WorldWideScience

Sample records for definite motor problems

  1. Motor operated valves problems tests and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinier, D.; Haas, J.L.

    1996-12-01

    An analysis of the two refusals of operation of the EAS recirculation shutoff valves enabled two distinct problems to be identified on the motorized valves: the calculation methods for the operating torques of valves in use in the power plants are not conservative enough, which results in the misadjustement of the torque limiters installed on their motorizations, the second problem concerns the pressure locking phenomenon: a number of valves may entrap a pressure exceeding the in-line pressure between the disks, which may cause a jamming of the valve. EDF has made the following approach to settle the first problem: determination of the friction coefficients and the efficiency of the valve and its actuator through general and specific tests and models, definition of a new calculation method. In order to solve the second problem, EDF has made the following operations: identification of the valves whose technology enables the pressure to be entrapped: the tests and numerical simulations carried out in the Research and Development Division confirm the possibility of a {open_quotes}boiler{close_quotes} effect: determination of the necessary modifications: development and testing of anti-boiler effect systems.

  2. Motor operated valves problems tests and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinier, D.; Haas, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the two refusals of operation of the EAS recirculation shutoff valves enabled two distinct problems to be identified on the motorized valves: the calculation methods for the operating torques of valves in use in the power plants are not conservative enough, which results in the misadjustement of the torque limiters installed on their motorizations, the second problem concerns the pressure locking phenomenon: a number of valves may entrap a pressure exceeding the in-line pressure between the disks, which may cause a jamming of the valve. EDF has made the following approach to settle the first problem: determination of the friction coefficients and the efficiency of the valve and its actuator through general and specific tests and models, definition of a new calculation method. In order to solve the second problem, EDF has made the following operations: identification of the valves whose technology enables the pressure to be entrapped: the tests and numerical simulations carried out in the Research and Development Division confirm the possibility of a open-quotes boilerclose quotes effect: determination of the necessary modifications: development and testing of anti-boiler effect systems

  3. 40 CFR 85.1703 - Definition of motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of motor vehicle. 85.1703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exclusion and Exemption of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1703 Definition of motor vehicle. (a) For the purpose of determining the...

  4. TRANSWRAP II: problem definition manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittle, D.E.

    1981-02-01

    The TRANSWRAP II computer code, written in Fortran IV and described in this Problem Definition Manual, was developed to analytically predict the magnitude of pressure pulses of large scale sodium-wate reactions in LMFBR secondary systems. It is currently being used for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Program. The code provides the options, flexibility and features necessary to consider any system configuration. The code methodology has been validated with the aid of extensive sodium-water reaction test programs

  5. Standardized Definitions for Code Verification Test Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This document contains standardized definitions for several commonly used code verification test problems. These definitions are intended to contain sufficient information to set up the test problem in a computational physics code. These definitions are intended to be used in conjunction with exact solutions to these problems generated using Exact- Pack, www.github.com/lanl/exactpack.

  6. Sensory-motor problems in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, Caroline; Craig, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Despite being largely characterized as a social and cognitive disorder, strong evidence indicates the presence of significant sensory-motor problems in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This paper outlines our progression from initial, broad assessment using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to subsequent targeted kinematic assessment. In particular, pronounced ASD impairment seen in the broad categories of manual dexterity and ball skills was found to be routed in specific difficulties on isolated tasks, which were translated into focused experimental assessment. Kinematic results from both subsequent studies highlight impaired use of perception-action coupling to guide, adapt and tailor movement to task demands, resulting in inflexible and rigid motor profiles. In particular difficulties with the use of temporal adaption are shown, with “hyperdexterity” witnessed in ballistic movement profiles, often at the cost of spatial accuracy and task performance. By linearly progressing from the use of a standardized assessment tool to targeted kinematic assessment, clear and defined links are drawn between measureable difficulties and underlying sensory-motor assessment. Results are specifically viewed in-light of perception-action coupling and its role in early infant development suggesting that rather than being “secondary” level impairment, sensory-motor problems may be fundamental in the progression of ASD. This logical and systematic process thus allows a further understanding into the potential root of observable motor problems in ASD; a vital step if underlying motor problems are to be considered a fundamental aspect of autism and allow a route of non-invasive preliminary diagnosis. PMID:23882194

  7. Sensory-motor problems in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eWhyatt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite being largely characterised as a social and cognitive disorder, strong evidence indicates the presence of significant sensory-motor problems in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. This paper outlines our progression from initial, broad assessment using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2 to subsequent targeted kinematic assessment. In particular, pronounced ASD impairment seen in the broad categories of manual dexterity and ball skills was found to be routed in specific difficulties on isolated tasks, which were translated into focused experimental assessment. Kinematic results from both subsequent studies highlight impaired use of perception-action coupling to guide, adapt and tailor movement to task demands, resulting in inflexible and rigid motor profiles. In particular difficulties with the use of temporal adaption are shown, with hyperdexterity witnessed in ballistic movement profiles, often at the cost of spatial accuracy and task performance. By linearly progressing from the use of a standardised assessment tool to targeted kinematic assessment, clear and defined links are drawn between measureable difficulties and underlying sensory-motor assessment. Results are specifically viewed in-light of perception-action coupling and its role in early infant development suggesting that rather than being secondary level impairment, sensory-motor problems may be fundamental in the progression of ASD. This logical and systematic process thus allows a further understanding into the potential route of observable motor problems in ASD; a vital step if underlying motor problems are to be considered a fundamental aspect of autism and allow a route of non-invasive preliminary diagnosis.

  8. Hundi/hawala: the problem of definition

    OpenAIRE

    Marina B.V. Martin

    2009-01-01

    In contemporary times, hundi has collected countless labels; the international press has spurned innumerable villainous descriptions, the bulk of which have helped to perpetuate a dense fog of notoriety. The critical problem lies in definition. As there is an incomplete understanding of hundi's form and remit, there is also a rather limited understanding of why the system persists, set against the backdrop of modern banking. In many ways the problem of definition presented legal and financial...

  9. 40 CFR 85.1715 - Aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle. 85.1715 Section 85.1715 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85.1715 Aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle. This section applies for aircraft meeting the definition of motor vehicle in § 85.1703. (a) For the...

  10. Definition and classification of negative motor signs in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Terence D; Chen, Daofen; Delgado, Mauricio R; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Hallett, Mark; Mink, Jonathan W

    2006-11-01

    In this report we describe the outcome of a consensus meeting that occurred at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, March 12 through 14, 2005. The meeting brought together 39 specialists from multiple clinical and research disciplines including developmental pediatrics, neurology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, physical therapy, occupational therapy, physical medicine and rehabilitation, neurophysiology, muscle physiology, motor control, and biomechanics. The purpose of the meeting was to establish terminology and definitions for 4 aspects of motor disorders that occur in children: weakness, reduced selective motor control, ataxia, and deficits of praxis. The purpose of the definitions is to assist communication between clinicians, select homogeneous groups of children for clinical research trials, facilitate the development of rating scales to assess improvement or deterioration with time, and eventually to better match individual children with specific therapies. "Weakness" is defined as the inability to generate normal voluntary force in a muscle or normal voluntary torque about a joint. "Reduced selective motor control" is defined as the impaired ability to isolate the activation of muscles in a selected pattern in response to demands of a voluntary posture or movement. "Ataxia" is defined as an inability to generate a normal or expected voluntary movement trajectory that cannot be attributed to weakness or involuntary muscle activity about the affected joints. "Apraxia" is defined as an impairment in the ability to accomplish previously learned and performed complex motor actions that is not explained by ataxia, reduced selective motor control, weakness, or involuntary motor activity. "Developmental dyspraxia" is defined as a failure to have ever acquired the ability to perform age-appropriate complex motor actions that is not explained by the presence of inadequate demonstration or practice, ataxia, reduced selective motor control

  11. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  12. [Problems with current hypertension definition in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peco-Antić, Amira

    2008-01-01

    The Task Force data have added immeasurably to our understanding of the normal distribution of blood pressure in children. However, the manner in which arterial hypertension is defined in children is not without problems. The main problem is that the current definition of hypertension in children is not based on the end-organ damage assessment, but on the blood pressure height-related percentile distribution of healthy reference population. This could be overcome by introducing the relationship of blood pressure values with sensitive markers of hypertensive sequelae (such as carotid intimal-medial thickness, left ventricle mass index, retinal arteriolar narrowing and arteriovenous nicking as well as microalbumin urinary excretion) to define better the specific blood pressure values with outcomes. Furthermore, the current definition of hypertension based on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the reference population does not consider the normal evolution of reference population, as well as its ethnic differences. In addition, being based on the single occasion measurement in quite position it does not account for the possibility of transient, stress induced elevations in blood pressure known as white coat hypertension. Therefore, incorporation ambulatory 24 h blood pressure data into the definition of arterial hypertension in children may increase the definition reliability for clinical decision - making, although for such reliability the paediatric normative ambulatory blood pressure data should be improved.

  13. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of its own motor, whether such motor is powered by gasoline, diesel fuel, special motor fuels... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of...

  14. More on the problem of roentgen definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudin, M. F.

    1956-07-01

    A further substantiation is presented of the proposal found in Comments on the Problem of the New Definition for the Units of X- and Gamma-Radiations and Radioactivity (DC-58-9)-84(p.1-13)) that the roentgen can be applied for doses produced by radiation for which the average work of ionization can be estimated as equal to 33 ev. (J.R.D.)

  15. Homelessness : its definition and various problems

    OpenAIRE

    Shiga, Fumiya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to review articles or data on homelessness to grasp what it is and its status quo in Australia, including various allied problems. In this short paper, the definitions of homelessness and the related notion of home are reviewed at first because it is important to find the meaning and difference for development in understanding of and gaining an insight into the homelessness. After that, the present situations or characteristics of homelessness and its proble...

  16. The bliss (not the problem) of motor abundance (not redundancy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L

    2012-03-01

    Motor control is an area of natural science exploring how the nervous system interacts with other body parts and the environment to produce purposeful, coordinated actions. A central problem of motor control-the problem of motor redundancy-was formulated by Nikolai Bernstein as the problem of elimination of redundant degrees-of-freedom. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using optimization methods based on a variety of cost functions. This review draws attention to a body of recent findings suggesting that the problem has been formulated incorrectly. An alternative view has been suggested as the principle of abundance, which considers the apparently redundant degrees-of-freedom as useful and even vital for many aspects of motor behavior. Over the past 10 years, dozens of publications have provided support for this view based on the ideas of synergic control, computational apparatus of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis. In particular, large amounts of "good variance"-variance in the space of elements that has no effect on the overall performance-have been documented across a variety of natural actions. "Good variance" helps an abundant system to deal with secondary tasks and unexpected perturbations; its amount shows adaptive modulation across a variety of conditions. These data support the view that there is no problem of motor redundancy; there is bliss of motor abundance.

  17. Prevalence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, K W; Lai, Kelly Y C; Lee, Marshall M C; Shea, Caroline K S; Tong, Luke C T

    2016-04-01

    Local data on the occurrence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are not available but an understanding of this important issue may enable better planning of medical services. We aimed to determine the prevalence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a local population. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, children aged 6 to 9 years diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder over a period of 6 months from 1 July to 31 December 2011 were recruited from the Joint Paediatric and Child Psychiatric ADHD Program in New Territories East Cluster in Hong Kong. Movement Assessment Battery for Children and Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire-Chinese version were used to determine the presence of motor problems. Data from 95 participants were included in the final analysis. The number of children who had no, borderline, or definite motor problems was 63, 15, and 17, respectively. It is estimated that up to one third of local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder might have developmental coordination disorder. Motor problems are common in local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and figures are comparable with those from other parts of the world. Despite the various limitations of this study, the magnitude of the problem should not be overlooked.

  18. Motor problems in children with neurofibromatosis type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Rietman (André); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); Bongers, S. (Sanne); Gaukema, E. (Eddy); Van Abeelen, S. (Sandra); J.G.M. Hendriksen; C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); P.F.A. de Nijs (Pieter); M.C.Y. de Wit (Marie Claire)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children with the neurogenetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) often have problems with learning and behaviour. In both parent reports and neuropsychological assessment, motor problems are reported in approximately one third to one half of the children with NF1.

  19. Problem Definition Study: Lead Beta-Resorcylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    Preteperphyrtn IX (PROTO 9) • Hamt tynthttaw Ft T Mama 7Pb«—e* Iron utilization Fa transferrin (»arum) Into reticulocytes Pb Fb GlObin...Genderen, H. and Vink, H.H. (1972), Br. J, Cancer , 16, 219. Van Esch, G.J. and Kroes, R. (1969), "The Induction of Renal Tumours by Feeding Basic...Lead Acetate to Mice and Hamsters," Br, J. Cancer , 23(4), 765-771. » Verberk, M.M. (1976), "Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity in Volunteers Ingest

  20. Refeeding syndrome: problems with definition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome (RFS) broadly encompasses a severe electrolyte disturbance (principally low serum concentrations of intracellular ions such as phosphate, magnesium, and potassium) and metabolic abnormalities in undernourished patients undergoing refeeding whether orally, enterally, or parenterally. RFS reflects the change from catabolic to anabolic metabolism. RFS sometimes is undiagnosed and unfortunately some clinicians remain oblivious to its presence. This is particularly concerning as RFS is a life-threatening condition, although it need not be so and early recognition reduces morbidity and mortality. Careful patient monitoring and multidiscipline nutrition team management may help to achieve this goal. The diagnosis of RFS is not facilitated by the fact that there is no universal agreement as to its definition. The presence of hypophosphatemia alone does not necessarily mean that RFS is present as there are many other causes for this, as discussed later in this article. RFS is increasingly being recognized in neonates and children. An optimal refeeding regimen for RFS is not universally agreed on due to the paucity of randomized controlled trials in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DEFINITION OF LOCOMOTIVE TRACTION FORCE WITH REGARD TO UNEVEN LOADING OF WHEEL-MOTOR BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ye. Bodnar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article describes the most common methods for determining the locomotive traction force. Solving the tasks of traction calculations involves determination of the forces influencing the train at every point of the way. When choosing a rational trajectory of the train motion and the development of operational regulations of train driving it is necessary to determine the actual value of the locomotive traction force. Considering various factors, power value of traction electric motor of locomotive may have significant differences. Advancement of the operational definition system of the locomotive traction force during the calculations by electrical parameters of traction electric motor with regard to uneven load of wheel-motor block is the purpose of the article. Methodology. The method of determining the traction force of locomotives and diesel locomotives with electric transmission, which is based on primary data acquisition of traction electric engines of direct current behavior, was proposed. Sensors and their integration into the electrical circuitry of the locomotive in order to get the data in digital form and for operational calculation of the each traction motor mode and the definition of locomotive traction force are presented. Findings. The experimental investigation of the system of locomotive traction force determination with the electric traction motor ED-105 was offered. A comparison of electrical and mechanical power of the electric motor was conducted. Originality. The system of locomotives power operational definition, which takes into account the variable electro-mechanical factors of wheel and motor blocks and increases the accuracy of the calculations, was proposed. Practical value. The system is a part of an onboard complex in definition of energy-efficient regimes for trains movement and provides the definition of accelerating and decelerating forces.

  2. Sexual Behaviors in Autism: Problems of Definition and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, George M.; Ruble, Lisa A.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the problems of definition of sexual behaviors in individuals with autism and describes a case that highlights the difficulties of management. After failure of behavioral and educational programs, a testosterone-suppressing medication was used resulting in suppression of public masturbation behaviors and retention of the participant's…

  3. ANALYTICAL ANARCHISM: THE PROBLEM OF DEFINITION AND DEMARCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinov M.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the first time in the science of our country is considered a new trend of anarchist thought - analytical anarchism. As a methodological tool used critical analysis of the key propositions of the basic versions of this trend: the anarcho- capitalist and egalitarian. The study was proposed classification of discernible trends within the analytical anarchism on the basis of value criteria, identified conceptual and methodological problems of definition analytical anarchism and its ...

  4. Is Treating Motor Problems in DCD Just a Matter of Practice and More Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Marina M; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is often called a motor learning deficit. The question addressed in this paper is whether improvement of motor skills is just a matter of mere practice. Without any kind of intervention, children with DCD do not improve their motor skills generally, whereas they do improve after task-oriented intervention. Merely offering children the opportunity to practice motor skills, for instance by playing active video games, did lead to improved motor performance according to recent research findings, but to a lesser extent than task-oriented intervention. We argue that children with DCD lack the required motor problem-solving skills necessary to further improve their performance. Explicit motor teaching with an emphasis on developing these problem-solving skills is a necessary ingredient of intervention in DCD, leveraging the effectiveness of intervention above that of mere practicing.

  5. Handwriting and fine motor problems after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders-Messelink, H.A.; Schoemaker, M.M.; Goeken, L.N H; van den Briel, M.M.; Kamps, W.A; Simner, M L; Leedham, C G; Thomassen, A J W M

    1996-01-01

    Fine motor skills and handwriting performance were investigated in 17 children at least two years after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It was hypothesized that as a late effect of vincristine neuropathy, children would still have fine motor and/or handwriting problems. Gross and fine

  6. The Line-drawing Problem in Disease Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wendy A; Walker, Mary Jean

    2017-08-01

    Biological dysfunction is regarded, in many accounts, as necessary and perhaps sufficient for disease. But although disease is conceptualized as all-or-nothing, biological functions often differ by degree. A tension is created by attempting to use a continuous variable as the basis for a categorical definition, raising questions about how we are to pinpoint the boundary between health and disease. This is the line-drawing problem. In this paper, we show how the line-drawing problem arises within "dysfunction-requiring" accounts of disease, such as those of Christopher Boorse and Jerome Wakefield. We then provide several detailed examples to establish that biological dysfunction cannot provide a boundary. We examine potential ways of resolving the line-drawing problem, either by dropping one of the claims that generates it, or by appealing to additional criteria. We argue that two of these options are plausible, and that each of these can be applied with regard to different diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Vincent O; Rigoli, Daniela; Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D; Piek, Jan P

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills had an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years). Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other), depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables. Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  8. [Oral motor dysfunction, feeding problems and nutritional status in children with cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Mei; Fu, Ping; Zhao, Jian-hui; Lan, Kun; Zhang, Hong

    2004-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the clinical features of oral motor dysfunction and feeding problems as well as the nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifty-nine CP children, 39 boys and 20 girls, mean age 31 months (20 to 72 months), were recruited. Their parents were interviewed for high risk factors and feeding history. Each case was assessed for oral motor and feeding problems based on oral motor and feeding skill score; for nutritional status by measurement of weight, height; neurologically for type of cerebral palsy and for developmental age by Gesell's developmental scale. Equal number of age and sex matched controls were included for comparison of nutritional status, oral motor and feeding skill score. Among 59 patients, 51 cases had oral motor dysfunction and 55 cases had feeding problems including all athtosis, spastic tetraplegia, and 16 had spastic diplegia. The scores of both the mean oral motor function and feeding skill of CP children were significantly lower than those of the controls (P children with cerebral palsy consisted of liquid and semisolid diet. Body weight and height below the 25th percentile were found in 13 cases and 19 cases, respectively. The majority of the children with cerebral palsy had oral motor dysfunction and feeding problems which appeared in early age and disturbed the growth and nutritional status. Thorough assessment for oral motor function, feeding problems and nutritional status of CP children is indicated in order to start timely rehabilitation and nutritional interventions which can significantly improve their nutritional status and quality of life.

  9. Magnetic topology and the problem of its invariant definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornig, G.; Schindler, K.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of an ideal plasma conserves magnetic lines of force and hence magnetic topology. However, magnetic topology, i.e. the structure and linkage of magnetic flux, is a property of the magnetic field alone. Therefore, the conservation of topology can also be a property of non-ideal plasmas for which the plasma flow is not line conserving. A general definition of magnetic topology is given and it is shown that it yields a large set of non-ideal topology-conserving systems. In the application of the notion of magnetic topology to real plasmas problems arise concerning the stability of topology. Instability may inhibit one from defining the topology of a given real, i.e. not exactly prescribed, magnetic field configuration and makes it difficult to detect changes of magnetic topology, such as reconnection processes. This problem of structural instability of magnetic topology also appears in connection with changes of the frame of reference. A change of the frame of reference may lead to a transition in topology especially for topological unstable, non-ideal systems. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. The problem of space travel: The rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordung, Hermann; Stuhlinger, Ernst (Editor); Hunley, J. D. (Editor); Garland, Jennifer (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This is an English translation of Noordung's 'Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums'. It is a part of the NASA History Series. The book provides Noordung's insight as to how a space station might be constructed. Keep in mind that the author passed away in 1929. It contains ideas that were criticized for faults and those that were acclaimed for their potentially successful ingenuity.

  11. The relationship between the behavior problems and motor skills of students with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangchool; Jeoung, Bogja

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the motor skills and the behavior problems of students with intellectual disabilities. The study participants were 117 students with intellectual disabilities who were between 7 and 25 years old (male, n=79; female, n=38) and attending special education schools in South Korea. Motor skill abilities were assessed by using the second version of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, which includes subtests in fine motor control, manual coordination, body coordination, strength, and agility. Data were analyzed with SPSS IBM 21 by using correlation and regression analyses, and the significance level was set at P Manual dexterity showed a statistically significant influence on somatic complaint and anxiety/depression, and bilateral coordination had a statistically significant influence on social problems, attention problem, and aggressive behavior. Our results showed that balance had a statistically significant influence on social problems and aggressive behavior, and speed and agility had a statistically significant influence on social problems and aggressive behavior. Upper limb coordination and strength had a statistically significant influence on social problems.

  12. Electrotechnics - AC motors. Asynchronous and brush-less motors - Lecture and exercises with solutions; Electrotechnique - Moteurs a courant alternatif. Moteurs asynchrones et brushless - Cours et problemes resolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, D.

    2005-07-01

    This book proposes a presentation of AC electric motors essentially based on physics and technology. Its originality consists in avoiding to use mathematical formulations (like Park's transformation). The modeling retained, which only uses magnetic momentum, magnetic fields and reluctance concepts, leads simply and naturally to the vectorial control principle. The book develops some lecture elements which includes some topics rarely considered like the dimensioning of an asynchronous motor or of a single-phase brush-less motor. Experimental results illustrate the physical phenomena described and many original problems are resolved and commented at the end of each chapter. Content: signals and systems in electrotechnics, torque and rotating magnetic fields generation, asynchronous machine in permanent regime, speed variation of the asynchronous motor, special asynchronous motors, synchronous machine in permanent regime, brush-less motor, note about step motors, note about inverters, index. (J.S.)

  13. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills has an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years. Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables.Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  14. IE Information No. 86-71: Recent identified problems with Limitorque motor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    This notice is provided to alert recipients of two potential problems discovered with Limitorque motor operators. On November 8, 1985 Georgia Power Company submitted a preliminary report to the NRC indicating that it had discovered burn damage to internal wiring in several Limitorque motor operators installed in their Vogtle Unit 1 Power Plant. On March 20, 1986 Georgia Power Company submitted a final report to the NRC which suggested that the burn damage was a generic problem applicable to all Limitorque motor operators. This assumption was based on a sampling inspection of 104 Limitorque motor operators installed in Vogtle Unit 1. Forty-six of the motor operators examined were Limitorque type SMB-000, and six of these were found to have burnt internal wiring. Out of the 58 operators other than type SMB-000 which were inspected, 5 were found to contain wires deemed susceptible to damage because of their close proximity to the heater elements (less than 1/2 inch). Several licensees have submitted reports to the NRC concerning a problem with cracked limit switch rotors on Limitorque motor operators installed inside and outside of containment. The limit switches are used for control of the motor operator and also provide indication of valve position in the control room. The cracks have been found on white melamine limit switch rotors. Most of these cracks were found in the area where the limit switch rotors are pinned to the pinion shafts. Some cracks have been found to extend halfway through the melamine rotors, weakening them to the extent that they are easily broken

  15. Perceived motor problems in daily life: Focus group interviews with people with Noonan syndrome and their relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croonen, E.A.; Harmsen, M.; Burgt, I. van der; Draaisma, J.M.T.; Noordam, C.; Essink, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2016-01-01

    Studies from a patient perspective on motor performance problems in Noonan syndrome in daily life are lacking. The aims of this study were to provide insight into the motor performance problems that people with Noonan syndrome and/or their relatives experienced, the major consequences they suffered,

  16. The functional implications of motor, cognitive, psychiatric, and social problem-solving states in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, Charles; Gluhm, Shea; Goldstein, Jody; Cronan, Terry A; Corey-Bloom, Jody

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric dysfunction. In HD, the inability to solve problems successfully affects not only disease coping, but also interpersonal relationships, judgment, and independent living. The aim of the present study was to examine social problem-solving (SPS) in well-characterized HD and at-risk (AR) individuals and to examine its unique and conjoint effects with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric states on functional ratings. Sixty-three participants, 31 HD and 32 gene-positive AR, were included in the study. Participants completed the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised: Long (SPSI-R:L), a 52-item, reliable, standardized measure of SPS. Items are aggregated under five scales (Positive, Negative, and Rational Problem-Solving; Impulsivity/Carelessness and Avoidance Styles). Participants also completed the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale functional, behavioral, and cognitive assessments, as well as additional neuropsychological examinations and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R). A structural equation model was used to examine the effects of motor, cognitive, psychiatric, and SPS states on functionality. The multifactor structural model fit well descriptively. Cognitive and motor states uniquely and significantly predicted function in HD; however, neither psychiatric nor SPS states did. SPS was, however, significantly related to motor, cognitive, and psychiatric states, suggesting that it may bridge the correlative gap between psychiatric and cognitive states in HD. SPS may be worth assessing in conjunction with the standard gamut of clinical assessments in HD. Suggestions for future research and implications for patients, families, caregivers, and clinicians are discussed.

  17. The Relationship Between Motor Skills, Social Problems, and ADHD Symptomatology: Does It Vary According to Parent and Teacher Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Rigoli, Daniela; Loh, Pek Ru; Kane, Robert; Licari, Melissa; Hands, Beth; Oliveira, Jorge A; Piek, Jan

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor performance; attentional, hyperactive, and impulsive symptoms; and social problems. Correlations between parents' versus teachers' ratings of social problems and ADHD symptomatology were also examined. A total of 129 children aged 9 to 12 years were included. ADHD symptoms and social problems were identified based on Conners' Rating Scales-Revised: L, and the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development was used to assess motor skills. After controlling for ADHD symptomatology, motor skills remained a significant predictor of social problems in the teacher model but not in the parent model. After controlling for motor skills, inattentive (not hyperactive-impulsive) symptoms were a significant predictor of social problems in the parent model, whereas hyperactive-impulsive (not inattentive) symptoms were a significant predictor of social problems in the teacher model. The findings suggested that intervention strategies should consider the interaction between symptoms and environmental contexts.

  18. The uniqueness of the solution for the definite problem of a parabolic variational inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The uniqueness of the solution for the definite problem of a parabolic variational inequality is proved. The problem comes from the study of the optimal exercise strategies for the perpetual executive stock options with unrestricted exercise in financial market. Because the variational inequality is degenerate and the obstacle condition contains the partial derivative of an unknown function, it makes the theoretical study of the definite problem of the variational inequality problem very difficult. Firstly, the property which the value function satisfies is derived by applying the Jensen inequality. Then the uniqueness of the solution is proved by using this property and maximum principles.

  19. Definition of Earth Resources Policy and Management Problems in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchman, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the Social Sciences Group in solving earth resources management problems as related to social factors, are reported. Major efforts of the Group revolved around identifying potential users of ERTS data, ascertain the user's needs, and assay the organizational impacts of new and technologically advanced sources of information. Attempts were also made to develop a linear programming model to be used in decision making with respect to resources being observed by ERTS and other remote sensing vehicles. The cost effectiveness of solving these management problems is discussed.

  20. Alcoholism. Earlier diagnosis and definition of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, D E; Carlton, B E

    1978-07-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected.

  1. On Wigner's problem, computability theory, and the definition of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, J.

    1998-01-01

    In 1961, Eugene Wigner presented a clever argument that in a world which is adequately described by quantum mechanics, self-reproducing systems in general, and perhaps life in particular, would be incredibly improbable. The problem and some attempts at its solution are examined, and a new solution is presented based on computability theory. In particular, it is shown that computability theory provides limits on what can be known about a system in addition to those which arise from quantum mechanics. (author)

  2. The Devil is in the Definition - Definitions and their Limited Use in Legal Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Brimer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The lawyer’s usual attempt to catch the meaning of a thing by entangling it in a net of words is based on a common misapprehension of the way words work. The great minds of the ages have since time immemorial reminded us that words do not contain essences, that meanings are social constructs, and that the relation between words and meanings is slippery at best. Definitions presuppose that words have simple meanings attached to them in something like a one-to-one relationship, which is why the law can sometimes be so obtuse. It is the use of the law in a tribunal that provides the eventual understanding of how the law works. Decisions handed down in courts are embedded in a particular time and a particular set of circumstances and are the products of minds informed by a set of social experiences which other lawyers accept as qualifying those particular persons to pronounce on the law. Our legislature would do well when framing legislation to imitate those who drafted the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 which is sufficiently specific, without the support of pages of definitions, to lead to very precise argument in the Constitutional Court, and yet sufficiently general to allow the law to develop with the flux of time.

  3. Motor function and perception in children with neuropsychiatric and conduct problems: results from a population based twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Peik; Kerekes, Nóra; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Children with early symptomatic psychiatric disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been found to have high rates of motor and/or perception difficulties. However, there have been few large-scale studies reporting on the association between Conduct Disorder (CD) and motor/perception functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate how motor function and perception relate to measures of ADHD, ASD, and CD. Parents of 16,994 Swedish twins (ages nine and twelve years) were interviewed using the Autism-Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities inventory (A-TAC), which has been validated as a screening instrument for early onset child psychiatric disorders and symptoms. Associations between categorical variables of scoring above previously validated cut-off values for diagnosing ADHD, ASD, and CD on the one hand and motor and/or perception problems on the other hand were analysed using cross-tabulations, and the Fisher exact test. Associations between the continuous scores for ADHD, ASD, CD, and the subdomains Concentration/Attention, Impulsiveness/Activity, Flexibility, Social Interaction and Language, and the categorical factors age and gender, on the one hand, and the dependent dichotomic variables Motor control and Perception problems, on the other hand, were analysed using binary logistic regression in general estimated equation models. Male gender was associated with increased risk of Motor control and/or Perception problems. Children scoring above the cut-off for ADHD, ASD, and/or CD, but not those who were 'CD positive' but 'ADHD/ASD negative', had more Motor control and/or Perception problems, compared with children who were screen-negative for all three diagnoses. In the multivariable model, CD and Impulsiveness/Activity had no positive associations with Motor control and/or Perception problems. CD symptoms or problems with Impulsiveness/Activity were associated with Motor control or

  4. Problems in implementing some of the new measurement unit definitions of the SI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavese, Franco

    2013-09-01

    The paper illustrates and discusses some problems that should be taken into account, should the proposed use of fundamental constants in the definition of measurement units of the SI be implemented: (a) more base units being multi-dimensional, instead of fixing the present problems in this respect; (b) the multidimensionality in the definitions; (c) the use of CODATA adjusted values of the constants for this specific purpose; (d) formal issues in stipulating algebraic expressions of the definitions, and in respect to the rounding or truncation of the numerical values in their transformation from uncertain to exact values; (e) formal issues with the use of the integer number NA; (f) limitations that can arise from the stipulation of the values of several constants for the CODATA Task Group to continue performing in future meaningful least squares adjustments of the fundamental constants taking into account future data.

  5. Problems in implementing some of the new measurement unit definitions of the SI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavese, Franco

    2013-01-01

    The paper illustrates and discusses some problems that should be taken into account, should the proposed use of fundamental constants in the definition of measurement units of the SI be implemented: (a) more base units being multi-dimensional, instead of fixing the present problems in this respect; (b) the multidimensionality in the definitions; (c) the use of CODATA adjusted values of the constants for this specific purpose; (d) formal issues in stipulating algebraic expressions of the definitions, and in respect to the rounding or truncation of the numerical values in their transformation from uncertain to exact values; (e) formal issues with the use of the integer number N A ; (f) limitations that can arise from the stipulation of the values of several constants for the CODATA Task Group to continue performing in future meaningful least squares adjustments of the fundamental constants taking into account future data

  6. Definition of new 3D invariants. Applications to pattern recognition problems with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proriol, J.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a definition of new 3D invariants. Usual pattern recognition methods use 2D descriptions of 3D objects, we propose a 2D approximation of the defined 3D invariants which can be used with neural networks to solve pattern recognition problems. We describe some methods to use the 2 D approximants. This work is an extension of previous 3D invariants used to solve some high energy physics problems. (author)

  7. "My child has a sleep problem": a cross-cultural comparison of parental definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; Mindell, Jodi; Rivera, Luis

    2011-05-01

    Sleep problems are highly prevalent in early childhood. In many cases, parents seek professional help when they suspect their child suffers from a sleep problem. The aim of this study was to explore sleep, demographic and cultural factors associated with parental definition of child sleep problem in a large-scale, cross cultural study. Parents (or caregivers) of 29,287 infants and toddlers (aged 0-3 years) from 17 countries completed a questionnaire on their child's sleep patterns, sleep setting, and demographic variables. The results indicated that, in comparison to parents from predominantly Caucasian (PC) countries, parents from predominantly Asian (PA) countries were significantly more likely to identify a sleep problem in their children (26% vs 52% overall; 2% vs 17% "severe" sleep problem). Furthermore, whereas infant sleep variables were strong predictors of a sleep problem definition in PC countries, they were significantly less predictive in PA countries where demographic variables played a significant role. These results highlight the need to further explore the role of demographic and cultural variables in determining parental perception of a sleep problem, a perception that relates to help seeking professional treatment for infant sleep problems. Our findings also emphasize the need to educate parents about infant and toddler sleep and to provide parents information and screening tools to help them identify sleep problems in a more evidence-based approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive Profiles of Mathematical Problem Solving Learning Disability for Different Definitions of Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    Three cohorts of third-grade students (N = 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods from these two traditions to form math problem solving LD groups. To evaluate group differences, we used MANOVA-based profile and canonical analyses to control for relations among the outcomes and regression to control for group definition variables. Results suggest that basic arithmetic is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates low-achieving problem solvers (including LD, regardless of definition) from typically achieving students. Word problem solving is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates IQ-achievement-discrepant from strictly low-achieving LD students, favoring the IQ-achievement-discrepant students. PMID:24939971

  9. Perceived motor problems in daily life: Focus group interviews with people with Noonan syndrome and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croonen, Ellen A; Harmsen, Mirjam; Van der Burgt, Ineke; Draaisma, Jos M; Noordam, Kees; Essink, Marlou; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-09-01

    Studies from a patient perspective on motor performance problems in Noonan syndrome in daily life are lacking. The aims of this study were to provide insight into the motor performance problems that people with Noonan syndrome and/or their relatives experienced, the major consequences they suffered, the benefits of interventions they experienced, and the experiences with healthcare professionals they mentioned. We interviewed 10 adults with Noonan syndrome (two were joined by their parent), and 23 mothers (five of whom had Noonan syndrome), nine fathers (one of whom had Noonan syndrome) and one cousin who reported on 28 children with Noonan syndrome. People with Noonan syndrome reported particular problems related to pain, decreased muscle strength, fatigue, and clumsiness, which had an evident impact on functioning in daily life. Most participants believed that problems with motor performance improved with exercise, appropriate physiotherapy guidance, and other supportive interventions. Nevertheless, people with Noonan syndrome and/or their relatives did not feel heard and supported and experienced no understanding of their problems by healthcare professionals. This was the first study from a patient perspective that described the motor performance problems in people with Noonan syndrome, the major consequences in daily life, the positive experiences of interventions and the miscommunication with healthcare professionals. To achieve optimal support, healthcare professionals, as well as people with Noonan syndrome and/or their relatives themselves, should be aware of these frequently presented problems with motor performance. Research on these different aspects is needed to better understand and support people with Noonan syndrome.© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. High-Definition and Non-Invasive Brain Modulation of Pain and Motor Dysfunction in Chronic TMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, Adam; Nascimento, Thiago; Lawrence, Mara; Gupta, Vikas; Zieba, Tina; Truong, Dennis Q.; Bikson, Marom; Datta, Abhi; Bellile, Emily; DaSilva, Alexandre F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have a relatively high prevalence and in many patients pain and masticatory dysfunction persist despite a range of treatments. Non-invasive brain neuromodulatory methods, namely transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can provide relatively long-lasting pain relief in chronic pain patients. Objective To define the neuromodulatory effect of five daily 2×2 motor cortex high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) sessions on clinical pain and motor measures in chronic TMD patients. It is predicted that M1 HD-tDCS will selectively modulate clinical measures, by showing greater analgesic after-effects compared to placebo, and active treatment will increase pain free jaw movement more than placebo. Methods Twenty-four females with chronic myofascial TMD pain underwent five daily, 20-minute sessions of active or sham 2 milliamps (mA) HD-tDCS. Measurable outcomes included pain-free mouth opening, visual analog scale (VAS), sectional sensory-discriminative pain measures tracked by a mobile application, short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Follow-up occurred at one-week and four-weeks post treatment. Results There were significant improvements for clinical pain and motor measurements in the active HD-tDCS group compared to the placebo group for: responders with pain relief above 50% in the VAS at four-week follow-up (p=0.04); pain-free mouth opening at one-week follow-up (ppain area, intensity and their sum measures contralateral to putative M1 stimulation during the treatment week (ppain and motor measures during stimulation, and up to four weeks post-treatment in chronic myofascial TMD pain patients. PMID:26226938

  11. 75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... operated over 33,000 motorcoaches, they logged nearly 750 million passenger trips, and they traveled over 1..., and Puerto Rico. To be included in FARS, a crash must involve a motor vehicle traveling on a traffic...-occupant within 30 days of the crash. Motorcoaches are identified in FARS as ``cross-country intercity...

