched in the middle. These so-called portmanteau sentences (Nishimura, 1985, 1986; Sankoff, Poplack, and Vanniarajan, 1990, etc. have been attested for decades, but they had never received a systematic, formal analysis in terms of current syntactic theory before a few recent attempts (Hicks, 2010, 2012. Notwithstanding this lack of attention, these structures are in fact highly relevant to theories of linearization and phrase structure. More specifically, they challenge binary-branching (Kayne, 1994, 2004, 2005 as well as the Antisymmetry hypothesis (ibid.. Not explained by current grammatical models of code-switching, including the Equivalence Constraint (Poplack, 1980, the Matrix Language Frame Model (Myers-Scotton, 1993, 2002, etc., and the Bilingual Speech Model (Muysken, 2000, 2013, the portmanteau construction indeed looks uncommon or abnormal, defying any systematic account. However, the recurrence of these structures in various datasets and constraints on them do call for an explanation. This paper suggests an account which lies with syntax and also with the psycholinguistics of bilingualism. Assuming that linearization is a process at the Sensori-Motor (SM interface (Chomsky, 2005; 2013, this paper sees that word order is not fixed in a syntactic tree but it is set in the production process, and much information of word order rests in the processor, for instance, outputting a head before its complement (i.e. head-initial word order or the reverse (i.e. head-final word order. As for the portmanteau construction, it is the output of bilingual speakers co-activating two sets of head-complement orders which summon the phonetic forms of the same word in both languages. Under this proposal, the underlying structure of a portmanteau

  6. Translation of Japanese Noun Compounds at Super-Function Based MT System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Noun compounds are frequently encountered construction in nature language processing (NLP), consisting of a sequence of two or more nouns which functions syntactically as one noun. The translation of noun compounds has become a major issue in Machine Translation (MT) due to their frequency of occurrence and high productivity. In our previous studies on Super-Function Based Machine Translation (SFBMT), we have found that noun compounds are very frequently used and difficult to be translated correctly, the overgeneration of noun compounds can be dangerous as it may introduce ambiguity in the translation. In this paper, we discuss the challenges in handling Japanese noun compounds in an SFBMT system, we present a shallow method for translating noun compounds by using a word level translation dictionary and target language monolingual corpus.

  7. The Syntax and Semantics of Phonological Phrasing in Shanghai and Hokkien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Hooi Ling

    2001-01-01

    It has been observed that phonological phrasing in Shanghai Chinese distinguishes certain determiners from others and wh-quantifier phrases from non-wh-quantifier phrases. This article shows that such phonological phrasing distinctions are also found in Hokkien Chinese but in a more restricted environment. (Author/VWL)

  8. Shell Nouns as Cohesive Devices in Published and ESL Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Rahime Nur; Cortes, Viviana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of a special type of unspecific noun, called "shell nouns" [Hunston, S., & Francis, G. (1999). "Pattern grammar". Amsterdam: Benjamins; Schmid, H. (2000). "English abstract nouns as conceptual shells: From corpus to cognition". Berlin: Walter de Gruyter], which are frequently used as cohesive devices, in the written…

  9. Le "est de Mars", la "est de Venus": Understanding and Learning French Noun Genders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlan, Alastair

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the complicated issue of attribution of gender in French nouns. Firstly, it presents a range of views on how native speakers address noun gender allocation, plus some insight into why they are accurate with most, but by no means all, gender attributions. Secondly, the paper explains some of the inconsistencies in noun gender…

  10. A Common Mechanism in Verb and Noun Naming Deficits in Alzheimer's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almor, Amit; Aronoff, Justin M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Gonnerman, Laura M.; Kempler, Daniel; Hintiryan, Houri; Hayes, UnJa L.; Arunachalam, Sudha; Andersen, Elaine S.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of Alzheimer's patients and elderly controls to name living and non-living nouns, and manner and instrument verbs. Patients' error patterns and relative performance with different categories showed evidence of graceful degradation for both nouns and verbs, with particular domain-specific impairments for living nouns and…

  11. A Common Mechanism in Verb and Noun Naming Deficits in Alzheimer's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almor, Amit; Aronoff, Justin M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Gonnerman, Laura M.; Kempler, Daniel; Hintiryan, Houri; Hayes, UnJa L.; Arunachalam, Sudha; Andersen, Elaine S.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of Alzheimer's patients and elderly controls to name living and non-living nouns, and manner and instrument verbs. Patients' error patterns and relative performance with different categories showed evidence of graceful degradation for both nouns and verbs, with particular domain-specific impairments for living nouns and…

  12. Shell Nouns as Cohesive Devices in Published and ESL Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Rahime Nur; Cortes, Viviana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of a special type of unspecific noun, called "shell nouns" [Hunston, S., & Francis, G. (1999). "Pattern grammar". Amsterdam: Benjamins; Schmid, H. (2000). "English abstract nouns as conceptual shells: From corpus to cognition". Berlin: Walter de Gruyter], which are frequently used as cohesive devices, in the written…

  13. Determination of the noun in Biblical Hebrew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2000-01-01

    The article investigates the claim that the definite article in biblical Hebrew can be unrelated to determination. This claim is found in the standard grammars of Joüon/Muraoka and Gesenius/Kautzsch and in an article by James Barr. Barr argues that it is a diachronic feature, the biblical texts...

  14. Exploring Atypical Verb+Noun Combinations in Learner Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzon Marco, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Professional and academic discourse is characterised by a specific phraseology, which usually poses problems for students. This paper investigates atypical verb+noun collocations in a corpus of English technical writing of Spanish students. I focus on the type of verbs that most frequently occurred in these awkward or questionable combinations and…

  15. The Rhythmic Group, Liaison, Nouns and Verbs of French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, William J.

    1975-01-01

    The "rhythmic group" in French (noun group or verb group) is described with examples. The aim is to find some relation between the morphophonological phenomena such as "liaison" occurring within such rhythmic groups and the syntactic structure of French. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (TL)

  16. Dutch female personal nouns, the (non-) existence of derivational paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Don, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the literature (Van Marle 1985, 1986) it has been argued that the formation of female personal nouns can only be properly understood if we assume that word-formation (just like inflection) is organized paradigmatically. In this paper I argue that an alternative analysis of these forms is possible

  17. The Rhythmic Group, Liaison, Nouns and Verbs of French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, William J.

    1975-01-01

    The "rhythmic group" in French (noun group or verb group) is described with examples. The aim is to find some relation between the morphophonological phenomena such as "liaison" occurring within such rhythmic groups and the syntactic structure of French. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (TL)

  18. Quantity and quality of trait-descriptive type nouns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.; Ostendorf, F

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we refute Henss' (1995) conclusion that the German language does not contain far more personality descriptive adjectives than type nouns. Since Henss' paper touches in passing some of the most sensitive aspects of the psycholexical approach, we address some of the tendencies in his pap

  19. Collocations of High Frequency Noun Keywords in Prescribed Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sujatha; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the discourse of science through the study of collocational patterns of high frequency noun keywords in science textbooks used by upper secondary students in Malaysia. Research has shown that one of the areas of difficulty in science discourse concerns lexis, especially that of collocations. This paper describes a corpus-based…

  20. Verb-Noun Collocation Proficiency and Academic Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, collocational proficiency can be useful because it helps the students improve their language proficiency. This paper investigates the possible relationship between verb-noun collocation proficiency among students from one academic year to the next. To reach this goal, a test of verb-noun collocations was administered to Iranian learners. The participants in the study were 212 Iranian students in an Iranian university. They were selected from the second term of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. The students’ age ranged from 18 to 35.The results of ANOVA showed there was variability in the verb-noun collocations proficiency within each academic year and between the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests demonstrated that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, and between the third and the fourth academic year; however, students require at least two years to show significant development in verb-noun collocation proficiency.  These findings provided a vital implication that lexical collocations are learnt and developed through four academic years of university, but requires at least two years showing significant development in the language proficiency. Keywords: Language proficiency, Collocation, Communicative Competence, academic year, Iranian EFL learners

  1. Categories of definiteness in Classical Armenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Müth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of the definite article in semantic and pragmatic categories in the Greek and Classical Armenian New Testament translation is compared. Greek and Classical Armenian agree in their use of the definite article only in NPs determined by contrastive attributes. In all other categories the systems of both languages differ. Generally, Armenian avoids the definite article with proper nouns and nouns with unique reference, while definite articles with proper names in Greek are common (with the exception of sacred or especially “respected” persons such as prophets. If the definite article is present in Greek, it is often motivated by pragmatic factors (e.g. re-topicalization, etc.. There is no clear evidence in Armenian for the use of the definite article as a marker of generic reference, nor for the use in NPs determined by superlative, comparative or ordinal attributes.

  2. Investigating differences between proper and common nouns using novel word learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Romanova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies have shown higher rates of tip-of-the-tongue states for proper nouns, in comparison to common nouns, in non-brain-damaged speakers (e.g., Valentine & Moore, 1995, and higher retrieval failure rates for proper nouns relative to common nouns in people with aphasia (e.g., Semenza, 2009. Some authors suggest the source of these differences lies in logical properties (e.g., Semenza, 2009. That is, common nouns refer to a category of beings or objects that share certain semantic properties, while proper nouns designate specific individual beings or objects with unique features. Other authors attribute the distinction in processing to a number of statistical properties that differ across common and proper nouns (Kay, Hanley, & Miles, 2001. The aims of the present study were: 1 to dissociate the effects of logical and statistical properties by using novel words with equal statistical properties; 2 to determine whether people with aphasia show disproportionate impairments in learning proper nouns relative to common nouns, compared to aged-matched subjects. Methods We tested young (n=16 and elderly (n=14 adult non-brain-damaged participants and people with aphasia (n=2. Items-to-be-learnt were given as representatives of an unknown species (n=10 in the common noun condition, or as individual creatures (n=10 in the proper noun condition. The experiment consisted of 5 sessions. Each session included a learning phase and a test phase with naming and word-picture verification tasks. Results and Discussion Preliminary analysis showed learning of both common and proper nouns for both younger (F(4=140.68, p<.01 and elderly (F(4=34.87, p<.01 non-brain-damaged participants, with learning being significantly better for the younger group (F(4=6.5, p<.01. Contrary to expectations, performance on proper nouns was better than that for common nouns for both young and elderly subjects (F(1=6.47, p=.02 and F(1=9.75, p<.01, respectively, possibly due to

  3. The Numerical Semigroup of Phrases' Lengths in a Simple Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano M. Robles-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be an alphabet with two elements. Considering a particular class of words (the phrases over such an alphabet, we connect with the theory of numerical semigroups. We study the properties of the family of numerical semigroups which arise from this starting point.

  4. Exact Decoding for Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, W.; Dymetman, M.; Specia, L.

    2014-01-01

    The combinatorial space of translation derivations in phrase-based statistical machine translation is given by the intersection between a translation lattice and a target language model. We replace this intractable intersection by a tractable relaxation which incorporates a low-order upperbound on t

  5. The numerical semigroup of phrases' lengths in a simple alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Pérez, Aureliano M; Rosales, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Let A be an alphabet with two elements. Considering a particular class of words (the phrases) over such an alphabet, we connect with the theory of numerical semigroups. We study the properties of the family of numerical semigroups which arise from this starting point.

  6. Relevance and Phrase Searching in Summon: looking under the hood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hodge

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly examines the mechanisms behind seemingly counter-intuitive phrase search results in Serials Solutions’ discovery platform Summon. The authors use the platform’s search API to explain why users sometimes encounter greater numbers of results when typically they would expect fewer. The article explores the reasons behind the search results and the implications for library instruction.

  7. Designing Statistical Language Learners Experiments on Noun Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Lauer, M

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to advance the exploration of the statistical language learning design space. In pursuit of that goal, the thesis makes two main theoretical contributions: (i) it identifies a new class of designs by specifying an architecture for natural language analysis in which probabilities are given to semantic forms rather than to more superficial linguistic elements; and (ii) it explores the development of a mathematical theory to predict the expected accuracy of statistical language learning systems in terms of the volume of data used to train them. The theoretical work is illustrated by applying statistical language learning designs to the analysis of noun compounds. Both syntactic and semantic analysis of noun compounds are attempted using the proposed architecture. Empirical comparisons demonstrate that the proposed syntactic model is significantly better than those previously suggested, approaching the performance of human judges on the same task, and that the proposed semantic model, t...

  8. Danish children's acquisition of noun plurals: the role of methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    In an earlier study we investigated the development of noun plurals in Danish children aged 0-10 years using a multi method research approach comparing five different data types: 1) lexical data; 2) reported data; 3) naturalistic spontaneous child language input and output; 4) semi-naturalistic/s......In an earlier study we investigated the development of noun plurals in Danish children aged 0-10 years using a multi method research approach comparing five different data types: 1) lexical data; 2) reported data; 3) naturalistic spontaneous child language input and output; 4) semi...... expect the amount of correctly produced PL forms in the experimental data to be sensitive to the specific items selected. Furthermore, we will discuss how a multi-method approach can reveal interactions between different factors in the acquisition of morphology that in the past could not be revealed...

  9. Disambiguating Noun Groupings with Respect to WordNet Senses

    CERN Document Server

    Resnik, P

    1995-01-01

    Word groupings useful for language processing tasks are increasingly available, as thesauri appear on-line, and as distributional word clustering techniques improve. However, for many tasks, one is interested in relationships among word {\\em senses}, not words. This paper presents a method for automatic sense disambiguation of nouns appearing within sets of related nouns --- the kind of data one finds in on-line thesauri, or as the output of distributional clustering algorithms. Disambiguation is performed with respect to WordNet senses, which are fairly fine-grained; however, the method also permits the assignment of higher-level WordNet categories rather than sense labels. The method is illustrated primarily by example, though results of a more rigorous evaluation are also presented.

  10. Cueing the Virtual Storyteller: Analysis of cue phrase usage in fairy tales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, Manon; Theune, Mariët; Busemann, S.

    2007-01-01

    An existing taxonomy of Dutch cue phrases, designed for use in story generation, was validated by analysing cue phrase usage in a corpus of classical fairy tales. The analysis led to some adaptations of the original taxonomy.

  11. BattRAE: Bidimensional Attention-Based Recursive Autoencoders for Learning Bilingual Phrase Embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Biao; Xiong, Deyi; Su, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a bidimensional attention based recursive autoencoder (BattRAE) to integrate clues and sourcetarget interactions at multiple levels of granularity into bilingual phrase representations. We employ recursive autoencoders to generate tree structures of phrases with embeddings at different levels of granularity (e.g., words, sub-phrases and phrases). Over these embeddings on the source and target side, we introduce a bidimensional attention network to learn their interac...

  12. Rule-based Approach on Extraction of Malay Compound Nouns in Standard Malay Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Zamri; Kamal Ismail, Normaly; Rawi, Mohd Izani Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Malay compound noun is defined as a form of words that exists when two or more words are combined into a single syntax and it gives a specific meaning. Compound noun acts as one unit and it is spelled separately unless an established compound noun is written closely from two words. The basic characteristics of compound noun can be seen in the Malay sentences which are the frequency of that word in the text itself. Thus, this extraction of compound nouns is significant for the following research which is text summarization, grammar checker, sentiments analysis, machine translation and word categorization. There are many research efforts that have been proposed in extracting Malay compound noun using linguistic approaches. Most of the existing methods were done on the extraction of bi-gram noun+noun compound. However, the result still produces some problems as to give a better result. This paper explores a linguistic method for extracting compound Noun from stand Malay corpus. A standard dataset are used to provide a common platform for evaluating research on the recognition of compound Nouns in Malay sentences. Therefore, an improvement for the effectiveness of the compound noun extraction is needed because the result can be compromised. Thus, this study proposed a modification of linguistic approach in order to enhance the extraction of compound nouns processing. Several pre-processing steps are involved including normalization, tokenization and tagging. The first step that uses the linguistic approach in this study is Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging. Finally, we describe several rules-based and modify the rules to get the most relevant relation between the first word and the second word in order to assist us in solving of the problems. The effectiveness of the relations used in our study can be measured using recall, precision and F1-score techniques. The comparison of the baseline values is very essential because it can provide whether there has been an improvement

  13. Integrating source-language context into phrase-based statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, R.; Kumar Naskar, S.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Way, A.

    2011-01-01

    The translation features typically used in Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation (PB-SMT) model dependencies between the source and target phrases, but not among the phrases in the source language themselves. A swathe of research has demonstrated that integrating source context modelling dire

  14. [Disturbances of word finding of compound nouns (nomina composita) in aphasics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, R

    1977-09-14

    The faulty use of compound nouns by aphasics is of practical and theoretical significance. Defects in the finding and using of compound nouns were investigated with respect to the following parameters: the importance of the frequency with which compounds and compound parts are used in normal speech, the influence of grammatical and psycholinguistic peculiarities on aphasic dysfunction, and the handling of compounds in individual aphasic syndromes. The distinctly poorer recall of compound nouns compared with simple nouns was found to be due mainly to their less frequent use in normal speech. In word-finding the grammatical unit of the compound noun was not very stable patholinguistically. If one part of the compound noun was commoner and more usual in normal speech than the other it was usually better recalled. However, some remarkable deviations from this were due to semantic functional value, vividness, morphologic peculiarities, and linguistic form. The wider meaning-range of the second part of the compound noun had no positive mnemonic effect, despite the propensity of the aphasic for the general. In naming tests the first part of the compound noun was preferred on average. Certain differences in the defective use of compound nouns were observed between the individual aphasic syndromes.

  15. Prepositional Phrase Attachment through a Backed-Off Model

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, M; Collins, Michael; Brooks, James

    1995-01-01

    Recent work has considered corpus-based or statistical approaches to the problem of prepositional phrase attachment ambiguity. Typically, ambiguous verb phrases of the form {v np1 p np2} are resolved through a model which considers values of the four head words (v, n1, p and n2). This paper shows that the problem is analogous to n-gram language models in speech recognition, and that one of the most common methods for language modeling, the backed-off estimate, is applicable. Results on Wall Street Journal data of 84.5% accuracy are obtained using this method. A surprising result is the importance of low-count events - ignoring events which occur less than 5 times in training data reduces performance to 81.6%.

  16. Finite-State Approximation of Phrase-Structure Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, F C N; Pereira, Fernando C. N.; Wright, Rebecca N.

    1996-01-01

    Phrase-structure grammars are effective models for important syntactic and semantic aspects of natural languages, but can be computationally too demanding for use as language models in real-time speech recognition. Therefore, finite-state models are used instead, even though they lack expressive power. To reconcile those two alternatives, we designed an algorithm to compute finite-state approximations of context-free grammars and context-free-equivalent augmented phrase-structure grammars. The approximation is exact for certain context-free grammars generating regular languages, including all left-linear and right-linear context-free grammars. The algorithm has been used to build finite-state language models for limited-domain speech recognition tasks.

  17. The Point Approach and the Phrase Approach to Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦媛

    2013-01-01

      As is known to all, vocabulary acquisition plays an essential role in English learning. However, it was supposed very dif⁃ficult to many Chinese learners. For the reason that so many kinds of approaches exists in the real life, English learners are always do not know which one is suitable and more effective. To solve this problem, the paper will analyze two approaches (point approach and phrase approach) for you.

  18. Recently learned foreign abstract and concrete nouns are represented in distinct cortical networks similar to the native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Katja M; Macedonia, Manuela; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2017-09-01

    In the native language, abstract and concrete nouns are represented in distinct areas of the cerebral cortex. Currently, it is unknown whether this is also the case for abstract and concrete nouns of a foreign language. Here, we taught adult native speakers of German 45 abstract and 45 concrete nouns of a foreign language. After learning the nouns for 5 days, participants performed a vocabulary translation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Translating abstract nouns in contrast to concrete nouns elicited responses in regions that are also responsive to abstract nouns in the native language: the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left middle and superior temporal gyri. Concrete nouns elicited larger responses in the angular gyri bilaterally and the left parahippocampal gyrus than abstract nouns. The cluster in the left angular gyrus showed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) with the left lingual gyrus. The left parahippocampal gyrus showed PPI with the posterior cingulate cortex. Similar regions have been previously found for concrete nouns in the native language. The results reveal similarities in the cortical representation of foreign language nouns with the representation of native language nouns that already occur after 5 days of vocabulary learning. Furthermore, we showed that verbal and enriched learning methods were equally suitable to teach foreign abstract and concrete nouns. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4398-4412, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Sound structure and input frequency impact on noun plural acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Christensen, René dePont; Basbøll, Hans

    2014-01-01

    (dictionary data, naturalistic spontaneous child language input and output, semi-naturalistic/semi-experimental data, experimental data and reported data). We define cross-linguistically three degrees of stem changes (NO CHANGE, PROSODIC CHANGE, PHONEMIC CHANGE), and we also define three degrees...... of productivity of plural markers (which combine stem change and suffix). Noun plurals emerge from an early age, typically around the second birthday, but the acquisition is still underway at the age of ten years. Plural acquisition is affected by frequency and morphophonological category. Danish children produce...

  20. On unfamiliar Italian lexical blends from names and nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cacchiani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian has recently witnessed a steady increase in the use of unfamiliar lexical blends from names and nouns. While they serve an identificatory and descriptive function (in the sense of Anderson 2007, blends are created in extragrammatical morphology with careful attention to the semantic concepts encoded by the individual SWs, understanding blends from names and nouns depends on the decoder's direct or surrogate experience of the related reference. Significantly, blends are coined out of the need to be relevant (Sperber/Wilson 1990 and show various degrees of morphotactic and morphosemantic transparency (Thornton 1986; Dressler 1987, 1999, which makes them memorable (Lehrer 2003. In this paper we therefore address blends from names and nouns within the framework of the Naturalness Theory (Thornton 1986; Dressler et al. 1987; Dressler 1999. As will be seen, although blends are not created in rule-based grammars, some overall preferences and regularities can be observed for more core items (cf. Bat-El/Cohen, in press, within the framework of Optimality Theory under the principle of saliency (Dressler 1987. Focusing on their morphosyntactic transparency, we provide a typology of Italian unfamiliar blends from names and nouns functioning as naming units in order to delimit the category and reassess current typologies. While we allow for a continuum of morphotactic transparency within the prototypical category of extragrammatcial subtractive word-formations, we slightly adapt Ronneberger-Sibold (2006 and suggest we distinguish between blends on the one hand and the neighbouring category of clipped compounds on the other. Moving on to morphosemantic transparency and conceptual motivation, we use concepts from Cognitive Grammar, Cognitive Metaphor Theory and theories of Conceptual Blending (cf. Lakoff/Johnson 1980; Langacker 1987; Ruiz de Mendoza 1998, 2000; Kemmer 2003 to provide some preliminary remarks on specific subtypes, and blends from

  1. Prosody and Animacy in the Development of Noun Determiner Use: A Cross-Linguistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassano, Dominique; Korecky-Kröll, Katharina; Maillochon, Isabelle; van Dijk, Marijn; Laaha, Sabine; van Geert, Paul; Dressler, Wolfgang U.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic (noun length) and lexical-semantic (animacy) influences on determiner use in the spontaneous speech of three children acquiring French, Austrian German and Dutch. In support of typological and language-specific hypotheses from the Germanic-Romance contrast, an advantage of monosyllabic nouns and of inanimate nouns…

  2. The head of Verb+Noun compounds in the Romance languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroten, J.D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Verb+Noun compounds in Spanish and the other Romance languages have well-known curious properties: (i) lack of nominalizing affix on the Verb; (ii) obligatory presence of the Noun, interpreted as the direct object of the Verb; (iii) interpretation as referring to persons or instruments able to perfo

  3. Imageability of Norwegian Nouns, Verbs and Adjectives in a Cross-Linguistic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Lind, Marianne; Hansen, Pernille; Holm, Elisabeth; Mevik, Bjorn-Helge

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a study of imageability ratings for a set of 1599 Norwegian words (896 nouns, 483 verbs and 220 adjectives) from a web-based survey. To a large extent, the results are in accordance with previous studies of other languages: high imageability scores in general, higher imageability scores for nouns than for verbs, and an…

  4. Comprehension and Production of Noun Compounds by Estonian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrik, Marika; Tamtik, Merli

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how 12 Estonian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 60 children with normal speech development (ND) comprehended compound nouns with differing sequence of the components (first task) and how they produced compound nouns to label genuine and accidental categories by using analogy (second task) and…

  5. Learning Language from the Input: Why Innate Constraints Can't Explain Noun Compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramscar, Michael; Dye, Melody

    2011-01-01

    Do the production and interpretation of patterns of plural forms in noun-noun compounds reveal the workings of innate constraints that govern morphological processing? The results of previous studies on compounding have been taken to support a number of important theoretical claims: first, that there are fundamental differences in the way that…

  6. Nouns Referring to Tools and Natural Objects Differentially Modulate the Motor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Patricia M.; Riggio, Lucia; Chersi, Fabian; Sato, Marc; Fogassi, Leonardo; Buccino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    While increasing evidence points to a critical role for the motor system in language processing, the focus of previous work has been on the linguistic category of verbs. Here we tested whether nouns are effective in modulating the motor system and further whether different kinds of nouns--those referring to artifacts or natural items, and items…

  7. Prosody and Animacy in the Development of Noun Determiner Use: A Cross-Linguistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassano, Dominique; Korecky-Kröll, Katharina; Maillochon, Isabelle; van Dijk, Marijn; Laaha, Sabine; van Geert, Paul; Dressler, Wolfgang U.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic (noun length) and lexical-semantic (animacy) influences on determiner use in the spontaneous speech of three children acquiring French, Austrian German and Dutch. In support of typological and language-specific hypotheses from the Germanic-Romance contrast, an advantage of monosyllabic nouns and of inanimate nouns…

  8. The Gender Puzzle: Toddlers' Use of Articles to Access Noun Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Falcon, Alberto; Alva-Canto, Elda A.

    2013-01-01

    Grammatical gender embedded in determiners, nouns and adjectives allows indirect and more rapid processing of the referents implied in sentences. However in a language such as Spanish, this useful information cannot be reliably retrieved from a single source of information. Instead, noun gender may be extracted either from phono-morphological,…

  9. The Dynamic Nature of Knowledge: Insights from a Dynamic Field Model of Children's Novel Noun Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Larissa K.; Schutte, Anne R.; Horst, Jessica S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the tie between knowledge and behavior in a noun generalization context. An experiment directly comparing noun generalizations of children at the same point in development in forced-choice and yes/no tasks reveals task-specific differences in the way children's knowledge of nominal categories is brought to bear in a moment. To…

  10. Functional categories in the noun phrase: on jacks-of-all-trades and one-trick-ponies in Danish, Dutch and German

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    briefly discusses an example of a jack-of-all-trades in Dutch (adnominal PPs with van ‘of’; see Rijkhoff 2009b for a more detailed treatment), then focuses on a one-trick-pony in Danish, the adjective stakkels ‘poor’  (as in Stakkels pige! ‘Poor girl!’), and compares it with its translational counterpart...

  11. Word Order in Adjective-Noun Pairs Inside and Outside the Prepositional Phrase: A Contribution to the 15th International Congress of Slavists (Minsk, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R. Minlos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a statistical correlation between possessive prenominal placement and the presence of a preposition. The data from mediaeval Russian, Czech, and Croatian are validated against standard statistical measures (chisquare (X2 test and phi (φ coefficient. Different explanations for the correlation are proposed; the most natural and simple one links the syntactic feature with the phonetic chunking of preposition and adjacent possessive, strengthened by their frequent co-occurence.

  12. Word Order in Adjective-Noun Pairs Inside and Outside the Prepositional Phrase: A Contribution to the 15th International Congress of Slavists (Minsk, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R. Minlos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a statistical correlation between possessive prenominal placement and the presence of a preposition. The data from mediaeval Russian, Czech, and Croatian are validated against standard statistical measures (chisquare (X2 test and phi (φ coefficient. Different explanations for the correlation are proposed; the most natural and simple one links the syntactic feature with the phonetic chunking of preposition and adjacent possessive, strengthened by their frequent co-occurence. ____________________ В статье обсуждается статистическая корреляция между препозицией притяжательных местоимений и наличием предлога. Данные средневековых русских, чешских и хорватских памятников оцениваются по стандартным статистическим процедурам (критерий X2 и φ-коэффициент. В статье предложено несколько различных объяснений для этой корреляции; самое естественное и простое объяснение связывает эту синтаксическую особенность с фонетической: предлог со смежным притяжательным местоимением образуют единое фонетическое слово, причем это единство усиливается частым повторением этой пары в текстах.

  13. Posizione dell'aggettivo nel nominale: Alcune recenti analisi (The Position of the Adjective in the Noun Phrase: Some Recent Analyses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Consuelo

    1979-01-01

    Discusses recent analyses of the adjective in Italian and stresses the importance of the position of the Italian adjective for second language learners of Italian and for Italians learning foreign languages. (CFM)

  14. ‘PAIRED NOUN + VERB’ CONSTRUCTIONS IN SELKUP DIALECTS AND NORTHERN SAMOYED LANGUAGES (NGANASAN, ENETS AND NENETS DIALECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozdeeva, G.P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the ‘paired noun/verb’ constructions in Selkup dialects and Northern Samoyed languages (Nganasan, Enets and Nenets dialects. This paper presents the research and analysis results of constructions with nouns denoting paired items in Selkup dialects and Northern Samoyed languages, based on external comparison of agreement types and a paired noun number markers. The multi-level reconstruction permits to reveal the noun/verb agreement types for Proto-Samoyed level.

  15. Designing Statistical Language Learners: Experiments on Noun Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Mark

    1996-09-01

    The goal of this thesis is to advance the exploration of the statistical language learning design space. In pursuit of that goal, the thesis makes two main theoretical contributions: (i) it identifies a new class of designs by specifying an architecture for natural language analysis in which probabilities are given to semantic forms rather than to more superficial linguistic elements; and (ii) it explores the development of a mathematical theory to predict the expected accuracy of statistical language learning systems in terms of the volume of data used to train them. The theoretical work is illustrated by applying statistical language learning designs to the analysis of noun compounds. Both syntactic and semantic analysis of noun compounds are attempted using the proposed architecture. Empirical comparisons demonstrate that the proposed syntactic model is significantly better than those previously suggested, approaching the performance of human judges on the same task, and that the proposed semantic model, the first statistical approach to this problem, exhibits significantly better accuracy than the baseline strategy. These results suggest that the new class of designs identified is a promising one. The experiments also serve to highlight the need for a widely applicable theory of data requirements.

  16. Implicit vs. explicit learning in German noun plurals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ković Vanja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades there has been a lot of debate about language learning and the opinion about the status of mental rule during the process of language learning is still divided between different researches. The present study examines learning morphology of German noun plurals based on rules, examples or on both, rules and examples. The results across these three experimental conditions suggest that the morphological patterns are learned more easily in the form of rules and thus, seem to be more easily captured by dual-route (which suggest that rules and exceptions are processed by two qualitatively different mechanisms than single route theories (which suggest a singe mechanism for processing both rules and exceptions. However, a closer examination of error patterns across the five rules (-e, -n, -er, Ø, -s revealed results confronting dual-route theories and suggest the existence of two rulemechanisms (-n and -s rather than one for learning regular inflection in German plural nouns. Moreover, the second rule (with plural ending -n was the easiest one to be learned, although it is the fifth rule (with plural ending -s which is considered as a default rule in German.

