WorldWideScience

Sample records for defining problem areas

  1. Acquisition Cycle Time: Defining the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    prescribe appetite suppression and fiscal discipline . Still others diagnose inept management and excessive bureaucracy, and prescribe streamlined...complex the system, the higher this bound. • Software development consists of completing known work and discovering new work. There are fundamental ... taxonomy of acquisition risk categories, with corresponding development timelines. In that report, a low-risk acquisition is defined to be one that

  2. What Is Violence Against Women? Defining and Measuring the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2004-01-01

    Violence against women (VAW) is a prevalent problem with substantial physical and mental health consequences throughout the world, and sound public policy is dependent on having good measures of VAW. This article (a) describes and contrasts criminal justice and public health approaches toward defining VAW, (b) identifies major controversies…

  3. Usage Of R in Defining Labour Market Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Stopinski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Labour Market Area is a territory in which high rate of people both live and work. It does not need to be consistent with area restricted by administrative boarders. It seems rather obvious that administrative boarders are not always a proper criterion in making certain decisions. The government should sometimes base on functional regions instead. That is the reason for which in 2013 Eurostat decided to from the Task Force responsible of creating a common methodology of defining Labour Market Areas. A couple of member states have already had certain experience in using their own definitions of Labour Market Areas. Nevertheless, due to independence of each method the results achieved in different countries were obviously incomparable. This caused a need to create a methodology, which would be universal for entire European Union. According to proposal there are two criteria deciding whether an area is a Labour Market Area or not – size (number of employed inhabitants and self-containment, which is a minimal value of the following: 1 the proportion of an area’s employed population that works within the area and 2 the proportion of jobs within an area that are filled by residents of that area. Since the results should be possibly stable, population censuses are desirable sources. As travel-to-work matrices contain relations between places of living and places of work at LAU-2 level, datasets may have large size (for Poland almost 350 000 records. The aim is to join areas into clusters so that all of them fulfill conditions to be considered as Labour Market Area. In each step only two areas are joined. Then computations for all new areas need to be performed from the beginning. There are also certain situations when once joined areas are divided, which makes the whole process more complicated. R seems to be a proper tool to carry out necessary analyses of such a big dataset.

  4. The Definability Abduction Problem for Data Exchange: abstract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franconi, E.; Ngo, N.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    Data exchange is the problem of transforming data structured according to a source schema into data structured according to a target schema, via a mapping specified by means of rules in the form of source-to-target tuple generating dependencies - rules whose body is a conjunction of atoms over the s

  5. Ranking influential spreaders is an ill-defined problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jain; Lee, Sungmin; Saramäki, Jari; Holme, Petter

    2017-06-01

    Finding influential spreaders of information and disease in networks is an important theoretical problem, and one of considerable recent interest. It has been almost exclusively formulated as a node-ranking problem —methods for identifying influential spreaders output a ranking of the nodes. In this work, we show that such a greedy heuristic does not necessarily work: the set of most influential nodes depends on the number of nodes in the set. Therefore, the set of n most important nodes to vaccinate does not need to have any node in common with the set of n + 1 most important nodes. We propose a method for quantifying the extent and impact of this phenomenon. By this method, we show that it is a common phenomenon in both empirical and model networks.

  6. Defining the Mars Ascent Problem for Sample Return

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J

    2008-07-31

    Lifting geology samples off of Mars is both a daunting technical problem for propulsion experts and a cultural challenge for the entire community that plans and implements planetary science missions. The vast majority of science spacecraft require propulsive maneuvers that are similar to what is done routinely with communication satellites, so most needs have been met by adapting hardware and methods from the satellite industry. While it is even possible to reach Earth from the surface of the moon using such traditional technology, ascending from the surface of Mars is beyond proven capability for either solid or liquid propellant rocket technology. Miniature rocket stages for a Mars ascent vehicle would need to be over 80 percent propellant by mass. It is argued that the planetary community faces a steep learning curve toward nontraditional propulsion expertise, in order to successfully accomplish a Mars sample return mission. A cultural shift may be needed to accommodate more technical risk acceptance during the technology development phase.

  7. Defining the XML schema matching problem for a personal schema based query answering system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smiljanic, Marko; Keulen, van Maurice; Jonker, Willem

    2004-01-01

    In this report, we analyze the problem of personal schema matching. We define the ingredients of the XML schema matching problem using constraint logic programming. This allows us to thourougly investigate specific matching problems. We do not have the ambition to provide for a formalism that covers

  8. PROBLEMS AND CLASSIFICATION OF FORMER MILITARY AREAS

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    Svirezhev C.A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the Russian Federation in the international community, to find the most effective ways to implement the military and land reforms require a comprehensive study. The paper identifies the main problems that hinder the effective implementation of the reform of the conversion, the ways of their solutions, including use of the experience of the advanced countries of the European Union. Identified military objects to be conversion, shown combining them into groups according to various criteria. Proposed a typology of ex-military territories. Notes the role of the organization of effective land use conversion in the areas of land use planning, identifies the main documents required for the implementation of planned activities. The problems of land use planning conversion ex-military territories.

  9. Defining Mathematical Problems and Problem Solving: Prospective Primary Teachers' Beliefs in Cyprus and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenofontos, Constantinos; Andrews, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of prospective elementary teachers' mathematical problem solving-related beliefs in Cyprus and England. Twenty-four participants, twelve from a well-regarded university in each country, were interviewed qualitatively at the exit point of their undergraduate teacher education studies. Analyses…

  10. Defining Mathematical Problems and Problem Solving: Prospective Primary Teachers' Beliefs in Cyprus and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenofontos, Constantinos; Andrews, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of prospective elementary teachers' mathematical problem solving-related beliefs in Cyprus and England. Twenty-four participants, twelve from a well-regarded university in each country, were interviewed qualitatively at the exit point of their undergraduate teacher education studies. Analyses revealed…

  11. Approach to defining the urban development borders of an area on the example of Kuzbass

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    Samoylova Nadezhda Aleksandrovna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ON THE EXAMPLE OF KUZBASS The contemporary urban planning problems are of multifaceted character and are directly relevant to fundamental aspects of the development of the society - social sphere, economy, land and property relations, material environment and its safety, preservation of historical and cultural heritage, ecology. In spacial planning aspect urban planning is, first of all, planning and design, including scientifically justified legal regulation, spatial organization of territorial objects (of a country and its regions, settlements, components of planning structure: planning centers, axes, zones, etc., separate land plots, i.d. forecast of their future state - use, development or reconstruction. All these should be included into town planning documentation. The author specified the range of problematic urban planning issues, which refer to urban border areas. The methods, mechanisms and measures to define urban border areas including several interdependent urban and rural settlements situated in different city regions are offered using the example of Kuzbass. The backgrounds for the creation of BIM system for planning, design, construction and further management and operation of infrastructure objects are created within the formed urban border areas of coal mining.

  12. Defining Constructivism: Its Influence on the Problem Solving Skills of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Mary Margaret

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of teacher beliefs measured by the Mathematics Beliefs Scales (E. Fennema, T. Carpenter, and M. Loef, 1990) on the problem-solving skills of their fourth and fifth grade students as measured in five areas of mathematics on the Junior Version of the Collis Romberg Mathematical Problem Solving…

  13. Essential growth rate for bounded linear perturbation of non-densely defined Cauchy problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, A.; Liu, Z.; Magal, P.

    2008-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the essential growth rate of some class of semigroup generated by bounded perturbation of some non-densely defined problem. We extend some previous results due to Thieme [H.R. Thieme, Quasi-compact semigroups via bounded perturbation, in: Advances in Mathematical Population Dynamics--Molecules, Cells and Man, Houston, TX, 1995, in: Ser. Math. Biol. Med., vol. 6, World Sci. Publishing, River Edge, NJ, 1997, pp. 691-711] to a class of non-densely defined Cauchy problems in Lp. In particular in the context the integrated semigroup is not operator norm locally Lipschitz continuous. We overcome the lack of Lipschitz continuity of the integrated semigroup by deriving some weaker properties that are sufficient to give information on the essential growth rate.

  14. A diagram for defined flat plate solar collector area for solar floor heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altuntop, N.; Tekin, Y. [Erciyes University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Reno University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NV (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In winters, one of the best ways to heat living areas by using the low- temperature - water obtained from flat-plate solar collectors is the floor heating. In floor heating, low temperature-water (30 + 60 deg C) can be used and heat can be stored in water when solar radiation is not possible. In this study, it is aimed to define collector surface needed to supply heat for floor heating. It is also aimed to define and explain the diagram developed for every heating months. The calculations about the sun geometry are used to define the amount of radiation coming in to the collectors. Formulations are made about the definition of solar radiation absorbed by the collectors, the total heat loss coefficient, and the collector plate surface temperature. These formulations are transformed in to the diagram. In addition, the studies, heat transfer calculations and design parameters about the floor of the heating areas are used. A combined collector floor heating diagram is obtained. This diagram is used to define collector surface area necessary to supply heat for floor heated places. In this diagram, the collector surface area is obtained by giving the heat capacity of the place area, floor surface temperature, approximate modulation distance of the floor, the elevation of city, collector slope angle, wind speed, sun shine lime and the amount of the solar radiation obtained from the solar radiation diagram. (authors)

  15. Defining periurban areas: la previsione di questi territori negli strumenti urbanistici di alcune regioni italiane

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    Valentina Cattivelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, the suburban is the predominant portion of each area. It combines the main features of urban and rural areas and it is therefore difficult to locate. Despite these difficulties, the policy makers should zone their territories and incorporate the results in the existing planning instruments. The distinction among territories is important to better orient local actions. This paper proposes aims to understand how some Italian regional legislators have defined the surrounding areas in their zoning laws and plans in force.

  16. DEFINING PRIORITY ZONES FOR CONSERVATION AND ECOTOURISM IN A PROTECTED AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taynan de Oliveira Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT With the objective of promoting nature conservation, this study proposes an environmental zoning for a protected area that contains part of the remaining Atlantic Forest, a global hotspot that is home to several endangered species of flora and fauna. Conflicting therewith, the protected area is an important tourist attraction in the region and receives many visitors throughout the year. For the zoning preparation, the main factors and constraints of each objective (ecotourism and conservation are established, and a multi-criteria analysis is used, in addition to the MOLA (Multi-Objective Land Allocation algorithm, to establish the most suitable areas for each use. Extreme protection areas are defined through the intersection of endemic vegetation and soils and altitudes above 1,500 m. Thus, a fraction of 18% is obtained for extreme protection, 59% for conservation, and 23% for areas destined for ecotourism development. The results demonstrate the advantages of using these methods, due to their simplicity, which can support administrators in planning the protected area. The zoning is in accordance with the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN recommendation because the conservation area corresponds to approximately 77% of the park area, reinforcing the suitability and applicability of the methodology that is used for the zoning of a protected area.

  17. AREA EFFICIENT FRACTIONAL SAMPLE RATE CONVERSION ARCHITECTURE FOR SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIOS

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    Latha Sahukar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern software defined radios (SDRs use complex signal processing algorithms to realize efficient wireless communication schemes. Several such algorithms require a specific symbol to sample ratio to be maintained. In this context the fractional rate converter (FRC becomes a crucial block in the receiver part of SDR. The paper presents an area optimized dynamic FRC block, for low power SDR applications. The limitations of conventional cascaded interpolator and decimator architecture for FRC are also presented. Extending the SINC function interpolation based architecture; towards high area optimization and providing run time configuration with time register are presented. The area and speed analysis are carried with Xilinx FPGA synthesis tools. Only 15% area occupancy with maximum clock speed of 133 MHz are reported on Spartan-6 Lx45 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA.

  18. Quantum dot resonant tunneling diode single photon detector with aluminum oxide aperture defined tunneling area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.W.; Kardynal, Beata; Ellis, D.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dot resonant tunneling diode single photon detector with independently defined absorption and sensing areas is demonstrated. The device, in which the tunneling is constricted to an aperture in an insulating layer in the emitter, shows electrical characteristics typical of high quality...... resonant tunneling diodes. A single photon detection efficiency of 2.1%+/- 0.1% at 685 nm was measured corresponding to an internal quantum efficiency of 14%. The devices are simple to fabricate, robust, and show promise for large absorption area single photon detectors based on quantum dot structures....

  19. The Self as violent other: the problem of defining the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskinson, Lucy

    2002-07-01

    This paper identifies the problem of arriving at a solid definition of C. G. Jung's notion of the Self, and seeks its resolution. The author first demonstrates how this problem is articulated by scholars of Jungian theory by showing that they have ultimately depended upon 'limited' definitions of the Self, where the Self is no more than a transcendental postulate, a simple derivative from the internal structure of Jungian argument. She then determines the reason for the problem by arguing that there can never be a complete definition of the Self for it encompasses that which is unconscious and is thus irreducible to ego-comprehension. By using a method of philosophical analysis (in the guise of Levinas) the author will show that through the Self's very need to evade comprehension the Self is essentially comprehended as an overpowering and violent entity. The author will argue that the Self as a force of violence is crucial to its definition, and scholars must not ignore the Self as numinous experience in favour of passive functionality. She will thus argue that through the adoption of a Levinasian critique, the Self can be defined and justified outside of the internally self-consistent system from which it is conventionally derived.

  20. Income and managing problems of the protected areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    n 2000, the authors collected a great quantity of relevant data by investigating more than 50 nature reserves. Based on the analysis of development and management situation of the protected areas in China, the main problems were put forward, such as, no unified management for income and managing activities, lack of special guideline and effective supervision, lack of income and investment, investing financial difference in different provinces. All these problems caused the lack of funds for construction, as well as the damage of resources and environment. Furthermore the conserving activities have to transmit to the profits in many protected areas. Combined with these problems, the primary solution programmers also were put forward.

  1. Afferent Inputs to Neurotransmitter-Defined Cell Types in the Ventral Tegmental Area

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    Lauren Faget

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ventral tegmental area (VTA plays a central role in the neural circuit control of behavioral reinforcement. Though considered a dopaminergic nucleus, the VTA contains substantial heterogeneity in neurotransmitter type, containing also GABA and glutamate neurons. Here, we used a combinatorial viral approach to transsynaptically label afferents to defined VTA dopamine, GABA, or glutamate neurons. Surprisingly, we find that these populations received qualitatively similar inputs, with dominant and comparable projections from the lateral hypothalamus, raphe, and ventral pallidum. However, notable differences were observed, with striatal regions and globus pallidus providing a greater share of input to VTA dopamine neurons, cortical input preferentially on to glutamate neurons, and GABA neurons receiving proportionally more input from the lateral habenula and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. By comparing inputs to each of the transmitter-defined VTA cell types, this study sheds important light on the systems-level organization of diverse inputs to VTA.

  2. Lower Bound for Convex Hull Area and Universal Cover Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Khandhawit, Tirasan; Sriswasdi, Sira

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a lower bound for an area of the convex hull of points and a rectangle in a plane. We then apply this estimate to establish a lower bound for a universal cover problem. We showed that a convex universal cover for a unit length curve has area at least 0.232239. In addition, we show that a convex universal cover for a unit closed curve has area at least 0.0879873.

  3. Areas of cat auditory cortex as defined by neurofilament proteins expressing SMI-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Jeffrey G; Van der Gucht, Estel; Lee, Charles C; Carrasco, Andres; Winer, Jeffery A; Lomber, Stephen G

    2010-08-01

    The monoclonal antibody SMI-32 was used to characterize and distinguish individual areas of cat auditory cortex. SMI-32 labels non-phosphorylated epitopes on the high- and medium-molecular weight subunits of neurofilament proteins in cortical pyramidal cells and dendritic trees with the most robust immunoreactivity in layers III and V. Auditory areas with unique patterns of immunoreactivity included: primary auditory cortex (AI), second auditory cortex (AII), dorsal zone (DZ), posterior auditory field (PAF), ventral posterior auditory field (VPAF), ventral auditory field (VAF), temporal cortex (T), insular cortex (IN), anterior auditory field (AAF), and the auditory field of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (fAES). Unique patterns of labeling intensity, soma shape, soma size, layers of immunoreactivity, laminar distribution of dendritic arbors, and labeled cell density were identified. Features that were consistent in all areas included: layers I and IV neurons are immunonegative; nearly all immunoreactive cells are pyramidal; and immunoreactive neurons are always present in layer V. To quantify the results, the numbers of labeled cells and dendrites, as well as cell diameter, were collected and used as tools for identifying and differentiating areas. Quantification of the labeling patterns also established profiles for ten auditory areas/layers and their degree of immunoreactivity. Areal borders delineated by SMI-32 were highly correlated with tonotopically-defined areal boundaries. Overall, SMI-32 immunoreactivity can delineate ten areas of cat auditory cortex and demarcate topographic borders. The ability to distinguish auditory areas with SMI-32 is valuable for the identification of auditory cerebral areas in electrophysiological, anatomical, and/or behavioral investigations.

  4. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach.

  5. Universality of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT problem areas in Thai depressed patients

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    Thavichachart Nuntika

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have shown the efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT on depression; however, there are limited studies concerning the universality of the IPT problem areas in different countries. This study identifies whether the interpersonal problem areas defined in the IPT manual are endorsed by Thai depressed patients. Methods The Thai Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Thai HRSD and Thai Interpersonal Questionnaire were used to assess 90 depressed and 90 non-depressed subjects in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, during July 2007 - January 2008. The association between interpersonal problem areas/sociodemographic variables and depressive disorder were analyzed by chi-square test. A multivariable analysis was performed by using logistic regression to identify the remaining factors associated with depressive disorder. Results Most of the subjects were young to middle-aged females living in Bangkok and the Central Provinces. All four interpersonal problem areas (grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal deficits were increased in the depressed subjects as compared to the non-depressed subjects, as were the sociodemographic variables (low education, unemployment, low income, and having a physical illness. Logistic regression showed that all interpersonal problem areas still remained problems associated with depression (grief: adjusted OR = 6.01, 95%CI = 1.93 - 18.69, p Conclusion All four interpersonal problem areas were applicable to Thai depressed patients.

  6. Where can pixel counting area estimates meet user-defined accuracy requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, François; Defourny, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Pixel counting is probably the most popular way to estimate class areas from satellite-derived maps. It involves determining the number of pixels allocated to a specific thematic class and multiplying it by the pixel area. In the presence of asymmetric classification errors, the pixel counting estimator is biased. The overarching objective of this article is to define the applicability conditions of pixel counting so that the estimates are below a user-defined accuracy target. By reasoning in terms of landscape fragmentation and spatial resolution, the proposed framework decouples the resolution bias and the classifier bias from the overall classification bias. The consequence is that prior to any classification, part of the tolerated bias is already committed due to the choice of the spatial resolution of the imagery. How much classification bias is affordable depends on the joint interaction of spatial resolution and fragmentation. The method was implemented over South Africa for cropland mapping, demonstrating its operational applicability. Particular attention was paid to modeling a realistic sensor's spatial response by explicitly accounting for the effect of its point spread function. The diagnostic capabilities offered by this framework have multiple potential domains of application such as guiding users in their choice of imagery and providing guidelines for space agencies to elaborate the design specifications of future instruments.

  7. The relation between problem areas and stages of computer implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, ten Alfons; Plomp, Tjeerd

    1991-01-01

    Using data from an international comparative study on the use of new technologies in education in about 22 countries, an assessment of the relation between problem areas and stages of computer implementation was undertaken. The study--"Computers in Education" (COMPED)--has been conducted since 1987

  8. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  9. Inactivation of enzymes by organic solvents: New technique with well-defined interfacial area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatorae, A.S.; Bell, G.; Halling, P.J. (Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom))

    1994-02-20

    A liquid-liquid bubble column apparatus allows exposure of enzyme solutions to water-immiscible organic solvents with a known total interfacial area and well-defined time scales and flow. It allows clear distinction of the different classes of inactivation mechanism. With urease as a model enzyme, octan-2-one and butylbenzene act only through the effects of solvent molecules dissolved in the aqueous phase, giving first-order inactivation at 0.34 and 0.21 h[sup [minus]1], respectively. Hexane and tridecane act only through exposure to the interface. The amount of urease inactivated is proportional to the total area of interface exposed, rather than to elapsed time, and may be characterized by a rate of about 0.5 [mu]kat m[sup [minus]2]. This is consistent with the formation and inactivation of a complete adsorbed monolayer of protein. With butan-1-ol, both mechanisms contribute significantly to the observed inactivation. The presence of O[sub 2] increases the rate of interfacial inactivation, but not that by dissolved solvent.

  10. European Geothermal Drilling Experience-Problem Areas and Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, G.; Ungemach, P.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal drilling has long been restricted in Western Europe to the sole dry steam field of Larderello in Italy. In the last few years, a wider experience is building up as a consequence of intensified exploration and development programs carried out for evaluation and production of both low- and high-enthalpy geothermal resources. A sample of some 40 boreholes indicates the problem areas which are given.

  11. Solving and creating Raven Progressive Matrices: reasoning in well- and ill-defined problem spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsveld, S.; Lachmann, T.; Hamel, R.; van Leeuwen, C.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the development of creative cognition in children ranging from nursery school to Grade 6 (4-12 yr old, N¼511), performing a problem generation task. The task involved inventing a novel item for a classical problem solving task they had completed beforehand: the Raven Progressive Matrices

  12. Changes in rural areas of Ukraine: problems and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz, Serhiy Mykolayovych

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the main tendencies and perspectives of development of rural areas in Ukraine. It emphasizes that the key reason of existing socio-economic issues in rural regions is the absence of well-defined rural development policy. Thus, it is necessary for Ukraine to implement long-term rural policy, as it takes place in countries of the European Union. Rural development should be based on the territorial approach. The special attention should be paid to the creation of local action...

  13. Problems of mineral development: some areas of globalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, S.K.; Ali, S.V. (Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur (India))

    1994-01-01

    The mining scenario throughout the world is full of challenges and problems embracing all its segments such as exploration, mining, infrastructure, extraction, etc. In a number of instances, advantage has been taken of the international assistance particularly in the area of technology application and funding. Several countries have tailored their policies in order to catalyse the availability of such assistance. The scenario in India is no less different as far as problems and challenges in the mining sector are concerned. These are posed by areas such as increasing size of mining operations, need for preservation of environment, productivity improvement, deteriorating working conditions, mineral conservation etc. In India, technology has been imported in the past in the case of a number of organisations. With the assistance of technology and sustained efforts, appreciable results could be materialised particularly in the area of production. Improved financial performance has also been witnessed in the recent past in the case of a number of mining enterprises. The Indian mining industry is striving to further improve its performance by taking advantage of the experience of other countries. Globalisation is one such experience. With the present thinking for all round improvement, globalisation may yield rich dividends. It would be worthwhile to identify areas in the mining sector where globalisation can be sought for. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Minimization of Linear Functionals Defined on| Solutions of Large-Scale Discrete Ill-Posed Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elden, Lars; Hansen, Per Christian; Rojas, Marielba

    2003-01-01

    The minimization of linear functionals de ned on the solutions of discrete ill-posed problems arises, e.g., in the computation of con dence intervals for these solutions. In 1990, Elden proposed an algorithm for this minimization problem based on a parametric-programming reformulation involving...... the solution of a sequence of trust-region problems, and using matrix factorizations. In this paper, we describe MLFIP, a large-scale version of this algorithm where a limited-memory trust-region solver is used on the subproblems. We illustrate the use of our algorithm in connection with an inverse heat...

  15. The Criterion A problem revisited: controversies and challenges in defining and measuring psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Frank W; Keane, Terence M

    2007-04-01

    The Criterion A problem in the field of traumatic stress refers to the stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and involves a number of fundamental issues regarding the definition and measurement of psychological trauma. These issues first emerged with the introduction of PTSD as a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III; American Psychiatric Association, 1980) and continue to generate considerable controversy. In this article, the authors provide an update on the Criterion A problem, with particular emphasis on the evolution of the DSM definition of the stressor criterion and the ongoing debate regarding broad versus narrow conceptualizations of traumatic events.

  16. Defining Characteristics of Diagnostic Classification Models and the Problem of Retrofitting in Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Cui, Ying

    2008-01-01

    One promising application of diagnostic classification models (DCM) is in the area of cognitive diagnostic assessment in education. However, the successful application of DCM in educational testing will likely come with a price--and this price may be in the form of new test development procedures and practices required to yield data that satisfy…

  17. Defining Solutions, Finding Problems: Deforestation, Gender, and REDD+ in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Westholm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+ is a policy instrument meant to mitigate climate change while also achieving poverty reduction in tropical countries. It has garnered critics for homogenising environmental and development governance and for ignoring how similar efforts have tended to exacerbate gender inequalities. Nonetheless, regarding such schemes as inevitable, some feminists argue for requirements that include women′s empowerment and participation. In this paper we move beyond discussions about safeguards and examine whether the very framing of REDD+ programs can provide openings for a transformation as argued for by its proponents. Following the REDD+ policy process in Burkina Faso, we come to two important insights: REDD+ is a solution in need of a problem. Assumptions about gender are at the heart of creating ′actionable knowledge′ that enabled REDD+ to be presented as a policy solution to the problems of deforestation, poverty and gender inequality. Second, despite its ′safeguards′, REDD+ appears to be perpetuating gendered divisions of labour, as formal environmental decision-making moves upwards; and responsibility and the burden of actual environmental labour shifts further down in particularly gendered ways. We explore how this is enabled by the development of policies whose stated aims are to tackle inequalities.

  18. The Problems of the Defining the Risk: The Case of Mountaineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Seigneur

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A central assumption in sociology is that the view on the risk is essentially a construction rather than a strictly objective perspective. However, this approach has a tendency to forget objective knowledge and tangible facts. Our research on risks in high mountains compares the available information on risks (scientific literature, safety information, media coverage and political discourse with our empiric observations. Our work shows that there are differences caused by lack of fundamental reflection on the definition of the risk as a social construction. We propose to reconsider the definition of the risk with concepts closely connected to risk such as: uncertainty, emotion, phobia and danger, and to point out problems of confusion in several works of authors (e.g. those dealing with sensational activity, such as bungee jumping, as if it was dangerous. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601148

  19. Increased STAG2 dosage defines a novel cohesinopathy with intellectual disability and behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raman; Corbett, Mark A; Van Bon, Bregje W M; Gardner, Alison; Woenig, Joshua A; Jolly, Lachlan A; Douglas, Evelyn; Friend, Kathryn; Tan, Chuan; Van Esch, Hilde; Holvoet, Maureen; Raynaud, Martine; Field, Michael; Leffler, Melanie; Budny, Bartłomiej; Wisniewska, Marzena; Badura-Stronka, Magdalena; Latos-Bieleńska, Anna; Batanian, Jacqueline; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Jensen, Corinna; Bienek, Melanie; Froyen, Guy; Ullmann, Reinhard; Hu, Hao; Love, Michael I; Haas, Stefan A; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Cheung, Sau Wai; Baxendale, Anne; Nicholl, Jillian; Thompson, Elizabeth M; Haan, Eric; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Gecz, Jozef

    2015-12-20

    Next generation genomic technologies have made a significant contribution to the understanding of the genetic architecture of human neurodevelopmental disorders. Copy number variants (CNVs) play an important role in the genetics of intellectual disability (ID). For many CNVs, and copy number gains in particular, the responsible dosage-sensitive gene(s) have been hard to identify. We have collected 18 different interstitial microduplications and 1 microtriplication of Xq25. There were 15 affected individuals from 6 different families and 13 singleton cases, 28 affected males in total. The critical overlapping region involved the STAG2 gene, which codes for a subunit of the cohesin complex that regulates cohesion of sister chromatids and gene transcription. We demonstrate that STAG2 is the dosage-sensitive gene within these CNVs, as gains of STAG2 mRNA and protein dysregulate disease-relevant neuronal gene networks in cells derived from affected individuals. We also show that STAG2 gains result in increased expression of OPHN1, a known X-chromosome ID gene. Overall, we define a novel cohesinopathy due to copy number gain of Xq25 and STAG2 in particular.

  20. Ecosystem Services Modeling as a Tool for Defining Priority Areas for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Gabriela Teixeira; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Paglia, Adriano Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Conservationists often have difficulty obtaining financial and social support for protected areas that do not demonstrate their benefits for society. Therefore, ecosystem services have gained importance in conservation science in the last decade, as these services provide further justification for appropriate management and conservation of natural systems. We used InVEST software and a set of GIS procedures to quantify, spatialize and evaluated the overlap between ecosystem services—carbon stock and sediment retention—and a biodiversity proxy–habitat quality. In addition, we proposed a method that serves as an initial approach of a priority areas selection process. The method considers the synergism between ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. Our study region is the Iron Quadrangle, an important Brazilian mining province and a conservation priority area located in the interface of two biodiversity hotspots, the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes. The resultant priority area for the maintenance of the highest values of ecosystem services and habitat quality was about 13% of the study area. Among those priority areas, 30% are already within established strictly protected areas, and 12% are in sustainable use protected areas. Following the transparent and highly replicable method we proposed in this study, conservation planners can better determine which areas fulfill multiple goals and can locate the trade-offs in the landscape. We also gave a step towards the improvement of the habitat quality model with a topography parameter. In areas of very rugged topography, we have to consider geomorfometric barriers for anthropogenic impacts and for species movement and we must think beyond the linear distances. Moreover, we used a model that considers the tree mortality caused by edge effects in the estimation of carbon stock. We found low spatial congruence among the modeled services, mostly because of the pattern of sediment retention distribution. PMID

  1. Ecosystem Services Modeling as a Tool for Defining Priority Areas for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Gabriela Teixeira; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Paglia, Adriano Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Conservationists often have difficulty obtaining financial and social support for protected areas that do not demonstrate their benefits for society. Therefore, ecosystem services have gained importance in conservation science in the last decade, as these services provide further justification for appropriate management and conservation of natural systems. We used InVEST software and a set of GIS procedures to quantify, spatialize and evaluated the overlap between ecosystem services-carbon stock and sediment retention-and a biodiversity proxy-habitat quality. In addition, we proposed a method that serves as an initial approach of a priority areas selection process. The method considers the synergism between ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. Our study region is the Iron Quadrangle, an important Brazilian mining province and a conservation priority area located in the interface of two biodiversity hotspots, the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes. The resultant priority area for the maintenance of the highest values of ecosystem services and habitat quality was about 13% of the study area. Among those priority areas, 30% are already within established strictly protected areas, and 12% are in sustainable use protected areas. Following the transparent and highly replicable method we proposed in this study, conservation planners can better determine which areas fulfill multiple goals and can locate the trade-offs in the landscape. We also gave a step towards the improvement of the habitat quality model with a topography parameter. In areas of very rugged topography, we have to consider geomorfometric barriers for anthropogenic impacts and for species movement and we must think beyond the linear distances. Moreover, we used a model that considers the tree mortality caused by edge effects in the estimation of carbon stock. We found low spatial congruence among the modeled services, mostly because of the pattern of sediment retention distribution.

  2. Ecosystem Services Modeling as a Tool for Defining Priority Areas for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Teixeira Duarte

    Full Text Available Conservationists often have difficulty obtaining financial and social support for protected areas that do not demonstrate their benefits for society. Therefore, ecosystem services have gained importance in conservation science in the last decade, as these services provide further justification for appropriate management and conservation of natural systems. We used InVEST software and a set of GIS procedures to quantify, spatialize and evaluated the overlap between ecosystem services-carbon stock and sediment retention-and a biodiversity proxy-habitat quality. In addition, we proposed a method that serves as an initial approach of a priority areas selection process. The method considers the synergism between ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. Our study region is the Iron Quadrangle, an important Brazilian mining province and a conservation priority area located in the interface of two biodiversity hotspots, the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes. The resultant priority area for the maintenance of the highest values of ecosystem services and habitat quality was about 13% of the study area. Among those priority areas, 30% are already within established strictly protected areas, and 12% are in sustainable use protected areas. Following the transparent and highly replicable method we proposed in this study, conservation planners can better determine which areas fulfill multiple goals and can locate the trade-offs in the landscape. We also gave a step towards the improvement of the habitat quality model with a topography parameter. In areas of very rugged topography, we have to consider geomorfometric barriers for anthropogenic impacts and for species movement and we must think beyond the linear distances. Moreover, we used a model that considers the tree mortality caused by edge effects in the estimation of carbon stock. We found low spatial congruence among the modeled services, mostly because of the pattern of sediment retention

  3. Wide-field retinotopy defines human cortical visual area v6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, Sabrina; Galletti, Claudio; Huang, Ruey-Song; Patria, Fabiana; Committeri, Giorgia; Galati, Gaspare; Fattori, Patrizia; Sereno, Martin I

    2006-07-26

    The retinotopic organization of a newly identified visual area near the midline in the dorsalmost part of the human parieto-occipital sulcus was mapped using high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging, cortical surface-based analysis, and wide-field retinotopic stimulation. This area was found in all 34 subjects that were mapped. It represents the contralateral visual hemifield in both hemispheres of all subjects, with upper fields located anterior and medial to areas V2/V3, and lower fields medial and slightly anterior to areas V3/V3A. It contains a representation of the center of gaze distinct from V3A, a large representation of the visual periphery, and a mirror-image representation of the visual field. Based on similarity in position, visuotopic organization, and relationship with the neighboring extrastriate visual areas, we suggest it might be the human homolog of macaque area V6, and perhaps of area M (medial) or DM (dorsomedial) of New World primates.

  4. Inappropriate prescribing in the hospitalized elderly patient: Defining the problem, evaluation tools, and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Page II

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert L Page II1, Sunny A Linnebur2, Lucinda L Bryant3, J Mark Ruscin41Associate Professor of Clinical Pharmacy and Physical Medicine, Clinical Specialist, Division of Cardiology and Heart Transplantation, 2Associate Professor of Clinical Pharmacy, Clinical Specialist, Center on the Aging, Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine, 3Assistant Professor of Community and Behavioral Health, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA; 4Professor, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville School of Pharmacy, Edwardsville, IL, USAAbstract: Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM prescribing in older adults is quite prevalent and is associated with an increased risk for adverse drug events, morbidity, and utilization of health care resources. In the acute care setting, PIM prescribing can be even more problematic due to multiple physicians and specialists who may be prescribing for a single patient as well as difficulty with medication reconciliation at transitions and limitations imposed by hospital formularies. This article highlights critical issues surrounding PIM prescribing in the acute care setting such as risk factors, screening tools, and potential strategies to minimize this significant public health problem.Keywords: inappropriate prescribing, aged, elderly, adverse drug events, adverse drug reactions, Beers’ criteria, screening

  5. Defining a social problem: socio-historical analysis of the antinuclear weapons movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrea, F.B.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation is a socio-historical analysis of the anti-nuclear weapons movement in the United States. This work conceptualizes social movements in advanced industrial societies by synthesizing certain aspects of social constructionism, resource mobilization, and new class theory. The research design is a socio-historical, comparative case study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are employed for data analysis. Extensive content analysis of documents and interviews with key actors are supplemented with a critical analysis of a wide variety of primary and secondary data. All major antinuclear weapons protest, particularly the Atomic Scientists Movement of the 1940s, the Ban-the-Bomb Movement of the 1950s and 1960s, and the Freeze Movement of the 1980s, shared similar characteristics, and experienced similar problems. The findings are congruent with the theoretical synthesis. Antinuclear weapons protest is best understood as a new class phenomenon, in which intellectuals have mobilized resources to challenge the ruling elite. Yet, though the protest has succeeded in challenging the legitimacy of the ruling apparatus, successes of the movement have been mostly symbolic.

  6. Interpersonal problem areas and alexithymia in adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sarah Shafer; Elliott, Camden; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Shomaker, Lauren B; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Young, Jami F; Sbrocco, Tracy; Wilfley, Denise E; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the links among interpersonal problem areas, depression, and alexithymia in adolescent girls at high risk for excessive weight gain and binge eating disorder. Participants were 56 girls (Mage = 14.30, SD = 1.56; 53% non-Hispanic White) with a body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) between the 75th and 97th percentiles (MBMI z = 1.57, SD = 0.32). By design, all participants reported loss of control eating patterns in the past month. Adolescents were individually interviewed prior to participating in a group interpersonal psychotherapy obesity and eating disorder prevention program, termed IPT for the prevention of excessive weight gain (IPT-WG). Participants' interpersonal problem areas were coded by trained raters. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing depression and alexithymia. Primary interpersonal problem areas were categorized as interpersonal deficits [as defined in the eating disorders (ED) literature] (n = 29), role disputes (n = 22), or role transitions (n = 5). Girls with interpersonal deficits-ED had greater depressive symptoms and alexithymia than girls with role disputes (p's ≤ 0.01). However, girls with role transitions did not differ from girls with interpersonal deficits-ED or role disputes. Interpersonal problem area had an indirect association with depression via alexithymia; interpersonal deficits-ED were related to greater alexithymia, which in turn, was related to greater depressive symptoms (p = 0.01). Among girls at risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders, those with interpersonal deficits-ED appear to have greater distress as compared to girls with role disputes or role transitions. Future research is required to elucidate the impact of interpersonal problem areas on psychotherapy outcomes.

  7. A geographic information system-based method for estimating cancer rates in non-census defined geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Vincent L; Boylan, Emma E; Pugach, Oksana; Mclafferty, Sara L; Tossas-Milligan, Katherine Y; Watson, Karriem S; Winn, Robert A

    2017-08-20

    To address locally relevant cancer-related health issues, health departments frequently need data beyond that contained in standard census area-based statistics. We describe a geographic information system-based method for calculating age-standardized cancer incidence rates in non-census defined geographical areas using publically available data. Aggregated records of cancer cases diagnosed from 2009 through 2013 in each of Chicago's 77 census-defined community areas were obtained from the Illinois State Cancer Registry. Areal interpolation through dasymetric mapping of census blocks was used to redistribute populations and case counts from community areas to Chicago's 50 politically defined aldermanic wards, and ward-level age-standardized 5-year cumulative incidence rates were calculated. Potential errors in redistributing populations between geographies were limited to r = 0.99, mean difference = -4 persons). A map overlay of safety-net primary care clinic locations and ward-level incidence rates for advanced-staged cancers revealed potential pathways for prevention. Areal interpolation through dasymetric mapping can estimate cancer rates in non-census defined geographies. This can address gaps in local cancer-related health data, inform health resource advocacy, and guide community-centered cancer prevention and control.

  8. Simulasi Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN Berbasis Software Defined Network (SDN Menggunakan POX Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmat Tulloh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available VLAN (Virtual LAN merupakan sebuah teknologi yang dapat mengkonfigurasi jaringan logis independen dari struktur jaringan fisik. Hasil dari penelitian sebelumnya sudah diprediksi bahwa dibutuhkan Virtual Network yang akhirnya terciptalah VLAN. Namun paradigma jaringan saat ini tidak flexible, ketergantungan terhadap vendor sangat besar karena fungsi data plane dan control plane berada dalam satu paket device. SDN (Software defined network yang merupakan salahsatu evolusi teknologi jaringan sesuai dengan tuntutan yang berkembang dimana memisahkan fungsi data plane dan control plane pada suatu perangkat. POX Controller digunakan untuk men-simulasikan dan menguji Platform SDN (Software defined network. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan Openflow versi 1.0 untuk memasang header VLAN sehingga penelitian ini difokuskan untuk mengevaluasi performa forwarding VLAN yang memanfaatkan Openflow sebagai control plane dapat berfungsi dengan baik. Hasil penelitian ini mengusulkan penerapan karakteristik teknologi VLAN pada SDN karena telah berjalan dengan benar sesuai hasil pengujian konektifitas, verifikasi dan keamanan. Kemudian hasil pengujian lanjutan untuk melihat pengaruh SDN dengan skenario penambahan jumlah VLAN ID didapatkan bahwa set-up time akan bertambah seiring meningkatnya jumlah host dan dengan menggunakan protokol OpenFlow, latency yang terjadi di jaringan dapat dipantau dengan parameter round trip time (RTT yang stabil direntang 0,2 sampai 6 second walaupun jumlah vlan_id dan background traffic bertambah.

  9. Multiobjective Optimization Problem of Multireservoir System in Semiarid Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing scarcity of water resources, the growing importance of the optimization operation of the multireservoir system in water resources development, utilization, and management is increasingly evident. Some of the existing optimization methods are inadequate in applicability and effectiveness. Therefore, we need further research in how to enhance the applicability and effectiveness of the algorithm. On the basis of the research of the multireservoir system’s operating parameters in the Urumqi River basin, we establish a multiobjective optimization problem (MOP model of water resources development, which meets the requirements of water resources development. In the mathematical model, the domestic water consumption is the biggest, the production of industry and agricultural is the largest, the gross output value of industry and agricultural is the highest, and the investment of the water development is the minimum. We use the weighted variable-step shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA to resolve it, which satisfies the constraints. Through establishing the test function and performance metrics, we deduce the evolutionary algorithms, which suit for solving MOP of the scheduling, and realize the multiobjective optimization of the multireservoir system. After that, using the fuzzy theory, we convert the competitive multiobjective function into single objective problem of maximum satisfaction, which is the only solution. A feasible solution is provided to resolve the multiobjective scheduling optimization of multireservoir system in the Urumqi River basin. It is the significance of the layout of production, the regional protection of ecological environment, and the sufficient and rational use of natural resources, in Urumqi and the surrounding areas.

  10. The marine mollusk fauna of the Virginian area as a basis for defining Zoogeographical provinces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, H.E.

    1962-01-01

    The marine fauna of the American Atlantic coast between Cape Cod and Cape Hatteras, the Virginian area, is placed by zoogeographers in different provinces: in the Transatlantic, or in the Boreal province. It is sometimes considered to be a province of its own, or only a transition between the Boreal

  11. Problem area 1 effective water management in agriculture-Product area accomplishments-FY 11 - FY14

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service National Program 211 is composed of four components or problem areas. Problem Area 1, Effective Water Management in Agriculture, focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) I...

  12. Construction of a System for Defining Areas which are not Obtained Data from Stereo Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, H.; Chikatsu, H.