  12. DEFINITION OF OUTPUT ENERGY PARAMETERS OF A VEHICLE WITH AIR MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronkov, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was made trailer-speed motion analysis of minibus GAZ-2217 with air motor instead of the internal combustion engine and recommendations allowing to determine the output power of the power plant parameters for vehicle movement at low speed in urban cycle.

  13. The main security problems encountered in the definition of the PWR 1300 MWe stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimbail, H.; Auvergnon, F.

    1980-01-01

    The main problems of security encountered in the definition of the PWR 1300 stage originated from the necessity to ensure the continuity of a stage with the preceding one, the overture to technical progress, the acceptance of responsibility for the gaines experience and the control of cost prices. A few examples show how desirable it is for a project to be managed with the design and construction rules stabilized as early as possible [fr

  14. Big Data Analytics as Input for Problem Definition and Idea Generation in Technological Design

    OpenAIRE

    Escandón-Quintanilla , Ma-Lorena; Gardoni , Mickaël; Cohendet , Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Part 10: Big Data Analytics and Business Intelligence; International audience; Big data analytics enables organizations to process massive amounts of data in shorter amounts of time and with more understanding than ever before. Many uses have been found to take advantage of this tools and techniques, especially for decision making. However, little applications have been found in the first stages of innovation, namely problem definition and idea generation. This paper discusses how big data an...

  15. The Combined Use of Hypnosis and Sensory and Motor Stimulation in Assisting Children with Developmental Learning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampolsky, Gerald G.

    Hypnosis was combined with sensory and motor stimulation to remediate reversal problems in five children (6 1/2- 9-years-old). Under hypnosis Ss were given the suggestion that they learn their numbers through feel and then given 1 hour of structured instruction daily for 10 days. Instruction stressed conditioning, vibratory memory, touch memory,…

  16. Complementing the Latest APA Definition of Hypnosis: Sensory-Motor and Vascular Peculiarities Involved in Hypnotizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarcangelo, Enrica L; Scattina, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to complement the recently revised American Psychological Association (APA) definition of hypnotizability. It (a) lists a few differences in sensorimotor integration between subjects with high (highs) and low (lows) hypnotizability scores in the ordinary state of consciousness and in the absence of suggestions, (b) proposes that hypnotizability-related cerebellar peculiarities may account for them, (c) suggests that the cerebellum could also be involved in cognitive aspects of hypnotizability and (d) explains why the information derived from studies of sensorimotor and cardiovascular aspects of hypnotizability may be relevant to its definition and useful in orienting further experimental research in the field of hypnosis.

  17. Toward the Soundness of Sense Structure Definitions in Thesaurus-Dictionaries. Parsing Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Curteanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we point out some difficult problems of thesaurus-dictionary entry parsing, relying on the parsing technology of SCD (Segmentation-Cohesion-Dependency configurations, successfully applied on six largest thesauri -- Romanian (2, French, German (2, and Russian. \\textbf{Challenging Problems:} \\textbf{(a}~Intricate and~/~or recursive structures of the lexicographic segments met in the entries of certain thesauri; \\textbf{(b}~Cyclicity (recursive calls of some sense marker classes on marker sequences; \\textbf{(c}~Establishing the hypergraph-driven dependencies between all the atomic and non-atomic sense definitions. Classical approach to solve these parsing problems is hard mainly because of depth-first search of sense definitions and markers, the substantial complexity of entries, and the sense tree dynamic construction embodied within these parsers. \\textbf{SCD-based Parsing Solutions:} \\textbf{(a}~The SCD parsing method is a procedural tool, completely formal grammar-free, handling the recursive structure of the lexicographic segments by procedural non-recursive calls performed on the SCD parsing configurations of the entry structure. \\textbf{(b}~For dealing with cyclicity (recursive calls between secondary sense markers and the sense enumeration markers, we proposed the Enumeration Closing Condition, sometimes coupled with New{\\_}Paragraphs typographic markers transformed into numeral sense enumeration. \\textbf{(c}~These problems, their lexicographic modeling and parsing solutions are addressed to both dictionary parser programmers to experience the SCD-based parsing method, as well as to lexicographers and thesauri designers for tailoring balanced lexical-semantics granularities and sounder sense tree definitions of the dictionary entries.

  18. Putting the puzzle together: the role of 'problem definition' in complex clinical judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, Sayra; Lingard, Lorelei; Forbes, Thomas; Ott, Michael; Novick, Richard

    2017-02-01

    We teach judgement in pieces; that is, we talk about each aspect separately (patient, plan, resources, technique, etc.). We also let trainees figure out how to put the pieces together. In complex situations, this might be problematic. Using data from a drawing-based study on surgeons' experiences with complex situations, we explore the notion of 'problem definition' in real-world clinical judgement using the theoretical lens of systems engineering. 'Emergence', the sensitising concept for analysis, is rooted in two key systems premises: that person and context are inseparable and that what emerges is an act of choice. Via a 'gallery walk' we used these premises to perform analysis on individual drawings as well as cross-comparisons of multiple drawings. Our focus was to understand similarities and differences among the vantage points used by multiple surgeons. In this paper we challenge two assumptions from current models of clinical judgement: that experts hold a fixed and static definition of the problem and that consequently the focus of the expert's work is on solving the problem. Each situation described by our participants revealed different but complementary perspectives of what a surgical problem might come to be: from concerns about ensuring standard of care, to balancing personal emotions versus care choices, to coordinating resources, and to maintaining control while in the midst of personality clashes. We suggest that it is only at the situation and system level, not at the individual level, that we are able to appreciate the nuances of defining the problem when experts make judgements during real-world complex situations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  19. Natural Hazard Problem and Solution Definition in the News Media: the Case of Tropical Storm Allison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Eric; Mosher-Howe, Katrina

    2010-05-01

    Focusing events such as natural or technological disasters can have significant impacts on public policy and planning in both the near and long term. These impacts can manifest at different temporal scales ranging from the period of immediate attention and disaster relief through the period of recovery and reconstruction and beyond. These impacts and associated decisions can be studied in retrospect and understood as not only short-term reactions, but as long-term components of subsequent natural hazard planning and public policy. By studying in detail how an event was defined, and the policy and planning alternatives that were raised or recommended in response to a disaster event, we can better understand the role that disaster-related focusing events play in the long-term evolution of a community's public policy, infrastructural planning efforts, and responses to natural disasters. This paper will use a focusing event framework to explore the local and regional policy impacts over time of a major urban flood in Houston, Texas, Tropical Storm Allison. Tropical Storm Allison (TSA), dropped 36 inches of rain on Houston over a period of four days in early June 2001, and was responsible for 22 deaths, 70,000 flood damaged homes, and 5 billion in damage to the region. The primary data source for this effort is a database of 500 articles from the major regional newspaper, the Houston Chronicle, over the period of 2001 through 2008. These articles were coded for multiple variables, including, cause, effect and impact (financial and social), blame, problem and solution definition and solution acceptance). This paper focuses primarily on the measures of problem definition (how was TSA, as an event, defined in the media, for example, as an act of God, or as a result of poor planning or decision making, etc), and on solution definition (what solutions were proposed to mitigate or adapt to future storms of this magnitude, how were they linked to the definition of the problem

  20. Screening accuracy of the parent-completed Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition as a broadband screener for motor problems in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Van Schuerbeeck, Lise; Braeken, Marijke Aka

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders are at risk for motor problems. However, this area is often overlooked in the developmental evaluation in autism diagnostic clinics. An alternative can be to identify children who should receive intensive motor assessment by using a parent-based screener. The aim of this study was to examine whether the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition may be used to identify gross and fine motor problems in children. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 43, 22-54 m) participated in this study. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated by comparing the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition scores to the developmental evaluation of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale - second edition. The results revealed that both the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition gross and fine motor domain may be used to identify children without motor problems. In contrast, sensitivity analyses revealed the likelihood of under screening motor problems in this population. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition met only the criteria of a fair to good accuracy to identify poor gross motor (sensitivity = 100%) and below-average fine motor development (sensitivity = 71%) in this sample. Hence, the capacity of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition to identify motor problems in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder appears to be limited. It is recommended to include a formal standardized motor test in the diagnostic procedure for all children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Oral motor functions, speech and communication before a definitive diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Tanja; Korpijaakko-Huuhka, Anna-Maija; Ruottinen, Hanna; Puhto, Riitta; Hollo, Kirsi; Ylinen, Aarne; Palmio, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the cranial nerve symptoms, speech disorders and communicative effectiveness of Finnish patients with diagnosed or possible amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at their first assessment by a speech-language pathologist. The group studied consisted of 30 participants who had clinical signs of bulbar deterioration at the beginning of the study. They underwent a thorough clinical speech and communication examination. The cranial nerve symptoms and ability to communicate were compared in 14 participants with probable or definitive ALS and in 16 participants with suspected or possible ALS. The initial type of ALS was also assessed. More deterioration in soft palate function was found in participants with possible ALS than with diagnosed ALS. Likewise, a slower speech rate combined with more severe dysarthria was observed in possible ALS. In both groups, there was some deterioration in communicative effectiveness. In the possible ALS group the diagnostic delay was longer and speech therapy intervention actualized later. The participants with ALS showed multidimensional decline in communication at their first visit to the speech-language pathologist, but impairments and activity limitations were more severe in suspected or possible ALS. The majority of persons with bulbar-onset ALS in this study were in the latter diagnostic group. This suggests that they are more susceptible to delayed diagnosis and delayed speech therapy assessment. It is important to start speech therapy intervention during the diagnostic processes particularly if the person already shows bulbar symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Screening Accuracy of the Parent-Completed Ages and Stages Questionnaires--Second Edition as a Broadband Screener for Motor Problems in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Van Schuerbeeck, Lise; Braeken, Marijke A. K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders are at risk for motor problems. However, this area is often overlooked in the developmental evaluation in autism diagnostic clinics. An alternative can be to identify children who should receive intensive motor assessment by using a parent-based screener. The aim of this study was to examine whether the Ages…

  3. Effect of Pharmacist-Led Interventions on (Non)Motor Symptoms, Medication-Related Problems, and Quality of Life in Parkinson Disease Patients: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijt, C.; Karapinar-Carkit, F.; Bemt, B.J. van den; Laar, T. van

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) use multiple drugs. This pill burden with consequent poor adherence may cause worsening of motor symptoms and drug-related problems. Therefore, a multifaceted pharmacist-led intervention program was designed to improve adherence, motor-functioning,

  4. Motor Proficiency of 6- to 9-Year-Old Children with Speech and Language Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne; Moolenaar, Ben; Lyons, Jim; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Hartman, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study compared the gross motor skills of school-age children (mean age 7y 8mo, range 6-9y) with developmental speech and language disorders (DSLDs; n = 105; 76 males, 29 females) and typically developing children (n = 105; 76 males, 29 females). The relationship between the performance parameters and the children's age was investigated…

  5. Co-occurring motor, language and emotional-behavioral problems in children 3-6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Dowling, Sara; Missiuna, Cheryl; Rodriguez, M Christine; Greenway, Matt; Cairney, John

    2015-02-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) has been shown to co-occur with behavioral and language problems in school-aged children, but little is known as to when these problems begin to emerge, or if they are inherent in children with DCD. The purpose of this study was to determine if deficits in language and emotional-behavioral problems are apparent in preschool-aged children with movement difficulties. Two hundred and fourteen children (mean age 4years 11months, SD 9.8months, 103 male) performed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2nd Edition (MABC-2). Children falling at or below the 16th percentile were classified as being at risk for movement difficulties (MD risk). Auditory comprehension and expressive communication were examined using the Preschool Language Scales 4th Edition (PLS-4). Parent-reported emotional and behavioral problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Preschool children with diminished motor coordination (n=37) were found to have lower language scores, higher externalizing behaviors in the form of increased aggression, as well as increased withdrawn and other behavior symptoms compared with their typically developing peers. Motor coordination, language and emotional-behavioral difficulties tend to co-occur in young children aged 3-6years. These results highlight the need for early intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. How the credit assignment problems in motor control could be solved after the cerebellum predicts increases in error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzco-Flores, Sergio O; O'Reilly, Randall C

    2015-01-01

    We present a cerebellar architecture with two main characteristics. The first one is that complex spikes respond to increases in sensory errors. The second one is that cerebellar modules associate particular contexts where errors have increased in the past with corrective commands that stop the increase in error. We analyze our architecture formally and computationally for the case of reaching in a 3D environment. In the case of motor control, we show that there are synergies of this architecture with the Equilibrium-Point hypothesis, leading to novel ways to solve the motor error and distal learning problems. In particular, the presence of desired equilibrium lengths for muscles provides a way to know when the error is increasing, and which corrections to apply. In the context of Threshold Control Theory and Perceptual Control Theory we show how to extend our model so it implements anticipative corrections in cascade control systems that span from muscle contractions to cognitive operations.

  7. How the credit assignment problems in motor control could be solved after the cerebellum predicts increases in error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Oscar Verduzco-Flores

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a cerebellar architecture with two main characteristics. The first one is that complex spikes respond to increases in sensory errors. The second one is that cerebellar modules associate particular contexts where errors have increased in the past with corrective commands that stop the increase in error. We analyze our architecture formally and computationally for the case of reaching in a 3D environment. In the case of motor control, we show that there are synergies of this architecture with the Equilibrium-Point hypothesis, leading to novel ways to solve the motor error and distal learning problems. In particular, the presence of desired equilibrium lengths for muscles provides a way to know when the error is increasing, and which corrections to apply. In the context of Threshold Control Theory and Perceptual Control Theory we show how to extend our model so it implements anticipative corrections in cascade control systems that span from muscle contractions to cognitive operations.

  8. Nursing outcome "Severity of infection": conceptual definitions for indicators related to respiratory problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Luz Rodríguez-Acelas

    Full Text Available Objective.Build conceptual definitions for some indicators of the nursing outcome Infection Severity in the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC related to respiratory problems, based on scientific evidence of signs and symptoms of infection in adults. Methods. Integrative literature review with search in the databases PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS and SCOPUS. Studies whose full texts were available, published in Spanish, Portuguese or English, using the descriptors infection severity, nursing outcomes classification NOC, respiratory infections and respiratory signs and symptoms. Results. Nine publications were analyzed that supported the elaboration of the conceptual definitions for eight indicators of the Nursing Outcome Infection Severity: purulent drainage, fever, chilling, unstable temperature, pain, colonization of drainage cultivation, white blood cell count elevation and white blood cell count drop. Conclusion. This study contributed to understand the terms used in the nursing outcome Infection Severity, in order to improve and facilitate the use of the NOC, as it enhances the conceptual clarity of the selected indicators with a view to producing better scientific evidence.

  9. Dual Task of Fine Motor Skill and Problem Solving in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverover, Y; Sandroff, B M; DeLuca, J

    2018-04-01

    To (1) examine and compare dual-task performance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HCs) using mathematical problem-solving questions that included an everyday competence component while performing an upper extremity fine motor task; and (2) examine whether difficulties in dual-task performance are associated with problems in performing an everyday internet task. Pilot study, mixed-design with both a within and between subjects' factor. A nonprofit rehabilitation research institution and the community. Participants (N=38) included persons with MS (n=19) and HCs (n=19) who were recruited from a nonprofit rehabilitation research institution and from the community. Not applicable. Participant were presented with 2 testing conditions: (1) solving mathematical everyday problems or placing bolts into divots (single-task condition); and (2) solving problems while putting bolts into divots (dual-task condition). Additionally, participants were required to perform a test of everyday internet competence. As expected, dual-task performance was significantly worse than either of the single-task tasks (ie, number of bolts into divots or correct answers, and time to answer the questions). Cognitive but not motor dual-task cost was associated with worse performance in activities of everyday internet tasks. Cognitive dual-task cost is significantly associated with worse performance of everyday technology. This was not observed in the motor dual-task cost. The implications of dual-task costs on everyday activity are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Definition of life law and the situation with problems of China's life jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqiu

    2008-12-01

    Life law is a new conception brought by the development of modern life science and biotechnology. There are many different ideas on the conception of life law in academy. The definition of life law should be footed on the domain of bioethics. Based on bioethics, life law is a group of legislations which are enacted or acknowledged by the state and implemented by the state compulsively with the goal of regulating all types of relations revolving the survival as well as terminal of human beings and some other creatures which play important roles in the maintenance of human's life and health. There are many problems in China's study on science of life law, which need paying special attention to by China's scholars.

  11. Global case studies of soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS: Definitions, classifications, advances, origins, and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam

    2017-10-01

    Problems that hinder our understanding of SSDS still remain. They are: (1 vague definitions of the phrase “soft-sediment deformation”; (2 complex factors that govern the origin of SSDS; (3 omission of vital empirical data in documenting vertical changes in facies using measured sedimentological logs; (4 difficulties in distinguishing depositional processes from tectonic events; (5 a model-driven interpretation of SSDS (i.e., earthquake being the singular cause; (6 routine application of the genetic term “seismites” to the “SSDS”, thus undermining the basic tenet of process sedimentology (i.e., separation of interpretation from observation; (7 the absence of objective criteria to differentiate 21 triggering mechanisms of liquefaction and related SSDS; (8 application of the process concept “high-density turbidity currents”, a process that has never been documented in modern oceans; (9 application of the process concept “sediment creep” with a velocity connotation that cannot be inferred from the ancient record; (10 classification of pockmarks, which are hollow spaces (i.e., without sediments as SSDS, with their problematic origins by fluid expulsion, sediment degassing, fish activity, etc.; (11 application of the Earth's climate-change model; and most importantly, (12 an arbitrary distinction between depositional process and sediment deformation. Despite a profusion of literature on SSDS, our understanding of their origin remains muddled. A solution to the chronic SSDS problem is to utilize the robust core dataset from scientific drilling at sea (DSDP/ODP/IODP with a constrained definition of SSDS.

  12. Colorado SIP: 5 CCR 1001-13, Reg 11, Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program—Part A, General Provisions, Area of Applicability, Schedules for Obtaining Certification of Emissions Control, Definitions, Exemptions, and Clean Screening/Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado SIP: 5 CCR 1001-13, Reg 11, Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program—Part A, General Provisions, Area of Applicability, Schedules for Obtaining Certification of Emissions Control, Definitions, Exemptions, and Clean Screening/Remote Sensing

  13. Problem area descriptions : motor vehicle crashes - data analysis and IVI program analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In general, the IVI program focuses on the more significant safety problem categories as : indicated by statistical analyses of crash data. However, other factors were considered in setting : program priorities and schedules. For some problem areas, ...

  14. Stress cardiomyopathy: Is it limited to Takotsubo syndrome? Problems of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapultsev, Petr A; Sarapultsev, Alexey P

    2016-10-15

    In 2006, Takotsubo syndrome (TTC) was described as a distinct type of stress-induced cardiomyopathy (stress cardiomyopathy). However, when thinking about Takotsubo cardiomyopathy from the viewpoints of the AHA and ESC classifications, 2 possible problems may arise. The first potential problem is that a forecast of disease outcome is lacking in the ESC classification, whereas the AHA only states that 'outcome is favorable with appropriate medical therapy'. However, based on the literature data, one can make a general conclusion that occurrence of myocardial lesions in TTC (i.e., myocardial fibrosis and contraction-band necrosis) causes the same effects as in other diseases with similar levels of myocardial damage and should not be considered to have a lesser impact on mortality. To summarise, TTC can cause not only severe complications such as pulmonary oedema, cardiogenic shock, and dangerous ventricular arrhythmias, but also damage to the myocardium, which can result in the development of potentially fatal conditions even after the disappearance of LV apical ballooning. The second potential problem arises from the definition of TTC as a stress cardiomyopathy in the AHA classification. In fact, the main factors leading to TTC are stress and microvascular anginas, since, as has been already discussed, coronary spasm can cause myocardium stunning, resulting in persistent apical ballooning. Thus, based on this review, 3 distinct types of stress cardiomyopathies exist (variant angina, microvascular angina, and TTC), with poor prognosis. Adding these diseases to the classification of cardiomyopathies will facilitate diagnosis and preventive prolonged treatment, which should include intensive anti-stress therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  16. The difference between the classical and quantum mechanical definitions of scattering cross sections and the problem of the classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, D.; Basu, A.N.; Sengupta, S.

    1994-01-01

    A critical analysis of the difference between the classical and quantum mechanical definitions of scattering cross sections for particles is presented. This leads to a clarification of the classical limit problem and suggests precise criteria for its validity. In particular these criteria are derived for both finite and infinite range potentials. (orig.)

  17. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1979-02-14

    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  18. Nursing outcome "Severity of infection": conceptual definitions for indicators related to respiratory problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Acelas, Alba Luz; Reich, Rejane; de Abreu Almeida, Miriam; Oliveira Crossetti, Maria da Graça; de Fátima Lucena, Amália

    2016-04-01

    Build conceptual definitions for some indicators of the nursing outcome Infection Severity in the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) related to respiratory problems, based on scientific evidence of signs and symptoms of infection in adults. Integrative literature review with search in the databases PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS and SCOPUS. Studies whose full texts were available, published in Spanish, Portuguese or English, using the descriptors infection severity, nursing outcomes classification NOC, respiratory infections and respiratory signs and symptoms. Nine publications were analyzed that supported the elaboration of the conceptual definitions for eight indicators of the Nursing Outcome Infection Severity: purulent drainage, fever, chilling, unstable temperature, pain, colonization of drainage cultivation, white blood cell count elevation and white blood cell count drop. This study contributed to understand the terms used in the nursing outcome Infection Severity, in order to improve and facilitate the use of the NOC, as it enhances the conceptual clarity of the selected indicators with a view to producing better scientific evidence.Objetivo.Construir definições conceituais para alguns indicadores do resultado de enfermagem Gravidade de Infecção da Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) relacionados aos problemas respiratórios, a partir de evidências científicas sobre sinais e sintomas de infecção em pessoas adultas. Métodos. Revisão integrativa da literatura com busca nas bases de dados PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS e SCOPUS. Foram incluídos estudos com textos na integra, publicados em espanhol, português ou inglês, usando os descritores gravidade da infecção, classificação dos resultados de enfermagem da NOC, infecções respiratórias, e sinais e sintomas respiratórios. Resultados. Analisaram-se nove publicações que embasaram a elaboração das definições conceituais de oitos indicadores do Resultado de Enfermagem Gravidade de Infec

  19. Hellmann-Feynman theorem and the definition of forces in quantum time-dependent and transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2000-01-01

    The conventional Hellmann-Feynman theorem for the definition of forces on nuclei is not directly applicable to quantum time-dependent and transport problems. We present a rigorous derivation of a general Hellmann-Feynman-like theorem that applies to all quantum mechanical systems and reduces to well-known results for ground-state problems. It provides a rigorous definition of forces in time-dependent and transport problems. Explicit forms of Pulay-like forces are derived and the conditions for them to be zero are identified. A practical scheme for ab initio calculations of current-induced forces is described and the study of the transfer of a Si atom between two electrodes is presented as an example. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  20. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression. While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney, Rigoli, and Piek (2013 provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD. The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. This evidence promotes the external validity of the framework for use across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualisation, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended.

  1. Review article: definition and diagnosis in portal hypertension--continued problems with the Baveno consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Franchis, R

    2004-09-01

    The goals of the Baveno workshops were to develop consensus definitions of key events related to portal hypertension and variceal bleeding, and to produce guidelines to facilitate the conduct and reporting of clinical trials. The consensus definitions concern the diagnosis of active bleeding, failure to control bleeding, the criteria to distinguish continuing bleeding from rebleeding, and the means of assessing failure to prevent rebleeding. The guidelines concern the timing of diagnostic endoscopy, the policy for blood volume restitution, the measures to prevent infection and encephalopathy, and the treatment options for acute bleeding, as well as primary and secondary prophylaxis. The intention of the experts who developed the guidelines was that, as feedback from their practical application develops, they should be adapted to better fit the practical needs. The applicability of the Baveno definitions has been evaluated in a study where the definitions of clinically significant bleeding, failure to control bleeding, the time frame for the acute bleeding episode and the definition of rebleeding were tested. The main criticism raised in this study was that tachycardia, one of the criteria that define failure to control bleeding, was misleading in 15% of patients who had the symptom but were not bleeding.

  2. Identification and observability problems of the induction motor for sensor-less industrial speed variation; Problemes d'identification et d'observabilite du moteur a induction pour la variation de vitesse industrielle sans capteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malrait, F.

    2001-02-15

    In order to improve the efficiency of a speed variator or to make autonomous the control of induction motors without mechanical sensor, the speed variator must integrate with a good precision the parameters of the motor to which it is connected. In this work, an identification phase when the motor is off is proposed. This raises the problem of the modeling of the induction motor and of the power stage (saturation model, voltage drop in the power stage components) in an unusual operation zone for a speed variator. The knowledge of the off-line electrical parameters is thus not sufficient. During normal operation, the thermal drift of resistors leads to a parametric error which can create blocking problems in the low sped domain or which can significantly lower the efficiency. The low-speed zone has been analyzed. This zone contains some intrinsic properties of the induction motor: instability, non-observability (first order). The synthesis of an observer of the induction motor is proposed which is based on the linearization of the system around a trajectory. A construction method has been developed to generate a non-singular observer for a system changing with time and having observability singularities. This result comes from this study on systems having controllability singularities for linear systems with time-variable coefficients. An exogenous loop is explicitly proposed which allows to transform the original system into integrator chains without singularities. (J.S.)

  3. Effects of High-Definition Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Applied Simultaneously to Both Primary Motor Cortices on Bimanual Sensorimotor Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils H. Pixa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many daily activities, such as tying one’s shoe laces, opening a jar of jam or performing a free throw in basketball, require the skillful coordinated use of both hands. Even though the non-invasive method of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been repeatedly shown to improve unimanual motor performance, little is known about its effects on bimanual motor performance. More knowledge about how tDCS may improve bimanual behavior would be relevant to motor recovery, e.g., in persons with bilateral impairment of hand function. We therefore examined the impact of high-definition anodal tDCS (HD-atDCS on the performance of a bimanual sequential sensorimotor task. Thirty-two volunteers (age M = 24.25; SD = 2.75; 14 females participated in this double-blind study and performed sport stacking in six experimental sessions. In sport stacking, 12 specially designed cups must be stacked (stacked up and dismantled (stacked down in predefined patterns as fast as possible. During a pretest, posttest and follow-up test, two sport stacking formations (3-6-3 stack and 1-10-1 stack were performed. Between the pretest and posttest, all participants were trained in sport stacking with concurrent brain stimulation for three consecutive days. The experimental group (STIM-M1 received HD-atDCS over both primary motor cortices (M1, while the control group received a sham stimulation (SHAM. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of TIME and a significant interaction of TIME × GROUP. No significant effects were found for GROUP, nor for the three-way interaction of TIME × GROUP × FORMATION. Further two-way ANOVAs showed a significant main effect of TIME and a non-significant main effect for GROUP in both sport stacking formations. A significant interaction between TIME × GROUP was found only for the 3-6-3 formation, indicating superior performance gains for the experimental group (STIM-M1. To account and control for

  4. Effects of High-Definition Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Applied Simultaneously to Both Primary Motor Cortices on Bimanual Sensorimotor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixa, Nils H.; Steinberg, Fabian; Doppelmayr, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Many daily activities, such as tying one’s shoe laces, opening a jar of jam or performing a free throw in basketball, require the skillful coordinated use of both hands. Even though the non-invasive method of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been repeatedly shown to improve unimanual motor performance, little is known about its effects on bimanual motor performance. More knowledge about how tDCS may improve bimanual behavior would be relevant to motor recovery, e.g., in persons with bilateral impairment of hand function. We therefore examined the impact of high-definition anodal tDCS (HD-atDCS) on the performance of a bimanual sequential sensorimotor task. Thirty-two volunteers (age M = 24.25; SD = 2.75; 14 females) participated in this double-blind study and performed sport stacking in six experimental sessions. In sport stacking, 12 specially designed cups must be stacked (stacked up) and dismantled (stacked down) in predefined patterns as fast as possible. During a pretest, posttest and follow-up test, two sport stacking formations (3-6-3 stack and 1-10-1 stack) were performed. Between the pretest and posttest, all participants were trained in sport stacking with concurrent brain stimulation for three consecutive days. The experimental group (STIM-M1) received HD-atDCS over both primary motor cortices (M1), while the control group received a sham stimulation (SHAM). Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant main effect of TIME and a significant interaction of TIME × GROUP. No significant effects were found for GROUP, nor for the three-way interaction of TIME × GROUP × FORMATION. Further two-way ANOVAs showed a significant main effect of TIME and a non-significant main effect for GROUP in both sport stacking formations. A significant interaction between TIME × GROUP was found only for the 3-6-3 formation, indicating superior performance gains for the experimental group (STIM-M1). To account and control for baseline

  5. Comparison of Behavioral Problems and Skills of 7-12-Year-Old Students With a Physical/Motor Disability at Mainstream aewnd Special Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Hendi

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: Our data demonstrate that behavioral problems of students with a physical/motor disability are fewer in mainstream schools indicating stronger behavior skills than their peers in special schools. In view of our data, we recommend the possibility of integrating the education of special needs students at regular schools.

  6. PROBLEM ORIENTED WILLED MOVEMENT THERAPY ON MOTOR ABILITIES OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY PATIENTS WITH COGNITIVE DEFICITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchetha .P.S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are a major problem in the elderly leading to increased morbidity and mortality in this population. Scores from objective clinical measures of balance have frequently been associated with falls in older adults. The Berg Balance Score (BBS which is a frequently used scale to test balance impairments in the elderly ,takes time to perform and has been found to have scoring inconsistencies. The purpose was to determine if individual items or a group of BBS items would have better accuracy than the total BBS in classifying community dwelling elderly individuals according to fall history. Method: 60 community dwelling elderly individuals were chosen based on a history of falls in this cross sectional study. Each BBS item was dichotomized at three points along the scoring scale of 0 – 4: between scores of 1 and 2, 2 and 3, and 3 and 4. Sensitivity (Sn, specificity (Sp, and positive (+LR and negative (-LR likelihood ratios were calculated for all items for each scoring dichotomy based on their accuracy in classifying subjects with a history of multiple falls. These findings were compared with the total BBS score where the cut-off score was derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: On analysing a combination of BBS items, B9 and B11 were found to have the best sensitivity and specificity when considered together. However the area under the curve of these items was 0.799 which did not match that of the total score (AUC= 0.837. A, combination of 4 BBS items - B9 B11 B12 and B13 also had good Sn and Sp but the AUC was 0.815. The combination with the AUC closest to that of the total score was a combination items B11 and B13. (AUC= 0.824. hence these two items can be used as the best predictor of falls with a cut off of 6.5 The ROC curve of the Total Berg balance Scale scores revealed a cut off score of 48.5. Conclusion: This study showed that combination of items B11 and B13 may be best predictors of falls in

  7. Problems involved in quantitative gamma camera scintigraphy. A. Procedure and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbsmann, F.

    1976-01-01

    In the procedure used the elementary notions on calibration sources (isotropic point source, parallel-beam point source, tubular line source, parallel-ray line source, sources of finite dimensions, homogeneous phantom) are reviewed, together with the most frequently used definitions, those of the scattering function and of the modulation transfer functions [fr

  8. Problems of Policing Plagiarism and Cheating in University Institutions Due to Incomplete or Inconsistent Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soiferman, L. Karen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to gain an understanding of the definitions of plagiarism, and cheating that are used in the literature, in institutions, and by students. The information was gathered from a literature review, from university and college websites, and from an informal sampling of students from five different first-year classes. The…

  9. Disturbing, Disordered or Disturbed? Perspectives on the Definition of Problem Behavior in Educational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frank H., Ed.; Lakin, K. Charlie, Ed.

    The book contains five papers presented at a 1979 topical conference on the definition of emotional disturbance and behavioral disorders in educational settings. The first paper, by F. Wood, is titled "Defining Disturbing, Disordered, and Disturbed Behavior." Topics covered include ambivalence about defining deviant behavior by special educators,…

  10. The Factors Affecting Definition of Research Problems in Educational Technology Researches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahçekapili, Ekrem; Bahçekapili, Tugba; Fis Erümit, Semra; Göktas, Yüksel; Sözbilir, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Research problems in a scientific research are formed after a certain process. This process starts with defining a research topic and transforms into a specific research problem or hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the way educational technology researchers identify their research problems. To this end, sources that educational…

  11. The Development of a United Nations Counter-Terrorism Policy: A pragmatic approach to the problem of a definition of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Turney-Harris, Latasha

    2014-01-01

    The primary object of this thesis is to propose a pragmatic solution to the legitimacy problems associated with the absence of a definition of Terrorism within United Nations Counter Terrorism Policy. It contends that the attempts to draft such a definition within the Ad Hoc Committee on Terrorism have now come to a political standstill and are unlikely to result in a strong legal definition of terrorism. Any outcome is likely to be a political compromise in nature. This thesis therefore ...

  12. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association Between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Vincent O.; Rigoli, Daniela; Cairney, John; Roberts, Lynne D.; Piek, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression). While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney et al. (2013) provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualization, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended. PMID:26941690

  13. Paratonia: a Delphi procedure for consensus definition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, J.S.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Peppen, R.P. van; Bie, R.A. de

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Paratonia is a motor problem that develops during the course of dementia. Definitions of paratonia used in the literature differ considerably, which has clinical implications and may lead to an undesirable heterogeneity in study populations. For this reason, we initiated a

  14. Paratonia : a Delphi procedure for consensus definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, Hans; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Verhey, Frans R J; Van Peppen, Roland P S; de Bie, Rob A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Paratonia is a motor problem that develops during the course of dementia. Definitions of paratonia used in the literature differ considerably, which has clinical implications and may lead to an undesirable heterogeneity in study populations. For this reason, we initiated a

  15. Suspected Motor Problems and Low Preference for Active Play in Childhood Are Associated with Physical Inactivity and Low Fitness in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Purtsi, Jarno; Taanila, Anja M.; Remes, Jouko; Viholainen, Helena; Rintala, Pauli; Ahonen, Timo; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2011-01-01

    Background This prospective longitudinal study investigates whether suspected motor problems and low preference for active play in childhood are associated with physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Methodology/Principal Findings The study sample consisted of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986) composed of 5,767 children whose parents responded to a postal inquiry concerning their children's motor skills at age 8 years and who themselves reported their physical activity at age 16 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with a cycle ergometer test at age 16 years. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the level of physical activity and fitness were obtained from multinomial logistic regression and adjusted for socio-economic position and body mass index. Low preference for active play in childhood was associated with physical inactivity (boys: OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.42–4.53; girls: OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.36–2.36) and low cardiorespiratory fitness (boys: OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.27–2.74; girls: OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09–2.11) in adolescence. Suspected gross (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.33–3.49) and fine (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.35–2.60) motor problems were associated with physical inactivity among boys. Children with suspected motor problems and low preference for active play tended to have an even higher risk of physical inactivity in adolescence. Conclusions/Significance Low preference for active play in childhood was associated with physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Furthermore, children with suspected motor problems and low preference for active play tended to have an even higher risk of physical inactivity in adolescence. Identification of children who do not prefer active play and who have motor problems may allow targeted interventions to support their motor learning and participation in active play and thereby promote their physical activity and fitness in later life

  16. RESEARCH PROBLEM DESCRIPTION AND DEFINITION: FROM MENTAL MAP TO CONNECTION CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildeová, Stanislava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the research problem (question as one of the first methodological steps that has to be accurately and clearly defined. The necessity of modern scientific work is to understand and analyse problems holistically, to see it as a network of interconnected parts. In this sense we show that combination of mental mapping and connection circle may be a way that will be beneficial defining the research problem. There is some evidence from interviews held with PhD students, who were participated in the course Research Methods for Managers at the University of Economics in Prague from 2012-2013.