  17. Noun and Verb Production in Maternal and Child Language: Continuity, Stability, and Prediction across the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined continuity/discontinuity and stability/instability of noun and verb production measures in 30 child-mother dyads observed at 16 and 20 months, and predictive relations with the acquisition of nouns and verbs at 24 months. Children exhibited significant discontinuity and robust stability in the frequency of nouns and…

  18. Noun and Verb Production in Maternal and Child Language: Continuity, Stability, and Prediction across the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined continuity/discontinuity and stability/instability of noun and verb production measures in 30 child-mother dyads observed at 16 and 20 months, and predictive relations with the acquisition of nouns and verbs at 24 months. Children exhibited significant discontinuity and robust stability in the frequency of nouns and…

  19. A Sign-Based Phrase Structure Grammar for Turkish

    CERN Document Server

    Sehitoglu, O T

    1996-01-01

    This study analyses Turkish syntax from an informational point of view. Sign based linguistic representation and principles of HPSG (Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar) theory are adapted to Turkish. The basic informational elements are nested and inherently sorted feature structures called signs. In the implementation, logic programming tool ALE (Attribute Logic Engine) which is primarily designed for implementing HPSG grammars is used. A type and structure hierarchy of Turkish language is designed. Syntactic phenomena such a s subcategorization, relative clauses, constituent order variation, adjuncts, nomina l predicates and complement-modifier relations in Turkish are analyzed. A parser is designed and implemented in ALE.

  20. Key-phrase based classification of public health web pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolamic, Ljiljana; Boyer, Célia

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the public health web pages classification model based on key phrase extraction and matching. Easily extendible both in terms of new classes as well as the new language this method proves to be a good solution for text classification faced with the total lack of training data. To evaluate the proposed solution we have used a small collection of public health related web pages created by a double blind manual classification. Our experiments have shown that by choosing the adequate threshold value the desired value for either precision or recall can be achieved.

  1. Lexical, conceptual and motor information in memory for action phrases: a multi-system account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelkamp, Johannes; Jahn, Petra

    2003-06-01

    According to the multi-system account [J. Engelkamp, H.D. Zimmer, The Human Memory: A Multi-Modal Approach, Hogrefe & Huber, Seattle, 1994], the enactment effect in free recall of action phrases (e.g. break the stick) is independent of inter- and intra-phrase associations because it emerges from the nonverbal encoding processes under enactment. Two experiments have been reported which tested these and further assumptions of the multi-system account of the enactment effect. In both experiments, inter- and intra-phrase (verb-object) associations were varied simultaneously in addition to enactment. In Experiment 1, the memory test was free recall, and in Experiment 2, it was cued recall. Independent effects of all three factors were observed in free recall. Enacted phrases were recalled better than phrases learned only verbally. Phrases with high-associated objects and verbs were better recalled than phrases with low-associated objects and verbs, and categorically related phrases were better recalled than unrelated phrases. In cued recall, there was no effect of categorical list structure. The effects of intra-phrase structure and enactment corresponded to those in free recall. All interactions were nonsignificant. The findings were interpreted as support for the multi-system account.

  2. Phrase Length and Prosody in On-Line Ambiguity Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webman-Shafran, Ronit; Fodor, Janet Dean

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the processing of ambiguous double-PP constructions in Hebrew. Selection restrictions forced the first prepositional phrase (PP1) to attach low, but PP2 could attach maximally high to VP or maximally low to the NP inside PP1. A length contrast in PP2 was also examined. This construction affords more potential locations for prosodic boundaries, and has a sharper structural contrast between the two attachment sites, than the single-PP construction which has yielded mixed results in previous work. A combined production-comprehension task showed more productions of pre-PP2 prosodic boundaries for long-PP2 than short-PP2. In comprehension, high PP2-attachment was favored by a prosodic boundary before PP2, regardless of PP2 length. This study provides performance data supporting the interplay of phrase lengths with structure-sensitivity as posited in the linguistics literature on the syntax-prosody interface, and supports the claim that readers are sensitive to the structural implications of the prosody they project onto sentences.

  3. Interacting effects of syllable and phrase position on consonant articulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Dani; Lee, Sungbok; Riggs, Daylen; Adams, Jason

    2005-12-01

    The complexities of how prosodic structure, both at the phrasal and syllable levels, shapes speech production have begun to be illuminated through studies of articulatory behavior. The present study contributes to an understanding of prosodic signatures on articulation by examining the joint effects of phrasal and syllable position on the production of consonants. Articulatory kinematic data were collected for five subjects using electromagnetic articulography (EMA) to record target consonants (labial, labiodental, and tongue tip), located in (1) either syllable final or initial position and (2) either at a phrase edge or phrase medially. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the consonantal constriction formation and release were determined based on kinematic landmarks in the articulator velocity profiles. The results indicate that syllable and phrasal position consistently affect the movement duration; however, effects on displacement were more variable. For most subjects, the boundary-adjacent portions of the movement (constriction release for a preboundary coda and constriction formation for a postboundary onset) are not differentially affected in terms of phrasal lengthening-both lengthen comparably.

  4. *En-phrases and Their Morphosyntactic and Semantic Particulars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Thomason

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Prepositions constitute a problematic category because they tend to have complex semantic and syntagmatic properties, vary in case governance and are frequently in variation with each other. Reflexes of the Indo-European *en are well attested and remain productive in Greek, Classical Armenian, Gothic and Old Church Slavic among other languages. Correspondences of Greek en/eis with Gothic in, Armenian i and Old Church Slavic vŭ occur in many instances in the canonical gospels of the New Testament. However, Greek en/eis is frequently translated with other constructions in these languages that range from prepositional phrases that contain prepositions non-cognate with *en and nominal constructions to clausal structures. This investigation examines such correlations and points out morphological, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic factors that promote these correspondences. Case syncretism and changes in the prepositional governance are among leading reasons that prompt translators to look for translational means other than the cognate constructions. As expected, differences in the inventory of prepositions available in the languages being examined and diversity in division of semantic space by the prepositional phrases also add to the variety of possible renditions of Greek en/eis. Among pragmatic factors that influence the translation are a compositional marking of a certain concept, complexity of an event/situation being marked, and pragmatic appropriateness of a certain formation.

  5. Neural Correlates of Phrase Rhythm: An EEG Study of Bipartite vs. Rondo Sonata Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández-Caballero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the neural correlates of phrase rhythm. In short, phrase rhythm is the rhythmic aspect of phrase construction and the relationships between phrases. For the sake of establishing the neural correlates, a musical experiment has been designed to induce music-evoked stimuli related to phrase rhythm. Brain activity is monitored through electroencephalography (EEG by using a brain–computer interface. The power spectral value of each EEG channel is estimated to obtain how power variance distributes as a function of frequency. Our experiment shows statistical differences in theta and alpha bands in the phrase rhythm variations of two classical sonatas, one in bipartite form and the other in rondo form.

  6. Modeling of meaning acquisition based on NL phrases using state transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Cretu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop techniques for the meaning acquisition of the NL phrases. Our approach is based on modeling meaning extraction by analyzing lexical component, syntactic component and semantic component of the phrases written or spoken in NL. To assure necessary semantic precision we adopt a double-level interpretation of the NL phrases using formal language with well defined semantics. This fact is essential for our approach.

  7. Installing the ARL Phrase Book Android Application and Configuring its Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Installing the ARL Phrase Book Android Application and Configuring its Dependencies by Michael H Lee ARL-TN-0664 February 2015...February 2015 Installing the ARL Phrase Book Android Application and Configuring its Dependencies Michael H Lee Computational and...COVERED (From - To) 03/2014–05/2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Installing the ARL Phrase Book Android Application and Configuring its Dependencies 5a

  8. Semantic development in textual contexts during the school years: noun scale analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Dorit

    2006-11-01

    The paper examines the nominal lexicon in later language acquisition as a window on linguistic knowledge and usage across childhood and adolescence. The paper presents a psycholinguistically motivated and cognitively grounded analysis of the distribution of ten semantic noun categories (the Noun Scale) across development, modality, and genre. Eighty Hebrew-speaking children (9;0 to 10;0), adolescents (12;0 to 13;0 and 16;0 to 17;0), and a group of adult university graduate students participated in the study. Each produced four different texts: a spoken and written narrative and a spoken and written expository, yielding a total of 320 texts. All lexical noun tokens in each of the 320 texts were analysed to determine their score on the Noun Scale. Results indicate that nominal density, which underlies much of the syntactic architecture of texts, increases dramatically in adolescence, towards adulthood. The paper analyses the developmental patterns of each of the ten Noun Scale categories, showing that the nominal lexicon of schoolaged children is already very different from that of young children in having only a small amount of genuinely concrete nouns, and these too only in narrative texts. The quantitative analysis shows that nouns grow more categorical and abstract with age and schooling, especially in adolescence. Written expository texts are the preferred habitat of abstract, categorical nouns from early on. The systematic qualitative analysis of noun tokens in their textual context demonstrates how the nominal lexicon undergoes fundamental changes that are affected by linguistic, cognitive and social development, in interaction with text genre and modality.

  9. Morphological Analysis of Standard Yorùbá Nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbeyangi, A. O

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Computational morphological analysis is an important step in the natural language processing and it has always been a challenge for computational linguistics because of its richness and complexity. This paper presents the development a morphological analyser that generates standard Yorùbá nouns by affixing Yorùbá vowels with monosyllabic verbs. Data were collected in conformity with the rules. Computational model was designed for the system based on the knowledge obtained using Finite State Automata (FSA technique and the system was implemented using python programming language.The results gathered from expert opinion shows that the system performs as expected owing to the size of the corpus used. Other areas noted for further study includes; morphology analyzer for other Yorùbá language part of speech (verb, preposition, etc

  10. You had me at hello: How phrasing affects memorability

    CERN Document Server

    Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Kleinberg, Jon; Lee, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the ways in which information achieves widespread public awareness is a research question of significant interest. We consider whether, and how, the way in which the information is phrased --- the choice of words and sentence structure --- can affect this process. To this end, we develop an analysis framework and build a corpus of movie quotes, annotated with memorability information, in which we are able to control for both the speaker and the setting of the quotes. We find significant differences between memorable and non-memorable quotes in several key dimensions. One is lexical distinctiveness: in aggregate, memorable quotes use less common word choices, but at the same time are built upon a scaffolding of common syntactic patterns; another is that memorable quotes tend to be more general in ways that make them easy to apply in new contexts. We also show how the concept of "memorable language" can be extended across domains.

  11. Pre-editing and Recursive-Phrase Composites for a Better English-to-Arabic Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Al-A'ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an approach for an English-to-Arabic Machine Translation System based on Building correct grammar and phrase structures first and then automatically deriving Translation Rules for phrase translation. For every English phrase, the grammar is first analysed and then a corresponding Arabic translation is given which would be used by the machine learning system to produce a translation rule with the help of a dictionary and the user. These same derived rules can partially be used for other phrase sequences especially in the case of a phrase consisting of a number of smaller phrases and thus implemeting the idea of recusive phrase strucutres. The approach was implemented and tested on simple cases and the results are given which indicate that this approach is successful for small to medium phrases. Our approach is an enhancement on existing phrase translation techniques because it analyses the source language grammar first, then builds a syntactic structure before proceeding with the machine learning process of learning the translation rules. Our approach is enhancement on existing phrase based translations in two directions: the grammar editing before the translation rules and the derived translation rules can be complete for complete phrases or are rules for translating smaller phrases which are subsets of larger phrases. The approach has improved the speed and correctness of phrase translations.

  12. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class.

  13. High-frequency collocations of nouns in research articles across eight disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Peacock

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a corpus-based analysis of the distribution of the high-frequency collocates of abstract nouns in 320 research articles across eight disciplines: Chemistry, Computer Science, Materials Science, Neuroscience, Economics, Language and Linguistics, Management, and Psychology. Disciplinary variation was also examined – very little previous research seems to have investigated this. The corpus was analysed using WordSmith Tools. The 16 highest-frequency nouns across all eight disciplines were identified, followed by the highest-frequency collocates for each noun. Five disciplines showed over 50% variance from the overall results. Conclusions are that the differing patterns revealed are disciplinary norms and represent standard terminology within the disciplines arising from the topics discussed, research methods, and content of discussions. It is also concluded that the collocations are an important part of the meanings and functions of the nouns, and that this evidence of sharp discipline differences underlines the importance of discipline-specific collocation research.

  14. Frases en ingles para defenderse (Phrases for Getting Along in English).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butovsky, Lillian; McHugh, John

    This book of Spanish-English phrases intended for Spanish-speaking immigrants is divided into two main sections. Part One contains the grammatical section, a pronunciation guide, and basic words and phrases a newly arrived Spanish-speaking person would need to get along in an English speaking environment. Grammatical notes in Part One indicate…

  15. Frases en ingles para defenderse (Phrases for Getting Along in English).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butovsky, Lillian; McHugh, John

    This book of Spanish-English phrases intended for Spanish-speaking immigrants is divided into two main sections. Part One contains the grammatical section, a pronunciation guide, and basic words and phrases a newly arrived Spanish-speaking person would need to get along in an English speaking environment. Grammatical notes in Part One indicate…

  16. An "Alms-Basket" of "Bric-a-Brac": "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development and history of "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable," a reference source first published in 1870 that includes the etymology of phrases, allusions and words. Discusses reviews that reflected and shaped its status as a standard reference book, describes the current edition, and considers its enduring value. (LRW)

  17. Dealing with Phrase Level Co-Articulation (PLC) in speech recognition: a first approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; van Leeuwen, David A.; Robinson, Tony; Renals, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Whereas nowadays within-word co-articulation effects are usually sufficiently dealt with in automatic speech recognition, this is not always the case with phrase level co-articulation effects (PLC). This paper describes a first approach in dealing with phrase level co-articulation by applying these

  18. The word order change in Dutch directional phrases: from the perspective of language typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study provides an alternative explanation of the word order change observed in Dutch directional phrases from the perspective of typology. This change took place around the end of the 19th century and concerns directional phrases such as 'in de kamer' (‘in(to) the room’) and 'de kamer in

  19. Phrase translation probabilities with ITG priors and smoothing as learning objective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylonakis, M.; Sima'an, K.

    2008-01-01

    The conditional phrase translation probabilities constitute the principal components of phrase-based machine translation systems. These probabilities are estimated using a heuristic method that does not seem to optimize any reasonable objective function of the word-aligned, parallel training corpus.

  20. An "Alms-Basket" of "Bric-a-Brac": "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development and history of "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable," a reference source first published in 1870 that includes the etymology of phrases, allusions and words. Discusses reviews that reflected and shaped its status as a standard reference book, describes the current edition, and considers its enduring value.…

  1. Phrase-Level Sentiment Polarity Classification Using Rule-Based Typed Dependencies and Additional Complex Phrases Consideration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luke Kien-Weng Tan; Jin-Cheon Na; Yin-Leng Theng; Kuiyu Chang

    2012-01-01

    The advent of Web 2.0 has led to an increase in user-generated content on the Web. This has provided an extensive collection of free-style texts with opinion expressions that could influence the decisions and actions of their readters.Providers of such content exert a certain level of influence on the receivers and this is evident from blog sites having effect on their readers' purchase decisions,political view points,financial planning,and others.By detecting the opinion expressed,we can identify the sentiments on the topics discussed and the influence exerted on the readers.In this paper,we introduce an automatic approach in deriving polarity pattern rules to detect sentiment polarity at the phrase level,and in addition consider the effects of the more complex relationships found between words in sentiment polarity classification.Recent sentiment analysis research has focused on the functional relations of words using typed dependency parsing,providing a refined analysis on the grammar and semantics of textual data.Heuristics are typically used to determine the typed dependency polarity patterns,which may not comprehensively identify all possible rules.We study the use of class sequential rules (CSRs) to automatically learn the typed dependency patterns,and benchmark the performance of CSR against a heuristic method.Preliminary results show CSR leads to further improvements in classification performance achieving over 80% F1 scores in the test cases.In addition,we observe more complex relationships between words that could influence phrase sentiment polarity,and further discuss on possible approaches to handle the effects of these complex relationships.

  2. Understanding Karma Police: The Perceived Plausibility of Noun Compounds as Predicted by Distributional Models of Semantic Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Fritz; Marelli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Noun compounds, consisting of two nouns (the head and the modifier) that are combined into a single concept, differ in terms of their plausibility: school bus is a more plausible compound than saddle olive. The present study investigates which factors influence the plausibility of attested and novel noun compounds. Distributional Semantic Models (DSMs) are used to obtain formal (vector) representations of word meanings, and compositional methods in DSMs are employed to obtain such representations for noun compounds. From these representations, different plausibility measures are computed. Three of those measures contribute in predicting the plausibility of noun compounds: The relatedness between the meaning of the head noun and the compound (Head Proximity), the relatedness between the meaning of modifier noun and the compound (Modifier Proximity), and the similarity between the head noun and the modifier noun (Constituent Similarity). We find non-linear interactions between Head Proximity and Modifier Proximity, as well as between Modifier Proximity and Constituent Similarity. Furthermore, Constituent Similarity interacts non-linearly with the familiarity with the compound. These results suggest that a compound is perceived as more plausible if it can be categorized as an instance of the category denoted by the head noun, if the contribution of the modifier to the compound meaning is clear but not redundant, and if the constituents are sufficiently similar in cases where this contribution is not clear. Furthermore, compounds are perceived to be more plausible if they are more familiar, but mostly for cases where the relation between the constituents is less clear. PMID:27732599

  3. Verb-Noun Collocations in Written Discourse of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When native speakers of English write, they employ both grammatical rules and collocations. Collocations are words that are present in the memory of native speakers as ready-made prefabricated chunks. Non-native speakers who wish to acquire native-like fluency should give appropriate attention to collocations in writing in order not to produce sentences that native speakers may consider odd. The present study tries to explore the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse of English as foreign language (EFL among Iranian EFL learners from one academic year to the next in Iran. To measure the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse, there was a 60-minute task of writing story  based on a series of six pictures whereby for each picture, three verb-noun collocations were measured, and nouns were provided to limit the choice of collocations. The results of the statistical analysis of ANOVA for the research question indicated that there was a significant difference in the use of lexical verb-noun collocations in written discourse both between and within the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests confirmed that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, between the second and the fourth, and between the third and the fourth academic year which indicate substantial development in verb-noun collocation proficiency.  The vital implication is that the learners could use verb-noun collocations in productive skill of writing. Keywords: Language proficiency, Verb-noun collocation, Witten discourse, Iranian EFL learners

  4. Nomina sunt omina: on the inductive potential of nouns and adjectives in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaghi, Andrea; Maass, Anne; Gresta, Sara; Bianchi, Mauro; Cadinu, Mara; Arcuri, Luciano

    2008-05-01

    Six studies (N = 491) investigated the inductive potential of nouns versus adjectives in person perception. In the first 5 studies, targets were either described by an adjective (e.g., Mark is homosexual) or by the corresponding noun (e.g., Mark is a homosexual) or by both (Study 3). The authors predicted and found that nouns, more so than adjectives, (a) facilitate descriptor-congruent inferences but inhibit incongruent inferences (Studies 1-3), (b) inhibit alternative classifications (Study 4), and (c) imply essentialism of congruent but not of incongruent preferences (Study 5). This was supported for different group memberships and inclinations (athletics, arts, religion, sexual preference, drinking behavior, etc.), languages (Italian and German), and response formats, suggesting that despite the surface similarity of nouns and adjectives, nouns have a more powerful impact on person perception. Study 6 investigated the inverse relationship, showing that more essentialist beliefs (in terms of a genetic predisposition rather than training) lead speakers to use more nouns and fewer adjectives. Possible extensions of G. R. Semin and K. Fiedler's (1988) linguistic category model and potential applications for language use in intergroup contexts are discussed.

  5. Nouns before verbs in comprehension vs. production: the view from pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, B A

    2000-10-01

    This study examines pragmatic factors that bias English-speaking children to produce more of the nouns and fewer of the verbs that they know. If nouns are favoured for production, parents should elicit more nouns than verbs in child speech. If verb comprehension is favoured over verb production, parents should more often prompt children to produce an action than to produce a verb. Data from 44 parent-child (age 1;8) dyads in the New England directory of the CHILDES data base were analysed. Children produced more nouns than verbs but mothers produced more verbs than nouns. Speech act analyses indicate that mothers elicited noun production but rarely prompted children to produce verbs. Mothers more often prompted children to produce an action than to produce a verb, and verbs occurred most often in maternal speech acts used to elicit children's actions. Moreover, children comprehended many more verbs than they produced. These data suggest that production measures underestimate the frequency and significance of verb-learning in early lexical development.

  6. Neural Features of Processing the Enforcement Phrases Used during Occupational Health and Safety Inspections: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Shi, Liping; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Qiuzhen

    2016-01-01

    The appropriate enforcement phrases used during occupational health and safety (OHS) inspection activities is a crucial factor to guarantee the compliance with OHS regulations in enterprises. However, few researchers have empirically investigated the issue of how enforcement phrases are processed. The present study explored the neural features of processing two types of enforcement phrases (severe-and-deterrent vs. mild-and-polite phrases) used during OHS inspections by applying event-related potentials (ERP) method. Electroencephalogram data were recorded while the participants distinguished between severe-and-deterrent phrases and mild-and-polite phrases depicted in written Chinese words. The ERP results showed that severe-and-deterrent phrases elicited significantly augmented P300 amplitude with a central-parietal scalp distribution compared with mild-and-polite phrases, indicating the allocation of more attention resources to and elaborate processing of the severe-and-deterrent phrases. It reveals that humans may consider the severe-and-deterrent phrases as more motivationally significant and elaborately process the severity and deterrence information contained in the enforcement phrases for the adaptive protection. The current study provides an objective and supplementary way to measure the efficiency of different enforcement phrases at neural level, which may help generate appropriate enforcement phrases and improve the performance of OHS inspections. PMID:27807404

  7. "Soft Skills": A Phrase in Search of Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Miriam L.; Anderson, Lorien; Boyden, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Soft skills are a collection of people management skills, important to many professions and job positions, including academic librarianship. Yet the concept of soft skills lacks definition, scope, instrumentation, and systematic education and training. This literature review explores the definition of "soft skills"; contrasts skills with…

  8. Effects of musical expertise and boundary markers on phrase perception in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Christiane; Knösche, Thomas R; Friederici, Angela D

    2006-03-01

    A neural correlate for phrase boundary perception in music has recently been identified in musicians. It is called music closure positive shift ("music CPS") and has an equivalent in the perception of speech ("language CPS"). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of musical expertise and different phrase boundary markers on the music CPS, using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and event-related magnetic fields (ERFs). Musicians and nonmusicians were tested while listening to binary phrased melodies. ERPs and ERFs of both subject groups differed considerably from each other. Phrased melody versions evoked an electric CPS and a magnetic CPSm in musicians, but an early negativity and a less pronounced CPSm in nonmusicians, suggesting different perceptual strategies for both subject groups. Musicians seem to process musical phrases in a structured manner similar to language. Nonmusicians, in contrast, are thought to detect primarily discontinuity in the melodic input. Variations of acoustic cues in the vicinity of the phrase boundary reveal that the CPS is influenced by a number of parameters that are considered to indicate phrasing in melodies: pause length, length of the last tone preceding the pause, and harmonic function of this last tone. This is taken as evidence that the CPS mainly reflects higher cognitive processing of phrasing, rather than mere perception of pauses. Furthermore, results suggest that the ERP and MEG methods are sensitive to different aspects within phrase perception. For both subject groups, qualitatively different ERP components (CPS and early negativity) seem to reflect a top-down activation of general but different phrasing schemata, whereas quantitatively differing MEG signals appear to reflect gradual differences in the bottom-up processing of acoustic boundary markers.

  9. Situational Context Affects Definiteness Preferences: Accommodation of Presuppositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Charles, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In 4 experiments, we used self-paced reading and eye tracking to demonstrate that readers are, under some conditions, sensitive to the presuppositions of definite versus indefinite determiner phrases (DPs). Reading was faster when the context stereotypically provided a single possible referent for a definite DP or multiple possible referents for…

  10. 15 CFR 290.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY § 290.2 Definitions. (a) The phrase advanced manufacturing technology... Secretary of Commerce. (i) The term target firm means those firms best able to absorb advanced manufacturing technologies and techniques, especially those developed at NIST, and which are already well prepared in an...

  11. The prosody of Swedish underived nouns: No lexical tones required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Morén-Duolljá

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed representational analysis of the morpho-prosodic system of underived nouns in a dialect of Swedish.  It shows that the morphology, stress and tonal patterns are not as complex as they first appear once the data are looked at in sufficient detail.  Further, it shows that the renowned Swedish "lexical pitch accent" is not the result of lexical tones/tonemes.  Rather, Swedish is like all other languages and uses tones to mark the edges of prosodic constituents on the surface. "Accent 2" occurs when tones mark the edge of a structural uneven trochee (i.e. recursive foot and "accent 1" occurs elsewhere. This analysis is counter all other treatments of North Germanic tones and denies the almost unquestioned assumption that there is an underlying tone specification on roots and/or affixes in many North Germanic varieties. At the same time, it unifies the intuitions behind the three previous approaches found in the literature.

  12. It's Not Just the "Heavy NP": Relative Phrase Length Modulates the Production of Heavy-NP Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Lynne M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy-NP shift is the tendency for speakers to place long direct object phrases at the end of a clause rather than next to the verb. Though some analyses have focused on length of the direct object phrase alone, results from two experiments demonstrate that the length of the direct object relative to that of other phrases, and not the length of…

  13. Distinguishable neural correlates of verbs and nouns: a MEG study on homonyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigka, Styliani; Papadelis, Christos; Braun, Christoph; Miceli, Gabriele

    2014-02-01

    The dissociability of nouns and verbs and of their morphosyntactic operations has been firmly established by lesion data. However, the hypothesis that they are processed by distinct neural substrates is inconsistently supported by neuroimaging studies. We tackled this issue in a silent reading experiment during MEG. Participants silently read noun/verb homonyms in minimal syntactic context: article-noun (NPs), pronoun-verb (VPs) (e.g., il ballo/i balli, the dance/the dances; io ballo/tu balli, I dance/you dance). Homonyms allow to rule out prelexical or postlexical nuisance factors-they are orthographically and phonologically identical, but serve different grammatical functions depending on context. Under these experimental conditions, different activity to nouns and verbs can be confidently attributed to representational/processing distinctions. At the sensor level, three components of event-related magnetic fields were observed for the function word and four for the content word, but Global Field Power (GFP) analysis only showed differences between VPs and NPs at several but very short time windows. By contrast, source level analysis based on Minimum Norm Estimates (MNE) yielded significantly greater activity for VPs in left frontal areas and in a left frontoparietal network at late time windows (380-397 and 393-409 ms). These results are fully consistent with lesion data, and show that verbs and nouns are processed differently in the brain. Frontal and parietal activation to verbs might correspond to morphosyntactic processes and to working memory recruitment (or thematic role assignment), respectively. Findings are consistent with the view that nouns and verbs and their morphosyntactic operations involve at least partially distinct neural substrates. However, they do not entirely rule out that nouns and verbs are processed in a shared neural substrate, and that differences result from greater complexity of verbal morphosyntax. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  14. Morpho-semantic properties of Serbian nouns: Animacy and gender pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether and how the cognitive system uses morphological markedness of animacy and gender pairs. In the Serbian language masculine nouns are marked for animacy (i.e., genitive-accusative syncretism, while for feminine nouns the animacy distinction is purely semantic. Thus, in Experiment 1 we used this natural, linguistic differentiation to test whether morphological markedness of animacy influences lexical processing. In the same experiment, we tested whether the cognitive system is sensitive to the fact that some animate nouns have a sibling in the other gender (e.g., dečak /”boy”/ - devojčica /”girl”/, while others do not have it (e.g., vojnik /”soldier”/ or žirafa /”giraffe”/. We labeled this indicator sibling presence. The analysis did not confirm the effect of animacy, neither between nor within genders. However, animate nouns with a sibling were processed faster than those without a sibling. Since the majority of sibling nouns are morphologically related (like konobar /”waiter”/ - konobarica /”waitress”/, while the rest are not (e.g., petao /”rooster”/ - kokoška /”hen”/, in Experiment 2 we tested whether morphological relatedness contributed to the effect of sibling presence. Results showed that this is not the case: morphologically related and unrelated masculine-feminine pairs of nouns (siblings were processed equally fast. Furthermore, an interaction between the target’s frequency and the frequency of its sibling was observed: nouns with a more frequent sibling benefited more from their own frequency than those with a less frequent sibling. We argue that sibling support is realized through semantic, not morphological relations. Taken together, our findings suggest that morphological markedness is not used in lexical processing, which is in line with an amorphous approach to lexical processing.

  15. Examination and Comparison of Phrases of Some Old Letters of Ascension (to Heaven and It's Comparison with Shafiee Kadkani's Letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    کهدویی کهدویی

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human voyage to the world of ultra sense is a matter of discourses which was widely discussed between nations and the various schools of philosophy, language and many people including leaders of religions and thoughts branches confessed doing such voyages and left some literary reports of their mystical and dreamy travel. The oldest and newest of these reports are shown in this paper and them between the voyages that traditional people have reported and the letter of ascension of M.R.SH.KK as ample of a modern man which is available we make some comparisons in different dimensions , dealing with unconscious and interfering of super human in forming their phrases . This survey shows that most of these voyages could have certain occurrences, and could explain them in scientific view and particularly based on Yung's ideas. In evaluating a part of phrases of these voyages it has been shown that the similarities and common points of these ascensions is related to the beliefs, mortification and deliberations that cause these voyages in one side and in the other side is related to the influence of the most formers and the letter voyages; also by comparing the two traditional and modern groups of passengers of the invisible world. Through submitting and explaining their documentary reports, the ideology role of these two groups is described in creating the elements of these phrases and mean while the commitment and mission of human is described based on considering the traditional definition of human as a speaking animal and the definition of moderns as a searching animal in human general ascension , and at the end it is reminded that the modern human is trying to encourage and prepare the collective conscience of human to clear and improve the society through conscious movement and describing manners of painful souls in world of spirits and using the fear strategy. The reason of fear less critic of poets in the last part of the letter of ascension of

  16. 20 CFR 345.302 - Definition of terms and phrases used in experience-rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... balance exceeds its cumulative benefit balance. (m) Reserve ratio. This ratio is computed for each... days of sickness are paid from this Account. (b) Benefit ratio. This ratio is computed for each... base as of such June 30, as computed under paragraph (q) of this section. The ratio is computed to...

  17. L1 Transfer in Article Selection for Generic Reference by Spanish, Turkish and Japanese L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Neal; García-Mayo, Maria Del Pilar; Gurel, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    This study examines second language (L2) acquisition of English generic noun phrases (NPs) by Spanish, Turkish and Japanese learners. The aim is to identify the role of the first language (L1) in the L2 acquisition of definite NP-level generics and indefinite sentence-level generics with singular, bare plural, and mass generic nouns. The four…

  18. Viewing photos and reading nouns of natural graspable objects similarly modulate motor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara FM Marino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the observation of graspable objects recruits the same motor representations involved in their actual manipulation. Recent evidence suggests that the presentation of nouns referring to graspable objects may exert similar effects. So far, however, it is not clear to what extent the modulation of the motor system during object observation overlaps with that related to noun processing. To address this issue, 2 behavioral experiments were carried out using a go-no go paradigm. Healthy participants were presented with photos and nouns of graspable and non-graspable natural objects. Also scrambled images and pseudowords obtained from the original stimuli were used. At a go-signal onset (150 ms after stimulus presentation participants had to press a key when the stimulus referred to a real object, using their right (Experiment 1 or left (Experiment 2 hand, and refrain from responding when a scrambled image or a pseudoword was presented. Slower responses were found for both photos and nouns of graspable objects as compared to non-graspable objects, independent of the responding hand. These findings suggest that processing seen graspable objects and written nouns referring to graspable objects similarly modulates the motor system.