    2012-07-01

    Recently, digital documentation and visualization of various cultural assets have been receiving attention. For example, a small Buddha with a height of approximately 4 cm is categorized as a cultural asset. Such a small object has to be documented. Generally, in order to perform 3D modeling of small objects from the viewpoint of digital very close range photogrammetry, multi view images are taken. However, it is important to confirm the occluded part and image quality after taking images. In order to confirm the defocusing of images and the areas which were not obtained data from stereo images, a system is proposed for confirming data with a macro lens and convenient 3D measurement software called 3DiVision. Finally, it is proposed that the data be supplemented in areas which are not obtained data.

  13. A diagram for defined solar radiation absorbed per unit area of flat plate solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Y.; Altuntop, N. [Erciyes University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Reno University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NV (United States); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada University, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In Erciyes University, the Solar House (28.75 m{sup 2}) is heated from the floor by using flat plate liquid solar collectors. Required solar radiation for heating and heat losses are calculated. In this work, the required calculations for Erciyes Solar House were generalized and required calculation were done to evaluate absorbed solar radiation per unit surface of the flat plate liquid collector. At the end, three generalized diagrams for nine different months are obtained using obtained numerical values. The goal of preparing diagrams is to determine absorbed solar radiation per unit surface area of flat plate liquid collector at any instant at any latitude, In this work, the diagram is explained by means of sample calculations for November. This diagram was prepared to find out absorbed solar radiation per unit area of black surface collector by means obtained equations. With this diagram, all instant solar radiation can be evaluated in 19 steps. (authors)

  14. Defining Indicators and Standards for Tourism Impacts in Protected Areas: Cape Range National Park, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan A.; Polley, Amanda

    2007-03-01

    Visitors’ perceptions of impacts and acceptable standards for environmental conditions can provide essential information for the sustainable management of tourist destinations, especially protected areas. To this end, visitor surveys were administered during the peak visitor season in Cape Range National Park, on the northwest coast of Western Australia and adjacent to the iconic Ningaloo Reef. The central focus was visitors’ perceptions regarding environmental conditions and standards for potential indicators. Conditions considered of greatest importance in determining visitors’ quality of experience included litter, inadequate disposal of human waste, presence of wildlife, levels of noise, and access to beach and ocean. Standards were determined, based on visitors’ perceptions, for a range of site-specific and non-site-specific indicators, with standards for facilities (e.g., acceptable number of parking bays, signs) and for negative environmental impacts (e.g., levels of littering, erosion) sought. The proposed standards varied significantly between sites for the facilities indicators; however, there was no significant difference between sites for environmental impacts. For the facilities, the standards proposed by visitors were closely related to the existing situation, suggesting that they were satisfied with the status quo. These results are considered in the context of current research interest in the efficacy of visitor-derived standards as a basis for protected area management.

  15. Defining indicators and standards for tourism impacts in protected areas: Cape Range National Park, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan A; Polley, Amanda

    2007-03-01

    Visitors' perceptions of impacts and acceptable standards for environmental conditions can provide essential information for the sustainable management of tourist destinations, especially protected areas. To this end, visitor surveys were administered during the peak visitor season in Cape Range National Park, on the northwest coast of Western Australia and adjacent to the iconic Ningaloo Reef. The central focus was visitors' perceptions regarding environmental conditions and standards for potential indicators. Conditions considered of greatest importance in determining visitors' quality of experience included litter, inadequate disposal of human waste, presence of wildlife, levels of noise, and access to beach and ocean. Standards were determined, based on visitors' perceptions, for a range of site-specific and non-site-specific indicators, with standards for facilities (e.g., acceptable number of parking bays, signs) and for negative environmental impacts (e.g., levels of littering, erosion) sought. The proposed standards varied significantly between sites for the facilities indicators; however, there was no significant difference between sites for environmental impacts. For the facilities, the standards proposed by visitors were closely related to the existing situation, suggesting that they were satisfied with the status quo. These results are considered in the context of current research interest in the efficacy of visitor-derived standards as a basis for protected area management.

  16. A microtremor survey to define the subsoil structure in a mud volcano areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, Francesco; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Lupi, Matteo; Karyono, Karyono; Mazzini, Adriano

    2017-04-01

    Mud erupting systems have been observed and studied in different localities on the planet. They are characterized by emissions of fluids and fragmented sedimentary rocks creating large structures with different morphologies. This is mainly due to the presence of clay-bearing strata that can be buoyant in the surrounding regions and over-pressured fluids that facilitate the formation of diapirs through sedimentary rocks. In this study, we investigate the Lusi mud erupting system mainly by using ambient vibration methods. In particular, thickness of the sediments and the body wave velocities have been investigated. Results are integrated with gravimetry and electrical resistivity data in order to locate the main geological discontinuities in the area as well as to reconstruct a 3D model of the buried structure. The approach commonly used for this type of studies is based on the ratio of the horizontal to vertical components of ground motion (HVSR) and on passive array techniques. The HVSR generally enables to recognize peaks that point out to the fundamental frequency of the site, which usually fit quite well the theoretical resonance curves. The combination of HVSR and shear wave velocity, coming from passive array techniques, enables to collect valuable information about the subsurface structures. Here we present new data collected at the mud volcano and sedimentary hosted hydrothermal system sites in order to investigate the depths of the main discontinuities and of the hypothesized hydrocarbon reservoirs. We present the case study of Salse di Nirano (northen Italy), Salinelle (Mt. Etna, Sicily) and Lusi hydrothermal systems (Indonesia). Our results indicate that the ambient vibrations study approach represents a swift and simplified methods that provides quick information on the shallow subsoil structure of the investigated areas.

  17. Community hygiene problems and environmental protection measures in the area of natural monument "Zvezdara forest"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community hygiene conditions and equipment represent significant indicators of the quality management of green areas. As a space of exceptional importance for protection of forest complex and biodiversity in an urban environment, Zvezdara forest is placed under protection as a natural monument by an act of the Assembly of the City of Belgrade, where measures of environmental protection and preservation of this area, as one of the most important green areas in this part of the city, are also defined (wind protection role, enrichment of the air with oxygen, thermoregulation, etc., but as well as a space for sports, recreation, picnics. This research presents the community hygiene problems (“illegal landfills”, lack of garbage cans, hydrants, public toilets and drinking fountains, etc. and environmental issues (“wild” construction, landslides, etc.. The aim of this research is the recommendations of environmental protection measures and removal of community hygiene and environmental issues, presented in the final part of this research paper, which could be used in the future during preparation of planning documents, in order to achieve better environmental management in the area of Zvezdara forest. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  18. Discretization and its proof for numerical solution of a Cauchy problem for Laplace equation with inaccurately given Cauchy conditions on an inaccurately defined arbitrary surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laneev, E. B.; Mouratov, M. N.; Zhidkov, E. P.

    2008-05-01

    Cauchy problem for the Laplace equation with inaccurately given Cauchy conditions on an inaccurately defined arbitrary surface is considered. Discretization was performed and proved to obtain a numerical solution. An economic algorithm is proposed.

  19. Plan of study to define hydrogeologic characteristics of the Madera Limestone in the east mountain area of central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The east mountain area of central New Mexico includes the eastern one-third of Bernalillo County and portions of Sandoval, Santa Fe, and Torrance Counties. The area covers about 320 square miles. The Madera Limestone, the principal aquifer in the east mountain area, is the sole source of water for domestic, municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses for many residents. Some water is imported from wells near Edgewood by the Entranosa Water Cooperative, which serves a population of approximately 3,300. The remaining population is served by small water systems that derive supplies locally or by individually owned domestic wells. The population of the east mountain area has increased dramatically over the past 20 years. In 1970, the population of the east mountain area was about 4,000. Demographic projections suggest that approximately 1,000 people per year are moving into the area, and with a growth rate of 3.0 percent the population will be 16,700 in 2000. Consequently, ground-water withdrawals have increased substantially over the past 20 years, and will continue to increase. Little is known about the flow characteristics and hydrogeologic properties of the Madera Limestone. This report describes existing information about the geologic and hydrologic framework and flow characteristics of the Madera Limestone, and presents a plan of study for data-collection activities and interpretive studies that could be conducted to better define the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Madera Limestone. Data-collection activities and interpretive studies related to the hydrogeologic components of the Madera Limestone are prioritized. Activities that are necessary to improve the quantification of a component are prioritized as essential. Activities that could add additional understanding of a component, but would not be necessary to improve the quantification of a component, are prioritized as useful.

  20. How do providers serving American Indians and Alaska Natives with substance abuse problems define evidence-based treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laurie A; Aarons, Gregory A; Davis, Jordan H; Novins, Douglas K

    2015-05-01

    Rates of substance abuse remain high in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. While there are many evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for substance use problems, no studies exist describing how directors of treatment programs serving AI/ANs perceive and use EBTs. Twenty-one key informant interviews with program administrators and 10 focus groups with clinicians were conducted at 18 treatment programs for AI/ANs with substance use problems. Demographic data were not collected to protect participant privacy. Transcripts were coded to identify relevant themes. A majority of participants correctly defined an EBT using the key terms "effective" and "research" found in standard definitions of the phrase. More detailed descriptions were uncommon. Prevalent themes related to attitudes about EBTs included concerns about cultural relevance, external mandates to use EBTs, and their reliance on western conceptualization of substance abuse. While most administrators and clinicians who treat AI/AN clients for substance abuse had a basic understanding of what constitutes an EBT, there was little consensus regarding their relevance for use with AI/ANs. Recognizing that broad geographic and tribal diversity among AI/AN populations may impact conclusions drawn about EBTs, several factors may enhance the abilities of program staff to identify EBTs most appropriate for local implementation. These include gaining a more detailed understanding of how an EBT is developed and how to assess its scientific grounding, as well as utilizing definitions of EBTs that include not only research evidence, but also clinical expertise and judgment, and fit with consumer choice, preference, and culture. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. QPS - analysis of main problems, areas to target, possible improvements

    CERN Document Server

    Denz, R

    2012-01-01

    The fault statistics of the LHC Quench Protection System QPS for the LHC run 2011 will be presented and the various fault types explained. Starting with teething and EMC related problems, the tune feedback compatibility, hardware faults of the quench heater power supplies and spurious openings of electrical circuit breakers will be described in more details. Hereby as well the necessary and potential consolidation measures will be discussed. The role of the MPE standby service for the system availability will be addressed. Finally radiation induced faults and the respective mitigation and consolidation measures will be treated as separate subject.

  2. Affective dimensions of urban crime areas : towards the psycho-geography of urban problem areas

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Traditional studies of crime areas within cities by geographers focus on the spatial variations in the incidence of crime, as well as the social deprivation and social disorganization of these areas. Although these social content and behavioural features are often highly correlated with crime areas. it is argued that analytical studies of crime areas need to be extended to deal with the feelings and attitudes of people in these areas.Ten separate dimensions of the affecti...

  3. Problems of health education in rural areas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Goździewska, Małgorzata; Dobrowolska, Beata; Gałęziowska, Edyta

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion is aimed at the reduction of the differences in society's access to factors determining the frequency of occurrence of pro-health behaviours. This means the construction of health resources and increase in the level of egalitarianism in access to these resources. Health education carried out on a high level in rural schools provides actual possibilities for gaining these resources. Many examples of educational practices confirm that the establishment of health conditioning and health behaviours of schoolchildren, and the diagnosis of rural school on the background of the specificity of the community in which it functions. These are a basis for the construction of effective educational programmes, and not analysis of the differences between urban and rural children and adolescents. In Poland, the performance of health education in rural schools encounters many problems associated both with the lack of infrastructure for health promotion, insufficient perception of the importance of health education at school by the educational authorities, underestimation of primary health care, low activity of the local governments, and lack of qualified rural health promoters. Current health education in Polish rural schools deepens inequalities in access to health, and postpones the moment of providing equal opportunities for rural and urban schoolchildren with access to the resources which condition the maintenance or even an enhancement of health. The objective of the study is to present selected problems in the performance of health education in a Polish rural school in the light of international trends, experiences and discussions related with an optimum form of health promotion in the environment of rural a school and the community.

  4. Defining health catchment areas in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia: an example demonstrating the utility of geographical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkader A. Murad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A tool, based on a geographical information system (GIS approach, has been developed for the location and organization of public health care centers in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. The potential of GIS for visualizing and modeling available information on health-care has been utilized to produce a “best-fit application”. This paper identifies and deals with the manner in which GIS can successfully be used for evaluating the demand and supply of health care facilities as well as be applied for defining health catchment areas. The study uses the essential achievements gained to analyze the advantages of GIS for health care planning and the location of health care centers. Some specific GIS tools, as well as single and multiple spatial search functions, are presented.

  5. The Social and Ecological Problems of Urbanized Areas in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Gunin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies on the formation of urbanized territories and metropolitan areas in Mongolia, and the in fl uences of the industrial complex on the pollution level in urban landscapes, as well as on population health. The capital city, Ulaanbaatar, is one of the most highly polluted cities in the Central Asian region. The data on spatial distribution and the contents of toxic elements in the soils, snow cover, plants and human hair are given, according to the main ecological zones of the city. The statistical data on the dynamics of birthrate, rates of sickness and death of the population by the main groups of diseases are analyzed in accordance with the classi fi cation of the World Health Organization.

  6. Areas of Unsolved Problems in Caribbean Active Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    I review some unsolved problems in Caribbean active tectonics. At the regional and plate scale: 1) confirm the existence of intraplate deformation zones of the central Caribbean plate that are within the margin of error of ongoing GPS measurements; 2) carry out field studies to evaluate block models versus models for distributed fault shear on the densely populated islands of Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; 3) carry out paleoseismological research of key plate boundary faults that may have accumulated large strains but have not been previously studied in detail; 4) determine the age of onset and far-field effects of the Cocos ridge and the Central America forearc sliver; 4) investigate the origin and earthquake-potential of obliquely-sheared rift basins along the northern coast of Venezuela; 5) determine the age of onset and regional active, tectonic effects of the Panama-South America collision including the continued activation of the Maracaibo block; and 6) validate longterm rates on active subduction zones with improving, tomographic maps of subducted slabs. At the individual fault scale: 1) determine the mode of termination of large and active strike -slip faults and application of the STEP model (Septentrional, Polochic, El Pilar, Bocono, Santa Marta-Bucaramanaga); 2) improve the understanding of the earthquake potential on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone given "off-fault" events such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake; how widespread is this behavior?; and 3) estimate size of future tsunamis from studies of historic or prehistoric slump scars and mass transport deposits; what potential runups can be predicted from this information?; and 4) devise ways to keep rapidly growing, circum-Caribbean urban populations better informed and safer in the face of inevitable and future, large earthquakes.

  7. [Human African trypanosomiasis in an urban area: an emerging problem?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, F J; Bilenge, C M; Simarro, P P; Meso, V Kande; Lucas, P; Jannin, J

    2003-08-01

    The human African trypanosomiasis is essentially a rural disease. The notification of cases in urban area has always been incidental; either a diagnosis made in town revealed a disease contracted in rural environment or it meant the preservation of a complete epidemiological cycle in a remaining urban micro-focus. In Kinshasa, in Democratic Republic of Congo, about forty cases have been notified each year. All of them came from the nearby foci of Bandundu, Lower Congo and Kasaï. In 1996 the number of cases reached suddenly 254 and today the average annual number comes up to 500 in spite of all the efforts undertaken to fight the disease. A study of cases in 1998 and 1999 shows that patients are essentially distributed in suburbs and that the most affected by the disease are the 15-49 year old ones whose job is related with agricultural or fishing activities. Two phenomena seem to explain this sudden increase: the massive inflow of refugees in outskirts of town coming from provinces where trypanosomiasis is endemic and a major economic crisis throwing out urban population in suburbs living on a subsistence micro-agriculture. These concomitant factors have contributed to the setting up of a trypanosomiasis belt around the capital. Today a strategy has to be reconsidered in order to fight against the disease in the capital itself and to make the medical staff aware of the diagnosis of a disease still unknown in their sanitary district.

  8. An adaptation of the Interpersonal Problem Areas Rating Scale: pilot and interrater agreement study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Ana Claudia Fontes; Frank, Ellen; Neto, Francisco Lotufo; Houck, Patricia R

    2012-01-01

    Objective This article describes the adaptation of a rating scale of interpersonal psychotherapy problem areas to include a fifth problem area appropriate to bipolar disorder and an interrater agreement study in identifying interpersonal problem areas and selecting a primary treatment focus if patients were to engage in treatment. Method Five research interpersonal psychotherapists assessed nine audiotapes of a single interview with five bipolar and four unipolar patients in which the interpersonal inventory and identification of problem areas were undertaken. Results Raters agreed on presence and absence of problem areas in seven tapes. Kappas for identification of problem areas were 1.00 (grief), 0.77 (role dispute), 0.61 (role transition), 0.57 (interpersonal deficits) and 1.00 (loss of healthy self). Kappa for agreement on a primary clinical focus if patients were to engage in interpersonal psychotherapy treatment was 0.64. Conclusions The adaptation of the original scale to include an area pertinent to bipolar disorder proved to be applicable and relevant for use with this population. The results show substantial interrater agreement in identifying problem areas and potential treatment focus. PMID:19142412

  9. Defining optimal DEM resolutions and point densities for modelling hydrologically sensitive areas in agricultural catchments dominated by microtopography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, I. A.; Jordan, P.; Shine, O.; Fenton, O.; Mellander, P.-E.; Dunlop, P.; Murphy, P. N. C.

    2017-02-01

    Defining critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments depends upon the accurate delineation of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest risk of generating surface runoff pathways. In topographically complex landscapes, this delineation is constrained by digital elevation model (DEM) resolution and the influence of microtopographic features. To address this, optimal DEM resolutions and point densities for spatially modelling HSAs were investigated, for onward use in delineating CSAs. The surface runoff framework was modelled using the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and maps were derived from 0.25 m LiDAR DEMs (40 bare-earth points m-2), resampled 1 m and 2 m LiDAR DEMs, and a radar generated 5 m DEM. Furthermore, the resampled 1 m and 2 m LiDAR DEMs were regenerated with reduced bare-earth point densities (5, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 points m-2) to analyse effects on elevation accuracy and important microtopographic features. Results were compared to surface runoff field observations in two 10 km2 agricultural catchments for evaluation. Analysis showed that the accuracy of modelled HSAs using different thresholds (5%, 10% and 15% of the catchment area with the highest TWI values) was much higher using LiDAR data compared to the 5 m DEM (70-100% and 10-84%, respectively). This was attributed to the DEM capturing microtopographic features such as hedgerow banks, roads, tramlines and open agricultural drains, which acted as topographic barriers or channels that diverted runoff away from the hillslope scale flow direction. Furthermore, the identification of 'breakthrough' and 'delivery' points along runoff pathways where runoff and mobilised pollutants could be potentially transported between fields or delivered to the drainage channel network was much higher using LiDAR data compared to the 5 m DEM (75-100% and 0-100%, respectively). Optimal DEM resolutions of 1-2 m were identified for modelling HSAs, which balanced the need

  10. SCREENING TO IDENTIFY AND PREVENT URBAN STORM WATER PROBLEMS: ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS AREA ACCURATELY AND INEXPENSIVELY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete identification and eventual prevention of urban water quality problems pose significant monitoring, "smart growth" and water quality management challenges. Uncontrolled increase of impervious surface area (roads, buildings, and parking lots) causes detrimental hydrologi...

  11. SCREENING TO IDENTIFY AND PREVENT URBAN STORM WATER PROBLEMS: ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS AREA ACCURATELY AND INEXPENSIVELY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete identification and eventual prevention of urban water quality problems pose significant monitoring, "smart growth" and water quality management challenges. Uncontrolled increase of impervious surface area (roads, buildings, and parking lots) causes detrimental hydrologi...

  12. Have I Ever Done Anything Like This Before? Older Adults Solving Ill-Defined Problems in Intensive Volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Cheryl; Piercy, Kathleen W; Kohlenberg, Meranda

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the ways in which individuals over 50 years old solved problems while volunteering in intensive humanitarian and disaster relief service. Thirty-seven men and women in the sample were sponsored by three religious organizations well known for providing humanitarian and disaster relief service. Semistructured interviews yielded data that were analyzed qualitatively, using McCracken's five-step process for analysis. We found that volunteers used three different abilities to solve problems: drawing upon experience to create strategies, maintaining emotional stability in the midst of trying circumstances, and applying strategies in a context-sensitive manner. These findings illustrate that these factors, which are comparable to those used in solving everyday problems, are unique in the way they are applied to intensive volunteering. The volunteers' sharing of knowledge, experience, and support with each other were also noticeable in their accounts of their service. This sharing contributed strongly to their sense of emotional stability and effectiveness in solving problems.

  13. [Problem areas and examples of best practice in intersectoral medication treatment--a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrmann, Lena; Ollenschläger, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Transitions between the outpatient and inpatient sector are a critical phase in medication treatment. This article provides an overview of published problem areas and examples of best practice in the intersectoral medication treatment. Data with regard to related problem areas and examples of best practice was collected in August 2011 by a systematic literature research. The relevant literature was identified using the following databases and search engines: MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google, and Google Scholar. Additionally, a hand search was done on the websites of SpringerLink and Thieme Connect. The initial search yielded a total of 4,409 records which were further selected in two screening steps and analysed according to their relevance. Of the remaining 63 records, 3 exclusively described problem areas, 11 of them examples of best practice, and 49 provided information on both problem areas and examples of best practice with regard to intersectoral medication treatment. Among other things, problem areas include varying legal regulations in inpatient and outpatient medication treatment, drug therapy interruptions after hospital discharge, or deficits in communication and continuity of care. Examples of best practice are projects, programmes, initiatives, recommendations, and points to consider with respect to medication reconciliation, pharmaceutical support, or transitions of care. Problem areas as well as examples of best practice are mainly focused on the transition from inpatient to outpatient care.

  14. Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here…

  15. Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here…

  16. Flood Management: A technical solution for the flooding problems encountered in the Lower Moshi area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eitjes, W.T.A.M.; Elshof, A.A.; Guijt, K.; Van Loon, O.D.M.; Mureau, M.D.A.

    2016-01-01

    This report focuses on the flooding problems in the Lower Moshi area, Tanzania. These floods are the result of the extremely large catchment of the Kilimanjaro region in combination with large peaks in precipitation during the short and the long rainy seasons. The river bordering the area of interes

  17. Clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected children with leprosy: A population based study in a defined rural and urban area of Maharashtra, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanaja P Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy has been a major public-health problem in many developing countries for centuries. According to the National Leprosy Elimination Programme report of March 2012, there were a total of about 0.13 million cases of leprosy in India, 9.7% of which were children. Numerous studies have investigated child leprosy amongst reported cases however, studies pertaining to proportion and characteristics of undetected childhood cases in the community are very few. Aim: To examine the clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected child leprosy cases in the community. Methods: The population survey conducted from June to September 2007 and the defined rural areas, which included five primary health centers of Panvel Taluka, in Raigad district and urban areas, which included M-east ward of the municipal corporation of greater Mumbai of western Maharashtra, India. Results: House-to-house survey yielded 32 and 37 so far, undetected child cases of leprosy in the rural and urban region, and the prevalence rate was 10.5 and 1.5 per 10,000, respectively. The age of child leprosy cases detected, ranged from 3 to 14 years with a mean of 10.06 ± 3.35 years in the rural and 9.97 ± 3.12 years in the urban area. Most of the cases were paucibacillary (62%. A large proportion of children (49% had single skin lesion (SSL. Of the 19 SSL cases examined histopathologically, 15 (99% showed features of borderline tuberculoid, 1 (5% borderline lepromatous and 3 (16% had indeterminate type of leprosy. Tuberculoid leprosy was not seen in any, indicating less likelihood of self-healing. Overall, three cases had deformity (grade 1 = 1 and grade 2 = 2 and 31% of multibacillary cases were smear positive. Conclusion: The clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected child cases in the community evidently indicate the grave nature of the problem of undetected child leprosy, recent active

  18. On The Fekete-Szegö Problem for Generalized Class Mα,γ(β Defined By Differential Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye Müge SAKAR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study the classical Fekete-Szegö problem was investigated. Given f(z=z+a2z2+a3z3+...  to be an analytic standartly normalized function in the open unit disk U={z ∈ C : |z|<1}. For |a3-μa22|, a sharp maximum value is provided through the classes of S*α,γ(β order β and type α under the condition of μ≥1.

  19. Problems and relevant strategies on natural forest protection in Changbai Mountain forest area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-cheng

    2003-01-01

    Changbai Mountain forest area is not only is a national timber base but also a green ecological defense for Songliao Plain of NE China. The Natural Forest Protection Project of this area has an important bearing on the social and economic sustainable development of Jilin Province or even the whole forest area in NE China. This paper summarized general conditions of natural forest in Changbai Mountain state-owned forest area and put forward six problems need to be urgently solved and five strategic suggestions on natural forest protection and sustainable management.

  20. Facilitating students' application of the integral and the area under the curve concepts in physics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai

    This research project investigates the difficulties students encounter when solving physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the strategies to facilitate students learning to solve those types of problems. The research contexts of this project are calculus-based physics courses covering mechanics and electromagnetism. In phase I of the project, individual teaching/learning interviews were conducted with 20 students in mechanics and 15 students from the same cohort in electromagnetism. The students were asked to solve problems on several topics of mechanics and electromagnetism. These problems involved calculating physical quantities (e.g. velocity, acceleration, work, electric field, electric resistance, electric current) by integrating or finding the area under the curve of functions of related quantities (e.g. position, velocity, force, charge density, resistivity, current density). Verbal hints were provided when students made an error or were unable to proceed. A total number of 140 one-hour interviews were conducted in this phase, which provided insights into students' difficulties when solving the problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the hints to help students overcome those difficulties. In phase II of the project, tutorials were created to facilitate students' learning to solve physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts. Each tutorial consisted of a set of exercises and a protocol that incorporated the helpful hints to target the difficulties that students expressed in phase I of the project. Focus group learning interviews were conducted to test the effectiveness of the tutorials in comparison with standard learning materials (i.e. textbook problems and solutions). Overall results indicated that students learning with our tutorials outperformed students learning with standard materials in applying the integral and the area under the curve

  1. Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HA Qazi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat­ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan."nMethods: A cross sectional survey was conducted from January 1, 2008, to June 15, 2008. Convenience sampling was used to select the EVACUE housing situated and model village. From each house selected, interviews were conducted based on one participant per house. The main outcome variables were measure of different qualities of drinking water safety, taste, etc. Problems of waste and sanitation included disposal of solid waste and leakage of drainage system in the area."nResults: The results found water quality to be good with safe drinking water and less residents complained in EVACUEE as compared to Model. The results also found better sanitary services with proper drainage system and less open dumping of garbage in EVACUEE as compared to Model."nConclusion: Health problems of drinking water and sanitation were more prevalent in low socio economic areas as com­pared to higher socio economic area.

  2. Hypo-endemic onchocerciasis hotspots: defining areas of high risk through micro-mapping and environmental delineation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Stanton, Michelle C; Molyneux, David H

    2015-01-01

    ...) is targeted for elimination in Africa. This is a significant change in strategy from the 'control' of meso- and hyper-endemic areas through mass drug administration (MDA) with Mectizan® (ivermectin...

  3. On two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) with strict limits on sulfur emissions. For ships crossing in and out of ECAs, such as deep-sea vessels, one of the common options for complying with these limits is to burn heavy...

  4. Fragmentation of Thinking Structure's Students to Solving the Problem of Application Definite Integral in Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Kadek Adi; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Parta, I. Nengah

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the fragmentation of thinking structure's students in solving the problems of application definite integral in area. Fragmentation is a term on the computer (storage) that is highly relevant correlated with theoretical constructions that occur in the human brain (memory). Almost every student has a different way to…

  5. Polish mother and child cohort study--defining the problem, the aim of the study and methodological assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Ligocka, Danuta; Gulczyńska, Ewa; Sobala, Wojciech; Wásowicz, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Exposures during prenatal period have implications for pregnancy outcome as well as for children's health, morbidity and mortality. Prospective cohort study design allows for the identification of exposures that may influence pregnancy outcome and children's health, verification of such exposures by biomarker measurements and notification of any changes in exposure level. Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL) is multicenter prospective cohort study conducted in 8 different regions of Poland. The final cohort is intended to comprise 1300 mother-child pairs to be recruited within 4-year period (2007-2011). The recruitment and all scheduled visits are conducted in maternity units or clinics in the districts included in the study. The women are followed-up 3 times in pregnancy (once in each trimester) and after delivery for the notification of pregnancy outcome. During each visit, detailed questionnaire and biological samples are collected including saliva, urine, hair, maternal blood and cord blood. About 6 weeks postpartum, breast milk from part of the women is collected. The study concentrates on the identification and evaluation of the effects of prenatal environmental exposure on pregnancy outcome and children's health. Specific research hypotheses refer to the role of heavy metals, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the aetiology of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm delivery (PD). The role of oxidative stress putative mechanism and pregnant women nutritional status will be investigated. Based on questionnaire data, the impact of occupational exposures and stressful situations will be evaluated. The results of the study will become available within the next few years and will help to determine levels of child prenatal exposure in several areas of Poland and its impact on course and outcome of pregnancy.

  6. Central and peripheral components of writing critically depend on a defined area of the dominant superior parietal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrassi, Lorenzo; Bongetta, Daniele; Bianchini, Simonetta; Berardesca, Marta; Arienta, Cesare

    2010-07-30

    Classical neuropsychological models of writing separate central (linguistic) processes common to oral spelling, writing and typing from peripheral (motor) processes that are modality specific. Damage to the left superior parietal gyrus, an area of the cortex involved in peripheral processes specific to handwriting, should generate distorted graphemes but not misspelled words, while damage to other areas of the cortex like the frontal lobe should produce alterations in written and oral spelling without distorted graphemes. We describe the clinical and neuropsychological features of a patient with combined agraphia for handwriting and typewriting bearing a small glioblastoma in the left parietal lobe. His agraphia resolved after antiedema therapy and we tested by bipolar cortical stimulation his handwriting abilities during an awake neurosurgical procedure. We found that we could reversibly re-induce the same defects of writing by stimulating during surgery a limited area of the superior parietal gyrus in the same patient and in an independent patient that was never agraphic before the operation. In those patients stimulation caused spelling errors, poorly formed letters and in some cases a complete cessation of writing with minimal or no effects on oral spelling. Our results suggest that stimulating a specific area in the superior parietal gyrus we can generate different patterns of agraphia. Moreover, our findings also suggest that some of the central processes specific for typing and handwriting converge with motor processes at least in the limited portion of the superior parietal gyrus we mapped in our patients.

  7. Fitting Irregular Shape Figures into Irregular Shape Areas for the Nesting Problem in the Leather Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara-Palma Luis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nesting problem of irregular shapes within irregular areas has been studied from several approaches due to their application in different industries. The particular case of cutting leather involves several restrictions that add complexity to this problem, it is necessary to generate products that comply with the quality required by customers This paper presents a methodology for the accommodation of irregular shapes in an irregular area (leather considering the constraints set by the footwear industry, and the results of this methodology when applied by a computer system. The scope of the system is to develop a working prototype that operates under the guidelines of a commercial production line of a sponsor company. Preliminary results got a reduction of 70% of processing time and improvement of 5% to 7% of the area usage when compared with manual accommodation.

  8. Spatial ecology of krill, micronekton and top predators in the central California Current: Implications for defining ecologically important areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A.; Field, John C.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Sakuma, Keith M.; Wells, Brian K.; Sydeman, William J.

    2012-11-01

    Marine spatial planning and ecosystem models that aim to predict and protect fisheries and wildlife benefit greatly from syntheses of empirical information on physical and biological partitioning of marine ecosystems. Here, we develop spatially-explicit oceanographic and ecological descriptions of the central California Current region. To partition this region, we integrate data from 20 years of shipboard surveys with satellite remote-sensing to characterize local seascapes of ecological significance, focusing on krill, other micronekton taxa, and top predators (seabirds and marine mammals). Specifically, we investigate if micronekton and predator assemblages co-vary spatially with mesoscale oceanographic conditions. The first principal component of environmental and micronekton seascapes indicates significant coupling between physics, primary productivity, and secondary and tertiary marine consumers. Subsequent principal components indicate latitudinal variability in niche-community space due to varying habitat characteristics between Monterey Bay (deep submarine canyon system) and the Gulf of the Farallones (extensive continental shelf), even though both of these sub-regions are located downstream from upwelling centers. Overall, we identified five ecologically important areas based on spatial integration of environmental and biotic features. These areas, characterized by proximity to upwelling centers, shallow pycnoclines, and high chlorophyll-a and krill concentrations, are potential areas of elevated trophic focusing for specific epipelagic and mesopelagic communities. This synthesis will benefit ecosystem-based management approaches for the central California Current, a region long-impacted by anthropogenic factors.

  9. LIVED EXPERIENCES OF HEALTH PROBLEMS OF ELDERLY RESIDING IN URBAN AREAS, KATHMANDU: PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bista Archana, Joshi Sarala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, number of old age population is increasing with advancement of biomedical technology. Old age is the time associated with biological, psychological and social changes which situate elderly to acquire different health related problems. Objectives: To find out lived experiences of elderly regarding their health problems residing in homes of Kathmandu city. Methods: Qualitative hermeneutic phenomenology approach was adopted. Researcher selected purposively four elderly residing in an urban area of Kathmandu Valley as the study participants. In-depth interview was conducted by using in-depth interview guideline, as well as medical records, field notes and observation clues were recorded. Interview was conducted in Nepali Language and was audio taped. The recording was transcribed by the researcher herself, and the data were analyzed thematically. Finally, different sources of data were triangulated. Results: The four main themes identified were physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, psychological and social problems. Experienced physical health problems were joint pain, hearing and vision deficit, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, gastritis and fall injury. Impaired Functional abilities in performing activities of daily living was commonly experienced problems. Loneliness and decreased recent memory power were the psychological problems. Being neglected by family members, financial constraints for treatment and improper care during illness were the discerned social problems. Conclusion: Elderly are suffering from different physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, as well as various psycho-social problems. Thus, health promotional activities need to be promoted for decreasing morbidity of elderly. Family members need to be focused in the care of elderly through national policy.

  10. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.; Brebbia, C.A.; Martin-Duque, J.F.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  11. Problems and Countermeasures for the Development of Rural Area in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural area in central China is a densely populated area with a lot of agricultural population,relatively developed agriculture and relatively backward non-agriculture. Its development status affects the process of rising strategy in central region,restricts the construction of a well-off society and a harmonious society in the central region and even China. Based on this,major problems in the development of agricultural area of central China are analyzed,such as large population of farmers,great development pressure on agricultural area,serious shortage of agricultural inputs,relatively low education level,backward infrastructure in agricultural area,and relatively backward non-agricultural development. In order to accelerate the rising of central area and to promote the rapid development of central agriculture,corresponding countermeasures are put forward,including increasing the financial support for the construction of agricultural areas,vigorously setting up multi-level rural education,strengthening the infrastructure construction of agricultural areas,consolidating the construction of rural organizations,reinforcing the management function of government,and increasing the research and extension of agricultural science and technology.

  12. Digital soil mapping for the support of delineation of Areas Facing Natural Constraints defined by common European biophysical criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Szatmári, Gábor; Tóth, Tibor; Szabó, József

    2016-04-01

    One of the main objectives of the EU's Common Agricultural Policy is to encourage maintaining agricultural production in Areas Facing Natural Constraints (ANC) in order to sustain agricultural production and use natural resources, in such a way to secure both stable production and income to farmers and to protect the environment. ANC assignment has both ecological and severe economical aspects. Recently the delimitation of ANCs is suggested to be carried out by using common biophysical diagnostic criteria on low soil productivity and poor climate conditions all over Europe. The criterion system was elaborated and has been repeatedly upgraded by JRC. The operational implementation is under member state competence. This process requires application of available soil databases and proper thematic and spatial inference methods. In our paper we present the inferences applied for the latest identification and delineation of areas with low soil productivity in Hungary according to JRC biophysical criteria related to soil: limited soil drainage, texture and stoniness (coarse texture, heavy clay, vertic properties), shallow rooting depth, chemical properties (salinity, sodicity, low pH). The compilation of target specific maps were based on the available legacy and recently collected data. In the present work three different data sources were used. The most relevant available data were queried from the datasets for each mapped criterion for either direct application or for the compilation a suitable, synthetic (non-measured) parameter. In some cases the values of the target variable originated from only one, in other cases from more databases. The reference dataset used in the mapping process was set up after substantial statistical analysis and filtering. It consisted of the values of the target variable attributed to the finally selected georeferenced locations. For spatial inference regression kriging was applied. Accuracy assessment was carried out by Leave One Out

  13. A GIS-based methodology to quantitatively define an Adjacent Protected Area in a shallow karst cavity: the case of Altamira cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elez, J; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Garcia-Anton, E; Benavente, D; Cañaveras, J C; Sanchez-Moral, S

    2013-03-30

    Different types of land use are usually present in the areas adjacent to many shallow karst cavities. Over time, the increasing amount of potentially harmful matter and energy, of mainly anthropic origin or influence, that reaches the interior of a shallow karst cavity can modify the hypogeal ecosystem and increase the risk of damage to the Palaeolithic rock art often preserved within the cavity. This study proposes a new Protected Area status based on the geological processes that control these matter and energy fluxes into the Altamira cave karst system. Analysis of the geological characteristics of the shallow karst system shows that direct and lateral infiltration, internal water circulation, ventilation, gas exchange and transmission of vibrations are the processes that control these matter and energy fluxes into the cave. This study applies a comprehensive methodological approach based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to establish the area of influence of each transfer process. The stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the interior of the cave were determined using 3D Laser Scanning topography combined with classical field work, data gathering, cartography and a porosity-permeability analysis of host rock samples. As a result, it was possible to determine the hydrogeological behavior of the cave. In addition, by mapping and modeling the surface parameters it was possible to identify the main features restricting hydrological behavior and hence direct and lateral infiltration into the cave. These surface parameters included the shape of the drainage network and a geomorphological and structural characterization via digital terrain models. Geological and geomorphological maps and models integrated into the GIS environment defined the areas involved in gas exchange and ventilation processes. Likewise, areas that could potentially transmit vibrations directly into the cave were identified. This study shows that it is possible to define a

  14. MODELING AND SOLVING A RICH VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEM FOR THE DELIVERY OF GOODS IN URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    José Ferreira de Souza Neto; Vitória Pureza

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This work addresses a vehicle routing problem that aims at representing delivery operations of large volumes of products in dense urban areas. Inspired by a case study in a drinks producer and distributor, we propose a mathematical programming model and solution approaches that take into account costs with own and chartered vehicles, multiple deliverymen, time windows in customers, compatibility of vehicles and customers, time limitations for the circulation of large vehicles in city...

  15. Estimating the incidence of connective tissue diseases and vasculitides in a defined population in Northern Savo area in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving, P; Marjoniemi, O; Niinisalo, H; Kononoff, A; Arstila, L; Savolainen, E; Rutanen, J; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2016-07-01

    Objective of the study was to evaluate the annual incidence and distribution of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vasculitides during 2010. All units practicing rheumatology in the Northern Savo area, Finland, participated in the study by collecting data on newly diagnosed adult patients with autoimmune connective tissue disease or vasculitis over 1-year period. Seventy-two cases with autoimmune connective tissue disease were identified. The annual incidence rates were as follows: systemic lupus erythematosus 3.4/100,000 (95 % CI 1.4-7.0), idiopathic inflammatory myopathies 1.9 (0.5-5.0), systemic sclerosis 4.4 (2.0-8.3), mixed connective tissue disease 1.0 (0.1-3.5), Sjögren's syndrome 10.7 (6.7-16.1) and undifferentiated connective tissue disease 13.6 (9.0-19.6). The annual incidence rates among vasculitis category were as follows: antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis 1.5/100,000 (95 % CI 0.3-4.3), central nervous system vasculitis 0.5 (0-2.7) and Henoch-Schönlein purpura 1.5 (0.3-4.3). The annual incidence of giant cell arteritis in the age group of 50 years or older was 7.5/100,000 (95 % CI 3.2-14.8). The longest delay from symptom onset to diagnosis occurred in systemic sclerosis. The incidences of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vasculitides were comparable with those in published literature. The present study showed female predominance in all connective tissue diseases, excluding idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases and mean age at onset of disease around 50 years of age. Despite improved diagnostic tools, diagnostic delay is long especially among patients with systemic sclerosis.

  16. EP BASED PSO METHOD FOR SOLVING PROFIT BASED MULTI AREA UNIT COMMITMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. VENKATESAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to solve the profit based multi area unit commitment problem (PBMAUCP using an evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization (EPPSO method. The objective of this paper is to maximize the profit of generation companies (GENCOs with considering system social benefit. The proposed method helps GENCOs to make a decision, how much power and reserve should be sold in markets, and how to schedule generators in order to receive the maximum profit. Joint operation of generation resources can result in significant operational cost savings. Power transfer between the areas through the tie lines depends upon the operating cost of generation at each hour and tie line transfer limits. The tie line transfer limits were considered as a set of constraints during optimization process to ensure the system security and reliability. The overall algorithm can be implemented on an IBM PC, which can process a fairly large system in a reasonable period of time. Case study of four areas with different load pattern each containing 7 units (NTPS and 26 units connected via tie lines have been taken for analysis. Numerical results showed comparing the profit of evolutionary programming-based particle swarm optimization method (EPPSO with conventional dynamic programming (DP, evolutionary programming (EP, and particle swarm optimization (PSO method. Experimental results shows that the application of this evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization method have the potential to solve profit based multi area unit commitment problem with lesser computation time.