  17. [Ethics in clinical research: contextualizing and reductionist problem definitions, forms of ethical reflection and some particular implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelcke, Volker

    2003-12-01

    The present paper starts off with a short outline of issues, conflicts, and goals of ethical reflection about clinical research. It is then argued that non-reductionist, patient-centred ethics should critically reflect on medically preformed problem definitions, ways of problem solution, and evaluations. The shortcomings of such preformed perceptions and interpretations are illustrated using the examples of dementia research, and the complexities of the notion of risk. A more comprehensive approach including the perceptions, interpretations, and evaluations of the patients' perspective necessitates a form of ethical reflection which takes into account the social and cultural contexts of clinical research, and which therefore relies on concepts and methods of the cultural sciences (in particular history, sociology, and cultural anthropology). The decision for a reductionist, or for a contextualising mode of ethical reflection represents in itself a value decision and needs to be explicitly justified.

  18. Terminological and Definitional Problems of Deficit and Debt in the Polish and EU Law of Public Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Lotko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Polish and the EU public finances law there are serious terminological difficulties concerning the deficit and the debt. They arise first from the terminological chaos in this field and second from the parallel application of the EU and the Polish methodology of calculating of deficit and debt. Thus, the paper aims to explain the terminological and definitional problems of deficit and debt in the public finances law using unobtrusive research consisting of the detailed analysis of the Polish and EU legislation. Although there is no doubt that it would be desirable to order the applied terms, in the current legal situation, it would be extremely difficult, as it would require the changes to the Constitution, laws, and modification of translations of UE acts. The solution to the problem, presenting additional advantages, could consist of full transition to the EU methodology by the renouncement from the Polish methodology.

  19. Radon Exposure and the Definition of Low Doses-The Problem of Spatial Dose Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madas, Balázs G

    2016-07-01

    Investigating the health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation is considered to be one of the most important fields in radiological protection research. Although the definition of low dose given by a dose range seems to be clear, it leaves some open questions. For example, the time frame and the target volume in which absorbed dose is measured have to be defined. While dose rate is considered in the current system of radiological protection, the same cancer risk is associated with all exposures, resulting in a given amount of energy absorbed by a single target cell or distributed among all the target cells of a given organ. However, the biological effects and so the health consequences of these extreme exposure scenarios are unlikely to be the same. Due to the heterogeneous deposition of radon progeny within the lungs, heterogeneous radiation exposure becomes a practical issue in radiological protection. While the macroscopic dose is still within the low dose range, local tissue doses on the order of Grays can be reached in the most exposed parts of the bronchial airways. It can be concluded that progress in low dose research needs not only low dose but also high dose experiments where small parts of a biological sample receive doses on the order of Grays, while the average dose over the whole sample remains low. A narrow interpretation of low dose research might exclude investigations with high relevance to radiological protection. Therefore, studies important to radiological protection should be performed in the frame of low dose research even if the applied doses do not fit in the dose range used for the definition of low doses.

  20. Definition of the form of coal spontaneous combustion source as the inverse problem of geoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirota Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the method of determining the shape and size of the coal self-heating source on coal pit benches and in coal piles during mining of coal by the open method. The method is based on the regularity found in the 1970s of the previous century and related to the distribution of potential of the natural electrical field arising from the temperature in the vicinity of the center of self-heating. The problem is reduced to the solution of inverse ill-posed problem of mathematical physics. The study presents the developed algorithm of its solution and the results of numerical simulation.

  1. Additional Insights Into Problem Definition and Positioning From Social Science Comment on "Four Challenges That Global Health Networks Face".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quissell, Kathryn

    2017-09-10

    Commenting on a recent editorial in this journal which presented four challenges global health networks will have to tackle to be effective, this essay discusses why this type of analysis is important for global health scholars and practitioners, and why it is worth understanding and critically engaging with the complexities behind these challenges. Focusing on the topics of problem definition and positioning, I outline additional insights from social science theory to demonstrate how networks and network researchers can evaluate these processes, and how these processes contribute to better organizing, advocacy, and public health outcomes. This essay also raises multiple questions regarding these processes for future research. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  2. Problem definition study of subsidence caused by geopressured geothermal resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The environmental and socio-economic settings of four environmentally representative Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal fairways were inventoried. Subsidence predictions were prepared using feasible development scenarios for the four representative subsidence sites. Based on the results of the subsidence estimates, an assessment of the associated potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts was prepared. An inventory of mitigation measures was also compiled. Results of the subsidence estimates and impact assessments are presented, as well as conclusions as to what are the major uncertainties, problems, and issues concerning the future study of geopressured geothermal subsidence.

  3. Problems related to the definition of the shielding of a large fast power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, J.

    Solutions for the shielding of a 1000 MW(e) power plant in the same technological line as Phenix are given. They have been evaluated with a monodimensional transport code. The choice is based on the comparison of their efficiency towards neutrons and on the consequences of their characteristics on the conception of the reactor tank. A few economical considerations give an idea of the influence of the choice in shielding on the cost of the power plant. At last the problem of the optimization possibilities is approached from the designer's point of view

  4. Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.

  5. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  6. The ‘Blame Game’: Discourse Analysis of Family Members’ and Therapist Negotiation of Problem Definition in Systemic Family Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinelopi Patrika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims at shedding light to the complex ways in which blame and responsibility are negotiated, when family members and the therapist engage in problem definition talk in systemic family therapy. The article draws from a qualitative research study which was designed to explore problem talk in systemic family therapy by means of discourse analysis methodology. Nine videotaped initial systemic family therapy sessions in which four different therapists and six different families with a variety of reported difficulties were sampled. They were transcribed verbatim and subjected to micro-analysis by means of the Discursive Action Model. In the present article, we present the detailed analysis of one of the identified patterns of blame allocation, in which family members are shown to construct the identified patient’s deviation from normality as the cause of their difficulties while the therapist is shown to attempt to exonerate blame from the identified patient by means of positive connotation. We discuss the implications of our analysis for theory development and clinical practice in the field, in the context of a growing body of related research. We also hint to the potential of discourse analysis methodology for family therapy research.

  7. Obesity as a clinical and public health problem: is there a need for a new definition based on lipotoxicity effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2010-03-01

    The risk functions for obesity (defined as the quantitative relation between degree of obesity throughout its range and the risk of health problems) have been used to define 'obesity' as an excess storage of fat in the body to such an extent that it causes health problems leading to increased mortality. The lipotoxicity theory implies that the fat stored in droplets of triglycerides in the cells are biologically inert and that the metabolic dysfunctions are primarily due to the increased exposure of the cells to fatty acids. If this is true, it has profound implications for the interpretations of the multiple epidemiological studies of the risk functions. It is obvious from all these studies that the sizes of the fat depots are risk indicators of health effects in various ways. Paradoxically, the sizes of the fat stores are also indicators of the preceding implementation of the ability of the body to protect itself against the toxic effects of the free fatty acids. The current risk of metabolic dysfunctions appears to be determined by the balance between the rate of loading of the body with fatty acids and the rate of eliminating the fatty acids by either triglyceride storage or oxidation. The progress in the development of the dysfunction then depends on the persistence of the imbalance leading to future cumulative exposure of the cells to the toxic effects of the fatty acids rather than on the current size of the fat depots. This may be considered as a reason for changing the definition of obesity to one based on better estimates of future risks of health problems derived from later metabolic dysfunctions rather than on the past coping with the exposure to the fatty acids by storage as triglycerides. Implementation of such definition would require a test that measures this residual capacity to avoid excess exposure of the cells to the fatty acids before the metabolic dysfunctions have emerged. In analogy with the glucose tolerance test, a fatty acid tolerance

  8. The radioactive waste management concept: problem definition and solving in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, A.; Shatrovska, D.

    2003-01-01

    Development of radioactive waste (RW) management concept is treated as a key component of a general process - elaboration of the overall RW management strategy for a certain country/region. We present indication of possible solutions for crucial RW management problems for Latvia being in the same time rather generic for other countries. The importance of the Concept for Latvia follows from the planned decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR) and from the recommended further upgrading of RW management organization in conditions of limited resources.The aim of this Concept is to stimulate the development of advanced, environmentally sound and population friendly system of RW management, in accord with the fair social system for the protection of human health and the environment, in line of international recommendations.The Concept foresees solutions for the safe management of RW for the period 2003-2010. The main problems to be analysed and solved in the Concept: 1.The increase of the RW quantity and a lack of the sufficient storage space. In addition to the traditional producers of RW such as medicine, industry, and science, there are two major operators in Latvia that have significantly increase the yearly amount of RW for disposal in recent years and will do so in nearest future - disposal off of the SRR decommissioning waste in the existing near-surface LILW-SL RW repository, which dictates the need for its enlargement. 2. The safety of the existent repository. To ensure protection of population and environment (including the Baltic sea) from exposure and radioactive contamination, proper measures shall be taken. The safety of RW repository should be upgraded via building long-term cover, according to recommendations of safety assessment (SA) by consortium CASSIOPEA. 3. Construction of a long term storage and the geological disposal site. Safe isolation of long-lived RW can be achieved by storage in the geological disposal site only, thereby; a

  9. 40 CFR 80.550 - What is the definition of a motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small refiner under this subpart? (a) A motor...-operational between January 1, 1999, and January 1, 2000, may apply for motor vehicle diesel fuel small...

  10. Involving stakeholders in policy research should not imply that they control the problem definition: lessons from a case study on new analgesics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moret-Hartman, M.; van der Wilt, G.J.; Grin, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch Health Care Insurance Board (HCIB) commissions research to guide their policy recommendations. However, the studies conducted do not always yield relevant information. This may result from differences in problem definitions held by the HCIB and target populations. To compensate these

  11. Micro worlds versus boundary objects in group model building; evidence from the literature on problem definition and model conceptulization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagonel, Aldo A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Engineering & Analysis; Andersen, David F. [University in Albany, NY (United States). The Rockefeller College of Public Affairs & Policy

    2007-03-01

    Based upon participant observation in group model building and content analysis of the system dynamics literature, we postulate that modeling efforts have a dual nature. On one hand, the modeling process aims to create a useful representation of a real-world system. This must be done, however, while aligning the clients’ mental models around a shared view of the system. There is significant overlap and confusion between these two goals and how they play out on a practical level. This research clarifies these distinctions by establishing an ideal-type dichotomy. To highlight the differences, we created two straw men: “micro world” characterizes a model that represents reality and “boundary object” represents a socially negotiated model. Using this framework, the literature was examined, revealing evidence for several competing views on problem definition and model conceptualization. The results are summarized in the text of this article, substantiated with strikingly polarized citations, often from the same authors. We also introduce hypotheses for the duality across the remaining phases of the modeling process. Finally, understanding and appreciation of the differences between these ideal types can promote constructive debate on their balance in system dynamics theory and practice.

  12. 'Situaciones problema' y desarrollo de la competencia motriz en educación física escolar: cuestiones didácticas = Problem situations and developing motor competence in Physical Education at school: didactic questions

    OpenAIRE

    López Ros, Víctor

    2005-01-01

    From the areas of motor learning and the teaching of Physical Education we promote coherent methodological orientations with the present curricular guide that are focused in such a way so that the student is able to act independently. In this sense we may consider the problem situations as a good example for methodological proposals. So as to determine its use and adequateness for Physical Education it is conveniente to analyse the characteristics of the motor tasks that are propo...

  13. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Improve Gross Motor and Problem-Solving Skills in Young North Indian Children: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Taneja, Sunita; Kumar, Tivendra; Hysing, Mari; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Bhandari, Nita; Strand, Tor A

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate are associated with delayed development and neurological manifestations. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid on development in young North Indian children. In a randomized, double blind trial, children aged six to 30 months, received supplement with placebo or vitamin B12 and/or folic acid for six months. Children were allocated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio in a factorial design and in blocks of 16. We measured development in 422 children by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. at the end of the intervention. Compared to placebo, children who received both vitamin B12 and folic acid had 0.45 (95% CI 0.19, 0.73) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.02, 0.54) higher SD-units in the domains of gross motor and problem solving functioning, respectively. The effect was highest in susceptible subgroups consisting of stunted children, those with high plasma homocysteine (> 10 μmol/L) or in those who were younger than 24 at end study. With the exception of a significant improvement on gross motor scores by vitamin B12 alone, supplementation of either vitamin alone had no effect on any of the outcomes. Our findings suggest that supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid benefit development in North Indian Children. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00717730.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Motor Status in Parkinson’s Disease Using Wearable Devices: From Methodological Considerations to Problems in Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term and objective monitoring is necessary for full assessment of the condition of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Recent advances in biotechnology have seen the development of various types of wearable (body-worn sensor systems. By using accelerometers and gyroscopes, these devices can quantify motor abnormalities, including decreased activity and gait disturbances, as well as nonmotor signs, such as sleep disturbances and autonomic dysfunctions in PD. This review discusses methodological problems inherent in wearable devices. Until now, analysis of the mean values of motion-induced signals on a particular day has been widely applied in the clinical management of PD patients. On the other hand, the reliability of these devices to detect various events, such as freezing of gait and dyskinesia, has been less than satisfactory. Quantification of disease-specific changes rather than nonspecific changes is necessary.

  15. Effects of High-Definition Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Applied Simultaneously to Both Primary Motor Cortices on Bimanual Sensorimotor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Nils H. Pixa; Fabian Steinberg; Michael Doppelmayr; Michael Doppelmayr

    2017-01-01

    Many daily activities, such as tying one’s shoe laces, opening a jar of jam or performing a free throw in basketball, require the skillful coordinated use of both hands. Even though the non-invasive method of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been repeatedly shown to improve unimanual motor performance, little is known about its effects on bimanual motor performance. More knowledge about how tDCS may improve bimanual behavior would be relevant to motor recovery, e.g., in pers...

  16. Ethnomusicology’s “Identity” Problem: The History and Definitions of a Troubled Term in Music Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan Warden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article takes a diachronic look at the use of the word "identity" in ethnomusicology and related disciplines, synthesizing disparate uses and definitions to suggest an all-encompassing yet concise definition. Expanding from a critical piece by Timothy Rice (2007 on the topic, the literature review for the present study included not only articles in major ethnomusicology journals with the word "identity" in the title –as Rice did– but also monographs, anthologies, and academic encyclopedias in the realms of ethnomusicology, musicology, psychology, cultural studies, and anthropology where "identity" was a principal theme. The interdisciplinary and chronological approach shows writing about "identity" to be disjointed in ethnomusicology and in related disciplines, but not entirely devoid of heuristic value. A broad but highly portable definition is suggested before taking stock of the remaining work needed to achieve a uniquely musical take on identity. 

  17. The correlation between basic definitions of the word “meaning” and forms of human activity: the problem formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Smirnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article states an attempt to adjust the views on the forms and levels of human activity and possible interpretations of the notion of “meaning”. Author offers to give three definitions of the word “meaning” according the general scheme of human activity, which includes three levels.

  18. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  19. A self-care, problem-solving and mindfulness intervention for informal caregivers of people with motor neurone disease: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Anna; Mathers, Susan; Hennessy Anderson, Nicole; Hudson, Peter; Orellana, Liliana; Gluyas, Cathy

    2018-04-01

    Informal caregivers of people with motor neurone disease (MND) take on an extensive role. Caregivers are at increased risk of experiencing psychological distress and burden, yet, there is a lack of intervention programmes to support them. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of a therapeutic group intervention promoting self-care, problem-solving and mindfulness to informal caregivers of people with MND. Pilot study that utilised a one-arm pre- and post-design. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed 2 weeks post intervention with a questionnaire designed specifically for this study. Feasibility was assessed with consent, adherence and reasons for non-participation, refusal and attrition. Participants completed baseline and follow-up (6-week post intervention) questionnaires for psychological morbidity, burden, problem-solving, mindfulness and preparedness. Settings/participants: Caregivers of people with a diagnosis of MND within the past 12 months who were 18 years or older; who could speak, read and write in English and who were attending a progressive neurological diseases clinic were eligible. A total of 13 caregivers participated in one of three group intervention sessions which were focused on self-care, problem-solving and mindfulness. The intervention appeared to be feasible and acceptable. All participants stated that they would recommend the intervention to others. The group format appeared to be highly valued. There was no significant change in measures between pre-intervention and 6 weeks post intervention. This pilot serves as an initial step for examining interventions for MND caregivers, with the hope of identifying effective, efficient and sustainable strategies to best support this group.

  20. [Children and motor competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, H; Haga, M

    2000-10-20

    Recently, the topic of motor competence has figured prominently in the media. The claims made are many, but the research that support the statements is seldom cited. The aim of this review article is to address that deficiency by documenting what is really known about the motor competence of children. Motor competence not only allows children to carry out everyday practical tasks, but it is also an important determinant of their level of self-esteem and of their popularity and status in their peer group. While many studies have shown a significant correlation between motor problems and other problems in the social sphere, it has been difficult to establish causal relationships with any degree of confidence, as there appear to be several interactions which need to be taken into account. Research has shown that 6-10% of Norwegian children in the 7 to 10 year age group have a motor competence well below the norm. It is unusual for motor problems to simply disappear over time. In the absence of intervention the syndrome is likely to continue to manifest itself. More recent research points to some of the circularity in this causal network, children with motor problems having been shown to be less physically active than their peers. In a larger health perspective this in itself can have very serious consequences for the child.

  1. Comments on the problem of the new definition for the units of x-and gamma-radiations and radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudin, M. F.

    1955-07-01

    An analysis of various roentgen definitions is presented along with recomnendations that this unit be regarded as a unit of x and gamma radiation defined as a dose in air at which ions are being formed with a total charge of 1 esu of electrtcity per 0.001293 g air. A roentgen/sec is the dose rate in air at which thc dosc eventy increases by 1 roentgen in 1 sec. (J.R.D.)

  2. Overview of Bearingless Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearingless induction motors combining functions of both torque generation and noncontact magnetic suspension together have attracted more and more attention in the past decades due to their definite advantages of compactness, simple structure, less maintenance, no wear particles, high rotational speed, and so forth. This paper overviews the key technologies of the bearingless induction motors, with emphasis on motor topologies, mathematical models, and control strategies. Particularly, in the control issues, the vector control, independent control, direct torque control, nonlinear decoupling control, sensorless control, and so forth are investigated. In addition, several possible development trends of the bearingless induction motors are also discussed.

  3. Definition of Static Voltage Characteristics of the Motor Load for the Purpose of Increase in Energy Efficiency of Coal Mines of Kuzbass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepsha, Fedor; Efremenko, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    The task of determining the static load characteristics is one of the most important tasks, the solution of which is necessary for the correct development of measures to increase the energy efficiency of the Kuzbass coal mines. At present, the influence of electric receivers on the level of consumption of active and reactive power is not taken into account, therefore, the proposed measures to increase the energy efficiency are not optimal. The article analyzes the L-shaped and T-shaped circuit for the replacement of an asynchronous motor (AM), according to the results of which it is determined that the T-shaped replacement scheme is the most accurate for determination of static load characteristics. The authors proposed and implemented in the MATLAB Simulink environment an algorithm for determining the static voltage characteristics of the motor load.

  4. Controversy around the definition of waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2009-11-20

    Full Text Available This paper presents the information concerning the definition of waste. Discussing the importance of the clear definition, ongoing debates, broad definition of waste, problems with the broad definition, interpretation, current waste management model...

  5. Definition and solution of a stochastic inverse problem for the Manning's n parameter field in hydrodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T.; Graham, L.; Estep, D.; Dawson, C.; Westerink, J. J.

    2015-04-01

    The uncertainty in spatially heterogeneous Manning's n fields is quantified using a novel formulation and numerical solution of stochastic inverse problems for physics-based models. The uncertainty is quantified in terms of a probability measure and the physics-based model considered here is the state-of-the-art ADCIRC model although the presented methodology applies to other hydrodynamic models. An accessible overview of the formulation and solution of the stochastic inverse problem in a mathematically rigorous framework based on measure theory is presented. Technical details that arise in practice by applying the framework to determine the Manning's n parameter field in a shallow water equation model used for coastal hydrodynamics are presented and an efficient computational algorithm and open source software package are developed. A new notion of "condition" for the stochastic inverse problem is defined and analyzed as it relates to the computation of probabilities. This notion of condition is investigated to determine effective output quantities of interest of maximum water elevations to use for the inverse problem for the Manning's n parameter and the effect on model predictions is analyzed.

  6. Definition and use of Solution-focused Sustainability Assessment: A novel approach to generate, explore and decide on sustainable solutions for wicked problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijp, Michiel C; Posthuma, Leo; Wintersen, Arjen; Devilee, Jeroen; Swartjes, Frank A

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces Solution-focused Sustainability Assessment (SfSA), provides practical guidance formatted as a versatile process framework, and illustrates its utility for solving a wicked environmental management problem. Society faces complex and increasingly wicked environmental problems for which sustainable solutions are sought. Wicked problems are multi-faceted, and deriving of a management solution requires an approach that is participative, iterative, innovative, and transparent in its definition of sustainability and translation to sustainability metrics. We suggest to add the use of a solution-focused approach. The SfSA framework is collated from elements from risk assessment, risk governance, adaptive management and sustainability assessment frameworks, expanded with the 'solution-focused' paradigm as recently proposed in the context of risk assessment. The main innovation of this approach is the broad exploration of solutions upfront in assessment projects. The case study concerns the sustainable management of slightly contaminated sediments continuously formed in ditches in rural, agricultural areas. This problem is wicked, as disposal of contaminated sediment on adjacent land is potentially hazardous to humans, ecosystems and agricultural products. Non-removal would however reduce drainage capacity followed by increased risks of flooding, while contaminated sediment removal followed by offsite treatment implies high budget costs and soil subsidence. Application of the steps in the SfSA-framework served in solving this problem. Important elements were early exploration of a wide 'solution-space', stakeholder involvement from the onset of the assessment, clear agreements on the risk and sustainability metrics of the problem and on the interpretation and decision procedures, and adaptive management. Application of the key elements of the SfSA approach eventually resulted in adoption of a novel sediment management policy. The stakeholder

  7. ANALYSIS OVERHEATING PROBLEMS OF ELECTRIC MOTOR BY TYPE DK-409 AND MOTOR – DRIVEN COMPRESSOR BY TYPE (EK – 7B OF CONTINUOUS CURRENT LOCOMOTIVE BY TYPE (ER – 1, ER – 2 WITH USING THE THERMAL SYSTEM OF COMPENSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Krasnov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the method of investigation of thermal processes occurring in the electric compressor motor of rolling stock to determine the values of overheating, which will later be used to assess their impact on the state of isolation.

  8. Application of a COTS Resource Optimization Framework to the SSN Sensor Tasking Domain - Part I: Problem Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T.

    With the onset of the SmallSat era, the RSO catalog is expected to see continuing growth in the near future. This presents a significant challenge to the current sensor tasking of the SSN. The Air Force is in need of a sensor tasking system that is robust, efficient, scalable, and able to respond in real-time to interruptive events that can change the tracking requirements of the RSOs. Furthermore, the system must be capable of using processed data from heterogeneous sensors to improve tasking efficiency. The SSN sensor tasking can be regarded as an economic problem of supply and demand: the amount of tracking data needed by each RSO represents the demand side while the SSN sensor tasking represents the supply side. As the number of RSOs to be tracked grows, demand exceeds supply. The decision-maker is faced with the problem of how to allocate resources in the most efficient manner. Braxton recently developed a framework called Multi-Objective Resource Optimization using Genetic Algorithm (MOROUGA) as one of its modern COTS software products. This optimization framework took advantage of the maturing technology of evolutionary computation in the last 15 years. This framework was applied successfully to address the resource allocation of an AFSCN-like problem. In any resource allocation problem, there are five key elements: (1) the resource pool, (2) the tasks using the resources, (3) a set of constraints on the tasks and the resources, (4) the objective functions to be optimized, and (5) the demand levied on the resources. In this paper we explain in detail how the design features of this optimization framework are directly applicable to address the SSN sensor tasking domain. We also discuss our validation effort as well as present the result of the AFSCN resource allocation domain using a prototype based on this optimization framework.

  9. The use of an impedance antenna for hole closure detection. Phase I: Definition of measurement problems and antenna type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Fortescue, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    C.C.R. Euratom Ispra are currently involved in studies on the possibility of storing radioactive wastes in deep ocean sediment beds. The proposal involves sealing the wastes into torpedo shaped penetrators, which can then be dropped into the ocean over areas where the bottom is suitable. The weight and shape of the penetrators is such that they achieve high terminal velocities (30-50m/s), and in consequence, bury themselves to a considerable depth in suitable clay sediments. Fundamental to the concept is a requirement that the hole made by the entry of the penetrator shall close up again above it, and form an effective seal. This is because it is inevitable that over a period of several hundred years, the containers will become corroded, and when this happens, there must be no possibility of any radioactive species migrating, or being transported to the surface of the sediment. The Hole Closure Problem is thus fundamental to such studies

  10. Preliminary design study and problem definition for intense CW superconducting deuteron ion linac for fusion material study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Y.; Kakutani, N.; Ota, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Takeda, O.; Wachi, Y.; Yamazaki, C.; Morii, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The advantages of superconducting (SC) cavity have been verified for many electron accelerators and the application of SC cavity to high intensity CW ion linacs is currently being considered. These linacs have been required for neutron irradiation tests of materials, transmutation of nuclear waste and so on. An SC linac consisting of SC cavities, SC quadrupole magnets and cryostats, was preliminarily designed to investigate the feasibility of applying to deuteron machine. Beam dynamics analysis was also carried out by using a modified PARMILA code in order to confirm no beam loss. Since radiation damage of superconductors is especially severe for such a machine, data relating to the damage were surveyed and discussed. Moreover, other major facilities such as cryogenic system, radio frequency amplifier and RF control system were considered. Many problems to be solved were defined but no critical issues were found. In consequence, it became clear that SC linac is very attractive and competitive with a room-temperature linac. (orig.)

  11. 41 CFR 109-38.5201 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 109-38.5201... System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.52-Watercraft § 109-38.5201 Definition. As used in this...

  12. Electrodynamic linear motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munehiro, H

    1980-05-29

    When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.

  13. Models of expert assessments and their study in problems of choice and decision-making in management of motor transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokurov, V. P.; Belokurov, S. V.; Korablev, R. A.; Shtepa, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article deals with decision making concerning transport tasks on search iterations in the management of motor transport processes. An optimal selection of the best option for specific situations is suggested in the management of complex multi-criteria transport processes.

  14. 28 CFR 29.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... used automobile dealerships. (c) The Program refers to the National Voluntary Motor Vehicle Theft... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this part: (a) The Act or the MVTPA means the Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act. (b) Owner...

  15. Optimization analysis of propulsion motor control efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Qingnan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper aims to strengthen the control effect of propulsion motors and decrease the energy used during actual control procedures.[Methods] Based on the traditional propulsion motor equivalence circuit, we increase the iron loss current component, introduce the definition of power matching ratio, calculate the highest efficiency of a motor at a given speed and discuss the flux corresponding to the power matching ratio with the highest efficiency. In the original motor vector efficiency optimization control module, an efficiency optimization control module is added so as to achieve motor efficiency optimization and energy conservation.[Results] MATLAB/Simulink simulation data shows that the efficiency optimization control method is suitable for most conditions. The operation efficiency of the improved motor model is significantly higher than that of the original motor model, and its dynamic performance is good.[Conclusions] Our motor efficiency optimization control method can be applied in engineering to achieve energy conservation.

  16. Advances in esophageal motor disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, André Jpm

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Esophageal motor disorders, often leading to dysphagia and chest pain, continue to pose diagnostic and therapeutic problems. In the past 12 months important new information regarding esophageal motor disorders was published. This information will be reviewed in this paper. RECENT

  17. Advances in esophageal motor disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, Andre J. P. M.

    Purpose of review Esophageal motor disorders, often leading to dysphagia and chest pain, continue to pose diagnostic and therapeutic problems. In the past 12 months important new information regarding esophageal motor disorders was published. This information will be reviewed in this paper. Recent

  18. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Exploring Mathematical Definition Construction Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrier-Buffet, Cecile

    2006-01-01

    The definition of "definition" cannot be taken for granted. The problem has been treated from various angles in different journals. Among other questions raised on the subject we find: the notions of "concept definition" and "concept image", conceptions of mathematical definitions, redefinitions, and from a more axiomatic point of view, how to…

  20. Some important features of the proposed new definition of the International System of Units (SI: realization and hierarchical problems that the users should know about

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavese Franco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper, after a short introduction to measurement units in general and to the present international system of units (SI: Système International des Unités, deals with a digest of the basics of the proposed new SI:2018 and of its differences compared with the present SI. The latter issue also involves a review of some problems still unresolved in the last draft, concerning: the role of the constants of physics in the system and their role in the conceptual construction of this international standard; the method employed for using the relevant experimental data, and related statistical issues; finally, the implications for science of the New SI implementation. The consequences for and new duties of the national metrology institutes and practitioners are illustrated, involving the future conformity of the present standards and a possible hierarchy between countries that would result from the new definition, in contrast with certain principles of the Convention du Mètre.

  1. Motor performance in children with Noonan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croonen, E.A.; Essink, M.; Burgt, I. van der; Draaisma, J.M.; Noordam, C.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2017-01-01

    Although problems with motor performance in daily life are frequently mentioned in Noonan syndrome, the motor performance profile has never been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to examine whether a specific profile in motor performance in children with Noonan syndrome was seen

  2. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Muñoz, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  3. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  4. On line protection systems for induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, I.; Celik, H.; Sefa, I.; Demirbas, S.

    2005-01-01

    Protection of induction motors is very important since they are widely used in industry for many applications due to their high robustness, reliability, low cost and maintenance, high efficiency and long service life. So, protecting these motors is crucial for operations. This paper presents a combined protection approach for induction motors. To achieve this, the electrical values of the induction motor were measured with sensitivity ±1% through a data acquisition card and processed with software developed in Visual C++. An on line protection system for induction motors was achieved easily and effectively. The experimental results have shown that the induction motor was protected against the possible problems faced during the operation. The software developed for this protection provides flexible and reliable media for operators and their motors. It is expected that the motor protection achieved in this study might be faster than the classical techniques and also may be applied to larger motors easily after small modifications of the software

  5. Making a Simple Self-Starting Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok-In; Choi, Jung-In; Hong, Seok-Cheol

    2009-01-01

    A simple electric motor has a problem in that the current applied to the motor per se can rarely trigger its rotation. Usually such motors begin to rotate after the rotor is slightly turned by hand (i.e., manual starting). In a "self-starting" motor, the rotor starts to rotate spontaneously as soon as the current is applied. This paper describes…

  6. Selected technological problems of repair of hydraulic drive systems for shearer loaders with the example of A2V-107 pumps and SHT-630W motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusak, E.; Paluch, J.

    1983-07-01

    Major elements of hydraulic drive systems as well as their wear and repair characteristics are described. Types of wear and standardized repair methods are comparatively evaluated. The evaluations are aimed at development of standardized procedures for use in large repair shops. The following stages of repair operations of A2V-107 pumps and SHT-630W motors are analyzed: disassembling hydraulic systems, washing and cleaning, classification of equipment elements (elements for scrapping and for regeneration), regeneration, assembling and final tests. The following regeneration methods are discussed: cutting, burnishing, bushing (e.g. the Heli Coil method), regeneration using copper, tin or zinc dusts and a temperature from 950 to 1,000 K under inert atmosphere, heat treatments. Methods are reviewed for comparative evaluations of repair efficiency and repair quality as well as documents used for recording repair in the shops. Economic aspects of using standardized procedures for repair of hydraulic equipment for shearer loaders are discussed and recommendations are made. (6 refs.)

  7. First-passage problems in DNA replication: effects of template tension on stepping and exonuclease activities of a DNA polymerase motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ajeet K; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2013-01-01

    A DNA polymerase (DNAP) replicates a template DNA strand. It also exploits the template as the track for its own motor-like mechanical movement. In the polymerase mode it elongates the nascent DNA by one nucleotide in each step. However, whenever it commits an error by misincorporating an incorrect nucleotide, it can switch to an exonuclease mode. In the latter mode it excises the wrong nucleotide before switching back to its polymerase mode. We develop a stochastic kinetic model of DNA replication that mimics an in vitro experiment where single-stranded DNA, subjected to a mechanical tension F, is converted to double-stranded DNA by a single DNAP. The F-dependence of the average rate of replication, which depends on the rates of both polymerase and exonuclease activities of the DNAP, is in good qualitative agreement with the corresponding experimental results. We introduce nine novel distinct conditional dwell times of a DNAP. Using the method of first-passage times, we also derive the exact analytical expressions for the probability distributions of these conditional dwell times. The predicted F-dependences of these distributions are, in principle, accessible to single-molecule experiments. (paper)

  8. Ultrasonic Linear Motor with Two Independent Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneishi, Takeshi; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    2004-09-01

    We propose a new structure of an ultrasonic linear motor in order to solve the problems of high-power ultrasonic linear motors that drive the XY-stage for electron beam equipment and to expand the application fields of the motor. We pay special attention to the following three points: (1) the vibration in two directions of the ultrasonic linear motor should not influence mutually each other, (2) the vibration in two directions should be divided into the stage traveling direction and the pressing direction of the ultrasonic linear motor, and (3) the rigidity of the stage traveling direction of the ultrasonic linear motor should be increased. As a result, the supporting method of ultrasonic linear motors is simplified. The efficiency of the motor is improved and temperature rise is reduced. The stage position drift is also improved.

  9. Motor car driving; Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensohn, T. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). ISS-Fahrzeugtechnik; Timpe, K.P. (eds.) [Technische Univ. Berlin (DE). Zentrum Mensch-Maschine-Systeme (ZMMS)

    2001-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on motor car driving, i.e. all aspects of motor car technology that cannot be looked at separately from the needs, characteristics and limitations of the human driver. This includes ergonomics as well as the design of the driver interface in consideration of the findings of cognitive science, problems of driving simulation in the context of simulation of technical systems, problems relating to optimal car automation up to traffic psychology. The book is in honour of Prof. Dr. Willumeit who died in summer 2000. Prof. Willumeit was one of the few scientists in Germany who had been an expert on all aspects of motor car driving for many years. [German] Erstmalig wird das Thema der Fahrzeugfuehrung geschlossen dargestellt. Die Thematik der 'Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung' umfasst in diesem Zusammenhang alle Aspekte der Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, die nicht isoliert von den Erfordernissen, Eigenschaften und Grenzen des menschlichen Fahrers betrachtet werden koennen. Dies beinhaltet u.a. Probleme der Ergonomie, aber auch Fragen nach einer kognitionswissenschaftlich unterstuetzten Schnittstellengestaltung, Fragen der Simulation des Fahrverhalten im Kontext der Simulation technischer Systeme oder Fragen einer optimalen Fahrzeugautomatisierung bis hin zu verkehrspsychologischen Aspekten. Das Buch ist als Gedenkband fuer Prof. Dr. Willumeit konzipiert, der im Sommer 2000 verstarb. Prof. Willumeit war einer der wenigen Wissenschaftler in Deutschland, der ueber viele Jahre diese Thematik der Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung in ihrer vollen Breite verfolgte. (orig.)