  19. L1 effects on the processing of inflected nouns in L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portin, Marja; Lehtonen, Minna; Harrer, Gabor; Wande, Erling; Niemi, Jussi; Laine, Matti

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of L1 on the recognition of L2 Swedish inflected nouns. Two groups of late L2 learners with typologically very different native languages, Hungarian (agglutinative) and Chinese (isolating), participated in a visual lexical decision experiment. The target words were matched inflected vs. monomorphemic nouns from three frequency levels. The Hungarian group showed a morphological processing cost (longer reaction times for the inflected words) for low and medium frequency words but not for high frequency words, suggesting morphological decomposition of low and medium frequency Swedish inflected nouns. In contrast, for the Chinese group the reaction times of the inflected vs. monomorphemic words were similar at all frequency levels, indicating full-form processing of all the inflected nouns. This cross-language difference suggests that L1 can exert an effect on the morphological processing in L2. The application of full-form processing for the Swedish inflected nouns in the Chinese group might reflect strategy transfer from their isolating native language to Swedish.

  20. Emotional noun processing: an ERP study with rapid serial visual presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Yi

    Full Text Available Reading is an important part of our daily life, and rapid responses to emotional words have received a great deal of research interest. Our study employed rapid serial visual presentation to detect the time course of emotional noun processing using event-related potentials. We performed a dual-task experiment, where subjects were required to judge whether a given number was odd or even, and the category into which each emotional noun fit. In terms of P1, we found that there was no negativity bias for emotional nouns. However, emotional nouns elicited larger amplitudes in the N170 component in the left hemisphere than did neutral nouns. This finding indicated that in later processing stages, emotional words can be discriminated from neutral words. Furthermore, positive, negative, and neutral words were different from each other in the late positive complex, indicating that in the third stage, even different emotions can be discerned. Thus, our results indicate that in a three-stage model the latter two stages are more stable and universal.

  1. Structural organization and scale-free properties in Chinese Phrase Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; WEI Luoxia; NIU Yi; YIN Junxun

    2005-01-01

    Monkey language models are defined for Chinese Phrase Networks, and scale-free features of Chinese Phrase Networks are uncovered. It is pointed out that the ratio of average degree to the total number of nodes ((K)IN) is close to a constant. Simulation for the evolution of phrase networks indicates that one of the important reasons for power law distributions is the word selection frequency, which, when tuned aptly, can make the monkey language present similar statistic traits as that of natural languages. Power law tails emerge at large k, and the exponent is about 6. Comparison between monkey model and natural language shows that humans are able to use Chinese words resources in more effective and compact ways to express their intentions. All the results demonstrate an important fact that the least effort principle is the basis of Chinese Phrase Networks.

  2. Increases in individualistic words and phrases in American books, 1960-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Campbell, W Keith; Gentile, Brittany

    2012-01-01

    Cultural products such as song lyrics, television shows, and books reveal cultural differences, including cultural change over time. Two studies examine changes in the use of individualistic words (Study 1) and phrases (Study 2) in the Google Books Ngram corpus of millions of books in American English. Current samples from the general population generated and rated lists of individualistic words and phrases (e.g., "unique," "personalize," "self," "all about me," "I am special," "I'm the best"). Individualistic words and phrases increased in use between 1960 and 2008, even when controlling for changes in communal words and phrases. Language in American books has become increasingly focused on the self and uniqueness in the decades since 1960.

  3. The phrase “information storage and retrieval” (IS&R)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have uncovered abundant data about the history of the term “information”, as well as some of its many combined phrases (e.g. “information science”, “information retrieval” and “information technology”). Many other compounds involving “information” seem, however, not to have a known origi...... yet. In this article, further information about the phrase “information storage and retrieval” is provided. To know the history of terms and their associated concepts is an important prescription against poor terminological phrasing and theoretical confusion.......Scholars have uncovered abundant data about the history of the term “information”, as well as some of its many combined phrases (e.g. “information science”, “information retrieval” and “information technology”). Many other compounds involving “information” seem, however, not to have a known origin...

  4. An investigation into the correlation of cue phrases, unfilled pauses and the structuring of spoken discourse

    CERN Document Server

    Cahn, J E

    1992-01-01

    Expectations about the correlation of cue phrases, the duration of unfilled pauses and the structuring of spoken discourse are framed in light of Grosz and Sidner's theory of discourse and are tested for a directions-giving dialogue. The results suggest that cue phrase and discourse structuring tasks may align, and show a correlation for pause length and some of the modifications that speakers can make to discourse structure.

  5. Determination of referential property and number of nouns in Japanese sentences for machine translation into English

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, M; Murata, Masaki; Nagao, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    When translating Japanese nouns into English, we face the problem of articles and numbers which the Japanese language does not have, but which are necessary for the English composition. To solve this difficult problem we classified the referential property and the number of nouns into three types respectively. This paper shows that the referential property and the number of nouns in a sentence can be estimated fairly reliably by the words in the sentence. Many rules for the estimation were written in forms similar to rewriting rules in expert systems. We obtained the correct recognition scores of 85.5\\% and 89.0\\% in the estimation of the referential property and the number respectively for the sentences which were used for the construction of our rules. We tested these rules for some other texts, and obtained the scores of 68.9\\% and 85.6\\% respectively.

  6. Changes in visual object recognition precede the shape bias in early noun learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan N Yee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most formidable skills that characterize human beings are language and our prowess in visual object recognition. They may also be developmentally intertwined. Two experiments, a large sample cross-sectional study and a smaller sample 6-month longitudinal study of 18- 24 month olds tested a hypothesized developmental link between changes in the visual object representation and noun learning. Previous findings in visual object recognition indicate that children’s ability to recognize common basic level categories from sparse structural shape representations of object shape emerges between the ages of 18 and 24 months, is related to noun vocabulary size, and is lacking in children with language delay. Other research shows that in artificial noun learning tasks, during this same developmental period, young children systematically generalize object names by shape, that this shape bias predicts future noun learning, and is lacking in children with language delay. The two experiments examine the developmental relation between visual object recognition and the shape bias for the first time. The results show that developmental changes in visual object recognition systematically preceded the emergence of the shape bias. The results suggest a developmental pathway in which early changes in visual object recognition that are themselves linked to category learning enable the discovery of higher-order regularities in category structure and thus the shape bias in novel noun learning tasks. The proposed developmental pathway has implications for understanding the role of specific experience in the development of both visual object recognition and the shape bias in early noun learning.

  7. Similarities and Variation in Noun and Verb Acquisition: A Crosslinguistic Study of Children Learning German, Korean, and Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, Christina; Lee, Hae-Wook; Pae, Soyeong

    2007-01-01

    The present study focuses on noun and verb processing during language acquisition, whereby the word production and the word comprehension of preschool children of different ages were investigated across three languages. Two hypotheses were put forward: first, given that languages differ with respect to the clarity of the noun-verb distinction and…

  8. Exploring atypical verb+noun combinations in learner technical writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Luzón Marco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Professional and academic discourse is characterised by a specific phraseology, which usually poses problems for students. This paper investigates atypical verb+noun collocations in a corpus of English technical writing of Spanish students. I focus on the type of verbs that most frequently occurred in these awkward or questionable combinations and attempt to explore the reasons why the learners deviate from NS's norms. The analysis indicates that these learners tend to have problems with a set of sub-technical and high-frequency verbs. Deviant combinations involving these verbs are frequently the result of a deficient knowledge of the phraseology of academic and technical discourse. The unawareness of collocations that are typical of this discourse often leads students to create V+N combinations by relying on the “Open Choice Principle” (Sinclair, 1991 or by using patterns from their mother tongue.El discurso profesional y académico se caracteriza por una fraseología específica, que suele plantear problemas a los estudiantes. Este artículo investiga colocaciones de verbo+nombre atípicas en un corpus de textos técnicos en inglés escritos por estudiantes españoles. El estudio se centra en los verbos que más frecuentemente aparecen en estas combinaciones atípicas y explora las razones por las que los estudiantes se desvían de la norma. El análisis indica que estos estudiantes suelen tener problemas con un grupo de verbos sub-técnicos y verbos de alta frecuencia. Las combinaciones atípicas en las que estos verbos aparecen son frecuentemente el resultado de un conocimiento deficiente de la fraseología del discurso académico y técnico. El desconocimiento de colocaciones que son típicas de este discurso a menudo lleva a los estudiantes a crear combinaciones basándose en el “principio de opción abierta” (Sinclair, 1991 o a usar colocaciones prestadas de su lengua materna.

  9. « Sur la phonologie de la phrase » de Serge Karcevski. Essai de relecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Ottavi Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La place liminale, à la frontière entre Cercle pragois, École de Genève et Cercle de Moscou, que l'historiographie linguistique réserve à la figure de Serge Karcevski (1884-1955 a fini par laisser dans l’ombre l’apport spécifique de son oeuvre et ses traits d’originalité. Une tension épistémologique très précise et très marquée ressort de l’ensemble de ses recherches : on y retrouve les questions de base de la linguistique théorique de son temps, qui portent sur la nature des unités minimes de la langue, sur le statut de la phrase et son rapport avec la notion de mot. D’un côté, le programme de recherche de Karcevski sont vigoureusement et explicitement généralistes (en témoigne le choix de rédiger en français ses travaux les plus accomplis, sa langue maternelle n’étant que le tout premier appui pour le développement d’une réflexion plus ample. De l’autre, son oeuvre, traversée par plusieurs pôles d’intérêt (sémiologie, grammaire, syntaxe, non moins que la didactique, est régie pour autant par une batterie de notions-clés très caractéristiques : le langage comme lieu d’interaction de forces opposées se produisant dans un « équilibre instable », la langue comme lieu de la productivité ayant le dialogue comme centre. En dépit de son présumé rôle d’intermédiaire, Karcevski fait preuve d’une attitude remarquablement cohérente et novatrice : moins intéressé que les autres « russes » du Cercle de Prague à la recherche strictement phonologique, il s’engage dans le développement d’une phonologie à lui, d’inspiration typologique, portant sur la definition des schémas intonatifs comme invariants linguistiques. La méthodologie et les outils conceptuels mis en oeuvre au cours de cette entreprise phonologique toute particulière font l’objet du présent essai. Notamment, notre propos majeur est de mettre en lumière les articulations principales de « Sur la phonologie de

  10. The Effect of Input on Children's Cross-Categorical Use of Polysemous Noun-Verb Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippeveld, Marie; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko

    2015-01-01

    Using an observational task followed by an experimental task with an Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm, we examined the effect of input on children's acquisition of class extension rules by investigating the relationship between the amount of polysemous noun-verb pairs in French-speaking 2-year-olds' input and both their spontaneous…

  11. A Corpus-based Analysis of Noun-verb Collocation of Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ting-ting

    2016-01-01

    Corpus-based analysis is adopted to study the acceptable noun-verb collocation of the word knowledge. Verbs like ac-quire, have etc. are found to be frequently collocate with knowledge, and the Chinese students’favorite patterns like learn knowledge, enlarge knowledge are not acceptable. The finding may encourage teachers to consider about the pedagogical value of corpus while teaching languages.

  12. The Effect of Corpus-Based Activities on Verb-Noun Collocations in EFL Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Serpil; Yükselir, Ceyhun

    2015-01-01

    This current study sought to reveal the impacts of corpus-based activities on verb-noun collocation learning in EFL classes. This study was carried out on two groups--experimental and control groups- each of which consists of 15 students. The students were preparatory class students at School of Foreign Languages, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University.…

  13. Effects of Emotional and Sensorimotor Knowledge in Semantic Processing of Concrete and Abstract Nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ian Newcombe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is much empirical evidence that words’ relative imageability and body-object interaction (BOI facilitate lexical processing for concrete nouns (e.g., Bennett, Burnett, Siakaluk, & Pexman, 2011. These findings are consistent with a grounded cognition framework (e.g., Barsalou, 2008, in which sensorimotor knowledge is integral to lexical processing. In the present study, we examined whether lexical processing is also sensitive to the dimension of emotional experience (i.e., the ease with which words evoke emotional experience, which is also derived from a grounded cognition framework. We examined the effects of emotional experience, imageability, and BOI in semantic categorization for concrete and abstract nouns. Our results indicate that for concrete nouns, emotional experience was associated with less accurate categorization, whereas imageability and BOI were associated with faster and more accurate categorization. For abstract nouns, emotional experience was associated with faster and more accurate categorization, whereas BOI was associated with slower and less accurate categorization. This pattern of results was observed even with many other lexical and semantic dimensions statistically controlled. These findings are consistent with Vigliocco, Meteyard, Andrews, and Kousta’s (2009 theory of semantic representation, which states that emotional knowledge underlies meanings for abstract concepts, whereas sensorimotor knowledge underlies meanings for concrete concepts.

  14. Auditory Word Recognition of Nouns and Verbs in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Guardia-Olmos, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Nouns are fundamentally different from verbs semantically and syntactically, since verbs can specify one, two, or three nominal arguments. In this study, 25 children with Specific Language Impairment (age 5;3-8;2 years) and 50 typically developing children (3;3-8;2 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment of spoken language comprehension…

  15. From Noun to Intensifier: Massa and Massa's in Flemish Varieties of Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clerck, Bernard; Colleman, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a case of synchronic layering is examined in which Dutch "massa" ("mass") and plural "massa's" ("masses") are attested with lexical uses as a collective noun, quantifying uses ("a large quantity of") and intensifying uses ("very")--with plural "massa's" only--in some Flemish varieties of Dutch. Against the background of…

  16. Is the Expressive Vocabulary of Young Cantonese Speakers Noun or Verb Dominated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Shek Kam; Chan, Carol; Li, Hui

    2005-01-01

    The spontaneous utterances produced by 492 Cantonese-speaking children aged 36-60 months in 30-minute toy play contexts were collected. The incidence and percentage of different lexical classes, the ratio of noun and verb types and tokens were calculated. A statistically significant predominance of verb usage was found in the expressive utterances…

  17. Translating Proper Nouns: A Case Study on English Translation of Hafez's Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    Proper nouns are regarded so simple that they might be taken for granted in translation explorations. Some may believe that they should not be translated in transmitting source texts to target texts. But, it is not the case; if one looks at present translations, he will notice that different strategies might be applied for translating proper…

  18. On Revising Noun Compounds: Four Tests. CDC Technical Report No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, David S.; Steinberg, Erwin R.

    Many influential style guides endorse the stylistic prescription that writers, particularly technical writers, should revise noun compounds into phrasal or clausal paraphrases. While the prescription is well-intentioned, it fails to take into account that a reader's comprehension of compounds, whether long or short, is a complex process dependent…

  19. Knowledge Embedded in Process: The Self-Organization of Skilled Noun Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colunga, Eliana; Smith, Linda B.

    2008-01-01

    Young children's skilled generalization of newly learned nouns to new instances has become the battleground for two very different approaches to cognition. This debate is a proxy for a larger dispute in cognitive science and cognitive development: cognition as rule-like amodal propositions, on the one hand, or as embodied, modal, and dynamic…

  20. The production and processing of determiner-noun agreement in child L2 Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, E.; Vasić, N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that children who learn Dutch as their second language (L2) have difficulties with Dutch grammatical gender. This study shows that six to nine year old L2 Dutch children whose first language (L1) is Turkish noticed incorrect gender agreement between determiner and noun only

  1. Non-Adherence to Study Time Management Strategies among NOUN Students and Implications for Academic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okopi, Fidel O.

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the NOUN students' non-adherence to their time management strategies (TMS) during the course of their studies. The researcher also wanted to find out whether their gender, age, marital and employment statuses have influence on their adherence/non-adherence to the plan or not. The researcher also examined the…

  2. Acute cortisol effects on immediate free recall and recognition of nouns depend on stimulus valence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, M.; van der Pompe, G.; Baas, D; Mulder, L.J.M.; Den Boer, J.A.; Meijman, T.F.; Korf, J

    The present study investigated the acute effects of cortisol administration in normal healthy male volunteers on immediate free recall and recognition of pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral nouns using a between-subjects double-blind design. Two hours after cortisol (10 mg) or placebo administration,

  3. Learning How to License Null Noun-Class Prefixes in Sesotho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Katherine; Machobane, Malillo; Moloi, Francina

    2009-01-01

    Noun-class prefixes are obligatory in most Bantu languages. However, the Sotho languages (Sesotho, Setswana, Sepedi) permit a subset of prefixes to be realized as null at the intersection of "unmarked" phonological, syntactic, and discourse conditions. This raises the question of how and when the licensing of null prefixes is learned. Using…

  4. Class 1 deverbal and non-deverbal nouns in Shona: A comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    This research contributes towards the description and analysis of Shona nominal morphology ... are either agents or patients of verbal action. ... For the deverbal nouns that fall into class 1, their morphological behaviour and distribution is ..... SG-buy-CAUS-NON .... Based on the differences in hiatus resolution strategies.

  5. ABSTRACT NOUNS IN THE SPEECH OF THE EMGLISHMEN (BASED ON FICTION WORKS AND BRITISH NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Veniaminovna Khokhlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at studying the use of abstract nouns in the Englishmen’s speech from the standpoint of sociolinguistics. The article introduces a new, sociolinguistic, approach to research of abstract nouns; it is also the first time they are studied in a language corpus. The first stage of the research was based on fiction literary works: abstract nouns were extracted of analysis from the statements of the characters belonging to the opposite social classes. Later, these data was compared with the results of the original corpus research based on the British national corpus: sentences with nouns were selected out of the conversational subcorpus of BNC and were further sorted into abstract, concrete and words denoting people. Then, their frequency and vocabulary was studied with regards to speakers’ age, gender and social standing. The results revealed that abstract words are used more often that concrete ones regardless of the speaker’s social characteristics, however, the size and content of vocabulary is different (it is generally more substantial in the speech of women and representatives of higher social classes. The results of this research can be used in elaborating a course of the English language or in teaching general linguistics, sociolinguistics and country studies. 

  6. The fox and the cabra: an ERP analysis of reading code switched nouns and verbs in bilingual short stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shukhan; Gonzalez, Christian; Wicha, Nicole Y Y

    2014-04-04

    Comprehending a language (or code) switch within a sentence context triggers 2 electrophysiological signatures: an early left anterior negativity post code switch onset - a LAN - followed by a Late Positive Component (LPC). Word class and word position modulate lexico-semantic processes in the monolingual brain, e.g., larger N400 amplitude for nouns than verbs and for earlier than later words in the sentence. Here we test whether the bilingual brain is affected by word class and word position when code switching, or if the cost of switching overrides these lexico-semantic and sentence context factors. Adult bilinguals read short stories in English containing 8 target words. Targets were nouns or verbs, occurred early or late in a story and were presented alternately in English (non-switch) or Spanish (switch) across different story versions. Overall, switched words elicited larger LAN and LPC amplitude than non-switched words. The N400 amplitude was larger for nouns than verbs, more focal for switches than non-switches, and for early than late nouns but not for early than late verbs. Moreover, an early LPC effect was observed only for switched nouns, but not verbs. Together, this indicates that referential elements (nouns) may be harder to process and integrate than relational elements (verbs) in discourse, and when switched, nouns incur higher integration cost. Word position did not modulate the code switching effects, implying that switching between languages may invoke discourse independent processes.

  7. Lexical development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Kunene Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to investigate the development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu-speaking children between the ages of 25 and 36 months. It compares lexical comprehension and production in isiZulu, using an Italian developed and validated vocabulary assessment tool: The Picture Naming Game (PiNG developed by Bello, Giannantoni, Pettenati, Stefanini and Caselli (2012. The PiNG tool includes four subtests, one each for subnoun comprehension (NC, noun production (NP, predicate comprehension (PC, and predicate production (PP. Children are shown these lexical items and then asked to show comprehension and produce certain lexical items. After adaptation into the South African context, the adapted version of PiNG was used to directly assess the lexical development of isiZulu with the three main objectives to (1 test the efficiency of the adaptation of a vocabulary tool to measure isiZulu comprehension and production development, (2 test previous findings done in many cross-linguistic comparisons that have found that both comprehension and production performance increase with age for a lesser-studied language, and (3 present our findings around the comprehension and production of the linguistic categories of nouns and predicates. An analysis of the results reported in this study show an age effect throughout the entire sample. Across all the age groups, the comprehension of the noun and predicate subtests was better performed than the production of noun and predicate subtests. With regard to lexical items, the responses of children showed an influence of various factors, including the late acquisition of items, possible problems with stimuli presented to them, and the possible input received by the children from their home environment.

  8. Lexical development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Ramona Kunene; Ahmed, Saaliha

    2016-07-28

    This study seeks to investigate the development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu-speaking children between the ages of 25 and 36 months. It compares lexical comprehension and production in isiZulu, using an Italian developed and validated vocabulary assessment tool: The Picture Naming Game (PiNG) developed by Bello, Giannantoni, Pettenati, Stefanini and Caselli (2012). The PiNG tool includes four subtests, one each for subnoun comprehension (NC), noun production (NP), predicate comprehension (PC), and predicate production (PP). Children are shown these lexical items and then asked to show comprehension and produce certain lexical items. After adaptation into the South African context, the adapted version of PiNG was used to directly assess the lexical development of isiZulu with the three main objectives to (1) test the efficiency of the adaptation of a vocabulary tool to measure isiZulu comprehension and production development, (2) test previous findings done in many cross-linguistic comparisons that have found that both comprehension and production performance increase with age for a lesser-studied language, and (3) present our findings around the comprehension and production of the linguistic categories of nouns and predicates. An analysis of the results reported in this study show an age effect throughout the entire sample. Across all the age groups, the comprehension of the noun and predicate subtests was better performed than the production of noun and predicate subtests. With regard to lexical items, the responses of children showed an influence of various factors, including the late acquisition of items, possible problems with stimuli presented to them, and the possible input received by the children from their home environment.

  9. Parallel functional category deficits in clauses and nominal phrases: The case of English agrammatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia exhibit restricted patterns of impairment of functional morphemes, however, syntactic characterization of the impairment is controversial. Previous studies have focused on functional morphology in clauses only. This study extends the empirical domain by testing functional morphemes in English nominal phrases in aphasia and comparing patients' impairment to their impairment of functional morphemes in English clauses. In the linguistics literature, it is assumed that clauses and nominal phrases are structurally parallel but exhibit inflectional differences. The results of the present study indicated that aphasic speakers evinced similar impairment patterns in clauses and nominal phrases. These findings are consistent with the Distributed Morphology Hypothesis (DMH), suggesting that the source of functional morphology deficits among agrammatics relates to difficulty implementing rules that convert inflectional features into morphemes. Our findings, however, are inconsistent with the Tree Pruning Hypothesis (TPH), which suggests that patients have difficulty building complex hierarchical structures.

  10. Arabic Phrase-Level Contextual Polarity Recognition to Enhance Sentiment Arabic Lexical Semantic Database Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir E. Abdelrahman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of opinion mining works need lexical resources for opinion which recognize the polarity of words (positive/ negative regardless their contexts which called prior polarity. The word prior polarity may be changed when it is considered in its contexts, for example, positive words may be used in phrases expressing negative sentiments, or vice versa. In this paper, we aim at generating sentiment Arabic lexical semantic database having the word prior coupled with its contextual polarities and the related phrases. To do that, we study first the prior polarity effects of each word using our Sentiment Arabic Lexical Semantic Database on the sentence-level subjectivity and Support Vector Machine classifier. We then use the seminal English two-step contextual polarity phrase-level recognition approach to enhance word polarities within its contexts. Our results achieve significant improvement over baselines.

  11. Distinct ERP signatures of word frequency, phrase frequency, and prototypicality in speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Peter; Bolger, Patrick; Baayen, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have documented frequency effects for word n-grams, independently of word unigram frequency. Further studies have revealed constructional prototype effects, both at the word level as well as for phrases. The present speech production study investigates the time course of these effects for the production of prepositional phrases in English, using event related potentials (ERPs). For word frequency, oscillations in the theta range emerged. By contrast, phrase frequency showed a persistent effect over time. Furthermore, independent effects with different temporal and topographical signatures characterized phrasal prototypicality. In a simulation study we demonstrate that naive discrimination learning provides an alternative account of the data that is as least as powerful as a standard lexical predictor analysis. The implications of the current findings for models of language processing are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. The phrase “information storage and retrieval” (IS&R):A historical note

    OpenAIRE

    Hjørland, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have uncovered abundant data about the history of the term “information”, as well as some of its many combined phrases (e.g. “information science”, “information retrieval” and “information technology”). Many other compounds involving “information” seem, however, not to have a known origin yet. In this article, further information about the phrase “information storage and retrieval” is provided. To know the history of terms and their associated concepts is an important prescription ag...

  13. Anatomie d'une pseudo-phrase complexe: le cas de heureusement que P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaatone David

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Les phrases du type "Heureusement que P" ont souvent intrigué les linguistes, qui les mentionnent, en règle générale, au chapitre de la phrase complexe. Elles soulèvent un certain nombre de questions, auxquelles ont été données des réponses pas toujours évidentes. S'agit-il vraiment d'une phrase complexe, introduite par un adverbe, qui ferait fonction de proposition principale elliptique, averbale, suivie d'une subordonnée, elle-même introduite par la conjonction de subordination par excellence "que"? Ou aurait-on plutot affaire à une phrase indépendante, ou "que", qui peut commuter avec une virgule, ne serait rien d'autre qu'une marque prosodique? Comment, dans chacune de ces optiques, rendre compte de la différence de mode du verbe dans les énoncés sémantiquement équivalents "Heureusement que Nir (est/*soit venu" et "Il est heureux que Nir (?est/soit venu"? Quels sont les adverbes susceptibles d'introduire de telles phrases? Appartiennent-ils à une famille semantique homogène et, le cas échéant, laquelle? Quelle est la structure thématique des phrases de ce type et leur rôle dans la communication? Sont-elle toujours permises ou leur emploi dépend-il d'un certain contexte? Et, lorsqu'elles le sont, peut-on toujours les faire commuter avec des phrases de même sens, mais formellement différentes, telles que, par exemple, les phrases correspondantes avec adverbe en tête, séparé du reste par une simple pause ("Heureusement, Nir est venu"? Enfin, avons-nous affaire a une structure productive, un moule dans lequel on peut introduire tout adverbe de la famille syntactico-sémantique de "heureusement", ou plutot d'une construction en quelque sorte figée, limitée à un relativement petit nombre d'adverbes?

  14. Representational deficit or processing effect? An electrophysiological study of noun-noun compound processing by very advanced L2 speakers of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile eDe Cat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The processing of English noun-noun compounds (NNCs was investigated to identify the extent and nature of differences between the performance of native speakers of English and advanced Spanish and German non-native speakers of English. The study sought to establish whether the word order of the equivalent structure in the non-native speakers' mothertongue (L1 had an influence on their processing of NNCs in their second language (L2, and whether this influence was due to differences in grammatical representation (i.e. incomplete acquisition of the relevant structure or processing effects. Two mask-primed lexical decision experiments were conducted in which compounds were presented with their constituent nouns in licit versus reversed order. The first experiment used a speeded lexical decision task with reaction time registration, and the second a delayed lexical decision task with EEG registration. There were no significant group differences in accuracy in the licit word order condition, suggesting that the grammatical representation had been fully acquired by the non-native speakers. However, the Spanish speakers made slightly more errors with the reversed order and had longer response times, suggesting an L1 interference effect (as the reverse order matches the licit word order in Spanish. The EEG data, analysed with generalized additive mixed models, further supported this hypothesis. The EEG waveform of the non-native speakers was characterized by a slightly later onset N400 in the reversed constituent order. Compound frequency predicted the amplitude of the EEG signal for the licit word order for native speakers, but for the reversed constituent order for Spanish speakers - the licit order in their L1- supporting the hypothesis that Spanish speakers are affected by interferences from their L1.

  15. Representational deficit or processing effect? An electrophysiological study of noun-noun compound processing by very advanced L2 speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cat, Cecile; Klepousniotou, Ekaterini; Baayen, R Harald

    2015-01-01

    The processing of English noun-noun compounds (NNCs) was investigated to identify the extent and nature of differences between the performance of native speakers of English and advanced Spanish and German non-native speakers of English. The study sought to establish whether the word order of the equivalent structure in the non-native speakers' mothertongue (L1) had an influence on their processing of NNCs in their second language (L2), and whether this influence was due to differences in grammatical representation (i.e., incomplete acquisition of the relevant structure) or processing effects. Two mask-primed lexical decision experiments were conducted in which compounds were presented with their constituent nouns in licit vs. reversed order. The first experiment used a speeded lexical decision task with reaction time registration, and the second a delayed lexical decision task with EEG registration. There were no significant group differences in accuracy in the licit word order condition, suggesting that the grammatical representation had been fully acquired by the non-native speakers. However, the Spanish speakers made slightly more errors with the reversed order and had longer response times, suggesting an L1 interference effect (as the reverse order matches the licit word order in Spanish). The EEG data, analyzed with generalized additive mixed models, further supported this hypothesis. The EEG waveform of the non-native speakers was characterized by a slightly later onset N400 in the violation condition (reversed constituent order). Compound frequency predicted the amplitude of the EEG signal for the licit word order for native speakers, but for the reversed constituent order for Spanish speakers-the licit order in their L1-supporting the hypothesis that Spanish speakers are affected by interferences from their L1. The pattern of results for the German speakers in the violation condition suggested a strong conflict arising due to licit constituents being

  16. An image is worth a thousand words: why nouns tend to dominate verbs in early word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Colleen; Song, Lulu; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Lannon, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Nouns are generally easier to learn than verbs (e.g., Bornstein, 2005; Bornstein et al., 2004; Gentner, 1982; Maguire, Hirsh-Pasek, & Golinkoff, 2006). Yet, verbs appear in children's earliest vocabularies, creating a seeming paradox. This paper examines one hypothesis about the difference between noun and verb acquisition. Perhaps the advantage nouns have is not a function of grammatical form class but rather related to a word's imageability. Here, word imageability ratings and form class (nouns and verbs) were correlated with age of acquisition according to the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) (Fenson et al., 1994). CDI age of acquisition was negatively correlated with words' imageability ratings. Further, a word's imageability contributes to the variance of the word's age of acquisition above and beyond form class, suggesting that at the beginning of word learning, imageability might be a driving factor.

  17. A functional categoriality of adjec- tives in Chichewa and Chiyao*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion and occur within the noun phrase. Second, forms for ... Although formal linguistics treats the relations of adjectives and the nouns or noun phrases they qualify as ..... A discourse approach to the crossclinguistic category. 'adjective'. In John ...

  18. Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain the Online Syntactic Analysis of Spoken Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millotte, Severine; Rene, Alice; Wales, Roger; Christophe, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether phonological phrase boundaries constrain online syntactic analysis in French. Pairs of homophones belonging to different syntactic categories (verb and adjective) were used to create sentences with a local syntactic ambiguity (e.g., [le petit chien "mort"], in English, the "dead" little dog, vs. [le petit chien]…

  19. A Developmental Study of Prepositional Phrases in Hebrew Written Text Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Gilad; Ravid, Dorit

    2017-01-01

    Prepositional phrases (PPs) are considered an important feature of mature written expression. However, little is known about the development of PPs during the school years. The study examined the use of PPs in 160 narrative and expository texts, written by Hebrew-users in grades 4, 7, and 11, and adults. PPs were identified, counted, and…

  20. Children's Knowledge of Hierarchical Phrase Structure: Quantifier Floating in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takaaki; Yoshinaga, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    The interpretation of floating quantifiers in Japanese requires knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure. However, the input to children is insufficient or even misleading, as our analysis indicates. This presents an intriguing question on learnability: do children interpret floating quantifiers based on a structure-dependent rule which is not…

  1. Acoustic patterns and communicative functions of phrase-final F0 rises in German

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombrowski, Ernst; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic features and communicative functions of phrase-final F(0) rises starting before an accented-vowel onset are analysed in a corpus of German unscripted speech. Two conversational conditions are examined: turn-yielding and turn-holding. The most important feature distinguishing rises...