  17. REUSE OF TREATED WASTEWATER IN AGRICULTURE: SOLVING WATER DEFICIT PROBLEMS IN ARID AREAS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal AZIZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid areas, the availability and the management of irrigation water have become priorities of great importance. The successive years of drought, induced by climate change and population growth, increasingly reduced the amount of water reserved for agriculture. Consequently, many countries have included wastewater reuse as an important dimension of water resources planning. In the more arid areas wastewater is used in agriculture, releasing high resource of water supplies. In this context, the present work is a review focusing the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture as an important strategy for solving water deficit problems in arid areas. Much information concerning the wastewater reuse in different regions of the world and in Morocco, the different wastewater treatment technologies existing in Morocco were discussed. The review focused also the fertilizing potential of wastewater in agriculture, the role of nutrients and their concentrations in wastewater and their advantages effects on plant growth and yield.

  18. A study on the environmental and safety problems and their remediation around mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jeong-Sik; Kang, Sun-Duck; Lee, Sang-Kwon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The remediation or prevention of environmental problems and hazard around mining areas is required to prevent the natural environments and to protect human health. A survey were carried out to exam the characteristics of abandoned mines and to delineate contaminated sites in 4 abandoned mines (Imgee mine, Duckeum mine, Seosung mine and Jeonjuil mine). Permeability experiment was carried out to resolve clogging problems in passive treatment system. Absorption and desorption experiment was carried out to evaluate algae's ability for eliminating metals in mine drainage. In addition, a research on optimal mining method for reducing the area of forest damage in open pit mining areas was carried out. Results of permeability experiment showed that the coefficients of permeability of oak chips mixed with crushed limestone and coarse sand were 4.2 x 10{sup -2} cm/sec and 2.3 x 10{sup -2} cm/sec, respectively. As mine drainage upflowed through the column, metal hydroxide was intensively accumulated near the inlet and the outlet of columns. These phenomena contributed to lower the coefficient of permeability and caused clogging in columns. Further study on the optimal mixture of substrates for maintenance of constant flow and treatment for mine drainage in the wetland system will be required in order to prevent clogging caused by precipitation of metal hydroxides. The absorption test of algae for metals revealed that algae absorbed Fe, Cu and Al. Manganese was absorbed to the extend of 0.3 wt.% of dry algae. Therefore algae may be used for removal of Mn in passive treatment system. Plan Cut method was more superior to Bench Cut method in that the former could minimize the area of forest damage and reduce the mining environmental problems. (author). 19 refs., 39 tabs., 106 figs.

  19. Problems of teaching students to use the featured technologies in the area of semantic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, V. V.; Chernyshov, A. A.; Balandina, A. I.; Kostkina, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    The following paper contains the description of up-to-date technologies in the area of web-services development, service-oriented architecture and the Semantic Web. The paper contains the analysis of the most popular and widespread technologies and methods in the semantic web area which are used in the developed educational course. In the paper, we also describe the problem of teaching students to use these technologies and specify conditions for the creation of the learning and development course. We also describe the main exercise for personal work and skills, which all the students learning this course have to gain. Moreover, in the paper we specify the problem with software which students are going to use while learning this course. In order to solve this problem, we introduce the developing system which will be used to support the laboratory works. For this moment this system supports only the fourth work execution, but our following plans contain the expansion of the system in order to support the leftover works.

  20. Countermeasure Research on Problems Impeding Farmers’ Successful Entrepreneurship in Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By investigating the problem of farmers’ entrepreneurship in Gongcheng Yaozu Autonomous County,lying in Guilin,Guangxi,the thesis expounds the existing problems impacting farmers’ successful entrepreneurship in minority areas as follows:firstly,the musty idea of local cadre is obstacle to farmers’ successful entrepreneurship;secondly,the problems of scattered farmers’ entrepreneurship resources,waste and shortage of resources impact good effect of entrepreneurship;thirdly,farmers lack awareness of characteristics and brand,influencing the market competitiveness of products;fourthly,the existence of smallholder consciousness critically hampers the marketization and internationalization of entrepreneurship accomplishments;fifthly,the government pays no attention to the construction of industrial chain,which makes farmers’ entrepreneurship lack sustainability.Based on these,corresponding countermeasures are put forward to promote farmers’ successful entrepreneurship in minority areas as follows:firstly,we should update local leaders’ ideas and emphasize the positive role of farmers’ successful entrepreneurship in county economic development;secondly,we should integrate local entrepreneurship resources and promote the efficiency of farmers’ entrepreneurship;thirdly,we should foster the consciousness of brand and characteristics and strengthen the market competitiveness of entrepreneurship accomplishments;fourthly,we should strengthen the construction of industrial chain to promote sustainable development of farmers’ entrepreneurship.

  1. Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection Problem with Stochastic Salary for a Defined Contribution Pension Scheme: A Stochastic Linear-Quadratic-Exponential Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nkeki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a mean-variance portfolio selection problem with stochastic salary and inflation protection strategy in the accumulation phase of a defined contribution (DC pension plan. The utility function is assumed to be quadratic. It was assumed that the flow of contributions made by the PPM are invested into a market that is characterized by a cash account, an inflation-linked bond and a stock. In this paper, inflationlinked bond is traded and used to hedge inflation risks associated with the investment. The aim of this paper is to maximize the expected final wealth and minimize its variance. Efficient frontier for the three classes of assets (under quadratic utility function that will enable pension plan members (PPMs to decide their own wealth and risk in their investment profile at retirement was obtained.

  2. KAP STUDY OF MENSTRUAL PROBLEMS IN ADOLESCENT FEMALES IN AN URBAN AREA OF MEERUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Katiyar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation is an important milestone that results in development of sexual and reproductive capacity of girls. Adolescent girls do not have adequate knowledge about the abnormalities and healthy practices to be followed during menstruation. Objective:To find out the knowledge, attitude, practices regarding menstruation and treatment seeking behaviour for menstrual problems in adolescent females.Material & methods: The present cross sectional study was carried out in an urban field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, LLRM Medical College, Meerut on adolescent girls. A sample of 384 was derived and girls were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Detailed information was collected on a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Results:38.5% girls were aware of menstruation prior to its onset out of which 66.9% learned from their mother. Only 14.6% of the menstruating girls were aware of at least one menstrual disorder. Dysmenorrhoea was found to be the most frequently occurring problem (58.4%, followed by oligomenorrhoea (16.2%, menorrhagia (13.9%, premenstrual tension (13.6%, infrequent menstruation (12.3% and polymenorrhoea (12.2%. Out of the 226(72.7% girls having menstrual problems 77.9% did not seek any treatment for their problems. 55.2% of the menstruating girls were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Conclusion: The adolescent girls are not well prepared and do not have adequate information regarding menstruation which is an important event of life.

  3. Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Jain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19 years old selected using multistage random sampling technique. The subjects were interviewed & detailed information was collected on a structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking consent from the subject/ parents. The clinical diagnosis was generated as per the criteria laid down in ICD-10. The data was entered in Epi Info statistical software package Version 3.4.3 and suitable statistical methods were applied. Results: The overall prevalence of psychosocial problems amongst adolescent was found to be 41.43%. Most of them had conduct disorder (40.51% males & 35.88% females followed by depression (30.38% males & 26.72% females. Conclusions: There are significant psychosocial problems amongst the adolescents. So, enough emphasis should be given to this component of adolescent health and thus it is recommended that a holistic approach to the underlying causes of psychosocial problems of adolescents should be undertaken.

  4. Tackling five main problem areas found in science (ground segment) project developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, T.; Pérez-López, F.

    2014-08-01

    Science projects which require a large software development may use many scientists alongside a few professional software engineers. Such projects tend to show extreme cases of the general problems associated with software developments. After introducing an example of a large software development in a science project, the importance of a development management plan will be emphasised and sections of the plan highlighted and it is explained how these sections address and prepare for the expected problems throughout the life of the project. A positive, strongly proactive quality assurance, QA, approach is the common theme throughout. The role of QA is, therefore, more to guide, support and advise all members of the team rather than only to detect and react to problems. The top five problem areas addressed are: 1. Vague, late and missing requirements. 2. Few professional software engineers in a large software development. 3. A lack of testers with an appropriate test mentality. 4. Quality Assurance people cannot be everywhere, nor have in-depth skills in every subject. 5. Scientists will want to start coding and see writing documents as a waste of their time.

  5. English Language Teaching in Rural Areas: A Scenario and Problems and Prospects in Context of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Mahroof Hossain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Language is one of the medium of expressing our ideas, feelings and emotions. And if we think about language in present world then English is one of the most used languages in the world and English is used as a second language in Bangladesh. English is introduced here at the primary level and its inclusion continues till the tertiary level of education. Most of the students of the primary schools in rural areas are weak in English language due to lack of skilled and trained teachers who are familiar to the modern methods and approaches of teaching and lack of materials for teaching in the classroom. Primary level English curriculum implementation is essential in Bangladesh to achieve the set English language competency in the rural areas. Students in the rural areas are performing poorly in English compared to their urban counterparts. Statistics showed that there was a gulf of difference between the facilities enjoyed by rural schools and urban schools. The study explores the challenges of teaching English language in rural areas in context of Bangladesh. This study investigated the factors affecting student’s performance in English language in rural areas. Data were collected using interviews, classroom observation and questionnaire. Result of the study reveals that students were highly motivated to learn English for future expectations such as local and international communication, academic advancement and employment prospects. It also provide a scenario of English teaching system in rural areas of Bangladesh as well as the problems and prospects of English language in perspective of Bangladesh. Keywords: English language, rural areas, education, learning and teaching, competency

  6. Problems of Water Supply and Sanitation in Kpakungu Area of Minna (Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamiji Adeleye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Access to clean water and adequate sanitation has been a challenging issue in Kpakungu. Due to the unavailability of clean water sources and poor sanitation most of the inhabitants of Kpakungu are threaten with the spread of diseases such as diarrhoea and cholera and this has led to the degenerating situation of Kpakungu. Assessing the problems of water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu area of Minna, Niger State using GIS (Geographic Information System is aimed at providing access to adequate portable water supply and a better sanitation through the use of research and advocacy. This is achieved by identifying the pattern of access to public water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu and the creation of a database of the existing water source and their yield was determined to enhance planning. This research involved the use of both primary and secondary data to achieve a thorough assessment of the problems of poor water supply and sanitation in the study area. It was discovered that the problems of poor water supply and sanitation often leave most women and children on queues for several hours and those that cannot endure are forced to travel long miles in search for alternative source of water, which may not be fit for drinking. In the light of this, mothers are prevented from domestic work and most children are kept away from school. At the end of the research water and sanitation blue print for the study area was designed and a proposal was sent to relevant government agencies and ministries for the provision of more sources of potable water in the community. In this regard, Public Private Dialogue (PPD was initiated and adequate follow up process was made until the aim of the research was achieved.

  7. Validation of the Turkish version of the problem areas in diabetes scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huis In 't Veld, Elisabeth M J; Makine, Ceylan; Nouwen, Arie

    2011-01-01

    The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale is a widely used self-report measure that can facilitate detection of diabetes-specific emotional distress in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure and validity of the Turkish version of the PAID. A validation study...... yielded a 2-factor structure, identifying a 15-item "diabetes distress" factor and a 5-item "support-related issues" factor. The total PAID-score and the two dimensions were associated with higher levels of depression and poor emotional well-being. In the present study, the Turkish version of the PAID had...

  8. MODELING AND SOLVING A RICH VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEM FOR THE DELIVERY OF GOODS IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferreira de Souza Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work addresses a vehicle routing problem that aims at representing delivery operations of large volumes of products in dense urban areas. Inspired by a case study in a drinks producer and distributor, we propose a mathematical programming model and solution approaches that take into account costs with own and chartered vehicles, multiple deliverymen, time windows in customers, compatibility of vehicles and customers, time limitations for the circulation of large vehicles in city centers and multiple daily trips. Results with instances based on real data provided by the company highlight the potential of applicability of some of the proposed methods.

  9. Nanoimprint-defined, large-area meta-surfaces for unidirectional optical transmission with superior extinction in the visible-to-infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuhan; Liu, He; Wang, Yifei; Li, Yuanrui; Song, Boxiang; Wang, Richard P; Povinelli, Michelle L; Wu, Wei

    2016-07-11

    Optical devices with asymmetric transmission have important applications in optical systems, but optical isolators with the modal asymmetry can only be built using magneto-optical or nonlinear materials, as dictated by the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. However, optical devices with the power asymmetry can be achieved by linear materials such as metals and dielectrics. In this paper, we report a large-area, nanoimprint-defined meta-surface (stacked subwavelength gratings) with high-contrast asymmetric transmittance in the visible-to-infrared wavelength range for TM-polarized light. The physical origin of asymmetric transmission through the meta-surface is studied by analyzing the scattering matrix.

  10. Basic problems and advances in the area of planning enterprises for working nonmetal mineral fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudor, Gh.; Bucur, S.; Gavriliu, M.; Rusu, A.; Tamas, V.

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of the problems and achievements in the area of planning enterprises for working fields of calcium, feldspar, kaolin, graphite, asbestos, rock salt, dolomite associated with the improvement in the economy of production, reduction in the consumption of energy and scarce materials. The developed program for improving the efficiency of production of nonmetal mineral stipulates an improvement in labor productivity, more efficient and more complete use of reserves, decrease in the volume of construction operations, improvement in the technology of extraction, increase in the degree of automation of processes, more skillful planning of the surface equipment for extraction and enrichment, reduction in the dimensions of designs of the units designed for enrichment and extraction, improvement in the efficient consumption of electricity with the help of a new system of power and distribution, reduction in consumption of fuel by the use of less expensive. A description is made of the different examples making it possible to achieve advances in these areas.

  11. Geothermal Field Development in the European Community Objectives, Achievements and Problem Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungemach, Pierre

    1983-12-15

    Achievements and problem areas are reviewed with respect to various engineering implications of geothermal field development in the European Community (EC). Current and furture development goals address three resource settings. (a) low enthalpy sources (30-150{degrees}C), an outlook common to all Member states as a result of hot water aquifers flowing in large sedimentary units with normal heat flow, widespread thoughout the EC; (b) high enthalpy sources (<150{degrees}C) in areas of high heat flow which, as a consequence of the geodynamics of the Eurasian plate, are limited to Central and South-West Italy and to Eastern Greece; (c) hot dry rocks (HDR), whose potential for Europe, and also the difficulties in implementing the heat mining concept, are enormous. A large scale experiment conducted at medium depth in Cornwall (UK) proves encouraging though. It has provided the right sort of scientific inputs to the understanding of the mechanics of anisotropic brittle basement rocks.

  12. Research Progress on the Problem of Fluid, Heat and Energy Distribution near the Earthquake Source Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Rui; Jiang Changsheng; Shao Zhigang; Zhou Longquan; Li Yingchun

    2011-01-01

    As the basic problems in seismology, fluid, heat and energy distribution near earthquake sources during earthquake generation have been the leading subjects of concern to seismologists. Currently, more and more research shows fluid around earthquake source areas, which plays an important role in the process of earthquake preparation and generation. However, there is considerable controversy over the source of fluid in the deep crust. As for the problem of heat around earthquake source areas, different models have been proposed to explain the stress heat flow paradox. Among them, the dynamic weakening model has been thought to be the key to solving the heat flow paradox issue. After large earthquakes, energy distribution is directly related to friction heat. It is of timely and important practical significance to immediately implement deep drilling in-site surveying to gain understanding of fluid, friction heat and energy distribution during earthquake generation. The latest international progress in fluid, heat and energy distribution research has been reviewed in this paper which will bring important inspiration for the understanding of earthquake preparation and occurrence.

  13. Applied Analytical Methods for Solving Some Problems of Wave Propagation in the Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagoshidze, Shalva; Kodua, Manoni

    2016-04-01

    Analytical methods, easy for application, are proposed for the solution of the following four classical problems of coastline hydro mechanics: 1. Refraction of waves on coast slopes of arbitrary steepness; 2. Wave propagation in tapering water areas; 3. Longitudinal waves in open channels; 4. Long waves on uniform and non-uniform flows of water. The first three of these problems are solved by the direct Galerkin-Kantorovich method with a choice , of basic functions which completely satisfy all boundary conditions. This approach leads to obtaining new evolutionary equations which can be asymptotically solved by the WKB method. The WKB solution of the first problem enables us to easily determine the three-dimensional field of velocities and to construct the refraction picture of the wave surface near the coast having an arbitrary angle of slope to the horizon varying from 0° to 180°. This solution, in particular for a vertical cliff, fully agrees with Stoker's particular but difficult solution. Moreover, it is shown for the first time that our Schrödinger type evolutionary equation leads to the formation of the so-called "potential wells" if the angle of coast slope to the horizon exceeds 45°, while the angle given at infinity (i.e. at a large distance from the shore) between the wave crests and the coastline exceeds 75°. This theoretical result expressed in terms of elementary functions is well consistent with the experimental observations and with lot of aerial photographs of waves in the coastal zones of the oceans [1,2]. For the second problem we introduce the notions of "wide" and "narrow" water areas. It is shown that Green's law on the wave height growth holds only for the narrow part of the water area, whereas in the wide part the tapering of the water area leads to an insignificant decrease of the wave height. For the third problem, the bank slopes of trapezoidal channels are assumed to have an arbitrary angle of steepness. So far we have known the

  14. ZONING OF COASTAL AREA FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE Š PRESENT SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lav Bavčević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We already acepted that Croatian economical and geopolitical possition can bee improved only with better utilization of coastal area. Under these conditions mariculture also makes a part od sea master plan because demands for mariculture are focused on clean environmental conditions to obtain economic benefits. Increased pressure to the coastal area is global trend and if not planed and organized can provoke conflicts and can affect further development. Under these condition, marine aquaculture is frequent subject of many discussion focused on the environmental impact. Conflict of different interest in coastal area with no argumentation is putting marine aquaculture in worst position related with tourism and industry. Hard argumentations is laying in noneadequate frame of work in some facilities and to take advantake competitors are preasenting marine aquaculture in worst picture. Marine aquaculture product has to be health product, which can be completely damaged because of non-responsible approach of other activity. Mariculture also can suffer from self-pollution as for example tourism and must be well planed and managed. Fecal pollution from towns, pollution from bad controlled tourists activity, industry, influence of intensive and non controlled agriculture in coast line, are also potential danger for quality of all sea products and also cultured products from marine aquaculture. High quality of marine products can be obtained by zoning of coastal area, and in concept of these zoning it is necessary to define the zones for marine aquaculture. Procedure of zoning has to be divided in three steps: deetrmination of present status of area, definition of shore land for making mariculture related shore infrastructure and definitions of areas suitable for mariculture with limits of production. These can make positive situations with avoiding conflicts in exploitation of common resources in future. Zone for marine aquaculture has to be controlled

  15. Outline for Remediation of Problem Areas for Children with Learning Disabilities. Revised. = Bosquejo para la Correccion de Areas Problematicas para Ninos con Impedimientos del Aprendizaje.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Joan L.

    The booklet outlines ways to help children with learning disabilities in specific subject areas. Characteristic behavior and remedial exercises are listed for seven areas of auditory problems: auditory reception, auditory association, auditory discrimination, auditory figure ground, auditory closure and sound blending, auditory memory, and grammar…

  16. Optimal Solution of the EPED Problem Considering Space Areas of HSABC on the Power System Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Afandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the emission problem and economic dispatch (EPED becomes crucial aspects in the power system operation. These aspects are measured technically using financial payments as the total operating cost based on pollutant productions and fuel consumptions throughout individual costs of generating units based on a committed power output to meet a load demand. This paper introduces the newest artificial intelligent computation, harvest season artificial bee colony (HSABC algorithm, for determining the optimal solution of the EPED based on the operating cost function using IEEE-62 bus system with various operational constraints. Results obtained show that HSABC has short time computations and fast convergences while space areas give different implications on performances. The optimal solution produces various individual power outputs, pollutants, and costs.

  17. Problemes de traduction dans le domaine de la poesie chantee (Problems of Translation in the Area of Sung Poetry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandmont, Suzanne de

    1978-01-01

    In the translation of songs, to the usual problems of rendering meaning, symbols and imagery are added the exigencies of cadence, rhythm, tempo and tonic accent. The process is illustrated by an account of the rendering in French of the musical comedy, "The Fantasticks." (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  18. The marketing innovative decisions justification based on the diagnosis of management problem areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.F. Gryshchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical and methodical bases of the process of development, acceptance and implementation of marketing innovative decisions based on a diagnosis of the management problem areas of the enterprise. The results of the analysis. A scientific and methodical approach to the stages formation of the process of development, acceptance and implementation of marketing innovative decisions is developed. The author proposes to distinguish three enlarged stages (problematic, inventive and executive. Each stage has it’s formalized result: problematic – cause-and-result map of managerial problems; inventive – marketing innovative decision; executive – the effect of marketing innovative decision market implementation. A scientific and methodical approach to marketing innovative decisions selecting by the results of problem areas diagnostics based on the integrated risk and quality levels indicators is offered. The choice of marketing innovative decisions from a set of alternatives is proposed to carry out on the basis of criteria-based assessment. In the framework of this methodological approach the criterion is seen as measure of validity and compliance of the marketing innovative decision to objective reality. For the formation the system of the decision selection indicators the author proposes to carry out the division of criteria into two groups: criteria for assessing the level of risk and criteria for assessing the level of quality. The list of criteria is not fixed, it’s selection is carried out depending on the specific requirements of the economic situation in which the process of development, acceptance and implementation of marketing innovative decisions takes place. The number of indicators also isn’t regulated – it may be reduced or supplemented. The final selection of marketing innovative decision from the list of alternatives is proposed to carry out by building the

  19. Public and private in the post-soviet area: the problem of demarcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Zaidel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problem of determination of public and private in the post­soviet area. Formation of these spheres should be a logical conclusion of successful transformation and modernization process in ex­soviet republics and getting all spheres of civil life out of the state control. Historical specific is underlined; it is given the determination and main characteristics of public and private. It is given two main approaches’ ways of interpretation the phenomena and formation of public sphere according to H. Arendt and Ju. Hubermas. The specific of formation and demarcation of public and private spheres in the post­soviet area is analyzed. The boundaries between public and private spheres were deformed by the soviet state and communist society. As a result it was built hierarchical relations among the state, society and ruler; it is typical for power centralized societies. The determining factor of institutional heritage in the processes of state­making is underlined. The deformation of division of state, public and private spheres is caused by combining of traditional and modern institutes and practices; as a result social practices that are against of logic of modern society slow down the development of market­oriented economy and modernization of institutions.

  20. Determinants, Health Problems, and Food Insecurity in Urban Areas of the Largest City in Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craveiro, Isabel; Alves, Daniela; Amado, Miguel; Santos, Zélia; Fortes, Argentina Tomar; Delgado, António Pedro; Correia, Artur; Gonçalves, Luzia

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization processes are intertwined with nutritional transition because there is easier access to food of low nutritional quality at reduced prices, changing dietary patterns and leading to an increase of non-communicable chronic diseases. This study aims to understand the perceptions for high blood pressure, obesity, and alcoholism, describing some interactions of these dimensions in the problem of food security in the city of Praia. A qualitative study was carried out under the framework of the research project “UPHI-STAT: Urban Planning and Health Inequalities—moving from macro to micro statistics”. Ten focus groups were conducted in three urban areas with distinct characteristics in the city of Praia, with a total of 48 participants. Participants reported frequent consumption of foods with poor nutritional quality, understanding the potential danger in terms of food security in the city of Praia. Easy access to and high levels of alcohol consumption, and poor quality of traditional drinks were mentioned by participants in the study areas. The impact of the economic situation on the possibility of access to safe and healthy options emerged as a differentiating factor. PMID:27879689

  1. Area deprivation and child psychosocial problems - A national cross-sectional study among school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    2005-01-01

    Background We examined the association of area deprivation with the occurrence of psychosocial problems among children aged 4-16 in a representative national sample of children based on standardised measures of parent-reported problems and diagnoses made by doctors and nurses working in child health

  2. Alcohol-related social problems among Mexican Americans living in U.S.-Mexico border and non-border areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines alcohol-related social problems among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and in non-border areas. Interviews were conducted among Mexican Americans in the border regions of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (N=1307). Non-border respondents were interviewed primarily in Houston and Los Angeles (N=1288) as part of the Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Both the border and HABLAS surveys employed multistage cluster sample designs (response rates were 67% and 76%, respectively). In the bivariate analysis, there were no significant differences between border and non-border areas in the proportion of those with one or more social problem. In non-border areas, the prevalence of alcohol problems did not differ significantly by age. However, along the border the prevalence of alcohol problems was significantly different across age groups, with 18 to 29year old men and women having the highest prevalence. The final models showed no residence effect on problem likelihood. Drinking was strongly associated with problems. Although young border residents had higher problem prevalence rates than older residents, the logistic regression models showed no effect of border residence on the likelihood of problems, indicating that problems are due to alcohol consumption, not the border environment. The border, however, did appear to influence more drinking among young people. Regardless of residence, alcohol treatment and preventive interventions tailored to Mexican Americans are essential and special attention should be focused on younger individuals near the border.

  3. Management of water for irrigation agriculture in semi-arid areas: Problems and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvungi, A.; Mashauri, D.; Madulu, N. F.

    Most of the Mwanga district is classified as semi-arid with a rainfall range of 300 and 600 mm. Rainfall patterns in the district are unpredictable and are subject to great fluctuations. Like other semi-arid areas, the district is characterized with land degradation, unreliable rainfall, repeated water shortage, periodic famine, overgrazing, dry land cultivation in the marginal areas and heavy competition for limited biomass between farmers and cattle. Vulnerability here is high due to unreliability of weather. The people of Mwanga are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. However agriculture is difficult in the area due to inadequate rainfall. For a very long time the people have been dependent on irrigation agriculture to ensure food security. Of late the traditional irrigation system is on the decline threatening food security in the area. This paper examines the state and status of the irrigation canal system in Mwanga district with the view of recommending ways in which it can be improved. The study used participatory, survey and in-depth interviews to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data. The major findings are that social, political, environmental and demographic bases that supported the traditional irrigation system have changed drastically. As a corollary to this, the cultural and religious belief systems that supported and guided the traditional canal system management have been replaced by mistrust and corruption in water allocation. In addition the ownership and management system of the water resources that was vested in the initiator clans has changed and now water user groups own the canals/furrows but they do not own the water sources. This has rendered the control of the water sources difficult if not impossible. Currently the system is faced by a number of problems including shortage of water and poor management as demand for water increases and this has led to serious conflicts among and between crop producers and pastoralists

  4. Formulation and study some inverse problems in modeling of hydrophysical fields in water areas with "liquid" boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoshkov, Valery

    2017-04-01

    There are different approaches for modeling boundary conditions describing hydrophysical fields in water areas with "liquid" boundaries. Variational data assimilation may also be considered as one of such approaches. Development of computer equipment, together with an increase in the quantity and quality of data from the satellites and other monitoring tools proves that the development of this particular approach is perspective. The range of connected the problems is wide - different recording forms of boundary conditions, observational data assimilation procedures and used models of hydrodynamics are possible. In this work some inverse problems and corresponding variational data assimilation ones, connected with mathematical modeling of hydrophysical fields in water areas (seas and oceans) with "liquid" ("open") boundaries, are formulated and studied. Note that the surface of water area (which can also be considered as a "liquid" boundary) is not included in the set of "liquid" boundaries, in this case "liquid" boundaries are borders between the areas "water-water". In the work, mathematical model of hydrothermodynamics in the water areas with "liquid" ("open") part of the boundary, a generalized statement of the problem and the splitting method for time approximation are formulated. Also the problem of variational data assimilation and iterative algorithm for solving inverse problems mentioned above are formulated. The work is based on [1]. The work was partly supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project 14-11-00609, the general formulation of the inverse problems) and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 16-01-00548, the formulation of the problem and its study). [1] V.I. Agoshkov, Methods for solving inverse problems and variational data assimilation problems of observations in the problems of the large-scale dynamics of the oceans and seas, Institute of Numerical Mathematics, RAS, Moscow, 2016 (in Russian).

  5. A survey of low-level radioactive waste treatment methods and problem areas associated with commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    A survey was made (June 1985) of technologies that were currently being used, those that had been discontinued, and those that were under consideration for treatment of low-level radioactive waste from the commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The survey results included information concerning problems areas, areas needing research and development, and the use of mobile treatment facilities.

  6. Validation of the Turkish Version of the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M. J. Huis In ‘T Veld

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID scale is a widely used self-report measure that can facilitate detection of diabetes-specific emotional distress in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure and validity of the Turkish version of the PAID. A validation study was conducted among 154 patients with insulin-naïve type 2 diabetes. Participants completed the PAID, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale (ITAS, and World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5 questionnaires. Exploratory factor analyses yielded a 2-factor structure, identifying a 15-item “diabetes distress” factor and a 5-item “support-related issues” factor. The total PAID-score and the two dimensions were associated with higher levels of depression and poor emotional well-being. In the present study, the Turkish version of the PAID had satisfactory psychometric properties, however, the factorial structure was found to differ from factor solutions from other countries.

  7. Conservation problems of mangrove ecosystem in coastal area of Rembang Regency, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to find out (i species diversity of mangrove plats, (ii the conservation problems of mangrove ecosystem, and (iii restoration efford of mangrove ecosystem at coastal area of Rembang Regency, Central Java. This was descriptive research that was done qualitatively, in July until December 2003, at 3 sites of mangrove habitat in Rembang Regency, namely Pecangakan, Pasar Banggi, and Lasem. The data was collected in field surveys, in-depth interview to local people and/or local government, and examination of topographic maps of Java (1963-1965 and digital satellite image of Landsat 7 TM (July-September 2001. The result indicated that northern coast of Rembang had 27 mangrove species, i.e. 12 species of major mangrove, 2 species of minor mangrove, and 13 species of associated plants. Rhizophora had been dominated mangrove ecosystem in Lasem and Pasar Bangi; while Avicennia had been dominated in Pecangakan. The most degrading factors of mangrove ecosysrems were aquaculture and salt pond, timber logging, land reclamation and soil sedimentation, and environmental pollution. Mangrove restoration by Rhizophora in coast of Pasar Bangi had been successfully, because community based management.

  8. Environmental problems in areas contaminated by abandoned mine tailings. Geochemical and mineralogical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanfani, L. [Cagliari Univ., Cagliari (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra

    2000-07-01

    A brochure advertising a recent report on environmental management in the mining sector, devoted to industry operators, relates: Managing the relationships between mining and the environment is an issue that creates a range of technical and social challenges extending far beyond the environmental management requirements of many other industry sectors. The complexity of mining operations and the effect of developments on natural ecosystems and human societies demand increasingly sophisticated procedures to achieve acceptable environmental protection. The environmental impact of mining activity concerns different aspects which can be grouped in two main categories: modifications of the morphology and changes in the chemistry of the environment. They can be considered separately in a methodological study, but when dealing with the generality of the problem at a specific site one must consider carefully their mutual influence in a system that is usually more complex than could appear at a first glance. Only a combined analysis of the two aspects may lead to an evaluation of the present and future impact on quality of life in the surrounding area.

  9. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  10. Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekini Shehu

    2010-01-01

    real Banach space which is also uniformly smooth using the properties of generalized f-projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general H-monotone mappings and system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature.

  11. Environmental problems in a coal mining area affected by coal fires --A case study in Ruqigou Coalfield, Ningxia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ruqigou Coalfield, being one of the most important coal mining areas in China, has suffered coal fire problems for more than one hundred years. Due to coal fires, about 4.513 million tons coal resources has been lost each year, and apart from a large volume of CO2 delivered into air, environmental problems such as land degradation, land pollution and air pollution are also produced. Air pollution, as one related to coal fires, is the most dangerous problems for local people and has already led to vegetation pollution in this area. Land degradation is mainly induced with occurrence of land subsidence, fissures with due to coal mining/coal fires, and debris slide/flow. With development of opencast coal mining, a large volume of waste was produced, which is the major source of land pollution. All these environmental problems are associated with coal mining or coal fires and their comprehensive effects are deterioration of environment.

  12. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of trail resources associated with expanding recreation and tourism visitation is a growing management problem in protected areas worldwide. In order to make judicious trail and visitor management decisions, protected area managers need objective and timely information on trail resource conditions. This paper introduces a trail survey method that efficiently characterizes the lineal extent of common trail problems. The method was applied to a large sample of trails within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, a highuse protected area in the USA. The Trail ProblemAssessment Method (TPAM) employs a continuous search for multiple indicators of predefined tread problems, yielding census data documenting the location, occurrence and extent of each problem. The present application employed 23 different indicators in three categories to gather inventory, resource condition, and design and maintenance data of each surveyed trail. Seventy-two backcountry hiking trails (528 km), or 35% of the Park's total trail length, were surveyed. Soil erosion and wet soil were found to be the two most common impacts on a lineal extent basis. Trails with serious tread problems were well distributed throughout the Park, although wet muddy treads tended to be concentrated in areas where horse use was high. The effectiveness of maintenance features installed to divert water from trail treads was also evaluated. Water bars were found to be more effective than drainage dips. The TPAM was able to provide Park managers with objective and quantitative information for use in trail planning, management and maintenance decisions, and is applicable to other protected areas elsewhere with different environmental and impact characteristics.

  13. Analysis of an Interactive Technology Supported Problem-Based Learning STEM Project Using Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…

  14. Defining excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, B

    1993-05-01

    Excellence in the pharmacy profession, particularly pharmacy management, is defined. Several factors have a significant effect on the ability to reach a given level of excellence. The first is the economic and political climate in which pharmacists practice. Stricter controls, reduced resources, and the velocity of change all necessitate nurturing of values and a work ethic to maintain excellence. Excellence must be measured by the services provided with regard to the resources available; thus, the ability to achieve excellence is a true test of leadership and innovation. Excellence is also time dependent, and today's innovation becomes tomorrow's standard. Programs that raise the level of patient care, not those that aggrandize the profession, are the most important. In addition, basic services must be practiced at a level of excellence. Quality assessment is a way to improve care and bring medical treatment to a higher plane of excellence. For such assessment to be effective and not punitive, the philosophy of the program must be known, and the goal must be clear. Excellence in practice is dependent on factors such as political and social norms, standards of practice, available resources; perceptions, time, the motivation to progress to a higher level, and the continuous innovation required to reshape the profession to meet the needs of society.

  15. Defining emotion in psychology: what a historical examination of the use of introspection by early psychologists reveals about a current problem

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Anna Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted on emotion by psychologists has produced numerous understandings of the concept and there is currently no consensus as to how it should be defined (Russell, 2012). Despite some general agreement among some theorists as to certain aspects, such as physiological response, eliciting events, and related facial expressions, it is a persistent issue and discussions as to how a solution may be found have recurred at various points throughout the history of psycholog...

  16. Creating a pediatric digital library for pediatric health care providers and families: using literature and data to define common pediatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Donna; Kingsley, Peggy

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this study was to complete a literature-based needs assessment with regard to common pediatric problems encountered by pediatric health care providers (PHCPs) and families, and to develop a problem-based pediatric digital library to meet those needs. The needs assessment yielded 65 information sources. Common problems were identified and categorized, and the Internet was manually searched for authoritative Web sites. The created pediatric digital library (www.generalpediatrics.com) used a problem-based interface and was deployed in November 1999. From November 1999 to November 2000, the number of hyperlinks and authoritative Web sites increased 51.1 and 32.2 percent, respectively. Over the same time, visitors increased by 57.3 percent and overall usage increased by 255 percent. A pediatric digital library has been created that begins to bring order to general pediatric resources on the Internet. This pediatric digital library provides current, authoritative, easily accessed pediatric information whenever and wherever the PHCPs and families want assistance.

  17. Revalorization Problems of the Down-Town Areas on the Example of Zielona Góra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononowicz, Wanda; Sukienniczak, Joanna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the considerations presented in the article is to determine the developmental directions of the inner urban areas respecting and honouring the cultural heritage of Zielona Gora city. The formation of useful physical form of the urban lifestyle environment is particularly important in the process of urban regeneration. The article presents polemics with the planning documents and raises the issues related to urban green areas and street furniture. The design proposal shows one of the possibilities to bring the improperly developed areas back to the city. Every city is made of people and, therefore, it is essential for these people to have social awareness of individual influence on the shape of urban areas.

  18. Revisiting the concept of ‘chronic disease’ from the perspective of the episode of care model. Does the ratio of incidence to prevalence rate help us to define a problem as chronic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean K Soler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This is a study of the epidemiology of acute and chronic episodes of care (EoCs in the Transition Project in three countries. We studied the duration of EoCs for acute and chronic health problems and the relationship of incidence to prevalence rates for these EoCs.Method The Transition Project databases collect data on all elements of the doctor–patient encounter in family medicine. Family doctors code these elements using the International Classification of Primary Care.We used the data from three practice populations to study the duration of EoCs and the ratio of incidence to prevalence for common health problems.Results We found that chronic health problems tended to have proportionately longer duration EoCs, as expected, but also a lower incidence to prevalence rate ratio than acute health problems. Thus, the incidence to prevalence index could be used to define a chronic condition as one with a low ratio, below a defined threshold.Conclusions Chronic health problems tend to have longer duration EoCs, proportionately, across populations. This result is expected, but we found important similarities and differences which make defining a problem as chronic on the basis of time rather difficult. The ratio of incidence to prevalence rates has potential to categorise health problems into acute or chronic categories, at different ratio thresholds (such as 20, 30 or 50%. It seems to perform well in this study of three family practice populations, and is proposed to the scientific community for further evaluation.

  19. On two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2015-01-01

    fuel oil (HFO) outside the ECA and switch to low-sulfur fuel such as marine gas oil (MGO) inside the ECA. As the prices of these two fuels are generally very different, so may be the speeds that the ship will sail at outside and inside the ECA. The first optimization problem examined by the paper...

  20. Psychological Help-Seeking Intention among College Students across Three Problem Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Timothy R.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to understand psychological help-seeking intention for 3 common concerns: anxiety or depression, career choice concerns, and alcohol or drug use. Eight hundred eighty-nine university students completed surveys for the TPB variables plus belief in personal efficacy and control to solve the problems.…

  1. Psychological Help-Seeking Intention among College Students across Three Problem Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Timothy R.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to understand psychological help-seeking intention for 3 common concerns: anxiety or depression, career choice concerns, and alcohol or drug use. Eight hundred eighty-nine university students completed surveys for the TPB variables plus belief in personal efficacy and control to solve the problems.…

  2. Problems in the Labor Export of Western Rural Areas——A Case Study of Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis gives a brief account of the status of the labor economy in Three Gorges Reservoir area,which indicates that the labor economy in this area has made certain development and is characterized by fragile ecology,backward economic development and weak capacity to absorb employment,the Three Gorges Reservoir area is densely populated and has lots of rural surplus labors which need to be transferred.Then the thesis analyzes the problems in the labor export of this region,which can be manifested in the following aspects:the exported labors are with low quality and single skill;they are narrow-minded and have strong intention for their employment regions;they have low income but high risk to get employed;the government does not provide strong supporting services for exported labors.In order to solve these problems,the thesis proposes the suggestions and measures to develop the labor economy in Three Gorges Reservoir area,say,to perfect and ameliorate the training mechanism and improve the quality and skills of labors;to build the platform of employment network and solve the problems of the asymmetric employment information;to actively develop the intermediary organizations and promote the a proper movement of labor forces;to fully exert the function of government in logistic services and resolve the difficulties of the exported workers.

  3. Development of parallel GPU based algorithms for problems in nuclear area; Desenvolvimento de algoritmos paralelos baseados em GPU para solucao de problemas na area nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Adino Americo Heimlich

    2009-07-01

    Graphics Processing Units (GPU) are high performance co-processors intended, originally, to improve the use and quality of computer graphics applications. Since researchers and practitioners realized the potential of using GPU for general purpose, their application has been extended to other fields out of computer graphics scope. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of using GPU in two typical problems of Nuclear area. The neutron transport simulation using Monte Carlo method and solve heat equation in a bi-dimensional domain by finite differences method. To achieve this, we develop parallel algorithms for GPU and CPU in the two problems described above. The comparison showed that the GPU-based approach is faster than the CPU in a computer with two quad core processors, without precision loss. (author)

  4. International Students' Critical Thinking-Related Problem Areas: UK University Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nisbah

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to understand the areas of international students' critical thinking-related initial difficulties, in order to facilitate their academic experiences in UK universities. Using a sample of 14 British teachers, the findings reveal that students from culturally and linguistically diverse traditions are very different in…

  5. Higher Education in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan after 9/11: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Hafeez; Junaid, Fatima A.

    2010-01-01

    The troubled state of affairs in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan portends serious repercussions and grave consequences, destined to affect education particularly higher education in the entire tribal belt. Ironically, no extensive study has been conducted, to investigate those dimensions of FATA higher education which…

  6. Who Defines Culturally Acceptable Health Access? Universal rights, healthcare politics and the problems of two Mbya-Guarani communities in the Misiones Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyze the problems and barriers encountered when public policy health programs are implemented within indigenous communities. The initial stumbling block for such programs is precisely the idea of health as a universal right, around which emerges a characterization and stereotype of the indigenous population who are consequently addressed as a homogenized unit subsisting below the poverty line, and marginalized. A result of this is that the  particular ethno-cultural register of such populations fails to be acknowledged and form part of a systematic public health policy. Consequently, health policies become generalized in character, unable to variate and differentiate according to the culturally specific contexts within which health outreach and access is needed. In this sense, based on the results of an ethnographic study carried out in two Mbya-Guaraní indigenous communities of Argentina, our study highlights as to how public policies of indigenous health are perceived, their impact value measured, and the meanings which emerge locally about the policy practices implemented.Lastly, our study identifies problems that can be avoided in fulfilling the goals of universal policies and certain questions to consider at the time of policy design and implementation.