  10. Brief Overview of Motor Learning and It's Application to Rehabilitation: Part Ⅰ: Motor Learning Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher A Zaino

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 DEFINITION OF MOTOR LEARNING Motor learning is the study of how we acquire and modify movements.1 The acquisition of motor skills is the process of learning how to do a particular movement (performance), but the real key to therapeutic intervention is being able to affect permanent changes in motor skills via the process of motor learning. Therefore, motor learning is defined as the ability to retain the ability to perform a motor task at a later time. In rehabilitation, it is important to be cognizant of the concepts of acquisition and retention. We can facilitate acquisition,but do little to assist in the retention of the task (learning). Conversely, we can arrange practice such that acquisition is slowed, but we can actually be assisting learning the task. It is important to have a clear goal in mind and work towards the eventual learning of the task to allow full functional use of that skill.

  11. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has

  12. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Steenbergen, B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has

  13. Motor control is decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Landy, Michael S

    2012-12-01

    Motor behavior may be viewed as a problem of maximizing the utility of movement outcome in the face of sensory, motor and task uncertainty. Viewed in this way, and allowing for the availability of prior knowledge in the form of a probability distribution over possible states of the world, the choice of a movement plan and strategy for motor control becomes an application of statistical decision theory. This point of view has proven successful in recent years in accounting for movement under risk, inferring the loss function used in motor tasks, and explaining motor behavior in a wide variety of circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 10 CFR 431.12 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by a testing laboratory, as well as rules of procedure and management, that are used to accredit... a system, that has its own rules of procedure and management, for giving written assurance that a... the product, process or service. CSA means CSA International. Definite purpose motor means any motor...

  15. 49 CFR 543.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTION FROM VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 543.4 Definitions. (a) Statutory terms. All terms defined in sections 2, 601, and 605 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost... a group of motor vehicles of the same make which have the same body or chassis, or otherwise are...

  16. Jidosha's Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakawa Okuma, Rosely; Calderón Orejuela, Javier

    2016-01-01

    La tesis narra la situación de una empresa concesionaria de vehículos nuevos, Jidosha's Motors, perteneciente a una corporación japonesa que cuenta con una cultura muy arraigada de ética y de cumplimiento. Se plantean respuestas, se identifican problemas y sus alternativas de solución para una toma adecuada de decisiones por parte de los directivos, siguiendo una estructura de análisis de situaciones de negocios (ASN). Tesis

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English (US) ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  18. Definition and use of Solution-focused Sustainability Assessment: A novel approach to generate, explore and decide on sustainable solutions for wicked problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, M.C.; Posthuma, L.; Wintersen, A.; Devilee, J.; Swartjes, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces Solution-focused Sustainability Assessment (SfSA), provides practical guidance formatted as a versatile process framework, and illustrates its utility for solving a wicked environmental management problem. Society faces complex and increasingly wicked environmental problems for

  19. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt. 431... Efficiency of Electric Motors 1. Definitions. Definitions contained in §§ 431.2 and 431.12 are applicable to...

  20. MOTOR FUEL TAXES AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Ptak

    2011-01-01

    Motor fuel taxes are primarily revenue-raising taxes. However, due to high fuel consumption these taxes can be quite an efficient source of general budget revenue in many countries. It seems that the taxes on motor fuels may also be useful instruments for environmental policy or climate change policy. Environmental objectives can be achieved through change of behavior of drivers. The paper presents theoretical basis for taxes levied on motor fuels. Attention is paid to the problem of external...

  1. Clinical and Paraclinical Indicators of Motor System Impairment in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Martinuzzi

    Full Text Available Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP are a composite and genetically heterogeneous group of conditions mainly expressed by the impairment of the central motor system ("pure" forms. The involvement of other components of the central nervous system or of other systems is described in the "complicate" forms. The definition of an investigation protocol capable, by assembling clinical and paraclinical indicators to fully represent the extent of the motor system impairment, would help both the clinical handling of these conditions and contribute to our understanding of their pathogenesis.We applied a clinical and paraclinical protocol which included tools exploring motor and non motor functioning, neurophysiology and MRI to a composite cohort of 70 molecularly defined HSP patients aged 3 to 65, to define for each indicator its significance in detailing the presence and the severity of the pathology.Clinically increased deep tendon reflexes and lower limb (LL weakness are constant findings in all patients. The "complicated" forms are characterized by peripheral motor impairment, cognitive and cerebellar involvement. The Spastic Paraplegia Rating Scale efficiently reflects the severity of functional problems and correlates with disease duration. Neurophysiology consistently documents the impairment of the central motor pathway to the LLs. Nevertheless, the upper extremities and sensory system involvement is a frequent finding. MRI diffusion tensor imaging (DTI highlighted a significant alteration of FA and MD. Combining the sampling of the various portion of the cortico-spinal tract (CST DTI consistently discriminated patients from controls.We propose a graded clinical and paraclinical protocol for HSP phenotype definition, indicating for each tool the discriminative and descriptive capacity. Our protocol applied to 9 different forms of HSP showed that the functional impairment often extends beyond the CST. The novel DTI approach may add significant

  2. Clinical and Paraclinical Indicators of Motor System Impairment in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinuzzi, Andrea; Montanaro, Domenico; Vavla, Marinela; Paparella, Gabriella; Bonanni, Paolo; Musumeci, Olimpia; Brighina, Erika; Hlavata, Hana; Rossi, Giuseppe; Aghakhanyan, Gayane; Martino, Nicola; Baratto, Alessandra; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Peruch, Francesca; Fantin, Marianna; Arnoldi, Alessia; Citterio, Andrea; Vantaggiato, Chiara; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Toscano, Antonio; Bresolin, Nereo; Bassi, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are a composite and genetically heterogeneous group of conditions mainly expressed by the impairment of the central motor system ("pure" forms). The involvement of other components of the central nervous system or of other systems is described in the "complicate" forms. The definition of an investigation protocol capable, by assembling clinical and paraclinical indicators to fully represent the extent of the motor system impairment, would help both the clinical handling of these conditions and contribute to our understanding of their pathogenesis. We applied a clinical and paraclinical protocol which included tools exploring motor and non motor functioning, neurophysiology and MRI to a composite cohort of 70 molecularly defined HSP patients aged 3 to 65, to define for each indicator its significance in detailing the presence and the severity of the pathology. Clinically increased deep tendon reflexes and lower limb (LL) weakness are constant findings in all patients. The "complicated" forms are characterized by peripheral motor impairment, cognitive and cerebellar involvement. The Spastic Paraplegia Rating Scale efficiently reflects the severity of functional problems and correlates with disease duration. Neurophysiology consistently documents the impairment of the central motor pathway to the LLs. Nevertheless, the upper extremities and sensory system involvement is a frequent finding. MRI diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) highlighted a significant alteration of FA and MD. Combining the sampling of the various portion of the cortico-spinal tract (CST) DTI consistently discriminated patients from controls. We propose a graded clinical and paraclinical protocol for HSP phenotype definition, indicating for each tool the discriminative and descriptive capacity. Our protocol applied to 9 different forms of HSP showed that the functional impairment often extends beyond the CST. The novel DTI approach may add significant elements in

  3. 41 CFR 102-34.35 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dealership. (Procedures for purchasing and leasing motor vehicles through GSA can be found in 41 CFR subpart... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE... definitions apply to this part: Commercial design motor vehicle means a motor vehicle procurable from regular...

  4. "We Definitely Wouldn't Be Able to Solve It All by Ourselves, but Together…": Group Synergy in Tertiary Students' Problem-Solving Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kathleen; James, Alex; Montelle, Clemency

    2014-01-01

    The ability to address and solve problems in minimally familiar contexts is the core business of research mathematicians. Recent studies have identified key traits and techniques that individuals exhibit while problem solving, and revealed strategies and behaviours that are frequently invoked in the process. We studied advanced calculus students…

  5. Dual wound dc brush motor gearhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Barrie W.

    1986-01-01

    The design requirements, the design, development tests and problems, the qualification and life test and the findings of the strip examination of a dual wound DC brushed motor gearhead are described. It is the only space qualified dual wound dc brushed motor gearhead in Europe.

  6. Timing and motor control in drumming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia; Grossbach, Michael; Altenmüller, Eckart

    the stick movement becomes increasingly difficult, sometimes resulting in irregularities in timing and/or striking force. Timing irregularities can also be a revealing sign of motor control problems, such as focal dystonia (Jabusch, Vauth & Altenmüller, 2004). The "breakdown" in motor control can therefore...

  7. 76 FR 76622 - Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...; Docket 2011-0011; Sequence 2] RIN 3090-AJ14 Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management... Administration is amending the Federal Management Regulation (FMR) by revising current policy on the definitions... CONTACT: For clarification of content, contact Mr. James Vogelsinger, Director, Motor Vehicle Management...

  8. Electronically commutated DC motor. Elektronisch kommutierter Gleichstrommotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenleitner, H; Schalk, K; Koegler, G

    1981-08-13

    The purpose of the invention is to create a controlled and electronically commutated DC motor, so that the braking current regulator does not act with the frequency motor current regulator, where an additional switch is not required to decouple the braking current transistor while running, and where the reference value of braking current need not be greater than the reference value of motor current. According to the invention, this problem is solved by a connection, by which, while running, the braking current regulator is interlocked out by means of the output signal of the motor current regulator. A cheap diode and the associated wiring are all that is required for the interlock.

  9. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ireland, Israel, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Problem Motor ... 0.02-0.05%). Use advanced engineering and technology, such as: Ignition interlocks for all people convicted ...

  10. 26 CFR 1.9200-1 - Deduction for motor carrier operating authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corporation, including intangible assets such as goodwill and going concern value, must be taken into account... motor carrier operating authority divided by 60. (d) Definition of motor carrier-operating authority... do not include persons meeting the definition of freight forwarder contained in 49 U.S.C. 10102 (Supp...

  11. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  12. The Determination of the Asynchronous Traction Motor Characteristics of Locomotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Grigorievich Kolpakhchyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the locomotive asynchronous traction motor control with the AC diesel-electric transmission. The limitations of the torque of the traction motor when powered by the inverter are determined. The recommendations to improve the use of asynchronous traction motor of locomotives with the AC diesel-electric transmission are given.

  13. 78 FR 38455 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... windings, which protects them from condensation, moisture, dirt, and debris. This insulation typically... and Moisture Resistant Windings 4. Inverter-Capable Electric Motors 5. Totally Enclosed Non-Ventilated... set. [cir] Definite-purpose inverter- fed electric motor. [cir] Electric motor with moisture resistant...

  14. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...

  15. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  16. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  17. Structural equation modeling of motor impairment, gross motor function, and the functional outcome in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2013-05-01

    Physical therapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is focused on reducing neurological impairments, improving strength, and preventing the development of secondary impairments in order to improve functional outcomes. However, relationship between motor impairments and functional outcome has not been proved definitely. This study confirmed the construct of motor impairment and performed structural equation modeling (SEM) between motor impairment, gross motor function, and functional outcomes of regarding activities of daily living in children with CP. 98 children (59 boys, 39 girls) with CP participated in this cross-sectional study. Mean age was 11 y 5 mo (SD 1 y 9 mo). The Manual Muscle Test (MMT), the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), range of motion (ROM) measurement, and the selective motor control (SMC) scale were used to assess motor impairments. Gross motor function and functional outcomes were measured using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Functional Skills domain of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) respectively. Measurement of motor impairment was consisted of strength, spasticity, ROM, and SMC. The construct of motor impairment was confirmed though an examination of a measurement model. The proposed SEM model showed good fit indices. Motor impairment effected gross motor function (β=-.0869). Gross motor function and motor impairment affected functional outcomes directly (β=0.890) and indirectly (β=-0.773) respectively. We confirmed that the construct of motor impairment consist of strength, spasticity, ROM, and SMC and it was identified through measurement model analysis. Functional outcomes are best predicted by gross motor function and motor impairments have indirect effects on functional outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Calculus problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baronti, Marco; van der Putten, Robertus; Venturi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book, intended as a practical working guide for students in Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, or any other field where rigorous calculus is needed, includes 450 exercises. Each chapter starts with a summary of the main definitions and results, which is followed by a selection of solved exercises accompanied by brief, illustrative comments. A selection of problems with indicated solutions rounds out each chapter. A final chapter explores problems that are not designed with a single issue in mind but instead call for the combination of a variety of techniques, rounding out the book’s coverage. Though the book’s primary focus is on functions of one real variable, basic ordinary differential equations (separation of variables, linear first order and constant coefficients ODEs) are also discussed. The material is taken from actual written tests that have been delivered at the Engineering School of the University of Genoa. Literally thousands of students have worked on these problems, ensuring their real-...

  19. Review and problem definition of water/rock reactions associated with injection of spent geothermal fluids from a geothermal plant into aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elders, W.A.

    1986-07-01

    Among the technical problems faced by the burgeoning geothermal industry is the disposal of spent fluids from power plants. Except in unusual circumstances the normal practice, especially in the USA, is to pump these spent fluids into injection wells to prevent contamination of surface waters, and possibly in some cases, to reduce pressure drawdown in the producing aquifers. This report is a survey of experience in geothermal injection, emphasizing geochemical problems, and a discussion of approaches to their possible mitigation. The extraction of enthalpy from geothermal fluid in power plants may cause solutions to be strongly supersaturated in various dissolved components such as silica, carbonates, sulfates, and sulfides. Injection of such supersaturated solutions into disposal wells has the potential to cause scaling in the well bores and plugging of the aquifers, leading to loss of injectivity. Various aspects of the geochemistry of geothermal brines and their potential for mineral formation are discussed, drawing upon a literature survey. Experience of brine treatment and handling, and the economics of mineral extraction are also addressed in this report. Finally suggestions are made on future needs for possible experimental, field and theoretical studies to avoid or control mineral scaling.

  20. Motor skills of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as a subset of 58 children followed longitudinally. Gross motor and fine motor age equivalent scores were obtained for all children. A 'motor difference' variable was calculated for each child's gross and fine motor skills by taking the absolute difference of the children's age equivalent motor score and their respective chronological age. In Study 1 (the cross-sectional analysis), ANCOVA (co-varied for nonverbal problem solving) revealed significant group differences in the gross motor and fine motor age difference variables. Post-hoc analysis revealed that gross motor and fine motor differences became significantly greater with each 6-month period of chronological age. In Study 2, 58 children were measured twice, an average of 12 months apart. Results indicate that the gross motor and fine motor difference scores significantly increased between the first and second measurements. The importance of addressing motor development in early intervention treatments is discussed.

  1. Increasing induction motors efficiency by reducing electromagnetic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivian Chiver

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of any device is a major problem today. The design and construction of high efficiency motors is strongly required from the viewpoint of reducing energy consumption and protecting the environment. This paper deal with the problem of improving efficiency by reducing electrical and magnetic loads of these motors. Using the finite elements method (FEM, the authors will study the influence of these changes on the parameters and characteristics of the initial motor.

  2. Knapsack problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Hans; Pisinger, David

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen years have passed since the seminal book on knapsack problems by Martello and Toth appeared. On this occasion a former colleague exclaimed back in 1990: "How can you write 250 pages on the knapsack problem?" Indeed, the definition of the knapsack problem is easily understood even by a non-expert who will not suspect the presence of challenging research topics in this area at the first glance. However, in the last decade a large number of research publications contributed new results for the knapsack problem in all areas of interest such as exact algorithms, heuristics and approximation schemes. Moreover, the extension of the knapsack problem to higher dimensions both in the number of constraints and in the num­ ber of knapsacks, as well as the modification of the problem structure concerning the available item set and the objective function, leads to a number of interesting variations of practical relevance which were the subject of intensive research during the last few years. Hence, two years ago ...

  3. LD Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Disability Quarterly, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The position paper (1981) of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities presents a revised definition of learning disabilities and identifies issues and concerns (such as the limitation to children and the exclusion clause) associated with the definition included in P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. (DB)

  4. Motor Imagery Ability in Children with Congenital Hemiplegia: Effect of Lesion Side and Functional Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacqueline; Reid, Susan M.; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Anderson, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    In addition to motor execution problems, children with hemiplegia have motor planning deficits, which may stem from poor motor imagery ability. This study aimed to provide a greater understanding of motor imagery ability in children with hemiplegia using the hand rotation task. Three groups of children, aged 8-12 years, participated: right…

  5. BIOFEEDBACK: A NEW METHOD FOR CORRECTION OF MOTOR DISORDERS IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. S. Pekker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Major disabling factors in multiple sclerosis is motor disorders. Rehabilitation of such violations is one of the most important medical and social problems. Currently, most of the role given to the development of methods for correction of motor disorders based on accessing natural resources of the human body. One of these methods is the adaptive control with biofeedback (BFB. The aim of our study was the correction of motor disorders in multiple sclerosis patients using biofeedback training. In the study, we have developed scenarios for training rehabilitation program computer EMG biofeedback aimed at correction of motor disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The method was tested in the neurological clinic of SSMU. The study included 9 patients with definite diagnosis of MS with the presence of the clinical picture of combined pyramidal and cerebellar symptoms. Assessed the effectiveness of rehabilitation procedures biofeedback training using specialized scales (rating scale functional systems Kurtzke; questionnaire research quality of life – SF-36, evaluation of disease impact Profile – SIP and score on a scale fatigue – FSS. In the studied group of patients decreased score on a scale of fatigue (FSS, increased motor control (SIP2, the physical and mental components of health (SF-36. The tendency to reduce the amount of neurological deficit by reducing the points on the pyramidal Kurtske violations. Analysis of the exchange rate dynamics of biofeedback training on EMG for trained muscles indicates an increase in the recorded signal OEMG from session to session. Proved a tendency to increase strength and coordination trained muscles of patients studied.Positive results of biofeedback therapy in patients with MS can be recommended to use this method in the complex rehabilitation measures to correct motor and psycho-emotional disorders.

  6. MUSIC CUED EXERCISES FOR MOTOR AND NON-MOTOR SIGNS IN PEOPLE WITH DEMENTIA: PROTOCOL FOR A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmine S Gomaa; Salah A Sawan; Joanne E Wittwer; Meg E Morris

    2017-01-01

    Background: Movement disorders and non-motor problems such as cognitive decline, anxiety, depression and behavioural problems, are common in people with dementia and can progress over time. Exercise coupled with music is a promising form of therapy designed to improve both the motor and non-motor manifestations of this debilitating neurological condition. Objectives: To present a protocol for a systematic review and critical analysis of the literature to answer the following questions: ...

  7. Economical motor transport operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, P

    1979-09-01

    Motor transport is one area in a company where energy conservation is a function primarily of operative education and motivation rather than mechanical or technical control and monitoring. Unless the driver wants to save energy by proper operation of the vehicle, there is nothing the company can do to force him, whatever equipment it fits to the vehicles, or incentives it offers. This article gives an overview of the use of energy in road transport and examines a number of actions that can be taken to conserve energy. It discusses the question of the cost-effectiveness of transport energy conservation in the light of the complex issues involved. The problems and opportunities of implementing energy-saving programs are examined. (MCW)

  8. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  9. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  10. Interacting adiabatic quantum motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

    2018-05-01

    We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to Fermi liquid reservoirs, the dissipation reduces to its value for a noninteracting electron system for a constant motor velocity. Our results can also be applied to a motor based on a nanomagnet coupled to a quantum spin Hall edge.

  11. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  12. Goal Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    The goal definition is the first phase of an LCA and determines the purpose of a study in detail. This chapter teaches how to perform the six aspects of a goal definition: (1) Intended applications of the results, (2) Limitations due to methodological choices, (3) Decision context and reasons...... for carrying out the study, (4) Target audience , (5) Comparative studies to be disclosed to the public and (6) Commissioner of the study and other influential actors. The instructions address both the conduct and reporting of a goal definition and are largely based on the ILCD guidance document (EC...

  13. Motor ability and adaptive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yi Wang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neuropsychiatric disorder. Previous studies have reported that children with ADHD exhibit deficits of adaptive function and insufficient motor ability. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between adaptive function and motor ability in children with ADHD compared with a group of normal children. The study group included 25 children with ADHD (19 boys and 6 girls, aged from 4.6 years to 8.6 years (mean±standard deviation, 6.5±1.2. A group of 24 children without ADHD (normal children were selected to match the children with ADHD on age and gender. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children, which includes three subtests, was used to assess the motor ability of the children of both groups. The Chinese version of Adaptive Behavior Scales, which consists of 12 life domains, was used to assess adaptive function of the children with ADHD. Compared with the normal children, children with ADHD exhibited poorer motor ability on all the three subtests of motor assessment. In the ADHD group, nine (36% children had significant motor impairments and seven (28% were borderline cases. A total of 10 (40% children with ADHD had definite adaptive problems in one or more adaptive domains. With statistically controlling of IQ for the ADHD group, those children with impaired motor ability had significantly poorer behaviors in the adaptive domain of home living (p=0.035. Moreover, children with ADHD who had severely impaired manual dexterity performed worse than the control group in the adaptive domains of home living (r=−0.47, p=0.018, socialization (r=−0.49, p=0.013, and self-direction (r=−0.41, p=0.040. In addition, children with poorer ball skills had worse home living behavior (r=−0.56, p=0.003. Children who had more impaired balance exhibited poorer performance in social behavior (r=−0.41, p=0.040. This study found significant correlation between motor ability and

  14. Fleet wide motor asset management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemeier, R.G.; Moxie, J.J.; Mendez, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) performed several studies concerning the effects of motor failures on US power production. Problems with aging and the lack of preventative maintenance were noted as major contributors to this production loss. Westinghouse has developed, and successfully utilized, a computer program to assist plants in the decision making process for maximizing the operational availability of their motor fleet. The program considers motors of a fleet as a single, critical to production asset, and aids the operator in decisions regarding the following: 1.) Purchase of spares. 2.) Rewind and refurbishment prioritization. 3.) Long-term budget forecasting. (author)

  15. RESONANT PROCESSES IN STARTING MODES OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS WITH CAPACITORS IN THE EXCITATION WINDINGS CIRCUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Malyar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of a mathematical model that enables to detect resonance modes during asynchronous startup of salient-pole synchronous motors, in which capacitors are switched on to increase the electromagnetic moment in the circuit of the excitation winding. Methodology. The asynchronous mode is described by a system of differential equations of the electric equilibrium of motor circuits written in orthogonal coordinate axes. The basis of the developed algorithm is the mathematical model of the high-level adequacy motor and the projection method for solving the boundary value problem for the equations of the electric equilibrium of the circuits written in orthogonal coordinate axes, taking into account the presence of capacitors in the excitation winding. The coefficients of differential equations are the differential inductances of the motor circuits, which are determined on the basis of the calculation of its magnetic circuit. As a result of the asymmetry of the rotor windings in the asynchronous mode, the current coupling and currents change according to the periodic law. The problem of its definition is solved as a boundary one. Results. A mathematical model for studying the asynchronous characteristics of synchronous motors with capacitors in an excitation winding is developed, by means of which it is possible to investigate the influence of the size of the capacity on the motor's starting properties and the resonance processes which may arise in this case. Scientific novelty. The developed method of mathematical modeling is based on a fundamentally new mathematical basis for the calculation of stationary dynamic modes of nonlinear electromagnetic circuits, which enables to obtain periodic coordinate dependencies, without resorting to the calculation of the transients. The basis of the developed algorithm is based on the approximation of state variables by cubic splines, the projection method of decomposition for the boundary value

  16. Motor automaticity in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Hallett, Mark; Chan, Piu

    2017-01-01

    Bradykinesia is the most important feature contributing to motor difficulties in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the pathophysiology underlying bradykinesia is not fully understood. One important aspect is that PD patients have difficulty in performing learned motor skills automatically, but this problem has been generally overlooked. Here we review motor automaticity associated motor deficits in PD, such as reduced arm swing, decreased stride length, freezing of gait, micrographia and reduced facial expression. Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed some neural mechanisms underlying impaired motor automaticity in PD, including less efficient neural coding of movement, failure to shift automated motor skills to the sensorimotor striatum, instability of the automatic mode within the striatum, and use of attentional control and/or compensatory efforts to execute movements usually performed automatically in healthy people. PD patients lose previously acquired automatic skills due to their impaired sensorimotor striatum, and have difficulty in acquiring new automatic skills or restoring lost motor skills. More investigations on the pathophysiology of motor automaticity, the effect of L-dopa or surgical treatments on automaticity, and the potential role of using measures of automaticity in early diagnosis of PD would be valuable. PMID:26102020

  17. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Spanner; Burhanettin Koc

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ult...

  18. Application of intelligent soft start in asynchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue; Ye, Ying; Wang, Yuelong; Peng, Lei; Zhang, Suying

    2018-05-01

    The starting way of three phase asynchronous motor has full voltage start and step-down start. Direct starting brings large current impact, causing excessive local temperature to the power grid and larger starting torque will also impact the motor equipment and affect the service life of the motor. Aim at the problem of large current and torque caused by start-up, an intelligent soft starter is proposed. Through the application of intelligent soft start on asynchronous motor, highlights its application advantage in motor control.

  19. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  20. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  1. Scope Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    The scope definition is the second phase of an LCA. It determines what product systems are to be assessed and how this assessment should take place. This chapter teaches how to perform a scope definition. First, important terminology and key concepts of LCA are introduced. Then, the nine items...... making up a scope definition are elaborately explained: (1) Deliverables. (2) Object of assessment, (3) LCI modelling framework and handling of multifunctional processes, (4) System boundaries and completeness requirements, (5) Representativeness of LCI data, (6) Preparing the basis for the impact...... assessment, (7) Special requirements for system comparisons, (8) Critical review needs and (9) Planning reporting of results. The instructions relate both to the performance and reporting of a scope definition and are largely based on ILCD....

  2. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  3. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  4. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  5. Neuroplasticity & Motor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    Practice of a new motor task is usually associated with an improvement in performance. Indeed, if we stop practicing and return the next day to the same task, we find that our performance has been maintained and may even be better than it was at the start of the first day. This improvement...... is a measure of our ability to form and store a motor memory of the task. However, the initial memory of the task is labile and may be subject to interference. During and following motor learning plastic changes occur within the central nervous system. On one hand these changes are driven by motor practice......, on the other hand the changes underlie the formation of motor memory and the retention of improved motor performance. During motor learning changes may occur at many different levels within the central nervous system dependent on the type of task and training. Here, we demonstrate different studies from our...

  6. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro; Pustika Efar; Soedjatmiko; Amanda Soebadi; Agus Firmansyah; Hui-Ju Chen; Kun-Long Hung

    2016-01-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and sociali...

  7. Relationship between motor coordination, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Higashionna

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings stress that it is essential to accurately identify motor coordination impairments and the interventions that would consider motor coordination problems related to cognitive abilities and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  8. 49 CFR 180.403 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Cargo Tanks § 180.403 Definitions. In addition to... cosmetic or minor surface degradation that does not effect the safety or serviceability of the cargo tank... design and construction of a cargo tank or a cargo tank motor vehicle that affects its structural...

  9. 16 CFR 309.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES General § 309.1 Definitions. As used in subparts B and C of... derivative) capable of seating 12 passengers or less; or (2) A dedicated or dual fueled motor vehicle (other.... It also means any person, except a common carrier, who receives an electric vehicle fuel dispensing...

  10. 49 CFR 571.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Other definitions. As used in this chapter— Act means the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act... means the nominal design dimension of the widest part of the vehicle, exclusive of signal lamps, marker... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...

  11. 40 CFR 600.202-77 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....202-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.202-77 Definitions. The...

  12. 49 CFR 591.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (other than a damage settlement in connection with a recovered theft vehicle unless such motor vehicle..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) IMPORTATION OF VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT SUBJECT TO FEDERAL SAFETY, BUMPER AND THEFT PREVENTION STANDARDS § 591.4 Definitions. All terms used in this part that are defined...

  13. 49 CFR 541.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.4 Definitions. (a... same make. (4) 1990/91 median theft rate means 3.5826 thefts per thousand vehicles produced. (5... surface means, with respect to a vehicle part, a surface that is not directly exposed to sun and...

  14. Developing a Framework for Analyzing Definitions: A Study of "The Feynman Lectures"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chee Leong; Chu, Hye-Eun; Yap, Kueh Chin

    2014-01-01

    One important purpose of a definition is to explain the meaning of a word. Any problems associated with a definition may impede students' learning. However, research studies on the definitional problems from the perspective of physics education are limited. Physics educators may not be aware of the nature and extent of definitional problems.…

  15. Social Motor Synchronization: Insights for Understanding Social Behavior in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Romero, Veronica; Amaral, Joseph L; Duncan, Amie; Barnard, Holly; Richardson, Michael J; Schmidt, R C

    2017-07-01

    Impairments in social interaction and communication are critical features of ASD but the underlying processes are poorly understood. An under-explored area is the social motor synchronization that happens when we coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we explored the relationships between dynamical measures of social motor synchronization and assessments of ASD traits. We found (a) spontaneous social motor synchronization was associated with responding to joint attention, cooperation, and theory of mind while intentional social motor synchronization was associated with initiating joint attention and theory of mind; and (b) social motor synchronization was associated with ASD severity but not fully explained by motor problems. Findings suggest that objective measures of social motor synchronization may provide insights into understanding ASD traits.

  16. Definition of the drainage filter problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaslavsky, D.

    1977-01-01

    It is common to consider the following: I. Retention of soil particles that may enter the drainage pipe and cause its clogging. For some sensitive structures it is important to prevent settlements due to soil transportation by drainage water.

  17. A finite element code for electric motor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. Warren

    1994-01-01

    FEMOT is a finite element program for solving the nonlinear magnetostatic problem. This version uses nonlinear, Newton first order elements. The code can be used for electric motor design and analysis. FEMOT can be embedded within an optimization code that will vary nodal coordinates to optimize the motor design. The output from FEMOT can be used to determine motor back EMF, torque, cogging, and magnet saturation. It will run on a PC and will be available to anyone who wants to use it.

  18. Brushless DC motor speed control strategy of simulation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the brushless DC motor speed regulation problem, an ideal control strategy is designed. Through the model and analysis of Brushless DC motor, the mathematical model of the brushless DC motor is obtained. By comparing three control strategies of PID control strategy, fuzzy control strategy and fuzzy PID control strategy, PID controller, fuzzy controller and fuzzy PID controller are designed respectively for simulation test. The simulation results show that the fuzzy PID controller has good control effect.

  19. Obesity Reduces Cognitive and Motor Functions across the Lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chuanming; Chan, John S. Y.; Ren, Lijie; Yan, Jin H.

    2016-01-01

    Due to a sedentary lifestyle, more and more people are becoming obese nowadays. In addition to health-related problems, obesity can also impair cognition and motor performance. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Many factors, such as insulin/leptin dysregulation and inflammation, mediate the effect of obesity and cognition and motor behaviors. Substantial evidence has ...

  20. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  1. Review of research on AFPM hub motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo DAI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The industrialization of new energy vehicles is an important way to promote the sustainable development of automobile industry, and it is also the key measure to solve the problems of energy and environment. As an important type of new energy vehicles, electric vehicles will play an important role in the future competition in the automotive industry, especially in the field of electric vehicle driven by wheel. With the advantages of compact structure, high power density, low working noise and good heat dissipation performance, the AFPM motor has gradually become the preferred object of the hub driving device. Based on the statement of the technical development and research status about AFPM motor, this paper mainly analyzes the engineering application and technical problems of AFPM motor in hub drive, especially the matching of AFPM motor with other systems and the problem of heat dissipation at high load conditions, and looks forward to the key role in the future development of the automotive industry. This paper will play a certain reference and guiding role in the application of AFPM motor in the field of new energy vehicles.

  2. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  3. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  4. 'Motor control center obsolescence'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    A significant and growing problem within the global nuclear industry is the aging of motor control center (MCC) components. MCC's have a very important role in the safety and critical to generation requirements of a nuclear power plant. Although many OEM's MCC's such as ITE/Telemechanique, GE, Westinghouse, Cutler Hammer, Klockner Moeller, etc. have been used throughout the global nuclear industry, they all have one common aspect obsolescence. Obsolescence of various components within the MCC's such as molded case circuit breakers, starters, relays, heaters, contactors, etc. are impacting the reliability of the MCC to serve its intended function. The paper will discuss the options which the nuclear industry is faced with to increase the reliability of the MCC's while maintaining design control, qualification and meeting budget constraints. The options as listed below shall be discussed in detail with examples to enhance the readers understanding of the situation: 1) Component by component replacement: The hurdles associated with trying to find equivalent components to replace the obsolete components while still worki (mechanically and electrically) in the original cubicle will be presented. 2) Complete MCC cubicle with new internal components replacement: The process of supplying a replacement cubicle, with all new internal components and new door to replace the original cubicle will be discussed. The presentation will conclude with a comparison of the advantages and dis-advantages of the two methods to bring the MCC to an as new condition with the overall goal of increasing reliability. (author)

  5. Normal motor milestone development for use to promote child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdin A. Husaini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Motor behavior is an essential aspect of child development, and usually assessed in terms of age of achievement of motor milestone. The early detection of infants experiencing subtle delays in motor maturation can allow early intervention in developmental problems. Intervention can be more effective if delays are identified early. In order to facilitate the identification of early delays, the Center of Nutrition and Foods Research and Development in Bogor has designed a simple tool to monitor the child (aged 3 to 18 months motor development. Objective To develop an observable of normal gross motor maturation for use to detect deviance or motor delay. Methods A total of 2100 healthy children, aged 3-18 months, from high socio-economic group, in urban and suburban areas, were studied. Body length, weight and motor development were measured on all children. Gross motor development was measured 17 pre selected milestones: lie, sit, crawl, creep, stand Mth assistance, walk with assistance, stand alone, walk alone, and run. Results There were no differences between males and females in the comparison of attainment motor maturation therefore a sex combined curve was developed. Conclusion The curve of normal motor milestone development can be used as a tool to evaluate motor development over time, and/or as a child development card for use in primary health care.

  6. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Anneke; Sagvolden, Terje

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1) Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2) Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3) Are there gender differences? (4) Is there an effect of age? (5) Are the...

  7. Optimum geometry for torque ripple minimization of switched reluctance motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahin, F.; Ertan, H.B.; Leblebicioglu, K.

    2000-01-01

    For switched reluctance motors, one of the major problems is torque ripple which causes increased undesirable acoustic noise and possibly speed ripple. This paper describes an approach to determine optimum magnetic circuit parameters to minimize low speed torque ripple for such motors. The

  8. Non-Motor Features in Parkinson's Disease Patients Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The clinical course of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not limited to motor symptoms (tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, gait problems and imbalance). A variety of non-motor symptoms (NMS) such as psychiatric, gastrointestinal, cognitive, sudomotor, autonomic, sleep and sensory disorders which occur commonly are ...

  9. Language and motor speech skills in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirila, Sija; van der Meere, Jaap; Pentikainen, Taina; Ruusu-Niemi, Pirjo; Korpela, Raija; Kilpinen, Jenni; Nieminen, Pirkko; Ruusu-Niemin, P; Kilpinen, R

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate associations between the severity of motor limitations, cognitive difficulties, language and motor speech problems in children with cerebral palsy. Also, the predictive power of neonatal cranial ultrasound findings on later outcome was investigated. For this

  10. Actual motor performance and self-perceived motor competence in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy siblings and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliers, Ellen A; de Hoog, Marieke L A; Franke, Barbara; Faraone, Stephen V; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2010-01-01

    : Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience comorbid motor problems, developmental coordination disorder. Also, children with ADHD are said to overestimate their abilities in the cognitive and social domain, the so-called "Positive Illusory Bias." In this cross-sectional study, the relationship between actual motor performance and perceived motor competence was examined. Motor performance was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children in 100 children and adolescents (age 6-17 years), including 32 children with ADHD combined type, 18 unaffected siblings, and 50 healthy control children. ADHD was diagnosed using Parent and Teacher questionnaires and a clinical interview. Perceived motor competence and interest in the motor domain were rated with the Dutch supplement scale to Harters' Self-Perception Profile for Children, especially focusing on the motor domain (m-CBSK). Children with ADHD had poorer motor performance than unaffected siblings and control children, especially in the field of manual dexterity. However, no relationship was found between motor performance and perceived motor competence. Only children with the very lowest motor performance had a significantly lowered perception of their motor competence. Interest in the motor domain and motor self-perception was positively correlated. Children with ADHD performed poorer on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, but generally overestimated their own motor competence.