  2. On Equivalence and Non-equivalence of Words and Phrases In Different Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新霞

    2008-01-01

    This paper is mainly focused on the study of the relationship among three concepts, namely, culture,psychological association and equivalence or non-equivalence of words and phrases with combination of Problems posed by my students and discuss three patterns of the relationship with an attempt to describe the importance of culture to equivalence.

  3. HPSG 2005 - The 12th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar: Conference Notes

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, António Horta; Costa, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    This technical report collects the extended abstracts selected for presentation at HPSG 2005 - The 12th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (University of Lisbon, August 23-24, 2005 - http://hpsg2005.di.fc.ul.pt/) by the corresponding program committee

  4. The perception of musical phrase structure: a cross-cultural ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yun; Knösche, Thomas R; Friederici, Angela D

    2006-06-13

    Electroencephalography (EEG) was used in a cross-cultural music study investigating phrase boundary perception. Chinese and German musicians performed a cultural categorization task under Chinese and Western music listening conditions. Western music was the major subject for both groups of musicians, while Chinese music was familiar to Chinese subjects only. By manipulating the presence of pauses between two phrases in the biphrasal melodies, EEG correlates for the perception of phrase boundaries were found in both groups under both music listening conditions. Between 450 and 600 ms, the music CPS (closure positive shift), which had been found in earlier studies with a false tone detection task, was replicated for the more global categorization task and for all combinations of subject group and musical style. At short latencies (100 and 450 ms post phrase boundary offset), EEG correlates varied as a function of musical styles and subject group. Both bottom-up (style properties of the music) and top-down (acculturation of the subjects) information interacted during this early processing stage.

  5. Adding and Subtracting Alternation: Resumption and Prepositional Phrase Chopping in Spanish Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerron-Palomino Lopez, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a variationist account of two non-standard relative clause (RC) structures in Spanish: resumptive pronouns (RPs) and prepositional-phrase (PP) chopping. Previous typological studies considered RP explanations based on difficulty of processing (Hawkins, 1994), while Spanish-specific quantitative studies proposed a number of…

  6. On the Law of Zipf-Mandelbrot for Multi-Word Phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, L.

    1999-01-01

    Zipf's law states that if words in a text are arranged in decreasing order of occurrence, then the product of the rank of a word and the number of times it occurs is a constant of that text. Examination of the probabilities of occurrence of multi-word phrases in information retrieval in relation to the probabilities of occurrence of single words…

  7. The Economy of Fluent Speaking: Phrase-Level Reduction in a Patient with Pure Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Anja; Ruttenauer, Anna; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    The term "phrase-level reduction" refers to transformations of the phonetic forms of words in connected speech. They are a characteristic property of fluent speech in normal speakers. Phrase-level reductions contribute to a reduction of articulatory-motor effort and constitute an important aspect of speech naturalness. So far, these phenomena have…

  8. Improving Oral Reading Fluency through Response Opportunities: A Comparison of Phrase Drill Error Correction with Repeated Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeny, John C.; Daly, Edward J., III; Valleley, Rachel J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two oral reading fluency treatments (repeated readings and phrase drill error correction) which differ in the way they prompt student responding. Repeated readings (RR) and phrase drill (PD) error correction were alternated with a baseline and a reward condition within an alternating treatments design with…

  9. The Economy of Fluent Speaking: Phrase-Level Reduction in a Patient with Pure Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Anja; Ruttenauer, Anna; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    The term "phrase-level reduction" refers to transformations of the phonetic forms of words in connected speech. They are a characteristic property of fluent speech in normal speakers. Phrase-level reductions contribute to a reduction of articulatory-motor effort and constitute an important aspect of speech naturalness. So far, these phenomena have…

  10. Imageability of Norwegian nouns, verbs and adjectives in a cross-linguistic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Lind, Marianne; Hansen, Pernille; Holm, Elisabeth; Mevik, Bjørn-Helge

    2013-07-01

    In this article, we present a study of imageability ratings for a set of 1599 Norwegian words (896 nouns, 483 verbs and 220 adjectives) from a web-based survey. To a large extent, the results are in accordance with previous studies of other languages: high imageability scores in general, higher imageability scores for nouns than for verbs, and an inverse relation between frequency and imageability. A more surprising finding is the low imageability of low-frequency verbs. Also, imageability ratings increase systematically and significantly with informant age, reminding us that conceptual learning continues and changes throughout life. This has consequences for our expectations of different linguistic skills in a life span perspective. These findings have an obvious clinical relevance both for choice of items in test construction, for evaluation of performance in clinical groups and for development of therapy material.

  11. Novel noun and verb learning in Chinese-, English-, and Japanese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Li, Lianjing; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Shigematsu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    When can children speaking Japanese, English, or Chinese map and extend novel nouns and verbs? Across 6 studies, 3- and 5-year-old children in all 3 languages map and extend novel nouns more readily than novel verbs. This finding prevails even in languages like Chinese and Japanese that are assumed to be verb-friendly languages (e.g., T. Tardif, 1996). The results also suggest that the input language uniquely shapes verb learning such that English-speaking children require grammatical support to learn verbs, whereas Chinese children require pragmatic as well as grammatical support. This research bears on how universally shared cognitive factors and language-specific linguistic factors interact in lexical development.

  12. A Study on Noun Suffixes: Accounting for the Vernacularisation of English in Late Medieval Medical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Crespo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to contribute to the study of the vernacularisation process in late Middle English by measuring up to what an extent concrete and abstract noun suffixes (in line with Dalton-Puffer 1996 attach to either Germanic or Romance bases in the medical texts extracted from the MEMT (Middle English Medical Texts corpus. The findings obtained have been further described according to text type or genre and to target audience/readership. The description of these suffixes in relation to all the parameters already mentioned has confirmed the predominance of abstract suffixes of Romance origin although Germanic abstract suffixes are also abundant. More hybrid formations have been found with Germanic noun suffixes than with Romance ones which might be indicative of their versatility towards vernacularisation.

  13. Challenges in Translation of Proper Nouns: A Case Study in Persian Translation of George Orwell’s Animal Farm

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    Mojtaba Askari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the important problems in translation field will be Translation of Proper Nouns. This is an arduous task in Translation Studies to convey the main essence of the nouns amongst cultures. This is somehow due to the fact that every culture has its own system of rendering of proper nouns. Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (Richards & Schmidt, 2002, p.429 defines the proper name as "a name which is the name of a particular person, place, or thing. Proper nouns have disparate allusions such as age, sex, specific connotations, and geographical regions. This study scrutinized two major translations of Animal Farm of George Orwell. The first rendering is pertained to Amirshahi (2010 and the second one Firuzbakht (1988. Finally, this study seeks to investigate the translation procedures of proper nouns in accordance with Newmark and Vermeer’s (Skopos theories of translation. This study shows that Newmark mostly peruses proper noun artificially to saturate the taste of the reader. While, Vermeer sets up the mutual agreement between the reader as the client and the translator in this process.

  14. The Effect of Caretakers’ Frequency and Positional Saliency on Noun Bias in Persian Children: A Study on Child Language Development

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    Hassan Soleimani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Noun bias in children’s early vocabulary development is a long-held belief. The present study intended to examine the correlation between the input features like frequency and positional saliency in infant-directed speech and the noun bias characteristic of infants in their early child lexical development. To this purpose, the utterances of ten Persian children aged 1;4 and their caretakers at a kindergarten in Isfahan, Iran, were transcribed for twelve sessions. Persian language with its SOV order that gives much importance to verbs compared to nouns can make noun bias hypothesis of infants unstable. The results demonstrated a positive correlation between the frequency of nouns and verbs in Persian caretakers’ utterances and the lexical development of children on age of 1;4. The transcriptions also identified a significant noun bias in the utterances of Persian children. Therefore, the lexical items in adult utterances can predict the initial lexical repertoire of infants. It can be inferred that nurture and the utterances heard by children might play a significant role in child vocabulary development.   

  15. English Modal Verbs in Modal Verb Phrase Structures and Lexical Associations of Modality in ‘Standard Terms and Conditions of Sale’

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    Nataša Gajšt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a corpus-based analysis of English modal verbs and semi-modals in modal verb phrase structures as well as lexical association of modality in ‘standard terms and conditions of sale’, which are legally binding documents in the domain of commerce and whose purpose is to govern the obligations and rights of sellers and buyers in the transaction of goods for payment. Our research has established that the most frequent modal verbs in these documents are shall, will, may, must and can, and that the most common modal verb phrase structures in are ‘modal+infinitive’ and ‘modal+be+past participle’. We found 718 different lexical verbs that indicate actions, states and conditions associated with commercial transactions. These results correspond with the definition of these documents. Our findings are a demonstration of how language expresses the characteristics of a legal text type in a professional domain of commerce/trade.

  16. Multi-voxel pattern analysis of noun and verb differences in ventral temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Christine; Trueswell, John C; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests a probabilistic relationship exists between the phonological/orthographic form of a word and its lexical-syntactic category (specifically nouns vs. verbs) such that syntactic prediction may elicit form-based estimates in sensory cortex. We tested this hypothesis by conducting multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data from early visual cortex (EVC), left ventral temporal (VT) cortex, and a subregion of the latter - the left mid fusiform gyrus (mid FG), sometimes called the "visual word form area." Crucially, we examined only those volumes sampled when subjects were predicting, but not viewing, nouns and verbs. This allowed us to investigate prediction effects in visual areas without any bottom-up orthographic input. We found that voxels in VT and mid FG, but not in EVC, were able to classify noun-predictive trials vs. verb-predictive trials in sentence contexts, suggesting that sentence-level predictions are sufficient to generate word form-based estimates in visual areas.

  17. Learning language from the input: why innate constraints can't explain noun compounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramscar, Michael; Dye, Melody

    2011-02-01

    Do the production and interpretation of patterns of plural forms in noun-noun compounds reveal the workings of innate constraints that govern morphological processing? The results of previous studies on compounding have been taken to support a number of important theoretical claims: first, that there are fundamental differences in the way that children and adults learn and process regular and irregular plurals, second, that these differences reflect formal constraints that govern the way the way regular and irregular plurals are processed in language, and third, that these constraints are unlikely to be the product of learning. In a series of seven experiments, we critically assess the evidence that is cited in support of these arguments. The results of our experiments provide little support for the idea that substantively different factors govern the patterns of acquisition, production and interpretation patterns of regular and irregular plural forms in compounds. Once frequency differences between regular and irregular plurals are accounted for, we find no evidence of any qualitative difference in the patterns of interpretation and production of regular and irregular plural nouns in compounds, in either adults or children. Accordingly, we suggest that the pattern of acquisition of both regular and irregular plurals in compounds is consistent with a simple account, in which children learn the conventions that govern plural compounding using evidence that is readily available in the distribution patterns of adult speech. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Design Analysis Rules to Identify Proper Noun from Bengali Sentence for Universal Networking language

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    Md. Syeful Islam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days hundreds of millions of people of almost all levels of education and attitudes from different country communicate with each other for different purposes and perform their jobs on internet or other communication medium using various languages. Not all people know all language; therefore it is very difficult to communicate or works on various languages. In this situation the computer scientist introduce various inter language translation program (Machine translation. UNL is such kind of inter language translation program. One of the major problem of UNL is identified a name from a sentence, which is relatively simple in English language, because such entities start with a capital letter. In Bangla we do not have concept of small or capital letters. Thus we find difficulties in understanding whether a word is a proper noun or not. Here we have proposed analysis rules to identify proper noun from a sentence and established post converter which translate the name entity from Bangla to UNL. The goal is to make possible Bangla sentence conversion to UNL and vice versa. UNL system prove that the theoretical analysis of our proposed system able to identify proper noun from Bangla sentence and produce relative Universal word for UNL.

  19. LACUNAR CONSTRUCTIONS “NOUN+ARTICLE” IN PUBLICIST-ORAL SPEECH OF ENGLISH AND GREEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomenko L. N.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes some interesting facts of Modern English and Greek Grammar and pay our attention to extension of constructions “noun + article” without article in publicist-oral speech, where it should be. Our observations show some phenomena of evolution of system “noun + article”. This article is due to some cases of using articles, which we can’t often find in traditional native and foreign normal grammars. In English Grammar the ellipsis of article meets stylistic and syntax’s requirements. But there isn’t such limitation in Greek Grammar, that’s why on the one hand, we qualify the ellipsis of article as a realization of category determinacyindeterminacy, and on the other hand, we can see the generalization of the meaning of article. Illustrative materials are newspapers’ articles of classical British dialectical English and Dimotiki (oral New Greek.There are not only main rules of articles in periodical and oral speech, but also the meaning of nouns, which we can understand from surrounding context and geographical position, also as a style of periodical publications

  20. Is the adjective distinct from the noun as a grammatical category in biblical Hebrew?

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    Cynthia L. Miller-Naudé

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The adjective is a beleaguered category in biblical Hebrew grammar with many grammars of biblical Hebrew denying that the adjective is a category distinct from substantives. Within a variety of linguistic theories, the status of the adjective as a grammatical category is also debated. Cross-linguistically adjectives exhibit extraordinary variety: in some languages showing similarities to nouns, in others to verbs and in still others to both nouns and verbs. The debate concerning the status of the adjective is mirrored by the broader debate within contemporary linguistics concerning how the issue of grammatical categorisation ought to be approached. In this article, we re-examine the question of whether or not the adjective is a distinct grammatical category from the noun in biblical Hebrew. We approach the question of the status of the adjective as a grammatical category from two perspectives: morphology and syntax.

  1. Semantic markup of nouns and adjectives for the Electronic corpus of texts in Tuvan language

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    Bajlak Ch. Oorzhak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the progress of semantic markup of the Electronic corpus of texts in Tuvan language (ECTTL, which is another stage of adding Tuvan texts to the database and marking up the corpus. ECTTL is a collaborative project by researchers from Tuvan State University (Research and Education Center of Turkic Studies and Department of Information Technologies. Semantic markup of Tuvan lexis will come as a search engine and reference system which will help users find text snippets containing words with desired meanings in ECTTL. The first stage of this process is setting up databases of basic lexemes of Tuvan language. All meaningful lexemes were classified into the following semantic groups: humans, animals, objects, natural objects and phenomena, and abstract concepts. All Tuvan object nouns, as well as both descriptive and relative adjectives, were assigned to one of these lexico-semantic classes. Each class, sub-class and descriptor is tagged in Tuvan, Russian and English; these tags, in turn, will help automatize searching. The databases of meaningful lexemes of Tuvan language will also outline their lexical combinations. The automatized system will contain information on semantic combinations of adjectives with nouns, adverbs with verbs, nouns with verbs, as well as on the combinations which are semantically incompatible.

  2. Differential Impairment of Noun and Verb Consequent to LH Lesions in Persian Aphasic Patients

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    Dr. Reza Nilipour

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The major focus of this research is on the differential disruption of language abilities subsequent to brain damages as they relate to site and size of lesion, especially left hemisphere lesions which disrupt the production and processing of "Nouns" vs. "Verbs" as two functionally different lexical categories. Several clinical as well as experimental studies reported on different language have shown that nouns and verbs can be independently disrupted due to brain damage. A prevalent impairment in naming actions (Producing verbs is reported in non-fluent aphasic patients, with lesions involving left frontal lobe, whereas a selective in naming objects (Producing nouns has been observed in amnesic patients, with lesions involving the temporal lobe and the temporal lobe and the posterior association aresas. This research is a theoretical and fundamental based on descriptive and analytical method. The aphasic data in this research were obtained by assessing each patient's aphasic symptoms using a standard Persian aphasia test (Paradis, Nilipoure, Paribakht, 1989 as well as post-test analysis of each patient' connected descriptive speech. The subjects were selected form among aphasics who referred to speech therapy centers in Tehran during a pe5iod of one year since autumn 1999. The subjects selected in the study were a homogenous group with left hemisphere lesions due to CVA. They were educated adult right handed. Speakers of Persian without any risk factor such as nicotine, alcohol or any addiction and diabetes with no gross depression or anxiety problems or face and oral paralysis and hemiaopsia. The subjects in this study comprised to adults ranging between 33 and 76 years of age. The results indicated that there are significant correlation between: 1 The production of nouns and left hemisphere lesion. 2 The production of verbs and left hemisphere lesion. 3 Brain lesion and language deficits. 4 The site of lesion and language abilities

  3. Clustering the lexicon in the brain: a meta-analysis of the neurofunctional evidence on noun and verb processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepaldi, Davide; Berlingeri, Manuela; Cattinelli, Isabella; Borghese, Nunzio A.; Luzzatti, Claudio; Paulesu, Eraldo

    2013-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that nouns and verbs are functionally independent linguistic entities, it is less clear whether their processing recruits different brain areas. This issue is particularly relevant for those theories of lexical semantics (and, more in general, of cognition) that suggest the embodiment of abstract concepts, i.e., based strongly on perceptual and motoric representations. This paper presents a formal meta-analysis of the neuroimaging evidence on noun and verb processing in order to address this dichotomy more effectively at the anatomical level. We used a hierarchical clustering algorithm that grouped fMRI/PET activation peaks solely on the basis of spatial proximity. Cluster specificity for grammatical class was then tested on the basis of the noun-verb distribution of the activation peaks included in each cluster. Thirty-two clusters were identified: three were associated with nouns across different tasks (in the right inferior temporal gyrus, the left angular gyrus, and the left inferior parietal gyrus); one with verbs across different tasks (in the posterior part of the right middle temporal gyrus); and three showed verb specificity in some tasks and noun specificity in others (in the left and right inferior frontal gyrus and the left insula). These results do not support the popular tenets that verb processing is predominantly based in the left frontal cortex and noun processing relies specifically on temporal regions; nor do they support the idea that verb lexical-semantic representations are heavily based on embodied motoric information. Our findings suggest instead that the cerebral circuits deputed to noun and verb processing lie in close spatial proximity in a wide network including frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. The data also indicate a predominant—but not exclusive—left lateralization of the network. PMID:23825451

  4. Evolution of the most common English words and phrases over the centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Perc, Matjaz

    2012-01-01

    By determining which were the most common English words and phrases since the beginning of the 16th century, we obtain a unique large-scale view of the evolution of written text. We find that the most common words and phrases in any given year had a much shorter popularity lifespan in the 16th than they had in the 20th century. By measuring how their usage propagated across the years, we show that for the past two centuries the process has been governed by linear preferential attachment. Along with the steady growth of the English lexicon, this provides an empirical explanation for the ubiquity of the Zipf's law in language statistics and confirms that writing, although undoubtedly an expression of art and skill, is not immune to the same influences of self-organization that are known to regulate processes as diverse as the making of new friends and World Wide Web growth.

  5. What Constitutes a Phrase in Sound-Based Music? A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Perception and Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kirk N.; Dean, Roger T.; Leung, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Phrasing facilitates the organization of auditory information and is central to speech and music. Not surprisingly, aspects of changing intensity, rhythm, and pitch are key determinants of musical phrases and their boundaries in instrumental note-based music. Different kinds of speech (such as tone- vs. stress-languages) share these features in different proportions and form an instructive comparison. However, little is known about whether or how musical phrasing is perceived in sound-based music, where the basic musical unit from which a piece is created is commonly non-instrumental continuous sounds, rather than instrumental discontinuous notes. This issue forms the target of the present paper. Twenty participants (17 untrained in music) were presented with six stimuli derived from sound-based music, note-based music, and environmental sound. Their task was to indicate each occurrence of a perceived phrase and qualitatively describe key characteristics of the stimulus associated with each phrase response. It was hypothesized that sound-based music does elicit phrase perception, and that this is primarily associated with temporal changes in intensity and timbre, rather than rhythm and pitch. Results supported this hypothesis. Qualitative analysis of participant descriptions showed that for sound-based music, the majority of perceived phrases were associated with intensity or timbral change. For the note-based piano piece, rhythm was the main theme associated with perceived musical phrasing. We modeled the occurrence in time of perceived musical phrases with recurrent event ‘hazard’ analyses using time-series data representing acoustic predictors associated with intensity, spectral flatness, and rhythmic density. Acoustic intensity and timbre (represented here by spectral flatness) were strong predictors of perceived musical phrasing in sound-based music, and rhythm was only predictive for the piano piece. A further analysis including five additional spectral

  6. What Constitutes a Phrase in Sound-Based Music? A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Perception and Acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kirk N; Dean, Roger T; Leung, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Phrasing facilitates the organization of auditory information and is central to speech and music. Not surprisingly, aspects of changing intensity, rhythm, and pitch are key determinants of musical phrases and their boundaries in instrumental note-based music. Different kinds of speech (such as tone- vs. stress-languages) share these features in different proportions and form an instructive comparison. However, little is known about whether or how musical phrasing is perceived in sound-based music, where the basic musical unit from which a piece is created is commonly non-instrumental continuous sounds, rather than instrumental discontinuous notes. This issue forms the target of the present paper. Twenty participants (17 untrained in music) were presented with six stimuli derived from sound-based music, note-based music, and environmental sound. Their task was to indicate each occurrence of a perceived phrase and qualitatively describe key characteristics of the stimulus associated with each phrase response. It was hypothesized that sound-based music does elicit phrase perception, and that this is primarily associated with temporal changes in intensity and timbre, rather than rhythm and pitch. Results supported this hypothesis. Qualitative analysis of participant descriptions showed that for sound-based music, the majority of perceived phrases were associated with intensity or timbral change. For the note-based piano piece, rhythm was the main theme associated with perceived musical phrasing. We modeled the occurrence in time of perceived musical phrases with recurrent event 'hazard' analyses using time-series data representing acoustic predictors associated with intensity, spectral flatness, and rhythmic density. Acoustic intensity and timbre (represented here by spectral flatness) were strong predictors of perceived musical phrasing in sound-based music, and rhythm was only predictive for the piano piece. A further analysis including five additional spectral

  7. Advances in Fully-Automatic and Interactive Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Martínez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents different contributions in the fields of fully-automatic statistical machine translation and interactive statistical machine translation. In the field of statistical machine translation there are three problems that are to be addressed, namely, the modelling problem, the training problem and the search problem. In this thesis we present contributions regarding these three problems. Regarding the modelling problem, an alternative derivation of phrase-based s...

  8. Bidirectional Extraction of Phrases for Expanding Queries in Academic Paper Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzana Win

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for query expansion based on bidirectional extraction of phrases as word n-grams from research paper titles. The proposed method aims to extract information relevant to users’ needs and interests and thus to provide a useful system for technical paper retrieval. The outcome of proposed method are the trigrams as phrases that can be used for query expansion. First, word trigrams are extracted from research paper titles. Second, a co-occurrence graph of the extracted trigrams is constructed. To construct the co-occurrence graph, the direction of edges is considered in two ways: forward and reverse. In the forward and reverse co-occurrence graphs, the trigrams point to other trigrams appearing after and before them in a paper title, respectively. Third, Jaccard similarity is computed between trigrams as the weight of the graph edge. Fourth, the weighted version of PageRank is applied. Consequently, the following two types of phrases can be obtained as the trigrams associated with the higher PageRank scores. The trigrams of the one type, which are obtained from the forward co-occurrence graph, can form a more specific query when users add a technical word or words before them. Those of the other type, obtained from the reverse co-occurrence graph, can form a more specific query when users add a technical word or words after them. The extraction of phrases is evaluated as additional features in the paper title classification task using SVM. The experimental results show that the classification accuracy is improved than the accuracy achieved when the standard TF-IDF text features are only used. Moreover, the trigrams extracted by the proposed method can be utilized to expand query words in research paper retrieval.

  9. Children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech in the preschool years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrelgen, Fritjof; Fernell, Elisabeth; Eriksson, Mats; Hedvall, Åsa; Persson, Clara; Sjölin, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Kjellmer, Liselotte

    2015-11-01

    There is uncertainty about the proportion of children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech during the preschool years. The main purpose of this study was to examine this ratio in a population-based community sample of children. The cohort consisted of 165 children (141 boys, 24 girls) with autism spectrum disorders aged 4-6 years followed longitudinally over 2 years during which time they had received intervention at a specialized autism center. In this study, data collected at the 2-year follow-up were used. Three categories of expressive language were defined: nonverbal, minimally verbal, and phrase speech. Data from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II were used to classify expressive language. A secondary objective of the study was to analyze factors that might be linked to verbal ability, namely, child age, cognitive level, autism subtype and severity of core autism symptoms, developmental regression, epilepsy or other medical conditions, and intensity of intervention. The proportion of children who met the criteria for nonverbal, minimally verbal, and phrase speech were 15%, 10%, and 75%, respectively. The single most important factor linked to expressive language was the child's cognitive level, and all children classified as being nonverbal or minimally verbal had intellectual disability. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Using phrases and document metadata to improve topic modeling of clinical reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speier, William; Ong, Michael K; Arnold, Corey W

    2016-06-01

    Probabilistic topic models provide an unsupervised method for analyzing unstructured text, which have the potential to be integrated into clinical automatic summarization systems. Clinical documents are accompanied by metadata in a patient's medical history and frequently contains multiword concepts that can be valuable for accurately interpreting the included text. While existing methods have attempted to address these problems individually, we present a unified model for free-text clinical documents that integrates contextual patient- and document-level data, and discovers multi-word concepts. In the proposed model, phrases are represented by chained n-grams and a Dirichlet hyper-parameter is weighted by both document-level and patient-level context. This method and three other Latent Dirichlet allocation models were fit to a large collection of clinical reports. Examples of resulting topics demonstrate the results of the new model and the quality of the representations are evaluated using empirical log likelihood. The proposed model was able to create informative prior probabilities based on patient and document information, and captured phrases that represented various clinical concepts. The representation using the proposed model had a significantly higher empirical log likelihood than the compared methods. Integrating document metadata and capturing phrases in clinical text greatly improves the topic representation of clinical documents. The resulting clinically informative topics may effectively serve as the basis for an automatic summarization system for clinical reports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. English Words and Phrases in Croatian: A Small-Scale Study of Language Awareness and Attitudes

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    Marija Perić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on language attitudes towards English words and phrases in the Croatian language. In order to prevent loanwords, linguistic purism has arisen as a theory about what languages should be like. The tradition of linguistic purism in Croatia has been shaped by various socio-historical factors. English may be viewed as a language of opportunity, or as a threat to the survival of other, usually minority and endangered, languages. In order to provide an insight into the use of English words and phrases in the Croatian context, a questionnaire about language attitudes and awareness was conducted on 534 participants. The aim of the questionnaire was to determine participants’ language attitudes and familiarity with English words and phrases. The results show that although people in Croatia generally like English, many of them are not familiar with English words, especially older participants and those with little or no knowledge of the English language. Moreover, the results indicate that the younger generation is more inclined towards English than the older generation; however, they are not as familiar with Croatian equivalents as they claim.

  12. ERP responses to processing prosodic phrasing of sentences in amplitude modulated noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Rebecca; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Intonation phrase boundaries (IPBs) were hypothesized to be especially difficult to process in the presence of an amplitude modulated noise masker because of a potential rhythmic competition. In an event-related potential study, IPBs were presented in silence, stationary, and amplitude modulated noise. We elicited centro-parietal Closure Positive Shifts (CPS) in 23 young adults with normal hearing at IPBs in all acoustic conditions, albeit with some differences. CPS peak amplitudes were highest in stationary noise, followed by modulated noise, and lowest in silence. Both noise types elicited CPS delays, slightly more so in stationary compared to amplitude modulated noise. These data suggest that amplitude modulation is not tantamount to a rhythmic competitor for prosodic phrasing but rather supports an assumed speech perception benefit due to local release from masking. The duration of CPS time windows was, however, not only longer in noise compared to silence, but also longer for amplitude modulated compared to stationary noise. This is interpreted as support for additional processing load associated with amplitude modulation for the CPS component. Taken together, processing prosodic phrasing of sentences in amplitude modulated noise seems to involve the same issues that have been observed for the perception and processing of segmental information that are related to lexical items presented in noise: a benefit from local release from masking, even for prosodic cues, and a detrimental additional processing load that is associated with either stream segregation or signal reconstruction.

  13. Translation of Untranslatable Words — Integration of Lexical Approximation and Phrase-Table Extension Techniques into Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michael; Arora, Karunesh; Sumita, Eiichiro

    This paper proposes a method for handling out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words that cannot be translated using conventional phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) systems. For a given OOV word, lexical approximation techniques are utilized to identify spelling and inflectional word variants that occur in the training data. All OOV words in the source sentence are then replaced with appropriate word variants found in the training corpus, thus reducing the number of OOV words in the input. Moreover, in order to increase the coverage of such word translations, the SMT translation model is extended by adding new phrase translations for all source language words that do not have a single-word entry in the original phrase-table but only appear in the context of larger phrases. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is investigated for the translation of Hindi to English, Chinese, and Japanese.

  14. COGNITIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES OF NON-ENGLISH DEPARTMENT STUDENTS ON NOUN STRUCTURE

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    Shierly Novalita Yappy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning English for non-English department students is not as easy as it seems. Besides, as much as it is necessary to know how successful learners learn, not less important is to know how less successful learners learn. Using think aloud method, this study aims at finding out the cognitive strategies used by the engineering department students in answering incorrectly problems on TOEFL noun structure-the grammar point in which students made the most errors. Findings uncover the students' strategies and reasoning upon which pedagogical implications can be put forth so that more effective and fruitful instruction can be tailored.

  15. Are Nouns Learned Before Verbs? Infants Provide Insight into a Longstanding Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Sandra; Fu, Xiaolan; Arunachalam, Sudha; Leddon, Erin; Geraghty, Kathleen; Song, Hyun-Joo

    2013-09-01

    For decades, a spirited debate has existed over whether infants' remarkable capacity to learn words is shaped primarily by universal features of human language or by specific featuers of the particulare native language they are acquiring. A strong focus for this debate has been a well-documented difference in early word learning: Infants' success in learning verbs lags behind their success in learning nouns.. In this review, we articulate both sides of the debate and summarize new cross-linguistic evidence from infants that underscores the role of universal features and begins to clarify the impact of distinctly different languages on early language and conceptual development.

  16. Semantic relations among nouns in Polish WordNet grounded in lexicographic and semantic tradition

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    Marek Maziarz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic relations among nouns in Polish WordNet grounded in lexicographic and semantic tradition The paper describes a system of lexico-semantic relations proposed for the nominal part of plWordNet 2.0 – the largest Polish wordnet. We briefly introduce a wordnet as a large electronic thesaurus. We discuss sixteen nominal relations together with many sub-types proposed for plWordNet 2.0. Each relation is based on linguistic intuition and supported by a set of tests which facilitate its identification. There are two main groups: pure lexico-semantic relations and semantic-derivational relations.

  17. Children's acquisition of nouns and verbs in Italian: contrasting the roles of frequency and positional salience in maternal language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Because of its structural characteristics, specifically the prevalence of verb types in infant-directed speech and frequent pronoun-dropping, the Italian language offers an attractive opportunity to investigate the predictive effects of input frequency and positional salience on children's acquisition of nouns and verbs. We examined this issue in a sample of twenty-six mother-child dyads whose spontaneous conversations were recorded, transcribed, and coded at 1;4 and 1;8. The percentages of nouns occurring in the final position of maternal utterances at 1;4 predicted children's production of noun types at 1;8. For verbs, children's growth rates were positively predicted by the percentages of input verbs occurring in utterance-initial position, but negatively predicted by the percentages of verbs located in the final position of maternal utterances at 1;4. These findings clearly illustrate that the effects of positional salience vary across lexical categories.