  7. [Pollution with sulfur dioxide in an inhabited industrial area. Methodologic problems in monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, C; Pontoni, H; Pellicciotti, G

    1989-01-01

    The area around Rho and Pero in the north west of the province of Milan is densely populated and highly industrialised. It is also characterised by high levels of sulphur dioxide pollution. During the 1980s it was decided to check the sources of production of the pollutant and its distribution in the area. The main area for improvement was the refinery at Rho where it was aimed to disperse gases at a higher level by raising the chimneys and to use fuel gas in those burners which were connected to lower chimneys. For domestic systems it was decided to diffuse the use of methane as much as possible and limit oil-fired central heating, by statute from the Mayor. In order to rationalise the programme of action the pollution was to be determined for each single area by subdivision of the territory into a grid. By means of a census of all the production sources of sulphur dioxide appropriate data were collected to estimate each area's contribution to pollution. The theoretical hourly quantity of sulphur dioxide was calculated on the basis of the combustion equation. The data were then analysed, in total and divided into component parts, i.e. the type of fuel used, the season of the year and industrial or domestic usage. With Gifford and Hanna's ATDL mathematical model the data thus obtained, together with meteorological variables, were used to simulate the expected effect on the distribution of pollution after carrying out the programmed actions. The simulations foresee a reduction of up to 80% of sulphur dioxide concentrations in the areas of greatest use of liquid fuels. In the territory in question the monitoring of the pollutant was assured by the presence of five fixed positions of continuous survey. These turned out to be useful above all for analysis of the phenomenon over a period of time. In order to study spatial distribution better 374 findings were gathered in the winter of 1985-6 from various points of the territory by means of a mobile instantaneous

  8. Selected Problems Of Noninvasive Ooze Dredging In The Protected Areas Of Port Docks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramowicz-Gerigk Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the ooze dredging concepts in the protected areas of harbour docks. The proposed method and system for ooze dredging are dedicated to all types of seabed protection, but the main concern are the geotextile mattresses, not resistant to mechanical damages. Due to the large seabed areas covered with this type of protection the effective method of noninvasive ooze dredging should be based on the use of a technical vessel for underwater works. The result of the analysis is the concept of the method and system for ooze dredging including in particular the mechanism for the automatic holding of the suction-dredge head in the proper distance from the seabed protection surface - the leading wheel truck and buoyancy-ballast system.

  9. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  10. Problems of administrative legal provision of observing the anti-corruption legislation by the state and municipal workers and other persons defined by law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Butkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective increasing the efficiency of administrative control over accomplishment of anticorruption legislation. Methods the dialectical method of cognition. Results basing on the evaluation of the opinions of various scholars in the field as well as on the foreign and domestic experience the measures are proposed to improve administrativelegal provision of anticorruption legislation observance. Scientific novelty current problems of application of the new anticorruption legislation are identified. The successful experience of foreign countries is analyzed concerning the organization of administrative legal provision of observing the obligation of providing information on property income and expenses by the officials. The ways of improving the administrative provision of compliance with anticorruption legislation are proposed. Practical value is manifested in the possibility to improve the system of anticorruption struggle.

  11. Research of New Residential Area Parking Problem for Beijing Area%北京地区新建居住区停车问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙绍光

    2016-01-01

    随着我国社会经济的高速发展,城市机动车保有量迅速增加,停车位需求量不断增多与城市公共停车设施建设相对落后的矛盾日益突出,很多停车问题已成为普遍现象,严重干扰正常社会秩序。针对北京地区居住区现状,通过对配建车位政策、和建设模式的探讨,并借鉴国外相关案例,对新建居住区停车问题提出了可行的解决方案。%With the rapid development of social economy in our country, the city the rapid increase of motor vehicle ownership parking demand is growing and the urban public parking facilities construction is relatively backward contradictions increasingly promi-nent, many parking problem has become a common phenomenon, serious interference normal social order. According to current situation of residential areas in Beijing, and through the PeiJian parking policy, and the construction pattern, and draw lessons from foreign related cases, for new residential area parking problem put forward the feasible solution.

  12. Analysis of neural mechanisms underlying verbal fluency in cytoarchitectonically defined stereotaxic space--the roles of Brodmann areas 44 and 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amunts, Katrin; Weiss, Peter H; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Pieperhoff, Peter; Eickhoff, Simon; Gurd, Jennifer M; Marshall, John C; Shah, Nadim J; Fink, Gereon R; Zilles, Karl

    2004-05-01

    We investigated neural activations underlying a verbal fluency task and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of Broca's speech region (Brodmann's areas 44 and 45). To do so, we reanalyzed data from a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [Brain 125 (2002) 1024] and from a cytoarchitectonic study [J. Comp. Neurol. 412 (1999) 319] and developed a method to combine both data sets. In the fMRI experiment, verbal fluency was investigated in 11 healthy volunteers, who covertly produced words from predefined categories. A factorial design was used with factors verbal class (semantic vs. overlearned fluency) and switching between categories (no vs. yes). fMRI data analysis employed SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping). Cytoarchitectonic maps of areas 44 and 45 were derived from histologic sections of 10 postmortem brains. Both the in vivo fMRI and postmortem MR data were warped to a common reference brain using a new elastic warping tool. Cytoarchitectonic probability maps with stereotaxic information about intersubject variability were calculated for both areas and superimposed on the functional data, which showed the involvement of left hemisphere areas with verbal fluency relative to the baseline. Semantic relative to overlearned fluency showed greater involvement of left area 45 than of 44. Thus, although both areas participate in verbal fluency, they do so differentially. Left area 45 is more involved in semantic aspects of language processing, while area 44 is probably involved in high-level aspects of programming speech production per se. The combination of functional data analysis with a new elastic warping tool and cytoarchitectonic maps opens new perspectives for analyzing the cortical networks involved in language.

  13. "Water bombs" and seismic areas: two sides to the same problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straser, Valentino; Casati, Michele; Cataldi, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of catastrophic events over the last few years in Northern Tuscany (Italy), caused by real "water bombs", with the ensuing risk of flooding and an increase in seismicity, may point to a cause-effect relationship between the two phenomena. A relationship between baric variations and seismic activity resulting in earthquakes with a magnitude greater than M3, has already been described by Sytinsky (1997). Studies carried out on atmospheric processes during strong earthquakes have shown that there are also strong perturbations in atmospheric circulation, which manifest as a major restructuring of the pressure fields, as with changes in meteorological parameters. Recent studies by Straser (2015) have emphasized that variations in atmospheric pressure can affect the equilibrium of the rocks in fault zones, above all if part of a distensive tectonic context like the Lunigiana and Garfagnana area, which became an open-air laboratory to carry out this current study. Interaction between tectonic thrusts, the gases emitted in areas under crust stress, the production of ions in the atmosphere, detectable instrumentally and associated with pre-seismic signals have been described by Pulinets, (2007) and Pulinets with Boyarchuk (2004), as has the formation of nano particles and filamentous structures, of varying origin, caused by a combination of meteoric phenomena associated with electrical discharges and airborne ions as highlighted by Courty and Martinez (2015). One element to bear in mind when hypothesizing variations in equilibrium in distensive faults, is water. Indeed, it has been proposed that the quantity of water that reaches the ground during the kinds of strong precipitation analysed in this study might well create pressure variations in close proximity to the faults at the same time as lowering the friction coefficient in tectonically vulnerable areas. In contrast, it has also been suggested that frequent and prolonged seismic activity in the same

  14. Problems in the educational process during the pediatric surgery area teaching of fourth year medicine students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luis González López

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Very typical situations of the Pediatric Surgery Services in the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos may interfere with the appropriate development of the educational process. Consequently, students might not master the principles of medical practice in the most common surgical diseases in children, thus limiting its further application in their professional performances as basic general practitioners. To obtain more accurate information on the causes of this phenomenon is considered to be paramount in order to search for practical solutions to improve the educational process and to fulfil the goals of the teaching stage. The contents on the following information sources are analyzed in this paper: documents for higher education and for medicine career, publications and papers presented in scientific events (directly or indirectly related to the practice of Pediatric Surgery and hospital statistics. This review was aimed at analyzing the situations that negatively affect the educational process during the pediatric surgery area teaching of fourth year medicine students.

  15. Spatial landuse planning using land evaluation and dynamic system to define sustainable area of paddy field: Case study in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiatmaka, Widiatmaka; Ambarwulan, Wiwin; Firmansyah, Irman; Munibah, Khursatul; Santoso, Paulus B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is the country with the 4th largest population in the worlds; the population reached more than 237 million people. With rice as the staple food for more than 95 percent of the population, there is an important role of paddy field in Indonesian food security. Actually, paddy field in Java has produced 52,6% of the total rice production in Indonesia, showing the very high dependence of Indonesia on food production from paddy fields in Java island. Karawang Regency is one of the regions in West Java Province that contribute to the national food supply, due to its high soil fertility and its high extent of paddy field. Dynamics of land use change in this region are high because of its proximity to urban area; this dynamics has led to paddy field conversion to industry and residential landuse, which in turn change the regional rice production capacity. Decreasing paddy field landuse in this region could be serve as an example case of the general phenomena which occurred in Javanese rice production region. The objective of this study were: (i) to identify the suitable area for paddy field, (ii) to modelize the decreasing of paddy field in socio-economic context of the region, and (iii) to plan the spatial priority area of paddy field protection according to model prediction. A land evaluation for paddy was completed after a soil survey, while IKONOS imagery was analyzed to delineate paddy fields. Dynamic system model of paddy field land use is built, and then based on the model built, the land area of paddy field untill 2040 in some scenarios was developped. The research results showed that the land suitability class for paddy fields in Karawang Regency ranged from very suitable (S1) to marginally suitable (S3), with various land characteristics as limiting factors. The model predicts that if the situation of paddy field land use change continues in its business as usual path, paddy field area that would exist in the region in 2040 will stay half of the recent

  16. RANS solver for microscale pollution dispersion problems in areas with vegetation: Development and validation

    CERN Document Server

    Šíp, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We present a description and validation of a finite volume solver aimed at solving the problems of microscale urban flows where vegetation is present. The solver is based on the five equation system of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for atmospheric boundary layer flows, which are complemented by the k-epsilon turbulence model. The vegetation is modelled as a porous zone, and the effects of the vegetation are included in the momentum and turbulence equations. A detailed dry deposition model is incorporated in the pollutant transport equation, allowing the investigation of the filtering properties of urban vegetation. The solver is validated on four test cases to assess the components of the model: the flow and pollutant dispersion around the 2D hill, the temporal evolution of the rising thermal bubble, the flow through and around the forest canopy, and a hedgerow filtering the particle-laden flow. Generally good agreement with the measured values or previously computed numerical solution is observed...

  17. On some generalization of the area theorem with applications to the problem of rolling balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplygin, Sergey A.

    2012-04-01

    This publication contributes to the series of RCD translations of Sergey Alexeevich Chaplygin's scientific heritage. Earlier we published three of his papers on non-holonomic dynamics (vol. 7, no. 2; vol. 13, no. 4) and two papers on hydrodynamics (vol. 12, nos. 1, 2). The present paper deals with mechanical systems that consist of several spheres and discusses generalized conditions for the existence of integrals of motion (linear in velocities) in such systems. First published in 1897 and awarded by the Gold Medal of Russian Academy of Sciences, this work has not lost its scientific significance and relevance. (In particular, its principal ideas are further developed and extended in the recent article "Two Non-holonomic Integrable Problems Tracing Back to Chaplygin", published in this issue, see p. 191). Note that non-holonomic models for rolling motion of spherical shells, including the case where the shells contain intricate mechanisms inside, are currently of particular interest in the context of their application in the design of ball-shaped mobile robots. We hope that this classical work will be estimated at its true worth by the English-speaking world.

  18. Geographic disparities in access to urban trauma care: defining the problem and identifying a solution for gunshot wound victims in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandling, Michael; Behrens, Jess; Hsia, Renee; Crandall, Marie

    2016-10-01

    Timely transport to designated trauma centers impacts mortality following serious injury. We examined whether the distribution of trauma centers in Chicago has created disparities in access to trauma care. Using the Illinois State Trauma Registry, locations of Chicago-area gunshot wounds (GSWs) from 1999 to 2009 were geocoded and transport times were analyzed for pediatric (age ≤ 15) and adult (age ≥ 16) GSWs. A total of 11,744 included pediatric and adult GSWs were analyzed. Adults experienced longer mean transport times (11.3 vs 10.2 minutes, P < .001). Disproportionate numbers of adult GSW victims experienced over 30-minute transport times on Chicago's south side. Pediatric GSWs demonstrated no such disparity, likely attributable to the presence of a pediatric trauma center on the southeast side. Geographic disparities in access to trauma care exist even within urban trauma systems. The absence of an adult trauma center on Chicago's southeast side has contributed to these disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploration, Drilling and Development Operations in the Bottle Rock Area of the Geysers Steam Field, With New Geologic Insights and Models Defining Reservoir Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebein, Jeffrey J.

    1983-12-15

    MCR Geothermal Corporation pioneered successful exploratiory drilling the Bottle Rock area of the Geysers Steam Field in 1976. The wellfield is characterized by a deep reservoir with varied flowrates, temperatures, pressures, and stem chemistries being quite acceptable. More detailed reservoir engineering tests will follow as production commences.

  20. Mental health problems among the survivors in the hard-hit areas of the Yushu earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On April 14, 2010, an earthquake registering 7.1 on the Richter scale shook Qinghai Province in southwest China. The earthquake caused numerous casualties and much damage. The epicenter, Yushu County, suffered the most severe damage. As a part of the psychological relief work, the present study evaluated the mental health statuses of the people affected and identified the mental disorder risk factors related to earthquakes. METHODS: Five hundred and five earthquake survivors living in Yushu County were investigated 3-4 months after the earthquake. Participant demographic data including gender, age, marital status, ethnicity, educational level, and religious beliefs were collected. The Earthquake-Specific Trauma Exposure Indicators assessed the intensity of exposure to trauma during the earthquake. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL-25 assessed the symptoms and prevalence rates of probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD as well as anxiety and depression, respectively. The Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS evaluated subjective social support. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of probable PTSD, anxiety, and depression were 33.7%, 43.8% and 38.6%, respectively. Approximately one fifth of participants suffered from all three conditions. Individuals who were female, felt initial fear during the earthquake, and had less social support were the most likely to have poor mental health. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that there are serious mental problems among the hard-hit survivors of the Yushu earthquake. Survivors at high risk for mental disorders should be specifically considered. The present study provides useful information for rebuilding and relief work.

  1. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts, Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas defined by the Department of Economic Development (LDED) for the purpose of encouraging economic growth by offering tax credits and incentives to businesses locating or expanding in designated enterprise zone areas., Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts dataset current as of 2005. Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas defined by the Department of Economic Development (LDED) for...

  2. Business and Commerce, Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas defined by the Department of Economic Development (LDED) for the purpose of encouraging economic growth by offering tax credits and incentives to businesses locating or expanding in designated enterprise zone areas., Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Business and Commerce dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2005. It is described as 'Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas defined by the Department...

  3. Study of Social Problems and Working Conditions of Child Labourers in Rural Area of Wardha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimbarte Sanjay

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Children under fourteen constitute around 3.6% of the total labour force in India. The objective of the present study was to study the socio-economic determinants and to assess the working conditionsof child labourer in the small town Seloo area in Wardha district. The child labourers were interviewed in their work places using a predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire. Data was collected andanalyzed using epi_info 6.04d. A total of 150 child labourers participated in the study. The male/ female ratio was 1:1.77. Child labour was most prevalent (80% among 11-13 year age group.Child labour increases with decreasing parental socio-economic status. A little less than half (46.7% of the child labourers had to work for more than 6 hours a day. Average duration of work as 6.1days per week. There is need to protect children from child labour specially girl children. It is advocated that reduction in family size is condusive to promote economic empowerment/education.

  4. Application of the quadrilateral area coordinate method: a new element for laminated composite plate bending problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Cen; Xiangrong Fu; Yuqiu Long; Hongguang Li; Zhenhan Yao

    2007-01-01

    Recently, some new quadrilateral finite elements were successfully developed by the Quadrilateral Area Coordinate (QAC) method. Compared with those traditional models using isoparametric coordinates, these new models are less sensitive to mesh distortion. In this paper, a new displacement-based, 4-node 20-DOF (5-DOF per node)quadrilateral bending element based on the first-order shear deformation theory for analysis of arbitrary laminated composite plates is presented. Its bending part is based on the element AC-MQ4, a recent-developed high-performance Mindlin-Reissner plate element formulated by QAC method and the generalized conforming condition method; and its in-plane displacement fields are interpolated by bilinear shape functions in isoparametric coordinates. Furthermore,the hybrid post-processing procedure, which was firstly proposed by the authors, is employed again to improve the stress solutions, especially for the transverse shear stresses. The resulting element, denoted as AC-MQ4-LC, exhibits excellent performance in all linear static and dynamic numerical examples. It demonstrates again that the QAC method, the generalized conforming condition method, and the hybrid post-processing procedure are efficient tools for developing simple, effective and reliable finite element models.

  5. PROBLEMS OF PROTECTION OF URBAN AREAS FROM RADIONUCLIDES STRONTIUM-90 AND CAESIUM-137 AFTER TECHNOLOGICAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cheremisina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The methods of decontamination of radionuclides from soils are considered. The literature focuses on fixing radionuclides in soils and creating geochemical barriers that it is prevent the spread of pollution. The main disadvantage of these methods is exclude the possibility of building a territory. It is need to clean up the area to the sanitary and hygienic requirements for further use and then it is desirable to fix the residual activity. Carried out an analysis of forms of radionuclides fixation in soils and mechanics of this fixation, therewith revealed that Cs-137 fixed more strongly on mineral component of soil, than Sr-90, which is mainly in the acid-soluble and exchangeable form, and, as a consequence, passes into the liquid phase during soil deactivation more easily. Contaminated soil deactivation in the urbanized territory is possible by washing it by ferric chloride solution at a concentration 0.02-0.05 M and with an equimolar addition of an ammonium chloride. Therewith most efficient methods, which used in-situ conditions, are heap and convection leaching technologies with treatment degree, which not less than 80%. At the same time, the most efficient methods which used in-situ conditions are heap and the convection leaching. The hardware-technological scheme of a convection leaching is presented. Noted that ammonium salts additions slightly rising coefficient of treatment from Sr-90. Because ammonium salts aren’t expensive, their additions allow to obtain significant economic benefits due to decreasing of ferric chloride consumption, which is more valuable, and waste water volume reduction.

  6. The problems of over exploitation of aquifers in semi-arid areas: characteristics and proposals for mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Estrella, T.

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a general analysis of the problems arising from overexploited aquifers in semi-arid areas, based on research carried out in the Region of Murcia (one of the most over-exploited areas in Europe). Among the negative impacts of this over exploitation are: the drying up of springs, the continuous drawdown of water levels (up to 10 m/y), piezo metric drops (over 30 m in one year if it is a karstic aquifer), an increase in pumping costs (elevating water from a depth of more than 450 m), abandonment of wells, diminishing groundwater reserves, deteriorating water quality, presence of CO{sub 2}, compartmentalizing of aquifers, etc. A series of internal measures is proposed to alleviate the over exploitation of the region. (Author)

  7. On-line measurement of the supplied wind capacity for a defined supply area; Online-Ermittlung der eingespeisten Windleistung fuer definierte Versorgungsgebiete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensslin, C.; Hoppe-Kilpper, M.; Rohrig, K. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Apart from knowing exactly the statistic performance of the supplied wind capacity the projection of the capacity to be expected in the short and medium-term is of increasing importance for the utilisation plan of power plants and the load management of public utilities. Various approaches and methods already exist for the projection of wind capacity. These approaches are based on the capability to approximate non-linear interrelations and to use unclear, incomplete or even contradictory data with the help of artificial neuronal networks. The physical and meteorological interrelations of the problem do not need to be known during the modelling. Based upon the on-line measurement of wind energy supply the short time projection for periods of one to four hours, e.g. by means of artificial neuronal networks, is an important first step for an improved integration of wind energy into load control and utilisation plan of power plants of public utilities with a high share in wind energy. A first study carried out by the ISET (Institute for Solar Energy Supply Technology) showed the basic possibility to predict the overall capacity of widely distributed joint systems of wind power plants by means of artificial neuronal networks. (orig.) [German] Neben der genauen Kenntnis des statistischen Verhaltens der eingespeisten Windleistung ist die Vorhersage der kurz- bis mittelfristig zu erwartenden Leistung fuer die Kraftwerkseinsatzplanung und das Lastmanagement von Energieversorgungsunternehmen von zunehmender Bedeutung. Fuer die Prognose der Windleistung existieren bereits verschiedene Ansaetze und Verfahren. Dabei basieren die Ansaetze zur Windleistungsprognose mit Hilfe von Kuenstlichen Neuronalen Netzen (KNN) auf der Faehigkeit, nichtlineare Zusammenhaenge zu approximieren und verrauschte, unvollstaendige oder sogar widerspruechliche Daten zu verwenden. Weiter sind bei der Modellierung keine Kenntnisse der physikalischen oder meteorologischen Zusammenhaenge des Problems

  8. Decidability of definability

    CERN Document Server

    Tsankov, Manuel Bodirsky; Michael Pinsker; Todor

    2010-01-01

    For a fixed infinite structure $\\Gamma$ with finite signature $\\tau$, we study the following computational problem: Input are quantifier-free first-order $\\tau$-formulas $\\phi_0,\\phi_1,\\dots,\\phi_n$ that define relations $R_0,R_1,\\dots,R_n$ over $\\Gamma$. The question is whether the relation $R_0$ is primitive positive definable from $R_1,\\ldots,R_n$, i.e., definable by a first-order formula that uses only relation symbols for $R_1, \\dots, R_n$, equality, conjunctions, and existential quantification (disjunction, negation, and universal quantification are forbidden). We show decidability of this problem for all structures $\\Gamma$ that have a first-order definition in an ordered homogeneous structure $\\Delta$ with a finite language whose age is a Ramsey class and determined by finitely many forbidden substructures. Examples for structures $\\Gamma$ with this property are the order of the rationals, the random graph, the homogeneous universal poset, the random tournament, all homogeneous universal $C$-relations...

  9. THE PROBLEM OF PROTECTING THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN SPATIAL PLANNING IN RURAL AREAS IN SOUTH-EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusława Baran-Zgłobicka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Local planning in Poland encompasses spatial development conditions and directions study for a district (“study” and a local spatial development plan (“local plan”. The study is the only planning document that is required for the entire area of a district. It outlines directions of spatial policy and spatial development. Detailed investigations encompassed nine functionally diverse rural districts in SE Poland. The objective was to assess the description of environmental determinants and the problems of natural resources protection presented in the studies. The adequacy of the adopted approach to the subject matter and its correlation with spatial development directions were analysed. The analysed studies usually provide an exhaustive description of (a natural resources and the nature conservation system along with restrictions in environment use, and (b the problem of raw materials. Not all studies, however, highlight the local, very often unique characteristics of the natural environment. Natural hazards are marginalized in some studies. There is also a lack of concrete solutions for the protection of space and improvement of spatial order.

  10. The large area crop inventory experiment: An experiment to demonstrate how space-age technology can contribute to solving critical problems here on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The large area crop inventory experiment is being developed to predict crop production through satellite photographs. This experiment demonstrates how space age technology can contribute to solving practical problems of agriculture management.

  11. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  12. Developing Critical Thinking of Middle School Students using Problem Based Learning 4 Core Areas (PBL4C) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridza, R.; E Irving, K.

    2017-02-01

    Traditional methods such as rote learning and memorization in teaching science create passive students in science classrooms. The impact of this continuous action for many decades is inactive learners who cannot develop higher order thinking skills. Based on the performance test, students’ critical thinking skill in Public Middle School 3 Pontianak was in low level although their achievement score were higher than school standards. The purpose of this study is to develop critical thinking skills of middle school students using Problem Based Learning 4 Core Areas (PBL4C). The design of this research is classroom action research with two cycles. Data has been collected using observation checklist, rating scale, self and peer assessment. Research findings reveal that students experience development from 11.11% to 88.45% in identifying the problem correctly, 37.03% to 76.92% for sub skills distinguish knowledge and opinion, 18.51% to 65.38% for sub skills providing possible solution, 22.22% to 69.23% for sub skills making decision, and 11.11% to 69.23% for sub skills identifying the impact of the implementation of their solution. In conclusion, the findings indicate that development of students’ critical thinking skills occurs when PBL4C model applied in science classroom. These findings suggest that teachers should act as facilitator in a classroom as well as should provide meaningful learning resources that can benefit students’ critical thinking skills. On the other hand, students should practice constantly to offer a sharp, accurate and appropriate solution.

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment, Brownfield Areas. Brownfields are defined by the Florida DEP as abandoned, idled, or underused industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination., Published in 2001, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Environmental Impact Assessment dataset current as of 2001. Brownfield Areas. Brownfields are defined by the Florida DEP as abandoned, idled, or underused industrial...

  14. Control of System with Defined Risk Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Tomasov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the basic requirements for system control with defined risk level is presented. The paper should be an introduction to describe of theoretical apparatus, which was created during some years of research work in the Department of information and safety systems in this area. It a modification or creation of new parts of Information theory, System theory, and Control theory means. This parts are necessary for the analysis and synthesis tasks in the systems where dominant attribute of control is defined risk level. The basic problem is the creation of protect mechanism again the threats from inside and from controlled system environs. For each risk reduction mechanism is needed some redundancy which should be into control algorithm to put by exactly determined way.

  15. A Brief Study of Junior High School Students' English Articulatory Problems in Baoji Area%A Brief Study of Junior High School Students'English Articulatory Problems in Baoji Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马卉

    2016-01-01

    Study of Articulation is a key factor in teaching English. By a brief research, some English articulatory problems are seen among junior middle school students in Baoji which mainly lie in misuttering the voiced labiodental, the dentals and,and misuttering nasal是 as for the reasons of transfer, evaluation system, teacher factors and learner factors. The author analyses the articulatory problems and puts forward the solutions to the problems as eliminating the negative transfer by massive practice,increasing learners' motivation and needs, and improving teachers' expertise to improve the learners'performance in English learning.

  16. Variational data assimilation for limited-area models: solution of the open boundary control problem and its application for the Gulf of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheloput, Tatiana; Agoshkov, Valery

    2017-04-01

    The problem of modeling water areas with `liquid' (open) lateral boundaries is discussed. There are different known methods dealing with open boundaries in limited-area models, and one of the most efficient is data assimilation. Although this method is popular, there are not so many articles concerning its implementation for recovering boundary functions. However, the problem of specifying boundary conditions at the open boundary of a limited area is still actual and important. The mathematical model of the Baltic Sea circulation, developed in INM RAS, is considered. It is based on the system of thermo-hydrodynamic equations in the Boussinesq and hydrostatic approximations. The splitting method that is used for time approximation in the model allows to consider the data assimilation problem as a sequence of linear problems. One of such `simple' temperature (salinity) assimilation problem is investigated in the study. Using well known techniques of study and solution of inverse problems and optimal control problems [1], we propose an iterative solution algorithm and we obtain conditions for existence of the solution, for unique and dense solvability of the problem and for convergence of the iterative algorithm. The investigation shows that if observations satisfy certain conditions, the proposed algorithm converges to the solution of the boundary control problem. Particularly, it converges when observational data are given on the `liquid' boundary [2]. Theoretical results are confirmed by the results of numerical experiments. The numerical algorithm was implemented to water area of the Baltic Sea. Two numerical experiments were carried out in the Gulf of Finland: one with the application of the assimilation procedure and the other without. The analyses have shown that the surface temperature field in the first experiment is close to the observed one, while the result of the second experiment misfits. Number of iterations depends on the regularisation parameter, but

  17. The Effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration Strategy on the Ability of Students with Learning Disabilities to Multiply Linear Expressions within Area Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Tricia K.; Maccini, Paula

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration strategy on the ability of secondary students with learning disabilities to multiply linear algebraic expressions embedded within contextualized area problems. A multiple-probe design across three participants was used. Results indicated that the integration of the…

  18. The Effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration Strategy on the Ability of Students with Learning Disabilities to Multiply Linear Expressions within Area Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Tricia K.; Maccini, Paula

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration strategy on the ability of secondary students with learning disabilities to multiply linear algebraic expressions embedded within contextualized area problems. A multiple-probe design across three participants was used. Results indicated that the integration of the…

  19. Self-esteem and illness self-concept in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes: Long-term associations with problem areas in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Goubert, Liesbet; Weets, Ilse

    2016-04-01

    This long-term prospective study examined whether illness self-concept (or the degree to which chronic illness becomes integrated in the self) mediated the pathway from self-esteem to problem areas in diabetes in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes. Having a central illness self-concept (i.e. feeling overwhelmed by diabetes) was found to relate to lower self-esteem, and more treatment, food, emotional, and social support problems. Furthermore, path analyses indicated that self-esteem was negatively related to both levels and relative changes in these problem areas in diabetes over a period of 5 years. Illness self-concept fully mediated these associations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Defining and Measuring User Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Jan

    2006-01-01

    on the intrinsic relation between definition and measurement. In the area of usability, this relation has been developed over several years. It is described how usability is defined and measured in contemporary approaches. Based on that, it is discussed to what extent we can employ experience from the conceptual...

  1. Definable deduction relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉平

    1999-01-01

    The nonmonotonic deduction relation in default reasoning is defined with fixed point style, which has the many-extension property that classical logic is not possessed of. These two kinds of deductions both have boolean definability property, that is, their extensions or deductive closures can be defined by boolean formulas. A generalized form of fixed point method is employed to define a class of deduction relations, which all have the above property. Theorems on definability and atomless boolean algebras in model theory are essential in dealing with this assertion.

  2. Selenium in the ecosystem of the grassland area of the San Joaquin Valley: Has the problem been fixed?

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The West Grassland area consists of 26,690 hectares of federal, state, and private native pasture and seasonal wetlands representing the largest tract of waterfowl...

  3. The Suggestion Circle: A Method for Solving Classroom Problems in Reading and Language Arts--Or Any Other Area!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Ronald; Ramsey, Imogene

    In almost every classroom there is a minority of children that, regardless of effort, teachers have difficulty working with. The "Suggestion Circle" is a method for soliciting streamlined, on-focus ideas for solving classroom problems with the help of colleagues. In the Suggestion Circle there are three roles for people: the person who…

  4. Self-esteem and illness self-concept in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes: Long-term associations with problem areas in diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Goubert, Liesbet; Weets, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    This long-term prospective study examined whether illness self-concept (or the degree to which chronic illness becomes integrated in the self) mediated the pathway from self-esteem to problem areas in diabetes in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes. Having a central illness self-concept (i.e. feeling overwhelmed by diabetes) was found to relate to lower self-esteem, and more treatment, food, emotional, and social support problems. Furthermore, path analyses indicated that self-esteem was neg...

  5. STUDY OF HEALTH PROBLEMS AND HEALTH RELATED SOCIAL FACTORS IN GERIATRIC POPULATION AT UHC AREA OF S N MEDICAL COLLEGE, BAGALKOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannapur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A major emerging demographic issue of 21 st century is the ageing of the population as an inevitable consequence of de mographic transition experienced by most countries. Change in socio-economic status and vari ous health problems adversely affect an individual's way of life during old age. Objective: To study the health problems and health related social factors of the elderly in an urban h ealth centre area. Methodology : The study was conducted in Urban Health Centre area of S.N.Medica l College, Bagalkot .The total population of UHC was 4500 covering six Anganwadis. All the people who were 60 years and above were studied in that area, who were 244 in all. Study design and variables: A Cross-sectional study . A pretested, structured questionnaire was used to coll ect information by house to house interview method on Socio-demographic factors and health relat ed factors. Results: The mean age of the study population was 67.0±14.7 (Mean±2SD.Majority (4 4.7% of geriatric population belonged to the age group of 60-64 years.62.3% were females. Around one third (36.1% of them were illiterate. Half (50% of the elderly were housewiv es. 44.3% belonged to lower socio-economic status. 46.3% of the study population was having hyper tension. 32% of the aged complained of locomotors problems such as joint pain & other muscul oskeletal problems. 19.3% of the study population was having a habit of tobacco chewing. Mai n interfamily problem was related to economic status (27.5%. 29.9% of the elderly solve d their problems themselves. Majority (80.7% of them preferred to stay with their son fol lowed by daughter (7%. 64.3% of the aged spends time by looking after their house. Conclusion: The main health problems among the elderly were hypertension and locomotors system rela ted problems. The social factors associated with elderly were, habits such as tobacc o chewing, main reason for interfamily problem was economic related. Therefore

  6. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.;

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...... over time and theoretical implications are discussed, notably by introducing a new approach to autobiographical memory, Transition Theory, which assumes that autobiographical memory is organized by transitional events that can be selfinitiated or externally imposed - historically defined...

  7. A Clinico-Epidemiological Study on Health Problems of Post-Menopausal Women in Rural Area of Vadodara District, Gujarat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Shailendra Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Health issues of postmenopausal women pose a significant challenge to public health, considering the facts like; there hasn’t been a specific health program for such women in the country and the rising geriatric population. Objectives: 1. To find out the health problems among rural post-menopausal women. 2. To compare the results with few of the studies in the past with different settings. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional study, Participants: 147 post-menopausal women residing in Piparia village of Vadodara district were involved in the study, based on sample size calculation and necessary assumptions. Information was filled up in a pre-tested questionnaire. Objectives: 1. To find out the health problems among rural post-menopausal women. 2. To compare the results with few of the studies in the past with different settings. Results: Most of them suffered from physical symptoms of tiredness (88.4% and headache (74.8%. This was followed by vasomotor symptoms like hot flushes (40.1%, night sweats (40.8% and palpitations (37.4% as well as psychological symptoms like insomnia (57.1%, anxiety (38.1% and lack of concentration in the work (33.3%. Conclusion: The rural post-menopausal women suffer from variety of health problems and it has also some relevance to the settings they come from. [Natl J of Med Res 2012; 2(4.000: 478-480

  8. Problems eliciting cues in SEIQoL-DW : Quality of life areas in small-cell lung cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, M; Hak, T; The, AM; Groen, H; van der Wal, G

    2006-01-01

    The Schedule of Individual Quality of Life - Direct Weighting (SEIQoL-DW) is an individualized approach in the measurement of quality of life in which patients can choose, value and weight five areas that they consider important for their quality of life. Although a number of studies have reported o

  9. The Evolution of the Demand for Post-Compulsory Education in the Urban Area of Milan: Perspectives and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Roberto

    1984-01-01

    The consequences of three events on the demand for postcompulsory education in the urban area of Milan are examined: the population growth, the transformation of the city's economy and the consequential trend of the labor market, and the lack of upper-secondary school reform. (MLW)

  10. Legal Developments and Problems of the Bologna Process within the European Higher Education Area and European Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and…

  11. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...

  12. Radiation Tolerant Software Defined Video Processor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MaXentric's is proposing a radiation tolerant Software Define Video Processor, codenamed SDVP, for the problem of advanced motion imaging in the space environment....

  13. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  14. Definably amenable NIP groups

    OpenAIRE

    Chernikov, Artem; Simon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We study definably amenable NIP groups. We develop a theory of generics, showing that various definitions considered previously coincide, and study invariant measures. Applications include: characterization of regular ergodic measures, a proof of the conjecture of Petrykowski connecting existence of bounded orbits with definable amenability in the NIP case, and the Ellis group conjecture of Newelski and Pillay connecting the model-theoretic connected component of an NIP group with the ideal s...

  15. Problems and Tasks of TRAINING at Courses for Enhancement of Qualification in the Radioactive Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, I. A.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Batyukhnova, O. G.; Shcherbatova, T. D.; Ojovan, M. I.; Arustamov, A. E.

    2002-02-25

    Requirements to the professional competence of the personnel engaged in the area of the radioactive waste management are increased. Higher school cannot supply the branch with the qualified personnel; therefore special attention should be given to the system of staff retraining and to the increase of their qualification. In that paper the analysis of SIA ''Radon'' experience on the organization and carrying out training at courses of qualification improvement is represented. The main criterion of the analysis is the research of an education efficiency. Also here the basic directions of the training process improving are submitted as well as the requirements that should be considered when forming the teaching staff and trainees groups.

  16. Megacities air pollution problems: Mexico City Metropolitan Area critical issues on the central nervous system pediatric impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J; Doty, Richard L; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The chronic health effects associated with sustained exposures to high concentrations of air pollutants are an important issue for millions of megacity residents and millions more living in smaller urban and rural areas. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) concentrations close or above their respective air quality standards during the last 20 years affect 24 million people living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Herein we discuss PM and O3 trends in MCMA and their possible association with the observed central nervous system (CNS) effects in clinically healthy children. We argue that prenatal and postnatal sustained exposures to a natural environmental exposure chamber contribute to detrimental neural responses. The emerging picture for MCMA children shows systemic inflammation, immunodysregulation at both systemic and brain levels, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, small blood vessel pathology, and an intrathecal inflammatory process, along with the early neuropathological hallmarks for Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Exposed brains are briskly responding to their harmful environment and setting the bases for structural and volumetric changes, cognitive, olfactory, auditory and vestibular deficits and long term neurodegenerative consequences. We need to improve our understanding of the PM pediatric short and long term CNS impact through multidisciplinary research. Public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce fine PM levels and pediatric exposures and establishing preventative screening programs targeting pediatric populations that are most at risk. We fully expect that the health of 24 million residents is important and blocking pediatric air pollution research and hiding critical information that ought to be available to our population, health, education and social workers is not in the best interest of our children.

  17. Eye problems in mountain and remote areas: prevention and onsite treatment--official recommendations of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine ICAR MEDCOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerton, John A; Zuljan, Igor; Agazzi, Giancelso; Boyd, Jeffrey J

    2009-01-01

    Although eyes are not frequently injured in the mountains, they are exposed to many adverse factors from the environment. This article, intended for first responders, paramedics, physicians, and mountaineers, is the consensus opinion of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR-MEDCOM). Its aim is to give practical advice on the management of eye problems in mountainous and remote areas. Snow blindness and minor injuries, such as conjunctival and corneal foreign bodies, could immobilize a person and put him or her at risk of other injuries. Blunt or penetrating trauma can result in the loss of sight in the eye; this may be preventable if the injury is managed properly. In almost all cases of severe eye trauma, protecting the eye and arranging an immediate evacuation are necessary. The most common eye problems, however, are due to ultraviolet light and high altitude. People wearing contact lenses and with previous history of eye diseases are more vulnerable. Any sight-threatening eye problem or unexplained visual loss at high altitude necessitates descent. Wearing appropriate eye protection, such as sunglasses with sidepieces and goggles with polarized or photochromic lenses, could prevent most of the common eye problems in mountaineering.

  18. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops t....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it........ The academic imperative of definition seems to be linked to the positivistic attempts – and produces sometimes monstrous definitions. Have they any philosophical value for our knowledge of what play is? Definition is not a universal instrument of knowledge-building, but a culturally specific construction...

  19. Nouns to Define Homophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo Arias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The term ‘homophobia’ was introduced in the academic context more than 40 years ago. However, its meaning has changed over time. Objective. To review the nouns used in the last twelve years to define homophobia. Methodology. The authors conducted a systematic search in Medline through Pubmed that included editorials, letters to editors, comments and narrative reviews, in English and Spanish. A qualitative analysis (Grounded theory was applied to analyze nouns used to define homophobia since 2001 through 2012. Results. Authors reviewed three papers including ten nouns to define homophobia, the most common noun was fear. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort with homosexuality. Conclusion. Fear is the most used word to describe homophobia. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort toward homosexuality.

  20. Defining "intermittent UVR exposure"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Petersen, Bibi Øager;

    2016-01-01

    to define and quantify “intermittent UVR exposure” by an objective measure. Methods: A broad study population of adults and children had data collected during a summer period. Data were personal UVR dosimetry measurements, from which the number of “intermittent days” was derived, sun behaviour diaries.......001). The corresponding numbers for prediction of nevi and lentigo density by retrospective questionnaire data was lower (R2 = 0.11, R2 = 0.26, p defined objective measure of intermittent UVR exposure. This measure may provide a better prediction of solar skin damage and CMM...

  1. 浅议采煤沉陷区移民安置问题%Comments on Immigration Resettlement Problems of Ground Subsidence Area Caused by Underground Coal Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗云峰

    2012-01-01

    分析了淮南矿区近年来在采煤沉陷区移民安置工作中所取得的成果和面临的难题,探讨了如何做好采煤沉陷区移民安置工作,可为煤炭企业提供经验与借鉴。%The paper analyzed the achievements and faced problems of the immigration resettlements of the ground subsidence area caused by underground coal mining and discussed how to well done the immigration resettlements of the ground subsidence area, which could provide the experiences and references to the coal enterprises.

  2. Geología urbana del área metropolitana bonaerense y su influencia en la problemática ambiental Urban geology of the Buenos Aires metropolitan area and its influence on environmental problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.X. Pereyra

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian los principales problemas ambientales existentes en el área metropolitana bonaerense. Esta área se localiza en la Llanura Pampeana a los 32°S y 66°O. Desde su fundación en 1580 la ciudad ha experimentado un sostenido crecimiento poblacional hasta alcanzar los casi 13.000.000 de habitantes que tiene en la actualidad. Los principales problemas ambientales que afectan a la población del área son: inundaciones, ascensos regionales del nivel freático, disposición de residuos domiciliarios e industriales en rellenos sanitarios, minería de áridos, presencia de suelos expansivos y contaminación de suelos, agua y aire. Esta contribución analiza los aspectos geológicos y geomorfológicos que controlan su ocurrencia. La cartografía temática aparece como una de las principales herramientas tendientes a la solución de estos problemas.The main environmental problems existing in Buenos Aires metropolitan area were studied in an area located on the Pampean plains (Llanura Pampeana at about 32°S and 66°W. Since its foundation in 1580, the city of Buenos Aires has experienced a striking population growth, to its present level of 13,000,000 inhabitants. The main geoenvironmental problems that pose a threat to Buenos Aires population are: flooding, regional rise in the water table, disposal of domestic and industrial waste in land-fill sites, mining dust, expansive soils and contamination of soils, water and air. This paper focuses on the geological, geomorphological and edaphic aspects, which may have controlled the occurrence of these processes. Thematic mapping of the main physical environmental features would appear to be one of the main tools for solving these problems.