  11. Advances in esophageal motor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smout, André Jpm

    2008-07-01

    Esophageal motor disorders, often leading to dysphagia and chest pain, continue to pose diagnostic and therapeutic problems. In the past 12 months important new information regarding esophageal motor disorders was published. This information will be reviewed in this paper. A number of studies have addressed the issue of heterogeneity in achalasia, the best defined esophageal motility disorder. The spastic esophageal motility disorders nutcracker esophagus and diffuse esophageal spasm may coexist with gastroesophageal reflux disease, which has consequences for the management of patients with these disorders. The entity labelled ineffective esophageal motility is associated with reflux esophagitis, but also with morbid obesity. For the detection of disordered transit caused by ineffective esophageal motility, application of intraluminal impedance monitoring in conjunction with manometry leads to improved diagnosis. New data on the effect of Nissen fundoplication on esophageal motility were published during the last year. Recent knowledge on the heterogeneity of achalasia and the association of spastic esophageal motor disorders and ineffective motility with reflux disease will help the clinician in the management of patients with these disorders.

  12. Engineering solutions of traffic safety problems of road transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bogdevičius

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper focus on the simulation of the motor vehicle movement (taking into consideration motor vehicle dynamics, motor vehicle hydraulic brake system influence on motor vehicle movement, interaction between its wheels with road pavements, road guardrail characteristics, interaction between motor vehicle and road guardrail on a certain road section and propose their specific solution of this problem. The presented results, illustrating the motor vehicle movement trajectories (motor vehicle braking and interaction between motor vehicle and road guardrail at various initial conditions and at various certain pavement surface of the road section under investigation and work of a motor vehicle hydraulic brake system. Taking into consideration the presented general mathematical model and computer aided test results it is possible to investigate various road transport traffic situations as well as to investigate various transport traffic safety problems.

  13. Relationships between Fine-Motor, Visual-Motor, and Visual Perception Scores and Handwriting Legibility and Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sheryl; Guiltner, Val; Sollereder, Patti; Cui, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Occupational therapists assess fine motor, visual motor, visual perception, and visual skill development, but knowledge of the relationships between scores on sensorimotor performance measures and handwriting legibility and speed is limited. Ninety-nine students in grades three to six with learning and/or behavior problems completed the Upper-Limb…

  14. Modeling Induction Motor Imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armah, Kabenla; Jouffroy, Jerome; Duggen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a study into the development of a generalized model for a three-phase induction motor that offers flexibility of simulating balanced and unbalanced parameter scenarios. By analyzing the interaction of forces within the motor, we achieve our main objective of deriving the system d...

  15. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  16. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and

  17. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  18. A primer on motor vehicle air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This primer presents a brief state-of-the art review of motor vehicle air pollution. Its purpose is to aid highway personnel in understanding the nature of this environmental problem on our highways and to present possible solutions for its abatement...

  19. Single phase induction motor with starting performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, M.; Demeter, E. [Research Institute for Electrical Machines, ICPE-ME, Bucharest (Romania); Navrapescu, V. [University `Politehnica` Bucharest, Electrical Engineering Faculty Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    The paper presents problems related to a special type of single phase induction motor. The main novelty consists in the use of a conducting (aluminium casted) shell distributed on the periferic region of the rotor. As a result the starting performance, as well as the rated ones, is much improved in comparison with the conventional construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  20. Integrated security system definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.K.; Hall, J.R. II

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of an integrated security system are to detect intruders and unauthorized activities with a high degree of reliability and the to deter and delay them until effective response/engagement can be accomplished. Definition of an effective integrated security system requires proper application of a system engineering methodology. This paper summarizes a methodology and describes its application to the problem of integrated security system definition. This process includes requirements identification and analysis, allocation of identified system requirements to the subsystem level and provides a basis for identification of synergistic subsystem elements and for synthesis into an integrated system. The paper discusses how this is accomplished, emphasizing at each step how system integration and subsystem synergism is considered. The paper concludes with the product of the process: implementation of an integrated security system

  1. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  2. Spinal cord: motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Kourosh; Roos, Raymond P

    2013-02-01

    Spinal cord motor neuron diseases affect lower motor neurons in the ventral horn. This article focuses on the most common spinal cord motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which also affects upper motor neurons. Also discussed are other motor neuron diseases that only affect the lower motor neurons. Despite the identification of several genes associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the pathogenesis of this complex disease remains elusive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bowel Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Hemorrhoids Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & ... Control Problems in Women (Urinary Incontinence) Constipation Diarrhea Hemorrhoids Related Diagnostic Tests Colonoscopy Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Lower GI ...

  4. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Arend F; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Hitzert, Marrit M; Tanis, Jozien C; Roze, Elise

    2013-11-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed, using ['motor skills' or 'fine motor function' and 'preterm infant'] as the search string. Impaired gross and fine motor skills are among the most frequently occurring problems encountered by preterm children who do not develop cerebral palsy. The prevalence is around 40% for mild to moderate impairment and 20% for moderate impairment. Fine motor skill scores on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children are about 0.62 of a standard deviation lower compared with term children. Risk factors for fine motor impairments include moderately preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] 2.0) and, among very preterm children (development of and recovery from brain injury could guide future intervention attempts aimed at improving fine motor skills of preterm children. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Design of double DC motor control system based on DSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suo WANG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of speed control, commutation and so on in the multi-motor synchronous control system, based on automatic control technology, a control system with PC as principal computer and DSP as slave computer is designed, which can change dual DC motor speed and steering, as well as select work drive motors. Related hardware and software design of the control system are given. Through serial communication between DSP and PC using PC serial port software, digital control command is sent to the slave computer for controlling dual DC motor to do a series of preset functions. PWM pulse width modulation is used for motor speed regulation, photoelectric encoder is used to measure motor speed by T method, and the motor speed is displayed by the actual waveform. Experimental results show that the system can not only realize the synchronization of dual DC motor speed and steering adjustment, but also select the motor and achieve the dual DC motors synchronization control effect. The control system has certain reliability and effectiveness.

  6. Structural optimisation of cage induction motors using finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palko, S.

    The current trend in motor design is to have highly efficient, low noise, low cost, and modular motors with a high power factor. High torque motors are useful in applications like servo motors, lifts, cranes, and rolling mills. This report contains a detailed review of different optimization methods applicable in various design problems. Special attention is given to the performance of different methods, when they are used with finite element analysis (FEA) as an objective function, and accuracy problems arising from the numerical simulations. Also an effective method for designing high starting torque and high efficiency motors is presented. The method described in this work utilizes FEA combined with algorithms for the optimization of the slot geometry. The optimization algorithm modifies the position of the nodal points in the element mesh. The number of independent variables ranges from 14 to 140 in this work.

  7. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y.; Rymer, William Z.

    2018-01-01

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy. PMID:26916510

  8. Hadoop The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    White, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Hadoop: The Definitive Guide helps you harness the power of your data. Ideal for processing large datasets, the Apache Hadoop framework is an open source implementation of the MapReduce algorithm on which Google built its empire. This comprehensive resource demonstrates how to use Hadoop to build reliable, scalable, distributed systems: programmers will find details for analyzing large datasets, and administrators will learn how to set up and run Hadoop clusters. Complete with case studies that illustrate how Hadoop solves specific problems, this book helps you: Use the Hadoop Distributed

  9. Cassandra the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, Eben

    2011-01-01

    What could you do with data if scalability wasn't a problem? With this hands-on guide, you'll learn how Apache Cassandra handles hundreds of terabytes of data while remaining highly available across multiple data centers -- capabilities that have attracted Facebook, Twitter, and other data-intensive companies. Cassandra: The Definitive Guide provides the technical details and practical examples you need to assess this database management system and put it to work in a production environment. Author Eben Hewitt demonstrates the advantages of Cassandra's nonrelational design, and pays special

  10. The definition of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, J S

    1993-11-01

    Formulations of alcohol dependence are continuously refreshed, in line with changing concepts and altered needs. Two new descriptions have been prepared: the revised WHO criteria for substance use disorders and an educative definition of alcoholism. The major sets of diagnostic criteria provided by WHO and by the American Psychiatric Association are moving closer together but have not solved all the semantic problems. More refined assessments are also available to quicken fulfillment of the long-awaited hope that treatments can be matched to patients.

  11. The main pump motor remote visual check in the application of the domestic nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Lianwei; Yu Tao; Fang Jiang; Zhang Ting; Zhang Xingtian; Ding Youyuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the Qinshan nuclear power station the first main pump motor to the successful implementation of remote visual inspection the main pump motor remote visual inspection applications. Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 of the main pump motor inspection results show that the key components of the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 of the main pump rotor, stator end coils good condition, its problems for 10 years in the motor does not affect the normal use of the motor state disintegration overhaul problems tracking disintegration overhaul in 10 years. (authors)

  12. Vulvodynia. Definition, diagnosis and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Damsted; Lundvall, Lene; Kristensen, Ellids

    2008-01-01

    that the problem is solely a psychological disorder have been abandoned, because inflammatory mechanisms and genetic factors have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis as well as psychosexual contributors. This article describes the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on patho...

  13. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  14. Motor Carrier Crash Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains data on large trucks and buses involved in Federally reportable crashes as per Title 49 U.S.C. Part 390.5 (crashes involving a commercial motor vehicle, and...

  15. High Power Density Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  16. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The magnitude of capacitor that will develop maximum torque in capacitor start motor and capacitor run motor are investigated and determined by simulation. Each of these capacitors is connected to the auxiliary winding of split-phase motor thereby transforming it into capacitor start or capacitor run motor. The starting current and starting torque of the split-phase motor (SPM, capacitor run motor (CRM and capacitor star motor (CSM are compared for their suitability in their operational performance and applications.

  17. A firm size and safety performance profile of the U.S. motor carrier industry : [executive summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Motor carrier crashes continue to present a societal and public policy : problem. Large commercial truck crashes are a topic of serious concern : in Iowa. Statistics illustrate the need to make further progress on the : safety performance of motor ca...

  18. Predicting Motor Skills from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Scores, Language Ability, and Other Features of New Zealand Children Entering Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargisson, Rebecca J.; Powell, Cheniel; Stanley, Peter; de Candole, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    The motor and language skills, emotional and behavioural problems of 245 children were measured at school entry. Fine motor scores were significantly predicted by hyperactivity, phonetic awareness, prosocial behaviour, and the presence of medical problems. Gross motor scores were significantly predicted by the presence of medical problems. The…

  19. Preliminary design of reactor coolant pump canned motor for AC600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Shaowen

    1998-01-01

    The reactor coolant pump canned motor of AC600 PWR is the kind of shielded motors with high moment of inertia, high reliability, high efficiency and nice starting performance. The author briefly presents the main feature, design criterion and technical requirements, preliminary design, computation results and analysis of performance of AC600 reactor coolant pump canned motor, and proposes some problems to be solved for study and design of AC600 reactor coolant pump canned motor

  20. Motor control by precisely timed spike patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, Kyle H; Holmes, Caroline M; Vellema, Michiel

    2017-01-01

    whether the information in spike timing actually plays a role in brain function. By examining the activity of individual motor units (the muscle fibers innervated by a single motor neuron) and manipulating patterns of activation of these neurons, we provide both correlative and causal evidence......A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how sequences of action potentials ("spikes") encode information about sensory signals and motor outputs. Although traditional theories assume that this information is conveyed by the total number of spikes fired within a specified time...... interval (spike rate), recent studies have shown that additional information is carried by the millisecond-scale timing patterns of action potentials (spike timing). However, it is unknown whether or how subtle differences in spike timing drive differences in perception or behavior, leaving it unclear...

  1. Markov process of muscle motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratiev, Yu; Pechersky, E; Pirogov, S

    2008-01-01

    We study a Markov random process describing muscle molecular motor behaviour. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spends an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at a velocity proportional to the average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays in the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a nonlinear equation appearing in the limit of an infinite number of motors

  2. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  3. Motor performance in children with Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croonen, Ellen A; Essink, Marlou; van der Burgt, Ineke; Draaisma, Jos M; Noordam, Cees; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2017-09-01

    Although problems with motor performance in daily life are frequently mentioned in Noonan syndrome, the motor performance profile has never been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to examine whether a specific profile in motor performance in children with Noonan syndrome was seen using valid norm-referenced tests. The study assessed motor performance in 19 children with Noonan syndrome (12 females, mean age 9 years 4 months, range 6 years 1 month to 11 years and 11 months, SDS 1 year and 11 months). More than 60% of the parents of the children reported pain, decreased muscle strength, reduced endurance, and/or clumsiness in daily functioning. The mean standard scores on the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) test and Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, Dutch version (MABC-2-NL) items differed significantly from the reference scores. Grip strength, muscle force, and 6 min Walking Test (6 MWT) walking distance were significantly lower, and the presence of generalized hypermobility was significantly higher. All MABC-2-NL scores (except manual dexterity) correlated significantly with almost all muscle strength tests, VMI total score, and VMI visual perception score. The 6 MWT was only significantly correlated to grip strength. This is the first study that confirms that motor performance, strength, and endurance are significantly impaired in children with Noonan syndrome. Decreased functional motor performance seems to be related to decreased visual perception and reduced muscle strength. Research on causal relationships and the effectiveness of interventions is needed. Physical and/or occupational therapy guidance should be considered to enhance participation in daily life. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Creative Motor Actions As Emerging from Movement Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Dominic; van der Kamp, John; Memmert, Daniel; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2017-01-01

    In cognitive science, creative ideas are defined as original and feasible solutions in response to problems. A common proposal is that creative ideas are generated across dedicated cognitive pathways. Only after creative ideas have emerged, they can be enacted to solve the problem. We present an alternative viewpoint, based upon the dynamic systems approach to perception and action, that creative solutions emerge in the act rather than before . Creative actions, thus, are as much a product of individual constraints as they are of the task and environment constraints. Accordingly, we understand creative motor actions as functional movement patterns that are new to the individual and/or group and adapted to satisfy the constraints on the motor problem at hand. We argue that creative motor actions are promoted by practice interventions that promote exploration by manipulating constraints. Exploration enhances variability of functional movement patterns in terms of either coordination or control solutions. At both levels, creative motor actions can emerge from finding new and degenerate adaptive motor solutions. Generally speaking, we anticipate that in most cases, when exposed to variation in constraints, people are not looking for creative motor actions, but discover them while doing an effort to satisfy constraints. For future research, this paper achieves two important aspects: it delineates how adaptive (movement) variability is at the heart of (motor) creativity, and it sets out methodologies toward stimulating adaptive variability.

  5. Creative Motor Actions As Emerging from Movement Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Orth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive science, creative ideas are defined as original and feasible solutions in response to problems. A common proposal is that creative ideas are generated across dedicated cognitive pathways. Only after creative ideas have emerged, they can be enacted to solve the problem. We present an alternative viewpoint, based upon the dynamic systems approach to perception and action, that creative solutions emerge in the act rather than before. Creative actions, thus, are as much a product of individual constraints as they are of the task and environment constraints. Accordingly, we understand creative motor actions as functional movement patterns that are new to the individual and/or group and adapted to satisfy the constraints on the motor problem at hand. We argue that creative motor actions are promoted by practice interventions that promote exploration by manipulating constraints. Exploration enhances variability of functional movement patterns in terms of either coordination or control solutions. At both levels, creative motor actions can emerge from finding new and degenerate adaptive motor solutions. Generally speaking, we anticipate that in most cases, when exposed to variation in constraints, people are not looking for creative motor actions, but discover them while doing an effort to satisfy constraints. For future research, this paper achieves two important aspects: it delineates how adaptive (movement variability is at the heart of (motor creativity, and it sets out methodologies toward stimulating adaptive variability.

  6. Motor life management at Gentilly 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazic, L.; Renaud, P.; Marcotte, P.

    2002-01-01

    Hydro Quebec's Gentilly 2 CANDU Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) located on the St. Lawrence River about 150 kms NE of Montreal Quebec Canada, is completing its second full decade of commercial operation. Since the original design life of 30 years is fast approaching, Hydro Quebec (HQ) is positioning itself proactively, to ensure plant operation for the original design life as well implementing a plant life management program to achieve a plant life extension to 50 years. All components in a nuclear plant are affected by ageing during the plant service life. This affects the availability, reliability, and safety of the plant operation and could affect the plant service life. However, if a life management program (LMP) is implemented; the ageing mechanisms can be understood and monitored, and their effects can be controlled and even mitigated. Among other vital equipment in the plant, the station motors are being examined to determine what has to be done to ensure that the motors do not contribute negatively to the plant operating plan. Gentilly 2 NPP has almost 900 motors of various configurations. Their size ranges from 0.1 HP to 9000 HP. A distribution of quantity at different horsepower levels is given. This paper will describe the plant's motor history, method of operation, and proposed future changes required to ensure effective life management of the motors. Up to the present time, Gentilly 2 NPP staff has had very good experience with plant motor operation and reliability. Nevertheless, indications from other industry motor experiences indicate that this favourable trend is unlikely to continue. A plant motor life management strategy as outlined in this paper, based on condition based maintenance in combination with traditional types of maintenance, can help to ensure protection against unexpected plant motor problems and help to ensure achievement of motor design life and beyond. Although nothing will ever replace a thorough visual inspection for discovering

  7. Fine motor deficiencies in children diagnosed as DCD based on poor grapho-motor ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Niemeijer, AS; van Galen, GP

    A sample of 125 children from grades 4 and 5 of two normal Dutch primary schools were investigated regarding the incidence of handwriting problems and other fine motor disabilities. Handwriting quality was assessed with the concise assessment method for children's handwriting (BHK) and the school

  8. A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an ''emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Republication of "Toward an Acceptable Definition of Emotional Disturbance"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algozzine, Bob; Schmid, Rex; Conners, Bob

    2017-01-01

    Most definitions of emotionally disturbed youngsters suggest that disturbances in the child's behavior patterns cause academic and social problems which affect the child and his peers. While the process of identification may be facilitated by operational criteria within a definition, these factors are noticeably absent from definitions of…

  10. Towards a Hierarchical Definition of Life, the Organism, and Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite hundreds of definitions, no consensus exists on a definition of life or on the closely related and problematic definitions of the organism and death. These problems retard practical and theoretical development in, for example, exobiology, artificial life, biology and evolution. This paper

  11. Reduced NAA in motor and non-motor brain regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, R R; Suhy, J; Schuff, N; Gelinas, D F; Miller, R G; Weiner, M W

    2004-09-01

    After replication of previous findings we aimed to: 1) determine if previously reported (1)H MRSI differences between ALS patients and control subjects are limited to the motor cortex; and 2) determine the longitudinal metabolic changes corresponding to varying levels of diagnostic certainty. Twenty-one patients with possible/suspected ALS, 24 patients with probable/definite ALS and 17 control subjects underwent multislice (1)H MRSI co-registered with tissue-segmented MRI to obtain concentrations of the brain metabolites N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine, and choline in the left and right motor cortex and in gray matter and white matter of non-motor regions in the brain. In the more affected hemisphere, reductions in the ratios, NAA/Cho and NAA/Cre+Cho were observed both within (12.6% and 9.5% respectively) and outside (9.2% and 7.3% respectively) the motor cortex in probable/definite ALS. However, these reductions were significantly greater within the motor cortex (PNAA/Cho and PNAA/Cre+Cho). Longitudinal changes in NAA were observed at three months within the motor cortex of both possible/suspected ALS patients (PNAA ratios are reduced in the motor cortex and outside the motor cortex in ALS, suggesting widespread neuronal injury. Longitudinal changes of NAA are not reliable, suggesting that NAA may not be a useful surrogate marker for treatment trials.

  12. The roles of the olivocerebellar pathway in motor learning and motor control. A consensus paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Eric J.; Apps, Richard; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Cerminara, Nadia L.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Ebner, Timothy J.; Heck, Detlef H.; Jaeger, Dieter; Jörntell, Henrik; Kawato, Mitsuo; Otis, Thomas S.; Ozyildirim, Ozgecan; Popa, Laurentiu S.; Reeves, Alexander M.B.; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Sugihara, Izumi; Xiao, Jianqiang

    2016-01-01

    For many decades the predominant view in the cerebellar field has been that the olivocerebellar system's primary function is to induce plasticity in the cerebellar cortex, specifically, at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse. However, it has also long been proposed that the olivocerebellar system participates directly in motor control by helping to shape ongoing motor commands being issued by the cerebellum. Evidence consistent with both hypotheses exists; however, they are often investigated as mutually exclusive alternatives. In contrast, here we take the perspective that the olivocerebellar system can contribute to both the motor learning and motor control functions of the cerebellum, and might also play a role in development. We then consider the potential problems and benefits of its having multiple functions. Moreover, we discuss how its distinctive characteristics (e.g., low firing rates, synchronization, variable complex spike waveform) make it more or less suitable for one or the other of these functions, and why its having a dual role makes sense from an evolutionary perspective. We did not attempt to reach a consensus on the specific role(s) the olivocerebellar system plays in different types of movements, as that will ultimately be determined experimentally; however, collectively, the various contributions highlight the flexibility of the olivocerebellar system, and thereby suggest it has the potential to act in both the motor learning and motor control functions of the cerebellum. PMID:27193702

  13. Evaluating the importance of social motor synchronization and motor skill for understanding autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Romero, Veronica; Amaral, Joseph L; Duncan, Amie; Barnard, Holly; Richardson, Michael J; Schmidt, R C

    2017-10-01

    Impairments in social interaction and communicating with others are core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the specific processes underlying such social competence impairments are not well understood. An important key for increasing our understanding of ASD-specific social deficits may lie with the social motor synchronization that takes place when we implicitly coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we tested whether dynamical measures of synchronization differentiate children with ASD from controls and further explored the relationships between synchronization ability and motor control problems. We found (a) that children with ASD exhibited different and less stable patterns of social synchronization ability than controls; (b) children with ASD performed motor movements that were slower and more variable in both spacing and timing; and (c) some social synchronization that involved motor timing was related to motor ability but less rhythmic synchronization was not. These findings raise the possibility that objective dynamical measures of synchronization ability and motor skill could provide new insights into understanding the social deficits in ASD that could ultimately aid clinical diagnosis and prognosis. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1687-1699. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Flood-proof motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Marcus [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Even before the Fukushima event occurred some German nuclear power plants (NPP) have considered flooding scenarios. As a result of one of these studies, AREVA performed an upgrade project in NPP Isar 1 with flood-proof motors as a replacement of existing air-cooled low-voltage and high-voltage motors of the emergency cooling chain. After the Fukushima event, in which the cooling chains failed, the topic flood-proof equipment gets more and more into focus. This compact will introduce different kinds of flood-proof electrical motors which are currently installed or planned for installation into NPPs over the world. Moreover the process of qualification, as it was performed during the project in NPP Isar 1, will be shown. (orig.)

  15. Advanced AC Motor Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierkowski, M.P. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a review of control methods for high performance PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives is presented. Starting from the description of an induction motor by the help of the space vectors, three basic control strategic are discussed. As first, the most popular Field Oriented Control (FOC) is described. Secondly, the Direct Torque and Flux vector Control (DTFC) method, which - in contrast to FOC - depart from idea of coordinate transformation and analogy with DC motor, is briefly characterized. The last group is based on Feedback Linearization Control (FLC) and can be easy combined with sliding mode control. The simulation and experimental oscillograms that illustrate the performance of the discussed control strategies are shown. (orig.) 35 refs.

  16. Flood-proof motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Even before the Fukushima event occurred some German nuclear power plants (NPP) have considered flooding scenarios. As a result of one of these studies, AREVA performed an upgrade project in NPP Isar 1 with flood-proof motors as a replacement of existing air-cooled low-voltage and high-voltage motors of the emergency cooling chain. After the Fukushima event, in which the cooling chains failed, the topic flood-proof equipment gets more and more into focus. This compact will introduce different kinds of flood-proof electrical motors which are currently installed or planned for installation into NPPs over the world. Moreover the process of qualification, as it was performed during the project in NPP Isar 1, will be shown. (orig.)

  17. 26 CFR 41.4482(b)-1 - Definition of taxable gross weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(b)-1 Definition of taxable gross weight. (a) Actual unloaded weight—(1) In... general. The taxable gross weight of a highway motor vehicle is the sum of the actual unloaded weight of the vehicle fully equipped for service, the actual unloaded weight of any semitrailers or trailers...

  18. Solid rocket motor cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, A. G.; Raphael, L.; Warren, S.; Yakura, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    A systematic and standardized procedure for estimating life cycle costs of solid rocket motor booster configurations. The model consists of clearly defined cost categories and appropriate cost equations in which cost is related to program and hardware parameters. Cost estimating relationships are generally based on analogous experience. In this model the experience drawn on is from estimates prepared by the study contractors. Contractors' estimates are derived by means of engineering estimates for some predetermined level of detail of the SRM hardware and program functions of the system life cycle. This method is frequently referred to as bottom-up. A parametric cost analysis is a useful technique when rapid estimates are required. This is particularly true during the planning stages of a system when hardware designs and program definition are conceptual and constantly changing as the selection process, which includes cost comparisons or trade-offs, is performed. The use of cost estimating relationships also facilitates the performance of cost sensitivity studies in which relative and comparable cost comparisons are significant.

  19. Upper gastrointestinal sensory-motor dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Bo; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Ejskjaer, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) sensory-motor abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus and may involve any part of the GI tract. Abnormalities are frequently sub-clinical, and fortunately only rarely do severe and life-threatening problems occur. The pathogenesis of abnormal upper GI sensory-motor function in diabetes is incompletely understood and is most likely multi-factorial of origin. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy as well as acute suboptimal control of diabetes has been shown to impair GI motor and sensory function. Morphological and biomechanical remodeling of the GI wall develops during the duration of diabetes, and may contribute to motor and sensory dysfunction. In this review sensory and motility disorders of the upper GI tract in diabetes is discussed; and the morphological changes and biomechanical remodeling related to the sensory-motor dysfunction is also addressed. PMID:16718808

  20. Obesity Reduces Cognitive and Motor Functions across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanming; Chan, John S. Y.; Ren, Lijie; Yan, Jin H.

    2016-01-01

    Due to a sedentary lifestyle, more and more people are becoming obese nowadays. In addition to health-related problems, obesity can also impair cognition and motor performance. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Many factors, such as insulin/leptin dysregulation and inflammation, mediate the effect of obesity and cognition and motor behaviors. Substantial evidence has suggested exercise to be an effective way to improve obesity and related cognitive and motor dysfunctions. This paper aims to discuss the association of obesity with cognition and motor behaviors and its underlying mechanisms. Following this, mechanisms of exercise to improve obesity-related dysfunctions are described. Finally, implications and future research direction are raised. PMID:26881095

  1. Obesity Reduces Cognitive and Motor Functions across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanming; Chan, John S Y; Ren, Lijie; Yan, Jin H

    2016-01-01

    Due to a sedentary lifestyle, more and more people are becoming obese nowadays. In addition to health-related problems, obesity can also impair cognition and motor performance. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Many factors, such as insulin/leptin dysregulation and inflammation, mediate the effect of obesity and cognition and motor behaviors. Substantial evidence has suggested exercise to be an effective way to improve obesity and related cognitive and motor dysfunctions. This paper aims to discuss the association of obesity with cognition and motor behaviors and its underlying mechanisms. Following this, mechanisms of exercise to improve obesity-related dysfunctions are described. Finally, implications and future research direction are raised.

  2. Obesity Reduces Cognitive and Motor Functions across the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanming Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to a sedentary lifestyle, more and more people are becoming obese nowadays. In addition to health-related problems, obesity can also impair cognition and motor performance. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Many factors, such as insulin/leptin dysregulation and inflammation, mediate the effect of obesity and cognition and motor behaviors. Substantial evidence has suggested exercise to be an effective way to improve obesity and related cognitive and motor dysfunctions. This paper aims to discuss the association of obesity with cognition and motor behaviors and its underlying mechanisms. Following this, mechanisms of exercise to improve obesity-related dysfunctions are described. Finally, implications and future research direction are raised.

  3. A simplified tether model for molecular motor transporting cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang-Zhen, Li; Li-Chun, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Molecular motors are proteins or protein complexes which function as transporting engines in biological cells. This paper models the tether between motor and its cargo as a symmetric linear potential. Different from Elston and Peskin's work for which performance of the system was discussed only in some limiting cases, this study produces analytic solutions of the problem for general cases by simplifying the transport system into two physical states, which makes it possible to discuss the dynamics of the motor–cargo system in detail. It turns out that the tether strength between motor and cargo should be greater than a threshold or the motor will fail to transport the cargo, which was not discussed by former researchers yet. Value of the threshold depends on the diffusion coefficients of cargo and motor and also on the strength of the Brownian ratchets dragging the system. The threshold approaches a finite constant when the strength of the ratchet tends to infinity. (general)

  4. Mechanical design of electric motors

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Rapid increases in energy consumption and emphasis on environmental protection have posed challenges for the motor industry, as has the design and manufacture of highly efficient, reliable, cost-effective, energy-saving, quiet, precisely controlled, and long-lasting electric motors.Suitable for motor designers, engineers, and manufacturers, as well as maintenance personnel, undergraduate and graduate students, and academic researchers, Mechanical Design of Electric Motors provides in-depth knowledge of state-of-the-art design methods and developments of electric motors. From motor classificati

  5. Transformers and motors

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, George

    1991-01-01

    Transformers and Motors is an in-depth technical reference which was originally written for the National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee to train apprentice and journeymen electricians. This book provides detailed information for equipment installation and covers equipment maintenance and repair. The book also includes troubleshooting and replacement guidelines, and it contains a minimum of theory and math.In this easy-to-understand, practical sourcebook, you'll discover:* Explanations of the fundamental concepts of transformers and motors* Transformer connections and d

  6. Linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  7. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. We differ from other animals in having direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  8. Electrodynamic ratchet motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jiufu; Sader, John E; Mulvaney, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Brownian ratchets produce directed motion through rectification of thermal fluctuations and have been used for separation processes and colloidal transport. We propose a flashing ratchet motor that enables the transduction of electrical energy into rotary micromechanical work. This is achieved through torque generation provided by boundary shaping of equipotential surfaces. The present device contrasts to previous implementations that focus on translational motion. Stochastic simulations elucidate the performance characteristics of this device as a function of its geometry. Miniaturization to nanoscale dimensions yields rotational speeds in excess of 1 kHz, which is comparable to biomolecular motors of similar size.

  9. Tribodynamic Modeling of Digital Fluid Power Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per

    . In fluid power motoring and pumping units, a significant problem is that loss mechanisms do not scale down with diminishing power throughput. Although machines can reach peak efficiencies above 95%, the actual efficiency during operation, which includes part-load situations, is much lower. The invention...... of digital fluid power displacement units has been able to address this problem. The main idea of the digital fluid power displacement technology is to disable individual chambers, by use of electrical actuated valves. A displacement chamber is disabled by keeping the valve, between the chamber and the low...... design methods and tools are important to the development of digital fluid power machines. The work presented in this dissertation is part of a research program focusing on the development of digital fluid power MW-motors for use in hydraulic drive train in wind turbines. As part of this development...

  10. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  11. Research and simulation of the decoupling transformation in AC motor vector control

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Zhongjie; Liu, Ken; Zhang, Yongping; Yao, Tuozhong

    2018-04-01

    Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a nonlinear, strong coupling, multivariable complex object, and transformation decoupling can solve the coupling problem of permanent magnet synchronous motor. This paper gives a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) mathematical model, introduces the permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control coordinate transformation in the process of modal matrix inductance matrix transform through the matrix related knowledge of different coordinates of diagonalization, which makes the coupling between the independent, realize the control of motor current and excitation the torque current coupling separation, and derived the coordinate transformation matrix, the thought to solve the coupling problem of AC motor. Finally, in the Matlab/Simulink environment, through the establishment and combination between the PMSM ontology, coordinate conversion module, built the simulation model of permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control, introduces the model of each part, and analyzed the simulation results.

  12. The effect of induction motor shaft diameter on motor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Gökhan Yetgin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Induction motors are used in many areas from the past to the present and in different fields with the development of technology has continued to be used. It is obvious that induction motors as an improvement to the efficiency in terms of energy saving would cause great benefit. In that context, induction motor manufacturers and designers are constantly trying out new methods to improve motor performance and efficiency. In this study, what would be the optimum diameter of the shaft in order to increase the efficiency of the induction motor were investigated. In the study, 5.5 kW, 7.5 kW and 11 kW motors analyzes were also performed. Obtained shaft diameter values were compared with the manufacturer values. In addition, critical points such as the magnetic flux values, weight values and performances of the motors were examined and optimal shaft diameter values for each motor have been determined.

  13. PENINGKATAN AKTIFITAS DAN HASIL BELAJAR DENGAN METODE PROBLEM BASIC LEARNING (PBL PADA MATA PELAJARAN TUNE UP MOTOR BENSIN SISWA KELAS XI DI SMK INSAN CENDEKIA TURI SLEMAN TAHUN AJARAN 2015/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermawan Budi Santoso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know the increase of learning activityand result using Problem Based Learning in motorbike gasoline Tune-up lesson for students in grade XI SMK Insan Cendekia Sleman. This research is a kind of action research, which in the process applying the PBL method. This research has 4 steps, which are planning, application, observation and reflection. The observation of students activity in applying PBL learning is done by going to the class directly while the learning process is still ongoing. While, the result of student learning is measured by first assessment and final assessment. The result shows that after PBL method which is given to the students there is an increase of learning activity in amount 60%, while the increase of learning result in time of observation is approximately getting 6,5 for average mark First cycle, the average mark is 6,5, while for the second cycle 6,8 and 7,3 for third cycle. These evidences show PBL method application can increase the learning activity and result using Problem Based Learning in motorbike gasoline Tune-up lesson for students in grade XI SMK Insan Cendekia Sleman

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging applied to motor neuron disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarian, Maria F.; Villarroal, Gonzalo M.; Giavitto, Enrique; Nagel, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Differentiate Motor Neuron Disease by MRI. Material and Methods: 10 patients were studied, 7 patients had a diagnosis of definite ALS by the El Escorial criteria, 2 patients had lower motor neuron signs (LMN) and hyperreflexia and one patient had LMN signs without pain. MRI was performed: slices brain: Sagittal T1-weighted, sagittal and axial FSE T2, axial and coronal FLAIR, diffusion, singlevoxel spectroscopy in protuberances. Functional MRI with motor test; slices in cervical spine: Sagittal T1-weighted, sagittal and axial FSE T2, sagittal FSIR. Results: The 7 patients with definite ALS by El Escorial criteria and 2 patients with LMN signs and hyperreflexia: hyperintensity signal in FSE T2 and FLAIR extending from the motor cortex down to the corona radiate, posterior limb of internal capsules, cerebral peduncles and protuberance base; FSE T2: hypointensity sign in motor cortex; elevation in diffusivity and hyperintensity signal in ADC in posterior limb of internal capsule; reduction of NAA, high levels of Glutamine-Glutamate and of Colina. One of these 9 patients showed disc hernia in C4-5, and other patient in C3-C4, C4-C5 without cord lesion. The patient with LMN signs without pain showed normal brain and disc hernia C5-C6, hypertrophy yellow ligament, anterior-posterior diminution of medullar canal, hyperintensity signal in spine cord in the same level in sagittal FSIR. fMRI: increase signal in contralateral, ipsilateral motor area, and areas involved in initiation and planning movement. Conclusion: MRI allow differentiation between ALS and myelopathy cervical spondylitis and others motor neuron disease. (author) [es

  15. Classification of esophageal motor findings in gastro-esophageal reflux disease: Conclusions from an international consensus group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyawali, C. P.; Roman, S.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Fox, M.; Keller, J.; Pandolfino, J. E.; Sifrim, D.; Tatum, R.; Yadlapati, R.; Savarino, E.; Azpiroz, Fernando; Babaei, Arash; Bhatia, Shobna; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Bor, Serhat; Carlson, Dustin; Castell, Donald; Cicala, Michele; Clarke, John; de Bortoli, Nicola; Drug, Vasile; Frazzoni, Marzio; Holloway, Richard; Kahrilas, Peter; Kandulski, Arne; Katz, Phil; Katzka, David; Mittal, Ravinder; Mion, Francois; Novais, Luis; Patel, Amit; Penagini, Roberto; Ribolsi, Mentore; Richter, Joel; Salvador, Renato; Savarino, Vincenzo; Serra, Jordi; Schnoll-Sussman, Felice; Smout, Andre; Soffer, Edy; Sweis, Rami; Tack, Jan; Tolone, Salvatore; Tutuian, Radu; Vaezi, Michael; Vela, Marcelo; Woodland, Philip; Wu, Justin; Xiao, Yinglian; Zerbib, Frank

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundHigh-resolution manometry (HRM) has resulted in new revelations regarding the pathophysiology of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The impact of new HRM motor paradigms on reflux burden needs further definition, leading to a modern approach to motor testing in GERD. MethodsFocused

  16. HTSL massive motor. Project: Motor field calculation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutt, H.J.; Gruener, A.