  18. What can children tell us about the fixedness of idiomatic phrases? The psycholinguistic relevance of a linguistic model

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    Kleopatra Diakogiorgi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains two distinct yet intricately linked studies concerning idiomatic phrases in Greek: a linguistic study and a psycholinguistic study. The linguistic study aims at investigating the degree of fixedness of idiomatic phrases, through a semantic-lexical categorization of 470 phrases with fixed subject. Three phrase categories were distinguished: typical phrases characterized by a strong semantic-lexical articulation between their constituents, and non-typical phrases, in which the constituents have a certain semantic autonomy. Non-typical phrases were further categorized into a quasi-phrases and b conventionalized phrases, the constituents of which have the highest degree of semantic autonomy. Α linguistic model was developed named “graded fixedness model”, and the psycholinguistic relevance of the model assessed by examining idiom comprehension in Greek elementary school children, aged 7.5 and 9.5 years old. To achieve this, a psycholinguistic study was then carried out. Children were presented with 8 typical, 8 quasi and 8 conventionalized phrases. For each phrase, they were asked to choose the one they thought correct out of three interpretations proposed (idiomatic, literal and other. The research findings presented and discussed herein provide evidence supporting the psychological reality of the notion of semantic autonomy even for the younger children’s processing which was overall quite poor: thus, the greater the semantic autonomy of a phrase’s constituents, the easier the access to its idiomatic meaning.Le présent article comporte deux études distinctes mais étroitement liées concernant les phrases idomatiques en grec : une étude linguistique et une étude psycholinguistique. L’étude linguistique vise à examiner le degré de figement des phrases idiomatiques, à travers une catégorisation sémantico-lexicale de 470 phrases à sujet fixe. Trois catégories de phrases ont été distingu

  19. Switching Between Noun and Verb Agreement Rules Comes at a Cost: Cross-Sectional and Interventional Studies in a Developmental Sample

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    Van Reybroeck Marie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study clarifies the impact of switching context between noun and verb number agreement rules in written language production. In Experiment 1, children from grade 3 to 6 were asked to fill in sentences with nouns and verbs in either a switching condition (noun followed by verb or a repeating condition (noun followed by noun. The results showed that third- and fourth-grade children produced more erroneous agreements in the switching condition than in the repeating condition, showing that switching between rules comes at a cost, whereas fifth- and sixth-grade participants’ performance was not affected by the switching context. Based on these findings, Experiment 2 aimed to assess whether a switching treatment offers a greater opportunity to improve the acquisition of grammatical agreement production, as compared to a simple treatment. Teachers from grade 3 gave either a switching treatment (mixed noun and verb exercises or a simple treatment (noun exercises followed by verb exercises. The results show that children learned better from the switching treatment than from the simple treatment. These findings highlight the cost of switching between noun and verb agreement rules during the acquisition of grammatical number agreement and also how grammatical spelling acquisition can be improved at school.

  20. A Frequency and Error Analysis of the Use of Determiners, the Relationships between Noun Phrases, and the Structure of Discourse in English Essays by Native English Writers and Native Chinese, Taiwanese, and Korean Learners of English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressang, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    Second language (L2) learners notoriously have trouble using articles in their target languages (e.g., "a", "an", "the" in English). However, researchers disagree about the patterns and causes of these errors. Past studies have found that L2 English learners: (1) Predominantly omit articles (White 2003, Robertson 2000), (2) Overuse "the" (Huebner…

  1. Remembering more nouns than verbs in lists of foreign-language words as an indicator of syntactic phonetic symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenmayr, A; Gözütok, M; Gust, J

    2001-12-01

    In lists with words from languages not known to the subjects (students of the University of Essen, Germany, and in one experiment Polish teachers in North Poland), nouns were remembered more often than verbs, and the effect was not dependent on the length of the words. The effect was clearer with languages with a strong (Swahili) or medium (Hungarian, Turkish) tendency to marcation and less with languages with a tendency for weak marcation (Japanese). We interpreted this effect as influenced by syntactic phonetic symbolism, assuming there is a phonologic and prosodic difference between nouns and verbs.

  2. Towards the study of color naming in Portuguese: structure and meaning of constructed nouns and adjectives

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    Margarita Correia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Color naming is a central study subject in Lexicology, although its systematic morphological description in Portuguese is still lacking. In this study we describe the morphological and semantic aspects of complex nouns and adjectives constructed on the basis of the basic color terms from the Portuguese language. We focus on a description of the internal structure of these complex words, as well as on aspects concerning the productivity of the morphological processes, and attempt to associate those aspects with the referential capacities of the studied words. Lexicographical data were used, collected from the Vocabulário Ortográfico do Português, and the theoretical framework of this research is SILEX’s constructional model of Morphology. We verified that suffixation is the most productive process, followed by composition. Prefixation is rather unproductive. There are differences in the way that derived nouns and adjectives, on the one hand, and compounds, on the other, may name color tones and degrees of saturation. Derived words give rise to the naming of tones in a very imprecise manner, while compounds are much more effective and precise in the way they may name them, and composition is the most efficient resource available to denote degrees of brightness.

  3. Student Assessment of Quality of Access at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN

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    Juliet Obhajajie Inegbedion

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study conducted by Inegbedion, Adu and Ofulue from the National Open University of Nigeria. The study focused on the quality of access (admission and registration at NOUN from a student perspective. A survey design was used for the study while a multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the sample size. All the 78,555 registered students in all the 61 Study Centres of the University at the time of the study formed the population; out of which 3,060 students were sampled. The questionnaire instrument is the Institutional Internal QA Tools and Instrument developed by the African Council for Distance Education (ACDE as a regulatory mechanism. The data collected were analyzed using simple statistics. The result showed that 66% of the students confirmed that NOUN has published clear policies on the admission and registration of students. About 29.1% of the students were not satisfied with the transparency of the admission process. In conclusion, the study revealed high quality of access and some deficiencies in website and Internet connectivity.

  4. LEXICAL AND DERIVATIONAL PECULIARITIES OF NOUNS WITH FINAL -K(A IN ZAVOLZHSKY DIALECT

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    Shatskaya Marina Fedorovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues raised in the article go in line with a current linguistic problem – dialectal mapping of the territory of Volgograd region. The language material that constitutes the empirical base of the research was collected during dialectological expeditions in Staropoltavsky district of Volgograd region (the village of Belokamenka, Krasny Yar, Cherebaevo, these dialects are considered to be in the group named zavolzhsky. The identity of the afore mentioned group of dialects is manifested not only on the phonetic and grammar levels, but also in word-formation and lexical peculiarities, the latter two were studied as formal structures of dialectal nouns that belong to various lexico-semantic groups. The following results of the research are generalized in the article: word-building characteristics of the derived words, their derivational base and formants, morphonological processes as occurring during formation of a new nomination (category; every derivational morpheme is characterized with respect to its regularity; cases of semantic derivation are presented. The analysis of non-derivative nouns resulted in their allocation to certain groups of phonetic, morphological or semantic dialectisms. Interpretation of complex cases associated with possible ambiguous interpretations of the processes that contributed to the emergency of a particular unit in the lexical system of the dialect are explained.

  5. Punjabi to Hindi Transliteration System for Proper Nouns Using Hybrid Approach

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    Er.Sahil Malhan ,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The language is an effective medium for the communication that conveys the ideas and expression of the human mind. There are more than 5000 languages in the world for the communication. To know all these languages is not a solution for problems due to the language barrier in communication. In this multilingual world with the huge amount of information exchanged between various regions and in different languages in digitized format, it has become necessary to find an automated process to convert from one language to another. Natural Language Processing (NLP is one of the hot areas of research that explores how computers can be utilizing to understand and manipulate natural language text or speech. In the Proposed system a Hybrid approach to transliterate the proper nouns from Punjabi to Hindi is developed. Hybrid approach in the proposed system is a combination of Direct Mapping, Rule based approach and Statistical Machine Translation approach (SMT. Proposed system is tested on various proper nouns from different domains and accuracy of the proposed system is very good.

  6. Study of Nouns on the Chu’s Bamboo Slips of Warring States from Shanghai Museum(Vol IX)%《上博简(九)》名词研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱晨

    2014-01-01

    By making an exhaustive study on the nouns of The Chu’s Bamboo Slips of Warring States from Shanghai Museum (Vol IX), all the nouns are classified into normal nouns, proper nouns, nouns for time, nouns of orientation. Meanwhile, an intensive study of the nouns are conducted from grammatical function, multifunction, and flexible application. In the Chu’s Bamboo Slips of Warring States from Shanghai Museum (Vol IX), the proportion of the normal nouns is the most;the monosyllable nouns are more than polysyllabic nouns;few flexible use of the nouns, most of which is changing nouns into verbs.%对《上博简(九)》中的名词进行了穷进性的整理与研究,将全简的名词分为普通名词、专有名词、时间名词、方位名词四类。并从语法功能、兼类、活用等方面对简中的名词进行了更深入的探讨。发现《上博简(九)》中的名词中普通名词的比重最大;单音节名词比重大于多音节名词;名词的活用现象还比较少且多活用为动词。

  7. Identité stricte ou partielle et identification dans les phrases à copule. Comment les identifier ?

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    Amary-Coudreau Valérie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Le terme d’identité est utilisé dans de nombreux domaines et notre étude pose la question de ce que peut être une identité en langue et plus particulièrement dans le traitement des phrases à copule. En s’appuyant sur la classification proposé par Higgins (1973, on se propose de distinguer l’identité de la spécification et de l’identification à l’aide de différents outils concernant deux problématiques : qu’elle peut être la forme d’une identité pour une phrase à copule et quel type de définition peut-on lui donner ? Pour ce qui concerne la forme, les phrases données comme des identités et traitées par les logiciens et philosophes en termes de vrai ou faux ne correspondent pas à ce qu’on peut supposer être des identités en langue : par exemple, en français, une phrase comme « Cicéron est Tullius » n’est pas valide et doit comporter c’est à la place de est (comme d’ailleurs les phrases spécificationnelles et identificationnelles pour ne pas paraître artificielle. On peut trouver une justification à cela dans la dichotomie entre prédicationnelles et équatives proposée par Heycock & Kroch (1999. Les équatives regroupent la spécification, l’identification et l’identité, mais ces deux dernières sous-catégories ne sont pas clairement distinguées dans la plupart des travaux sur le sujet. Pour ce qui concerne les définitions, l’identité mathématique, d’une part, et sur la Théorie des Opérations Enonciatives (cf. Culioli & Desclès, 1981, parmi d’autres références, d’autre part, ne permettent pas de lever totalement le voile sur cette problématique. On pose donc une hypothèse où la forme et l’interprétation sont liées : l’identité se présente sous la forme d’une phrase en X c’est Y où les deux termes X et Y possèdent exactement la même structure interne, et par conséquent le même degré de référentialité. Ceci nous permet de d’envisager les caract

  8. Generating descriptive visual words and visual phrases for large-scale image applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiliang; Tian, Qi; Hua, Gang; Huang, Qingming; Gao, Wen

    2011-09-01

    Bag-of-visual Words (BoWs) representation has been applied for various problems in the fields of multimedia and computer vision. The basic idea is to represent images as visual documents composed of repeatable and distinctive visual elements, which are comparable to the text words. Notwithstanding its great success and wide adoption, visual vocabulary created from single-image local descriptors is often shown to be not as effective as desired. In this paper, descriptive visual words (DVWs) and descriptive visual phrases (DVPs) are proposed as the visual correspondences to text words and phrases, where visual phrases refer to the frequently co-occurring visual word pairs. Since images are the carriers of visual objects and scenes, a descriptive visual element set can be composed by the visual words and their combinations which are effective in representing certain visual objects or scenes. Based on this idea, a general framework is proposed for generating DVWs and DVPs for image applications. In a large-scale image database containing 1506 object and scene categories, the visual words and visual word pairs descriptive to certain objects or scenes are identified and collected as the DVWs and DVPs. Experiments show that the DVWs and DVPs are informative and descriptive and, thus, are more comparable with the text words than the classic visual words. We apply the identified DVWs and DVPs in several applications including large-scale near-duplicated image retrieval, image search re-ranking, and object recognition. The combination of DVW and DVP performs better than the state of the art in large-scale near-duplicated image retrieval in terms of accuracy, efficiency and memory consumption. The proposed image search re-ranking algorithm: DWPRank outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithm by 12.4% in mean average precision and about 11 times faster in efficiency.

  9. Phrase-level speech simulation with an airway modulation model of speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Brad H

    2013-06-01

    Artificial talkers and speech synthesis systems have long been used as a means of understanding both speech production and speech perception. The development of an airway modulation model is described that simulates the time-varying changes of the glottis and vocal tract, as well as acoustic wave propagation, during speech production. The result is a type of artificial talker that can be used to study various aspects of how sound is generated by humans and how that sound is perceived by a listener. The primary components of the model are introduced and simulation of words and phrases are demonstrated.

  10. Telugu Bigram Splitting using Consonant-based and Phrase-based Splitting

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    T. Kameswara Rao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Splitting is a conventional process in most of Indian languages according to their grammar rules. It is called ‘pada vicchEdanam’ (a Sanskrit term for word splitting and is widely used by most of the Indian languages. Splitting plays a key role in Machine Translation (MT particularly when the source language (SL is an Indian language. Though this splitting may not succeed completely in extracting the root words of which the compound is formed, but it shows considerable impact in Natural Language Processing (NLP as an important phase. Though there are many types of splitting, this paper considers only consonant based and phrase based splitting.

  11. A Linguistic Evaluation of Rule-Based, Phrase-Based, and Neural MT Engines

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    Burchardt Aljoscha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of several Machine Translation (MT engines implementing the three most widely used paradigms. The analysis is based on a manually built test suite that comprises a large range of linguistic phenomena. Two main observations are on the one hand the striking improvement of an commercial online system when turning from a phrase-based to a neural engine and on the other hand that the successful translations of neural MT systems sometimes bear resemblance with the translations of a rule-based MT system.

  12. Expressive timing facilitates the neural processing of phrase boundaries in music: evidence from event-related potentials.

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    Eva Istók

    Full Text Available The organization of sound into meaningful units is fundamental to the processing of auditory information such as speech and music. In expressive music performance, structural units or phrases may become particularly distinguishable through subtle timing variations highlighting musical phrase boundaries. As such, expressive timing may support the successful parsing of otherwise continuous musical material. By means of the event-related potential technique (ERP, we investigated whether expressive timing modulates the neural processing of musical phrases. Musicians and laymen listened to short atonal scale-like melodies that were presented either isochronously (deadpan or with expressive timing cues emphasizing the melodies' two-phrase structure. Melodies were presented in an active and a passive condition. Expressive timing facilitated the processing of phrase boundaries as indicated by decreased N2b amplitude and enhanced P3a amplitude for target phrase boundaries and larger P2 amplitude for non-target boundaries. When timing cues were lacking, task demands increased especially for laymen as reflected by reduced P3a amplitude. In line, the N2b occurred earlier for musicians in both conditions indicating general faster target detection compared to laymen. Importantly, the elicitation of a P3a-like response to phrase boundaries marked by a pitch leap during passive exposure suggests that expressive timing information is automatically encoded and may lead to an involuntary allocation of attention towards significant events within a melody. We conclude that subtle timing variations in music performance prepare the listener for musical key events by directing and guiding attention towards their occurrences. That is, expressive timing facilitates the structuring and parsing of continuous musical material even when the auditory input is unattended.

  13. Expressive timing facilitates the neural processing of phrase boundaries in music: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istók, Eva; Friberg, Anders; Huotilainen, Minna; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The organization of sound into meaningful units is fundamental to the processing of auditory information such as speech and music. In expressive music performance, structural units or phrases may become particularly distinguishable through subtle timing variations highlighting musical phrase boundaries. As such, expressive timing may support the successful parsing of otherwise continuous musical material. By means of the event-related potential technique (ERP), we investigated whether expressive timing modulates the neural processing of musical phrases. Musicians and laymen listened to short atonal scale-like melodies that were presented either isochronously (deadpan) or with expressive timing cues emphasizing the melodies' two-phrase structure. Melodies were presented in an active and a passive condition. Expressive timing facilitated the processing of phrase boundaries as indicated by decreased N2b amplitude and enhanced P3a amplitude for target phrase boundaries and larger P2 amplitude for non-target boundaries. When timing cues were lacking, task demands increased especially for laymen as reflected by reduced P3a amplitude. In line, the N2b occurred earlier for musicians in both conditions indicating general faster target detection compared to laymen. Importantly, the elicitation of a P3a-like response to phrase boundaries marked by a pitch leap during passive exposure suggests that expressive timing information is automatically encoded and may lead to an involuntary allocation of attention towards significant events within a melody. We conclude that subtle timing variations in music performance prepare the listener for musical key events by directing and guiding attention towards their occurrences. That is, expressive timing facilitates the structuring and parsing of continuous musical material even when the auditory input is unattended.

  14. The Rightward Movement of Complements and Adjuncts in the Old English of "Beowulf."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintzuk, Susan; Kroch, Anthony S.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the rightward movement of noun and prepositional phrases in the Early Old English poem "Beowulf." Evidence is provided for heavy noun phrase shift, with a characteristic major intonational boundary between the main verb and the postponed noun phrase, and preposition phrase extraposition, where the intonational boundary was much…

  15. The Rightward Movement of Complements and Adjuncts in the Old English of "Beowulf."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintzuk, Susan; Kroch, Anthony S.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the rightward movement of noun and prepositional phrases in the Early Old English poem "Beowulf." Evidence is provided for heavy noun phrase shift, with a characteristic major intonational boundary between the main verb and the postponed noun phrase, and preposition phrase extraposition, where the intonational boundary was much less…

  16. Verb and Noun Word Retrieval in Bilingual Aphasia: A Case Study of Language- and Modality-Specific Levels of Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the pattern of performance on spoken and written naming, spelling to dictation, and oral reading of single verbs and nouns in a bilingual speaker with aphasia in two first languages that differ in morphological complexity, orthographic transparency, and script: Greek (L1a) and English (L1b). The results reveal no verb/noun…

  17. Three-Year-Olds Can Predict a Noun Based on an Attributive Adjective: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribushinina, Elena; Mak, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether three-year-olds are able to process attributive adjectives (e.g., "soft pillow") as they hear them and to predict the noun ("pillow") on the basis of the adjective meaning ("soft"). This was investigated in an experiment by means of the Visual World Paradigm. The participants saw two…

  18. Caregiver Input in English and Korean: Use of Nouns and Verbs in Book-Reading and Toy-Play Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonja

    2000-01-01

    Investigates structural and pragmatic aspects of caregiver input in English and Korean that relate to the early development of nouns and verbs. Twenty mothers in each language were asked to interact with their children in two contexts: Book-reading and toy-play. Data suggest that systematic comparisons of caregiver input within and across…

  19. Caregiver input in English and Korean: use of nouns and verbs in book-reading and toy-play contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S

    2000-02-01

    This study investigates structural and pragmatic aspects of caregiver input in English and Korean that relate to the early development of nouns and verbs. Twenty mothers in each language were asked to interact with their one-and-a-half-year-old children in two contexts: book-reading and toy-play. Overall, English-speaking mothers use more nouns than verbs, and focus more on objects than on actions. In contrast, Korean-speaking mothers provide a balanced treatment of nouns and verbs, and focus on objects and actions to a similar degree. A significant context effect indicates that whereas English-speaking mothers emphasize nouns in both contexts, Korean-speaking mothers do so only in the Books context. In the Toys context, they provide more verbs and focus more on actions. These data suggest that systematic comparisons of caregiver input within and across different contexts provide a richer and more accurate account of the variability that can occur across languages and cultures.

  20. Electrocorticographic language mapping with a listening task consisting of alternating speech and music phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Anne H; Huiskamp, Geertjan J M; Gosselaar, Peter H; Ferrier, Cyrille H

    2016-02-01

    Electrocorticographic (ECoG) mapping of high gamma activity induced by language tasks has been proposed as a more patient friendly alternative for electrocortical stimulation mapping (ESM), the gold standard in pre-surgical language mapping of epilepsy patients. However, ECoG mapping often reveals more language areas than considered critical with ESM. We investigated if critical language areas can be identified with a listening task consisting of speech and music phrases. Nine patients with implanted subdural grid electrodes listened to an audio fragment in which music and speech alternated. We analysed ECoG power in the 65-95 Hz band and obtained task-related activity patterns in electrodes over language areas. We compared the spatial distribution of sites that discriminated between listening to speech and music to ESM results using sensitivity and specificity calculations. Our listening task of alternating speech and music phrases had a low sensitivity (0.32) but a high specificity (0.95). The high specificity indicates that this test does indeed point to areas that are critical to language processing. Our test cannot replace ESM, but this short and simple task can give a reliable indication where to find critical language areas, better than ECoG mapping using language tasks alone. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of phrase-level prosodic information in lexical segmentation: evidence from word-spotting experiments in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sahyang; Cho, Taehong

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated the role of phrase-level prosodic boundary information in word segmentation in Korean with two word-spotting experiments. In experiment 1, it was found that intonational cues alone helped listeners with lexical segmentation. Listeners paid more attention to local intonational cues (...H#L...) across the prosodic boundary than the intonational information within a prosodic phrase. The results imply that intonation patterns with high frequency are used, though not exclusively, in lexical segmentation. In experiment 2, final lengthening was added to see how multiple prosodic cues influence lexical segmentation. The results showed that listeners did not necessarily benefit from the presence of both intonational and final lengthening cues: Their performance was improved only when intonational information contained infrequent tonal patterns for boundary marking, showing only partially cumulative effects of prosodic cues. When the intonational information was optimal (frequent) for boundary marking, however, poorer performance was observed with final lengthening. This is arguably because the phrase-initial segmental allophonic cues for the accentual phrase were not matched with the prosodic cues for the intonational phrase. It is proposed that the asymmetrical use of multiple cues was due to interaction between prosodic and segmental information that are computed in parallel in lexical segmentation.

  2. Discussion on the Difference between Phrases and Compound Words%谈短语与合成词的区别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立

    2012-01-01

    短语与合成词是两种大小不同的语法单位,大多数短语和词的界限是清楚的。由于语言的发展变化,有些短语逐渐向合成词转化,在转化过程中就产生了某些短语和某些合成词的区分问题。本文对有争议的短语和合成词进行区分,以达到正确区分的目的。%Phrases and compound words are two grammatical units between the most phrases and words is discernible. As the changes which have different sizes, and the boundary of Chinese language, some phrases transform gradually into the compound words, and the differentiated problem of some phrases and some compound words has appeared. In this paper, we differentiate the debatable phrases and compound words, in order to master the cor- rect?differentiating standard.

  3. Using Graph Components Derived from an Associative Concept Dictionary to Predict fMRI Neural Activation Patterns that Represent the Meaning of Nouns.

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    Hiroyuki Akama

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce an original distance definition for graphs, called the Markov-inverse-F measure (MiF. This measure enables the integration of classical graph theory indices with new knowledge pertaining to structural feature extraction from semantic networks. MiF improves the conventional Jaccard and/or Simpson indices, and reconciles both the geodesic information (random walk and co-occurrence adjustment (degree balance and distribution. We measure the effectiveness of graph-based coefficients through the application of linguistic graph information for a neural activity recorded during conceptual processing in the human brain. Specifically, the MiF distance is computed between each of the nouns used in a previous neural experiment and each of the in-between words in a subgraph derived from the Edinburgh Word Association Thesaurus of English. From the MiF-based information matrix, a machine learning model can accurately obtain a scalar parameter that specifies the degree to which each voxel in (the MRI image of the brain is activated by each word or each principal component of the intermediate semantic features. Furthermore, correlating the voxel information with the MiF-based principal components, a new computational neurolinguistics model with a network connectivity paradigm is created. This allows two dimensions of context space to be incorporated with both semantic and neural distributional representations.

  4. Noun Case Suffix Use by Children with Specific Language Impairment: An Examination of Finnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Leena; Luotonen, Mirja; Leinonen, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Finnish-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI, N = 15, M age = 5;2), a group of same-age typically developing peers (TD-A, N = 15, M age = 5;2) and a group of younger typically developing children (TD-Y, N = 15, M age = 3;8) were compared in their use of accusative, partitive, and genitive case noun suffixes. The children with SLI were less accurate than both groups of TD children in case marking, suggesting that their difficulties with agreement extend to grammatical case. However, these children were also less accurate in making the phonological changes in the stem needed for suffixation. This second type of error suggests that problems in morphophonology may constitute a separate problem in Finnish SLI. PMID:25995529

  5. The emotion potential of simple sentences: additive or interactive effects of nouns and adjectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eLüdtke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of studies on affective processes in reading focus on single words. The most robust finding is a processing advantage for positively valenced words, which has been replicated in the rare studies investigating effects of affective features of words during sentence or story comprehension. Here we were interested in how the different valences of words in a sentence influence its processing and supralexical affective evaluation. Using a sentence verification task we investigated how comprehension of simple declarative sentences containing a noun and an adjective depends on the valences of both words. The results are in line with the assumed general processing advantage for positive words. We also observed a clear interaction effect, as can be expected from the affective priming literature: sentences with emotionally congruent words (e.g., The grandpa is clever were verified faster than sentences containing emotionally incongruent words (e.g., The grandpa is lonely. The priming effect was most prominent for sentences with positive words suggesting that both, early processing as well as later meaning integration and situation model construction, is modulated by affective processing. In a second rating task we investigated how the emotion potential of supralexical units depends on word valence. The simplest hypothesis predicts that the supralexical affective structure is a linear combination of the valences of the nouns and adjectives (Bestgen, 1994. Overall, our results do not support this: The observed clear interaction effect on ratings indicate that especially negative adjectives dominated supralexical evaluation, i.e. a sort of negativity bias in sentence evaluation. Future models of sentence processing thus should take interactive affective effects into account.

  6. A Cognitive Interpretation of "Definite article + Noun"%"定冠词+名词"的认知阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾贻东

    2007-01-01

    文章指出"定冠词+名词"研究存在的不足之处,介绍了认知语法和心智空间理论对这一结构的研究.指出这一结构的形成源于交际双方的互动,并且在听话者的大脑中有较高的可及性,使其付出较小的认知努力就可以获得较多的信息,同时,这种可及性的程度是不同的,并构成一个连续体.

  7. Believing in God the Father: Interpreting a phrase from the Apostle’s Creed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Sarot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In our days, the creedal phrase ‘I believe in God the Father almighty’ is interpreted primarilyalong Trinitarian lines: It is applied to God as the Father of Jesus Christ. Here I argue that ithas a dual background: in Jesus’ prayer practice, in which He consistently addressed God as‘Father’, and in the Hellenistic habit of referring to the Creator as ‘Father’. I discuss Jesus’ useof the term ‘Father’ against its Old Testament background, and argue that it primarily pointsto the intimacy of Jesus’ relationship with His father. Against the Hellenistic background,however, the metaphor ‘Father’ means ‘he who brings forth effortlessly’. Finally, I discusssome gender issues connected with the use of the term ‘Father’ for God.

  8. Testing the stem dominance hypothesis: meaning analysis of inflected words and prepositional phrases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Lehtonen

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that lexical-semantic access of inflected words is governed by the word stem. Object drawings overlaid with a dot/arrow marking position/movement were matched with corresponding linguistic expressions like "from the house". To test whether the stem dominates lexical-semantic access irrespective of its position, we used Swedish prepositional phrases (locative information via preposition immediately preceding the stem or Finnish case-inflected words (locative information via suffix immediately following the stem. Both in monolingual Swedish and in bilingual Finnish-Swedish speakers, correct stems with incorrect prepositions/case-endings were hardest to reject. This finding supports the view that the stem is indeed the dominant unit in meaning access of inflected words.

  9. Testing the stem dominance hypothesis: meaning analysis of inflected words and prepositional phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Harrer, Gabor; Wande, Erling; Laine, Matti

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that lexical-semantic access of inflected words is governed by the word stem. Object drawings overlaid with a dot/arrow marking position/movement were matched with corresponding linguistic expressions like "from the house". To test whether the stem dominates lexical-semantic access irrespective of its position, we used Swedish prepositional phrases (locative information via preposition immediately preceding the stem) or Finnish case-inflected words (locative information via suffix immediately following the stem). Both in monolingual Swedish and in bilingual Finnish-Swedish speakers, correct stems with incorrect prepositions/case-endings were hardest to reject. This finding supports the view that the stem is indeed the dominant unit in meaning access of inflected words.

  10. [Acquisition of German morphosyntax in the context of constituent movement into the complementizer phrase position].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S; Ptok, M

    2014-04-01

    German is a genuine verb-second (V2) language. For V2 languages it is assumed that all sentence structures can be derived from the underlying subordinate clause structure via the movement of individual components. The acquisition of German V2 structures represents a critical step in German first language acquisition and is usually mastered at the age of 3 years. However, not all children succeed in filtering the necessary information from the spoken input in order to acquire this key component of German syntax. Use of canonical sentence structures alone is not a confirmation of a successful V2 acquisition. Moreover, this structure often represents some kind of interim grammar. Only the use of complementizer phrase (CP)-related structures, such as wh-questions or topicalizations of objects is a real indication of a successful V2 acquisition.

  11. Zero Energy Buildings: A Critical Look at the Definition; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Deru, M.; Crawley, D.

    2006-06-01

    A net zero-energy building (ZEB) is a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs through efficiency gains such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable technologies. Despite the excitement over the phrase ''zero energy'', we lack a common definition, or even a common understanding, of what it means. In this paper, we use a sample of current generation low-energy buildings to explore the concept of zero energy: what it means, why a clear and measurable definition is needed, and how we have progressed toward the ZEB goal.

  12. Anthropocentric language theory and Serbian case systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topolinjska Zuzana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author understands case as a relationship of syntactic dependence between a subordinated noun phrase and the governing syntactic construction (predicative expression and/or another noun phrase. The above definition construes case as a universal category characteristics of all the languages sharing the nomen vs verbum opposition. Particular cases are conceived as primarily semantically motivated. The two relevant semantic parameters are /+/ -human / (or /+/ -animated/ and /+/ -localized/, i. e. - in other words - the so-called hierarchy of animateness and the spatial location of the objects that the corresponding noun phrases refer to. N and D are being characterized as /+ hum/, A and I as /-hum/ and L as belonging to another semantic paradigm is defined simply as /+ loc/. Results of the analyses of morphological syncretism's and of syntactic exponents of the NPs-dependence found in Serbian case systems support the above tentative interpretation of the case as a (semantic and syntactic category.

  13. Constructions Pluri-Pronominales dans les syntagmes verbaux complexes (Multi-Pronominal Constructions in Complex Verb Phrases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Maryse; De Spengler, Nina

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates variation affecting the position of pronouns in complex verb phrases among native French speakers. Describes the methods used to verify the hypothesis that there exists a correlation between individual hesitation and lack of consensus in the community. Analyzes data from questionnaires administered to 551 persons in Switzerland and…

  14. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  15. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  16. Intonational Phrase Structure Processing at Different Stages of Syntax Acquisition: ERP Studies in 2-, 3-, and 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the electrophysiology underlying intonational phrase processing at different stages of syntax acquisition. Developmental studies suggest that children's syntactic skills advance significantly between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, children of three age groups were tested on phrase-level prosodic processing before and after this…

  17. What's the difference between 'toilet paper' and 'paper toilet'? French-English bilingual children's crosslinguistic transfer in compound nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena

    2002-11-01

    Bilingual acquisition can shed light on the cues children used in acquiring language. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether frequency, ambiguity or language dominance could explain crosslinguistic transfer in compound nouns. Crosslinguistic transfer would appear in the form of compound reversals. 25 monolingual English children between the ages of three and four years and 25 age-matched French-English bilingual children were asked to create and indicate their understanding of novel compound nouns. In production, the bilingual children reversed compounds in English more often than the monolingual children but equally often in French and English. In comprehension, there were no differences between groups. These results cannot be explained by any previous explanation of transfer. Implications for the theory of language acquisition are discussed.