  3. Defining Data Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yangyong; Xiong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Data science is gaining more and more and widespread attention, but no consensus viewpoint on what data science is has emerged. As a new science, its objects of study and scientific issues should not be covered by established sciences. Data in cyberspace have formed what we call datanature. In the present paper, data science is defined as the science of exploring datanature.

  4. Defining Mathematical Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical paper outlines the process of defining "mathematical giftedness" for a present study on how primary school teaching shapes the mindsets of children who are mathematically gifted. Mathematical giftedness is not a badge of honour or some special value attributed to a child who has achieved something exceptional.…

  5. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...

  6. Defining Effective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, L.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at the meaning of specific terminology commonly used in student surveys: "effective teaching." The research seeks to determine if there is a difference in how "effective teaching" is defined by those taking student surveys and those interpreting the results. To investigate this difference, a sample group of professors and students…

  7. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  8. Software Defined Cyberinfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian; Blaiszik, Ben; Chard, Kyle; Chard, Ryan

    2017-07-17

    Within and across thousands of science labs, researchers and students struggle to manage data produced in experiments, simulations, and analyses. Largely manual research data lifecycle management processes mean that much time is wasted, research results are often irreproducible, and data sharing and reuse remain rare. In response, we propose a new approach to data lifecycle management in which researchers are empowered to define the actions to be performed at individual storage systems when data are created or modified: actions such as analysis, transformation, copying, and publication. We term this approach software-defined cyberinfrastructure because users can implement powerful data management policies by deploying rules to local storage systems, much as software-defined networking allows users to configure networks by deploying rules to switches.We argue that this approach can enable a new class of responsive distributed storage infrastructure that will accelerate research innovation by allowing any researcher to associate data workflows with data sources, whether local or remote, for such purposes as data ingest, characterization, indexing, and sharing. We report on early experiments with this approach in the context of experimental science, in which a simple if-trigger-then-action (IFTA) notation is used to define rules.

  9. Defining in Classroom Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Maria Alessandra; Fischbein, Efraim

    1997-01-01

    Discusses some aspects of the defining process in geometrical context in the reference frame of the theory of "figural concepts." Presents analysis of some examples taken from a teaching experiment at the sixth-grade level. Contains 30 references. (Author/ASK)

  10. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  11. Taxon categories and the universal species-area relationship (a comment on Šizling et al., “between geometry and biology:the problem of universality of the species-area relationship”).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, John; Kitzes, Justin; Newman, Erica A; Rominger, Andrew J

    2013-02-01

    A theory of macroecology based on the maximum information entropy (MaxEnt) inference procedure predicts that the log-log slope of the species-area relationship (SAR) at any spatial scale is a specified function of the ratio of abundance, N(A), to species richness, S(A), at that scale. The theory thus predicts, in generally good agreement with observation, that all SARs collapse onto a specified universal curve when local slope, z(A), is plotted against N(A)/S(A). A recent publication, however, argues that if it is assumed that patterns in macroecology are independent of the taxonomic choices that define assemblages of species, then this principle of "taxon invariance" precludes the MaxEnt-predicted universality of the SAR. By distinguishing two dimensions of the notion of taxon invariance, we show that while the MaxEnt-based theory predicts universality regardless of the taxonomic choices that define an assemblage of species, the biological characteristics of assemblages should under MaxEnt, and do in reality, influence the realism of the predictions.

  12. 利用△R(n)/△n界定核心区域的探讨%Exploration of Defining Core Areas with △R (n)/△n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何荣利

    2003-01-01

    Based on R (n) - n curve, this article makes a deep analysis of △R (n) /△n from the mathematical,geometrical and actual meanings. The change of △R (n) /△n indicates that there is a clear convergence and dispersion inthe actual distribution of the documents of the journals. The area in which △R (n) /△n changes greatly is the core area,the area in which △R (n) /△n changes continuously is the dispersive area, and the point at which the variance of △R (n) /△n is bigger than 1 for the two adjacent journals may be taken as the boundary line between the core area and the non-core area.

  13. Defining and Measuring User Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Jan

    2006-01-01

    User experience is being used to denote what a user goes through while using a computerized system. The concept has gained momentum as a means to distinguish new types of applications such as games and entertainment software from more traditional work-related applications. This paper focuses...... on the intrinsic relation between definition and measurement. In the area of usability, this relation has been developed over several years. It is described how usability is defined and measured in contemporary approaches. Based on that, it is discussed to what extent we can employ experience from the conceptual...... definition of usability to develop the notion of user experience....

  14. Defining the fascial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adstrum, Sue; Hedley, Gil; Schleip, Robert; Stecco, Carla; Yucesoy, Can A

    2017-01-01

    Fascia is a widely used yet indistinctly defined anatomical term that is concurrently applied to the description of soft collagenous connective tissue, distinct sections of membranous tissue, and a body pervading soft connective tissue system. Inconsistent use of this term is causing concern due to its potential to confuse technical communication about fascia in global, multiple discipline- and multiple profession-spanning discourse environments. The Fascia Research Society acted to address this issue by establishing a Fascia Nomenclature Committee (FNC) whose purpose was to clarify the terminology relating to fascia. This committee has since developed and defined the terms a fascia, and, more recently, the fascial system. This article reports on the FNC's proposed definition of the fascial system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  16. Define Digital Vernacular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 李海英; James Stevens; Rough Nelson

    2014-01-01

    As science and technology developed, the tools of humans developed from humans’hands, to mechanical and digital technologies. The tools influ-ence almost everything in the humans’world, so does vernacular. The digital vernacular could be understood as using digital technology to vernacular; the digital means technologies. It also could be understood as doing vernacular in a digital way;the digital means data and information, in other words it can be seeking truth from facts. Define digital vernacular is not only what is digital vernacular, but also about how to do the digital vernacular and what kind of attitude we should hold to-ward the digital vernacular. Define digital vernacular as both thinking and doing.

  17. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  18. [To define internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonioni, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction is a new behavioral disorder difficult to define, especially when referring to young teenagers who make great use of web-mediated relationships. It's necessary to separate the cases of overt dependency on those in which the abuse of internet seems to have a different value, offering the only way to achieve the possible relationship. Internet is mediating a new way of communicating and thinking, this may favor the onset of clinical phenomena intended to surprise.

  19. Evaluation of problems and needs of veteran lower-limb amputees in the San Francisco Bay Area during the period 1977-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoaglund, F T; Jergesen, H E; Wilson, L; Lamoreux, L W; Roberts, R

    1983-07-01

    From 1977 through 1980, 251 veterans from the San Francisco Bay Area received permanent lower-extremity prostheses at the two local Veterans Administration hospitals. For a survey, 213 of the 251 were contacted and 179 of them (84%) responded to written or telephone questionnaires concerning their prosthetic problems and complaints and their recommendations regarding prosthetic care. Seventy-four percent of the patients were traumatic amputees and 23 percent were dysvascular amputees. Eighty-six percent of the traumatic amputees said they wore their limbs all day, compared with only 51 percent of the dysvascular group. Seventy-one percent of traumatic and 43 percent of dysvascular amputees engaged in some form of recreational activity. There was a high incidence of complaints of pain in the residual limb: 55 percent among the dysvascular group and 44 percent among the traumatic group. Half of the patients had socket problems. Fifty-four of the 178 patients received a physical examination, a prosthetic evaluation, and a gait analysis. Among this group, 59 percent of the below-knee prostheses and 78 percent of the above-knee prostheses had inadequate socket fitting. Improper shaping of socket margins was the most frequently observed deficiency. Moreover, 41 percent of below-knee and 22 percent of above-knee amputees had mechanical skin irritation or skin breakdown in the examined residual limbs. Faulty suspension and alignment in addition to improper socket fit and construction contributed to this problem. Excessive stiffness of SACH foot heel cushions was the most common prosthetic foot problem and contributed to gait abnormalities.

  20. Defining Literacy and Illiteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, Alice S.

    2007-01-01

    To understand the problem of illiteracy, a detailed review of the definitions of literacy and illiteracy is in order. A full definition of these terms in the current print and electronic context of adult American society in school and out of school, and for adult learners of English as both a first and a second language is presented here. Strong,…

  1. Defining Z in Q

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsmann, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We show that ${\\mathbb Z}$ is definable in ${\\mathbb Q}$ by a universal first-order formula in the language of rings. We also present an $\\forall\\exists$-formula for ${\\mathbb Z}$ in ${\\mathbb Q}$ with just one universal quantifier. We exhibit new diophantine subsets of ${\\mathbb Q}$ like the set of non-squares or the complement of the image of the norm map under a quadratic extension. Finally, we show that there is no existential formula for ${\\mathbb Z}$ in ${\\mathbb Q}$, provided one assumes a strong variant of the Bombieri-Lang Conjecture for varieties over ${\\mathbb Q}$ with many ${\\mathbb Q}$-rational points.

  2. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 2: RNAV/MLS transition problems for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems in navigation and guidance encountered by aircraft in the initial transition period in changing from distance measuring equipment, VORTAC, and barometric instruments to the more precise microwave landing system data type navaids in the terminal area are investigated. The effects of the resulting discontinuities on the estimates of position and velocity for both optimal (Kalman type navigation schemes) and fixed gain (complementary type) navigation filters, and the effects of the errors in cross track, track angle, and altitude on the guidance equation and control commands during the critical landing phase are discussed. A method is presented to remove the discontinuities from the navigation loop and to reconstruct an RNAV path designed to land the aircraft with minimal turns and altitude changes.

  3. Software-Defined Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂华; 杨晓君; 刘淘英

    2015-01-01

    The cluster architecture has played an important role in high-end computing for the past 20 years. With the advent of Internet services, big data, and cloud computing, traditional clusters face three challenges: 1) providing flexible system balance among computing, memory, and I/O capabilities;2) reducing resource pooling overheads;and 3) addressing low performance-power efficiency. This position paper proposes a software-defined cluster (SDC) architecture to deal with these challenges. The SDC architecture inherits two features of traditional cluster: its architecture is multicomputer and it has loosely-coupled interconnect. SDC provides two new mechanisms: global I/O space (GIO) and hardware-supported native access (HNA) to remote devices. Application software can define a virtual cluster best suited to its needs from resources pools provided by a physical cluster, and traditional cluster ecosystems need no modification. We also discuss a prototype design and implementation of a 32-processor cloud server utilizing the SDC architecture.

  4. Defining Art Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabolt, Betty Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the differences and goals of four areas: (1) art appreciation; (2) art history; (3) art aesthetics; and (4) art criticism. Offers a definition of art appreciation and information on how the view of art appreciation in education has changed over time. (CMK)

  5. Problems and Guidelines of Strategy Implementation in Basic Educational Institutions under the Supervision of KhonKaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasiwan Tonkanya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to 1 study problems of strategy implementation in basic educational institutions under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4 ; and 2 propose the guidelines for strategy implementation in basic educational institutions under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4. The study was carried out in 2 phases. In phase 1, it focused on the study and analysis of the strategic implementation problems and phase 2 studied the best practice schools. The informants for the interview in phase 1 comprised 6 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized schools. They were selected by the use of purposive sampling technique. The population in the study of the strategic implementation problems in basic educational institutions in phase 1 consisted of 543 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from 181 schools under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4 in academic year 2014. The study samples were 217 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized schools under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4. The samples were selected by the use of stratified sampling technique. The informants of the phase 2 study were 6 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized best practice schools obtained from purposive sampling technique. The research instruments used for data collection consisted of 2 sets of questionnaires. The Set 1 questionnaire was the 5-point Likert scale on the levels of the problems in implementation with item discrimination at 0.60 – 1.00 and reliability of the whole questionnaire at .9359. The questionnaire contained 3 parts with 65 items. The Set 2 questionnaire comprised 2 parts with 10 items regarding

  6. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  7. Mental health problems among survivors in hard-hit areas of the 5.12 Wenchuan and 4.20 Lushan earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zongtang; Xu, Jiuping; Wu, Zhibin

    2017-02-01

    Earthquake exposure has often been associated with psychological distress. However, little is known about the cumulative effect of exposure to two earthquakes on psychological distress and in particular, the effect on the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression disorders. This study explored the effect of exposure on mental health outcomes after a first earthquake and again after a second earthquake. A population-based mental health survey using self-report questionnaires was conducted on 278 people in the hard-hit areas of Lushan and Baoxing Counties 13-16 months after the Wenchuan earthquake (Sample 1). 191 of these respondents were evaluated again 8-9 months after the Lushan earthquake (Sample 2), which struck almost 5 years after the Wenchuan earthquake. In Sample 1, the prevalence rates for PTSD, anxiety and depression disorders were 44.53, 54.25 and 51.82%, respectively, and in Sample 2 the corresponding rates were 27.27, 38.63 and 36.93%. Females, the middle-aged, those of Tibetan nationality, and people who reported fear during the earthquake were at an increased risk of experiencing post-traumatic symptoms. Although the incidence of PTSD, anxiety and depression disorders decreased from Sample 1 to Sample 2, the cumulative effect of exposure to two earthquakes on mental health problems was serious in the hard-hit areas. Therefore, it is important that psychological counseling be provided for earthquake victims, and especially those exposed to multiple earthquakes.

  8. Categorization of the best practices of oil movement and storage according to its internal losses base structure, aiding to define solutions to the increase of the reliability in the area; Categorizacao das boas praticas da transferencia e estocagem do petroleo, de acordo com a estrutura de sua base de perdas interna, subsidiando a definicao de solucoes para o aumento da confiabilidade do setor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carelli, Alain Cognac; Smarcaro, Joanna; Versiani, Bernardo; Caulliraux, Heitor [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Grupo de Producao Integrada; Lima, Mario Jorge; Warrak, Jorge Alam [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays, in the dynamic and globalized context that have been verified by petroleum and gas industry, the competitiveness behind the organizations depends on its capacity more and more. It is important to promote the company's employees creative power to set up the solutions for the problems that are found in the organization. These problems should be well defined, diagnosing recent operational routine. In ambit of the Oil Movement and Storage Sector of the refinery, it was developed a tool which turns into possible to evaluate the historic problems which have occurred along years. This tool permits also make cause-effect diagrams and temporal graphics that are stratified by occurrences standard characteristics. These diagrams and graphics structure information, matching them with the undesired events diagnostics and aiding the decision maker to understand about the problem systematic. After the needs that should be attacked are defined toward increase the level of sector reliability, it should study the possible solutions. In agreement of these solutions, there is a reference model that contemplates the best practices of this sector. This model enables the identification of possible solutions for problems that were found in this sector. The Oil Movement and Storage Sector Best Practices Manual involve a conjunct of found recommendations and solutions that can be utilized to improve the sector operational performance. (author)

  9. Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line Event Replay and Early Warning of Grid Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, A.

    2012-12-31

    Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awareness of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of events during a large system disturbance for the post-event analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major event (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time event replay (in seconds) after a major event occurs. • Early warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system has been

  10. Defining Learning Objectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍鑫红

    2014-01-01

    <正>This article attempts to introduce the teacher to developments in the area of specifying learning objectives.When you have studied this article carefully,you should be able to(a)distinguish between statements of aims and statements of objectives,(b)discuss the merits of writing objectives from the point of view of the learner,and(c)write both complete and abbreviated statements of learning objectives for different language skills,functions,and notions.

  11. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  12. Defining The Other Solitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruson, Valerie; Bates, Joanna

    1990-01-01

    The changing content of urban-based family practice needs to be redefined so that appropriate family medicine training programs can be planned to meet the primary care health needs of Canada's urban-based population. Although the core content of family practice is common to both rural and urban areas, each requires specific skills and attitudes dictated by differences in patient characteristics, disease incidence, physician expectations, and professional contexts. A challenge for the future is the development of both rural-based and urban-based streams of family medicine training that will unite rather than divide the profesiion. PMID:21233947

  13. The study of the chatchment area and hydrodinamics of Árbol de Navidad (Chiapas, Mexico) to solve the problem of its feeding during the dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteo, Ada; Bernabei, Tullio; Davila Garcia, Luis I.; Del Vecchio, Umberto; Forti, Paolo; Zarate Galvez, Kaleb

    2016-04-01

    dye tracing tests have been performed to define the recharge area: these experiments allowed to state that at least a part of the water springing in the Árbol comes from an active sinkhole 4-5 km estward. Anyway it is still impossible to define the whole recharge area for the Árbol, more dye tracing test are required. In the near future the cave feeding the Árbol will be equipped with automatic devices to measure temperature, conductivity and amount of springing water in order to understand the behaviour of this karst system with respect to rainfalls. Next year, when these data will be available it will be prepared a project to ensure the correct amount of water to the spring even in the dry season.

  14. On defining dietary fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Jonathan W

    2003-02-01

    Establishing a definition for dietary fibre has historically been a balance between nutrition knowledge and analytical method capabilities. While the most widely accepted physiologically-based definitions have generally been accurate in defining the dietary fibre in foods, scientists and regulators have tended, in practice, to rely on analytical procedures as the definitional basis in fact. As a result, incongruities between theory and practice have resulted in confusion regarding the components that make up dietary fibre. In November 1998 the president of the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) appointed an expert scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. The committee was further charged with assessing the state of analytical methodology and making recommendations relevant to the updated definition. After due deliberation, an updated definition of dietary fibre was delivered to the AACC Board of Directors for consideration and adoption (Anon, 2000; Jones 2000b). The updated definition includes the same food components as the historical working definition used for approximately 30 years (a very important point, considering that the majority of the research of the past 30 years delineating the positive health effects of dietary fibre is based on that working definition). However, the updated definition more clearly delineates the make-up of dietary fibre and its physiological functionality. As a result, relatively few changes will be necessary in analytical methodology. Current methodologies, in particular AACC-approved method of analysis 32-05 (Grami, 2000), Association of Official Analytical Chemists' official method of analysis 985.29 (Horwitz, 2000a) or AACC 32-07 (Grami, 2000) Association of Official Analytical Chemists 991.43 (Horwitz, 2000a) will continue to be sufficient and used for most foods. A small number of additional methods will be necessary to

  15. Defining and Operationalising L2 Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulte, Bram; Housen, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This chapter takes a critical look at complexity in L2 research. We demonstrate several problems in the L2 literature in terms of how complexity has been defined and operationalised as a construct. In the first part of the chapter we try to unravel its highly complex, multidimensional nature by presenting a taxonomic model that identifies major…

  16. PROBLEMS OF MIGRANT LABOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WALLS, FOREST

    PRESENT MIGRANT LABOR PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN PROPOSED ARE PRESENTED. THE FIRST PROBLEM AREA IS PROVIDING EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN. THIS IS HINDERED BY THE PROBLEM OF SECURING COMPLIANCE WITH MINIMUM EDUCATION LAWS AND BY LAWS PROHIBITING EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN DURING SCHOOL HOURS. A SECOND PROBLEM AREA IS THAT OF CHILD LABOR.…

  17. Evaluation of water quality management problems caused by agricultural drainage water entering Modoc national wildlife refuge and the Ash Creek wildlife management area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this investigation was to determine water quality problems or potential problems caused by agricultural drainage water entering the Modoc National...

  18. Problems and Progress in Defining Terrorism in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridarson Galingging

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an effort to adopt an internationally-accepted legal definition for ‘terrorism’ since such definition will enhance international cooperation in fighting terrorism, which at the moment is fragmented and ineffective. However, various obstacles e.g. political heterogeneity or ideological discrepancy arise when seeking a uniformed definition of terrorism, hence this study. Dunia internasional berupaya untuk menetapkan definisi legal ‘terorisme’ yang diterima secara umum karena definisi ini dapat meningkatkan kerjasama internasional dalam melawan terorisme yang saat ini masih terkotak-kotak dan tidak efektif. Tulisan ini membahas pelbagai kesulitan yang muncul dalam upaya mencari definisi tersebut, seperti masalah keragaman politik dan kesenjangan ideologi antarnegara.

  19. The pathology of human spinal cord injury: defining the problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norenberg, Michael D; Smith, Jon; Marcillo, Alex

    2004-04-01

    This article reviews the pathology of human spinal cord injury (SCI), focusing on potential differences between humans and experimental animals, as well as on aspects that may have mechanistic or therapeutic relevance. Importance is placed on astrocyte and microglial reactions. These cells carry out a myriad of functions and we review the evidence that supports their beneficial or detrimental effects. Likewise, vascular responses and the role of inflammation and demyelination in the mechanism of SCI are reviewed. Lastly, schwannosis is discussed, highlighting its high frequency and potential role when designing therapeutic interventions. We anticipate that a better understanding of the pathological responses in the human will be useful to investigators in their studies on the pathogenesis and therapy of SCI.

  20. 云南边疆地区中等职业学校存在的问题及对策%Countermeasures for the Problems in Secondary Vocational Schools in Yunnan Province' Border Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓朝志

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a few problems in the development of secondary vocational schools in Yunnan provinces border areas,such as behindhand ideas,the fund shortage,backward construction, non-prominent moral education,disordered admissions and so on.The author advises local governments and education administrative department to change ideas and to attach importance to vocational education, giving full support from the aspects of policy,capital,etc.Schools need to define education orientation and strength its construction in the management of professional education,faculty,professional training, student and other aspects,winning the recognition and social development space with characteristic and quality.%结合实际,阐述目前云南边疆地区的中职学校在发展过程中仍存在观念落后、资金匮乏、自身建设滞后、立德树人不凸显、招生混乱等问题。建议地方政府及教育管理部门要转变观念重视职业教育,从政策、资金等方面给予全方位支持;学校要明确办学方向,从专业、师资队伍、实训、学生管理等方面加强自身建设,以特色及质量赢得社会的认可和发展空间。

  1. A research for environmental problems in the vicinity of mining area. Investigation into the impact of metallic mining on the environment and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jeong Sik; Cheong, Young Wook; Lee, Hyun Joo; Song, Duk Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study is focused on the impacts of metalliferous mines on the environment in the vicinity of the abandoned and active mines and establishment of abatements of mining environmental problems. Total number of metalliferous mines surveyed were 40 in which samples of waters, mine wastes and soil were taken. Water parameters such as the pH, Eh, TDS, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured in the field. Elements such as As, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Al, Mn, sulfate and cyanide were analyzed. Significant concentrations of heavy metals, mainly Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Al, were found in mine waters from adit and in leachates extracted from mine wastes. The mine waters flowing out from the Dalsung and Ilgwang mines were the typical acid mine drainage(AMD) contaminated by the heavy metals. Passive biological systems(Anoxic wetland) to treat AMD for metals were designed and monitored for effluents from the reactors with 4 types of composts, cow manure and limestones, Results showed that the mushroom compost with cow manure and limestone was the best substrates in metal removing efficiencies. Results from leaching of mine wastes showed that As, Cd and Cu were extracted from some of mine wastes. AMD from the mine waste dump of the Daduk mine was found. These mean that mine wastes can contaminate the soil, surface water and ground waters in vicinity of mines. Therefore cover systems or liner system for containments of mine wastes were suggested to preserve the environment. Cu and As concentrations in soils surveyed were below the heavy metal concentrations in soils of Korean standard preventing plant of the crops. However, most of the acid mine waters are drained untreated, and mine wastes with heavy metals are distributed near soil environment. Therefore efforts to reduce possibilities of soil contamination in the vicinity of mining areas is required. (author). 33 refs.

  2. Familien- und karrierebewusstes Krankenhaus – Problembereiche und nötige Schritte [Family and Career-conscious Hospitals – Problem Areas and Necessary Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fegert, Jörg M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] This paper aims to describe the wide range of compatibility issues between work in the medical profession and the family. Several topics are intertwined and overlap in some areas.Family friendliness in curative medicine, healthcare, medical studies and the training, specialisation and CPD of doctors is a key theme in the current debate on the future of health and family policies. The rising proportion of women and changes in the medical community characterise the future of medicine. Topics such as working hours and organisation of work, as well as family support and maternity leave, must be discussed further and in particular regarding employees in the health services. This overview will describe where Germany has issues, what is already being done well in the hospitals but could still be improved.[german] Der hier vorliegende Beitrag versucht das umfassende Spektrum der Vereinbarkeitsfragen von Arztberuf und Familie zu beschreiben. Viele Themen greifen ineinander und überlappen sich an einigen Stellen. Familienfreundlichkeit in der kurativen Medizin, im Gesundheitswesen, im Medizinstudium und in der Ärzte Aus-, Fort- und Weiterbildung ist ein zukunftsweisendes Schlüsselthema der aktuellen Gesundheits- und Familienpolitik. Der steigende Frauenanteil und der Wandel in der Ärzteschaft charakterisieren die Medizin der Zukunft. Dabei müssen die Themen Arbeitszeit und Arbeitsorganisation ebenso wie Familienförderung und Mutterschutz stärker insbesondere für Beschäftigte im Gesundheitswesen diskutiert werden. In dieser Überblicksarbeit wird beschrieben, an welchen Stellen in Deutschland die Probleme liegen, was im Krankenhauswesen bereits gut gemacht wird, aber auch verbessert werden könnte.

  3. Knapsack problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Hans; Pisinger, David

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen years have passed since the seminal book on knapsack problems by Martello and Toth appeared. On this occasion a former colleague exclaimed back in 1990: "How can you write 250 pages on the knapsack problem?" Indeed, the definition of the knapsack problem is easily understood even by a non-expert who will not suspect the presence of challenging research topics in this area at the first glance. However, in the last decade a large number of research publications contributed new results for the knapsack problem in all areas of interest such as exact algorithms, heuristics and approximation schemes. Moreover, the extension of the knapsack problem to higher dimensions both in the number of constraints and in the num­ ber of knapsacks, as well as the modification of the problem structure concerning the available item set and the objective function, leads to a number of interesting variations of practical relevance which were the subject of intensive research during the last few years. Hence, two years ago ...

  4. Motion-defined form processing in extremely premature children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, L S; Frisk, V; Downie, A L S

    2006-01-01

    Children born extremely prematurely are at risk for a variety of problems with motion analysis, including problems with motion-defined (MD) form recognition [Downie, A. L. S., Jakobson, L. S., Frisk, V., & Ushycky, I. (2003). Periventricular brain injury, visual motion processing, and reading and spelling abilities in children who were extremely-low-birthweight. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 440-449]. The aims of the present study were (1) to examine the impact of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and mild periventricular brain injury (PVBI) on MD form processing in this population; (2) to assess relationships between MD form recognition in these children and their performance in several other areas of visual competence. To this end, a battery of visual and visuomotor tests was administered to 43, 5- and 6-year old, extremely premature children, all of whom had escaped severe PVBI. A group of full-term controls was also studied. Relative to controls, premature children displayed clear deficits in MD form recognition and these deficits were related to the presence of ROP and/or mild PVBI, rather than to a history of prematurity per se. Regression analyses revealed significant associations in premature children between MD form processing deficits and problems with visual search, stereopsis, visuoconstructive and graphomotor skills, motor development, and Performance IQ. The results suggest that assessment of sensitivity to MD forms may be useful in the early identification of preterm children at greatest risk for visual problems associated with dorsal stream dysfunction.

  5. [Information and Communication Technology in medicine in Italy: problems and perspectives. A document by the "e-cardio" area of the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantero, Antonio; Posteraro, Alfredo; Giordano, Guido; Tonti, Gianni; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    In Italy, health protection is an individual right protected by the article 32 of the Constitution, granted to everyone since 1978 by the foundation of the National Health Service. However, regionalization of the healthcare system has caused noticeable discrepancies among the different areas of the country. The use of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) may be useful to solve them. The purpose of this document is to analyze the implementation of ICT in Italy, on the basis of the suggestions given by the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO). In 2010, the Italian government introduced the electronic health record (EHR), which includes a minimum core of essential documents that should be created and updated by general practitioners. The obvious limitations of this methodology become clear in the urgency-emergency clinical setting, where the availability of particular clinical data may influence both patient prognosis and cost reduction. Also the privacy rules, currently very restrictive, cause a drawback in reliability of the data reported in the EHR, thus arising the need for a balance shift from privacy to health rights at the level of both the individual and the community. A minimum core of mandatory clinical data to be included in the EHR should be defined. No formal indications for filling out the medical records are available and most few experiences concern "bureaucratic documents" on the diagnostic and therapeutic process. Conversely, we believe that medical records should become a diagnostic and therapeutic tool that makes health rights uniform across the country. Each medical record form should include the following features: a simple interface, a mandatory association of clinical findings and reports, data portability and accessibility, and adherence of the information to a minimal dataset. Additionally, medical records data should merge into a modified EHR available at any time and place through network access points with

  6. A survey and evaluation of microbased computer aided design systems for design education and practice in Scotland primarily in the area of product design: their application, problems and potential solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Roderick P.

    1992-01-01

    The initial premise of the research centred around the relatively new adoption by the Product Design sector of Computer Aided Design technology. Problems Were expected to occur in applying the hardware and understanding the terminology of the software by this sector which prides itself In its artisan skills. The aim of the work was to determine the extent of the adoption of Computer Aided Design and to clarify the problem areas. The research determined, by study of more experienced but sim...

  7. Defining and measuring successful emergency care networks: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Seth W; Kit Delgado, M; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hollander, Judd E; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Jacobs, Alice K; Kilaru, Austin S; Lorch, Scott A; Mutter, Ryan L; Myers, Sage R; Owens, Pamela L; Phelan, Michael P; Pines, Jesse M; Seymour, Christopher W; Ewen Wang, N; Branas, Charles C

    2010-12-01

    The demands on emergency services have grown relentlessly, and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has asserted the need for "regionalized, coordinated, and accountable emergency care systems throughout the country." There are large gaps in the evidence base needed to fix the problem of how emergency care is organized and delivered, and science is urgently needed to define and measure success in the emerging network of emergency care. In 2010, Academic Emergency Medicine convened a consensus conference entitled "Beyond Regionalization: Integrated Networks of Emergency Care." This article is a product of the conference breakout session on "Defining and Measuring Successful Networks"; it explores the concept of integrated emergency care delivery and prioritizes a research agenda for how to best define and measure successful networks of emergency care. The authors discuss five key areas: 1) the fundamental metrics that are needed to measure networks across time-sensitive and non-time-sensitive conditions; 2) how networks can be scalable and nimble and can be creative in terms of best practices; 3) the potential unintended consequences of networks of emergency care; 4) the development of large-scale, yet feasible, network data systems; and 5) the linkage of data systems across the disease course. These knowledge gaps must be filled to improve the quality and efficiency of emergency care and to fulfill the IOM's vision of regionalized, coordinated, and accountable emergency care systems. 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  8. Thermodynamics. Using Affinities to define reversible processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ritacco, Hernán A

    2016-01-01

    In this article a definition of reversible processes in terms of differences in intensive Thermodynamics properties (Affinities) is proposed. This definition makes it possible to both define reversible processes before introducing the concept of entropy and avoid the circularity problem that follows from the Clausius definition of entropy changes. The convenience of this new definition compared to those commonly found in textbooks is demonstrated with examples.

  9. How Should Energy Be Defined Throughout Schooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächtold, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    The question of how to teach energy has been renewed by recent studies focusing on the learning and teaching progressions for this concept. In this context, one question has been, for the most part, overlooked: how should energy be defined throughout schooling? This paper addresses this question in three steps. We first identify and discuss two main approaches in physics concerning the definition of energy, one claiming there is no satisfactory definition and taking conservation as a fundamental property, and the other based on Rankine's definition of energy as the capacity of a system to produce changes. We then present a study concerning how energy is actually defined throughout schooling in the case of France by analyzing national programs, physics textbooks, and the answers of teachers to a questionnaire. This study brings to light a consistency problem in the way energy is defined across school years: in primary school, an adapted version of Rankine's definition is introduced and conservation is ignored; in high school, conservation is introduced and Rankine's definition is ignored. Finally, we address this consistency problem by discussing possible teaching progressions. We argue in favor of the use of Rankine's definition throughout schooling: at primary school, it is a possible substitute to students' erroneous conceptions; at secondary school, it might help students become aware of the unifying role of energy and thereby overcome the compartmentalization problem.

  10. Software-Defined Radio for Wireless Local-Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof

    2004-01-01

    New wireless communications standards do not replace old ones, instead the number of standards keeps on increasing and by now an abundance of standards exists. Moreover there is no reason to assume that this trend will ever stop. Therefore, the software-radio concept is emerging as a potential

  11. Groups definable in o-minimal structures: structure theorem, G^000, definable amenability and bounded orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Pillay, Anand

    2010-01-01

    We settle some open problems in the special case of groups in o-minimal structures, such as the equality of G^00 and G^000 and the equivalence of definable amenability and existence of a type with bounded orbit. We prove almost exactness of the G to G^00 functor. We ask further questions about types with bounded orbits in NIP theories.

  12. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  13. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  14. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts, Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas defined by the Department of Economic Development (LDED) for the purpose of encouraging economic growth by offering tax credits and incentives to businesses locating or expanding in designated enterprise zone areas., Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2005. It is described as 'Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas...

  15. Quadratic eigenvalue problems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Day, David Minot

    2007-04-01

    In this report we will describe some nonlinear eigenvalue problems that arise in the areas of solid mechanics, acoustics, and coupled structural acoustics. We will focus mostly on quadratic eigenvalue problems, which are a special case of nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Algorithms for solving the quadratic eigenvalue problem will be presented, along with some example calculations.

  16. Valid inequalities and facets for a hypergraph model of the nonlinear knapsack and the FMS part selection problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crama, Y.; Mazzola, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper defines the dense subhypergraph problem (DSP), which provides a generalized modelling framework for the nonlinear knapsack problem and other well-known problems arising in areas such as capital budgeting, flexible manufacturing system production planning, repair-kit selection, and compiler construction. We define several families of valid inequalities and state conditions under which these inequalities are facet-defining for DSP. We also explore the polyhedral structure of the cardinality-constrained DSP. Finally, we examine a special case of this problem that arises, for example, within the context of Lagrangian decomposition. For this case, we present a complete description of the convex hull of the feasible region.

  17. Management Strategies of Perceived Challenges and Problems of Old People in Ihitte-Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ojukwu M.O.; S.I. Woko

    2016-01-01

    It has been revealed that over the years, the number of the aged in the world has been on a steady increase. This rising number has great implications for government, researchers, families, youth and the society at large. There is therefore, the proper need for the understanding of the nature problems and challenges as well as the management strategies the aged adopt at this stage of life. The issue of old and preparation for it has been a case of global concern because of the problems associ...

  18. Problem Based Learning - Linking Students and Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Flemming K.

    2006-01-01

    -oriented project work: students work in teams to solve externally defined problem areas in co-operation with businesses, organisations and public institutions. Project Organised Problem Based Learning (POPBL) has generated a high degree of cooperation with the society and private companies. There are all the time...... is essentially problem solving. The presentation looks into on campus POPBL and the Facilitated Work Based Learning (FBL) for continuing education. It also presents case examples of POPBL work.......WG2_G4 Problem based learning – linking students and industry: a case study from Aalborg, Denmark Flemming K. Flink ELITE Aalborg University In Aalborg University, Denmark, all study programmes are organised around inter-disciplinary project work in groups. Up to 50% of the study work is problem...

  19. Hyperbolic differential operators and related problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ancona, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    Presenting research from more than 30 international authorities, this reference provides a complete arsenal of tools and theorems to analyze systems of hyperbolic partial differential equations. The authors investigate a wide variety of problems in areas such as thermodynamics, electromagnetics, fluid dynamics, differential geometry, and topology. Renewing thought in the field of mathematical physics, Hyperbolic Differential Operators defines the notion of pseudosymmetry for matrix symbols of order zero as well as the notion of time function. Surpassing previously published material on the top

  20. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam;

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...

  1. Exploiting problem structure in a genetic algorithm approach to a nurse rostering problem

    CERN Document Server

    Uwe, Aickelin

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the use of genetic algorithms to solve problems arising in the areas of scheduling and timetabling. However, the classical genetic algorithm paradigm is not well equipped to handle the conflict between objectives and constraints that typically occurs in such problems. In order to overcome this, successful implementations frequently make use of problem specific knowledge. This paper is concerned with the development of a GA for a nurse rostering problem at a major UK hospital. The structure of the constraints is used as the basis for a co-evolutionary strategy using co-operating sub-populations. Problem specific knowledge is also used to define a system of incentives and disincentives, and a complementary mutation operator. Empirical results based on 52 weeks of live data show how these features are able to improve an unsuccessful canonical GA to the point where it is able to provide a practical solution to the problem

  2. Discussion on Social Stability Problem of the Less-developed Rural Areas%欠发达地区农村社会稳定问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国波

    2014-01-01

    维护农村社会稳定,关键在农村,难点也在农村。正确研究分析新形势下欠发达地区农村社会稳定的突出问题及原因,是采取有效措施化解农村社会矛盾的前提。当前,欠发达地区受各种主客观因素的影响和制约,农村社会稳定出现一些新问题、新情况,着力化解欠发达地区农村社会稳定问题,必须构建维护农村社会稳定的长效机制。%The key of maintaining the rural social stability is in the rural,the difficulty also is in the rural. Correctly analyze the outstanding problems and reasons of the social stability problem in the less developed rural areas is the precondition of taking effective measures to solve rural social contradictions. At present,the less-developed areas are affected and restricted by various subjective and objective factors, there are some new problems and situations in the rural social stability, focus on solving the social stability problems of the less-developed rural areas, buliding maintenance of rural social stable long-term mechanism.

  3. Management Strategies of Perceived Challenges and Problems of Old People in Ihitte-Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojukwu, M. O.; Woko, S. I.

    2016-01-01

    It has been revealed that over the years, the number of the aged in the world has been on a steady increase. This rising number has great implications for government, researchers, families, youth and the society at large. There is therefore, the proper need for the understanding of the nature problems and challenges as well as the management…

  4. Visual Reasoning Tools in Action: Double Number Lines, Area Models, and Other Diagrams Power Up Students' Ability to Solve and Make Sense of Various Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tad

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) identifies the strategic use of appropriate tools as one of the mathematical practices and emphasizes the use of pictures and diagrams as reasoning tools. Starting with the early elementary grades, CCSSM discusses students' solving of problems "by drawing." In later…

  5. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  6. Defining the primary research question in veterinary clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Michelle A

    2016-09-01

    A thoughtful, clearly defined research question should be the foundation of any clinical trial or research study. The research question helps determine key study methods, and defining a specific research question helps avoid problems with inadequate sample size, inappropriate design, or multiple statistical comparisons. Rationales and strategies for formulating research questions and using them to define study protocols are discussed, with a focus on application in clinical trials.

  7. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  8. A new methodology to define homogeneous regions through an entropy based clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, E.; Rianna, M.; Trani, G.; Alfonso, L.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Napolitano, F.; Russo, F.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most crucial steps in flow frequency studies is the definition of Homogenous Regions (HRs), i.e. areas with similar hydrological behavior. This is essential in ungauged catchments, as HR allows information to be transferred from a neighboring river basin. This study proposes a new, entropy-based approach to define HRs, in which regions are defined as homogeneous if their hydrometric stations capture redundant information. The problem is handled through the definition of the Information Transferred Index (ITI) as the ratio between redundant information and the total information provided by pairs of stations. The methodology is compared with a traditional, distance-based clustering method through a Monte Carlo experiment and a jack-knife procedure. Results indicate that the ITI-based method performs well, adding value to current methodologies to define HRs.

  9. Analysis on Eco-Economic Problems Caused by Exploitation of Mineral Resources in Pastoral Areas%牧区矿产资源开发引起的生态经济问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王关区; 陈晓燕

    2013-01-01

    The pastoral area is a special economic region. For the pastoral area grassland is the main ecological landscape, and grassland animal husbandry is the basic industry. At present the pastoral areas in our country are mainly located in the central and western economic regions and minority frontier areas, and the pastoral areas mainly include 268 counties in 13 provinces, which are pastoral areas counties or semi-pastoral areas counties. Because of natural, geographical and historical reasons, etc., the pastoral areas still belong to the underdeveloped areas, weak zones about improvement of people's livelihood and eco-environmental fragile areas. Irrational exploitation and utilization of mineral resources have led to resource destruction and environment pollution in pastoral areas. This paper takes Inner Mongolia as an example, and analyzed eco-economic problems which were caused by exploitation of mineral resources in pastoral areas. And the suggestions and countermeasures were raised to resolve the existing problems and to promote the harmonious and sustainable development of ecological economy in pastoral areas.%牧区是以绿色草原为主体生态景观、草原畜牧业为基础产业的特殊经济区域.目前,我国牧区主要包括13个省(区)的268个牧区半牧区县(旗、市),主要集中分布于中西部经济地带和边疆少数民族地区.由于自然、地理、历史等原因,牧区仍然是全国经济发展的滞后区、民生改善的薄弱区、生态环境的脆弱区.特别是欠合理的开发利用矿产资源,已对牧区造成一定程度的资源破坏与环境污染.文章以内蒙古为例,主要对牧区矿产资源开发引起的生态经济问题进行分析,同时尝试提出解决现存问题、推进牧区生态经济协调持续发展的对策建议.

  10. Defining life or bringing biology to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Peretó, Juli; Moreno, Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    In the present, post-genomic times, systemic or holistic approaches to living phenomena are compulsory to overcome the limits of traditional strategies, such as the methodological reductionism of molecular biology. In this paper, we propose that theoretical and philosophical efforts to define life also contribute to those integrative approaches, providing a global theoretical framework that may help to deal with or interpret the huge amount of data being collected by current high-throughput technologies, in this so-called 'omics' revolution. We claim that two fundamental notions can capture the core of the living, (basic) autonomy and open-ended evolution, and that only the complementary combination of these two theoretical constructs offers an adequate solution to the problem of defining the nature of life in specific enough-but also encompassing enough-terms. This tentative solution should also illuminate, in its most elementary version, the leading steps towards living beings on Earth.

  11. ON VECTOR NETWORK EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangya CHEN

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we define a concept of weak equilibrium for vector network equilibrium problems.We obtain sufficient conditions of weak equilibrium points and establish relation with vector network equilibrium problems and vector variational inequalities.