    2003-01-01

    HTS motors up to 300 kW were to be developed and optimized. For this, specific calculation methods were enhanced to include superconducting rotor types (hysteresis, reluctance and permanent magnet HTS rotors). The experiments were carried out in a SHM70-45 hysteresis motor. It was shown how static and dynamic trapped field magnetisation of the rotor with YBCO rings will increase flux in the air gap motor, increasing the motor capacity to twice its original level. (orig.) [de

  17. [Population problem, comprehension problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, F

    1993-08-01

    Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur

  18. Effect of different methods of pulse width modulation on power losses in an induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, Alexander; Fokin, Dmitrii; Shuharev, Sergey; Ten, Evgenii

    2017-10-01

    We consider the calculation of modulation power losses in a system “induction motor-inverter” for various pulse width modulation (PWM) methods of the supply voltage. Presented values of modulation power losses are the result of modeling a system “DC link - two-level three-phase voltage inverter - induction motor - load”. In this study the power losses in a system “induction motor - inverter” are computed, as well as losses caused by higher harmonics of PWM supply voltage, followed by definition of active power consumed by the DC link for a specified value mechanical power on the induction motor shaft. Mechanical power was determined by the rotation speed and the torque on the motor shaft in various quasi-sinusoidal supply voltage PWM modes. These calculations reveal the best coefficient of performance (COP) in a system of a variable frequency drive (VFD) with independent voltage inverter controlled by induction motor PWM.

  19. Spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibali, Martha W; Spencer, Robert C; Knox, Lucy; Kita, Sotaro

    2011-09-01

    Do gestures merely reflect problem-solving processes, or do they play a functional role in problem solving? We hypothesized that gestures highlight and structure perceptual-motor information, and thereby make such information more likely to be used in problem solving. Participants in two experiments solved problems requiring the prediction of gear movement, either with gesture allowed or with gesture prohibited. Such problems can be correctly solved using either a perceptual-motor strategy (simulation of gear movements) or an abstract strategy (the parity strategy). Participants in the gesture-allowed condition were more likely to use perceptual-motor strategies than were participants in the gesture-prohibited condition. Gesture promoted use of perceptual-motor strategies both for participants who talked aloud while solving the problems (Experiment 1) and for participants who solved the problems silently (Experiment 2). Thus, spontaneous gestures influence strategy choices in problem solving.

  20. Stepping Motor - Hydraulic Motor Servo Drives for an NC Milling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the retrofit design of the control system of an NC milling machine with a stepping motor and stepping motor - actuated hydraulic motor servo mechanism on the machines X-axis is described. The servo designed in the course of this study was tested practically and shown to be linear - the velocity following errors ...

  1. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  2. Reciprocating Linear Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Features include structural simplicity and good force/displacement characteristics. Reciprocating motor has simple, rugged construction, relatively low reciprocating weight, improved power delivery, and improved force control. Wear reduced by use of magnetic bearings. Intended to provide drivers for long-lived Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, concept has less exotic applications, such as fuel pumps.

  3. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  4. Motor Incoordination in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between motor performance, attention deficit, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity in 42 school-aged children with ADHD (36 males, 6 females; mean age 8 years 2 months; range 6-11 years was studied at National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

  5. Methylphenidate improves motor functions in children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iversen Synnøve

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study showed that a high percentage of children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD displayed a consistent pattern of motor function problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH on such motor performance in children with HKD Methods 25 drug-naïve boys, aged 8–12 yr with a HKD-F90.0 diagnosis, were randomly assigned into two groups within a double blind cross-over design, and tested with a motor assessment instrument, during MPH and placebo conditions. Results The percentage of MFNU scores in the sample indicating 'severe motor problems' ranged from 44–84%, typically over 60%. Highly significant improvements in motor performance were observed with MPH compared to baseline ratings on all the 17 subtests of the MFNU 1–2 hr after administration of MPH. There were no significant placebo effects. The motor improvement was consistent with improvement of clinical symptoms. Conclusion The study confirmed our prior clinical observations showing that children with ADHD typically demonstrate marked improvements of motor functions after a single dose of 10 mg MPH. The most pronounced positive MPH response was seen in subtests measuring either neuromotor inhibition, or heightened muscular tone in the gross movement muscles involved in maintaining the alignment and balance of the body. Introduction of MPH generally led to improved balance and a generally more coordinated and controlled body movement.

  6. Deafness and motor abilities level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zwierzchowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The audition injury hinders some motor motions and the organised coordination at the higher level and may be a cause of disturbances and disorder in some motor abilities adoption. It was assumed that deafness including its aetiology and injury mechanism may significantly influence the motor development of human being. The study aimed in checking if the deafness, as a result of various unfavourable factors, determines the motor development of children and youngsters. Consequently the dependency between qualitative features i.e.: signed motor level and aetiology, audition injury mechanism and the deafness degree was examined. The mechanism and aetiology of hearing correlated with the motor abilities displayed statistically significant dependencies in few motor trials only. Revealed correlations regarded mostly the coordination trials excluding the flexibility one. Statistically significant dependencies between the audition diminution and the motor abilities level were not found.

  7. A flight simulator control system using electric torque motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, R. O.; Wagner, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Control systems are required in flight simulators to provide representative stick and rudder pedal characteristics. A system has been developed that uses electric dc torque motors instead of the more common hydraulic actuators. The torque motor system overcomes certain disadvantages of hydraulic systems, such as high cost, high power consumption, noise, oil leaks, and safety problems. A description of the torque motor system is presented, including both electrical and mechanical design as well as performance characteristics. The system develops forces sufficiently high for most simulations, and is physically small and light enough to be used in most motion-base cockpits.

  8. AC electric motors control advanced design techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Giri, Fouad

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of AC motor control lies in the multivariable and nonlinear nature of AC machine dynamics. Recent advancements in control theory now make it possible to deal with long-standing problems in AC motors control. This text expertly draws on these developments to apply a wide range of model-based control designmethods to a variety of AC motors. Contributions from over thirty top researchers explain how modern control design methods can be used to achieve tight speed regulation, optimal energetic efficiency, and operation reliability and safety, by considering online state var

  9. MOTORIC STIMULATION RELATED TO FINE MOTORIC DEVELOPMENT ON CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  10. Microprocessor controller for stepping motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, B.G.; Thuot, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept for digital computer control of multiple stepping motors which operate in a severe electromagnetic pulse environment is presented. The motors position mirrors in the beam-alignment system of a 100-kJ CO 2 laser. An asynchronous communications channel of a computer is used to send coded messages, containing the motor address and stepping-command information, to the stepping-motor controller in a bit serial format over a fiber-optics communications link. The addressed controller responds by transmitting to the computer its address and other motor information, thus confirming the received message. Each controller is capable of controlling three stepping motors. The controller contains the fiber-optics interface, a microprocessor, and the stepping-motor driven circuits. The microprocessor program, which resides in an EPROM, decodes the received messages, transmits responses, performs the stepping-motor sequence logic, maintains motor-position information, and monitors the motor's reference switch. For multiple stepping-motor application, the controllers are connected in a daisy chain providing control of many motors from one asynchronous communications channel of the computer

  11. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niven, W.A.; Shikany, S.D.; Shira, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed

  12. Experiments with a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  13. Fundamental Principles underlying Motor Reflexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Zhou (Kuikui)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe cerebellum has been suggested to be involved in motor control ever since the early 19th century. The motor control ranges from timing and strength of simple reflexes to multiple joint/limb coordination and complex motor sequence acquisition. The current thesis discusses the

  14. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  15. Keeping Order: Motor-Car Regulation and the Defeat of Victoria's 1905 Motor-Car Bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Clapton

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the twentieth century some upper-class Victorians became motorists; consequently, for the first time ever, regulation and policing intersected with this class of society. By 1905 so many concerns had been raised about compromised public order and safety that the Victorian State Government attempted to implement a Motor Car Bill based on its English predecessor (1903. Wealthy motorists possessed power and influence, however, which contributed to the postponement of legislation until 1910. Additionally, parliamentarians were drawn from the same social class as motorists, and, in creating regulation, they were potentially regulating their peers, colleagues and friends. The private motor-car also brought with it new issues of civil liberty and responsibility. Finding a balance between the two continued to be a problem, as private transport gradually became affordable for middle- and working-class people, and both the number of regulations and the power of the motoring lobby increased.

  16. Segmented motor drive - with multi-phase induction motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Flemming Buus

    of the induction motor is set up. The model is able to calculate dynamical electric, magnetic and mechanic state variables, but initially it is used to calculate static characteristics in motors with different number of phases and different voltage supply shapes. This analysis show i.e. that the efficiency....... The multi-phase motor is selected for further analysis. The project is limited to examine if increasing the number of phases can improve the characteristics for induction motor drives. In the literature it is demonstrated that torque production in a six-phase motor can be increased, if a 3rd harmonic......This PhD project commences in modulation of motor drives, i.e. having the advantage of reducing the number of variants and improves the system reliability at error situations. Four different motor drive topologies with modular construction as common denominator are compared on a general level...

  17. Motor and sensory alalia: diagnostic difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Bobylova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alalia is a speech disorder that develops due to organic brain damage in children with normal hearing and intelligence during the first three year of life. Systemic speech underdevelopment in alalia is characterized by violations in the phonetic, phonemic, lexical, and grammatical structure. Patients with alalia can also have non-speech related impairments, including motor (impaired movement and coordination, sensory (impaired sensitivity and perception, and psychopathological disorders. There are three types of alalia: motor, sensory, and mixed. Children with motor alalia have expressive language disorders, speech praxis, poor speech fluency, impaired articulation, and other focal neurological symptoms; however, they understand speech directed to them. Patients with motor alalia are often left-handed. Regional slowing and epileptiform activity are often detected on their electroencephalogram.  Children with sensory alalia are characterized by poor speech understanding (despite normal hearing resulting in secondary underdevelopment of their own speech. These patients have problems with the analysis of sounds, including speech sounds (impaired speech gnosis, which prevents the development of association between the sound image and the object. Therefore, the child hears, but does not understand the speech directed at him/her (auditory agnosia. Differential diagnosis of alalia is challenging and may require several months of observation. It also implies the exclusion of hearing loss and mental disorders.

  18. Rotational flow in tapered slab rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Tony; Sams, Oliver C.; Majdalani, Joseph

    2006-10-01

    Internal flow modeling is a requisite for obtaining critical parameters in the design and fabrication of modern solid rocket motors. In this work, the analytical formulation of internal flows particular to motors with tapered sidewalls is pursued. The analysis employs the vorticity-streamfunction approach to treat this problem assuming steady, incompressible, inviscid, and nonreactive flow conditions. The resulting solution is rotational following the analyses presented by Culick for a cylindrical motor. In an extension to Culick's work, Clayton has recently managed to incorporate the effect of tapered walls. Here, an approach similar to that of Clayton is applied to a slab motor in which the chamber is modeled as a rectangular channel with tapered sidewalls. The solutions are shown to be reducible, at leading order, to Taylor's inviscid profile in a porous channel. The analysis also captures the generation of vorticity at the surface of the propellant and its transport along the streamlines. It is from the axial pressure gradient that the proper form of the vorticity is ascertained. Regular perturbations are then used to solve the vorticity equation that prescribes the mean flow motion. Subsequently, numerical simulations via a finite volume solver are carried out to gain further confidence in the analytical approximations. In illustrating the effects of the taper on flow conditions, comparisons of total pressure and velocity profiles in tapered and nontapered chambers are entertained. Finally, a comparison with the axisymmetric flow analog is presented.

  19. Variation in motor output and motor performance in a centrally generated motor pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Brian J.; Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) produce motor patterns that ultimately drive motor outputs. We studied how functional motor performance is achieved, specifically, whether the variation seen in motor patterns is reflected in motor performance and whether fictive motor patterns differ from those in vivo. We used the leech heartbeat system in which a bilaterally symmetrical CPG coordinates segmental heart motor neurons and two segmented heart tubes into two mutually exclusive coordination modes: rear-to-front peristaltic on one side and nearly synchronous on the other, with regular side-to-side switches. We assessed individual variability of the motor pattern and the beat pattern in vivo. To quantify the beat pattern we imaged intact adults. To quantify the phase relations between motor neurons and heart constrictions we recorded extracellularly from two heart motor neurons and movement from the corresponding heart segments in minimally dissected leeches. Variation in the motor pattern was reflected in motor performance only in the peristaltic mode, where larger intersegmental phase differences in the motor neurons resulted in larger phase differences between heart constrictions. Fictive motor patterns differed from those in vivo only in the synchronous mode, where intersegmental phase differences in vivo had a larger front-to-rear bias and were more constrained. Additionally, load-influenced constriction timing might explain the amplification of the phase differences between heart segments in the peristaltic mode and the higher variability in motor output due to body shape assumed in this soft-bodied animal. The motor pattern determines the beat pattern, peristaltic or synchronous, but heart mechanics influence the phase relations achieved. PMID:24717348

  20. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    OpenAIRE

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI; Jacob TSADO; Mark NWOHU; Usman Abraham USMAN; Odu Ayo IMORU

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The ma...

  1. Structural Analysis of the Support System for a Large Compressor Driven by a Synchronous Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    For economic reasons, the steam drive for a large compressor was replaced by a large synchronous electric motor. Due to the resulting large increase in mass and because the unit was mounted on a steel frame approximately 18 feet above ground level, it was deemed necessary to determine if a steady state or transient vibration problem existed. There was a definite possibility that a resonant or near resonant condition could be encountered. The ensuing analysis, which led to some structural changes as the analysis proceeded, did not reveal any major steady state vibration problems. However, the analysis did indicate that the system would go through several natural frequencies of the support structure during start-up and shutdown. This led to the development of special start-up and shutdown procedures to minimize the possibility of exciting any of the major structural modes. A coast-down could result in significant support structure and/or equipment damage, especially under certain circumstances. In any event, dynamic field tests verified the major analytical results. The unit has now been operating for over three years without any major vibration problems.

  2. Acute exercise improves motor memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Kasper Christen; Roig, Marc; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that a single bout of acute cardiovascular exercise improves motor skill learning through an optimization of long-term motor memory. Here we expand this previous finding, to explore potential exercise-related biomarkers and their association with measures of motor memory...... practice whereas lactate correlated with better retention 1 hour as well as 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Thus, improvements in motor skill acquisition and retention induced by acute cardiovascular exercise are associated with increased concentrations of biomarkers involved in memory and learning...... processes. More mechanistic studies are required to elucidate the specific role of each biomarker in the formation of motor memory....

  3. Speech Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Speech Problems What's in ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech and Language Disorders Stuttering is a problem that ...

  4. Motor learning and working memory in children born preterm: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Janssen, Anjo J W M; Steenbergen, Bert; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2012-04-01

    Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has never been reviewed. The goal of this review was to provide an overview of motor learning, visual working memory and the role of working memory on motor learning in preterm children. A systematic review conducted in four databases identified 38 relevant articles, which were evaluated for methodological quality. Only 4 of 38 articles discussed motor learning in preterm children. Thirty-four studies reported on visual working memory; preterm birth affected performance on visual working memory tests. Information regarding motor learning and the role of working memory on the different components of motor learning was not available. Future research should address this issue. Insight in the relation between motor learning and visual working memory may contribute to the development of evidence based intervention programs for children born preterm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Motor functions and adaptive behaviour in children with childhood apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tükel, Şermin; Björelius, Helena; Henningsson, Gunilla; McAllister, Anita; Eliasson, Ann Christin

    2015-01-01

    Undiagnosed motor and behavioural problems have been reported for children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). This study aims to understand the extent of these problems by determining the profile of and relationships between speech/non-speech oral, manual and overall body motor functions and adaptive behaviours in CAS. Eighteen children (five girls and 13 boys) with CAS, 4 years 4 months to 10 years 6 months old, participated in this study. The assessments used were the Verbal Motor Production Assessment for Children (VMPAC), Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2) and Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System (ABAS-II). Median result of speech/non-speech oral motor function was between -1 and -2 SD of the mean VMPAC norms. For BOT-2 and ABAS-II, the median result was between the mean and -1 SD of test norms. However, on an individual level, many children had co-occurring difficulties (below -1 SD of the mean) in overall and manual motor functions and in adaptive behaviour, despite few correlations between sub-tests. In addition to the impaired speech motor output, children displayed heterogeneous motor problems suggesting the presence of a global motor deficit. The complex relationship between motor functions and behaviour may partly explain the undiagnosed developmental difficulties in CAS.

  6. Hemiequilibrium problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Noor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a new class of equilibrium problems, known as hemiequilibrium problems. Using the auxiliary principle technique, we suggest and analyze a class of iterative algorithms for solving hemiequilibrium problems, the convergence of which requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity. As a special case, we obtain a new method for hemivariational inequalities. Since hemiequilibrium problems include hemivariational inequalities and equilibrium problems as special cases, the results proved in this paper still hold for these problems.

  7. Dynamically Timed Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Ann M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A brushless DC motor including a housing having an end cap secured thereto. The housing encloses a rotor. a stator and a rotationally displaceable commutation board having sensors secured thereon and spaced around the periphery of the rotor. An external rotational force is applied to the commutation board for displacement of the sensors to various positions whereby varying feedback signals are generated by the positioning of the sensors relative to the rotating rotor. The commutation board is secured in a fixed position in response to feedback signals indicative of optimum sensor position being determined. The rotation of the commutation board and the securing of the sensors in the desired fixed position is accomplished without requiring the removal of the end cap and with the DC motor operating.

  8. TFTR Motor Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Bronner, G.; Horton, M.

    1977-01-01

    A general description is given of 475 MVA pulsed motor generators for TFTR at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Two identical generators operating in parallel are capable of supplying 950 MVA for an equivalent square pulse of 6.77 seconds and 4,500 MJ at 0.7 power factor to provide the energy for the pulsed electrical coils and heating system for TFTR. The description includes the operational features of the 15,000 HP wound rotor motors driving each generator with its starting equipment and cycloconverter for controlling speed, power factor, and regulating line voltage during load pulsing where the generator speed changes from 87.5 to 60 Hz frequency variation to provide the 4,500 MJ or energy. The special design characteristics such as fatigue stress calculations for 10 6 cycles of operation, forcing factor on exciter to provide regulation, and low generator impedance are reviewed

  9. Libert-E Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieloff, Susan F.; Kinnunen, Raymond; Chevarley, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Kei Yun Wong has big dreams. She has been entrusted with the United States launch of Libert-E Motor, a new line of Chinese-manufactured electric scooters. With only $750,000 of her original budget of $3 million left, she needs to make sure that the launch succeeds, as it represents the initial step in her desire to create the first Chinese global…

  10. 350 KVA motor generators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Each logic circuit in the central computers consumes only a fraction of a watt: however, the final load constituted by many such circuits plus peripheral equipment is nearly half a million watts. Shown here are two 350 KVA motor generators used to convert 50 Hz mains to 60 Hz (US standard). Flywheels on the M.G. shafts remove power dropouts of up to 0.5 s.

  11. Precise derating of three phase induction motors with unbalanced voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, Jawad; Ebrahimpour, H.

    2007-01-01

    Performance analysis of three phase induction motors under supply voltage unbalance conditions is normally conducted using the well-known symmetrical components analysis. In this analysis, the voltage unbalance level at the terminals of the machine is assessed by means of the NEMA or IEC definitions. Both definitions lead to a relatively large error in predicting the performance of a machine. A method has recently been proposed in which, in addition to the voltage unbalance factor (VUF), the phase angle has been taken into account in the analysis. This means that the voltage unbalance factor is regarded as a complex value. This paper shows that although the use of the complex VUF reduces the computational error considerably, it is still high. This is proven by evaluating the derating factor of a three phase induction motor. A method is introduced to determine the derating factor precisely using the complex unbalance factor for an induction motor operating under any unbalanced supply condition. A practical case for derating of a typical three phase squirrel cage induction motor supplied by an unbalanced voltage is studied in the paper

  12. Development of Motor-Life-Skills: Variations in Children at Risk for Motor Difficulties from the Toddler Age to Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Thomas; Reikerås, Elin; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2018-01-01

    This article explores variations in development of everyday motor-life-skills in 661 children (329 girls and 332 boys) in Norwegian kindergartens of ages 2:9 (T1) and 4:9 (T2) years:months. The particular focus is on children at risk for problems in motor development (the 10% weakest children in the sample). The methodological approach chosen is…

  13. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  14. Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines why the definition of fuel poverty is important in policy formulation and describes how the Government's current definitions evolved from the original concept. It discusses the determination of income and fuel costs and the possibilities for a relative and common European measure. It examines problems inherent in assessing fuel costs as a percentage of income and puts forward the arguments for a ‘budget standard’ approach. The paper illustrates how the size of the problem depends on the definition and chosen threshold and suggests advantages for a rating scale. It illustrates how the income composition and thresholds also govern the distribution of the target populations and the relative importance of the main causal factors, and examines the consequent policy implications. It explores the definition of vulnerable households and the importance of severity and questions whether the UK fuel poverty strategy is targeted at households least able to afford their fuel costs (as the name implies) or primarily those at risk from excess winter and summer mortality and morbidity. Finally, after examining the role of supplementary indicators, it looks at the opportunities for changing the definition and comments on the Government review of the definition and targets. - Highlights: ► There are major failings in the existing official definitions of fuel poverty. ► expressing fuel costs as a percentage of income is a poor indicator of fuel poverty. ► A budget standard approach provides a more consistent, meaningful and fairer measure. ► The scale and nature of the problem changes dramatically with different definitions. ► The definition is crucial to the mix of policies and allocation of resources required.

  15. A standardized motor imagery introduction program (MIIP) for neuro-rehabilitation: development and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Christine eWondrusch; Corina eSchuster; Corina eSchuster

    2013-01-01

    Background: For patients with central nervous system lesions and sensorimotor impairments a solid motor imagery (MI) introduction is crucial to understand and use MI to improve motor performance. The study’s aim was to develop and evaluate a standardized MI group introduction program (MIIP) for patients after stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and traumatic brain injury. Methods:Phase 1: Based on literature a MIIP was developed comprising MI theory (definition, type, mode, persp...

  16. Diagnosing MOV problems using comparative trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of comparative trace analysis and shows it to be very effective in diagnosing motor operated valve (MOV) problems. Comparative trace analysis is simply the process of interpreting simultaneously gathered traces, each presenting a different perspective on the same series of events. The opening and closing of a motor operated valve is such a series of events. The simultaneous traces are obtained using Liberty Technologies' Valve Operation Test and Evaluation System (VOTES)reg-sign. The traces include stem thrust, motor current, motor power factor, motor power, switch actuations, vibration in three different frequency bands, spring pack displacement, and spring pack force. Spare and auxiliary channels enable additional key parameters to be measured, such as differential pressure and stem displacement. Though not specifically illustrated in this paper, the VOTES system also provides for FFT analysis on all traces except switches

  17. 76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 3... Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... motors and small electric motors, clarify the scope of energy conservation standards for electric motors...

  18. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control centers. (a) General. The enclosure for each motor controller or motor-control...

  19. Imagining is Not Doing but Involves Specific Motor Commands: A Review of Experimental Data Related to Motor Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Aymeric; Di Rienzo, Franck; Macintyre, Tadhg; Moran, Aidan; Collet, Christian

    2012-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that motor imagery (MI) and actual movement share common neural substrate. However, the question of how MI inhibits the transmission of motor commands into the efferent pathways in order to prevent any movement is largely unresolved. Similarly, little is known about the nature of the electromyographic activity that is apparent during MI. In addressing these gaps in the literature, the present paper argues that MI includes motor execution commands for muscle contractions which are blocked at some level of the motor system by inhibitory mechanisms. We first assemble data from neuroimaging studies that demonstrate that the neural networks mediating MI and motor performance are not totally overlapping, thereby highlighting potential differences between MI and actual motor execution. We then review MI data indicating the presence of subliminal muscular activity reflecting the intrinsic characteristics of the motor command as well as increased corticomotor excitability. The third section not only considers the inhibitory mechanisms involved during MI but also examines how the brain resolves the problem of issuing the motor command for action while supervising motor inhibition when people engage in voluntary movement during MI. The last part of the paper draws on imagery research in clinical contexts to suggest that some patients move while imagining an action, although they are not aware of such movements. In particular, experimental data from amputees as well as from patients with Parkinson's disease are discussed. We also review recent studies based on comparing brain activity in tetraplegic patients with that from healthy matched controls that provide insights into inhibitory processes during MI. We conclude by arguing that based on available evidence, a multifactorial explanation of motor inhibition during MI is warranted.

  20. Imagining is not doing but involves specific motor commands: a review of experimental data related to motor inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric eGuillot

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is now compelling evidence that motor imagery (MI and actual movement share common neural substrate. However, the question of how MI inhibits the transmission of motor commands into the efferent pathways in order to prevent any movement is largely unresolved. Similarly, little is known about the nature of the electromyographic activity that is apparent during MI. In addressing these gaps in the literature, the present paper argues that MI includes motor execution commands for muscle contractions which are blocked at some level of the motor system by inhibitory mechanisms. We first assemble data from neuroimaging studies that demonstrate that the neural networks mediating MI and motor performance are not totally overlapping, thereby highlighting potential differences between MI and actual motor execution. We then review MI data indicating the presence of subliminal muscular activity reflecting the intrinsic characteristics of the motor command as well as increased corticomotor excitability. The third section not only considers the inhibitory mechanisms involved during MI but also examines how the brain resolves the problem of issuing the motor command for action while supervising motor inhibition when people engage in voluntary movement during MI. The last part of the paper draws on imagery research in clinical contexts to suggest that some patients move while imagining an action, although they are not aware of such movements. In particular, experimental data from amputees as well as from patients with Parkinson’s disease are discussed. We also review recent studies based on comparing brain activity in tetraplegic patients with that from healthy matched controls that provide insights into inhibitory processes during MI. We conclude by arguing that based on available evidence, a multifactorial explanation of motor inhibition during MI is warranted.

  1. Performance Comparison between a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and an Induction Motor as a Traction Motor for High Speed Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Minoru; Kawamura, Junya; Terauchi, Nobuo

    Performance tests are carried out to demonstrate the superiority of a permanent magnet synchronous motor to an induction motor as a traction motor for high-speed train. A prototype motor was manufactured by replacing the rotor of a conventional induction motor. The test results show that the permanent magnet motor is lighter, efficient and more silent than the induction motor because of the different rotor structure.

  2. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  3. NRC Information No. 88-12: Overgreasing of electric motor bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    NRC personnel observed accumulations of grease on the air vent screens of electric motors used for driving such rotating equipment as fans and pumps at the Millstone and Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plants. The grease appeared to have come from overgreasing of the electric motor bearings. Grease was forced out of the bearing seals, onto the stator windings and rotor, from where it either fell or was thrown onto the inside of the motor housing. Because of these observations, the NRC began an investigation into problems that have been caused in the past, or could be caused in the future, by the overgreasing of electric motor bearings. The NRC staff has solicited technical information and operating experience on the problems caused by the overgreasing of electric motor bearings from motor and bearing manufacturers, as well as from other licensees. Their responses are summarized in this discussion

  4. Dynamics of the line-start reluctance motor with rotor made of SMC material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smółka Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Design and control of electric motors in such a way as to ensure the expected motor dynamics, are the problems studied for many years. Many researchers tried to solve this problem, for example by the design optimization or by the use of special control algorithms in electronic systems. In the case of low-power and fractional power motors, the manufacture cost of the final product is many times less than cost of electronic system powering them. The authors of this paper attempt to improve the dynamic of 120 W line-start synchronous reluctance motor, energized by 50 Hz mains (without any electronic systems. The authors seek a road enabling improvement of dynamics of the analyzed motor, by changing the shape and material of the rotor, in such a way to minimize the modification cost of the tools necessary for the motor production. After the initial selection, the analysis of four rotors having different tooth shapes, was conducted.

  5. Effects of 6 weeks motor-enrichment-intervention to improve math performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Jacob; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Lind, Rune Rasmussen

    al., 2015). We conducted a six-week cluster-randomized intervention study of motor-enriched mathematics for Danish schoolchildren (n= 148, age= 7.5 ± 0.02). We investigated whether low intensity motor activity congruently integrated during solving of math problems could enhance math performance....... Three groups were included: 1) Control group with normal math teaching, CON (used pencil, paper but refrained from additional motor activity). 2) Fine-motor-enriched-group, FM (motor-manipulating LEGO bricks integrated in the lessons). 3) Gross-motor-enriched-group, GM (full-body movements integrated...... in the lessons). In FM and GM, all math classes (six lessons pr. week) had motor activity integrated in the math lessons and the teachers of all groups followed a detailed description for the conduction of the lessons. This aimed at ensuring homogeneity between groups concerning the taught themes. The children...

  6. El problema del acto a partir de la metapsicología freudiana: mediación psíquica y derivación motora. // The problem of act from the freudian metapsychology perspective: psychic mediation and motor derivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Herr Rico Barbosa.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article was written as a result of a master research project (Rico, 2009, and it tackles the problem of the act from a wide metapsychological revision of Freud’s work. The author first analyses the bipartite model of psychic functioning found in “The Interpretation of dreams” (Freud, 1900. The text gathers together several arguments to justify a third dimension of psychic mediation operated by the motor derivation and, despite its indirect associative process exclusion, it is difficult to understand it from the elementary logic in which we find the direct psychic mediation. // En este artículo, que está inspirado en una investigación de maestría (Rico, 2009, se aborda el problema del acto a partir de una amplia revisión metapsicológica por la obra freudiana. Se inicia analizando el modelo bipartito de funcionamiento psíquico que se halla en “La interpretación de los sueños” (Freud, 1900. En el devenir del texto se reúnen argumentos para justificar una tercera modalidad de mediación psíquica que opera la derivación motora y que, aunque excluye el proceso asociativo indirecto, es difícil concebirla a partir de la lógica elemental en que se presenta la mediación psíquica directa.

  7. Control Of Stepper Motor Movement By DC Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayani, Didi; Margono; Indasah, Iin; Sugito

    2000-01-01

    Instrumentation for controlling the power of reactor of TRIGA Mark II uses the stepper motor to move the control rod of neutron absorbers. The direction and speed of control rod movement are determined by the polarity and the amplitude of DC voltage as an error signal that is the difference of set point of power and the power of being measured on the control system. The unit of stepper motor controller of reactor instrumentation of TRIGA Mark II uses patent module of trade Mark of Vexta, USA. In this chance, the electronic circuit is made to function as the control of stepper motor movement by using the DC voltage to anticipate the problem may be faced in case of repair and maintenance of reactor instrumentation. As a result of experiment, it is stated that the control of motor movement by using DC voltage is performed into 2 stages. First, by making the oscillator that is proportional to the positive DC voltage. Secondly, by making the translator to translate the oscillator signal to be a logic pattern for controlling the movement of stepper motor. Translator and motor driver are made by using the L297 and L298 as a pair of stepper motor controller of SGS T HOMSON

  8. An Element of Determinism in a Stochastic Flagellar Motor Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Altindal, Tuba; Wu, Xiao-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus uses a single polar flagellum to navigate in an aqueous environment. Similar to Escherichia coli cells, the polar flagellar motor has two states; when the motor is counter-clockwise, the cell swims forward and when the motor is clockwise, the cell swims backward. V. alginolyticus also incorporates a direction randomization step at the start of the forward swimming interval by flicking its flagellum. To gain an understanding on how the polar flagellar motor switch is regulated, distributions of the forward Δf and backward Δb intervals are investigated herein. We found that the steady-state probability density functions, P(Δf) and P(Δb), of freely swimming bacteria are strongly peaked at a finite time, suggesting that the motor switch is not Poissonian. The short-time inhibition is sufficiently strong and long lasting, i.e., several hundred milliseconds for both intervals, which is readily observed and characterized. Treating motor reversal dynamics as a first-passage problem, which results from conformation fluctuations of the motor switch, we calculated P(Δf) and P(Δb) and found good agreement with the measurements.

  9. Neurons other than motor neurons in motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoli, Riccardo; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla L; Gaglione, Anderson; Ryskalin, Larisa; Gambardella, Stefano; Frati, Alessandro; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically defined by a loss of motor neurons in the central nervous system. Accordingly, morphological analysis for decades considered motor neurons (in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord) as the neuronal population selectively involved in ALS. Similarly, this was considered the pathological marker to score disease severity ex vivo both in patients and experimental models. However, the concept of non-autonomous motor neuron death was used recently to indicate the need for additional cell types to produce motor neuron death in ALS. This means that motor neuron loss occurs only when they are connected with other cell types. This concept originally emphasized the need for resident glia as well as non-resident inflammatory cells. Nowadays, the additional role of neurons other than motor neurons emerged in the scenario to induce non-autonomous motor neuron death. In fact, in ALS neurons diverse from motor neurons are involved. These cells play multiple roles in ALS: (i) they participate in the chain of events to produce motor neuron loss; (ii) they may even degenerate more than and before motor neurons. In the present manuscript evidence about multi-neuronal involvement in ALS patients and experimental models is discussed. Specific sub-classes of neurons in the whole spinal cord are reported either to degenerate or to trigger neuronal degeneration, thus portraying ALS as a whole spinal cord disorder rather than a disease affecting motor neurons solely. This is associated with a novel concept in motor neuron disease which recruits abnormal mechanisms of cell to cell communication.

  10. Comparison of capabilities of reluctance synchronous motor and induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumberger, Gorazd; Hadziselimovic, Miralem; Stumberger, Bojan; Miljavec, Damijan; Dolinar, Drago; Zagradisnik, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the capabilities of a reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with those of an induction motor (IM). An RSM and IM were designed and made, with the same rated power and speed. They differ only in the rotor portion while their stators, housings and cooling systems are identical. The capabilities of both motors in a variable speed drive are evaluated by comparison of the results obtained by magnetically nonlinear models and by measurements

  11. θ-convex nonlinear programming problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam, T.

    2008-01-01

    A class of sets and a class of functions called θ-convex sets and θ-convex functions are introduced by relaxing the definitions of convex sets and operator θ on the sets and domain of definition of the functions. The optimally results for θ-convex programming problems are established.

  12. The process model of problem solving difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pala, O.; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Vennix, J.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Groups and organizations, or in general multi-actor decision-making groups, frequently come across complex problems in which neither the problem definition nor the interrelations of parts that make up the problem are well defined. In these kinds of situations, members of a decision-making group

  13. Actual motor performance and self-perceived motor competence in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy siblings and peers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.A.; Hoog, M.L.A. de; Franke, B.; Faraone, S.V.; Lambregts-Rommelse, N.N.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: : Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience comorbid motor problems, developmental coordination disorder. Also, children with ADHD are said to overestimate their abilities in the cognitive and social domain, the so-called "Positive Illusory Bias."

  14. DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY OF MOTOR DISTURBANCES IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli VASILEVA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals uncommonly examined aspects concerning the specifics of the motor de­velopment in the children with autistic spectrum disorders and the problems regarding their diagnostics and the­ra­py. An analytical theory of the autistic disorders is des­cribed, connecting autism with disorders in the ba­sic levels of affective behavioral regulation. The re­port in­cludes a classification of the groups of autis­tic children, each of which demonstrates spe­ci­fic motor dysfunctions. Furthermore, the paper ana­ly­zes and recommends methodo­lo­gi­cal approaches to motor therapy which will help improve the de­ve­lop­ment of different motor skills.

  15. Musical Sounds, Motor Resonance, and Detectable Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Launay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the paradox that while human music making evolved and spread in an environment where it could only occur in groups, it is now often apparently an enjoyable asocial phenomenon. Here I argue that music is, by definition, sound that we believe has been in some way organized by a human agent, meaning that listening to any musical sounds can be a social experience. There are a number of distinct mechanisms by which we might associate musical sound with agency. While some of these mechanisms involve learning motor associations with that sound, it is also possible to have a more direct relationship from musical sound to agency, and the relative importance of these potentially independent mechanisms should be further explored. Overall, I conclude that the apparent paradox of solipsistic musical engagement is in fact unproblematic, because the way that we perceive and experience musical sounds is inherently social.