  18. The fox and the cabra: An ERP analysis of reading code switched nouns and verbs in bilingual short stories

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Shukhan; Gonzalez, Christian; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehending a language (or code) switch within a sentence context triggers 2 electrophysiological signatures: an early left anterior negativity post code switch onset – a LAN – followed by a Late Positive Component (LPC). Word class and word position modulate lexico-semantic processes in the monolingual brain, e.g., larger N400 amplitude for nouns than verbs and for earlier than later words in the sentence. Here we test whether the bilingual brain is affected by word class and word position...

  19. Adaptive changes in early and late blind: a FMRI study of verb generation to heard nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, H; Snyder, A Z; Diamond, J B; Raichle, M E

    2002-12-01

    Literacy for blind people requires learning Braille. Along with others, we have shown that reading Braille activates visual cortex. This includes striate cortex (V1), i.e., banks of calcarine sulcus, and several higher visual areas in lingual, fusiform, cuneus, lateral occipital, inferior temporal, and middle temporal gyri. The spatial extent and magnitude of magnetic resonance (MR) signals in visual cortex is greatest for those who became blind early in life. Individuals who lost sight as adults, and subsequently learned Braille, still exhibited activity in some of the same visual cortex regions, especially V1. These findings suggest these visual cortex regions become adapted to processing tactile information and that this cross-modal neural change might support Braille literacy. Here we tested the alternative hypothesis that these regions directly respond to linguistic aspects of a task. Accordingly, language task performance by blind persons should activate the same visual cortex regions regardless of input modality. Specifically, visual cortex activity in blind people ought to arise during a language task involving heard words. Eight early blind, six late blind, and eight sighted subjects were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during covert generation of verbs to heard nouns. The control task was passive listening to indecipherable sounds (reverse words) matched to the nouns in sound intensity, duration, and spectral content. Functional responses were analyzed at the level of individual subjects using methods based on the general linear model and at the group level, using voxel based ANOVA and t-test analyses. Blind and sighted subjects showed comparable activation of language areas in left inferior frontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and left posterior superior temporal gyri. The main distinction was bilateral, left dominant activation of the same visual cortex regions previously noted with Braille reading in all blind subjects. The

  20. On Irregular Verb Phrases in Russian One-Dart Sentences%浅析俄语单部句中的动词不定式句

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣荣

    2011-01-01

    单部句中动词不定式句以其独特的结构形式和丰富多样的语义情态性区别于其他四种类型的动词单部句,即确定人称句、不定人称句、无人称句、泛指人称句。通过对单部句中动词不定式的情态意义、聚合体形式、句中词的排列等层面进行分析,认识到单部句动词不定式情态性的决定意义、主观认定和评价、理性感知的特点,语序性中的语义功能特点和聚合体的应用特点。%Irregular verb phrases in one-Dart sentences have peculiar structures and much variety of semantic modality which are different from other types(indefinite person sentence,definite person sentence,impersonal sentence,genetic sentence).From the modality,po

  1. Interpretation of compound nouns by adolescents with specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders: an investigation of phenotypic overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Nick G; Loucas, Tom; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily

    2012-08-01

    The study aimed to investigate (i) whether adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism plus Language Impairment (ALI) experience word-formation difficulties, and (ii) whether these two groups present with a similar language phenotype. The study investigated four groups using a 2 (language status) ×2 (autism status) design; adolescents with SLI (n = 14), ALI (n = 16), Autism Language-Typical (ALT; n = 14), and language matched controls (n = 17), with all groups presenting with typical non-verbal skills. Mean age was 14;10. Comprehension of conventional Noun-Noun lexical compounds (e.g., snowman), synthetic compounds (SCs, e.g., cat chaser), and novel root compounds (RCs, e.g., sheep socks), was assessed using a forced-choice picture selection task. The SLI and ALI participants frequently mis-parsed the SCs, interpreting the first noun as the agent. Those with poorer vocabularies and non-word repetition had greater difficulties. Reaction time (RT) profiles were flatter in the ASD groups, with similar RTs across different compounds. Language difficulties in the SLI and ALI groups extend to word-formation processes; for example, comprehension of SCs. This may reflect difficulties making analogies with stored lexical items. Overall the results support the hypothesis of a phenotypic overlap between SLI and ALI.

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marfo

    The book, which is primarily on the noun phrase of Akan and perhaps the first ... the Akan noun phrase (NP), which is then comprehensively and clearly presented. ..... Traugott and B. Heine, eds., Approaches to Grammaticalization Vol.

  3. Pragmatics of classifier use in Chinese discourse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    complex noun phrases (CNPs), and investigates the occurrence and ... classifier phrase from its head noun while a post-nominal RC in English does not ...... The present study takes a cognitive-functional approach to the analysis of a syntactic.

  4. Tools for language: patterned iconicity in sign language nouns and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, Carol; Hwang, So-One; Lepic, Ryan; Seegers, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    When naming certain hand-held, man-made tools, American Sign Language (ASL) signers exhibit either of two iconic strategies: a handling strategy, where the hands show holding or grasping an imagined object in action, or an instrument strategy, where the hands represent the shape or a dimension of the object in a typical action. The same strategies are also observed in the gestures of hearing nonsigners identifying pictures of the same set of tools. In this paper, we compare spontaneously created gestures from hearing nonsigning participants to commonly used lexical signs in ASL. Signers and gesturers were asked to respond to pictures of tools and to video vignettes of actions involving the same tools. Nonsigning gesturers overwhelmingly prefer the handling strategy for both the Picture and Video conditions. Nevertheless, they use more instrument forms when identifying tools in pictures, and more handling forms when identifying actions with tools. We found that ASL signers generally favor the instrument strategy when naming tools, but when describing tools being used by an actor, they are significantly more likely to use more handling forms. The finding that both gesturers and signers are more likely to alternate strategies when the stimuli are pictures or video suggests a common cognitive basis for differentiating objects from actions. Furthermore, the presence of a systematic handling/instrument iconic pattern in a sign language demonstrates that a conventionalized sign language exploits the distinction for grammatical purpose, to distinguish nouns and verbs related to tool use.

  5. Ainsi en tête de phrase + inversion : une analyse de corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karssenberg Lena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les résultats d’une analyse de corpus de 171 exemples de l’adverbe ainsi en tête de phrase suivi de trois types d’inversion : inversion nominale, inversion complexe et inversion pronominale. Nous proposons une classification de cinq interprétations (manière, quotatif, causal, précision, illustration ainsi que des tests de reformulation pour distinguer entre ces interprétations. L’application de ces tests à notre corpus nous permet de constater que (1 l’inversion nominale se combine majoritairement avec ainsi de manière, alors que (2 l’inversion complexe et pronominale se combinent surtout avec ainsi adverbe de phrase. Contrairement à ce qui est affirmé dans les travaux antérieurs sur ainsi, l’inversion nominale se combine également avec ainsi causal dans environ 20 % des cas, ce que nous expliquons par la structure informationnelle de ces cas. La structure de l’information nous permet également d’expliquer pourquoi l’inversion nominale n’est que rarement introduite par ainsi illustratif. De plus, il s’avère que l’interprétation illustrative est de loin l’interprétation la plus fréquente quand ainsi se combine avec l’inversion complexe, et pas l’interprétation causale. Dernièrement, l’inversion complexe ainsi que l’inversion pronominale ne se combinent avec ainsi de manière qu’aux cas où l’inversion nominale est exclue en raison de la présence d’un objet direct. Cela nous amène à affirmer que, contrairement à ce qu’affirment certaines analyses antérieures d’ainsi + inversion, l’inversion pronominale n’est pas moins contrainte que l’inversion complexe en ce qui concerne les interprétations d’ainsi avec lesquelles ce type d’inversion se combine. La conclusion générale de cet article est donc que le choix du type d’inversion ne dépend pas uniquement de la sémantique d’ainsi ; des facteurs syntaxiques entrent également en jeu.

  6. Bringing Definitions into High Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John

    2010-01-01

    Why do definitions play such a central role in mathematics? It may seem obvious that precision about the terms one uses is necessary in order to use those terms reasonably (while reasoning). Definitions are chosen so as to be definite about the terms one uses, but also to make both the statement of, and the reasoning to justify, theorems as…

  7. Où finit la phrase ? Où commence le texte ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Benzitoun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous nous proposons d’aborder l’épineuse question de la frontière entre la phrase et le texte à travers l’exemple des regroupements de constructions verbales. Plus spécifiquement, nous essayons de savoir dans quels cas il faut considérer qu’il s’agit d’un regroupement de nature syntaxique. Pour y répondre, nous détaillons en priorité les critères de syntaxe interne et externe sur lesquels nous basons notre analyse et qui nous permettent d’élaborer une typologie des regroupements. Toutefois, étant donné la complexité de la tâche, notre typologie posera essentiellement les principes généraux, chaque construction méritant une description approfondie.This paper questions the frontier between grammatical relations and discourse relations, by taking examples of verbal clause sequences, mostly drawn from spoken French corpora. More specifically, we try to analyse in which cases such combinations can be given a truly syntactic status. In order to elaborate our typology, we make a distinction between two kinds of criteria: those based on internal syntax and those based on external syntax. However, our typology will remain very general because of the difficulty of the task. In fact, every construction should be subject to a precise description.

  8. In a manner of speaking phrases, expressions, and proverbs and how we use and misuse them

    CERN Document Server

    McNairn, Colin

    2015-01-01

    What do “the whole kit and caboodle," “the whole shebang," “the whole megillah," “the whole enchilada," “the whole nine yards," “the whole box and dice," and “the full Monty" have in common? They're all expressions that mean “the entire quantity," and they're all examples of the breadth and depth of the English-speaking world's vocabulary. From the multitude of words and phrases in daily use, the author of this delightful exploration into what we say and why we say it zeroes in on those expressions and sayings and their variations that are funny, quirky, just plain folksy, or playfully dressed up in rhyme or alliteration. Some may have become clichés that, as it's said with “tongue in cheek," should be “avoided like the plague." Others have been distorted, deemed politically incorrect, or shrouded in mystery and must bear some explanation. Among the topics the author delves into are expressions that shouldn't be taken literally (“dressed to kill" and “kick the bucket"), foreign expressions that c...

  9. Dealing with phraseology in business dictionaries: focus on dictionary functions – not phrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The language of written business communication is characterised by the extensive use of phraseology, not only in terms of collocations and idiomatic expressions, but also of standard phrases in prototypical business genres. In any case, the phraseological information should be included in business dictionaries (in the following referred to as BDs in accordance with the planned dictionary functions. Hence, the selection and presentation of the phraseological information should be decided by the lexicographer on the basis of the user needs alone and not on the recommendations of the phraseological literature about lexicographical practice. In this paper, I will firstly explain why lexicography and phraseology, although closely associated in a large number of studies, are quite different disciplines, and how their shared interest for dictionary practice in general is based on radically different views. I will then discuss the dictionary functions of BDs and focus on a number of concepts featuring extensive phraseological solutions to show and argue that dealing with phraseology in BDs should always keep focus on dictionary functions.

  10. Definitely Life but not Definitively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Joan D.; Perry, Randall S.

    2006-12-01

    Although there have been attempts at a definition of life from many disciplines, none is accepted by all as definitive. Some people believe that it is impossible to define ‘life’ adequately at the moment. We agree with this point of view on linguistic grounds, examining the different types of definition, the contexts in which they are used and their relative usefulness as aids to arriving at a scientific definition of life. We look at some of the more recent definitions and analyse them in the light of our criteria for a good definition. We argue that since there are so many linguistic and philosophical difficulties with such a definition of life, what is needed is a series of working descriptions, which are suited to the audience and context in which they are used and useful for the intended purpose. We provide some ideas and examples of the forms these may take.

  11. Symmetric and Asymmetric Patterns of Attraction Errors in Producing Subject-Predicate Agreement in Hebrew: An Issue of Morphological Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Avital; Dank, Maya

    2011-01-01

    A common characteristic of subject-predicate agreement errors (usually termed attraction errors) in complex noun phrases is an asymmetrical pattern of error distribution, depending on the inflectional state of the nouns comprising the complex noun phrase. That is, attraction is most likely to occur when the head noun is the morphologically…

  12. Comprehension of Elided Phrases in Korean and English: VP-Ellipsis, Null Object Constructions, and One-Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsook

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the comprehension of elided phrases in Korean and English, focusing on the patterns exemplified below. (1) Korean a. VP-ellipsis: Sungki-ka phalan kabang-ul sa-ss-e-yo. Sunhuy-to-yey-yo Sungki-NOM blue bag-ACC buy-PST-DECL-POL Sunhuy-also-be-POL "Sungki bought a blue bag. Sunhuy did…

  13. Neural correlates of temporal context retrieval for abstract scrambled phrases: Reducing narrative and familiarity-based strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Diana, Rachel A

    2017-01-15

    Temporal context, memory for the timing of events, can be assessed using non-temporal strategies such as relative familiarity or inference from a semantic narrative. Neuroimaging studies, which have previously encouraged such strategies, find similar patterns of brain regions involved in both temporal and non-temporal context memory. The present study aims to investigate whether previous findings are driven by the use of non-temporal strategies or whether the same pattern of brain regions is identified when relative familiarity and semantic narrative strategies are discouraged. We used abstract phrases (e.g. alone me leave) created by scrambling familiar three-word phrases. The words in the phrases were less concrete than the object image stimuli used in previous studies of temporal context memory (Jenkins and Ranganath, 2010) and were presented quickly while participants read each word aloud. This differed from previous studies in which participants were encouraged to use narrative strategies during encoding (Tubridy and Davachi, 2011) and was designed to discourage use of narrative strategies. The relative familiarity of the words within each phrase was similar and likely not diagnostic of word order during encoding, in order to minimize the use of relative familiarity strategies. Neuroimaging results indicate that temporal context retrieval was associated with the hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and retrosplenial cortex, which are regions consistent with the retrieval of non-temporal context in episodic memory, suggesting that previous findings were not driven entirely by non-temporal strategies but rather that temporal memory relies on similar brain regions to non-temporal memory.

  14. Semantic memory: Nouns and action verbs in cognitively unimpaired individuals and frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Lessa Mansur

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among the instruments to evaluate semantic memory, the Pyramids and Palm Trees (PPT and the Kissing and Dancing (KDT tests are widely used but none have a performance referential for cognitively normal and impaired Brazilian populations. Objective: [A] To study these two tests in a sample of young healthy Brazilian individuals living in São Paulo; [B] To apply the results to the evaluation of two cases diagnosed with frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Methods: We evaluated 50 normal participants (41 females and 9 males aged between 20-63 years, with schooling level of 14-20 years. In addition, two individuals diagnosed with frontotemporal lobar degeneration were examined, one with behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia and the other with semantic dementia. Results: On the two tests, no effects of age, gender and schooling on the performance of normal individuals were observed. According to the performance of the sample of controls, scores below 46 points on the PPT and below 47 on the KDT are suggestive of deficits in semantic memory. The analyses of both cases indicated double dissociation in establishing associations between nouns and action verbs. Although the two patients had low scores on both tests, the patient with behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia performed better on the PPT compared to the KDT, while the patient with semantic dementia showed the reverse, performing better on the KDT. Conclusion: The PPT and KDT are suitable tests for use in the Brazilian population, with minimal need for adjustments. They are applicable tools both for cognitive assessment and research in semantic memory. In the present study, we obtained representative values of performance for cognitively unimpaired individuals and demonstrated the utility of these instruments for cognitive assessment of patients with FTLD.

  15. Stereotype or grammar? The representation of gender when two-year-old and three-year-old French-speaking toddlers listen to role nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Arik; Gygax, Pascal; Gabriel, Ute; Zesiger, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Using a preferential looking paradigm, the current study examined the role that grammatical gender plays when preschool French-speaking toddlers process role nouns in the masculine form (e.g., chanteurs masculine 'singers'). While being auditorily prompted with "Look at the 'a role noun'!", two- and three-year-olds were presented with two pictures of two characters ('boy-boy' versus 'girl-boy') with attributes of the given role noun (e.g., singers with microphone and music notes). All role nouns were presented in the masculine plural form, which, despite its use to refer to mixed-gender groups, can be interpreted as referring to men. We expected toddlers to be biased by stereotypes, yet when non-stereotypical role nouns were presented, toddlers were not influenced by grammatical gender, but by their own sex (even more so for three-year-old toddlers). The absence of sensitivity to grammatical cues for either age group is discussed in terms of the developmental awareness of grammatical gender.

  16. Development and evaluation of RapTAT: a machine learning system for concept mapping of phrases from medical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbel, Glenn T; Reeves, Ruth; Jayaramaraja, Shrimalini; Giuse, Dario; Speroff, Theodore; Brown, Steven H; Elkin, Peter L; Matheny, Michael E

    2014-04-01

    Rapid, automated determination of the mapping of free text phrases to pre-defined concepts could assist in the annotation of clinical notes and increase the speed of natural language processing systems. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a token-order-specific naïve Bayes-based machine learning system (RapTAT) to predict associations between phrases and concepts. Performance was assessed using a reference standard generated from 2860 VA discharge summaries containing 567,520 phrases that had been mapped to 12,056 distinct Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) concepts by the MCVS natural language processing system. It was also assessed on the manually annotated, 2010 i2b2 challenge data. Performance was established with regard to precision, recall, and F-measure for each of the concepts within the VA documents using bootstrapping. Within that corpus, concepts identified by MCVS were broadly distributed throughout SNOMED CT, and the token-order-specific language model achieved better performance based on precision, recall, and F-measure (0.95±0.15, 0.96±0.16, and 0.95±0.16, respectively; mean±SD) than the bag-of-words based, naïve Bayes model (0.64±0.45, 0.61±0.46, and 0.60±0.45, respectively) that has previously been used for concept mapping. Precision, recall, and F-measure on the i2b2 test set were 92.9%, 85.9%, and 89.2% respectively, using the token-order-specific model. RapTAT required just 7.2ms to map all phrases within a single discharge summary, and mapping rate did not decrease as the number of processed documents increased. The high performance attained by the tool in terms of both accuracy and speed was encouraging, and the mapping rate should be sufficient to support near-real-time, interactive annotation of medical narratives. These results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly and accurately mapping phrases to a wide range of medical concepts based on a token-order-specific naïve Bayes model and

  17. A Cognitive Linguistic Analysis of Noun of Human Foot%人体器官名词“足”的认知研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      在特定的语境下,名词通常会发生词类转变并产生意义转变。试图运用认知语言学的突显理论,对古汉语中人体器官名词“足”在动化及意义转变方面进行认知分析,为“足”字的准确理解和正确运用提供认知依据。%Nouns usually produce conversion and generate meaning shift in specific contexts. This paper attempts to apply the theory of cognitive prominence to analyze the noun of human foot and finds that it generates verbalization and meaning shift in ancient Chinese texts so that the paper can shed light on the proper use of this noun.

  18. Use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of individuals with hearing impairment and normal hearing between 5 and 11 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Endo Amemiya

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nouns and verbs indicate actions in oral communication. However, hearing impairment can compromise the acquisition of oral language to such an extent that appropriate use of these can be challenging. The objective of this study was to compare the use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of hearing-impaired and hearing children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study at the Department of Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Twenty-one children with moderate to profound bilateral neurosensory hearing impairment and twenty-one with normal hearing (controls were matched according to sex, school year and school type. A board showing pictures was presented to each child, to elicit a narrative and measure their performance in producing nouns and verbs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (52.4% of the subjects were males. The mean age was 8 years (standard deviation, SD = 1.5. Comparing averages between the groups of boys and girls, we did not find any significant difference in their use of nouns, but among verbs, there was a significant difference regarding use of the imperative (P = 0.041: more frequent among boys (mean = 2.91. There was no significant difference in the use of nouns and verbs between deaf children and hearers, in relation to school type. Regarding use of the indicative, there was a nearly significant trend (P = 0.058. CONCLUSION: Among oralized hearing-impaired children who underwent speech therapy, their performance regarding verbs and noun use was similar to that of their hearing counterparts.

  19. How are 'Barack Obama' and 'President Elect' differentially stored in the brain? An ERP investigation on the processing of proper and common noun pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado Proverbio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the most debated issues in the cognitive neuroscience of language is whether distinct semantic domains are differentially represented in the brain. Clinical studies described several anomic dissociations with no clear neuroanatomical correlate. Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory retrieval is more demanding for proper than common nouns in that the former are purely arbitrary referential expressions. In this study a semantic relatedness paradigm was devised to investigate neural processing of proper and common nouns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 780 words (arranged in pairs of Italian nouns/adjectives and the first/last names of well known persons were presented. Half pairs were semantically related ("Woody Allen" or "social security", while the others were not ("Sigmund Parodi" or "judicial cream". All items were balanced for length, frequency, familiarity and semantic relatedness. Participants were to decide about the semantic relatedness of the two items in a pair. RTs and N400 data suggest that the task was more demanding for common nouns. The LORETA neural generators for the related-unrelated contrast (for proper names included the left fusiform gyrus, right medial temporal gyrus, limbic and parahippocampal regions, inferior parietal and inferior frontal areas, which are thought to be involved in the conjoined processing a familiar face with the relevant episodic information. Person name was more emotional and sensory vivid than common noun semantic access. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: When memory retrieval is not required, proper name access (conspecifics knowledge is not more demanding. The neural generators of N400 to unrelated items (unknown persons and things did not differ as a function of lexical class, thus suggesting that proper and common nouns are not treated differently as belonging to different grammatical classes.

  20. Študentje, škratje and nadškofje. Ending -je in nominative plural in nouns of the first masculine declension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Arhar Holdt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the phenomena found in conjugation and declension in the Slovene language are alternative inflectional forms. This paper focuses on one such example: certain Slovene masculine nouns in the first declension can be used in nominative plural with two different endings (e.g. študenti or študentje; in English students. While nowadays the majority of these noun forms typically end in -i, the ending -je remains the neutral choice for a small group of nouns. The beginnings of the described variation go back to the 16th century when the standardisation of Slovene took place. However, from the synchronic point of view, it is not entirely clear what determines the choice between the two endings in each case. Language users, motivated to use the ending that is most “suitable” or “correct”, seek guidance in language resources available to them, and sometimes supplement the available information with their own instinct-based “rules”. Namely, the information that one can currently obtain from Slovene reference books contains some inconsistencies – whereas the grammatical description of the problem appears to be rather vague, the prescriptive orthographic dictionary seems to be all the more decisive. This paper introduces new, corpus-based data related to the presented problem. It presents the findings of an analysis that is based on the Gigafida text corpus and is exploring three principal questions: (I which nouns are used with alternative endings -i and -je in contemporary written Slovene, (II what is the distribution of these endings for each specific noun, and (III do the identified nouns reflect any general tendencies about the usage of the endings. The paper concludes with an attempt to bridge the gap between the existing view of the described variation and the new corpus-based findings.

  1. From Slovene into English: Identifying Definiteness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frančiška Lipovšek

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses some typical instances of the translator’s failure to recognize definite reference in Slovene, which, in turn, results in an inappropriate determiner selection in English. It is argued that errors of this kind are ascribable not solely to the fact that the Slovene determiner system lacks an overt non-selective determiner parallel to the definite article, but to the relatively scarce use of overt determiners in general. Since definiteness is typically signalled by an anaphoric relation, some factors are explored that may help identify textual co-reference despite the absence of explicit anaphoric markers. Besides the translator’s inability to recognize the given phrase as anaphoric, two other major causes of inappropriate determiner selection are discussed: the misconception that the absence of an anaphoric relation entails indefiniteness and the translator’s misinterpreting an anaphoric expression as an ascriptive, non-referential entity. The second part of the paper focuses on the difference in use between the selective demonstrative pronoun and the non-selective definite article.

  2. The Differences between Thai and Indonesian Undergraduates in Pronouncing Plural Nouns and Third Singular Present Verbs due to Progressive Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofa Zakiyatul Muna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pronunciation is an important aspect in learning English and it is varied in different area. There are several types of dialect differences in speaking English and geographical dialect is one of them. In pronouncing plural verbs and third singular present verbs in English, the differences are happened. This research investigates the differences between Thai and Indonesian undergraduates in pronouncing plural nouns and third singular present verbs with s/es ending. The aim of this research are to find out the differences and similarities between Thai and Indonesian undergraduates in pronouncing plural nouns and third singular present verbs and the factors that influence it. The design of this research is case study by investigating Thai and Indonesian undergraduates of IAIN Salatiga in several period of time. Data is collected through documentation and interview. Documentation is conducted by recording respondents’ pronunciation. The recording is analyzed and combined with interview report to answer research problems. From the analysis, it is found that the differences and similarities of Thai and Indonesian undergraduates are substitution and omission of s/es suffix pronunciation. It is influenced by the geographic dialects and the existence of consonants in native language.

  3. Research Notes ~ Combating HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Nigeria: Responses from National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhemba Nom Ambe-Uva

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Universities have come under serious attack because of their lackluster response to HIV/AIDS. This article examines the response of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN and its strategic responses in combating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This is achieved by examining NOUN’s basic structures that position the University to respond to the epidemic; and second, by assessing HIV/AIDS strategies and policy framework the University has put in place. An interpretative epistemological stance was used for this study, and a qualitative research involving focus group discussion (FGD and analysis of secondary data was carried out. Results showed that NOUN has identified the impact the epidemic has on the university, although it has yet to institutionalize an HIV/AIDS policy. NOUN’s Draft Service Charter, however, has identified the fight against HIV/AIDS as a core mandate of the University, and the introduction of HIV/AIDS certification programs can be viewed as proactive policies in response to the epidemic. Results of this study are discussed in terms of their relevance to future research and the impact such policy frameworks may have on combating the epidemic, both within the University and the wider community.

  4. Neuroretinitis -- definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007624.htm Neuroretinitis - definition To use the sharing features on this page, ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial ...

  5. Market Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplow, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Market definition has long held a central place in competition law. This entry surveys recent analytical work that has called the market definition paradigm into question on a number of fronts: whether the process is feasible, whether market share threshold tests are coherent, whether the hypothetical monopolist test in merger guidelines is counterproductive, and whether and when the frequent focus on cross-elasticities is useful.

  6. Fingers Phrase Music Differently: Trial-to-Trial Variability in Piano Scale Playing and Auditory Perception Reveal Motor Chunking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Floris Tijmen; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how musical phrasing and motor sequencing interact to yield timing patterns in the conservatory students' playing piano scales. We propose a novel analysis method that compared the measured note onsets to an objectively regular scale fitted to the data. Subsequently, we segment the timing variability into (i) systematic deviations from objective evenness that are perhaps residuals of expressive timing or of perceptual biases and (ii) non-systematic deviations that can be interpreted as motor execution errors, perhaps due to noise in the nervous system. The former, systematic deviations reveal that the two-octave scales are played as a single musical phrase. The latter, trial-to-trial variabilities reveal that pianists' timing was less consistent at the boundaries between the octaves, providing evidence that the octave is represented as a single motor sequence. These effects cannot be explained by low-level properties of the motor task such as the thumb passage and also did not show up in simulated scales with temporal jitter. Intriguingly, this instability in motor production around the octave boundary is mirrored by an impairment in the detection of timing deviations at those positions, suggesting that chunks overlap between perception and action. We conclude that the octave boundary instability in the scale playing motor program provides behavioral evidence that our brain chunks musical sequences into octave units that do not coincide with musical phrases. Our results indicate that trial-to-trial variability is a novel and meaningful indicator of this chunking. The procedure can readily be extended to a variety of tasks to help understand how movements are divided into units and what processing occurs at their boundaries.

  7. Abstract Word Definition in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Soo Ryon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate concrete and abstract word definition ability (1 between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and normal adults and (2 between the aMCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic single-domain MCI and amnestic multidomain MCI; asMCI and amMCI and normal controls. The 68 patients with aMCI (29 asMCI and 39 amMCI and 93 age- and education-matched normal adults performed word definition tasks composed of five concrete (e.g., train and five abstract nouns (e.g., jealousy. Task performances were analyzed on total score, number of core meanings, and number of supplementary meanings. The results were as follows. First, the aMCI patients scored significantly poorer than the normal controls in only abstract word definition. Second, both subtypes of aMCI performed worse than the controls in only abstract word definition. In conclusion, a definition task of abstract rather than concrete concepts may provide richer information to show semantic impairment of aMCI.

  8. The Tragedy of the “Tragedy of the Commons”: Why Coining Too Good a Phrase Can Be Dangerous

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkshaw, Robert; Hawkshaw, Sarah; Sumaila, U.

    2012-01-01

    A deep reading of Hardin (1968) reveals that he had a lot more to say about the use and regulation of resources such as fisheries than he is given credit for in the literature. It appears that he is typically cited just so that authors can use the phrase “tragedy of the commons” to invoke the specter of looming catastrophe and then tie that to whatever solution they have proposed. We argue in this contribution that there is a lot more in Hardin’s essay that either contradicts or greatly compl...

  9. Identification of vowel length, word stress and compound words and phrases by postlingually-deafened cochlear implant listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, David Jackson; Magnusson, Lennart; Faulkner, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: The accurate perception of prosody assists a listener in deriving meaning from natural speech. Few studies have addressed the ability of cochlear implant (CI) listeners to perceive the brief duration prosodic cues involved in contrastive vowel length, word stress, and compound word...... word stress, vowel length, and compound words or phrases all of which were presented with minimal-pair response choices. Tests were performed in quiet and in speech-spectrum shaped noise at a 10 dB signal- to-noise ratio. Also, discrimination thresholds for four acoustic properties of a synthetic vowel...

  10. The Tragedy of the “Tragedy of the Commons”: Why Coining Too Good a Phrase Can Be Dangerous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Rashid Sumaila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A deep reading of Hardin (1968 reveals that he had a lot more to say about the use and regulation of resources such as fisheries than he is given credit for in the literature. It appears that he is typically cited just so that authors can use the phrase “tragedy of the commons” to invoke the specter of looming catastrophe and then tie that to whatever solution they have proposed. We argue in this contribution that there is a lot more in Hardin’s essay that either contradicts or greatly complicates the arguments he is cited as an authority for.

  11. Dewey's 1906 Definition of Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Philip W.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes, phrase-by-phrase, a sentence extracted from a 1906 speech by John Dewey to an audience of art teachers in which he defined art. The sentence tacitly connects to a wide variety of Deweyan doctrines, particularly those having to do with Dewey's vision of human flourishing, and it offers an invitation to extend one's traditional conception…

  12. Dewey's 1906 Definition of Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Philip W.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes, phrase-by-phrase, a sentence extracted from a 1906 speech by John Dewey to an audience of art teachers in which he defined art. The sentence tacitly connects to a wide variety of Deweyan doctrines, particularly those having to do with Dewey's vision of human flourishing, and it offers an invitation to extend one's traditional conception…

  13. "I Saw the Madre": Evaluating Predictions about Codeswitched Determiner-Noun Sequences Using Spanish-English and Welsh-English Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Jon Russell; Deuchar, Margaret; Couto, M. Carmen Parafita; Quintanilla, Monica Moro

    2010-01-01

    Previous work on intrasentential codeswitching has noted that switches between determiners and their noun complements are frequent in both Spanish-English and Welsh-English data. Two major recent theories of codeswitching, the Matrix Language Frame model and a Minimalist Program approach, make potentially competing predictions regarding the source…

  14. Children's Acquisition of Nouns and Verbs in Italian: Contrasting the Roles of Frequency and Positional Salience in Maternal Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Because of its structural characteristics, specifically the prevalence of verb types in infant-directed speech and frequent pronoun-dropping, the Italian language offers an attractive opportunity to investigate the predictive effects of input frequency and positional salience on children's acquisition of nouns and verbs. We examined this…

  15. The use of nouns and verbs by Japanese children and their caregivers in book-reading and toy-playing contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tamiko; Dale, Philip S; Yamashita, Yukie; Murase, Toshiki; Mahieu, Aki

    2006-02-01

    Japanese provides a valuable contrast for crosslinguistic studies of noun and verb dominance in early child language, and the effect of input on the early lexicon. In this study, 31 Japanese children between 1;0 and 2;0 and their caregivers were recorded in two contexts: joint bookreading and play with toys. Context had the largest effect, as nouns were much more frequent in the book context. Noun dominance was constant across development in the book context, but in the toy context there was a shift away as children developed from single words through the presyntactic stage to the syntactic stage. Caregiver language was verb dominant in a number of respects across development in the toy context, and thus was not closely related to child lexical balance. We conclude that in early lexical development, all children have a conceptual disposition to learn nouns. With vocabulary growth and the emergence of grammar, the proportion of verbs increases substantially, and at this stage properties of the input language may influence development.