  12. Problem visits to a family planning clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, P D; Jacobson, J; Gaffikin, L

    1988-01-01

    In order to obtain information necessary for optimum delivery of services, data were collected on the nature of the services provided at a family planing clinic. Clinic visits were divided into initial, annual, routine, problem, supply, educational and unknown. An analysis of the "problem" visits was undertaken to assess various epidemiologic aspects of such visits and to identify areas of clinic efficiency that could be improved. Problem visits were defined as any visits for which the patient had a presenting complaint. Age, level of education, method of contraception and parity were statistically associated with problem visits. When compared to Pill users, diaphragm users, intrauterine device users and non-users had a higher-than-expected number of problem visits. Less educated women and teenagers had a lower-than-expected number of problem visits when compared to more educated and older women. Socioeconomic status and problem visits were not statistically associated. Problem visits required more time, utilized more medical services and resulted in more referrals to the gynecology clinic than did other visit types. As a result of this analysis, we have increased our educational efforts for patients at high risk of problem visits and have instituted a special problem-oriented family planning clinic in which a full complement of house staff and ancillary personnel are available. This arrangement makes the uncomplicated family planning clinic run more smoothly and efficiently and obviates the need for time-consuming and cost-ineffective referrals.

  13. Nothing's perfect: the art of defining HLA-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D; Jones, J; Lowe, D

    2014-05-01

    The advent of solid phase assays and in particular the single antigen bead (SAB) assay, on the Luminex platform has led to previously unheralded levels of HLA-specific antibody characterisation. However, it soon became apparent that the detection of antibodies detected by these assays was less than perfect and that not all antibodies determined could be considered clinically relevant. Thus, the major challenges currently faced by HLA laboratories are to interpret the complex data provided by these assays and use this to devise a safe and practical algorithm for the definition of a clinically relevant HLA-specific antibody. Taking into consideration recent evidence and scientific opinion in this area we aim here to put forward the viewpoint of our laboratory in how best to manage the tricky problem of defining HLA-specific antibodies. By taking a balanced approach which is less reliant upon a single technique we propose that the aim should be to define antibodies to a level that does not discriminate against the highly sensitised patient, but also maintains clinical safety and efficacy. Knowing that not all of the antibodies detected by SAB are clinically relevant should lead to giving greater opportunity for patients with these antibodies having a crossmatch performed. In the future, more emphasis should be given to epitopes when interpreting the results of these assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume II. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in high heat flux materials and component development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Easor, J.R.; Gauster, W.B.; Gordon, J.D.; Mattas, R.F.; Morgan, G.D.; Ulrickson, M.A,; Watson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G,

    1984-06-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas for high heat flux materials and components (HHFMC) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be of critical importance for the successful operation of near-term fusion experiments and for the feasibility and attractiveness of long-term fusion reactors. A number of subgroups were formed to assess the critical HHFMC issues along the following major lines: (1) source conditions, (2) systems integration, (3) materials and processes, (4) thermal hydraulics, (5) thermomechanical response, (6) electromagnetic response, (7) instrumentation and control, and (8) test facilities. The details of the technical assessment are presented in eight chapters. The primary technical issues and needs for each area are highlighted.

  15. 3D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) methodologies applied on selected heavily urbanized areas of the basin of Mexico to detect buried fractures and subsidence problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez Segura, R. E.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.; Tejero, A.; Hernandez, E.

    2012-12-01

    Urban development in modern cities require of a more integral knowledge of the subsurface, mainly on those areas, where human concentrations increase. Mexico City is one of such an example, where it constitutes one of the largest concentrations of human activities in the world. Most of the urban area is underlain by lacustrine sediments of the former lakes, and confined by important volcanic ranges. Such sediments offer poor foundation conditions for constructive purposes. Therefore, high risk areas have to be identified to prevent accidents and disastrous events. Geophysical techniques can be employed to understand the physical characteristics of the subsurface. Two examples are presented in this investigation. A residential complex named La Concordia is located towards the central portion of the basin that consists of six four storey buildings in an area of 33x80 m2. Finally, a block of small houses (50x50 m2) is found to the southern limit of the basin; close to the Chichinautzin range within the town of Tecomitl. Both zones suffer of strong damage in their structures due to fractures and subsidence within the subsoil. Therefore, Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was carried out to characterize the subsoil beneath these urban complexes. A special array ('horse-shoe' geometry) 'L' employing Wenner-Schlumberger techniques, in addition to equatorial-dipole and minimum-coupling arrays were carried out to fully 'illuminate' beneath the constructions. Computed resistivity models for both examples depicted the buried fracture pattern affecting the urban complexes. Such patterns seem to extend beyond the limits of the surveyed areas, and are probably part of a more complex fracture system. It is very likely that fractures have been produced due to the poorly consolidated clays that cover most of the central part of the Valley of Mexico; the intense water extraction, that form 'voids' in the subsoil causing subsidence effects and finally the existence of regional

  16. Software Defined Radio: Basic Principles and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Machado-Fernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author makes a review of the SDR (Software Defined Radio technology, including hardware schemes and application fields. A low performance device is presented and several tests are executed with it using free software. With the acquired experience, SDR employment opportunities are identified for low-cost solutions that can solve significant problems. In addition, a list of the most important frameworks related to the technology developed in the last years is offered, recommending the use of three of them.

  17. 探讨水库蓄水区移民工作方法、存在的问题与对策%Explore the Impoundment Area Immigrants Working Methods, Problems and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文俊; 凌晨

    2014-01-01

    通过有效的社会学工作介入,可使水库蓄水区移民工作更加顺利地开展。不少“钉子户”并不是有意刁难开发方,而是项目背后确实存在较严重的社会学问题。只要解决了这些社会学问题,蓄水区移民工作的一系列难题就可以迎刃而解。%Sociological work through effective intervention cans impoundment area to carry out immigration work more smoothly. Many of the“nail households”is not deliberately making things difficult development side, but behind the project more serious sociological problem does exist. To solve these problems as long as sociology, water district resettlement series of problems can be solved.

  18. Defining the states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, P; Muzet, A

    2001-03-01

    Consciousness remains an elusive concept due to the difficulty to define what has been regarded for many years as a subjective experience, therefore irrelevant for scientific study. Recent development in this field of research has allowed to provide some new insight to a possible way to define consciousness. Going through the extensive literature in this domain, several perspectives are proposed to define this concept. (1) Consciousness and Attention may not reflect the same process. (2) Consciousness during wake and sleep may not involve the same mechanisms. (3) Besides physiological states of consciousness, human beings can experience modified states of consciousness either by self-training (transcendental meditation, hypnosis, etc.) or by drug intake (hallucinogens, anaesthetics, etc.). Altogether, we address the question of a more precise terminology, given the theoretical weight words can convey. To this respect, we propose different definitions for concepts like consciousness, vigilance, arousal and alertness as candidates to separate functional entities.

  19. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  20. Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, John J.

    1970-01-01

    Discussed are the nature of a mathematical problem, problem solving in the traditional and modern mathematics programs, problem solving and psychology, research related to problem solving, and teaching problem solving in algebra and geometry. (CT)

  1. Defining the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Benghozi, Pierre-Jean; Bureau, Sylvain; Massit-Folléa, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    How can a definition be given to what does not yet exist ? The Internet of Things, as it is conceptualized by researchers or imagined by science-fiction writers such as Bruce Sterling, is not yet reality and if we try to define it accurately we risk rash predictions. In order to better comprehend this notion, let us first define the main principles of the IoT as given in research papers and reports on the subject. Definitions gradually established Almost all agree that the Internet of Things...

  2. Defining the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Benghozi, Pierre-Jean; Bureau, Sylvain; Massit-Folléa, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    How can a definition be given to what does not yet exist ? The Internet of Things, as it is conceptualized by researchers or imagined by science-fiction writers such as Bruce Sterling, is not yet reality and if we try to define it accurately we risk rash predictions. In order to better comprehend this notion, let us first define the main principles of the IoT as given in research papers and reports on the subject. Definitions gradually established Almost all agree that the Internet of Things...

  3. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    Juni, E; Heym, G A

    1986-01-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  4. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  5. Defining sphincter of oddi dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, P

    1996-01-01

    Sphincter of Oddi (SO) dysmotility may give rise to pain. The golden standard for the demonstration of SO dysfunction is endoscopic manometry. A number of abnormalities are observed in patients with postcholecystectomy pain and in patients with idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis. Criteria for defi...... for defining SO dysfunction and the possible mechanisms for the precipitation of pain are discussed....

  6. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, E; Heym, G A

    1986-10-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  7. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  8. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage buffe...

  9. Defining and Differentiating the Makerspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousay, Tonia A.

    2017-01-01

    Many resources now punctuate the maker movement landscape. However, some schools and communities still struggle to understand this burgeoning movement. How do we define these spaces and differentiate them from previous labs and shops? Through a multidimensional framework, stakeholders should consider how the structure, access, staffing, and tools…

  10. E'nan area car repair problems and countermeasures%鄂南地区汽车维修存在的问题及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱家彩

    2013-01-01

    文章通过对咸宁市汽车维修市场各企业的大量调研,分析了当前咸宁市汽车维修市场发展的现状及存在的主要问题,提出了解决对策,对加快我市汽车维修市场健康发展有重要意义。%Articles by Xianning City car repair market,each company a lot of research, analysis of the current city car repair market development status and existing problems, put forward countermeasures to accelerate the healthy develop-ment of the city's vehicle maintenance market is important .

  11. Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization for Real-World Delivery Problems Based on Real Time and Predicted Traffic in Wide Area Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Ochiai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to real-world delive ry problems for home delivery services where a large number of roads exist in cities and the tra ffic on the roads rapidly changes with time. The methodology for finding the shortest-travel-tim e tour includes a hybrid meta-heuristic that combines ant colony optimization with Dijkstra’s al gorithm, a search technique that uses both real-time traffic and predicted traffic, and a way to use a real-world road map and measured traffic in Japan. Experimental results using a map of central Tokyo and historical traffic data indicate that the proposed method can find a better solution than conventional methods.

  12. Argonne Code Center: benchmark problem book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    This report is a supplement to the original report, published in 1968, as revised. The Benchmark Problem Book is intended to serve as a source book of solutions to mathematically well-defined problems for which either analytical or very accurate approximate solutions are known. This supplement contains problems in eight new areas: two-dimensional (R-z) reactor model; multidimensional (Hex-z) HTGR model; PWR thermal hydraulics--flow between two channels with different heat fluxes; multidimensional (x-y-z) LWR model; neutron transport in a cylindrical ''black'' rod; neutron transport in a BWR rod bundle; multidimensional (x-y-z) BWR model; and neutronic depletion benchmark problems. This supplement contains only the additional pages and those requiring modification. (RWR)

  13. Problems of integration of a manufacturing system with the business area of a company on the example of the Integrated Manufacturing Systems Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćwikła Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents issues related to data acquisition and communication between the manufacturing system and the business area of a company, understood as the transmission of real-time information about the status of the production system (the state of equipment, production tasks, workers, the flow of materials, work in progress and products, and, production orders, which is the basis of the Industry 4.0 concept. Data can be acquired from various sensors, PLCs and automatic identification systems, through interfaces (e.g. IO-Link, OPC, MTConnect, providing translation of data between different producer’s equipment and software. The article presents assumptions, concept, interfaces, as well as hardware and software equipment of the Integrated Manufacturing Systems Laboratory, allowing research and teaching of integration of production and business areas. Laboratory workstations equipped with PLCs (3 different producers, sensors (e.g. distance, proximity, colour, position, actuators, HMI panels, hardware interfaces, RFID readers, barcode readers and vision systems, interfacing through OPC, IO-Link or Profinet with SCADA and other IT systems have been presented. An example of systems integration has also been presented.

  14. Healthcare Engineering Defined: A White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Austin, Tony; Calisir, Fethi; Chanjaplammootil, Samuel; Davis, Mark J; Favela, Jesus; Gan, Heng; Gefen, Amit; Haddas, Ram; Hahn-Goldberg, Shoshana; Hornero, Roberto; Huang, Yu-Li; Jensen, Øystein; Jiang, Zhongwei; Katsanis, J S; Lee, Jeong-A; Lewis, Gladius; Lovell, Nigel H; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo; Morales, George G; Matis, Timothy; Matthews, Judith T; Mazur, Lukasz; Ng, Eddie Yin-Kwee; Oommen, K J; Ormand, Kevin; Rohde, Tarald; Sánchez-Morillo, Daniel; Sanz-Calcedo, Justo García; Sawan, Mohamad; Shen, Chwan-Li; Shieh, Jiann-Shing; Su, Chao-Ton; Sun, Lilly; Sun, Mingui; Sun, Yi; Tewolde, Senay N; Williams, Eric A; Yan, Chongjun; Zhang, Jiajie; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Engineering has been playing an important role in serving and advancing healthcare. The term "Healthcare Engineering" has been used by professional societies, universities, scientific authors, and the healthcare industry for decades. However, the definition of "Healthcare Engineering" remains ambiguous. The purpose of this position paper is to present a definition of Healthcare Engineering as an academic discipline, an area of research, a field of specialty, and a profession. Healthcare Engineering is defined in terms of what it is, who performs it, where it is performed, and how it is performed, including its purpose, scope, topics, synergy, education/training, contributions, and prospects.

  15. Healthcare Engineering Defined: A White Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chien Chyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering has been playing an important role in serving and advancing healthcare. The term “Healthcare Engineering” has been used by professional societies, universities, scientific authors, and the healthcare industry for decades. However, the definition of “Healthcare Engineering” remains ambiguous. The purpose of this position paper is to present a definition of Healthcare Engineering as an academic discipline, an area of research, a field of specialty, and a profession. Healthcare Engineering is defined in terms of what it is, who performs it, where it is performed, and how it is performed, including its purpose, scope, topics, synergy, education/training, contributions, and prospects.

  16. Software defined radio architectures evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Palomo, Alvaro; Villing, Rudi; Farrell, Ronan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an performance evaluation of GNU Radio and OSSIE, two open source Software Defined Radio (SDR) architectures. The two architectures were compared by running implementations of a BPSK waveform utilising a software loopback channel on each. The upper bound full duplex throughput was found to be around 700kbps in both cases, though OSSIE was slightly faster than GNU Radio. CPU and memory loads did not differ significantly.

  17. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  18. How to define green adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bert; Steurbaut, Walter; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2012-08-01

    The concept 'green adjuvants' is difficult to define. This paper formulates an answer based on two approaches. Starting from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) definition for green chemistry, production-based and environmental-impact-based definitions for green adjuvants are proposed. According to the production-based approach, adjuvants are defined as green if they are manufactured using renewable raw materials as much as possible while making efficient use of energy, preferably renewable energy. According to the environmental impact approach, adjuvants are defined as green (1) if they have a low human and environmental impact, (2) if they do not increase active ingredient environmental mobility and/or toxicity to humans and non-target organisms, (3) if they do not increase the exposure to these active substances and (4) if they lower the impact of formulated pesticides by enhancing the performance of active ingredients, thus potentially lowering the required dosage of active ingredients. Based on both approaches, a tentative definition for 'green adjuvants' is given, and future research and legislation directions are set out.

  19. 对制约少数民族地区旅游发展的几个关键问题的探讨%A Discussion on Several Key Problems Restricting the Tourism Development in the Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄咏梅

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic tourism, as a special form of tourism, attracts more and more tourists' attention. Based on the development of national tourism in China, this paper starts with the study of the key problems restricting the development of tourism in the ethnic minority areas, and analyzes the problems restricting the development of ethnic minority areas from the cultivation of tourism talents in ethnic minority areas, value and property rights definition of the tourism attraction in minority areas, wisdom tourism, tourism crisis management and other issues. The countermeasures of tourism development are put forward to make the tourism of ethnic areas get a better sustainable development.%民族旅游作为旅游的一种特殊形式,越来越引起广大旅游者关注.本文结合我国民族旅游的发展现状,从研究制约少数民族地区旅游发展的关键问题入手,对制约少数民族地区旅游发展中几个问题,围绕民族地区本土化特色旅游人才培养,民族地区旅游吸引物的价值及产权界定,智慧旅游,旅游危机管理等方面问题进行探讨.提出旅游发展的应对措施,使民族地区的旅游得到更好的可持续发展.

  20. The association of nutritional risk with physical and mental health problems among elderly in a semi-urban area of Mukim Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherina, M S; Rozali, A; Shiran, M S; Sam, A A

    2004-09-01

    Imbalances and deficiencies of nutrients are particularly prevalent among the elderly, resulting in increased risk of illness and impaired outcome, as well as reduced quality of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional risk and to determine its association with physical and mental health problems among the elderly in a semiurban community in the District of Hulu Langat, Selangor. Elderly people aged 60 years and above were included in the study, conducted from 11th March to 10th May 2004. Data were collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The Nutrition Screening Initiative Checklist (NSI-13) was used to assess the level (low, moderate, high) of nutritional risk of the subjects. The questionnaire also included the Barthel Index, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) and Elderly Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire (ECAQ) to identify functional status, depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment respectively, among the respondents. Out of 316 elderly residents, 300 agreed to participate in the study (response rate 94.9%). Respondents aged from 60 to 93 years old and the mean age was 67.08±6.6. Prevalence of moderate and high nutritional risks were 25.3% and 36.3% respectively. Nutritional risks were found to be significantly associated with age (p=0.015), marital status (p=0.00), chronic illness (p=0.000), functional disability (p=0.000) and depressive symptoms (p=0.010). In conclusion, the health status of the elderly strongly depends on their nutritional risk. Age, marital status, chronic illness, functional disability and depressive symptoms are factors to be emphasised when assessing the nutritional risk of the elderly.

  1. 浅谈富拉尔基区农村环境问题及治理建议%Discussion on Environmental Pollution Problems in Rural Areas of Fulaerji District and Control Meas-ures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣

    2013-01-01

    随着农村经济的发展,环境污染问题日趋突出,污染问题亟待解决。针对富拉尔基区农村环境污染问题的主要原因进行分析,并提出解决农村环境污染问题的建议。%With the development of the rural economy, the environmental pollution problems become more and more serious. The paper analyses the main reasons of environmental pollution in rural areas of Fulaerji district and puts forward suggestions to solve the environmental pollution problems.

  2. Developing the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Applications of Calculus to Work, Area, and Distance Problems. [and] Atmospheric Pressure in Relation to Height and Temperature. Applications of Calculus to Atmospheric Pressure. [and] The Gradient and Some of Its Applications. Applications of Multivariate Calculus to Physics. [and] Kepler's Laws and the Inverse Square Law. Applications of Calculus to Physics. UMAP Units 323, 426, 431, 473.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Peter A.; And Others

    This document consists of four units. The first of these views calculus applications to work, area, and distance problems. It is designed to help students gain experience in: 1) computing limits of Riemann sums; 2) computing definite integrals; and 3) solving elementary area, distance, and work problems by integration. The second module views…

  3. UNIQLO, Define Your Own Fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ Yes,women like and enjoy shopping.Always,they want to buy some well-designed clothes with the most 'in'factors; and what's of the great importance,they would like to hear the words:"wow! You fit the wear well!"However,the most satisfied right things could not be always waiting for you there or you would not help complaining the so-fast changing trends day by day.At that time,why not to seek some delights from the basic classic collections?UNIQLO maybe is a choice for you to define your own fashion.

  4. 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRELL, R.D.

    2000-03-15

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements define administrative controls and design features required to ensure safe operation during receipt and storage of canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. This document is based on the 200 Area Interim Storage Area, Annex D, Final Safety Analysis Report which contains information specific to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area.

  5. 服务三农背景下农村职业学校发展存在的问题及策略初探——来自X职业学校的案例研究%Problems and Strategies of Vocational Education in Rural Area under the Background of Service for "Rural area,Agriculture and Farmer"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建梁; 魏体丽

    2012-01-01

    Vocational education in rural area is the focus of vocational education development of China, but the main body of the vocational education vocational school still confront with many difficulties which confined it' s service for "rural area ,agriculture and farmer" . This paper will find out the problems of vocational school in ru- ral area through ?empirical research in a vocational school named X of rural area. The problems are : the fund are too low ,and it' s improper for use ; the recruit became difficult gradually; the subjects setting is not scientific; the teachers are not excellent enough; graduates' employment has not a high quality. To solve these problems , the researcher gave some suggestions as follows: the responsibility of the government should be enforced to transfer the fund from province government to the vocational school; subjects setting should be scientific and proper ; vocation- al education should be more attractive to solve the problem of recruitment; teacher quality should be increased.%农村职业教育是我国当前职业教育发展的重点,但农村职业教育的主体——农村职业学校还面临着这样那样的困难,严重制约着服务三农作用的发挥。通过对X职业学校的实地调研,探索农村职业学校存在的问题,并针对这些问题提出促进农村职业学校发展的相应策略。

  6. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  7. Defining life: the virus viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism-the virus-producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  8. The Ethiopean Language Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    This paper constitutes the fifth chapter of the forthcoming volume "Language in Ethiopia." In an effort to better define the particular linguistic area, the author analyzes phonological and grammatical features that languages in the area have in common. A number of features have been identified as characteristic of the area, and this…

  9. Quantum computing. Defining and detecting quantum speedup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnow, Troels F; Wang, Zhihui; Job, Joshua; Boixo, Sergio; Isakov, Sergei V; Wecker, David; Martinis, John M; Lidar, Daniel A; Troyer, Matthias

    2014-07-25

    The development of small-scale quantum devices raises the question of how to fairly assess and detect quantum speedup. Here, we show how to define and measure quantum speedup and how to avoid pitfalls that might mask or fake such a speedup. We illustrate our discussion with data from tests run on a D-Wave Two device with up to 503 qubits. By using random spin glass instances as a benchmark, we found no evidence of quantum speedup when the entire data set is considered and obtained inconclusive results when comparing subsets of instances on an instance-by-instance basis. Our results do not rule out the possibility of speedup for other classes of problems and illustrate the subtle nature of the quantum speedup question.

  10. Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions

  11. Defining life: synthesis and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. Section 1 defends that the recognition of "life" has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. Section 2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. Section 3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about "life". The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (Section 4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. Section 5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers

  12. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm....... The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals...

  13. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage...... buffering, scheduling, and processing over the network. On the other hand, NC has shown great potential for increasing robustness and performance when deployed on intermediate nodes in the network. This new paradigm changes the dynamics of network protocols, requiring new designs that exploit its potential....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  14. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei

    2015-03-01

    We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  15. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  16. Asymptomatic Alzheimer disease: Defining resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Timothy J; McLaren, Donald G; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Gifford, Katherine A; Libon, David J; Jefferson, Angela L

    2016-12-06

    To define robust resilience metrics by leveraging CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology within a latent variable framework and to demonstrate the ability of such metrics to predict slower rates of cognitive decline and protection against diagnostic conversion. Participants with normal cognition (n = 297) and mild cognitive impairment (n = 432) were drawn from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Resilience metrics were defined at baseline by examining the residuals when regressing brain aging outcomes (hippocampal volume and cognition) on CSF biomarkers. A positive residual reflected better outcomes than expected for a given level of pathology (high resilience). Residuals were integrated into a latent variable model of resilience and validated by testing their ability to independently predict diagnostic conversion, cognitive decline, and the rate of ventricular dilation. Latent variables of resilience predicted a decreased risk of conversion (hazard ratio 0.02, p < 0.001), and slower rates of ventricular dilation (β < -4.7, p < 2 × 10(-15)). These results were significant even when analyses were restricted to clinically normal individuals. Furthermore, resilience metrics interacted with biomarker status such that biomarker-positive individuals with low resilience showed the greatest risk of subsequent decline. Robust phenotypes of resilience calculated by leveraging AD biomarkers and baseline brain aging outcomes provide insight into which individuals are at greatest risk of short-term decline. Such comprehensive definitions of resilience are needed to further our understanding of the mechanisms that protect individuals from the clinical manifestation of AD dementia, especially among biomarker-positive individuals. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Allegheny County Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Environmental Justice areas in this guide have been defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The Department defines an environmental...

  18. Contact of boundary-value problems and nonlocal problems in mathematical models of heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashenko, V.; Kobilskaya, O.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper the mathematical models in the form of nonlocal problems for the two-dimensional heat equation are considered. Relation of a nonlocal problem and a boundary value problem, which describe the same physical heating process, is investigated. These problems arise in the study of the temperature distribution during annealing of the movable wire and the strip by permanent or periodically operating internal and external heat sources. The first and the second nonlocal problems in the mobile area are considered. Stability and convergence of numerical algorithms for the solution of a nonlocal problem with piecewise monotone functions in the equations and boundary conditions are investigated. Piecewise monotone functions characterize the heat sources and heat transfer conditions at the boundaries of the area that is studied. Numerous experiments are conducted and temperature distributions are plotted under conditions of internal and external heat sources operation. These experiments confirm the effectiveness of attracting non-local terms to describe the thermal processes. Expediency of applying nonlocal problems containing nonlocal conditions - thermal balance conditions - to such models is shown. This allows you to define heat and mass transfer as the parameters of the process control, in particular heat source and concentration of the substance.

  19. Effective Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Keinan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article defines a new term, Effective Area, K, of a given territory as a function of four independent parameters: its nominal acreage, A, the intellectual competence of its inhabitants, B, their social competence, C, and their global influence, D, using a simple formalism: K = A x B x C x D. This analysis demonstrates that in our current world any consideration of the physical area of a given territory is meaningless if the quality of its population is ignored. K is a much more useful parameter than A, certainly for political and economical considerations, explaining why claims for territorial expansion are placed low on the national ladder of priorities in the developed countries. In many respects, large geographical areas may become a burden rather than an advantage. Thus, the importance of armed conflicts over geographical territories, which have taken a dominant part of the entire human history, is fading away. Furthermore, although the global acreage is constant, the total effective area of planet Earth keeps growing, providing sufficient room for the growing human population.

  20. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are having balance problems, see your doctor. Balance disorders can be signs of other health problems, such ... cases, treating the illness that is causing the disorder will help with the balance problem. Exercises, a change in diet, and some ...

  1. Software-defined Quantum Networking Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The software enables a user to perform modeling and simulation of software-defined quantum networks. The software addresses the problem of how to synchronize transmission of quantum and classical signals through multi-node networks and to demonstrate quantum information protocols such as quantum teleportation. The software approaches this problem by generating a graphical model of the underlying network and attributing properties to each node and link in the graph. The graphical model is then simulated using a combination of discrete-event simulators to calculate the expected state of each node and link in the graph at a future time. A user interacts with the software by providing an initial network model and instantiating methods for the nodes to transmit information with each other. This includes writing application scripts in python that make use of the software library interfaces. A user then initiates the application scripts, which invokes the software simulation. The user then uses the built-in diagnostic tools to query the state of the simulation and to collect statistics on synchronization.

  2. Influencing factors of feeding problems in infants in poverty stricken areas of Gansu Province%甘肃省贫困地区婴幼儿喂养困难相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蕾; 刘月芬; 张玲; 何莉; 朱瑛

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析甘肃省贫困地区婴幼儿喂养困难的相关因素。方法选取543名6~36月龄的婴幼儿喂养人作为调查对象,运用婴幼儿喂养困难评分量表调查喂养困难情况。结果喂养困难的发生率为31.7%,男女童发生率均为31.7%。父母躯体及心理健康状况较差,家庭饮食问题,围产期异常(如孕期患病、早产等),婴幼儿近期健康状况较差(如经常吐奶、睡眠问题等)者喂养困难发生率显著高于对照组(χ2=3.910~35.732,P均<0.05)。校正相关因素后,家庭进食问题、饮食结构不均衡、婴幼儿出生时患病及近期的健康状况较差是喂养困难的独立危险因素(OR=2.435~3.549)。结论甘肃省贫困地区婴幼儿喂养困难问题高于全国水平,家庭喂养环境及婴幼儿自身健康状况对顺利喂养有一定的影响。%Objective To investigate the factors influencing infant feeding in poverty stricken areas of Gansu Province .Methods Montreal Children Hospital Feeding Scale ( MCH-FS) was used to investigate the feeding problems by investigating the feeding people of 543 infants aged 6-36 months.Results The incidence of feeding problems both in boys and girls was 31.7%.Compared with control group , the incidence of feeding problems was significantly higher in the group with poor parents somatic and mental health status , family eating problems, perinatal abnormalities (such as illness during pregnancy , premature birth), and recent poor health status of infants (such as frequent spits, sleeping problems) (χ2 =3.910-35.732, all P <0.05).After adjusting related factors, family eating problems, unbalanced diet, illness at birth and recent poor health status were independent risk factors of feeding problems (OR=2.435-3.549). Conclusion The incidence of feeding problems in infants in poverty stricken areas of Gansu province is higher than that of nationwide . Family feeding

  3. Hemiequilibrium problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Noor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a new class of equilibrium problems, known as hemiequilibrium problems. Using the auxiliary principle technique, we suggest and analyze a class of iterative algorithms for solving hemiequilibrium problems, the convergence of which requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity. As a special case, we obtain a new method for hemivariational inequalities. Since hemiequilibrium problems include hemivariational inequalities and equilibrium problems as special cases, the results proved in this paper still hold for these problems.

  4. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated proposes the Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) program to facilitate the development of a Software Defined Radio...

  5. Defining Quality of Life: A Wild-Goose Chase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Barcaccia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades there has been a growing interest towards the concept of “Quality of Life” (QoL, not only in the bio-medical field, but also in other areas, such as sociology, psychology, economics, philosophy, architecture, journalism, politics, environment, sports, recreation, advertisements. Nevertheless QoL does turn out to be an ambiguous and elusive concept – a precise, clear and shared definition appears to be a long way off. In this article an analysis of how QoL is interpreted and defined in various scientific articles published in the last two decades, is offered. In addition, an illustration of how widespread the use of this concept is in different fields of knowledge, the difficulties in reaching a shared understanding of QoL, the problems involved in stating clearly the construct, and a presentation of some of its conceptualizations, are provided. The importance of subjectivity in the definition of what QoL is, emerges as a key aspect. This personal and subjective dimension could be the starting point for a more thorough and holistic understanding of this concept, in which standardized sets of valid, reliable and evidence-based measures of, e.g., psychological and spiritual dimensions, are encompassed in the person’s quality of life evaluation.

  6. ANTI-POVERTY EXISTING PROBLEMS AND COUNTERMEASURES OF THE VILLAGE AND HERDING AREA OF TIBET%西藏农牧区反贫困存在的问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阿维; 张建伟

    2015-01-01

    中央第五次西藏工作会议上指出"到2015年,西藏的农牧民纯收入与全国平均水平差距显著缩小;到2020年,西藏农牧民人均纯收入要接近全国水平."2015年中央一号文件剑指"三农"新挑战,破解"三农"着力点,要求解决三农问题必须使人地充分结合,提出"四个'如何',五个'新'",体现了国家对于农牧民生产生活的关注.消除西藏农牧区的贫困是维护社会稳定、巩固农村经济发展的需要,关系到整个西藏社会发展的全局.文章立足于西藏农牧区贫困的现状,从西藏农牧区反贫困存在的缩小差距任务繁重、农牧民增收渠道狭窄、促进发展成本较高、反贫困目标和任务艰巨等问题出发,分析利用了"十二五"之前与"十二五"期间西藏农牧区的扶贫对象与扶贫开发资金的历史数据,探讨了西藏农牧区反贫困的具体措施与合理建议,指出解决西藏农牧区贫困问题的关键主要在于人口可持续发展、产业发展带动、社会服务水平、移民搬迁的落实.%In the fifth Tibet work conference , it is pointed out that by the time of 2015 , the gap between the net income of Tibetan farmers and herdsmen and the national average will be significantly reduced. And by the time of 2020, the average net income of Tibetan farmers and herdsmen will close to the national level." The no. 1 central file in 2015 refers to the new challenges of" Agriculture, rural areas and farmers" and breaks the focus of" Agri-culture, rural areas and farmers" . It demands people and land should be fully combined to solve the problems of agriculture, rural areas and farmers and puts forward the"" four" how to and" five" new"" which embodies the national attention to the farmers and herdsmen production life. Eliminating the poverty in Tibetan pastoral areas is the needs to maintain social stability and consolidate the development of rural economy, which is related to the whole development of Tibet

  7. 民族地区学前教育师资存在的主要问题及发展对策%Main Problems and Development Countermeasures in Teachers of Preschool Education in Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 何丽亚

    2012-01-01

    民族地区学前教育发展的关键因素之一是师资队伍问题。当前民族地区学前教育师资存在的问题体现在学历、职称和社会待遇等方面。本文对民族地区学前教育师资中存在的主要问题进行了分析,提出了发展民族地区学前教育师资的有效对策。%Teaching faculty is one of the key factors in the preschool development in minority areas. The prob- lems existing in the teaching faculty of preschool education in the current minority areas lie in the aspects of educa- tion background, job tide and social treatment. An analysis of the main problems is carried out to put forward the effective measures for developing the teaching faculty of preschool education in minority areas.

  8. 常德农村扶贫攻坚问题与对策研究%On the Problems and Countermeasures of Poverty Alleviation and Storm Fortification in the Rural Areas of Changde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋雨屏

    2016-01-01

    扶贫,旨在帮助贫困地区和贫困人口发展经济、发展生产,摆脱贫困的社会工作。本文基于贫困与扶贫的相关理论,以常德市农村扶贫攻坚为研究对象,针对其在扶贫攻坚过程中存在的部分问题进行分析和探讨,并对常德农村扶贫攻坚提出一些对策建议,以期为常德农村扶贫攻坚提供借鉴。%Poverty alleviation, aims to help poor areas and poor people to develop the economy and production and get rid of the poor social work. Based on the theory of poverty and poverty alleviation, this paper takes the poverty alleviation and storm fortification in the rural areas of Changde as research subject to analyze and discuss some problems in the process of poverty alleviation and storm fortification and put forward some countermeasures and suggestions to the poverty alleviation and storm fortification in the rural areas of Changde to provide reference for the poverty alleviation and storm fortification.

  9. 重庆市主城区小学高年级学生行为问题调查%An Epidemiology Study on Child Behavior Problems among High-Grade Primary School Students in Chongqing Urban Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱田; 杜莲; 胡华; 蒙华庆; 傅一笑; 罗庆华; 邱海棠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and related factors of behavior problems among the high-grade primary school students (in Grade 4 to Grade 6) in Chongqing urban area. Methods By means of cross-sectional survey, a total of 3 137 high-grade primary school students in Chongqing urban area were investigated with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, version for parents) and self-designed basic information questionnaire. Results The relevance ratio of behavior problems was 27.26%. The univariate analysis revealed that type of school, grade, residential and family environment, and parental attitude toward children had effects on children's behavior problems with significance difference (P<0.05). The stepwise regression revealed that grade, educational level of father, healthy conditions of parents, family structure, academic performance and parental attitude toward children were the independent and main influencing factors (P<0.05). Conclusion The relevance ratio of behavior problems among high-grade primary school students in Chongqing urban area is much higher, which is related to the following factors: family situation, parental attitude toward children, social and school environment. It indicates that the status of children's mental heath is not optimistic in Chongqing urban area. Comprehensive measures combining family, school with psychologist should be taken to reduce the prevalence of behavioral problems.%目的 了解重庆市主城区小学高年级(4~6年级)学生行为问题发生率和特点,并探究其相关影响因素.方法 采用横断面调查的方法,应用儿童行为量表(CBCL)(家长版)和自制的一般情况调查问卷,对重庆市主城区3137名小学高年级学生进行调查与分析.结果 本次调查的3137名小学生中行为问题检出率为27.26%.单因素分析结果显示,小学生行为问题发生在学校类型、所在年级、学生家庭情况、父母管教态度及居住环境等因素水平上

  10. Defining professional pharmacy services in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moullin, Joanna C; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Benrimoj, Shalom I

    2013-01-01

    Multiple terms and definitions exist to describe specific aspects of pharmacy practice and service provision, yet none encompass the full range of professional services delivered by community pharmacy. The majority of current pharmacy service definitions and nomenclature refer to either the professional philosophy of pharmaceutical care or to specific professional pharmacy services; particularly pharmaceutical services provided by pharmacists with a focus on drug safety, effectiveness and health outcomes. The objective of this paper is therefore to define a professional pharmacy service within the context of the community pharmacy model of service provision. A professional pharmacy service is defined as "an action or set of actions undertaken in or organised by a pharmacy, delivered by a pharmacist or other health practitioner, who applies their specialised health knowledge personally or via an intermediary, with a patient/client, population or other health professional, to optimise the process of care, with the aim to improve health outcomes and the value of healthcare." Based on Donabedian's framework, the professional pharmacy service definition incorporates the concepts of organizational structure, process indicators and outcome measures. The definition will assist in many areas including recognition of the full range of services provided by community pharmacy and facilitating the identification of indicators of professional pharmacy service implementation and sustainable provision. A simple conceptual model for incorporating all services provided by community pharmacy is proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ornelas Marques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language, but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the need to find or solve problems? The problem is to recognize the problem; the next step is to equate the problem; finally we have to feel the need to solve it. No need? No invention. Recognizing a problem is probably the biggest problem of everyday life, because we are permanently faced with problems (many ill-defined problems, which we need to identify, equate and solve.

  12. No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ornelas Marques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language, but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the need to find or solve problems? The problem is to recognize the problem; the next step is to equate the problem; finally we have to feel the need to solve it. No need? No invention. Recognizing a problem is probably the biggest problem of everyday life, because we are permanently faced with problems (many ill-defined problems, which we need to identify, equate and solve.

  13. Defining nodes in complex brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lawrence Stanley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Network science holds great promise for expanding our understanding of the human brain in health, disease, development, and aging. Network analyses are quickly becoming the method of choice for analyzing functional MRI data. However, many technical issues have yet to be confronted in order to optimize results. One particular issue that remains controversial in functional brain network analyses is the definition of a network node. In functional brain networks a node represents some predefined collection of brain tissue, and an edge measures the functional connectivity between pairs of nodes. The characteristics of a node, chosen by the researcher, vary considerably in the literature. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art based on published manuscripts and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of three main methods for defining nodes. Voxel-wise networks are constructed by assigning a node to each, equally sized brain area (voxel. The fMRI time-series recorded from each voxel is then used to create the functional network. Anatomical methods utilize atlases to define the nodes based on brain structure. The fMRI time-series from all voxels within the anatomical area are averaged and subsequently used to generate the network. Functional activation methods rely on data from traditional fMRI activation studies, often from databases, to identify network nodes. Such methods identify the peaks or centers of mass from activation maps to determine the location of the nodes. Small (~10-20 millimeter diameter spheres located at the coordinates of the activation foci are then applied to the data being used in the network analysis. The fMRI time-series from all voxels in the sphere are then averaged, and the resultant time series is used to generate the network. We attempt to clarify the discussion and move the study of complex brain networks forward. While the correct method to be used remains an open, possibly unsolvable question that

  14. Defining Tobacco Regulatory Science Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Um modelo estatístico para definição de áreas geográficas prioritárias para o controle do tétano neonatal A statistical model for defining priority geographic areas for the control of neonatal tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Mendes de Andrade Schramm

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um modelo estatístico para definir áreas geográficas potenciais de risco, visando ao controle do tétano neonatal. Utilizando-se a técnica estatística de componentes principais, selecionaram-se dois fatores: perfil de saúde na área rural e mortalidade proporcional por tétano neonatal respectivamente. O plot dos escores dos estados no plano cartesiano mostrou a formação de três aglomerados. No primeiro localizaram-se os estados da região Nordeste, bem como Pará e Amapá, na região Norte, as áreas geográficas potenciais de risco. No segundo concentraram-se os estados da região Sudeste, cuja notificação foi compatível com a situação apontada pelos indicadores considerados. O Estado do Espírito Santo aparece como área produtiva silenciosa e o Distrito Federal como a unidade com as melhores condições de saúde. Os estados da região Centro-Oeste e Roraima compõem o terceiro conglomerado caracterizado por uma situação de saúde intermediária entre o perfil urbano e rural e com elevada notificação do agravo. O modelo estatístico mostrou-se consistente com o perfil de saúde brasileiro, separando as regiões Norte e Nordeste das regiões Sudeste e Sul, e representando em situação intermediária a região Centro-Oeste.We applied factor analysis to indicators of health and living conditions from Brazilian states in order to define geographic areas at potential risk for neonatal tetanus. Two factors, namely "health profile in the rural area" and "proportional mortality on neonatal tetanus" were selected and plotted against each other. A cluster composed of states from the Northeast plus Pará and Amapá was found to include most neonatal tetanus risk areas and a low case-reporting rate. Another cluster included states from the Southeast and South and displayed a neonatal tetanus reporting rate that was compatible with that for other indicators. Espírito Santo, however, was found to be a silent productive area

  16. 黑龙江省农村限定地区中老年人群翼状胬肉流行病学调查%Epidemiologic survey of pterygium in the middle-aged and the senile in defined rural area of Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钧蔚; 张毅; 陈雪冬; 冷非; 葛红岩; 张艳艳; 刘平

    2016-01-01

    AlM:To estimate the prevalence and related risk factors of pterygium among the middle-aged and the senile in the defined rural area of Heilongjiang. METHODS:Population-based cross-sectional study. A total number of 6 196 subjects aged 50 years or older in 35 villages in Mingshui District of Heilongjiang was studied, using cluster random sampling methods. The prevalence of pterygium, distribution patterns and risk factors in this population were studied. RESULTS:There were 5 669 subjects(91. 49%) actually received the examination and 246 patients(329 eyes) were found among the population aged 50 years or older. The prevalence of pterygium was 4. 34%. The prevalence of pterygium was positively correlated with age ( for every 10a of age, OR=1. 616,95%Cl:1. 372-1. 903,P CONCLUSlON: ln the alpine, rural area of Honglongjiang, the prevalence of pterygium is decreased. Old age and outdoor work are the risk factors, while wearing glasses when going out is a protective factor.%目的:了解黑龙江省农村地区翼状胬肉的患病率及相关危险因素。  方法:以人口为基础的横断面研究,在黑龙江省明水县整群随机抽取35个行政村为调查点,抽取50岁以上人群共6196名作为调查对象。研究该人群分布特征和翼状胬肉的患病率、分布特征、危险因素。  结果:在50岁以上人群中,实际接受检查5669名,受检率91.49%。发现翼状胬肉患者246例329眼,至少有1眼患病的患病率为4.34%;翼状胬肉的患病率与年龄正相关(年龄每增加10岁,OR=1.616,95%CI:1.372~1.903, P4h 与  结论:在高寒地带的黑龙江省农村地区翼状胬肉患病率有所下降。高龄、户外工作是其危险因素,而外出时配戴眼镜是其保护性因素。

  17. The Problem of Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrell, Arthur Rex

    1970-01-01

    The study of semantics, the study of meaning, promises more complete communicative thought transfer if several problem areas can be solved or at least generally agreed upon. The problem of exact definition of words arises from the fact that no one work is the exact equivalent of another. However, the study of many languages forces the mind to…

  18. Governance of wicked climate adaptation problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Dewulf, A.; Breeman, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change adaptation has been called a “wicked problem par excellence.” Wicked problems are hard to define because ‘the formulation of the problem is the problem; they are considered a symptom of another problem; they are highly resistant to solutions and extremely interconnected with other

  19. Governance of wicked climate adaptation problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Dewulf, A.; Breeman, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change adaptation has been called a “wicked problem par excellence.” Wicked problems are hard to define because ‘the formulation of the problem is the problem; they are considered a symptom of another problem; they are highly resistant to solutions and extremely interconnected with other pro

  20. Facet-defining inequalities for the simple graph partitioning polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2007-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually node-disjoint subgraphs, each containing at most b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we provide several classes of facet-defining inequalities...