  16. Explaining the Mind: Problems, Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2001-01-01

    The mind/body problem is the feeling/function problem: How and why do feeling systems feel? The problem is not just "hard" but insoluble (unless one is ready to resort to telekinetic dualism). Fortunately, the "easy" problems of cognitive science (such as the how and why of categorization and language) are not insoluble. Five books (by Damasio, Edelman/Tononi...

  17. Control of synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous motors are indubitably the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. Their control law is thus critical for combining at the same time high productivity to reduced energy consummation. As far as possible, the control algorithms must exploit the properties of these actuators. Therefore, this work draws on well adapted models resulting from the Park's transformation, for both the most traditional machines with sinusoidal field distribution and for machines with non-sinusoidal field distribution which are more and more used in

  18. Urogenital tuberculosis: definition and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchavenya, Ekaterina

    2014-10-01

    To improve the approach to the diagnosis and management of urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB), we need clear and unique classification. UGTB remains an important problem, especially in developing countries, but it is often an overlooked disease. As with any other infection, UGTB should be cured by antibacterial therapy, but because of late diagnosis it may often require surgery. Scientific literature dedicated to this problem was critically analyzed and juxtaposed with the author's own more than 30 years' experience in tuberculosis urology. The conception, terms and definition were consolidated into one system; classification stage by stage as well as complications are presented. Classification of any disease includes dispersion on forms and stages and exact definitions for each stage. Clinical features and symptoms significantly vary between different forms and stages of UGTB. A simple diagnostic algorithm was constructed. UGTB is multivariant disease and a standard unified approach to it is impossible. Clear definition as well as unique classification are necessary for real estimation of epidemiology and the optimization of therapy. The term 'UGTB' has insufficient information in order to estimate therapy, surgery and prognosis, or to evaluate the epidemiology.

  19. Problems in Bilingual Lexicography: Romance and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiezell, Richard John

    1975-01-01

    A bilingual dictionary must be more accurate in definitions than a monolingual. This paper touches on problems of transference between languages, linguistic "cannibalism," and lexical versus connotative meaning. (CK)

  20. Electric Motors for Vehicle Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This work is intended to contribute with knowledge to the area of electic motorsfor propulsion in the vehicle industry. This is done by first studying the differentelectric motors available, the motors suitable for vehicle propulsion are then dividedinto four different types to be studied separately. These four types are thedirect current, induction, permanent magnet and switched reluctance motors. Thedesign and construction are then studied to understand how the different typesdiffer from ea...

  1. High efficiency motor selection handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Litman, Todd; Douglass, John G.

    1990-10-01

    Substantial reductions in energy and operational costs can be achieved through the use of energy-efficient electric motors. A handbook was compiled to help industry identify opportunities for cost-effective application of these motors. It covers the economic and operational factors to be considered when motor purchase decisions are being made. Its audience includes plant managers, plant engineers, and others interested in energy management or preventative maintenance programs.

  2. Motor development of blind toddler

    OpenAIRE

    Likar, Petra

    2013-01-01

    For blind toddlers, development of motor skills enables possibilities for learning and exploring the environment. The purpose of this graduation thesis is to systematically mark the milestones in development of motor skills in blind toddlers, to establish different factors which affect this development, and to discover different ways for teachers for visually impaired and parents to encourage development of motor skills. It is typical of blind toddlers that they do not experience a wide varie...

  3. Motor fuel prices in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2014-01-01

    The world's most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsive to price increases caused by an increase in either pre-tax prices or taxes. Therefore, fuel market in Turkey is open to opportunistic behavior by firms (through excessive profits) and the government (through excessive taxes). Besides, the paper focuses on the impact of high motor fuel prices on road transport associated activities, including the pattern of passenger transportation, motorization rate, fuel use, total kilometers traveled and CO 2 emissions from road transportation. The impact of motor fuel prices on income distribution in Turkey and Turkish public opinion about high motor fuel prices are also among the subjects investigated in the course of the study. - Highlights: • The key issues (e.g. taxes) related to motor fuel prices in Turkey are explored. • Their impact on transport activities and income distribution is also investigated. • An econometric analysis is performed to estimate motor fuel demand in Turkey. • Motor fuel demand in Turkey is found to be quite inelastic. • Turkish fuel market is open to opportunistic behavior by firms and the government

  4. Altered neuronal activities in the motor cortex with impaired motor performance in adult rats observed after infusion of cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayani, R; Nalini, A; Rao Laxmi, T; Raju, T R

    2010-01-05

    Although definite evidences are available to state that, neuronal activity is a prime determinant of animal behavior, the specific relationship between local field potentials of the motor cortex after intervention with CSF from human patients and animal behavior have remained opaque. The present study has investigated whether cerebrospinal fluid from sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) patients could disrupt neuronal activity of the motor cortex, which could be associated with disturbances in the motor performance of adult rats. CSF from ALS patients (ALS-CSF) was infused into the lateral ventricle of Wistar rats. After 24h, the impact of ALS-CSF on the local field potentials (LFPs) of the motor cortex and on the motor behavior of animals were examined. The results indicate that ALS-CSF produced a bivariate distribution on the relative power values of the LFPs of the motor cortex 24h following infusion. However, the behavioral results did not show bimodality, instead showed consistent decrease in motor performance: on rotarod and grip strength meter. The neuronal activity of the motor cortex negatively correlated with the duration of ALS symptoms at the time of lumbar puncture. Although the effect of ALS-CSF was more pronounced at 24h following infusion, the changes observed in LFPs and motor performance appeared to revert to baseline values at later time points of testing. In the current study, we have shown that, ALS-CSF has the potential to perturb neuronal activity of the rat motor cortex which was associated with poor performance on motor function tests.

  5. Vibration monitoring and fault diagnostics of a 45 kW motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, T.; Ahmed, A.; Chohan, G.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Overheating, high noise and vibrations were observed in a 45 kW induction motor of a chilled water pump in an air conditioning plant. The vibration amplitudes along with phase angles were obtained with the help of a data collector. The vibration spectra obtained was further analyzed to diagnose the problem. The user had reported high vibrations in motor since the day of its installation. The frequency peaks and phase data has revealed the possibility of structural resonance, and misalignment in rotor bearing assembly. The problem of eccentric housing bore on non-drive end NDE that resulted in the misalignment of motor shaft in housing assembly. The spectra and phase data is presented and discussed to diagnose the motor problems. The re-monitoring of motor after rectification of manufacturing fault has confirmed the right diagnoses. (author)

  6. Motor of the future - superconducting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moen, Odd

    2001-01-01

    High-temperature superconductors count as the most innovative and future-oriented technology for electric motors. When these materials are used, the engine rating can be doubled and at the same time the losses halved while retaining the same size of construction. Siemens have recently developed a synchronous motor based on a high-temperature superconducting excitation winding. The rated power of the motor is 380 kW. The high-temperature superconductor that is used in this motor requires considerably less cooling outfit than low-temperature superconductors

  7. Gap junctions and motor behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The production of any motor behavior requires coordinated activity in motor neurons and premotor networks. In vertebrates, this coordination is often assumed to take place through chemical synapses. Here we review recent data suggesting that electrical gap-junction coupling plays an important role...... in coordinating and generating motor outputs in embryonic and early postnatal life. Considering the recent demonstration of a prevalent expression of gap-junction proteins and gap-junction structures in the adult mammalian spinal cord, we suggest that neuronal gap-junction coupling might also contribute...... to the production of motor behavior in adult mammals....

  8. Design of an HTS motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Hong, Z; Jiang, Q; Coombs, T A [Cambridge University engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yj222@cam.ac.uk

    2008-02-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) motor. The stator of the motor consists of six air cored HTS racetrack windings, together with an iron shield. The rotor is made of 80 superconducting YBCO pucks, which can be magnetized and equates to a four-pole permanent magnet. The whole HTS motor is cooled by liquid nitrogen to 77K, and acts as a permanent magnet synchronous motor with the power rate of 15.7 kW.

  9. Experiments with a dc motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the mechanical and electrical parameters of the motor is clearly seen. The measurements are carried out with the ScienceWorkshop data-acquisition system and the DataStudio software from PASCO scientific. The experiments are well related to university courses of electricity and magnetism and can be used in undergraduate laboratories or for lecture demonstrations.

  10. Harmonic modeling of induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedra, J.; Sainz, L.; Corcoles, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSEIB-UPC, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The paper proposes an induction motor model for the study of harmonic load flow in balanced and unbalanced conditions. The parameters of this model are obtained from motor manufacturer data and the positive- and negative-sequence equivalent circuits of the single- and double-cage models. An approximate harmonic model based on motor manufacturer data only is also proposed. In addition, the paper includes manufacturer data and the calculated parameters of 36 induction motors of different rated powers. This database is used to analyze the proposed models. (author)

  11. Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know the exact cause of your prostate problem. Prostatitis The cause of prostatitis depends on whether you ... prostate problem in men older than age 50. Prostatitis If you have a UTI, you may be ...

  12. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  13. Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning Problems KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning Problems What's in ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...

  14. Ankle Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Ankle ProblemsFollow this chart for more information about problems that can cause ankle pain. Our trusted Symptom Checker is written and ...

  15. Motor carrier evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, James

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ), Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the overall responsibility to provide a well-managed transportation program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The DOE-TMP has established an excellent safety record in the transportation of hazardous materials including radioactive materials and radioactive wastes. This safety record can be maintained only through continued diligence and sustained effort on the part of the DOE-TMP, its field offices, and the contractors' organizations. Key elements in the DOE'S effective hazardous and radioactive materials shipping program are (1) integrity of packages, (2) strict adherence to regulations and procedures, (3) trained personnel, (4) complete management support, and (5) use of the best commercial carriers. The DOE Motor Carrier Evaluation Program was developed to better define the criteria and methodology needed to identify motor carriers for use in the transportation of Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ), Truck Load (TL) quantities of radioactive materials, hazardous materials and waste. (author)

  16. Zenn Motor Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, I. [Zenn Motor Company, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Zenn Motor company is a leader in the electric vehicle space and builds and markets a low speed vehicle known as the zero emission, no noise (ZENN). This presentation provided background information on the Zenn Motor Company as well as on EEStor, a company that develops four-wheeled vehicles and that is seeking partners to fund the development for a modified barium titanate-based ultracapacitor. In 2004, ZENN entered into a technology agreement with EEStor that secured certain exclusive and non-exclusive rights to purchase and deploy EEStor's EESU technology as part of its ZENNergy solutions in several markets, including exclusive rights for new four-passenger vehicles with a curb weight of up to 1,400 kilograms; exclusive rights for the neighbourhood electric vehicles (NEV) and golf carts market; exclusive rights for utility vehicles; and exclusive rights for the aftermarket conversion to ZENNergy of any four-wheeled vehicles. The presentation also addressed ZENNergy and the art of integrating high energy drive solutions. Lessons learned and EEStor's technology attributes were discussed. A hypothetical case study was also offered. The presentation concluded with a discussion of EEStor technology status and opportunity horizons. It was concluded that a better battery is needed to enable the mass adoption of electric vehicles. tabs.

  17. Motor-operated valve (MOV) actuator motor and gearbox testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1997-07-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory tested the performance of electric motors and actuator gearboxes typical of the equipment installed on motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plants. Using a test stand that simulates valve closure loads against flow and pressure, the authors tested five electric motors (four ac and one dc) and three gearboxes at conditions a motor might experience in a power plant, including such off-normal conditions as operation at high temperature and reduced voltage. They also monitored the efficiency of the actuator gearbox. All five motors operated at or above their rated starting torque during tests at normal voltages and temperatures. For all five motors, actual torque losses due to voltage degradation were greater than the losses calculated by methods typically used for predicting motor torque at degraded voltage conditions. For the dc motor the actual torque losses due to elevated operating temperatures were greater than the losses calculated by the typical predictive method. The actual efficiencies of the actuator gearboxes were generally lower than the running efficiencies published by the manufacturer and were generally nearer the published pull-out efficiencies. Operation of the gearbox at elevated temperature did not affect the operating efficiency

  18. The Problem of Private Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Abdollahi

    2014-09-01

    This language is, according to Wittgenstein, impossible because it leads to epistemological and semantic skepticism. The definition of private language contains two elements: the “privacy” and “referring to”. Wittgenstein shows how we may be trapped in solipsism and the only way to avoid this problem is to consider language as a social phenomenon.

  19. Legislative virus in the system of the Criminal Code of Ukraine: definition and actualization of the problem on the example of Article 368-2 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Василь Миколайович Киричко

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article was first justified need for a scientific use of a term «legislative virus in the system of the Criminal Code of Ukraine» and its definition is provided. This virus is proposed to understand a legislative requirement, which, after its inclusion in the Criminal Code of Ukraine, interacting with other elements of the system, determines the content of the criminal law legalized the possibility of arbitrary violation of human rights at its application in practice. As an example, the presence of the virus in the Article 368-2 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine «Illegal enrichment» was detail analyzed, shown history of the emergence of the virus and its impact on the determination of the content of this Article and how it causes human rights violations in the application of this Article in practice. The search of the viruses in the system of the Criminal Code of Ukraine is recognized the urgent task for the science of criminal law. Fighting these viruses is one of the areas of implementation of the rule of law principle in criminal law of Ukraine.

  20. On the relationship between motor performance and executive functioning in children with intellectual disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Houwen, S.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have motor problems and higher-order cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to examine the motor skills and executive functions in school-age children with borderline and mild ID. The second aim was to

  1. On the relationship between motor performance and executive functioning in children with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Houwen, S.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    Background It has been suggested that children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have motor problems and higher-order cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to examine the motor skills and executive functions in school-age children with borderline and mild ID. The second aim was to

  2. Relationship between Motor Skill Competency and Executive Function in Children with Down's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, N.; Holfelder, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that children with Down's syndrome (DS), a genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, demonstrate motor problems and cognitive deficits. The first aim of this study was to examine motor skills and executive functions (EFs) in school-age children with DS. The second aim was to investigate the relationship…

  3. Motor and cognitive impairment after stroke : A common bond or a simultaneous deficit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraeten, S.M.M.; Mark, R.E.; Sitskoorn, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of both motor deficit and cognitive impairment after stroke is high and persistent. Motor impairment, especially paresis, is often ore obvious to both patients and their carers while cognitive problems can also have devastating effects on quality of life. The current

  4. Visual-Motor Integration in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, S. T.; Collin, P. J. L.; Hokken-Koelega, A. C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterised by hypotonia, hypogonadism, short stature, obesity, behavioural problems, intellectual disability, and delay in language, social and motor development. There is very limited knowledge about visual-motor integration in children with PWS. Method: Seventy-three children with PWS aged 7-17 years…

  5. Ecological units: definitions and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jax, Kurt

    2006-09-01

    Concepts of ecological units, such as population, community, and ecosystem, are at the basis of ecological theory and research and have increasingly become the focus of conservation strategies. Concepts of these units still suffer from inconsistencies and confusions over terminology. The different concepts are treated here together as a common "conceptual cluster," with similar ecological functions (roles) and similar problems in their definition and use. An analysis of the multitude of existing terms and concepts that have been developed for these units reveals that they differ with respect to at least four basic criteria: (i) the questions as to whether they are defined statistically or via a network of interactions; (ii) if their boundaries are drawn by topographical or process-related criteria; (iii) how high the required internal relationships are; and (iv) if they are perceived as "real" entities or abstractions by an observer The various definitions cannot be easily sorted into just a few types, but they can be characterized by several independent criteria. I argue that serious problems arise if the different possibilities of defining ecological units are not recognized and if the concepts are perceived as self-evident. The different concepts of ecological units should be defined and used in a philosophically informed manner I propose a dual approach to the use of ecological units. Generic meanings of the main concepts (especially population, community, and ecosystem) should be retained only as heuristically useful perspectives, while specific and "operational" definitions of the concepts as units should be developed, depending on specific purposes of their use. Some thoughts on the basic requirements for such definitions and the domains of their uses are briefly explained.

  6. High-Resolution 7T MR Imaging of the Motor Cortex in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosottini, M; Donatelli, G; Costagli, M; Caldarazzo Ienco, E; Frosini, D; Pesaresi, I; Biagi, L; Siciliano, G; Tosetti, M

    2016-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive motor neuron disorder that involves degeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons. In patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, pathologic studies and ex vivo high-resolution MR imaging at ultra-high field strength revealed the co-localization of iron and activated microglia distributed in the deep layers of the primary motor cortex. The aims of the study were to measure the cortical thickness and evaluate the distribution of iron-related signal changes in the primary motor cortex of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as possible in vivo biomarkers of upper motor neuron impairment. Twenty-two patients with definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 14 healthy subjects underwent a high-resolution 2D multiecho gradient-recalled sequence targeted on the primary motor cortex by using a 7T scanner. Image analysis consisted of the visual evaluation and quantitative measurement of signal intensity and cortical thickness of the primary motor cortex in patients and controls. Qualitative and quantitative MR imaging parameters were correlated with electrophysiologic and laboratory data and with clinical scores. Ultra-high field MR imaging revealed atrophy and signal hypointensity in the deep layers of the primary motor cortex of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with a diagnostic accuracy of 71%. Signal hypointensity of the deep layers of the primary motor cortex correlated with upper motor neuron impairment (r = -0.47; P amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Cortical thinning and signal hypointensity of the deep layers of the primary motor cortex could constitute a marker of upper motor neuron impairment in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  7. Design of a high-torque machine with two integrated motors axes reducing the electric vehicle consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chaieb

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The motorization of electric vehicle needs to work at a constant power on a wide range of speed. In order to be able to satisfy these requirements, we describe in this paper a solution, which consists in modifying of a simple structure of a permanent magnet motor by a double rotor structure integrating two motor axes into the same machine. This article describes, then, a design methodology of a permanent magnet motor with double rotor, radial flux, and strong starting torque for electric vehicles. This work consists on the analytical dimensioning of the motor by taking into account several operation constraints followed by a modelling by the finite elements method. This study is followed by the comparison between this motor and a motor with one rotor. A global model of the motor- converter is developed for the purpose to answer several optimisation problems

  8. Torque control for electric motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

  9. Open-Ended Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Mauri

    1975-01-01

    Presents complete instructions for assembling an electric motor which does not require large amounts of power to operate and which is inexpensive as well as reliable. Several open-ended experiments with the motor are included as well as information for obtaining a kit of parts and instructions. (BR)

  10. Genetic heterogeneity of motor neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansagi, Boglarka; Griffin, Helen; Whittaker, Roger G; Antoniadi, Thalia; Evangelista, Teresinha; Miller, James; Greenslade, Mark; Forester, Natalie; Duff, Jennifer; Bradshaw, Anna; Kleinle, Stephanie; Boczonadi, Veronika; Steele, Hannah; Ramesh, Venkateswaran; Franko, Edit; Pyle, Angela; Lochmüller, Hanns; Chinnery, Patrick F; Horvath, Rita

    2017-03-28

    To study the prevalence, molecular cause, and clinical presentation of hereditary motor neuropathies in a large cohort of patients from the North of England. Detailed neurologic and electrophysiologic assessments and next-generation panel testing or whole exome sequencing were performed in 105 patients with clinical symptoms of distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN, 64 patients), axonal motor neuropathy (motor Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease [CMT2], 16 patients), or complex neurologic disease predominantly affecting the motor nerves (hereditary motor neuropathy plus, 25 patients). The prevalence of dHMN is 2.14 affected individuals per 100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval 1.62-2.66) in the North of England. Causative mutations were identified in 26 out of 73 index patients (35.6%). The diagnostic rate in the dHMN subgroup was 32.5%, which is higher than previously reported (20%). We detected a significant defect of neuromuscular transmission in 7 cases and identified potentially causative mutations in 4 patients with multifocal demyelinating motor neuropathy. Many of the genes were shared between dHMN and motor CMT2, indicating identical disease mechanisms; therefore, we suggest changing the classification and including dHMN also as a subcategory of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Abnormal neuromuscular transmission in some genetic forms provides a treatable target to develop therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Energy-saving motor; Energiesparmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development and testing of an advanced electrical motor using a permanent-magnet rotor. The aims of the project - to study the technical feasibility and market potential of the Eco-Motor - are discussed and the three phases of the project described. These include the calculation and realisation of a 250-watt prototype operating at 230 V, the measurement of the motor's characteristics as well as those of a comparable asynchronous motor on the test bed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, and a market study to establish if the Eco-Motor and its controller can compete against normal asynchronous motors. Also, the results of an analysis of the energy-savings potential is made, should such Eco-Motors be used. Detailed results of the three phases of the project are presented and the prospects of producing such motors in Switzerland for home use as well as for export are examined.

  12. The confinement problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, E.

    1985-01-01

    Confinement of quarks is sometimes taken as some kind of dogma in the contemporary theory of strong interactions - quantum chromo-dynamics (QCD). Scientists should not be content with that. What is meant by ''permanent confinement'' should be formulated more precisely to see whether the theory has this property or not. The author looks at some possible interpretations of ''confinement'' and their shortcomings and then turns to the most widely used rather pragmatic definition based on the somewhat unphysical notion of infinitely heavy external sources. He describes what is known about the problem and tries to bring into focus some aspects that are insufficiently understood in his opinion

  13. 77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Final Rules #0;#0;Federal... Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... electric motors and small electric motors. That supplemental proposal, along with an earlier proposal from...

  14. Automatic Definition Extraction and Crossword Generation From Spanish News Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Esteche

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of a system that takes Spanish texts and generates crosswords (board and definitions in a fully automatic way using definitions extracted from those texts. Our solution divides the problem in two parts: a definition extraction module that applies pattern matching implemented in Python, and a crossword generation module that uses a greedy strategy implemented in Prolog. The system achieves 73% precision and builds crosswords similar to those built by humans.

  15. Fuzzy sliding mode controller for doubly fed induction motor speed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of the nonlinear fuzzy sliding mode method provides very good performance for motor operation and robustness of the control law despite the external/internal perturbations. The chattering effects is eliminated by a particular function "sat" that presents a serious problem to applications of variable structure systems.

  16. Resettable binary latch mechanism for use with paraffin linear motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Daryl; Tibbitts, Scott

    1991-01-01

    A new resettable Binary Latch Mechanism was developed utilizing a paraffin actuator as the motor. This linear actuator alternately latches between extended and retracted positions, maintaining either position with zero power consumption. The design evolution and kinematics of the latch mechanism are presented, as well as the development problems and lessons that were learned.

  17. Motor Development of Deaf Children with and without Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheysen, Freja; Loots, Gerrit; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a cochlear implant (CI) on the motor development of deaf children. The study involved 36 mainstreamed deaf children (15 boys, 21 girls; 4- to 12-years old) without any developmental problems. Of these children, 20 had been implanted. Forty-three hearing children constituted a comparison…

  18. Piezoelectric wave motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  19. Reciprocating linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  20. Stabilizing motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1935-07-12

    Motor fuel is stabilized by adding less than 2% of a tar fraction from peat, coal, torbanite or shale, said fraction containing sufficient constituents boiling between 200 and 325/sup 0/C, to inhibit gum formation. Low-temperature coal-tar fractions are specified. The preferred boiling ranges are from 225 or 250/sup 0/ to 275/sup 0/C. In examples, the quantity added was 0.01%. The fuel may be a cracked distillate of gasoline boiling-point range or containing gasoline, and may contain relatively large proportions of di- and tri-olefines. The material added to the fuel may be (1) the tar fraction itself; (2) its alkali-soluble constituents; (3) its acid-soluble constituents; (4) a mixture of (2) and (3); (5) a blend of (2), (3) or (4) with a normal tar fraction; (6) the residue after extraction with alkali; (7) the residue after extraction with acid and alkali.

  1. Sucker rod motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzalov, N N; Radzhabov, N A

    1983-01-01

    The motor consists of rollers mounted on the wellmouth and connected by a flexible rink. Reciprocating mechanism is in the form of a horizontal non-mobile single-side operation cylinder, inside which a plunger and rod are mounted. The working housing of the hydrocylinder is connected to a gas-hydr aulic batter, and when running is connected via plunger to the high pressure source; running in reverse it is connected with a safety valve and automatic control unit. The unit is equipped with a reducer and a mechanical transformer consisting of screw and nut, and which is shutoff with a single-side lining. The plunger rod consists of an auger-like unit. The high pressure source is provided by the injection line of the sucker rod that has been equipped with a reverse valve.

  2. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1996-12-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer.

  3. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer

  4. Motor-operator gearbox efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, we compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators we tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer

  5. Electric motors for use in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, T.U.D.; Mahmood, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements of electric motors for a nuclear plant and the effect of nuclear radiations on different parts of the motors are discussed. Feasibility of using locally-fabricated motors is also considered. (author)

  6. VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1984-09-01

    Sep 1, 1984 ... VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR by. L. A. Agu ... order as that of the screw-thread motor can be obtained. LIST OF .... The n stator have equal non- magnetic spacers .... induction motor. An.

  7. An approach to balance problems and falls in elderly persons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interpretation and weighting of sensory information and in motor output and coordination. Higherorder cortical processes linking motor and sensory systems are required for planning movements, solving problems, divided attention and environmental scanning and response.[5] Peripheral nerve conduction is slower, there is ...

  8. An Online Observer for Minimization of Pulsating Torque in SMPM Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roșca, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    A persistent problem of surface mounted permanent magnet (SMPM) motors is the non-uniformity of the developed torque. Either the motor design or the motor control needs to be improved in order to minimize the periodic disturbances. This paper proposes a new control technique for reducing periodic disturbances in permanent magnet (PM) electro-mechanical actuators, by advancing a new observer/estimator paradigm. A recursive estimation algorithm is implemented for online control. The compensating signal is identified and added as feedback to the control signal of the servo motor. Compensation is evaluated for different values of the input signal, to show robustness of the proposed method. PMID:27089182

  9. Acoustic noise simulation for switched reluctance motors with audible output p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, P.O.; Blaabjerg, F.; Pedersen, J.K.; Kjaer, P.C. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology (Denmark); Miller, T.J.E. [Univ. of Glasgow, SPEED Lab., Dep. of Electronics and Electrical Engineering (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    Acoustic noise in switched reluctance motors is one of the last problems which have to be solved before a more widespread use will come. In order to design a low noise Switched Reluctance Motor drive, simulation tools are needed, and this paper describes a design programme where acoustic noise of electromagnetic origin can be estimated and even be heard by the motor-designer. The design program is based on a new, simple developed vibrational and acoustic model where the parameters can be calculated based on the geometry of the motor. The vibrational and acoustic model is verified in both time and frequency domain where vibrations and acoustic noise have been considered. (au)

  10. Sociale problemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter Verner

    Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...... række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....

  11. Actions to promote energy efficient electric motors. Motors study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.T. de [Coimbra Univ. (PT). Inst. of Systems and Robotics (ISR)

    1996-10-01

    Motor electricity consumption is influenced by many factors including: motor efficiency, motor speed controls, power supply quality, harmonics, systems oversizing, distribution network, mechanical transmission system, maintenance practices, load management and cycling, and the efficiency of the end-use device (e.g. fan, pump, etc.). Due to their importance, an overview of these factors is presented in this report. This study also describes the electricity use in the industrial and tertiary sectors and the electricity consumption associated with the different types of electric motors systems in the Member States of the European Union, as well as estimated future evolution until 2010. The studies for individual countries were carried out by the different partners of the motors study group at a previous stage. The study has found that there is a lack of accurate information about the motor electricity consumption, installed motor capacity and the motor market in almost all the European Union countries and only some general statistical sources are available. There is little field data, which is mainly available in Denmark, France, Italy and the Netherlands. Due to this lack of primary information, some common assumptions were made, based on the experience of the members of the study group. This lack of end-use characterisation data shows the need for improvement from the point of view of current knowledge. It is therefore recommended that further research is undertaken to arrive at more accurate figures. These could be the basis for a better understanding for motor use in practice and - as a consequence - for a more precise appraisal of potentials and barriers to energy efficiency. (orig.)

  12. Definition of Videogames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Tavinor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Can videogames be defined? The new field of games studies has generated three somewhat competing models of videogaming that characterize games as new forms of gaming, narratives, and interactive fictions. When treated as necessary and sufficient condition definitions, however, each of the three approaches fails to pick out all and only videogames. In this paper I argue that looking more closely at the formal qualities of definition helps to set out the range of definitional options open to the games theorist. A disjunctive definition of videogaming seems the most appropriate of these definitional options. The disjunctive definition I offer here is motivated by the observation that there is more than one characteristic way of being a videogame.

  13. Competing definitions: a public policy analysis of the federal recreational fee demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. E. More

    2003-01-01

    Problem definition theory specifies that however controls the definition of a problem is in a unique position to control debate over the issue, influence others, and determine the problem's place on the agenda. This paper uses a rhetorical analysis and a questionnaire survey of congressional aides to examine the federal Recreational Fee Demonstration Program....

  14. Biophysics of filament length regulation by molecular motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, M D

    2013-01-01

    Regulating physical size is an essential problem that biological organisms must solve from the subcellular to the organismal scales, but it is not well understood what physical principles and mechanisms organisms use to sense and regulate their size. Any biophysical size-regulation scheme operates in a noisy environment and must be robust to other cellular dynamics and fluctuations. This work develops theory of filament length regulation inspired by recent experiments on kinesin-8 motor proteins, which move with directional bias on microtubule filaments and alter microtubule dynamics. Purified kinesin-8 motors can depolymerize chemically-stabilized microtubules. In the length-dependent depolymerization model, the rate of depolymerization tends to increase with filament length, because long filaments accumulate more motors at their tips and therefore shorten more quickly. When balanced with a constant filament growth rate, this mechanism can lead to a fixed polymer length. However, the mechanism by which kinesin-8 motors affect the length of dynamic microtubules in cells is less clear. We study the more biologically realistic problem of microtubule dynamic instability modulated by a motor-dependent increase in the filament catastrophe frequency. This leads to a significant decrease in the mean filament length and a narrowing of the filament length distribution. The results improve our understanding of the biophysics of length regulation in cells. (paper)

  15. Vibration analysis of the synchronous motor of a propane compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, D.; Rangel Junior, J. de S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. - PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: diananogueira@petrobras.com.br, joilson_jr@petrobras.com.br; Moreira, R.G. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. - PETROBRAS, Cabiunas, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: ricgmoreira@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims at describing the Analysis of a synchronous electric motor which presented high vibration levels (shaft displacement and bearing housing vibration) during the commissioning process, as well as propose the best practices for the solution of vibration problems in similar situations. This motor belongs to the propane centrifugal compressor installed at a Gas Compression Station. The methodology used in this study conducted an investigation of the problems presented in the motor through the execution of many types of tests and the analysis of the results. The main evaluations were performed, such as the vibration analysis and the rotor dynamic analysis. The electric motor was shipped back to the manufacturer's shop, where the manufacturer made certain modifications to the motor structure so as to improve the structure stiffness, such as the improvement of the support and the increase of the thickness of the structural plates. In addition to that, the dynamic balancing of the rotating set was checked. Finally, the excitation at a critical speed close to the rated speed was found after Rotor Dynamics Analysis was performed again, because of the increase in bearing clearances. The bearing shells were replaced so as to increase the separation margin between these frequencies. In order to verify the final condition of the motor, the manufacturer repeated the standard tests - FAT (Factory Acceptance Tests) - according to internal procedure and international standards. As a result of this work, it was possible to conclude that there was a significant increase in the vibration levels due to unbalance conditions. It was also possible to conclude that there are close relationships between high vibration levels and unbalance conditions, as well as between high vibration levels and the stiffness of the system and its support. Certain points of attention related to the manufacturing process of the motor compressor are described at the end of this paper, based

  16. Longitudinal evaluation of fine motor skills in children with leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Marilyn; Krull, Kevin; Moore, Ki; Gregurich, Mary Ann; Casey, Marissa E; Kaemingk, Kris

    2007-08-01

    Improved survival for children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) has allowed investigators to focus on the adverse or side effects of treatment and to develop interventions that promote cure while decreasing the long-term effects of therapy. Although much attention has been given to the significant neurocognitive sequelae that can occur after ALL therapy, limited investigation is found addressing fine motor function in these children and motor function that may contribute to neurocognitive deficits in ALL survivors. Fine motor and sensory-perceptual performances were examined in 82 children with ALL within 6-months of diagnosis and annually for 2 years (year 1 and year 2, respectively) during therapy. Purdue Pegboard assessments indicated significant slowing of fine motor speed and dexterity for the dominant hand, nondominant hand, and both hands simultaneously for children in this study. Mean Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) scores for children with low-risk and high-risk ALL decreased from the first evaluation to year 1 and again at year 2. Mean VMI scores for children with standard risk ALL increased from the first evaluation to year 1 and then decreased at year 2. Significant positive correlations were found between the Purdue and the VMI at both year 1 and year 2, suggesting that the Pegboard performance consistently predicts the later decline in visual-motor integration. Significant correlations were found between the Purdue Pegboard at baseline and the Performance IQ during year 1, though less consistently during year 2. A similar pattern was also observed between the baseline Pegboard performance and performance on the Coding and Symbol Search subtests during year 1 and year 2. In this study, children with ALL experienced significant and persistent visual-motor problems throughout therapy. These problems continued during the first and second years of treatment. These basic processing skills are necessary to the development of higher-level cognitive

  17. Segmentation by watersheds : definition and parallel implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Meijster, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    The watershed algorithm is a method for image segmentation widely used in the area of mathematical morphology. In this paper we first address the problem of how to define watersheds. It is pointed out that various existing definitions are not equivalent. In particular we explain the differences

  18. 40 CFR 162.151 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 162.151 Section 162.151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATE REGISTRATION... registered product. Pest problem means: (1) A pest infestation and its consequences, or (2) Any condition for...

  19. 49 CFR 804.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 804.3 Section 804.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD RULES... problem. Member means an individual duly appointed and confirmed to the collegial body, known as “the...

  20. Performance analysis of PM synchronous motor using fuzzy logic and self tuning fuzzy PI speed controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakaya, A.; Karakas, E.

    2008-01-01

    Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors have nonlinear characteristics whose dynamics changes with time. In spite of this structure the permanent magnet synchronous motor has answered engineering problems in industry such as motion control which need high torque values. This paper obtains a nonlinear mathematical model for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and realizes stimulation of the obtained model in the Matlab/Simulink program. Motor parameters are determined by an experimental set-up and they are used in the motor model. Speed control of motor model is made with Fuzzy Logic and Self Tuning logic PI controllers. Using the speed graphs obtained, rise time, overshoot, steady-state error and settling time are analyzed and controller performances are compared. (author)

  1. Fundamental motor skills: A systematic review of terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel W; Ross, Samantha M; Chee, Keanu; Stodden, David F; Robinson, Leah E

    2018-04-01

    The three aims of this systematic review are to describe: (1) use of the term fundamental motor/movement skills (FMS) in published articles; (2) the quality of definitions; and (3) relative use of process- and product- oriented assessments to measure FMS. The inclusion criteria included: (a) peer-reviewed article, (b) printed in English, (c) published between January 2000 and 31 December 2015, (d) presence of either the term "fundamental motor or movement skill" in the title and/or abstract, and (e) FMS were a measured outcome. There has been an increase in the number of publications on FMS in recent years, with the majority of studies conducted in Australia (n = 41, 33%). Approximately 24% of studies (n = 30) did not provide any explicit definition of FMS. A majority of studies reported the use of process-oriented measures (n = 98, 79%) compared to product-oriented measures (n = 23, 19%), and few studies used both (n = 6, 5%). We recommend that researchers provide: (1) an operational definition of FMS that states FMS are the "building blocks" (or similar terminology) of more advanced, complex movements; (2) specific categories of skills that compose FMS; and (3) at least one specific example of a FMS.