  16. Language Use in a "One Parent-One Language" Mandarin-English Bilingual Family: Noun versus Verb Use and Language Mixing Compared to Maternal Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chen; Winsler, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Via naturalistic observations, parent interview, and direct assessments, we examined language proficiency, language use, and differentiation of a 3-year, 4-month-old bilingual child exposed to Mandarin and English via the "one parent-one language" principle. Although noun versus verb dominance has been explored across verb-based…

  17. An experimental study on the learning of arbitrary and non-arbitrary gender of pseudo Dutch nouns by nonnative and native speakers of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekhnini, A.; Hulstijn, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    In this article we addres the question of whether, and to what exetent, noun gender attribution in languages such as French, German and Dutch can be formulated in terms of- semantic morphonological rules- competing semantic and morphonological cues- arbitrary idiosyncratic featuresIn addressing this

  18. [Discussion on strengthening yin of chinese herbs with bitter-flavor clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology noun terminology standardization research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Mei; Bao; Zhaorigetu; Zhuang, Xin-Ying; Que, Ling; Tian, Chang-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology is the subject that study of basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, property of Chinese materia medica and clinical application. The study on the standardization research of the terminology of clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology is an important premise and foundation to standardization, modernization and internationalization, informationization construction of clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology and is also the important content of the subject construction. To provide some exploring ideas for clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology noun terminology standardization, this article elaborates the concept of strengthening Yin with bitter-flavor herbs in several aspects, such as connotation and the historical origin, the clinical application in the traditional, modern clinic application, and the modern basic research and so on.

  19. Licensing by modification Licensing by modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneeta Dayal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper looks at the phenomena of licensing by modification, whereby an unacceptable noun phrase is redeemed by the presence of a modifier or an unavailable reading for a noun phrase is made available with the addition of a modifier. It argues that an optimal account of such phenomena should derive these effects from the interaction of the meanings of individual expressions in the sentence rather than by positing a formal licensing relation between the modifier and the noun it modifies. The general approach is explicated by considering the distribution of bare plurals in Italian and the availability of generic readings for plural definites in English. The overall goal is a modest one. It seeks to draw attention to properties of modification that go beyond set intersection by focusing on phenomena that have not so far been closely scrutinized in the literature. It uses the particular results to draw some conclusions about questions of general interest.Licensing by modification Abstract: This paper looks at the phenomena of licensing by modification, whereby an unacceptable noun phrase is redeemed by the presence of a modifier or an unavailable reading for a noun phrase is made available with the addition of a modifier. It argues that an optimal account of such phenomena should derive these effects from the interaction of the meanings of individual expressions in the sentence rather than by positing a formal licensing relation between the modifier and the noun it modifies. The general approach is explicated by considering the distribution of bare plurals in Italian and the availability of generic readings for plural definites in English. The overall goal is a modest one. It seeks to draw attention to properties of modification that go beyond set intersection by focusing on phenomena that have not so far been closely scrutinized in the literature. It uses the particular results to draw some conclusions about questions of general

  20. Definitions of Cyber Terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The phrase cyber terror appeared for the first time in the mid-eighties. According to several sources, Barry C. Collin, a senior person research fellow of the Institute for Security and Intelligence in California, defined cyber terror at that time as “the convergence of cybernetics and terrorism”—an

  1. Definitions of Cyber Terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The phrase cyber terror appeared for the first time in the mid-eighties. According to several sources, Barry C. Collin, a senior person research fellow of the Institute for Security and Intelligence in California, defined cyber terror at that time as “the convergence of cybernetics and terrorism”—an

  2. The factor structure of the twelve item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12: the result of negative phrasing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 is used routinely as a unidimensional measure of psychological morbidity. Many factor-analytic studies have reported that the GHQ-12 has two or three dimensions, threatening its validity. It is possible that these 'dimensions' are the result of the wording of the GHQ-12, namely its division into positively phrased (PP and negatively phrased (NP statements about mood states. Such 'method effects' introduce response bias which should be taken into account when deriving and interpreting factors. Methods GHQ-12 data were obtained from the 2004 cohort of the Health Survey for England (N = 3705. Following exploratory factor analysis (EFA, the goodness of fit indices of one, two and three factor models were compared with those of a unidimensional model specifying response bias on the NP items, using structural equation modelling (SEM. The hypotheses were (1 the variance of the responses would be significantly higher for NP items than for PP items because of response bias, and (2 that the modelling of response bias would provide the best fit for the data. Results Consistent with previous reports, EFA suggested a two-factor solution dividing the items into NP and PP items. The variance of responses to the NP items was substantially and significantly higher than for the PP items. The model incorporating response bias was the best fit for the data on all indices (RMSEA = 0.068, 90%CL = 0.064, 0.073. Analysis of the frequency of responses suggests that the response bias derives from the ambiguity of the response options for the absence of negative mood states. Conclusion The data are consistent with the GHQ-12 being a unidimensional scale with a substantial degree of response bias for the negatively phrased items. Studies that report the GHQ-12 as multidimensional without taking this response bias into account risk interpreting the artefactual factor structure as denoting 'real' constructs

  3. Progress of Automatic Extraction of Uyghur Phrases%维吾尔语短语自动抽取研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海军

    2015-01-01

    Phrase extraction, which is the research basis of machine translation and information retrieval, plays a very important role in natural language processing. This paper puts the emphasis on the research progress of of Uyghur phrase extraction. To make convenience for discussion, this paper studies the linguistic features of Uyghur phrases and analyzes the impacts of these features on the phrase extraction. This paper mainly summarizes the philological theories of phrase identification in Uyghur and discusses the technologies of automatic extraction of Uyghur phrases. There has made great progress on the extraction of Uyghur phrases in both theory and technology. However, there are still lots of work to be carried out, such as to formulate tagging standard, study tagged corpus and expend research domains etc. It is hoped that this paper can give some references to the research on phrase extraction in Uyghur.%短语识别是机器翻译与信息检索的技术基础,具有重要的研究价值.围绕维吾尔语短语识别的研究进展,阐述了维吾尔语的语言特点,分析了这些特点对维吾尔语短语识别的影响,总结了近年来维吾尔语短语识别的有关语言学研究成果,重点梳理了维吾尔语短语自动抽取的相关研究方法.通过总结和梳理,发现目前维吾尔语短语自动抽取研究在理论和实现技术方面取得了较大进展,但在短语标注标准、研究语料及研究领域等方面还有大量工作尚未有效开展,需要予以关注.希望该文能为维吾尔语短语抽取相关研究提供借鉴和参考.

  4. Heuristics for identification of acronym-definition patterns within text: towards an automated construction of comprehensive acronym-definition dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, J D; Garner, H R

    2002-01-01

    To develop an automated, accurate and scalable method by which acronym-definition pairs can be identified within text. Its primary advantage is in enabling information processing methods to resolve author-defined acronyms, but it also allows an automated creation of a reference work on acronym definitions. This has several advantages over manual or semi-automated methods, besides time and effort saved, such as enabling identification of relative frequencies for alternate acronyms and definitions as well as spelling, phrasing and hyphenation variants for a unique acronym-definition pair. It also aids users in identifying acronym/definition variants present in the literature that may not necessarily be in biomedical databases. A set of heuristics to accurately locate and identify the boundaries of acronym-definition pairs was developed and refined in terms of precision and recall on subsets of MEDLINE records. These training sets were gradually increased in size and heuristics re-evaluated to ensure scalability. Our final set of Acronym Resolving General Heuristics (ARGH) had a sample-based estimated rate of 96.5 +/- 0.4% precision and 93.0 +/- 2.7% recall when tested on over 12 million MEDLINE records, identifying more than 174,000 unique acronyms and their 737,000 associated definitions. We estimate that as much as 36% of the acronyms in MEDLINE are associated with more than one definition and, conversely, up to 10% of definitions are associated with more than one acronym. The number of unique acronyms in MEDLINE is increasing at a rate of approximately 11,000 per year, while the number of definitions associated with them is growing at approximately four times that rate. Access to the ARGH database is available online at http://lethargy.swmed.edu/ARGH/argh.asp. The heuristic module and database are available upon request.

  5. Using the World-Wide Web to obtain large-scale word norms: 190,212 ratings on a set of 2,654 German nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahl, Olaf; Göritz, Anja S; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Rosenberg, Jessica

    2009-02-01

    This article presents a new database of 2,654 German nouns rated by a sample of 3,907 subjects on three psycholinguistic attributes: concreteness, valence, and arousal. As a new means of data collection in the field of psycholinguistic research, all ratings were obtained via the Internet, using a tailored Web application. Analysis of the obtained word norms showed good agreement with two existing norm sets. A cluster analysis revealed a plausible set of four classes of nouns: abstract concepts, aversive events, pleasant activities, and physical objects. In an additional application example, we demonstrate the usefulness of the database for creating parallel word lists whose elements match as closely as possible. The complete database is available for free from ftp://ftp.uni-duesseldorf.de/pub/psycho/lahl/WWN. Moreover, the Web application used for data collection is inherently capable of collecting word norms in any language and is going to be released for public use as well.

  6. Detecting letters and words in prose passages: a test of alternative theoretical accounts of the missing letter effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Alice F; Cunningham, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    College students searched for either h or the in prose passages in which every h occurred in the test word the. In Experiment 1, passage versions differed in that the critical noun phrases were either the alone (i.e., in citation form as a noun referring to itself) or "the definite article." Many more detection errors occurred for letter than word target items, especially with "the definite article." In Experiment 2, passage versions differed in that a given noun phrase containing the test word the occurred as a subject in one version and an object in the other. Again, many more detection errors occurred when the target item was the letter h than when it was the letter sequence the. Also, with letter but not letter sequence targets, more detection errors occurred for object than subject noun phrases. In Experiment 3, passages were presented either in regular format or with all capital letters. Students made more detection errors with the regular than with the capitals format, many more errors occurred when participants searched for letters than for letter sequences, and the effect of target item was larger with regular than with capitals format. These findings suggest that accounts of detection errors in reading must include the influence of unitization and processing time or attentional allocation.

  7. Chinese Phrase Tagging and Automated Annotation Based on CSSCI Corpus%CSSCI语料中短语结构标注与自动识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢靖; 苏新宁; 沈思

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces a new syntax method as the solution of term phrase identification on CSSCI corpus, and obtains the inter - relationship among terms in academic literature from the linguistic aspect based on phrase components, such as words, part - of - speech, grammar functions, etc. These linguistic features are mixed with phrase features which are extracted from Tsinghua Treebank so as to leverage the accuracy of phrase auto - identification in academic corpus.%将短语结构标注引入CSSCI期刊论文题录信息分析,在关键词、术语构成上从语法角度深度探讨各组成词汇之间的语法关系,力图通过语法功能分析揭示其所蕴含的语义知识。在进行一定规模语料标注基础上,通过短语词汇、词性统计及短语语法功能分析获取学术文献中短语结构构成特征,并将这部分特征与清华树库语料短语特征混合,提高短语结构在科技文献中的识别率。

  8. P.R. Subramanian (Chief Editor). Tarkalat Tamil Maraputtotar Akarati (Tamil-Tamil-Ankilam) (Dictionary of Idioms and Phrases in Contemporary Tamil (Tamil-Tamil-English)

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan, G.

    2012-01-01

    Review of P.R. Subramanian (Chief Editor). Tarkalat Tamil Maraputtotar Akarati (Tamil-Tamil-Ankilam) (Dictionary of Idioms and Phrases in Contemporary Tamil (Tamil-Tamil-English)

    Resensie van P.R. Subramanian (Chief Editor). Tarkalat Tamil Maraputtotar Akarati (Tamil-Tamil-Ankilam) (Dictionary of Idioms and Phrases in Contemporary Tamil (Tamil-Tamil-...

  9. TIPE NOMINA TAKRIF BAHASA INDONESIA DALAM KARANGAN SISWA SEKOLAH DASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Setiawan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe definite nominals in the Indonesian language in elementary school students’ writings. The data source was descriptive and narrative writing of elementary school students in Yogyakarta City. The data were analyzed by means of a correspondence method with a referential division and a distribution method with element division, repetition, substitution, and deletion techniques. Based on the data analysis, it can be concluded that definite nominals in the Indonesian language in elementary school students’ writings consist of six types, i.e. (a personal pronouns, (b proper nouns, (c possessive nominal phrases, (d definite description, (e demonstrative description, and (f numeral description. In the realization, definite nominals –except proper nouns and personal pronouns– are not always present with definite markers. Nominals without definite markers can be definite if they are supported by contexts clarifying the referents.

  10. On the Spelling of the Plural of Nouns%名词复数拼法问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹向东

    2012-01-01

    根据词汇学基础理论,英语词汇中名词复数的拼法由于历史原因以及拼读体系与拼写体系的差异,使得名词复数形式的拼读与拼写不尽相同,这给学习名词单复数形式转换带来了一定的困难。本文拟介绍一些可以借鉴的常见复数拼法规则,以便有助于大家学习与实践。%According to the basic theory of vocabulary,the plural of nouns in English vocabulary distinguishes for sake of historical reasons,which makes it difficult for the learning of the transformation from singular form to plural form.This paper introduces some rules that can be referred to,aiming to help English learners' learning and practice.

  11. Be concrete to be comprehended: consistent imageability effects in semantic dementia for nouns, verbs, synonyms and associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Jones, Roy W; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2013-05-01

    There are two contrasting views on the nature of comprehension impairment in semantic dementia: (a) that it stems from degradation of a pan-modal "hub" that represents core conceptual knowledge or (b) that it results from degradation of modality-specific visual feature knowledge. These theories make divergent predictions regarding comprehension of concrete versus abstract words in the disorder. The visual hypothesis predicts that concrete words should be particularly impaired because they depend heavily on visual information. In contrast, the pan-modal hub hypothesis holds that all types of knowledge are affected but predicts less severe impairment of concrete words because they have richer and more detailed semantic representations than abstract words. We investigated concreteness effects in the comprehension of six SD patients. Across nouns, verbs, synonymous and associative relationships, a clear and consistent pattern emerged: concrete words were always comprehended more successfully than abstract words. These findings extend those of previous studies and suggest that conceptual impairment in SD is not confined to concepts that rely on visual information. Instead, all types of knowledge are affected by the progressive deterioration of modality-invariant representations (required for coherent pan-modal concepts). Concrete words succumb less quickly by virtue of their richer and more detailed semantic representations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct current induced short-term modulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while learning auditory presented nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the contribution of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the exploration of memory functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioural effects of right or left-hemisphere frontal direct current delivery while committing to memory auditory presented nouns on short-term learning and subsequent long-term retrieval. Methods Twenty subjects, divided into two groups, performed an episodic verbal memory task during anodal, cathodal and sham current application on the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Results Our results imply that only cathodal tDCS elicits behavioural effects on verbal memory performance. In particular, left-sided application of cathodal tDCS impaired short-term verbal learning when compared to the baseline. We did not observe tDCS effects on long-term retrieval. Conclusion Our results imply that the left DLPFC is a crucial area involved in short-term verbal learning mechanisms. However, we found further support that direct current delivery with an intensity of 1.5 mA to the DLPFC during short-term learning does not disrupt longer lasting consolidation processes that are mainly known to be related to mesial temporal lobe areas. In the present study, we have shown that the tDCS technique has the potential to modulate short-term verbal learning mechanism.

  13. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving t

  14. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving

  15. Content and Phrasing in Titles of Original Research and Review Articles in 2015: Range of Practice in Four Clinical Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Kerans

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reporting guidelines for clinical research designs emerged in the mid-1990s and have influenced various aspects of research articles, including titles, which have also been subject to changing uses with the growth of electronic database searching and efforts to reduce bias in literature searches. We aimed (1 to learn more about titles in clinical medicine today and (2 to develop an efficient, reliable way to study titles over time and on the fly—for quick application by authors, manuscript editors, translators and instructors. We compared content and form in titles from two general medical journals—the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM and the British Medical Journal—and two anesthesiology journals (the European Journal of Anaesthesiology and Anesthesiology; we also analyzed the inter-rater reliability of our coding. Significant content differences were found in the frequencies of mentions of methods, results (between general and subspecialty titles, and geographic setting; phrasing differences were found in the prevalence of full-sentence and compound titles (and their punctuation. NEJM titles were significantly shorter, and this journal differed consistently on several features. We conclude that authors must learn to efficiently survey titles for form and content patterns when preparing manuscripts to submit to unfamiliar journals or on resubmitting to a new journal after rejection.

  16. Développement de la mémoire de travail et traitement des phrases complexes : Quelle relation ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauenfelder Ulrich

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La complexité syntaxique d’une phrase en langage oral peut se caractériser par le nombre et la nature des opérations syntaxiques nécessaires à son élaboration, et notamment par la profondeur de son enchâssement. Cette complexité influence l’âge d’acquisition des différentes structures syntaxiques, les énoncés les plus complexes étant maîtrisés plus tardivement par l’enfant. Certains auteurs attribuent cette acquisition de la syntaxe complexe à des contraintes développementales externes au système linguistique lui-même et notamment à des limitations dans les capacités de mémoire de travail (Jakubowicz, 2007. Ainsi, le traitement d’une phrase complexe engendrerait un coût cognitif important et constituerait une surcharge pour des capacités de mémoire de travail davantage limitées chez le jeune enfant. La maturation normale de ce système mnémonique permettrait ensuite à l’enfant de comprendre et de produire des énoncés de plus en plus complexes. La présente recherche a pour objectif d’éclaircir les liens entre le développement de la mémoire de travail et le traitement des phrases complexes chez l’enfant tout-venant âgé de 5 à 12 ans. Suivant le modèle de la mémoire de travail de Baddeley & Hitch (1986 et les travaux de Barrouillet & Camos (2001, 2007, nous avons appréhendé les compétences de la boucle phonologique via des épreuves d’empans simples (empan direct de chiffres, répétition de mots et de pseudo-mots et la mémoire de travail verbale via des tâches d’empans complexes (empan indirect de chiffres, counting span et running span. Les habiletés syntaxiques des enfants ont été évaluées en compréhension et en répétition d’énoncés complexes. Une analyse d’échantillons de langage spontané a enfin permis de récolter les données liées à l’utilisation de la syntaxe complexe en contexte écologique (LME, taux de subordination et taux d’enchâssement profond. Les

  17. Between fall and fall-rise: substance-function relations in German phrase-final intonation contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates an intonation contour of German whose status has not been established yet: a globally falling contour with a slight rise at the very end of the phrase (FSR). The contour may be said to lie on a phonetic continuum between falling (F) and falling-rising (FR) contours. It is hypothesized that F, FR and FSR differ with respect to their communicative functions: F is terminal, FR is non-terminal, and FSR is pseudo-terminal, respectively. The hypotheses were tested in two steps. First, measurements in a labelled corpus of spontaneous speech provided the necessary background information on the phonetics of the contours. In the second step, the general hypothesis was approached in a perceptual experiment using the paradigm of a semantic differential: 49 listeners judged 17 systematically generated stimuli on nine semantic scales, such as 'impolite/polite'. The hypotheses were generally confirmed. Both F and FSR were associated with a conclusive statement, while FR was more likely to be judged as marking a question. FSR differs from F in that it does not express features such as categoricalness, dominance or impoliteness. The results are interpreted as an instance of the frequency code: the addition of a slight rise means avoidance of extremely low F(0); the functional consequence is a reduction of communicated dominance.

  18. “A的是”短语的特殊功能%The Special Functions of "Adeshi" Phrases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗江

    2012-01-01

    Some of the adjectives or phrases of adjective nature in modern Chinese have funtions of discourse conjunction and as pragmatic markers when being followed by "deshi".While as pragmatic markers,they mainly function to editorialize.These functions originated from Ming and Qing Dynasty,but have been widespread since affected by synonymity in English.%现代汉语中有些形容词或形容词性短语加上"的是"之后,具有篇章连接功能和语用标记功能。在篇章功能中,它们既有逆接功能也有顺接功能;在语用标记功能中,它们主要是发挥主观评价功能,包括正面评价功能和负面评价功能。这类成分在明清之际开始产生,但它的扩散以至替换近代汉语中的同功能成分与英语中对应成分的影响有一定的关系。

  19. Remarques sur la place des formes faibles des pronoms personnels regimes dans la phrase en ancien français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Grad

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans le chapitre de la syntaxe historique de la langue française, traitant l'ordre des mots dans la phrase et son évolution au cours des premiers siècles de l'ancien français, le problème de la proclise ou bien de l'enclise des formes faibles dos pronoms personnels régimes n'est pas le moins intéressant. En latin, la place de ces pronoms était en général après le verbe (Videt me, Pater amat me, c'est-à-dire que les pronoms se trouvaient en enclise au verbe, bien que des exemples où le pronom précède le verbe soient fréquents aussi, comp.: Et ne nos inducas in tentationem, sed libera nos a malo, Vulg., Math. 6, 13; Haec omnia tibi dabo, si cadens adoraveris me, ib. 4, 9, à côté de: Quaerite ergo primum regnum Dei.

  20. 交集型歧义字段切分方法研究%Study of Segmentation Strategy on Ambiguous Phrases of Overlap Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫引堂; 周晓强

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a segmentation strategy on ambiguous phrases of overlap type with rules based on the independent-wording-ability frequency and collocating of words & parts of speech,which improves the accuracy of segmentation greatly. In an open test of a Chinese corpus with 40,000 characters, the accuracy of segmentation for ambiguous phrases of overlap type reached 98%.%本文通过动态建立独立成词能力频次库的方法以及基于词语/词性搭配的规则库,对交集型歧义字段进行处理,大大提高了切分正确率。在4万语料的开放测试中,交集型歧义字段的切分正确率可达98%以上。

  1. Valence, arousal, familiarity, concreteness, and imageability ratings for 292 two-character Chinese nouns in Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lydia T S

    2017-01-01

    Words are frequently used as stimuli in cognitive psychology experiments, for example, in recognition memory studies. In these experiments, it is often desirable to control for the words' psycholinguistic properties because differences in such properties across experimental conditions might introduce undesirable confounds. In order to avoid confounds, studies typically check to see if various affective and lexico-semantic properties are matched across experimental conditions, and so databases that contain values for these properties are needed. While word ratings for these variables exist in English and other European languages, ratings for Chinese words are not comprehensive. In particular, while ratings for single characters exist, ratings for two-character words-which often have different meanings than their constituent characters, are scarce. In this study, ratings for 292 two-character Chinese nouns were obtained from Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong. Affective variables, including valence and arousal, and lexico-semantic variables, including familiarity, concreteness, and imageability, were rated in the study. The words were selected from a film subtitle database containing word frequency information that could be extracted and listed alongside the resulting ratings. Overall, the subjective ratings showed good reliability across all rated dimensions, as well as good reliability within and between the different groups of participants who each rated a subset of the words. Moreover, several well-established relationships between the variables found consistently in other languages were also observed in this study, demonstrating that the ratings are valid. The resulting word database can be used in studies where control for the above psycholinguistic variables is critical to the research design.

  2. RegulonDB v8.0: omics data sets, evolutionary conservation, regulatory phrases, cross-validated gold standards and more

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Heladia; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Muñiz-Rascado, Luis; García-Sotelo, Jair S.; Weiss, Verena; Solano-Lira, Hilda; Martínez-Flores, Irma; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Salgado-Osorio, Gerardo; Alquicira-Hernández, Shirley; Alquicira-Hernández, Kevin; López-Fuentes, Alejandra; Porrón-Sotelo, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes our progress with RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx/) during the past 2 years. We have kept up-to-date the knowledge from the published literature regarding transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli K-12. We have maintained and expanded our curation efforts to improve the breadth and quality of the encoded experimental knowledge, and we have implemented criteria for the quality of our computational predictions. Regulatory phrases now provide high-level descr...

  3. Selected Issues in the Theory of Comparison: Phrasal Comparison in Turkish and a Cross-Linguistic Perspective on Intensifiers, Negative Island Effects and the Distribution of Measure Phrases

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstetter, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation primarily aims at filling a number of gaps in the theory of comparison, in particular with respect to phrasal comparison in Turkish, intensifiers, Negative Island Effects and the cross-linguistic distribution of measure phrases. In its first main section, it provides a fairly exhaustive overview of the inventory of comparison constructions attested in the Turkish language and shows that the adverb daha is a largely optional element with these except for constructions th...

  4. 《元曲选》中方位短语及其功能(下)%POSITIONAL PHRASES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS IN 《THE SELECTION OF YUANQU》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐韵

    2001-01-01

    《元曲选》中,方位短语前不加介词可直接充当句子的状语、补语。方位短语直接充当状语是近代汉语中较为常见的语法现象,现代汉语当中虽不普遍,但仍有少量用例。充当补语时,方位短语多数表处所,且动词一般是非行走义类。方位短语直接作补语是《元曲选》中也是近代汉语中不常见的现象,在现代汉语中仍有遗留。%In 《The Selection of Yuanqu》,the positional phrases with no prepositions before them were used as adverbials and complements. Positional phrases directly used as adverbials were common grammatical phenomena in modern Chinese and there are a few examples in present Chinese. When they are used as complements, most of them indicate positions, with which used the verbs mean non-going and non-coming. The positional phrases directly used as complements in 《The Selection of Yuanqu》were not common in modern Chinese but there are some remnants in present Chinese.

  5. A Constructional Approach to "Guangpan" Pop Phrases%“光盘”类流行语的构式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐银

    2014-01-01

    形容词“光”参与汉语致使结果及物构式而形成“光盘”类流行语表达。此类流行语涉及“容器代内容”及“动作结果代动作过程”两类转喻。此种流行语的生成是归纳—演绎互动过程,其动因可归结为三方面:说话人的主观认知与经济性原则、修辞目标与语言优先原则、社会层面原因。%〝Guangpan( eat up everything on your plate)〝 pop phrases are formed as the Chinese adjective〝Guang〝participates in 〝cause-become〝 transitive construction. The two metonymic processes involved in 〝Guangpan( eat up everything on your plate)〝 pop phrases are〝container for content〝 and〝result for action〝. The use of such pop phases is the interaction between induction and deduction. And factors leading to generation of such pop phrases are generalized in the following three aspects:the speakerˊs subjunctive cognition and economy principle,rhetorical target and language--preferred principle and social factors.

  6. Synergist: Collaborative Analyst Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    patterns for interrogative sentences and other frequent patterns around noun phrases. For example, the pattern that looks at the sequence of noun...2 corpus. 7 J. Hobbs. Resolving pronoun references, Lingua, 44:311-338, 1978. 8 S

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prosodic domains such as the phonological word, the phonological phrase and ... and sometimes violate for instance Noun and Adjective and Noun and numeral ... Kwa languages, using the recursive approach by Leben andAhoua (1997).

  8. “文镜”发微%A Buddhist Inquiry into the Phrase Bunkyo of Kakai' s Bunkyo Hifuron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石少欣

    2012-01-01

    《文镜秘府论》的书名与结构都独具特色,我们认为这一独特性应与空海大师醇厚的佛学修养密不可分。本文旨在结合佛教文献中禅宗、华严宗以及密宗对“镜”的意象的分析,试析“文镜”除去文学层面的表义之外,所含佛教方面的深意,并结合空海大师其他作品中所流露的弘法志向,阐发《文镜秘府论》一书所寄托的教化意图。%Kakai, who had intended to study in Tang for 20 years, got abhiksema given by Master Huiguo and was instructed to return to Japan soon, so that he left China after two - year study to spread Tantric Buddhism. Krlkai devoted himself to exercising and spreading Buddhism and left us many Buddhist works, among which there is a book on the writing art of poems and composi- tion, that is, the famous Bunkyo Hifuron. why did he edit such a book? Surely it shows his love of Han Culture. What's more, the uique title and structure speaks out his minds of buddhism. This article is ready to make an thourough inquiry into the Buddhist meanings of the unique phrase Bunkyo appearing in the title in order to expose K@ai' s Buddhist thoughts and devotion and to expose a new understanding of the book.

  9. La co-construction textuelle avec de jeunes enfants : de la phrase au texte, et vice versa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Torterat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente un type d’intervention pédagogique qui, menée avec de jeunes enfants, favorise les acquisitions simultanément dans les domaines de la structuration discursive et de l’organisation textuelle. Dans ces quelques pages, nous exposons les principes de la démarche en nous appuyant sur plusieurs extraits de corpus de terrain, ce qui nous conduit par la suite à montrer dans quelle mesure la construction phrastique contribue à l’organisation textuelle, et même l’anticipe à bien des égards, à travers en particulier la thématicité, la phoricité et la prédicativité. L’ensemble aboutit à déterminer ce qui, dans la co-construction textuelle qui s’établit, caractérise en particulier les moments spécifiques de la démarche et les interactions qu’elle permet d’engager entre le texte et la phrase.This paper presents an educational intervention, with young children, which facilitates acquisition of both Discourse Structuring and Text Organization. In this article, we explain principles of this approach through several corpora, showing how Sentence Constructions contribute to Text Structuring, and even anticipate it. On the one hand, we examine thematic and anaphoric elements, but also predicates. On the other hand, we describe specific moments of this intervention to demonstrate to what extent it implies an interaction between Text and Sentences.

  10. A Green Catch Phrase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The "low-carbon economy," an attention-grabbing slogan gaining increasing popularity in China, can be summed up as an economic develop- ment mode based on more efficient energy use that minimizes pollution and waste emissions. The concept is widely seen as an eventual and effective solution to addressing the environmental woes China faces today.

  11. Le couple interactif texte / phrase dans l'histoire de la langue française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Lehmann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude est consacrée à la question de la cohérence textuelle dans différents types de textes en moyen français (discours scientifiques, ouvrages didactiques, récits brefs. Nous mettons au premier plan l’ensemble texte / phrase et montrons sous quelles conditions l’évolution du système linguistique produit de nouvelles structures textuelles. Nous décrivons les différents types de progressions thématiques caractérisant les productions textuelles en ancien et moyen français. La notion de genre est un critère important pour l’analyse de la macro- et microstructure des textes. Notre étude montre que l’évolution des structures textuelles est liée au niveau syntaxique et se manifeste dans la complexité de plus en plus grande des structures thématiques en moyen français. La relation qui s’établit entre le niveau thématique et les niveaux morphosyntaxique et sémantique est définie comme une interaction dont le fonctionnement est analysé dans une perspective diachronique.This study is devoted to the question of textual coherence in various types of texts in Middle French (didactic works, short stories. The goal is to highlight the text / sentence (global set assembly and to show under which conditions the evolution of the linguistic system produces new textual structures. We describe here the different types of theme progression used in the textual productions in Middle French. The concept of genre is an important parameter for the analysis of macro- and microstructure of a text. Our study shows that the textual structures evolution is related to the syntactic level and appears in the increasing complexity of thematic structure sets in Middle French. The relation which is established between the thematic level and the morphosyntactic and semantic levels is defined as an interaction whose operation is analyzed in a diachronic perspective.