  1. Nanostructured organic solar cells defined by nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Mukti Nath

    Energy harvesting from sunlight via organic solar cells (OSCs) based on polymers as an electron donors and fullerenes as electron acceptors has been subject of intensive research due to the potential for low cost and large area devices with attractive market perspectives. One of the biggest challenges for OSCs is their low efficiency of power conversion, which is limited by quality of active layer morphology of donor-acceptor materials and interfaces between the components. Key reasons for this low efficiency include severe electron-hole recombination, which prevents charge pair propagation toward the electrodes and poor light absorptions due to thin polymer layer (˜100 nm). These problems can be dramatically alleviated if the charge-transfer polymers can be arranged as periodic nanostructures for active layer of ˜300 nm so that enough light absorption takes place and no phase overlap exists in the charge propagation path. This work reports the formation of ordered bi-continuous interdigitized active layer morphology, well defined interfaces for charge pair formation and propagation without recombination toward the electrodes. Such nanostructure arrays of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with well defined interfaces have been fabricated using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The molds required for NIL are fabricated using innovative low cost and non-lithographic technique which is scalable to commercial use. Simultaneous control of nanostructured and 3-D chain alignment in P3HT nanostructures (nanowires and nanopillars) defined by NIL is revealed using out-of-plane and in-plane grazing incident X-ray diffraction measurements and enhancement in anisotropic charge carrier mobility favorable to solar cells and field effect transistors (FETs) is measured making FETs. Separate acceptor deposition is required for nanostructured solar cells which is challenging due to the limitation of solvent compatibility and self shadowing effect for thermal deposition. For this purpose

  2. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  3. Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.

  4. Defining Integrals Over Connections in the Discretized Gravitational Functional Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatsymovsky, V. M.

    Integration over connection type variables in the path integral for the discrete form of the first-order formulation of general relativity theory is studied. The result (a generalized function of the rest of variables of the type of tetrad or elementary areas) can be defined through its moments, i.e. integrals of it with the area tensor monomials. In our previous paper these moments have been defined by deforming integration contours in the complex plane as if we had passed to a Euclidean-like region. In this paper we define and evaluate the moments in the genuine Minkowski region. The distribution of interest resulting from these moments in this non-positively defined region contains the divergences. We prove that the latter contribute only to the singular (δ-function like) part of this distribution with support in the non-physical region of the complex plane of area tensors while in the physical region this distribution (usual function) confirms that defined in our previous paper which decays exponentially at large areas. Besides that, we evaluate the basic integrals over which the integral over connections in the general path integral can be expanded.

  5. 农村独生子女与非独生子女小学生行为问题比较研究%Only-not Only Child Difference in Behavior Problems of PrimarySchool Students in Rural Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晓敏; 吴汉荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate behavioral problems of primary school only children and children with siblings in rural area. Methods Parents of 5 074 children completed Child Behavior Checklist(CBCL). Results Significant only or sibling differences for withdrawn,somatic complaints,anxiety/depression rule-breaking behavior,thought problem,internalizing problem and total problem,in all cases siblings were given higher problem scores except for social problem(all Pproblem from grades 1 to 6 was relatively identical, whereas the opposite was true for girls. Conclusion The factor of being an only child or not has more influence on girl's behavior problem than boys. More researches are needed to focus on not-only girl's psychology and behavior development in rural China.%目的 了解我国农村独生子女与非独生子女小学生行为问题的现状与差异,为开展农村小学生行为问题的预防和干预提供依据.方法 采用Achenbach儿童行为家长评定量表(CBCL)对5 074名农村小学生进行行为问题的调查研究.结果 非独生子女除了在社交问题的得分低于独生子女以外,在退缩、躯体主诉、焦虑/抑郁、违纪行为、思维问题、内向性问题和总行为问题的得分均高于独生子女,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05).男生在外向性问题和总行为问题得分高于女生,内向性问题得分低于女生,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05).独生子女男生与非独生子女男生的行为问题年级发展趋势基本相同,独生子女女生与非独生子女女生则有不一样的发展趋势.结论农村独生子女发生行为问题的风险要低于非独生子女.是否独生子女对农村不同性别小学生行为问题的发生影响

  6. 国外机器人伦理学的兴起及其问题域分析%The Rise of Modern Robot Ethics and the Analysis of the Problem Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绍源; 崔文芊

    2013-01-01

      With the development of artificial intelligence, robot of autonomy havs entered the life of people. which act as the ethical reflection was rised under the background of the era from abroad. However, the object of study—the robot—in“Robot ethics” is differfent from The concept of the past. Robot ethics has many social applications which cotains different areas,for example,labor service, military security, education, scientific research, entertainment, health care, environment, personal care and emotional comfort.The three problem areas of Robot Ethics among all of problems include the safety issues, legal and ethical issues and social issues.%  随着人工智能技术的发展,自治型智能机器人开始走进人们的生活视阈。“机器人伦理学”在国外的兴起正是这一背景下的伦理反思。然而,“机器人伦理学”的研究对象“机器人”有着特定的涵义,其存在领域也涵盖劳动服务、军事安全、教育科研、娱乐、医疗保健、环境、个人护理与感情慰藉等各个方面。其中,安全性问题、法律与伦理问题和社会问题成为“机器人伦理学”研究的三大问题域。

  7. 关于上海中心城区“停车难”问题的思考和建议%Ponder over the Parking Problem in Shanghai Downtown Areas and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹申

    2012-01-01

    With residents' increasing possession of motor vehicles in Shanghai, the construction of parking facilities comparatively lags behind so that the parking problem becomes serious, which draws social concerns. Targeting the problem of difficult parking in urban downtown areas, the traffic administrative agencies of police departments cooperate with functional departments to enforce laws strictly, regulate parking behaviors, tap parking potentials and take many measures as such.%随着上海机动车保有量的快速增长,停车设施建设相对滞后,‘停车难”问题越发突出,已成为社会各界关注的民生问题。针对当前上海市中心城区“停车难”问题,公安机关道路交通管理部门应当与政府相关职能部门相互协作,严格执法,规范停放,挖掘潜力,多措并举。

  8. 农村开展特殊体育教育存在的问题与对策%The Existing problems and countermeasures of Special physical Education in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦婕

    2011-01-01

    Uses the method of documentation and logical analytic, the present situation of special sports education in rural areas has been conducted. Finding out the problem lies in including the parents, the public opinion, the lag concept of the govern officials and disabled students, the awareness of them does not reach the designated position, Few special schools, poor school condition, weak teaching Faculty of the special sports educations, loose management and the shortage of reference and competition, the lack of content of PE Curriculum for disabled students. The following puts forward to corresponding countermeasures for different problems.%采用文献资料法和逻辑分析法,对农村开展特殊体育教育的现状进行了分析研究,发现存在家长、社会舆论、政府官员和残疾学生自身观念滞后,认识不到位、特殊学校少、办学条件差、特殊体育教师师资力量薄弱,管理松散缺乏借鉴和竞争,残疾学生体育课程内容缺乏等问题,针对不同问题提出相应的对策。

  9. Analysis on the Current Situation and Problems of Higher Vocational Education in Mountain Area%山区高职师范教育的现状和问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜凤

    2016-01-01

    客观上的地域条件和经济条件对山区高职师范教育的发展会产生一定的影响,以罗定职业技术学院为例,分析山区高职院校师范教育发展的现状和存在的主要问题,对进一步研究山区高职师范教育的教学改革、提高教育质量、办出教育特色提供依据和途径。%Objectively,the regional conditions and economic conditions will have a certain impact on the development of higher vocational education in mountain area.To Luoding Polytechnic as an example,analysis present situation and the existing prob-lems in higher vocational colleges in mountainous area of development of normal education,for further research on the mountain of higher vocational education teaching reform,improve the education quality,do the characteristics of education provide the basis and the way.

  10. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  11. 甘南藏区社会不稳定问题的实质及其对策%The Essence of Social Instability Problems and Countermeasures in the South of Ganan Tibetan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建军

    2015-01-01

    The factors influencing the social stability in Tibetan area in the south of Gansu are very complicated. The appearance reflected problems of the public security, but the essence reflected problems of politics and culture. To maintain the stability in this area, we must evaluate and research the stability status and security situation firstly, and set out targeted work strategies and countermeasures; strictly crack down organizers, planners and participants who wanted to destroy the regional stability; insisted on the education-punishment principle to unite common people who have been blinded and tricked; stimulate the enthusiasm of the masses(especially Tibetans)to join in and set up a comprehensive prevention and control system for the public security. Meanwhile, we must strengthen the theoretical research so as to guide the stability mainte-nance smoothly and effectively in this area.%影响甘南藏区社会稳定的因素十分复杂,甘南藏区社会不稳定问题的表象是治安问题,实质是政治问题与文化问题。在维持甘南藏区社会稳定时首先做好社会稳定状况评估和社会安全形势研判,并在此基础上有针对性地制定出工作策略与应对措施;还要依法严厉打击破坏甘南藏区社会稳定的组织者、策划者和积极参与者;也要坚持教育和惩罚相结合的工作方针,团结教育被蒙蔽、被诱骗参与其中的普通群众;也要调动广大人民群众(特别是藏区同胞)参与维护社会稳定的积极性,建立起甘南藏区社会治安整体防控体系。同时,也要加强甘南藏区维稳工作的理论研究,以科学有效的理论指导甘南藏区维稳工作的顺利开展。

  12. Technological Implementation of Renewable Energy in Rural-Isolated Areas and Small-Medium Islands in Indonesia: Problem Mapping And Preliminary Surveys of Total People Participation in a Local Wind Pump Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses a formulation of problem mapping and preliminary surveys of total people participation in a local wind pump (LWP) water supply in term of technological implementation of renewable energy (RE) in rural-isolated areas and small-medium islands in Indonesia. The formulation was constructed in order to enhance and to promote the local product of RE across Indonesia. It was also addressed to accommodate local potencies, barriers and opportunities into a priority map. Moreover, it was designed into five aspects such as (1) local technology of the RE: a case of pilot project of the LWP; (2) environmental-cultural aspects related to global issues of energy-renewable energy; (3) potencies and barriers corresponding to local, national, regional and international contents; (4) education and training and (5) gender participation. To focus the formulation, serial preliminary surveys were conducted in five major areas, namely: (1) survey on support and barrier factors of the aspects; (2) strategic planning model, a concept A-B-G which stands for Academician-Business people-Government; (3) survey on background based knowledge on energy conservation; (4) survey on gender participation in energy conservation and (5) survey on local stakeholder involvement. Throughout the surveys, it has been notified that the concept needs to be developed to any level of its component since its elements were identified in tolerance values such as high potency value of the LWP development (95%); a strong potency of rural area application (88%); a medium background of energy, energy conservation (EC) identified in a range of 56%-72%, sufficient support from local stakeholders and gender participation.

  13. Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Learning Problems KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning Problems Print A ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...

  14. Walking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your legs or feet Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.

  15. Known TCP Implementation Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Vern (Editor); Allman, Mark; Dawson, Scott; Fenner, William; Griner, Jim; Heavens, Ian; Lahey, K.; Semke, J.; Volz, B.

    1999-01-01

    This memo catalogs a number of known TCP implementation problems. The goal in doing so is to improve conditions in the existing Internet by enhancing the quality of current TCP/IP implementations. It is hoped that both performance and correctness issues can be resolved by making implementors aware of the problems and their solutions. In the long term, it is hoped that this will provide a reduction in unnecessary traffic on the network, the rate of connection failures due to protocol errors, and load on network servers due to time spent processing both unsuccessful connections and retransmitted data. This will help to ensure the stability of the global Internet. Each problem is defined as follows: Name of Problem The name associated with the problem. In this memo, the name is given as a subsection heading. Classification one or more problem categories for which the problem is classified: "congestion control", "performance", "reliability", "resource management". Description A definition of the problem, succinct but including necessary background material. Significance A brief summary of the sorts of environments for which the problem is significant.

  16. 城市开放型景区团体游客人群拥挤问题探究--以北京什刹海风景区为例%A Study on Crowd Problem of Group Tourist in City Opening Scenic Area---Take Shichahai Scenic Area in Beijing as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秋平; 胡成; 杨玲

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous development of living quality and leisure consciousness,people's travel rate increases sharply.In city,the opening scenic areas nowadays combine the tourist areas with residential areas and business premises.Those opening scenic areas have been attracting more and more people and have an upward trend of group tourists.In addition,on account of narrow space caused by limited parking, the crowd problems easily occur under this circumstance.This paper takes Shichahai scenic area as an example,and explores the reasons of parking and crowd problem and puts forward countermeasures and Suggestions.Those suggestions include constructing parking spaces,improving parking management,and constructing the crowd safety capacity monitoring and early warning system,which are keys to the open scenic area governance.%随着人们生活质量的不断提高与休闲意识的不断增强,人们出行频率不断升高。城市中作为旅游区、居民住宅区和商业区即商旅居多功能结合区域,尤其是具有历史感的老城区,吸引客流现象越来越明显,团体客人数呈上升趋势,再加上停车位紧张造成空间狭小,进而引发人群拥挤风险。本文通过对什刹海风景区的实地调研,探究其停车和人群拥挤问题产生的原因并提出对策建议,提出城市开放型景区的治理关键在于停车位建设和停车管理、尤其是建设人群安全容量监测预警系统,为综合解决开放性景区团体客停车和人群拥挤问题管理提供了思路。

  17. Open forward and inverse problems in theoretical modeling of bone tissue adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir Abbas

    2013-11-01

    Theoretical modeling of bone tissue adaptation started several decades ago. Many important problems have been addressed in this area of research during the last decades. However, many important questions remain unanswered. In this paper, an overview of open problems in theoretical modeling of bone tissue adaptation is presented. First, the principal elements of bone tissue adaptation models are defined and briefly reviewed. Based on these principal elements, four categories of open problems are identified. Two of these categories primarily include forward problems, while two others include inverse problems. In every one of the identified categories, important open problems are highlighted and their importance is discussed. It is shown that most of previous studies on the theoretical modeling of bone tissue adaptation have been focused on the problems of the first category and not much is done in three other categories. The paper tries to highlight these potentially important problems that have been so far largely overlooked and to inspire new avenues of research.

  18. Sociometabolic transitions defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Kowalski, Prof; Krausmann, Prof; Pallua, Mag

    2014-05-01

    We search for a valid and quantifiable description of how and when humans acquire the ability to dominate major features of the Earth system. While common approaches (such as Kaplan et al. 2011 for example) seek to quantify the human impact upon the carbon cycle by identifying the area of land cleared by humans, we choose a more comprehensive path. Our point of departure is different human modes of subsistence, and we base our analysis on their social metabolism, in particular their energy metabolism. As a starting point, we use Ehrlich's classical IPAT formula, and give it a specific interpretation: human impact on Earth equals population size times affluence (interpreted as energy available per person) times technology - for each mode of subsistence. The overall impact (or rather human pressure) then equals the composite sum of these. We qualitatively describe the functional characteristics of hunter gatherers, agrarian and industrial modes of subsistence such as population dynamics, energy regime and the technologies by which they interact with their environment. In a 'toy' model, we translate these considerations into global numbers for the past millennia: we estimate the respective population sizes and affluence (energy), and finally also technology concerning its impact on the carbon cycle. Along this path, there are a number of findings: that it is reasonably possible to cross-check the size of pre-industrial agrarian populations from the size of urban populations; that it was in the last centuries BC that the size of agrarian populations exceeded those of hunter gatherers; that there seems to be a loglinear function of increasing average energetic metabolic rate from human basic metabolism across hunter gatherers and the agrarian mode to the industrial regime; and that from AD 1500 onwards, there is a very close relation between the urban population and fossil fuel use. We see a major historical dividing line around AD 1500: up to then, human population

  19. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  20. Location-routing problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laporte, G.

    1987-01-01

    Location-routing problems involve simultaneously locating a number of facilities among candidate sites and establishing delivery routes to a set of users in such a way that the total system cost is minimized. This paper presents a survey of such problems. It includes some applications and examples of location-routing problems, a description of the main heuristics that have been developed for such problems, and reviews of various formulations and algorithms used in solving these problems. A more detailed review is given of exact algorithms for the vehicle routing problem, three-index vehicle flow formulations, and two-index vehicle flow formulations and algorithms for symmetrical and non-symmetrical problems. It is concluded that location-routing problem research is a fast-growing area, with most developments occurring over the past few years; however, research is relatively fragmented, often addresses problems which are too specific and contains several voids which have yet to be filled. A number of promising research areas are identified. 137 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Defining nodes in complex brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Matthew L; Moussa, Malaak N; Paolini, Brielle M; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2013-11-22

    Network science holds great promise for expanding our understanding of the human brain in health, disease, development, and aging. Network analyses are quickly becoming the method of choice for analyzing functional MRI data. However, many technical issues have yet to be confronted in order to optimize results. One particular issue that remains controversial in functional brain network analyses is the definition of a network node. In functional brain networks a node represents some predefined collection of brain tissue, and an edge measures the functional connectivity between pairs of nodes. The characteristics of a node, chosen by the researcher, vary considerably in the literature. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art based on published manuscripts and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of three main methods for defining nodes. Voxel-wise networks are constructed by assigning a node to each, equally sized brain area (voxel). The fMRI time-series recorded from each voxel is then used to create the functional network. Anatomical methods utilize atlases to define the nodes based on brain structure. The fMRI time-series from all voxels within the anatomical area are averaged and subsequently used to generate the network. Functional activation methods rely on data from traditional fMRI activation studies, often from databases, to identify network nodes. Such methods identify the peaks or centers of mass from activation maps to determine the location of the nodes. Small (~10-20 millimeter diameter) spheres located at the coordinates of the activation foci are then applied to the data being used in the network analysis. The fMRI time-series from all voxels in the sphere are then averaged, and the resultant time series is used to generate the network. We attempt to clarify the discussion and move the study of complex brain networks forward. While the "correct" method to be used remains an open, possibly unsolvable question that deserves extensive

  2. The European commission tries to define nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidén, Göran

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the European Commission held a short consultation on a proposed definition for nanomaterials, to be used in European Union legislation and programmes. This was in response to a European Parliament resolution, and the definition followed a proposal by one of the Commission's scientific committees. The definition has three parts: on size distribution, size of internal structural elements, and surface area; a material caught by any of these parts meets the definition. There are a number of problems. The definition seems to be written with engineered nanomaterials in mind but as written applies to non-supplied materials, such as smokes. The structural element component seems to capture items such as sunscreen and tennis rackets, which include nanomaterials. Use of the definition will require some international standards, which have yet to be written and which will involve some difficult decisions. It is understandable why there are both size and surface area requirements, but they are not wholly consistent. The Commission plans a further consultation in 2012, but it might be better to delay this until after the standardisation work.

  3. Prevalence of alcohol problems in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Todisco, N; Gluud, C

    1996-01-01

    The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and the response to a question about heavy alcohol consumption were used to assess the prevalence of alcohol problems in consecutive patients (77 males and 46 females) consulting a general practitioner in an urban area in the South of Italy (Castellam...... as a screening question in order to detect alcohol problems and give advice regarding reduction of alcohol consumption.......The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and the response to a question about heavy alcohol consumption were used to assess the prevalence of alcohol problems in consecutive patients (77 males and 46 females) consulting a general practitioner in an urban area in the South of Italy...... (Castellammare di Stabia). Alcohol problems, which were defined by a cut-off score of 5 on the MAST and/or by heavy alcohol consumption (corresponding to at least 60 g of ethanol daily for males and 36 g of ethanol daily for females for at least 2 years), were identified in 54 patients [43.9%; 95% confidence...

  4. A Contemporary Matrix Approach to Defining Shared Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Richard; Daniels, Elaine; Jones, James; Kesseler, Roger; Mowrey, Merlyn

    This paper outlines a matrix approach to shared governance developed at Central Michigan University (CMU), designed to help faculty and administrators focus on specific decision areas and to define existing roles more clearly. The process began at CMU in spring 1998 with the formation of an ad hoc committee on governance which surveyed faculty and…

  5. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetical...

  6. Defining moments in leadership character development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Critical moments in life define one's character and clarify true values. Reflective leadership is espoused as an important practice for transformational leaders. Professional development educators can help surface and explore defining moments, strengthen leadership behavior with defining moments as a catalyst for change, and create safe spaces for leaders to expand their leadership capacity.

  7. Footprints and footprint analysis for atmospheric dispersion problems

    CERN Document Server

    Brännström, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Footprint analysis, also known as the study of Influence areas, is a first order method for solving inverse atmospheric dispersion problems. We revisit the concept of footprints giving a rigorous definition of the concept (denoted posterior footprints and posterior zero footprints) in terms of spatio-temporal domains. The notion of footprints is then augmented the to the forward dispersion problem by defining prior footprints and prior zero footprints. We then study how posterior footprints and posterior zero footprints can be combined to reveal more information about the source, and how prior footprints and prior footprints can be combined to yield more information about the measurements.

  8. Problems and Tactics to Exports of Labor Services in Honghe Hani & Yi Areas%红河哈尼族彝族地区劳务输出中的问题及策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李发; 罗有亮

    2012-01-01

    With regarding the Honghe Prefecture-as a single case this-paper describes those problems in the export of labor services of the Hani and the Yi people areas in recent years, major initiatives, and the urgency to strengthen this work, with a series of strategic recommendations. In the labor exports of Honghe the main problems are small scale, low income levels and lack of service level. In view of this, we should take a large-scale strategy, while strengthening the mobilizations of export of labor, strengthening the service systems, and from long-term perspective strengthening basic educations and vocational educations. The paper emphasizes the combination of those short-term strategies and long-term strategies, and that a reference to the direction of some cross-border cooperation.%文章以红河哈尼族彝族地区为具体个案论述了最近几年红河流域边疆少数民族地区劳务输出中存在的问题、主要举措以及加强这一工作的迫切性和下一步的推进性策略建议。哈尼族地区劳务输出中的主要问题是规模小、收入水平低、服务水平不足。鉴于此,主要应该采取规模化策略,同时加强劳务输出动员,加强服务体系建设,并从长远考虑,加强基础教育和职业教育。文章强调了近期策略和远期战略的结合,指出了跨境合作的参考方向。

  9. 北京某区域分布式能源规划环境效益及环境问题分析%Environment Benefit and Problem Analysis about Distributed Generation Layout of One Area in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾春花

    2014-01-01

    It is important to optimize energy structure and increase the proportion of clear energy in the total electrici-ty,such as nuclear power,wind power and so on,to meet the needs of fast increase of power load. This is also where distributed energy comes into the picture. Combining the example of distributed generation layout of one area in Bei-jing,this paper analyzed the environment benefit and discussed its possible environment problems. Conducted with the project example,the environmental impact assessment of project was carried out and the appropriate pollution control and quality improve schemes was put forward. The problem needed to notice when the power plant built in Beijing was put forward too. It can provide references for the similar projects in the future.%为满足电力负荷增长的需求,需调整能源结构,提高其他能源发电量所占的比例。因此,除了核电、风电等其他能源电站外,分布式能源应运而生。结合北京某区域分布式能源电站的规划项目,对分布式能源电站可能产生的环境污染问题进行阐述,综合分析其所具有的环境效益,最终提出治理方案,为在北京建设分布式能源电站提供了有价值的参考。

  10. 西部农村特岗教师实践性知识问题研究%The study on the practical knowledge problem of special-post teacher in western rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗利群; 吴洪亮

    2012-01-01

    特岗教师是我国为解决西部农村贫困地区师资问题而出现的特殊教师群体,研究其实践性知识问题对"特岗教师计划"的深入实施具有很强的现实意义。目前,西部农村特岗教师实践性知识存在的主要问题是课程实践性知识薄弱、教育心理学实践性知识缺乏、学科实践性知识不足。分析其主要原因是教师教育泛城市化倾向明显;应用性学科理论知识匮乏,学术理论知识学而不化;地方课程理论知识与地域性文化知识薄弱。进而提出的对策建议是:加强师范教育的前期准备、特岗教师的入职教育和在职培训。%Special-post teacher is a special group to alleviate the human resources problem of teachers in western poor areas.The study on the professional development of special-post teacher in western rural areas is significant for further development and implementation of "special post scheme".The thesis probes into the practical knowledge problem of special-post teacher: Course practical knowledge is week;Lack of educational psychology practical knowledge;Insufficient of subject practical knowledge.Analyzing the influencing factor: the tendency of Teacher Education became urbanization;lack of Applied subject theory knowledge shortage,and academic theory knowledge learning without changing;local curriculum theory knowledge and regional cultural knowledge is weak.proposing the developing approach,elaborates the preparation for teaching education,illustrates the training before an during working.

  11. Sociale problemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter Verner

    Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...... række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....

  12. LAMB PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terent'eva Elena Olegovna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Inner and outer Lamb problems are of extreme importance for various applications in geophysics, as these problems are often used for simulation of wave fields accompanying earthquakes. Solutions of the outer Lamb problem of concentrated force impact applied to the free surface of an elastic half-plane are analyzed in this article. Two solutions are compared: the analytical solution obtained in 1984 and the solution obtained in a modern FEM complex Abaqus.

  13. LAMB PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Terent'eva Elena Olegovna

    2013-01-01

    Inner and outer Lamb problems are of extreme importance for various applications in geophysics, as these problems are often used for simulation of wave fields accompanying earthquakes. Solutions of the outer Lamb problem of concentrated force impact applied to the free surface of an elastic half-plane are analyzed in this article. Two solutions are compared: the analytical solution obtained in 1984 and the solution obtained in a modern FEM complex Abaqus.

  14. Knee Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BMI Calculator myhealthfinder Immunization Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Knee ProblemsPain, swelling, stiffness and "water" on the knee are common symptoms. Follow this chart for more ...

  15. Defining competitiveness through the theories of new economic geography and regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of work is defining competitiveness through a multidisciplinary approach of the theories of new economic geography and regional economy. The paper describes in detail the theory of competitiveness, defined by numerous authors in this area, with special emphasis on the opposing views of Michael Porter and Paul Krugman. A regional competitiveness that is colsely related to economic geography and regional economy, the development of regional economy and typology of regions have been defined in the work. One of the first authors that stressed the importance of geographical location was Michael Porter. In his model called “diamond“, the author emphasizes that geographical concentration of a business enhances the productivity, innovativity and sector export. After this theory, many authors have foccussed on the location problem research, which resulted in better interconnection of economy and geography. As the result of such activities, new directions have been developed, such as the new theory of economic geography and regional economy. New economic geography has been mentioned mostly in connection with the Nobel Prize winner, Paul Krugman, whose theories are often opposed to Porter's ones. Krugman had the most credit for the development of New Economic Geography. At the end of the work, the differences between comparative and competitive adventages were explained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007, br. 47009 i br. 179015

  16. The current problems and countermeasures of developing party members in rural areas%当前农村发展党员工作中存在的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢中品

    2013-01-01

    The party members in rural areas is the foundation of rural basic level to organize construction, is the foundation of the Party branch to play a central role. With the establishment of socialist market economic system and gradually improve the development of rural Party member, the difficult problem is shown. How to do a good job of rural Party member development, continuous development and growth of rural Party member team, has become an important basic work of the rural Party Construction work.%农村党员队伍是农村基层组织建设的基础,是党支部发挥核心作用的根本所在。随着社会主义市场经济体制的确立和逐步完善,农村党员发展难这一问题日趋凸现。如何做好农村党员的发展工作,不断发展和壮大农村党员队伍,已成为当前农村党建工作的一项重要基础性工作。

  17. 我国城乡基本公共服务均等化存在的问题和对策%Problems and Countermeasures of Basic Public Services Equalization in Urban and Rural Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of public services equalization and realize the urban and rural smooth development ,the paper explores related concepts and makes clear the definition and connotation of the equalization .T hrough practical analysis of basic public services equalization in urban and rural areas in these years ,main problems are summarized and corresponding countermeasures are put forward .%为了顺应公共服务均等化的要求,顺利实现城乡统筹发展,对城乡基本公共服务均等化的相关概念进行探讨,对城乡基本公共服务概念、均等化的内涵、城乡基本公共服务均等化定义做出界定。通过对这些年城乡基本公共服务均等化的实践分析,概括出在这个过程中存在的三个主要问题。针对存在的问题,提出了相应对策。

  18. The Problems and Countermeasures of Lanping Yunling Provincial Natural Protection Area%兰坪云岭省级自然保护区存在的问题与管理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 范宏韬

    2014-01-01

    通过对天保工程期间兰坪云岭省级自然保护区基本情况进行介绍,从资源保护的角度出发,针对保护区存在的管理机构不健全、管理体系一直未理顺等主要问题,提出在天保工程二期应调整管理体系、将保护区管理机构纳入天保工程实施单位并建立长期有效的联动管理体制等对策建议。%This paper introduce the basic information about Lanping Yunling provincial nature protection area during Nature Forest Protection Program, in the view of protecting resource, aiming at some primary problems like insufficient management organization and dull management system all the time, proposing some countermeasures and suggestions about adjusting a system of management during the second stage of Nature Forest Protection Program, putting management organization into the implementation agency of Nature Forest Protection Program and establishing effective and confederate management system in a long time.

  19. 农村订单定向免费医学人才培养中的问题与对策%Problems and countermeasures for producing government-financed medical personnel ordered and directed for rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高卉; 梅武轩; 白育庭; 阮明凤; 李岱; 彭少华

    2014-01-01

    Training government-financed medical personnel ordered and directed for rural areas is an important component in the system of general practitioners training in China.It aims to produce grass-root general practitioners.This paper analyzes the existing problems in such medical personnel training and then puts forward corresponding measures and countermeasures according to the actual conditions of our college .%农村订单定向免费医学生培养是我国构建全科医师培养体系的重要组成部分,是要培养面向基层的全科医师。文章分析了目前在农村订单定向免费医学生培养中存在的问题,并根据湖北科技学院实际,提出了相应的措施和对策。

  20. 粮食主产区粮食银行存在的问题与对策%Problems and Countermeasures of Grain Banks in Major Grain Producing Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳红; 胡胜德

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the connotation and concept of the food bank,the development and evolution of the food bank were briefly analyzed. Analysis of development advantages and problems of grain banks in the major grain producing areas were focused on the countermeasures and suggestions ,such as strengthening the organization and management, accelerating the construction of supporting projects system of bank commissariat,establishing effective risk prevention mechanism and strengthening the guidance and the supporting of government departments.%首先就粮食银行的概念内涵、发展演变进行简要疏理,然后重点分析了粮食主产区发展粮食银行的优势,以及粮食银行发展存在的问题,并给出加强组织管理、加快粮食银行配套项目体系建设、建立有效的风险防范机制及强化政府相关部门的引导与支持的对策及建议。

  1. Problems and challenges in social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, P N; Novelli, W D

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews the problems that arise when general marketing principles are applied to social programs. Social marketing is conceptualized as the design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social ideal or practice in a target group. These problems can occur in 8 basic decision-making areas: market analysis, market segmentation, product strategy development, pricing strategy development, channel strategy development, communications strategy development, organizational design and planning, and evaluation. Social marketers find that they have less good secondary data about their consumers, more problems obtaining valid and reliable measures of relevant variables, more difficulty sorting out the relative influence of determinants of consumer behavior, and more problems getting consumer research funded than marketers in the commercial sector. They tend to have less flexibility in shaping their products and more difficulty formulating product concepts. Problems associated with establishing, utilizing, and controlling distribution channels comprise another major difference between social and more conventional forms of marketing. Social marketers also find that their communications options are somewhat limited as a result of problems associated with use of paid advertisements, pressures not to use certain types of appeals in their messages, and the need to communicate large amounts of information in their messages. Moreover, social marketers must function in organizations where marketing activities are poorly understood, underappreciated, and inappropriately located. Finally, they face problems trying to define effectiveness measures or estimating the contribution their program has made toward the achievement of certain objectives. If all these problems are anticipated and handled creatively, social marketing efforts can succeed.

  2. Countermensure Research on Problems Impeding Farmers' Successful Entrepreneurship in Minority Areas%妨碍少数民族地区农民成功创业的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俸晓锦; 徐枞巍

    2011-01-01

    By investigating the problem of farmers' entrepreneurship in Gongcheng Yaozu Autonomous County, lying in Guilin, Guangxi, the thesis expounds the existing problems impacting farmers' successful entrepreneurship in minority areas as follows: firstly, the musty idea of local cadre is obstacle to farmers' successful entrepreneurship; secondly, the problems of scattered farmers' entrepreneurship resources, waste and shortage of resources impact good effect of entrepreneurship; thirdly, farmers lack awareness of characteristics and brand, influencing the market competitiveness of products; fourthly, the existence of smallholder consciousness critically hampers the marketization and internationalization of entrepreneurship accomplishments; fifthly, the government pays no attention to the construction of industrial chain, which makes farmers' entrepreneurship lack sustainability. Based on these, corresponding countermeasures are put forward to promote farmers' successful entrepreneurship in minority areas as follows: firstly, we should update local leaders' ideas and emphasize the positive role of farmers' successful entrepreneurship in county economic development; secondly, we should integrate local entrepreneurship resources and promote the efficiency of farmers' entrepreneurship; thirdly, we should foster the consciousness of brand and characteristics and strengthen the market competitiveness of entrepreneurship accomplishments; fourthly, we should strengthen the construction of industrial chain to promote sustainable development of farmers' entrepreneurship.%基于对恭城瑶族自治县农民创业情况的调研,分析了影响少数民族地区农民成功创业存在的问题:一是地方领导干部的观念落后,使得农民创业困难重重;二是农民创业资源分散、资源短缺,使得创业效果不佳;三是农民创业缺乏特色和品牌意识,使得产品缺乏市场竞争力;四是小农意识严重,阻碍了创业成果的市场化和国际

  3. Shellfish Harvest Prohibition Areas for 2011; shellfish11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Geospatial vector polygon data defining shellfishing prohibition areas, seasonal, and conditional shellfish closure areas, and areas open to legal shellfish...

  4. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  5. SCOR: Software-defined Constrained Optimal Routing Platform for SDN

    OpenAIRE

    Layeghy, Siamak; Pakzad, Farzaneh; Portmann, Marius

    2016-01-01

    A Software-defined Constrained Optimal Routing (SCOR) platform is introduced as a Northbound interface in SDN architecture. It is based on constraint programming techniques and is implemented in MiniZinc modelling language. Using constraint programming techniques in this Northbound interface has created an efficient tool for implementing complex Quality of Service routing applications in a few lines of code. The code includes only the problem statement and the solution is found by a general s...

  6. 中国南方湿润区红层地貌及相关问题探讨%Perspectives on the red beds landforms in humid area of southern China and some related problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭华

    2011-01-01

    我国红层出露面积广大,但地学界对红层关注不足,各学科对红层问题的研究缺乏融合,存在着"多张皮"的问题;尤其是对红层这个特殊的脆弱地理单元的土地退化及生态环境问题缺少关注。南方湿润区是我国红层集中分布区之一,大部分红层区存在着严重的地貌灾害和水土流失问题,甚至分布着许多"红层荒漠"。红层区的土地退化虽与人的不合理利用关系密切,但其机理仍然是岩石地貌发育的自然演变问题。本文认为自然过程是一种多因子的综合作用过程,是互为因果的系统问题。本文分析了红层地貌及其红层区坡面侵蚀机理的研究现状,提出了红层地貌研究面临的科学问题,认为应该以系统动力学的思想方法,用跨学科的方式对红层与地貌发育-自然灾害-水土流失-生态退化-综合地理环境-生产和生活之间相互关系进行综合研究,以寻求国土治理和环境优化对策。%Although red beds are a widespread landscape in China,geosciences academia fail to pay much attention to it,and a lack of collaboration among related fields results in a trend that different disciplines have different interpretations of the same issue;specifically,much concern on red beds,the fragile geographical unit,is highly needed with regard to land degradation and environmental problems.Humid area in southern China is one of the places where red beds are densely distributed.However,most of red beds areas are suffering from serious geomorphological catastrophes and soil-water erosion;even worse,many places are witnessing huge patches of 'red beds desert'.Even if we might admit that irrational land use contributes to the land degradation in red beds,there is no doubt that land degradation is a natural result of rock landscape evolution.This paper first indicates that natural evolution serves as a process of multi-factors' effect,which can be regarded as a system of

  7. Stable Approximations of a Minimal Surface Problem with Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zuhair Nashed

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a new approach for the stable approximation of a minimal surface problem associated with a relaxed Dirichlet problem in the space BV(Ω of functions of bounded variation. The problem can be reformulated as an unconstrained minimization problem of a functional on BV(Ω defined by (u=(u+∫∂Ω|Tu−Φ|, where (u is the “area integral” of u with respect to Ω,T is the “trace operator” from BV(Ω into L i(∂Ω, and ϕ is the prescribed data on the boundary of Ω. We establish convergence and stability of approximate regularized solutions which are solutions of a family of variational inequalities. We also prove convergence of an iterative method based on Uzawa's algorithm for implementation of our regularization procedure.

  8. Popular Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the "What's the problem represented to be" (WPR) approach. Forty-nine…

  9. Popular Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the "What's the problem represented to be" (WPR) approach. Forty-nine…

  10. Defining a framework for health information technology evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Eric L; Juzwishin, Don; Kushniruk, Andre W; Nahm, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Governments and providers are investing in health information technologies with little evidence as to their ultimate value. We present a conceptual framework that can be used by hospitals, clinics, and health care systems to evaluate their health information technologies. The framework contains three dimensions that collectively define generic evaluation types. When these types are combined with contextual considerations, they define specific evaluation problems. The first dimension, domain, determines whether the evaluation will address the information intervention or its outcomes. The second dimension, mechanism, identifies the specific components of the new information technology and/or its health care system that will be the subject of the evaluation study. And, the third dimension, timing, determines whether the evaluation occurs before or after the health information technology is implemented. Answers to these questions define a set of evaluation types each with generic sets of evaluation questions, study designs, data collection requirements, and analytic methods. When these types are combined with details of the evaluation context, they define specific evaluation problems.

  11. A Formal Description of Problem Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane KOUSSOUBE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael Jackson defines a Problem Frame as a mean to describe and classify software development problems. The initial description of problem Frames is essentially graphical. A weakness of this proposal is the lack of formal specification allowing efficient reasoning tools. This paper deals with Problem Frames’ formal specification with Description Logics. We first propose a formal terminology of Problem Frames leading to the specification of a Problem Frames’ TBOX and a specific problem’s ABOX. The Description Logics inference tools can then be used to decompose multi frame problems or to fix a particular problem into a Problem Frame.

  12. The LOLITA User-Definable Template Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Košmelj, Katarina

    2001-01-01

    The development of user-definable templates interfaces which allow the user to design new templates definitions in a user-friendly way is a new issue in the field of information extraction. The LOLITA user-definable templates interface allows the user to define new templates using sentences in natural language text with a few restrictions and formal elements. This approach is rather different from previous approaches to information extraction which require developers to code the template defi...

  13. European Geothermal Drilling Experience. Problem Areas and Case Studies L'expérience du forage géothermique en Europe. Nature des problèmes et études de cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baron G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal drilling has long been restricted in Western Europe solely to the dry steam field of Larderello in Italy. In the last few years wider experience has been gained as the consequence of intensified exploration and development programs carried out for evaluation and production of both low- and high-enthalpy geothermal resources. A sample of some 40 boreholes indicates the following problem areas. 1 Low-enthalpy drilling Due to similar settings -hot water system f lowing in sedi-mentary units at temperatures and depths ranging from 40° to 140°C (104° to 284°F and from 1,000 to 3,500 metres (3,281 to 11,484 feet, respectively - the technology here is strongly dependent on oil and gas drilling practice. Still, specific problems remain in the areas of multiple-reservoir reconnaissance and well completion at production and reinjection levels, particularly in poorly consolidated fluvio-deltaic sequences leading to sand control and clay swelling problems. Expertise needs to be developed to minimize costs, secure high production capacities, long lifetimes, and minimum maintenance compatible with the economics and the lack of suitable workover facilities. 2 High-enthalpy drilling Exploratory drilling is currently combining wildcatting and deeper investigations of known fields. Lost circulation, drill string corrosion, tubulars, mud, cementing, and deviation control are the most frequently encountered difficulties while drilling in hostile water-dominated environments. Formation temperatures in excess of 300°C (572°F are often the rule, and recent drilling conducted in voleanic areas have hit fluids approaching the supercritical state. Whenever these problems do not remain under control, they result in rig standby and extra costs which severely penalize an industry which needs sharp improve-ments to be fully reliable and cost effective. Geothermal well stimulation is therefore a field of growing interest, but it lacks adequate procedures

  14. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated (CLX) proposes the development of a Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) that leverages the inherent advantages of an...