  2. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs

  3. Pathogenesis of motor neuron disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefei Wang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize and analyze the factors and theories related to the attack of motor neuron disease, and comprehensively investigate the pathogenesis of motor neuron disease.DATA SOURCES: A search of Pubmed database was undertaken to identify articles about motor neuron disease published in English from January 1994 to June 2006 by using the keywords of "neurodegenerative diseases". Other literatures were collected by retrieving specific journals and articles.STUDY SELECTION: The data were checked primarily, articles related to the pathogenesis of motor neuron disease were involved, and those obviously irrelated to the articles were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 54 articles were collected, 30 of them were involved, and the other 24 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: The pathogenesis of motor neuron disease has multiple factors, and the present related theories included free radical oxidation, excitotoxicity, genetic and immune factors, lack of neurotrophic factor,injury of neurofilament, etc. The studies mainly come from transgenic animal models, cell culture in vitro and patients with familial motor neuron disease, but there are still many restrictions and disadvantages.CONCLUSION: It is necessary to try to find whether there is internal association among different mechanisms,comprehensively investigate the pathogenesis of motor neuron diseases, in order to provide reliable evidence for the clinical treatment.

  4. Relationship of ocular accommodation and motor skills performance in developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Sara A; Northway, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    Ocular accommodation provides a well-focussed image, feedback for accurate eye movement control, and cues for depth perception. To accurately perform visually guided motor tasks, integration of ocular motor systems is essential. Children with motor coordination impairment are established to be at higher risk of accommodation anomalies. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between ocular accommodation and motor tasks, which are often overlooked, in order to better understand the problems experienced by children with motor coordination impairment. Visual function, gross and fine motor skills were assessed in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing control children. Children with DCD had significantly poorer accommodation facility and amplitude dynamics compared to controls. Results indicate a relationship between impaired accommodation and motor skills. Specifically, accommodation anomalies correlated with visual motor, upper limb and fine dexterity task performance. Consequently, we argue accommodation anomalies influence the ineffective coordination of action and perception in DCD. Furthermore, reading disabilities were related to poorer motor performance. We postulate the role of the fastigial nucleus as a common pathway for accommodation and motor deficits. Implications of the findings and recommended visual screening protocols are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Induction Motor Parameter Identification Using a Gravitational Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Avalos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficient use of electrical energy is a topic that has attracted attention for its environmental consequences. On the other hand, induction motors represent the main component in most industries. They consume the highest energy percentages in industrial facilities. This energy consumption depends on the operation conditions of the induction motor imposed by its internal parameters. Since the internal parameters of an induction motor are not directly measurable, an identification process must be conducted to obtain them. In the identification process, the parameter estimation is transformed into a multidimensional optimization problem where the internal parameters of the induction motor are considered as decision variables. Under this approach, the complexity of the optimization problem tends to produce multimodal error surfaces for which their cost functions are significantly difficult to minimize. Several algorithms based on evolutionary computation principles have been successfully applied to identify the optimal parameters of induction motors. However, most of them maintain an important limitation: They frequently obtain sub-optimal solutions as a result of an improper equilibrium between exploitation and exploration in their search strategies. This paper presents an algorithm for the optimal parameter identification of induction motors. To determine the parameters, the proposed method uses a recent evolutionary method called the gravitational search algorithm (GSA. Different from most of the existent evolutionary algorithms, the GSA presents a better performance in multimodal problems, avoiding critical flaws such as the premature convergence to sub-optimal solutions. Numerical simulations have been conducted on several models to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  6. Hearing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Hearing ProblemsLoss in the ability to hear or discriminate ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a ...

  7. Neuroethik – Geschichte, Definition und Gegenstandsbereich eines neuen Wissenschaftsgebiets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Sabine; Bittlinger, Merlin; Brukamp, Kirsten; Christen, Markus; Friedrich, Orsolya; Gruber, M. C.; Leefmann, Jon; Merkel, Grischa; Nagel, Saskia K.; Stier, Marco; Jox, Ralf J.

    2018-01-01

    Definition of the problem: Fifteen years after establishing neuroethics as an international academic field, neuroethics has emerged as a vibrant, dynamic area of scientific research. Arguments: Within a short period of a few years, specific conferences, journals, research funding programs,

  8. Accurate Prediction of Motor Failures by Application of Multi CBM Tools: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rana; Singh, Veerendra Pratap; Dwivedi, Jai Prakash

    2018-02-01

    Motor failures are very difficult to predict accurately with a single condition-monitoring tool as both electrical and the mechanical systems are closely related. Electrical problem, like phase unbalance, stator winding insulation failures can, at times, lead to vibration problem and at the same time mechanical failures like bearing failure, leads to rotor eccentricity. In this case study of a 550 kW blower motor it has been shown that a rotor bar crack was detected by current signature analysis and vibration monitoring confirmed the same. In later months in a similar motor vibration monitoring predicted bearing failure and current signature analysis confirmed the same. In both the cases, after dismantling the motor, the predictions were found to be accurate. In this paper we will be discussing the accurate predictions of motor failures through use of multi condition monitoring tools with two case studies.

  9. Comparing motor performance, praxis, coordination, and interpersonal synchrony between children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maninderjit; M Srinivasan, Sudha; N Bhat, Anjana

    2018-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have basic motor impairments in balance, gait, and coordination as well as autism-specific impairments in praxis/motor planning and interpersonal synchrony. Majority of the current literature focuses on isolated motor behaviors or domains. Additionally, the relationship between cognition, symptom severity, and motor performance in ASD is unclear. We used a comprehensive set of measures to compare gross and fine motor, praxis/imitation, motor coordination, and interpersonal synchrony skills across three groups of children between 5 and 12 years of age: children with ASD with high IQ (HASD), children with ASD with low IQ (LASD), and typically developing (TD) children. We used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and the Bilateral Motor Coordination subtest of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests to assess motor performance and praxis skills respectively. Children were also examined while performing simple and complex rhythmic upper and lower limb actions on their own (solo context) and with a social partner (social context). Both ASD groups had lower gross and fine motor scores, greater praxis errors in total and within various error types, lower movement rates, greater movement variability, and weaker interpersonal synchrony compared to the TD group. In addition, the LASD group had lower gross motor scores and greater mirroring errors compared to the HASD group. Overall, a variety of motor impairments are present across the entire spectrum of children with ASD, regardless of their IQ scores. Both, fine and gross motor performance significantly correlated with IQ but not with autism severity; however, praxis errors (mainly, total, overflow, and rhythmicity) strongly correlated with autism severity and not IQ. Our study findings highlight the need for clinicians and therapists to include motor evaluations and interventions in the standard-of-care of children with ASD and for the broader autism community to

  10. An Algorithm for Induction Motor Stator Flux Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOJIC, D. M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the induction motor stator flux estimation used in the sensorless IM drive applications is presented in this paper. Proposed algorithm advantageously solves problems associated with the pure integration, commonly used for the stator flux estimation. An observer-based structure is proposed based on the stator flux vector stationary state, in order to eliminate the undesired DC offset component present in the integrator based stator flux estimates. By using a set of simulation runs it is shown that the proposed algorithm enables the DC-offset free stator flux estimated for both low and high stator frequency induction motor operation.

  11. DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY OF MOTOR DISTURBANCES IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

    OpenAIRE

    VASILEVA Neli

    2015-01-01

    The paper reveals uncommonly examined aspects concerning the specifics of the motor de­velopment in the children with autistic spectrum disorders and the problems regarding their diagnostics and the­ra­py. An analytical theory of the autistic disorders is des­cribed, connecting autism with disorders in the ba­sic levels of affective behavioral regulation. The re­port in­cludes a classification of the groups of autis­tic children, each of which demonstrates spe­ci­fic motor dysfunctions. Furth...

  12. High performance magnetic bearings suitable for noise cancellation in permanent magnet motor driven pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmood, R.; Cholewka, J.; Patak, C.; Feng, G.; Zhang, C.; Maleri, T.; Pinder, B.; McDonald, R.; Homrigh, J.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional pumps having external drive motors experience problems due to bearing noise. In addition failure of bearings and seals can lead to limited operational reliability and impaired integrity of these pumps. Pumps using DC brushless motors and magnetic bearings offer means of overcoming these problems. A design of a pump having a DC brushless motor and magnetic bearings with a potential for Naval applications in ships and submarines is discussed. In this paper attention is given to the selection of the magnetic bearings suitable for achieving active noise cancellation

  13. Hereditary motor neuropathies and motor neuron diseases: which is which.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanemann, Clemens O; Ludolph, Albert C

    2002-12-01

    When Charcot first defined amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) he used the clinical and neuropathological pattern of vulnerability as a guideline. Similarly other motor neuron diseases such as the spinal muscular atrophies (SMA) and the motor neuropathies (MN) were grouped following clinical criteria. However, ever since the etiology of these diseases has started to be disclosed by genetics, we have learnt that the limits of the syndromes are not as well defined as our forefathers thought. A mutation leading to ALS can also be associated with the clinical picture of spinal muscular atrophy; even more unexpected is the overlap of the so-called motor neuropathies with the clinical syndrome of slowly progressive ALS or that primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) can be caused by the same gene as that responsible for some cases of ALS. In this review we summarise recent work showing that there is a considerable overlap between CMT, MN, SMA, ALS and PLS. Insights into these phenotypes should lead to study of the variants of motor neuron disease and possibly to a reclassification. This comprehensive review should help to improve understanding of the pathogenesis of motor neuron degeneration and finally may aid the research for urgently needed new treatment strategies, perhaps with validity for the entire group of motor neuron diseases.

  14. Recanning of canned motors (Paper No. 6.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, B.N.; Venkatappiah, J.; Srikrishnamurthy, G.

    1992-01-01

    Good performance of any plant necessarily depends on the quality of preventive as well as break-down maintenance management practised along with the adequacy of knowledge and skill of the supporting personnel. Heavy water plants, operating under exceedingly high pressure and varied corrosive atmospheres definitely call for additional care and attention in this regard. Canned motors of different power ratings and shapes find their use in operating heavy water plants. In this paper, complete re-canning procedure of one such canned motor has been discussed giving design details of hydraulic expansion fixture and pulsed-tig welding procedure for longitudinal seam and circumferential edge welding of 0.5 mm thick hastelloy cans. (author). 4 figs

  15. The change in perceived motor competence and motor task values during elementary school : Gender and motor performance differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, J.J.; van der Net, J.; Jak, S.; Helders, P.J.M.; Jongmans, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in motor activities is essential for social interaction and life satisfaction in children. Self-perceptions and task values have a central position in why children do or do not participate in (motor) activities. Investigating developmental changes in motor self-perceptions and motor

  16. The global warming problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

  17. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...

  18. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  19. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas

  20. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  1. Dynamics of Situation Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dongseop; Moro, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Situation definition is the process and product of actors' interpretive activities toward a given situation. By reviewing a number of psychological studies conducted in experimental settings, we found that the studies have only explicated a part of the situation definition process and have neglected its dynamic aspects. We need to focus on the…

  2. Problem Posing

    OpenAIRE

    Šilhavá, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This diploma thesis concentrates on problem posing from the students' point of view. Problem posing can be either seen as a teaching method which can be used in the class, or it can be used as a tool for researchers or teachers to assess the level of students' understanding of the topic. In my research, I compare three classes, one mathematics specialist class and two generalist classes, in their ability of problem posing. As an assessment tool it seemed that mathemathics specialists were abl...

  3. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Hallett, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that CD with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated 2-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Eleven CD patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula, and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system, which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Brezing, C; Gallea, C; Hallett, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Conversion disorder is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that conversion disorder with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amgydala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Methods Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated two-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Results Eleven conversion disorder patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Conclusion We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation. PMID:21935985

  5. The Process of Solving Complex Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…

  6. Problems of collection development in special libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses factors affecting collection development, scope, definition and process of collection development, highlights importance of collection development policy manual, presents peculiar circumstances and background of document acquisition transaction in libraries, points out many problems relating to document selection and document procurement processes. Discusses various types of vendor-controlled order plans with their merits and demerits. In conclusion other problems concerned with te...

  7. Defending definitions of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Lucas John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life.

  8. Honda Motor Company's CVCC Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    From 1968 to 1972, Honda Motor Co. of Japan designed, tested, and massproduced a stratified charge engine, the CVCC, which was lower in carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrogen oxide emissions and higher in fuel economy than contemporary convention...

  9. Fault diagnosis of induction motors

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad; Joksimović, Gojko

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, structural approach to fault diagnosis strategy. The different fault types, signal processing techniques, and loss characterisation are addressed in the book. This is essential reading for work with induction motors for transportation and energy.

  10. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2 nd edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2006-26367] Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs and motor carrier safety regulations through a...

  12. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  13. Mathematical modeling of molecular motors

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the many complex processes taking place in living cells, transport of cargoes across the cytosceleton is fundamental to cell viability and activity. To move cargoes between the different cell parts, cells employ Molecular Motors. The motors operate by transporting cargoes along the so-called cellular micro-tubules, namely rope-like structures that connect, for instance, the cell-nucleus and outer membrane. We introduce a new Markov Chain, the killed Quasi-Random-Walk, for such transpo...

  14. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  15. Motor performance of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Słonka; Manuela Dyas; Tadeusz Słonka; Tomasz Szurmik

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Pre‑school age is a period of intensive development when children shape their posture, habits and motor memory. Movement is child's physiological need.  Motive activity supports not only physical development, but also psychical, intellectual and social.   Aim: The aim of the study is to assess motor ability in preschool children from the city of Opole and District Dobrzeń Wielki. Materials and methods: The research involved 228 children, aged 5 and 6. The method used in...

  16. Paliperidone-associated motor tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Han; Chiu, Nan-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Paliperidone-associated motor tics. Case report. We report a 30-year-old man with schizophrenia who developed motor tics (eye blinking) after treatment of paliperidone up to 15 mg daily. Tic-like symptoms, from simple eye blinking to complex Tourette-like syndrome, may occur during paliperidone treatment, especially with high dose. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High-speed AC motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, T.; Arkkio, A. [Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Electromechanics, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The paper deals with various types of highspeed electric motors, and their limiting powers. Standard machines with laminated rotors can be utilised if the speed is moderate. The solid rotor construction makes it possible to reach higher power and speed levels than those of laminated rotors. The development work on high-speed motors done at Helsinki University of Technology is presented, too. (orig.) 12 refs.

  18. Popular Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the ‘What's the problem represented...... to be’ (WPR) approach. Forty-nine empirical studies on Danish youth career guidance were included in the study. An analysis of the issues in focus resulted in nine problem categories. One of these, ‘targeting’, is analysed using the WPR approach. Finally, the article concludes that the WPR approach...... provides a constructive basis for a critical analysis and discussion of the collective empirical knowledge production on career guidance, stimulating awareness of problems and potential solutions among the career guidance community....

  19. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  20. Mouth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as sores, are very common. Follow this chart for more information about mouth problems in adults. ... cancers. See your dentist if sharp or rough teeth or dental work are causing irritation. Start OverDiagnosisThis ...

  1. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... kidney (renal) diseases are called nephrologists . What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  2. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  3. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2017-10-10

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for performing a laser operation. A system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam having a wavelength less than 1060 nm through the electrical motor.

  4. Engineering Geodesy - Definition and Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Heiner; Schwieger, Volker; Wieser, Andreas; Niemeier, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    This article summarises discussions concerning the definition of "engineering geodesy" within the German Geodetic Commission. It is noted that engineering geodesy by means of its tasks, methods and characteristics is an application-oriented science whose research questions often arise from observed phenomena or from unsolved practical problems. In particular it is characterised by the professional handling of geometry-related problems in a cost-effective manner that includes comprehensive quality assessment at all phases of the problem solution - from planning through measurement to data processing and interpretation. The current methodical developments are primarily characterised by the increasing integration of the measurement and analysis into challenging construction, production and monitoring processes as well as by the transition to spatially continuous methods. A modern definition of engineering geodesy is proposed at the end of this article.

  5. The definition of cross polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Arthur

    1973-01-01

    There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice....

  6. Robust Parameter and Signal Estimation in Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, H.

    This thesis deals with theories and methods for robust parameter and signal estimation in induction motors. The project originates in industrial interests concerning sensor-less control of electrical drives. During the work, some general problems concerning estimation of signals and parameters...... in nonlinear systems, have been exposed. The main objectives of this project are: - analysis and application of theories and methods for robust estimation of parameters in a model structure, obtained from knowledge of the physics of the induction motor. - analysis and application of theories and methods...... for robust estimation of the rotor speed and driving torque of the induction motor based only on measurements of stator voltages and currents. Only contimuous-time models have been used, which means that physical related signals and parameters are estimated directly and not indirectly by some discrete...

  7. Dual motor drive vehicle speed synchronization and coordination control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Tu, Qunzhang; Jiang, Chenming; Ma, Limin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Hongxing

    2018-04-01

    Multi-motor driven systems are more and more widely used in the field of electric engineering vehicles, as a result of the road conditions and the variable load of engineering vehicles, makes multi-motors synchronization coordinated control system as a key point of the development of the electric vehicle drive system. This paper based on electrical machinery transmission speed in the process of engineering vehicles headed for coordinated control problem, summarized control strategies at home and abroad in recent years, made analysis and comparison of the characteristics, finally discussed the trend of development of the multi-motor coordination control, provided a reference for synchronized control system research of electric drive engineering vehicles.

  8. Direct Torque Control of Matrix Converter Fed Induction Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAGADEESAN Karpagam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Direct TorqueControl (DTC of induction motor drive using matrixconverters. DTC is a high performance motor controlscheme with fast torque and flux responses. However,the main disadvantage of conventional DTC iselectromagnetic torque ripple. In this paper, directtorque control for Induction Motors using MatrixConverters is analysed and points out the problem ofthe electromagnetic torque ripple which is one of themost important drawbacks of the Direct TorqueControl. Besides, the matrix converter is a single-stageac-ac power conversion device without dc-link energystorage elements. Matrix converter (MC may becomea good alternative to voltage-source inverter (VSI.This work combines the advantages of the matrixconverter with those of the DTC technique, generatingthe required voltage vectors under unity input powerfactor operation. Simulation results demonstrates theeffectiveness of the torque control.

  9. Interpretation of basic concepts in theories of human motor abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this research is to point to the possible language, logical and knowledge problems in interpretation and understanding of basic concepts in theories of motor abilities (TMA. Such manner of review is not directed only to 'mere understanding', it can lead to a new growth of scientific knowledge. Accordingly, the research question is set, i.e. the research issue: Is there a language, logical and knowledge agreement between basic concepts in the theories of human motor abilities? The answer to the set question direct that a more complete agreement between the basic concepts in the theories of human motor abilities should be searched in a scientific dialog between researchers of various beliefs.

  10. Control of non-conventional synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,

  11. P-shaped Coiled Stator Ultrasound Motor for Rotating Intravascular Surgery Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu ABE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of this paper is the development of an ultra-miniature ultrasound motor for use in the human blood vessel. Since the size of the drive source for rotating the atherectomy device and intravascular ultrasonography system are large currently in practical use, it is installed outside the body, and the rotational power for the atherectomy device and intravascular ultrasonography system are transmitted through the long tortuous blood vessel. Such systems suffer from the problem that the rotation becomes non-uniform, and the problem that the available time is limited. We have therefore developed a P-shaped coiled stator ultrasound motor as a miniature ultrasound motor for rotating the ultrasound sensor for use in blood vessels in order to solve these problems. In this paper, we describe measurement of the torque, revolution speed, output power, efficiency, and particle motion on acoustic waveguide of the P-shaped coiled stator ultrasound motor.

  12. Definitions of mass in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, M.A.B.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to the textbook on special relativity by Taylor and Wheeler (Space-time Physics. San Francisco. W H Freeman) in which the concept of relativistic mass is not used but momentum and energy are defined as γm 0 ν and γm 0 c 2 . The two approaches are compared and the particular problem of inelastic collisions between two particles with zero coefficient of restitution is used to demonstrate that the Taylor Wheeler definition of the rest mass of a system may lead to lack of clarity of thought, and even error. Alternative definitions of the rest mass of a system are proposed. (U.K.)

  13. Movement Sonification: Audiovisual benefits on motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Processes of motor control and learning in sports as well as in motor rehabilitation are based on perceptual functions and emergent motor representations. Here a new method of movement sonification is described which is designed to tune in more comprehensively the auditory system into motor perception to enhance motor learning. Usually silent features of the cyclic movement pattern "indoor rowing" are sonified in real time to make them additionally available to the auditory system when executing the movement. Via real time sonification movement perception can be enhanced in terms of temporal precision and multi-channel integration. But beside the contribution of a single perceptual channel to motor perception and motor representation also mechanisms of multisensory integration can be addressed, if movement sonification is configured adequately: Multimodal motor representations consisting of at least visual, auditory and proprioceptive components - can be shaped subtly resulting in more precise motor control and enhanced motor learning.

  14. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle Identification...

  15. Motor skill learning, retention, and control deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Katharina Pendt

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance.

  16. Applications of superconductors to electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews previous experience in applying superconductors to electric motors and examines the difficulties encountered. While motors and generators have a common basis, several significant differences exist. The application of high temperature superconductors to the major electric motor types is discussed and expected difficulties are presented. The limitations imposed by various motor designs are reflected in a statement of the desired material properties for high temperature superconductor electric motor applications

  17. Space shuttle booster separation motor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The separation characteristics of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRBs) are introduced along with the system level requirements for the booster separation motors (BSMs). These system requirements are then translated into specific motor requirements that control the design of the BSM. Each motor component is discussed including its geometry, material selection, and fabrication process. Also discussed is the propellant selection, grain design, and performance capabilities of the motor. The upcoming test program to develop and qualify the motor is outlined.

  18. A Structured Approach to Teaching Applied Problem Solving through Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Fritz A.; Sell, Nancy J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an approach to problem solving based on real-world problems. Discusses problem analysis and definitions, preparation of briefing documents, solution finding techniques (brainstorming and synectics), solution evaluation and judgment, and implementation. (JM)

  19. Motor demand-dependent activation of ipsilateral motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetefisch, Cathrin M; Revill, Kate Pirog; Shuster, Linda; Hines, Benjamin; Parsons, Michael

    2014-08-15

    The role of ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) in hand motor control during complex task performance remains controversial. Bilateral M1 activation is inconsistently observed in functional (f)MRI studies of unilateral hand performance. Two factors limit the interpretation of these data. As the motor tasks differ qualitatively in these studies, it is conceivable that M1 contributions differ with the demand on skillfulness. Second, most studies lack the verification of a strictly unilateral execution of the motor task during the acquisition of imaging data. Here, we use fMRI to determine whether ipsilateral M1 activity depends on the demand for precision in a pointing task where precision varied quantitatively while movement trajectories remained equal. Thirteen healthy participants used an MRI-compatible joystick to point to targets of four different sizes in a block design. A clustered acquisition technique allowed simultaneous fMRI/EMG data collection and confirmed that movements were strictly unilateral. Accuracy of performance increased with target size. Overall, the pointing task revealed activation in contralateral and ipsilateral M1, extending into contralateral somatosensory and parietal areas. Target size-dependent activation differences were found in ipsilateral M1 extending into the temporal/parietal junction, where activation increased with increasing demand on accuracy. The results suggest that ipsilateral M1 is active during the execution of a unilateral motor task and that its activity is modulated by the demand on precision. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Changes of motor-cortical oscillations associated with motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollok, B; Latz, D; Krause, V; Butz, M; Schnitzler, A

    2014-09-05

    Motor learning results from practice but also between practice sessions. After skill acquisition early consolidation results in less interference with other motor tasks and even improved performance of the newly learned skill. A specific significance of the primary motor cortex (M1) for early consolidation has been suggested. Since synchronized oscillatory activity is assumed to facilitate neuronal plasticity, we here investigate alterations of motor-cortical oscillations by means of event-related desynchronization (ERD) at alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) frequencies in healthy humans. Neuromagnetic activity was recorded using a 306-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. ERD was investigated in 15 subjects during training on a serial reaction time task and 10 min after initial training. The data were compared with performance during a randomly varying sequence serving as control condition. The data reveal a stepwise decline of alpha-band ERD associated with faster reaction times replicating previous findings. The amount of beta-band suppression was significantly correlated with reduction of reaction times. While changes of alpha power have been related to lower cognitive control after initial skill acquisition, the present data suggest that the amount of beta suppression represents a neurophysiological marker of early cortical reorganization associated with motor learning. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Consolidating the effects of waking and sleep on motor-sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawn, Timothy P; Fenn, Kimberly M; Nusbaum, Howard C; Margoliash, Daniel

    2010-10-20

    Sleep is widely believed to play a critical role in memory consolidation. Sleep-dependent consolidation has been studied extensively in humans using an explicit motor-sequence learning paradigm. In this task, performance has been reported to remain stable across wakefulness and improve significantly after sleep, making motor-sequence learning the definitive example of sleep-dependent enhancement. Recent work, however, has shown that enhancement disappears when the task is modified to reduce task-related inhibition that develops over a training session, thus questioning whether sleep actively consolidates motor learning. Here we use the same motor-sequence task to demonstrate sleep-dependent consolidation for motor-sequence learning and explain the discrepancies in results across studies. We show that when training begins in the morning, motor-sequence performance deteriorates across wakefulness and recovers after sleep, whereas performance remains stable across both sleep and subsequent waking with evening training. This pattern of results challenges an influential model of memory consolidation defined by a time-dependent stabilization phase and a sleep-dependent enhancement phase. Moreover, the present results support a new account of the behavioral effects of waking and sleep on explicit motor-sequence learning that is consistent across a wide range of tasks. These observations indicate that current theories of memory consolidation that have been formulated to explain sleep-dependent performance enhancements are insufficient to explain the range of behavioral changes associated with sleep.

  2. Cognitive and Motor Aspects of Parkinson's Disease Associated with Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Sun; Youn, Jinyoung; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, Tae-Eun; Chin, Juhee; Park, Suyeon; Cho, Jin Whan

    2015-11-01

    Dysphagia is a common symptom and an important prognostic factor in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although cognitive and motor dysfunctions may contribute to dysphagia in patients with PD, any specific association between such problems and swallowing functions is unclear. Here, we examined the potential relationship between cognitive/motor components and swallowing functions in PD. We evaluated the contributions of cognition and motor function to the components of swallowing via video fluoroscopic swallowing (VFS) experiments. We prospectively enrolled 56 patients without dementia having PD. Parkinson's disease severity was assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). All participants received neuropsychological tests covering general mental status, visuospatial function, attention, language, learning and memory, and frontal executive function. The well-validated "modified barium swallow impairment profile" scoring system was applied during VFS studies to quantify swallowing impairments. Finally, correlations between neuropsychological or motor functions and impairment in swallowing components were calculated. The most significant correlations were found between the frontal/executive or learning/memory domains and the oral phase of swallowing, though a minor component of the pharyngeal phase correlated with frontal function as well. Bradykinesia and the UPDRS total score were associated with both the pharyngeal and oral phases. Our findings suggest that cognitive dysfunctions are associated with the oral phase of swallowing in patients with early stage PD while the severity of motor symptoms may be associated with overall swallowing function.

  3. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Ocular Motor Function in Patients with Bilateral Vestibular Weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Amir Hossein Ghazizadeh Hashemi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with bilateral weakness (BW have many difficulties in gaze stability that interfere with their normal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate ocular motor functions in patients with BW to better understand the problem of gaze instability in these patients.   Materials and Methods: Patients were referred from the Otolaryngology Department for Vestibular Assessment to our clinic between November 2014 and March 2015. We assessed ocular motor function (gaze, saccade, and smooth pursuit in patients over the age of 18 years with BW, as verified by a caloric test.   Results: Seventy-eight patients completed all the tests. The mean age of patients was 51.9 (±15.9 years, and 47 (60% were female. Abnormal results were found in five (6.4%, 32 (41%, and seven (9% patients with respect to gaze, smooth pursuit, and saccade, respectively. There were positive but relatively weak relationships between age and ocular motor results.   Conclusion:  Patients with BW suffer from dizziness and unsteadiness. These patients have abnormal function in ocular motor (especially smooth pursuit tests. The ocular motor dysfunction is responsible for gaze instability in static positions such as standing.

  5. Characteristics of motorized spindle supported by active magnetic bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zhenyu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A motorized spindle supported by active magnetic bearings (AMBs is generally used for ultra-high-speed machining. Iron loss of radial AMB is very great owing to high rotation speed, and it will cause severe thermal deformation. The problem is particularly serious on the occasion of large power application, such as all electric aero-engine. In this study, a prototype motorized spindle supported by five degree-of-freedom AMBs is developed. Homopolar and heteropolar AMBs are independently adopted as radial bearings. The influences of the two types of radial AMBs on the dynamic characteristics of the motorized spindle are comparatively investigated by theoretical analysis, test modal analysis and actual operation of the system. The iron loss of the two types of radial AMBs is analyzed by finite element software and verified through run-down experiments of the system. The results show that the structures of AMB have less influence on the dynamic characteristics of the motorized spindle. However, the homopolar structure can effectively reduce the iron loss of the radial AMB and it is useful for improving the overall performance of the motorized spindle.

  6. On Nonlinear Combustion Instability in Liquid Propellant Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J. D. (Technical Monitor); Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph; Sims, Joseph D.

    2004-01-01

    All liquid propellant rocket instability calculations in current use have limited value in the predictive sense and serve mainly as a correlating framework for the available data sets. The well-known n-t model first introduced by Crocco and Cheng in 1956 is still used as the primary analytical tool of this type. A multitude of attempts to establish practical analytical methods have achieved only limited success. These methods usually produce only stability boundary maps that are of little use in making critical design decisions in new motor development programs. Recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of combustion instability in solid propellant rockets"' provides a firm foundation for a new approach to prediction, diagnosis, and correction of the closely related problems in liquid motor instability. For predictive tools to be useful in the motor design process, they must have the capability to accurately determine: 1) time evolution of the pressure oscillations and limit amplitude, 2) critical triggering pulse amplitude, and 3) unsteady heat transfer rates at injector surfaces and chamber walls. The method described in this paper relates these critical motor characteristics directly to system design parameters. Inclusion of mechanisms such as wave steepening, vorticity production and transport, and unsteady detonation wave phenomena greatly enhance the representation of key features of motor chamber oscillatory behavior. The basic theoretical model is described and preliminary computations are compared to experimental data. A plan to develop the new predictive method into a comprehensive analysis tool is also described.

  7. A History and Interpretation of Aircraft Icing Intensity Definitions and FAA Rules for Operating in Icing Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeck, Richard

    2001-01-01

    ... other. There have been several changes in both the definitions and the regulations over time, and part of the problem is that the definitions have not been updated or clarified to account for current regulations...

  8. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs

  9. Dynamics of a motor vehicle taking into consideration the interaction of wheels and road pavement surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Prentkovskis

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this article focus on the simulation of the motor vehicle on a certain road and propose their specific solution of this problem. A mathematical model of the system “motor vehicle – road” is presented. The motor vehicle is simulated by concentrated masses interconnected by elastic and dissipative links. The presented model of the motor vehicle evaluates the movement of the motor vehicle body in space; the movement and turning of front and rear suspensions with respect to the body; the interaction of the wheel with the road pavement surface; the blocking of the wheel; the changing cohesive forces which influence the motor vehicle. The investigated road pavement surface is simulated by triangular finite elements, the certain height of road pavement surface roughness and the cohesion coefficients of road pavement surface and the motor vehicle wheel in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the wheel are selected in each finite element nodal point. The presented results illustrate: the motor vehicle movement trajectories braking at various initial conditions and on a certain pavement surface of the road section under investigation and the motor vehicle driving on the speed reduction bump (“sleeping policeman”.

  10. Motor dysfunction in NF1: Mediated by attention deficit or inherent to the disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas-Lude, Karin; Heimgärtner, Magdalena; Winter, Sarah; Mautner, Victor-Felix; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Lidzba, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Attention deficit and compromised motor skills are both prevalent in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), but the relationship is unclear. We investigated motor function in children with NF1 and in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and explored if, in patients with NF1, attention deficit influences motor performance. Motor performance was measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in 71 children (26 with NF1 plus ADHD, 14 with NF1 without ADHD, and 31 with ADHD without NF1) aged 6-12 years. There was a significant effect of group on motor performance. Both NF1 groups scored below children with ADHD without NF1. Attention performance mediated motor performance in children with ADHD without NF1, but not in children with NF1. Motor function is not mediated by attention performance in children with NF1. While in ADHD, attention deficit influences motor performance, motor problems in NF1 seem to be independent from attention deficit. This argues for different pathomechanisms in these two groups of developmental disorders. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing Fall Risk with Combined Motor and Cognitive Training in Elderly Fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Barban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Falling is a major clinical problem in elderly people, demanding effective solutions. At present, the only effective intervention is motor training of balance and strength. Executive function-based training (EFt might be effective at preventing falls according to evidence showing a relationship between executive functions and gait abnormalities. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of a motor and a cognitive treatment developed within the EU co-funded project I-DONT-FALL. Methods. In a sample of 481 elderly people at risk of falls recruited in this multicenter randomised controlled trial, the effectiveness of a motor treatment (pure motor or mixed with EFt of 24 one-hour sessions delivered through an i-Walker with a non-motor treatment (pure EFt or control condition was evaluated. Similarly, a 24 one-hour session cognitive treatment (pure EFt or mixed with motor training, delivered through a touch-screen computer was compared with a non-cognitive treatment (pure motor or control condition. Results. Motor treatment, particularly when mixed with EFt, reduced significantly fear of falling (F(1,478 = 6.786, p = 0.009 although to a limited extent (ES −0.25 restricted to the period after intervention. Conclusions. This study suggests the effectiveness of motor treatment empowered by EFt in reducing fear of falling.

  12. The Aalborg Model and The Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    To know the definition of a problem in is an important implication for the possibility to identify and formulate the problem1, the starting point of the learning process in the Aalborg Model2 3. For certification it has been suggested that: A problem grows out of students’ wondering within differ...... – a wondering - that something is different from what is expected, something novel and unexpected or inexplicable; astonishment mingled with perplexity or bewildered curiosity?...

  13. Genomic definition of species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the definition of species based on the assumption that genome is the fundamental level for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. For this view to be logically consistent it is necessary to assume the existence and operation of the new law which we call genome law. For this reason the genome law is included in the explanation of species phenomenon presented here even if its precise formulation and elaboration are left for the future. The intellectual underpinnings of this definition can be traced to Goldschmidt. We wish to explore some philosophical aspects of the definition of species in terms of the genome. The point of proposing the definition on these grounds is that any real advance in evolutionary theory has to be correct in both its philosophy and its science.

  14. Definition of successful defibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Rudolph W.; Walker, Robert G.; van Alem, Anouk P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The definition of defibrillation shock "success" endorsed by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation since the publication of Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care has been removal of ventricular fibrillation at 5 secs after shock

  15. 77 FR 65765 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... the vehicle. The antenna module translates the radio frequency signal received from the key into a... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY...

  16. 77 FR 25534 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... response back to the vehicle. The antenna module translates the radio frequency signal received from the... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY...

  17. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... 1300 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0054] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of..., multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  18. Comparison of Linear Induction Motor Theories for the LIMRV and TLRV Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Oberretl, Yamamura, and Mosebach theories of the linear induction motor are described and also applied to predict performance characteristics of the TLRV & LIMRV linear induction motors. The effect of finite motor width and length on performance ...

  19. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b) The...

  20. Application of drive circuit based on L298N in direct current motor speed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liuliu; Wang, Fang; Han, Sen; Li, Yuchen; Sun, Hao; Lu, Qingjie; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Quanzhao

    2016-10-01

    In the experiment of researching the nanometer laser interferometer, our design of laser interferometer circuit system is up to the wireless communication technique of the 802.15.4 IEEE standard, and we use the RF TI provided by Basic to receive the data on speed control system software. The system's hardware is connected with control module and the DC motor. However, in the experiment, we found that single chip microcomputer control module is very difficult to drive the DC motor directly. The reason is that the DC motor's starting and braking current is larger than the causing current of the single chip microcomputer control module. In order to solve this problem, we add a driving module that control board can transmit PWM wave signal through I/O port to drive the DC motor, the driving circuit board can come true the function of the DC motor's positive and reversal rotation and speed adjustment. In many various driving module, the L298N module's integrated level is higher compared with other driver module. The L298N model is easy to control, it not only can control the DC motor, but also achieve motor speed control by modulating PWM wave that the control panel output. It also has the over-current protection function, when the motor lock, the L298N model can protect circuit and motor. So we use the driver module based on L298N to drive the DC motor. It is concluded that the L298N driver circuit module plays a very important role in the process of driving the DC motor in the DC motor speed control system.