  12. Spoken language comprehension of phrases, simple and compound-active sentences in non-speaking children with severe cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geytenbeek, Joke J M; Heim, Margriet J M; Knol, Dirk L; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Oostrom, Kim J

    2015-07-01

    Children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) (i.e. 'non-speaking children with severely limited mobility') are restricted in many domains that are important to the acquisition of language. To investigate comprehension of spoken language on sentence type level in non-speaking children with severe CP. From an original sample of 87 non-speaking children with severe CP, 68 passed the pre-test (i.e. they matched at least five spoken words to the corresponding objects) of a specifically developed computer-based instrument for low motor language testing (C-BiLLT), admitting them to the actual C-BiLLT computer test. As a result, the present study included 68 children with severe CP (35 boys, 33 girls; mean age 6;11 years, SD 3;0 years; age range 1;9-11;11 years) who were investigated with the C-BiLLT for comprehension of different sentence types: phrases, simple active sentences (with one or two arguments) and compound sentences. The C-BiLLT provides norm data of typically developing (TD) children (1;6-6;6 years). Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to compare the percentage correct of each sentence type in children with severe CP with that in TD children (subdivided into age groups) and to compare percentage correct within the CP subtypes. Sentence comprehension in non-speaking children with severe CP followed the developmental trajectory of TD children, but at a much slower rate; nevertheless, they were still developing up to at least age 12 years. Delays in sentence type comprehension increased with sentence complexity and showed a large variability between individual children and between subtypes of CP. Comprehension of simple and syntactically more complex sentences were significantly better in children with dyskinetic CP than in children with spastic CP. Of the children with dyskinetic CP, 10-13% showed comprehension of simple and compound sentences within the percentage correct of TD children, as opposed to none of the children with spastic CP. In non

  13. Integrating Gricean and Attentional Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Passonneau, R J

    1995-01-01

    This paper concerns how to generate and understand discourse anaphoric noun phrases. I present the results of an analysis of all discourse anaphoric noun phrases (N=1,233) in a corpus of ten narrative monologues, where the choice between a definite pronoun or phrasal NP conforms largely to Gricean constraints on informativeness. I discuss Dale and Reiter's [To appear] recent model and show how it can be augmented for understanding as well as generating the range of data presented here. I argue that integrating centering [Grosz et al., 1983] [Kameyama, 1985] with this model can be applied uniformly to discourse anaphoric pronouns and phrasal NPs. I conclude with a hypothesis for addressing the interaction between local and global discourse processing.

  14. extent of use of ict by fish farmers in isoko agricultural zone of delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr. TONY A

    affixations, words, phrases and connotations which are denigrating and dehumanizing to the .... A Sociolinguistic Approach to Extension Communication .... structure (ie the absence of a subject noun phrase), can be used in an appropriate.

  15. Intonational phrase prediction based on a CART-guided TBL%用CART模型指导TBL算法预测语调短语

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方舟; 周游; 陶建华

    2011-01-01

    语调短语的自动预测是影响合成语音的可懂度和自然度的关键因素之一。该文提出了一种结合分类与回归树(classification and regression tree,CART)和基于转换的错误驱动的学习(transformation-based error-driven learning,TBL)算法的混合算法,从无限制的文本中预测语调短语边界。该方法根据CART模型的指导,自动生成TBL算法的规则模板,从而减少了规则学习过程中的人工参与。实验结果表明:基于该混合算法的语调短语预测的F-score达70.0%。自动生成的TBL模板不仅能较好地替代手工模板,而且在与手工模板一起使用时,也能为其提供有益的补充。%Intonational phrase prediction is important for both the naturalness and intelligibility of synthetic speech.This paper presents a hybrid tree-guided transformation-based learning(TGTBL) algorithm which combines a classification and regression tree(CART) with transformation-based error-driven learning(TBL) to predict intonational phrase breaks from unrestricted text.CART automatically generates the TBL rule templates,thereby minimizing the need for human supervision during the TBL training.Results of comparative tests show that the F-score of TGTBL based intonational phrase prediction is 70.0% and that the TBL templates automatically generated by CART provide good alternatives or supplements to manual templates.

  16. The use of definite and indefinite articles by children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polite, Elgustus J; Leonard, Laurence B; Roberts, Felicia D

    2011-08-01

    Among the grammatical limitations seen in English-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) is a prolonged period of using articles (e.g., a, the) inconsistently. Most studies documenting this difficulty have focused on article omission and have not made the distinction between definite and indefinite article contexts. In this study, there were 36 participants: 12 5-year-olds with SLI, 12 typically-developing children matched for age, and 12 younger, typically-developing children matched with participants in the SLI group according to mean length of utterance. All 36 children participated in a task requiring indefinite article use, and a task requiring use of the definite article, in which the referent of the noun had already been established in the discourse. The children with SLI showed less use of definite articles in particular, relative to both groups of typically-developing children. Substitutions as well as omissions were seen. The findings suggest that the article limitations of the children with SLI were attributable in part to an incomplete understanding of how definite articles are to be used.

  17. 1,001 words and phrases you never knew you didn't know hopperdozer, hoecake, ear trumpet, dort, and other nearly forgotten terms and expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Runyan, W R

    2010-01-01

    As times change so do the things we use and what we call them. W.R. Runyan has compiled a fascinating collection of words and phrases that, once common everywhere in America, are little known today. This book is a celebration of our linguistic past that will be a treat from word lovers everywhere. Do you know any of these: Snaffle, Steelie, Gully Washer, Cabriolet, Calk, Hardpan, Carbuncle, Pie Bird, Fid, or Hame? Did you know that a "Horse Apple" is actually an orange? Or that "Rolley Holley" is a marble game? With over one hundred illustrations, this is a book that will take you on

  18. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2007-01-01

    The use of referring expressions (proper nouns, noun phrases [NPs] and pronouns) in a target language [TL] text may differ from the source language [SL] text with regard to how explicit they are: One may have a pronoun (less explicit) where the other has a proper noun (more explicit), or one may...... have an indefinite NP (less explicit) where the other has a definite NP (more explicit). But are these differences in any way systematic? In an article in Babel, Yowell Y. Aziz shows that remarkable differences obtain in the explicitness of various referring expressions when an Arabic text is compared...... to its English translation and that overall, the English text is the more explicit. Now, does this mean that English generally is more explicit in its use of referring expressions, or is the difference due, rather, to the need of the TL text to be more explicit in order to facilitate the understanding...

  19. Phrases sans parole : à propos d'une histoire d'amour du XXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patron Sylvie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur les relations entre récit (plus précisément narration et fiction dans une nouvelle de Mario Benedetti, "Cinq ans de vie", extraite des Histoires de Paris. Son cadre de référence théorique est la théorie non communicationnelle ou théorie poétique de la narration de S.-Y. Kuroda et Ann Banfield. Dans la première partie, je présente brièvement la théorie pour pouvoir déterminer ensuite ses modalités d"application à la nouvelle de Benedetti (nouvelle "fantastique", selon le terme de l'auteur, "transfictionnelle" selon la terminologie contemporaine. La théorie peut se résumer dans les huit propositions suivantes: (1 Les théories communicationnelles du récit, basées sur les concepts de narrateur et de narrataire, réels ou fictionnels, ne peuvent rendre compte que d’une sous-catégorie de récits de fiction ; (2 Il existe des récits de fiction avec narrateur (sous-entendu fictionnel et des récits de fiction sans narrateur. (3 Le narrateur omniscient est, dans la plupart des cas, une explication ad hoc. (4 Il convient de distinguer clairement ce qui relève du contenu de la représentation fictionnelle et ce qui relève des moyens mobilisés au service de la construction de cette représentation ; (5 Le récit de fiction moderne à la troisième personne peut être considéré comme une collection structurée d’informations, les unes sans origine assignable dans le monde de la fiction, les autres provenant d’un ou de plusieurs sujets de conscience appartenant au monde de la fiction ; (6 La lecture d’un récit de fiction moderne à la troisième personne implique que l’on reconnaisse les intentions de l’auteur relativement au caractère objectif ou subjectif des phrases ou des contextes. La deuxième partie propose une approche du dénouement de "Cinq ans de vie" selon le protocole défini par Kuroda et Banfield. Après avoir montré que la théorie pouvait prétendre à l'adéquation descriptive

  20. Predicting Chinese Abbreviations from Definitions: An Empirical Learning Approach Using Support Vector Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Sun; Hou-Feng Wang; Bo Wang

    2008-01-01

    In Chinese, phrases and named entities play a central role in information retrieval. Abbreviations, however,make keyword-based approaches less effective. This paper presents an empirical learning approach to Chinese abbreviation prediction. In this study, each abbreviation is taken as a reduced form of the corresponding definition (expanded form),and the abbreviation prediction is formalized as a scoring and ranking problem among abbreviation candidates, which are automatically generated from the corresponding definition. By employing Support Vector Regression (SVR) for scoring,we can obtain multiple abbreviation candidates together with their SVR values, which are used for candidate ranking.Experimental results show that the SVR method performs better than the popular heuristic rule of abbreviation prediction.In addition, in abbreviation prediction, the SVR method outperforms the hidden Markov model (HMM).

  1. 试论英文国名词汇的文化情结%A Study of the Cultural Emotion in English Phrases with Country Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛丽霞

    2013-01-01

    Language often objectively relfects speciifc things and cultures, but ethnocentrism often causes the proud praise of one’s own country and the demeaning of other countries. Therefore, care must be taken in understanding and translating phrases containing names of countries. To avoid possible misunderstanding, the meanings of phrases with country names must be f ully understood by analyzing their underlied cultural connotations.%语言客观反映一国所特有的东西和文化,但民族中心主义导致了对本国的褒扬和他国的贬低,因此,对含有国家名称的词汇如何理解和翻译要慎重,切莫直译乱翻、望文生义,而要在了解其文化背景的基础上理解其涵义,避免产生误解。

  2. A SUFFIX USED TO FORM COLLECTIVE/FAMILY NOUN IN THE SOME DIALECTS OF TURKISH: +ēNi/+îNi / BAZI TÜRKIYE TÜRKÇESI AĞIZLARINDA TOPLULUK/AILE ADI YAPAN BIR EK: +ēNi / +îNi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Serpil ERSÖZ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There are two suffixes used to form collective/family nouns: +giland +lAr. These suffixes which also indicates plurality in nouns are used inalmost all dialects of Turkish. This essay’s topic is suffix +ēNi+/+îNi whichis used to form collective/family nouns as +gil and +lAr in some dialects ofTurkish. In this essay, we extrapolate that the form of the suffix +îN(i withclose unrounded vowel is used in dialect of immigrants whereas the form ofthe suffix +ēNi with open unrounded vowel is used in dialects of noimmigrants, of yoruk and some Oguz tribes.

  3. Client value models provide a framework for rational library planning (or, phrasing the answer in the form of a question).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Moorsel, Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    Libraries often do not know how clients value their product/ service offerings. Yet at a time when the mounting costs for library support are increasingly difficult to justify to the parent institution, the library's ability to gauge the value of its offerings to clients has never been more critical. Client Value Models (CVMs) establish a common definition of value elements-or a "value vocabulary"-for libraries and their clients, thereby providing a basis upon which to make rational planning decisions regarding product/service acquisition and development. The CVM concept is borrowed from business and industry, but its application has a natural fit in libraries. This article offers a theoretical consideration and practical illustration of CVM application in libraries.

  4. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized...... by non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process....

  5. Research on Definition and Positioning of Elector nic Medical Records in China%我国电子病历定义定位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妍昕; 徐维

    2015-01-01

    通过检索PubMed数据库、国内和国际标准获取电子病历的不同定义,采用概念分析法分析电子病历相关的术语及定义,将定义分为名词、特点和目的3个属性,为我国开发各层次的电子病历体系提供思路。%〔Abstract〕 The paper retrieves different difinitions of Electronic Medical Records ( EHR) through PubMed database, domestic and international standards, analyzes the terms and definitions of EMR using concept analysis method.The definitions are divided into 3 at-tributes namely, noun, characteristics and objective, providing ideas for developing EMR system at various levels in China.

  6. Artikula Takrif dan Taktakrif dalam Bahasa Inggris (Kajian Sintaksis dan Semantik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iis Kurnia Nurhayati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research is to discuss definiteness in English. The method used is analytical descriptive. For the analysis, substitution technique as one of the distributional methods is used. The data sources are non-fiction papers in English magazines and newspapers. The results show that the noun phrase having an article and followed by a post-modification can be formed in various constructions based on the type of nouns as the head of NP and the type of post-modifications that complete the phrase. In addition, some factors determining the choice of the articles in NP are based on the type and the number of the noun, and the knowledge of speakers and hearers about the noun.   Penelitian ini untuk membahas ketakrifan dalam bahasa Inggris. Metode yang digunakan adalah deskriptif analitis. Untuk menganalisis, teknik substitusi sebagai salah satu metode distribusional digunakan. Sumber data adalah tulisan nonfiksi yang terdapat dalam majalah dan surat kabar berbahasa Inggris. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa frase nomina yang memiliki artikula dan diikuti oleh post modification dapat dibentuk dalam konstruksi yang berbeda tergantung pada jenis nomina yang menjadi frasa benda ini dan jenis postmodifikator yang melengkapi frasa itu. Di samping itu, beberapa faktor yang menentukan pilihan artikula dalam frase nomina didasarkan pada jenis dan jumlah nomina, serta pengetahuan penutur dan mitra tuturnya tentang nomina itu.

  7. Perspective fonctionnelle de la phrase et diachronie : le passage de l’ancien français au moyen français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Combettes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show how the concepts and the methods of FSP can be applied to the diachronic study. By leaning on a corpus of Old French and Middle French texts, we observe at first the specificity of the communicative dynamism and the passage of Old French system, which gives the priority to the identification of the theme, to Middle French, which takes into account the degrees of rhematic phrases. The diverse thematic progressions and, in particular, the emergence, during Middle French are then studied, progressions with derived themes, connected to the expression of the background. Changes which affect constituent order, in particular the change of status of V2 order, are then put in connection with textual evolutions.

  8. CHINESE-UYGHUR PHRASES COLLOCATION AND ALIGNMENT%汉维语短语搭配的识别和对齐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹龙; 田生伟; 杨飞宇

    2011-01-01

    提出一种简单实用的汉维语短语搭配的抽取方法.该方法不需要汉语分词、词性标注等预处理工作,根据语料中汉语字和维语单词的共现信息,避免语料中个别词汇数目极少而共现信息值较大出现噪音,采用t检验消除,相对于利用分词和词性标注等技术的抽取方法,该算法简单且时间效率较高.实验结果表明,该方法利用较小规模的语料库也能达到较好的短语搭配抽取效果.%This dissertation puts forward a simple and practical extraction method for Chinese and Uyghur phrases collocation. The method does not require Chinese word segmentation, POS tagging and other pre-processing works, according to co-occurrence information of Chinese characters and Uyghur words in the corpus, it avoids the existence of the noise caused by sparseness of exceptional words but with quite big co-occurrence information value in the corpus and uses t-test to eliminate the noise. Compared with traditional extraction methods based on word segmentation and POS tagging technologies, the algorithm is simple and time efficient. Experimental results show that the method can achieve preferable effect of phrases collocation extraction even using smaller corpus library.

  9. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  10. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  11. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...

  12. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  13. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas prod

  14. 21 CFR 812.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., or, in the event of an investigation conducted by a team of individuals, is the responsible leader of that team. (j) Monitor, when used as a noun, means an individual designated by a sponsor or contract... importance in diagnosing, curing, mitigating, or treating disease, or otherwise preventing impairment...

  15. Definition of intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shobhit; Siddiqui, Khurram A

    2011-01-01

    Defining intractable epilepsy is essential not only to identify up to 40% of patients refractory to pharmacological management, but also to facilitate selection and comparison of such patients for research purposes. The ideal definition still eludes us. Multiple factors including number of antiepileptic drug (AED) failures, seizure frequency and duration of unresponsiveness, etiology, and epilepsy syndromes are considered in formulating the definition of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Most definitions used in the literature agree on the number of AED failures, which seem to be 2 or 3, however, the seizure frequency and time factor are varied. The International League Against Epilepsy proposed a definition of drug-resistant epilepsy as a failure of adequate trials of 2 tolerated and appropriately chosen and used AED schedules. This for now, could provide an operational definition for clinical and research settings. However, with emergence of new data and novel treatments the criteria for intractability may change.

  16. 汉文专有名词藏文音译的研究与实现%Research and Implementation of Chinese-Tibetan Transliteration about Proper Noun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁会方; 黄鹤鸣; 杨峰

    2014-01-01

    The cultural exchange of Chinese and Tibetan language,translation between languages is essential. In order to be standardization of transliteration,propose a Tibetan transliteration method based on rules,according to the current Chinese and Tibetan transliteration as well as the similarity of Chinese and Tibetan,constitute the rule set about Chinese-Tibetan Pinyin transliteration,that is Chinese Pinyin and corresponding Tibetan table. For situations where there are multiple phonetic Chinese are using statistical methods,relying on context sensitive phrases to choose the appropriate Pinyin,then according to the rule set to translate into Tibetan. On the transliteration algorithm, on the basis of rule-making in Chinese and Tibetan transliteration,for priority conventional translation of phrases,as well as an under-standing of how polyphone combines statistical polyphone corpus phrases, improve the accuracy and the performance for its phonetic transliteration system. The algorithm is simple and accurate.%汉藏语言的文化交流,少不了语言之间的互译。为了汉藏音译规范化,提出了一种基于规则的汉藏音译方法,根据目前汉藏的音译情况以及汉藏拼音相似性制定了汉藏音译的规则集—汉文对应的拼音和拼音相应的藏文对照表。对于一个汉文存在多个拼音的情况,则要采用统计的方法,依赖上下文相关的词组等选取合适的拼音,然后再根据规则集翻译出所对应的藏文。在音译算法上,文中在汉藏音译的规则制定的基础上,对于存在的约定俗成译法词组优先处理,以及汉文的多音字结合了统计的多音字语料词组,提高音译系统的性能以及其音译的准确性。该算法实现简单,准确率高。

  17. Generation of Dutch referring expressions using the D-TUNA corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Marissa; Theune, Mariët; Gatt, A.; Gompel, van R.; Gurman-Bard, E.; Krahmer, E.; Deemter, van K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes our research into generating Dutch noun phrases as descriptions of furniture objects or people. This is usually done in two steps: attribute selection and realisation. This research focuses only on the realisation step: generating a noun phrase from given attributes. The researc

  18. Processing Coordination Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume…

  19. Are Subject Small Clauses Really Small Clauses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Miori

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the ongoing debate over small clauses concerning the structure of the verb phrase in "I consider Bill smart." It is demonstrated that the subject constituent in question is not a small clause, but a Noun Phrase (NP), following Noun (N). It is shown that some peculiar phenomena under the small clause analysis are natural…

  20. Response to Biber, Gray, and Poonpon (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, WeiWei

    2013-01-01

    The recent "TESOL Quarterly" article by Biber, Gray, and Poonpon (2011) raises important considerations with respect to the use of syntactic complexity (SC) measures in second language (L2) studies. The article draws the field's attention to one particular measure--complexity of noun phrases (NP) (i.e., noun phrases with modifiers, such as…

  1. Processing Coordination Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based…

  2. The Dimensionality of Grammatical Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankoff, David; Cedergren, Henrietta J.

    1976-01-01

    Computer-based multidimensional scaling techniques are used to determine the dimensionality of grammatical variation in three large sets of data: Ross' (1973) Noun Phrase and fake Noun Phrase data; Sankoff's (1974) complementizer "que"-deletion (Montreal French) data; and Cedergren's (1973) syllable-final S-reduction (Panamanian Spanish) data. (DB)

  3. Grammatical Planning, Execution, and Control in Written Sentence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottbusch, Guido

    2010-01-01

    In this study participants were asked to describe pictured events in one type-written sentence, containing one of two different syntactic structures (subordinated vs. coordinated subject noun phrases). According to the hypothesis, the larger subordinated structure (one noun phrase including a second, subordinated, one) should be cognitively more…

  4. 英语动物名词“动用”的转喻认知理据%Conceptual Metonymic Interpretation of Conversion of English Animal Nouns to Verbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明杰

    2011-01-01

    As one basic grammatical phenomenon, noun-to-verb conversion reflects human being's metonymic mode of thinking. Based on conceptual metonymy, this paper studies the conversion of English animal nouns to verbs and its rhetorical effect. This study is condu%名词“动用”是一种常见的语法现象,体现了人类基本的转喻思维模式。从概念转喻的视角研究英语动物名词动用的认知修辞效果,可以更好地揭示该语言现象产生的认知机制,为进一步探究词类转换的认知理据提供新的视角。

  5. A Simple Discussion on Teaching Methods of Anatomy Nouns in English for English Nursing Profession Students%英护专业英语解剖学名词教学方法初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵克芳; 王振全; 周媛媛; 田志逢

    2014-01-01

    具备一定的专业英语能力,是英护专业学生胜任涉外护理工作所必须。很多英语医学名词与解剖学名词直接相关。但英语解剖学名词的记忆一直都是学生的难处。本文从四个方面介绍了如何有效帮助学生提高记忆效果,以与大家共享。%To be competent at foreign nursing, the English nursing profession students must possess the necessary professional English skills. Many English medical terminologies have great relationship to anatomy nouns and anatomy nouns in English are always hard to master for students. This article shared four useful methods to help students to improve their memory effect.

  6. 西班牙语称谓词性变化与西班牙性别平等进程%Use of Nouns of Appellation, Occupation, Position and the Evolvement of Gender Equality in Spain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢晓为

    2011-01-01

    西班牙语的称谓词有阴性词和阳性词之分。有些传统以来由男子从事的职业或者担当的职务,只有用以指代男子的阳性形式,或者语言一贯使用上存在的性别歧视,指代男子的阳性词在不确指或者表集体时,也可以指代女性。但是,西班牙社会的进步,女性受教育程度提高并广泛参与社会生活,担当要职,尤其是最近几年西方社会大力推动的性别平等,使这些词汇在使用上发生了巨大、深刻的变化。%Spanish nouns denoting appellation, occupation and position have two genders: feminine vs. masculine. But traditionally, only masculine nouns were used to express the profession and position taken by men. What' s more, there used to exist gender discrimination in language use-masculine nouns were always used to denote female entities in cases where those were indefinite or collective nouns. With the Spanish society advancing, the women have got a better education and more important positions, and they have engaged themselves widely in social activities. Especially, gender equality is being vigorously promoted in the Western Society these years, resulting in a great and profound change in the use of such words.

  7. The definition of cross polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Arthur

    1973-01-01

    There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice.......There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice....

  8. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  9. 《汉语大词典》释义例证存在的问题——以汉语物象词语为例%Problems of the Documented Evidence in the "Chinese Dictionary" : Take the Physical Shape Words and Phrases in Chinese as Examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴汉江

    2012-01-01

    Because of being restricted by the social historical conditions, there are some problems needed to be solved urgently about illustrative examples in the" Chinese dictionary". Based on the definitions of the physical shape words and phrases in Chinese, the problems mainly exist as follows: the mismatching problem between the documented evidence and the semantic item; the misfit problem between the words in the documented evidence and the headwords; the optional removal about sentences in the documented evidence; the optional marking about age and the author in the documented evidence; the documented evidence can not being arranged by age sequence; the age of documented evidence including the original form being later than the abbreviation' s.%《汉语大词典》释义例证由于编纂历史条件等所限,体例上还存在一些亟待解决的问题。从汉语物象词语释义的视角来看,主要问题如下:例证与词义项不匹配;例证词与词目词不吻合;例证文句随意截取;例证时代与作者等信息随意标注;例证不按时代顺序排列;全称词例证晚于略称词。

  10. 对财务管理学若干名词的思考%Reflection on Several Nouns of Financial Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志立

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts forword several common problems of basic theory in newly-published teaching books of financial management and financial analysis.These problems deserve much discussion and include: content of Current Assets and Liquid Assets;Interest Coverage Ratio;connotation of ROL and operating margin molecules item "income";Profit Quality;the concept,source and essence of Capital involved in capital makeup;implication of Quality Cost assessment;Operating Cycle;comprehensive financial analysis,etc.Then,the paper gives new insights into these nouns.%文章从现行出版使用的财务管理、财务分析教材中提出了几个值得商讨的基础理论共性问题,诸如:"流动资产"与"速动资产"内容;"利息保障倍数";投资回报率、营业利润率分子项"收益"内涵;"利润质量";资本结构所涉及的"资本"概念及其形成之源和实质;"质量成本"考核深层意义;"营业周期";财务综合分析等,并给出了新的见解。

  11. Média dos valores da frase em diferentes gravidades do desvio fonológico evolutivo Average values of phrase in different severities of phonological disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Konzen Albiero

    2012-01-01

    , through the research on the average values of phrase, in which they collected phrases from three different language modalities: describing a picture, telling a story, and answering questions. The five phrases the children first spoke were punctuated according to their complexity. Next, we accomplished the statistical analysis through the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. The significant p value is considered p<0.05. RESULTS: there was no statistical significant difference among the different degrees of severity of the phonological disorder in the three evaluated language modalities, as related to the morphosyntax, semantics, total of construction, and total of length. CONCLUSION: we can conclude that the severity of the phonological disorder does not affect the children's performance regarding morphosyntax and semantic development, because there was no statistical significance among the results. Therefore, we may suggest that other studies should be carried out in order to confirm or not such results.

  12. 当代网络文化中流行的表人新名词及其理据%On New Internet Nouns Signifying Certain Kinds of People and Their Motivations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐祥金

    2014-01-01

    当代网络文化之繁荣,孕育出形形色色的网络新名词。作为对日趋细化和多元人群的客观称谓和个性描述,表人的流行新名词在音形义等方面独具特色,或直接借用外来词,或灵活创造新词语,或赋予旧词以新义。表人的流行新名词既根植于社会生活,又深深地烙上了时代的印记,更忠实地映射出当今社会人们多姿多彩的生活方式和多元化的价值取向,有着深刻的言内外因素和文化心理理据。表人的新名词在生成和传播过程中也必须经受“汰弱留强”和“适者生存”等自然生态法则的检验,除了遵循语言发展规律和满足交际的现实之需,还有待大众传媒等方方面面予以包容和理性引导。%With the prosperity of network culture, a variety of new internet nouns have come into being. Signifying various kinds of more and more specific people at present, new Internet nouns are unique in phonetic, phonological and semantic fea-tures. These nouns can be borrowed or created, and can also acquire fully new meanings in different contexts. Deeply rooted in social life, these Internet nouns reflect the present situations and future trend of our online & offline communications. They are fully and fruitfully motivated by social psychology as well as intra-linguistic & inter-linguistic factors. The new Internet nouns also have to undergo such tests as “the survival of the fittest”. On one hand, they are supposed to follow the language rules and meet the needs for daily communications. On the other hand, mass media and the whole society should be open-minded to the new Internet words and help them in our daily communications both online and offline.

  13. Complexity Matters: On Gender Agreement in Heritage Scandinavian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Janne Bondi; Larsson, Ida

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates aspects of the noun phrase from a Scandinavian heritage language perspective, with an emphasis on noun phrase-internal gender agreement and noun declension. Our results are somewhat surprising compared with earlier research: We find that noun phrase-internal agreement for the most part is rather stable. To the extent that we find attrition, it affects agreement in the noun phrase, but not the declension of the noun. We discuss whether this means that gender is lost and has been reduced to a pure declension class, or whether gender is retained. We argue that gender is actually retained in these heritage speakers. One argument for this is that the speakers who lack agreement in complex noun phrases, have agreement intact in simpler phrases. We have thus found that the complexity of the noun phrase is crucial for some speakers. However, among the heritage speakers we also find considerable inter-individual variation, and different speakers can have partly different systems.

  14. Complexity matters: On gender agreement in Heritage Scandinavian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Bondi Johannessen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates aspects of the noun phrase from a heritage language perspective, with an emphasis on noun phrase-internal gender agreement and noun declension. Our results are somewhat surprising compared with earlier research: We find that noun phrase-internal agreement for the most part is rather stable. To the extent that we find attrition, it affects agreement in the noun phrase, but not the declension of the noun. We discuss whether this means that gender is lost and has been reduced to a pure declension class, or whether gender is retained. We argue that gender is actually retained in these heritage speakers. One argument for this is that the speakers who lack agreement in complex noun phrases, have agreement intact in simpler phrases. We have thus found that the complexity of the noun phrase is crucial for some speakers. However, among the heritage speakers we also find considerable inter-individual variation, and different speakers can have partly different systems.

  15. Cross-cultural Conflict and Integration of Advertising Phrases%广告词的跨文化冲突与融合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德军

    2014-01-01

    在经济全球化的大背景下,广告的跨文化传播特性变得越来越明显。中西方不同的文化价值观念造成了广告词使用过程中的文化冲突,而跨国企业在宣传产品时通过提炼和加工,不断加强广告的文化适应性,以获取跨文化广告的最佳传播方式。%In the background of economic globalization,the characteristic of cross-cultural communication of advertising is becoming increasingly apparent.The cultural conflict in the process of using advertising phrases is caused by different values of eastern and west-ern cultures.However,multinational companies continue to strengthen the cultural adaptation of advertising by refining and processing the advertisements when promoting products,so as to acquire the best way of communication for cross-cultural advertisements.

  16. Music skills and the expressive interpretation of music in children with Williams-Beuren syndrome: pitch, rhythm, melodic imagery, phrasing, and musical affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopyan, T; Dennis, M; Weksberg, R; Cytrynbaum, C

    2001-03-01

    This paper studied music in 14 children and adolescents with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a multi-system neurodevelopmental disorder, and 14 age-matched controls. Five aspects of music were tested. There were two tests of core music domains, pitch discrimination and rhythm discrimination. There were two tests of musical expressiveness, melodic imagery and phrasing. There was one test of musical interpretation, the ability to identify the emotional resonance of a musical excerpt. Music scores were analyzed by means of logistic regressions that modeled outcome (higher or lower music scores) as a function of group membership (WBS or Control) and cognitive age. Compared to age peers, children with WBS had similar levels of musical expressiveness, but were less able to discriminate pitch and rhythm, or to attach a semantic interpretation to emotion in music. Music skill did not vary with cognitive age. Musical strength in individuals with WBS involves not so much formal analytic skill in pitch and rhythm discrimination as a strong engagement with music as a means of expression, play, and, perhaps, improvisation.

  17. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, Erik F. Tjong Kim

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving the performance of the memory-based learner. Our approach is evaluated on standard data sets and the results are compared with that of other systems. This reveals that our approach works well for ba...

  18. High-Definition Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Andersen, Kristian G; Steinhubl, Steven R; Topol, Eric J

    2017-08-24

    The foundation for a new era of data-driven medicine has been set by recent technological advances that enable the assessment and management of human health at an unprecedented level of resolution-what we refer to as high-definition medicine. Our ability to assess human health in high definition is enabled, in part, by advances in DNA sequencing, physiological and environmental monitoring, advanced imaging, and behavioral tracking. Our ability to understand and act upon these observations at equally high precision is driven by advances in genome editing, cellular reprogramming, tissue engineering, and information technologies, especially artificial intelligence. In this review, we will examine the core disciplines that enable high-definition medicine and project how these technologies will alter the future of medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prebiotics: why definitions matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutkins, Robert W; Krumbeck, Janina A; Bindels, Laure B; Cani, Patrice D; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C; Mills, David A; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2016-02-01

    The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative prebiotic substrates and the gut microbiota than previously considered. A consensus among scientists on the most appropriate definition of a prebiotic is necessary to enable continued use of the term.

  20. Definition of Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Authentication is considered a pre-requisite for communication security, but the definition of authentication is generally not agreed upon. Many attacks on authentication protocols are the result of misunderstanding of the goals of authentication. This state of affairs indicate limitations...... in theoretical understanding of the meanings of authentication. We provide a new insight in this direction and formalize it in CFPS (Common Framework for authentication Protocols' Specifications). CFPS provides a precise scope of definition for authentication protocols, which could make the design and analysis...