  15. Externally definable sets and dependent pairs II

    CERN Document Server

    Chernikov, Artem

    2012-01-01

    We continue investigating the structure of externally definable sets in NIP theories and preservation of NIP after expanding by new predicates. Most importantly: types over finite sets are uniformly definable; over a model, a family of non-forking instances of a formula (with parameters ranging over a type-definable set) can be covered with finitely many invariant types; we give some criteria for the boundedness of an expansion by a new predicate in a distal theory; naming an arbitrary small indiscernible sequence preserves NIP, while naming a large one doesn't; there are models of NIP theories over which all 1-types are definable, but not all n-types.

  16. [Optimizing health care using the example of rehabilitation. Intended goals have to be defined and achieved goals have to be confirmed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzsolt, Franz; Zimmermann, Theo

    2010-05-01

    In this article, the authors try to apply the actual problem of health care financing to the area of rehabilitation medicine. It is shown that there are considerable reserves in this system - like in any other area of health care -, which should not be saved but should be rather transformed into efficient health services. If we save these resources, the problems will remain the same but it will be easier to pay for them. If, however, we consider how to generate additional health care values, we will solve more problems than before.The article shows that these improvements require a clear definition of goals of health care. Goals of health care can be attained only if they are defined, and the conditions which have to be met for goal attainment can be identified only if the attained goals are quantified. There is need for action if it is unknown how often intended goals can really be attained.

  17. Sleep Health: Can We Define It? Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Good sleep is essential to good health. Yet for most of its history, sleep medicine has focused on the definition, identification, and treatment of sleep problems. Sleep health is a term that is infrequently used and even less frequently defined. It is time for us to change this. Indeed, pressures in the research, clinical, and regulatory environments require that we do so. The health of populations is increasingly defined by positive attributes such as wellness, performance, and adaptation, and not merely by the absence of disease. Sleep health can be defined in such terms. Empirical data demonstrate several dimensions of sleep that are related to health outcomes, and that can be measured with self-report and objective methods. One suggested definition of sleep health and a description of self-report items for measuring it are provided as examples. The concept of sleep health synergizes with other health care agendas, such as empowering individuals and communities, improving population health, and reducing health care costs. Promoting sleep health also offers the field of sleep medicine new research and clinical opportunities. In this sense, defining sleep health is vital not only to the health of populations and individuals, but also to the health of sleep medicine itself. Citation: Buysse DJ. Sleep health: can we define it? Does it matter? SLEEP 2014;37(1):9-17. PMID:24470692

  18. Reconsideration on the Problems about Sea Level Change in the Pearl River Delta Area%重新审视珠江三角洲海面升降问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平日

    2011-01-01

    针对近年学界和传媒对全球气候变化和海面升降的关注与争议,特别是对珠江三角洲海平面上升的预估,认为必须严肃对待,重新审视.通过分析广东地下埋藏古树蕴含的古气候信息,认为存在400年左右的冷暖周期;现代进入暖周期,加上工业化温室气体增加而引起全球升温.根据珠江三角洲典型潮位站长期和新近19年的观测记录,对珠江三角洲未来数十年海平面升降提出修正,认为到2030年升幅不会超过20 cm.%Much attention has been paid to the problems about global climate and sea level changes. Disputes on those subjects exist in academic circles and press media. The author considers that the previous estimation of the sea level rise in the Pearl River Delta area might be too high and should be re-examined. Analysis of the paleoclimatic information contained in a large number of ancient trees buried underground in Guangdong shows that there has been an alternate cold-warm period of about 400 years in the past ten thousand years. At present, another warm period has begun. That is overlapped with the climate warming caused by the increasing emission of greenhouse gases since industrialization of human society. According to the long-term data and those of the last 19 years measured at local tidal stations, the author argues that the range of sea level rise estimated previously for the PRD area should be revised, and suggests that it would be less than 20 cm by 2030.

  19. PSD: new regulations and old problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziev, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    This article examines the general outlines of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program, the current form of the regulations, and the major and persisting areas of criticism. Congress will probably have to decide during the next year whether to retain the present PSD program, to alter it slightly, or to adopt a new, different approach to the problem of protecting clean air. Alternative approaches have problems of their own; any ambient system will share most of what critics perceive to be the drawbacks of an increment system, and may bring significant additional problems, most prominent of which is the incentive inherent in any system of uniform standards to develop the cleanest areas first. Technology-based standards dispense with many of the most-cumbersome requirements of PSD, but they do away as well with protection of a particular level of ambient air quality. Moreover, any major alteration in approach means another round of regulation, litigation, and confusion. A more-feasible approach might be for Congress to make only minor changes in the PSD program. Specifically, it should encourage states to allocate units of increment more efficiently, define Best Available Congrol Technology (BACT) as New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) when there is a parallel NSPS standard, and consider ways to reduce reliance on applicant monitoring. The PSD program represents the core of our effort to preserve clean air. Contress should not take lightly the decision to abandon it when judicious modification probably would serve to mold PSD into an effective program. 173 references.

  20. Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do to help diagnose your prostate problem. Physical Exam A physical exam may help diagnose the cause ... sleep avoid or drink fewer liquids that have caffeine or alcohol in them avoid medicines that may ...

  1. Popular Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the ‘What's the problem represented...... to be’ (WPR) approach. Forty-nine empirical studies on Danish youth career guidance were included in the study. An analysis of the issues in focus resulted in nine problem categories. One of these, ‘targeting’, is analysed using the WPR approach. Finally, the article concludes that the WPR approach...... provides a constructive basis for a critical analysis and discussion of the collective empirical knowledge production on career guidance, stimulating awareness of problems and potential solutions among the career guidance community....

  2. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  3. Tongue problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tongue pain may also occur with: Diabetic neuropathy Leukoplakia Mouth ulcers Oral cancer After menopause, some women ... problem. Medicine may be prescribed for mouth ulcers, leukoplakia, oral cancer, and other mouth sores. Anti-inflammatory ...

  4. Erection problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... monitoring to test how strong your erection is Psychological tests to check for depression and other emotional problems ... the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should ...

  5. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense ... panic attacks Allergies If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.

  6. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  7. Eyelid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ... an irregular shape (astigmatism), it will threaten normal vision development and must be corrected as early as ...

  8. A definability theorem for first order logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butz, C.; Moerdijk, I.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will present a definability theorem for first order logic This theorem is very easy to state and its proof only uses elementary tools To explain the theorem let us first observe that if M is a model of a theory T in a language L then clearly any definable subset S M ie a subset S

  9. Defining Dynamic Graphics by a Graphical Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛其昌; 戴汝为

    1991-01-01

    A graphical language which can be used for defining dynamic picture and applying control actions to it is defined with an expanded attributed grammar.Based on this a system is built for developing the presentation of application data of user interface.This system provides user interface designers with a friendly and high efficient programming environment.

  10. 7 CFR 29.12 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined. 29.12 Section 29.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.12 Terms defined. As used in this subpart and in all...

  11. 某作业区尾矿品位高的问题分析及优化措施%Problem Analysis and Solution of High Tailing Grade in a Certain Operation Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓峰; 孟娜; 陈景明

    2015-01-01

    After upgrading and reform of a certain hematite operation zone,there is a problem that the tailings grade is relatively high. The results of the inspection on flow sheet in this area show that:the magnetic iron content is relatively low in the original concentrate;the large quantity of middling is the main reason why the tailing grade is high for hematite separation process. Our suggestion is to increase the productive rate of rough clean spiral,clean spiral,and undersize to sort out iron ore that has been monomer separated to reduce middling quantity. Meanwhile it will improve the effect of secondary grinding classification operation to reduce tailing grade.%某赤铁矿作业区增产改造后存在尾矿品位偏高,对该区流程考查结果表明:原矿中的磁性铁含量偏低、中矿量大的问题是该作业区赤铁矿石选别工艺中尾矿品位高的主要原因,建议在生产操作中增大粗螺精矿、精螺精矿和筛下的产率,使已单体解离的铁矿物及时分选出去,以减少中矿量,同时改善二次磨矿分级作业的效果,降低尾矿品位。

  12. Defining functional dyspepsia Definiendo la dispepsia funcional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Mearin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia and functional dyspepsia represent a highly significant public health issue. A good definition of dyspepsia is key for helping us to better approach symptoms, decision making, and therapy indications. During the last few years many attempts were made at establishing a definition of dyspepsia. Results were little successful on most occasions, and clear discrepancies arose on whether symptoms should be associated with digestion, which types of symptoms were to be included, which anatomic location should symptoms have, etc. The Rome III Committee defined dyspepsia as "a symptom or set of symptoms that most physicians consider to originate from the gastroduodenal area", including the following: postprandial heaviness, early satiety, and epigastric pain or burning. Two new entities were defined: a food-induced dyspeptic symptoms (postprandial distress syndrome; and b epigastric pain (epigastric pain syndrome. These and other definitions have shown both strengths and weaknesses. At times they have been much too complex, at times much too simple; furthermore, they have commonly erred on the side of being inaccurate and impractical. On the other hand, some (the most recent ones are difficult to translate into the Spanish language. In a meeting of gastroenterologists with a special interest in digestive functional disorders, the various aspects of dyspepsia definition were discussed and put to the vote, and the following conclusions were arrived at: dyspepsia is defined as a set of symptoms, either related or unrelated to food ingestion, localized on the upper half of the abdomen. They include: a epigastric discomfort (as a category of severity or pain; b postprandial heaviness; and c early satiety. Associated complaints include: nausea, belching, bloating, and epigastric burn (heartburn. All these must be scored according to severity and frequency. Furthermore, psychological factors may be involved in the origin of functional dyspepsia. On the

  13. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens

    In this thesis we consider solution methods for packing problems. Packing problems occur in many different situations both directly in the industry and as sub-problems of other problems. High-quality solutions for problems in the industrial sector may be able to reduce transportation and production...... costs significantly. For packing problems in general are given a set of items and one of more containers. The items must be placed within the container such that some objective is optimized and the items do not overlap. Items and container may be rectangular or irregular (e.g. polygons and polyhedra......) and may be defined in any number of dimensions. Solution methods are based on theory from both computational geometry and operations research. The scientific contributions of this thesis are presented in the form of six papers and a section which introduces the many problem types and recent solution...

  14. Chemically defined medium and Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Kozak, Elena; Conley, Catharine A.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C. elegans has been established as a powerful genetic system. Use of a chemically defined medium (C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM)) now allows standardization and systematic manipulation of the nutrients that animals receive. Liquid cultivation allows automated culturing and experimentation and should be of use in large-scale growth and screening of animals. RESULTS: We find that CeMM is versatile and culturing is simple. CeMM can be used in a solid or liquid state, it can be stored unused for at least a year, unattended actively growing cultures may be maintained longer than with standard techniques, and standard C. elegans protocols work well with animals grown in defined medium. We also find that there are caveats to using defined medium. Animals in defined medium grow more slowly than on standard medium, appear to display adaptation to the defined medium, and display altered growth rates as they change the composition of the defined medium. CONCLUSIONS: As was suggested with the introduction of C. elegans as a potential genetic system, use of defined medium with C. elegans should prove a powerful tool.

  15. Development and testing of methods for in-situ-monitoring the environmental problems in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. Final report; Entwicklung und Erprobung von Methoden zur In-situ-Langzeitueberwachung fuer Probleme der Folgelandschaften des Braunkohlenbergbaus. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoedel, K.; Koenig, F.

    1999-06-15

    In the project a concept and prototypes have been developed and tested for an automatic, computer-based monitoring of sites suspected to be hazardous in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. In-situ measurements with milieuparameter probes and an optical sensor system in observation wells are combined with measurements between the wells using an electromagnetic system. Methods are being developed for monitoring the vadose and saturated zones. The areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines in eastern Germany are not in a steady-state condition. Considerable changes are occurring due to redistribution and aeration of the sediments during removal of the overburden, due to disposal of solid and liquid wastes in the mine area, as well as to the re-establishment of normal groundwater levels. Monitoring will help to better understand the system. Precautionary and remedial measures must also be monitored as well as natural attenuation of pollutants. The results of the project are encouraging with regard to the range of the electromagnetic monitoring system as well as with regard to the long-term stability. Hence, the efficiency will be tested at a reference object in a long time test. (orig.) [German] Im Vorhaben sind ein Konzept und Prototypen fuer die vollautomatische, rechnergestuetzte Langzeitueberwachung (Monitoring) von Altlastenstandorten in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften entwickelt und getestet worden. Das Konzept basiert auf der Kombination lokaler Messungen mit Milieuparametersonden und einem System zur optischen Spektrometrie mit raeumlichen Ueberwachungsmethoden eines elektromagnetischen Ueberwachungssystems. Dabei wurden Loesungen sowohl fuer ein Monitoring in der wassergesaettigten als auch in der ungesaettigten Zone entwickelt. Derartige Ueberwachungssysteme werden kuenftig benoetigt, um zu einem besseren Verstaendnis und zur Loesung der Probleme in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften zu kommen, die durch die Belueftung und Umstrukturierung

  16. The Conservation of Area Integrals in Averaging Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, E. D.

    2010-06-01

    It is shown for the two-planetary version of the weakly perturbed two-body problem that, in a system defined by a finite part of a Poisson expansion of the averaged Hamiltonian, only one of the three components of the area vector is conserved, corresponding to the longitudes measuring plane. The variability of the other two components is demonstrated in two ways. The first is based on calculating the Poisson bracket of the averaged Hamiltonian and the components of the area vector written in closed form. In the second, an echeloned Poisson series processor (EPSP) is used when calculating the Poisson bracket. The averaged Hamiltonian is taken with accuracy to second order in the small parameter of the problem, and the components of the area vector are expanded in a Poisson series.

  17. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W., E-mail: hans.w.schumacher@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  18. 糖尿病问题量表测评2型糖尿病患者的效度和信度%Validity and reliability of the Problem Area in Diabetes Scale in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洁; 洪霞; 赵维纲; 段艳平; 熊娜娜; 李涛; 赵晓晖; 史丽丽; 魏镜

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Problem Area in Diabetes Scale (PAID) for assessing diabetes-related distress in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods:Totally 203 outpatients with type 2 diabetes from a tertiary hospital in Beijing were selected. They were assessed with PAID,Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17),Patient Health Questionaire-9(PHQ-9),World Health Organization Five item Well-Being Index (WHO-5 ),Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)and HbA1 C. Item analysis and exploratory factoranalysis were conducted to test constructive validity. Concurrent validity was evaluated by the correlation coeffi-cients with the other instruments mentioned above. Totally 3 1 subjects were retested 4 weeks later to obtain the test-retest reliability. Results:Exploratory factor analysis produced 4 factors,including emotional,therapeutic,diet and perceived society support problems specific to diabetics. The total variance contribution ratio was 64. 33%. Except i-tem 7 and 20,no item was across two factors. The correlation coefficients of each item with relevant subscale score ranged from 0. 67 to 0. 86. The PAID scores were positively correlated with the scores of HAMD-17,PHQ-9 and HbA1C (r=0. 48,0. 43,0. 21,P<0. 001 or 0. 01),and negatively correlated with WHO-5 scores (r=-0. 46,P<0. 001). The Cronbach's αcoefficients were 0. 94 for the total scale and 0. 81 -0. 88 for the 4 subscales. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 0. 65 for the total scale and 0. 53-0. 73 for the 4 subscales. Conclusion:The validi-ty and reliability of the Problem Area in Diabetes Scale are acceptable in Chinese mainland,and can be available to assess the stress related to diabetics.%目的:在2型糖尿病患者中,对糖尿病问题量表(PAID)的效度和信度进行检验,用以测量2型糖尿病患者的疾病压力问题。方法:在北京市某综合三甲医院内分泌科门诊搜集2型糖尿病患者203例。采用条目分析

  19. Differential area profiles: decomposition properties and efficient computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounis, Georgios K; Pesaresi, Martino; Soille, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Differential area profiles (DAPs) are point-based multiscale descriptors used in pattern analysis and image segmentation. They are defined through sets of size-based connected morphological filters that constitute a joint area opening top-hat and area closing bottom-hat scale-space of the input image. The work presented in this paper explores the properties of this image decomposition through sets of area zones. An area zone defines a single plane of the DAP vector field and contains all the peak components of the input image, whose size is between the zone's attribute extrema. Area zones can be computed efficiently from hierarchical image representation structures, in a way similar to regular attribute filters. Operations on the DAP vector field can then be computed without the need for exporting it first, and an example with the leveling-like convex/concave segmentation scheme is given. This is referred to as the one-pass method and it is demonstrated on the Max-Tree structure. Its computational performance is tested and compared against conventional means for computing differential profiles, relying on iterative application of area openings and closings. Applications making use of the area zone decomposition are demonstrated in problems related to remote sensing and medical image analysis.

  20. Calculus problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baronti, Marco; van der Putten, Robertus; Venturi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book, intended as a practical working guide for students in Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, or any other field where rigorous calculus is needed, includes 450 exercises. Each chapter starts with a summary of the main definitions and results, which is followed by a selection of solved exercises accompanied by brief, illustrative comments. A selection of problems with indicated solutions rounds out each chapter. A final chapter explores problems that are not designed with a single issue in mind but instead call for the combination of a variety of techniques, rounding out the book’s coverage. Though the book’s primary focus is on functions of one real variable, basic ordinary differential equations (separation of variables, linear first order and constant coefficients ODEs) are also discussed. The material is taken from actual written tests that have been delivered at the Engineering School of the University of Genoa. Literally thousands of students have worked on these problems, ensuring their real-...

  1. Student retention: one college's attempt to deal with the problem in the light of recent government policy 1999-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, John Charles Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the reasons for, and potential managerial solutions to, the problem of high rates of student drop-out on full-time Humanities programmes at a further education (FE) college in a disadvantaged area of the North of England. As rates of student withdrawal have attracted the attention of policy makers, the research examines the assumptions which shaped the decision to define drop-out as a problem and to use funding mechanisms and the inspection process to penalise colleges...

  2. Translating a wicked problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    In a time of increasing globalisation and urbanisation, shrinking peripheral rural areas have become a truly wicked planning problem in many European countries. Although a problem can be easily perceived and measured by various indicators, the precise definition of the problem is problematic. Based...... on the case of a Danish planning process which was carried out in collaboration with a charitable trust, this paper discusses an emerging strategic planning approach at the municipal level. We use the concept of wicked problems, strategic planning theory and Actor-Network-Theory to study a collaborative......, place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical...

  3. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation Inc, (IAI) is currently developing a software defined radio (SDR) platform that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation for...

  4. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI is actively developing Software Defined Radio platforms that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation by modifying both transmit waveforms and...

  5. Convolutional Goppa codes defined on fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Curto, J I Iglesias; Martín, F J Plaza; Sotelo, G Serrano

    2010-01-01

    We define a new class of Convolutional Codes in terms of fibrations of algebraic varieties generalizaing our previous constructions of Convolutional Goppa Codes. Using this general construction we can give several examples of Maximum Distance Separable (MDS) Convolutional Codes.

  6. Towards a Southern African English Defining Vocabulary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In my experience, defining vocabularies compiled for English dictionaries for a British or .... Oxford 3000, which contains 3 540 entries, and is available on the Internet. ... One thing that became apparent was a lack of consistency within lexical.

  7. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this research is to propose a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-band, multi-mode, miniaturized frequency-agile EVA software defined radio...

  8. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of Phase 2 is to build a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-mode, miniaturized EVA Software Defined Radio (SDR) that supports data telemetry,...

  9. A MULTICRITERIA-BASED LOCATION OF AN INDUSTRIAL PARK IN A DEFINED AREA IN IPATINGA, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL / Localização de um parque industrial em uma área definida em Ipatinga-MG utilizando a análise multicritério

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Henrique de Faria Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify an area of over 5 ha for setting up an industrial park in Ipatinga microregionin Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Ipatinga is both nationally and internationally regarded as a model cityin terms of development because of Usiminas Company, which is one of the greatest metallurgic industrialpowers of Minas Gerais State. Setting up an industrial park in this framework is essential to attractpotential investors, to foster purchase of products manufactured by Usiminas, and thus to promotefiscal incentives to the municipality, which may contribute to Ipatinga socioeconomic development. Amulticriteria analysis was carried out, applying fuzzy logic (IDRISE software, ArcGis and imagesavailable from Google Earth and made a mosaic. Areas suitable for the industrial park implantationand the most suitable area were found by means of a cost-benefit analysis. Since hiring qualified laborafter setting the park up would eventually implicate migration of several people from other regions, adwelling study was also carry out. The results indicate that multicriteria analysis is an important toolfor decision-making throughout the process of assessing and selecting areas to set up striking enterprises.

  10. Optimum Criteria for Developing Defined Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic aspects concerning distributed applications are presented: definition, particularities and importance. For distributed applications linear, arborescent, graph structures are defined with different versions and aggregation methods. Distributed applications have associated structures which through their characteristics influence the costs of the stages in the development cycle and the exploitation costs transferred to each user. The complexity of the defined structures is analyzed. The minimum and maximum criteria are enumerated for optimizing distributed application structures.

  11. Financial Leasing Development Problems of Tianjin Free Trade Area and Its Countermeasures%天津自贸实验区融资租赁发展情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈月生

    2016-01-01

    As a financing tool, the transaction size of financial leasing is only next to bank credit. The characteristics of financial leasing are congruent with the characteristics of the Tianjin free trade area which is oriented in serving the real economy. Since the permission of Tianjin FTA, the development of financial leasing industry ushered in new opportunities in Tianjin. However, the advantages and disadvantages of the FTA development are coexisted. The difficulty lies in how to use the advantages and to avoid disadvantages to make sure a positive development of financial leasing in Tianjin FTA. Based on the in-depth study and the list of financial leasing problems during the process of rapid development in Tianjin FTA, the paper puts forward some effective countermeasures for financing leasing industry’s innovation and development.%融资租赁作为一种融资工具,其交易规模仅次于银行信贷。融资租赁产融结合的特征与天津自贸试验区服务实体经济的方向是一致的。自天津自贸实验区获批起,天津融资租赁业发展迎来新机遇,自贸区发展融资租赁的优势与劣势并存。该怎样利用优势、正面突破劣势是当前天津自贸实验区融资租赁业健康发展重点要解决的难题。在深入探讨天津自贸实验区融资租赁业发展现状的基础上,剖析了天津自贸实验区融资租赁业高速发展过程中出现的问题,提出天津自贸实验区融资租赁业创新发展的对策。

  12. Ear Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have cold or flu symptoms?YesNoDo you have tooth pain on the same side as the ear pain ... or 2 days, see your doctor.Start OverDiagnosisA tooth problem can radiate pain to the ear on the same side.Self ...

  13. Opportunistic spectrum sharing in software defined wireless network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yang; Yong Li; Depeng Jin; Li Su; Lieguang Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the world has witnessed a rapid growth in mobile and wireless networks (MWNs) which significantly change human life. However, proliferating mobile de-mands lead to several intractable chal enges that MWN has to face. Software-defined network is expected as a promising way for future network and has captured growing attention. Network virtualization is an essential feature in software-defined wireless network (SDWN), and it brings two new entities, physical networks and virtual networks. Accordingly, efficiently assigning spectrum resource to virtual networks is one of the fundamental problems in SDWN. Directly orienting towards the spectrum resource al o-cation problem, firstly, the fluctuation features of virtual network requirements in SDWN are researched, and the opportunistic spectrum sharing method is introduced to SDWN. Then, the prob-lem is proved as NP-hardness. After that, a dynamic programming and graph theory based spectrum sharing algorithm is proposed. Simulations demonstrate that the opportunistic spectrum sharing method conspicuously improves the system performance up to around 20%–30%in SDWN, and the proposed algorithm achieves more efficient performance.

  14. Using templates and linguistic patterns to define process performance indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Río-Ortega, Adela; Resinas, Manuel; Durán, Amador; Ruiz-Cortés, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Process performance management (PPM) aims at measuring, monitoring and analysing the performance of business processes (BPs), in order to check the achievement of strategic and operational goals and to support decision-making for their optimisation. PPM is based on process performance indicators (PPIs), so having an appropriate definition of them is crucial. One of the main problems of PPIs definition is to express them in an unambiguous, complete, understandable, traceable and verifiable manner. In practice, PPIs are defined informally - usually in ad hoc, natural language, with its well-known problems - or they are defined from an implementation perspective, hardly understandable to non-technical people. In order to solve this problem, in this article we propose a novel approach to improve the definition of PPIs using templates and linguistic patterns. This approach promotes reuse, reduces both ambiguities and missing information, is understandable to all stakeholders and maintains traceability with the process model. Furthermore, it enables the automated processing of PPI definitions by its straightforward translation into the PPINOT metamodel, allowing the gathering of the required information for their computation as well as the analysis of the relationships between them and with BP elements.

  15. Minimizing communication cost among distributed controllers in software defined networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlimatti, Shivaleela; Elbreiki, Walid; Hassan, Suhaidi; Habbal, Adib; Elshaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a new paradigm to increase the flexibility of today's network by promising for a programmable network. The fundamental idea behind this new architecture is to simplify network complexity by decoupling control plane and data plane of the network devices, and by making the control plane centralized. Recently controllers have distributed to solve the problem of single point of failure, and to increase scalability and flexibility during workload distribution. Even though, controllers are flexible and scalable to accommodate more number of network switches, yet the problem of intercommunication cost between distributed controllers is still challenging issue in the Software Defined Network environment. This paper, aims to fill the gap by proposing a new mechanism, which minimizes intercommunication cost with graph partitioning algorithm, an NP hard problem. The methodology proposed in this paper is, swapping of network elements between controller domains to minimize communication cost by calculating communication gain. The swapping of elements minimizes inter and intra communication cost among network domains. We validate our work with the OMNeT++ simulation environment tool. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism minimizes the inter domain communication cost among controllers compared to traditional distributed controllers.

  16. Colored Traveling Salesman Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhou, MengChu; Sun, Qirui; Dai, Xianzhong; Yu, Xiaolong

    2015-11-01

    The multiple traveling salesman problem (MTSP) is an important combinatorial optimization problem. It has been widely and successfully applied to the practical cases in which multiple traveling individuals (salesmen) share the common workspace (city set). However, it cannot represent some application problems where multiple traveling individuals not only have their own exclusive tasks but also share a group of tasks with each other. This work proposes a new MTSP called colored traveling salesman problem (CTSP) for handling such cases. Two types of city groups are defined, i.e., each group of exclusive cities of a single color for a salesman to visit and a group of shared cities of multiple colors allowing all salesmen to visit. Evidences show that CTSP is NP-hard and a multidepot MTSP and multiple single traveling salesman problems are its special cases. We present a genetic algorithm (GA) with dual-chromosome coding for CTSP and analyze the corresponding solution space. Then, GA is improved by incorporating greedy, hill-climbing (HC), and simulated annealing (SA) operations to achieve better performance. By experiments, the limitation of the exact solution method is revealed and the performance of the presented GAs is compared. The results suggest that SAGA can achieve the best quality of solutions and HCGA should be the choice making good tradeoff between the solution quality and computing time.

  17. An adaptation of the Interpersonal Problem Areas Rating Scale: pilot and interrater agreement study Adaptação da Escala de Áreas Problema da Psicoterapia Interpessoal: estudo piloto e avaliação de concordância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Fontes de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This article describes the adaptation of a rating scale of interpersonal psychotherapy problem areas to include a fifth problem area appropriate to bipolar disorder and an interrater agreement study in identifying interpersonal problem areas and selecting a primary treatment focus if patients were to engage in treatment. METHOD: Five research interpersonal psychotherapists assessed nine audiotapes of a single interview with five bipolar and four unipolar patients in which the interpersonal inventory and identification of problem areas were undertaken. RESULTS: Raters agreed on presence and absence of problem areas in seven tapes. Kappas for identification of problem areas were 1.00 (grief, 0.77 (role dispute, 0.61 (role transition, 0.57 (interpersonal deficits and 1.00 (loss of healthy self. Kappa for agreement on a primary clinical focus if patients were to engage in interpersonal psychotherapy treatment was 0.64. CONCLUSIONS: The adaptation of the original scale to include an area pertinent to bipolar disorder proved to be applicable and relevant for use with this population. The results show substantial interrater agreement in identifying problem areas and potential treatment focus.OBJETIVO: Este artigo descreve a adaptação de uma escala de avaliação de áreas problema da psicoterapia interpessoal que inclui uma área própria ao transtorno bipolar e um estudo de concordância em identificar áreas problema e selecionar um foco primário de tratamento caso os pacientes fossem participar de tratamento. MÉTODO: Cinco terapeutas interpessoais avaliaram nove audiotapes de uma única entrevista com cinco pacientes bipolares e quatro pacientes unipolares em que o inventário interpessoal e identificação de áreas problema foram empreendidos. RESULTADOS: Os avaliadores concordaram na presença e ausência de áreas problema em sete fitas. Kappas para identificação de áreas problema foram 1,00 (luto, 0,77 (disputa de papel, 0

  18. Problems In Indoor Mapping and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanova, S.; Sithole, G.; Nakagawa, M.; Zhu, Q.

    2013-11-01

    Research in support of indoor mapping and modelling (IMM) has been active for over thirty years. This research has come in the form of As-Built surveys, Data structuring, Visualisation techniques, Navigation models and so forth. Much of this research is founded on advancements in photogrammetry, computer vision and image analysis, computer graphics, robotics, laser scanning and many others. While IMM used to be the privy of engineers, planners, consultants, contractors, and designers, this is no longer the case as commercial enterprises and individuals are also beginning to apply indoor models in their business process and applications. There are three main reasons for this. Firstly, the last two decades have seen greater use of spatial information by enterprises and the public. Secondly, IMM has been complimented by advancements in mobile computing and internet communications, making it easier than ever to access and interact with spatial information. Thirdly, indoor modelling has been advanced geometrically and semantically, opening doors for developing user-oriented, context-aware applications. This reshaping of the public's attitude and expectations with regards to spatial information has realised new applications and spurred demand for indoor models and the tools to use them. This paper examines the present state of IMM and considers the research areas that deserve attention in the future. In particular the paper considers problems in IMM that are relevant to commercial enterprises and the general public, groups this paper expects will emerge as the greatest users IMM. The subject of indoor modelling and mapping is discussed here in terms of Acquisitions and Sensors, Data Structures and Modelling, Visualisation, Applications, Legal Issues and Standards. Problems are discussed in terms of those that exist and those that are emerging. Existing problems are those that are currently being researched. Emerging problems are those problems or demands that are

  19. Fast Program Codes Dissemination for Smart Wireless Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart wireless software defined networks (WSDNs, sensor nodes are deployed in the monitored area to sense data. In order to increase the flexibility of WSDNs configuration, sensor nodes use programmable technology. Thus, programming and software engineering that integrate Internet of Things (IoT lead to a smart world. Due to the large capacity of program codes and the limited energy of wireless network, only a subset of nodes is selected to spread program codes, and the remaining nodes are in sleep status to save energy. In this paper, a fast program codes dissemination (FPCD scheme for smart wireless software defined networking is proposed; many nodes in the area far from the sink will be selected to spread program codes; those areas have much energy left, while the area near the sink chooses less number of active nodes to spread program codes to save energy. Thus, FPCD scheme can reduce delay for spreading program codes while retaining network lifetime. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that our approach can reduce transmission delay by 10.76%–105.791% while retaining network lifetime compares with previous broadcast schemes.

  20. Leading Causes of Death in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas- United States, 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Ernest; Garcia, Macarena C; Bastian, Brigham; Rossen, Lauren M; Ingram, Deborah D; Faul, Mark; Massetti, Greta M; Thomas, Cheryll C; Hong, Yuling; Yoon, Paula W; Iademarco, Michael F

    2017-01-13

    Higher rates of death in nonmetropolitan areas (often referred to as rural areas) compared with metropolitan areas have been described but not systematically assessed. 1999-2014 DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Mortality data for U.S. residents from the National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate age-adjusted death rates and potentially excess deaths for nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas for the five leading causes of death. Age-adjusted death rates included all ages and were adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population by the direct method. Potentially excess deaths are defined as deaths among persons aged leading causes were higher in nonmetropolitan areas than in metropolitan areas. For example, approximately half of deaths from unintentional injury and chronic lower respiratory disease in nonmetropolitan areas were potentially excess deaths, compared with 39.2% and 30.9%, respectively, in metropolitan areas. Potentially excess deaths also differed among and within public health regions; within regions, nonmetropolitan areas tended to have higher percentages of potentially excess deaths than metropolitan areas. Compared with metropolitan areas, nonmetropolitan areas have higher age-adjusted death rates and greater percentages of potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes of death, nationally and across public health regions. Routine tracking of potentially excess deaths in nonmetropolitan areas might help public health departments identify emerging health problems, monitor known problems, and focus interventions to reduce preventable deaths in these areas.

  1. Eigenvalue Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    and f. Let us consider the problem of finding the minimal constant C. We are thus interested in 2~ IVA u dx (1.24) C = sup . u2u (0 (F =0 (u dx"<u(O...fournir des bornes superieures ou inferieures, C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris 235, 995-997. .V Prodi, G. (1962]: Theoremi di tipo locale per il sistema de Navier

  2. Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Hu

    2015-01-01

    the nonsmooth convex optimization problem. First, by using Moreau-Yosida regularization, we convert the original objective function to a continuously differentiable function; then we use approximate function and gradient values of the Moreau-Yosida regularization to substitute the corresponding exact values in the algorithm. The global convergence is proved under suitable assumptions. Numerical experiments are presented to show the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  3. Facet Defining Inequalities for the Simple Graph Partioning Polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2000-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each containing at most b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we investigate the facial structure of the simple graph partitio...... partitioning polytopes P(b), b = 3,...,n, associated with the complete graph on n nodes. In particular we introduce two new classes af facet defining inequalities that are induced by cliques and multistars....

  4. Optimal savings management for individuals with defined contribution pension plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Mulvey, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides some guidelines to individuals with defined contribution (DC) pension plans on how to manage pension savings both before and after retirement. We argue that decisions regarding investment, annuity payments, and the size of death sum should not only depend on the individual’s age...... characterizing the individual. The problem is solved via a model that combines two optimization approaches: stochastic optimal control and multi-stage stochastic programming. The first method is common in financial and actuarial literature, but produces theoretical results. However, the latter, which...

  5. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  6. Multiple Solutions Involving Geoboard Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lyle R.

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates various methods to determine the perimeter and area of triangles and polygons formed on the geoboard. Methods utilize algebraic techniques, trigonometry, geometric theorems, and analytic geometry to solve problems and connect a variety of mathematical concepts. (MDH)

  7. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  8. Problem discourse of textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Jelena M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with various reasons for treating the problematisation of textbook discourse as an important aspect of its educational design. These reasons are derived from: the nature of learning process, the nature of scientific knowledge and both motivational and cognitive saint achieved through a problematisation of learning material. Implications drawn from these considerations, along with textbook genre possibilities and constrains, lead us to define some basic strategies of textbook discourse problematisation. They refer to: way of presenting knowledge (problem structuring of text, presenting the history of knowledge and different perspectives; use of specific questions and tasks; metacognitive support of the learning process and specific type of textbook language (dialogical problem focused, language of thinking.

  9. Software-Defined Cellular Mobile Network Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiandong Li; Peng Liu; Hongyan Li

    2014-01-01

    The emergency relating to software-defined networking (SDN), especially in terms of the prototype associated with OpenFlow, pro-vides new possibilities for innovating on network design. Researchers have started to extend SDN to cellular networks. Such new programmable architecture is beneficial to the evolution of mobile networks and allows operators to provide better services. The typical cellular network comprises radio access network (RAN) and core network (CN); hence, the technique roadmap diverges in two ways. In this paper, we investigate SoftRAN, the latest SDN solution for RAN, and SoftCell and MobileFlow, the latest solu-tions for CN. We also define a series of control functions for CROWD. Unlike in the other literature, we emphasize only software-defined cellular network solutions and specifications in order to provide possible research directions.

  10. Defining paraphilia in DSM-5: do not disregard grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderliter, Andrew C

    2011-01-01

    Blanchard (2009a, 2009b, 2009c) proposed a definition of paraphilia for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5, delimiting a range of so-called normative sexuality and defining paraphilia as any intense and persistent sexual interest other than that. The author examines the wording and intended meaning of this definition, and he argues that there are many problems with it that "correct" interpretation requires ignoring what it says. Because of these problems and the possibility of civil commitment under sexually violent predator/person laws on the basis of a diagnosis of paraphilia NOS, caution and careful consideration of grammar and wording is urged in drafting a definition for paraphilia for DSM-5.

  11. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feet by immersing them in warm (not hot) water or by applying warm cloths to the affected area.Start OverDiagnosisGANGRENE can occur if a body part loses its blood supply because of diabetes or hardening of the arteries.Self CareURGENTSee your doctor. Good ...

  12. PYRAMID ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Augustus K.; Scott, Douglas F.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and mineral survey was conducted in the Pyramid Roadless Area, California. The area contains mineral showings, but no mineral-resource potential was identified during our studies. Three granodiorite samples on the west side of the roadless area contained weakly anomalous concentrations of uranium. Two samples of roof-pendant rocks, one metasedimentary rock and one metavolcanic rock, contain low concentrations of copper, and of copper and molybdenum, respectively. Although none was identified, the geologic terrane is permissive for mineral occurrences and large-scale, detailed geologic mapping of the areas of metasedimentary and metavolcanic roof pendants in the Pyramid Roadless Area could define a mineral-resource potential for tungsten and precious metals.

  13. BIOMARKERS TO DEFINE OPTIMAL PROTEIN REQUIREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Di Girolamo, Filippo Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Dietary proteins are the source of the amino acids required by the body for tissue growth and maintenance. The Population Reference Intake (PRI) for proteins, as defined by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for healthy adults, including the elderly, is 0.83 g/kg body weight/day. This amount is defined on the net balance of body protein (or “nitrogen balance”, given by the difference between dietary nitrogen intake and losses) equivalent to 0.66 g/kg/day plus a safety factor for interp...

  14. GNU Based Security in Software Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Bhadka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Various new technologies are explored for radio communication toward the 21st century. Among them the technology of "software defined radio" attracts large attention. Software Defined Radio (SDR technology implements some of the functional modules of a radio system in software enabling highly flexible handsets. SDR devices may be reconfigured dynamically via the download of new software modules. Malicious or malfunctioning downloaded software present serious security risks to SDR devices and networks in which they operate. Together with the use of software downloading, future terminals will become a platform to support the deployment of yet unspecified services and applications.

  15. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke;

    2003-01-01

    Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks. The differe......Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks...

  16. What Defines a Separate Hydrothermal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawless, J.V.; Bogie, I.; Bignall, G.

    1995-01-01

    Separate hydrothermal systems can be defined in a variety of ways. Criteria which have been applied include separation of heat source, upflow, economic resource and geophysical anomaly. Alternatively, connections have been defined by the effects of withdrawal of economically useful fluid and subsidence, effects of reinjection, changes in thermal features, or by a hydrological connection of groundwaters. It is proposed here that: ''A separate hydrothermal system is one that is fed by a separate convective upflow of fluid, at a depth above the brittle-ductile transition for the host rocks, while acknowledging that separate hydrothermal systems can be hydrologically interconnected at shallower levels''.

  17. 47 CFR 101.64 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 101.64 Section 101.64... Service areas. Service areas for 38.6-40.0 GHz service are Economic Areas (EAs) as defined below. EAs are.... Additionally, there are four EA-like areas: Guam and Northern Mariana Islands; Puerto Rico and the U.S....

  18. 47 CFR 24.202 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 24.202 Section 24.202... SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.202 Service areas. Broadband PCS service areas are Major Trading Areas (MTAs) and Basic Trading Areas (BTAs) as defined in this section. MTAs and BTAs are based on the Rand...

  19. Special problems facing the psychiatrist-administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, M

    1979-11-01

    Psychiatrists who become administrators often find themselves in an unfamiliar world of planning, budget and cost control, labor relations, and mental health law. They discover that the physical and mental demands of leadership are great, their role makes them highly visible, and their future is uncertain. Psychiatric administrators in general hospitals are in a unique position of competing for resources with medicine and surgery. In addition, the need for linkages to the community challenges the psychiatric administrator to deliver services to defined catchment areas, identify cases at risk, and establish halfway houses and similar facilities. While the author discusses primarily the stresses and problems of being a psychiatric administrator, he also says there are special satisfactions of the executive role.

  20. Some fundamenltal problems in outcrop sequence stratigraphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王训练

    1999-01-01

    Some fundamental problems in outcrop sequence stratigraphy are discussed, and the following ideas are obtained: (i) Detailed sedimentary facies analysis and study on stacking pattern of parasequences, careful and accurate study of biostratigraphy, and stratigraphical correlation of different facies areas are the essential conditions for proper identification of sequences. (ii) The first flooding surface may be an ideal sequence boundary in outcrop sequence stratigraphy, where the most distinct palaeontological and sedimentary changes take place and make the surface readily recognizable in outcrop. (iii) The distribution in space, specially in different facies belts, is regarded as an important criterion for defining and recognizing the various orders of sequences. The third-order sequence is probably global in nature , which may be discerned in various depositional facies belts at least on one continental margin, and can be correlated over long distances, sometimes worldwide. (iv) The first flooding surf

  1. Comparison of Problem Solving from Engineering Design to Software Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of engineering design activities can inform the research community on the problem solving models that are employed by professional engineers. Design is defined as an ill-defined problem which includes both engineering design and software design, hence understanding problem s...

  2. 1. round table - Nuclear wastes and radioactive materials. 2. round table - risks linked with nuclear wastes and materials. 3. round table - the problem of long-term management of medium-high activity and long lived wastes. The process defined by the 1991 law; 1. table ronde - dechets nucleaires et matieres radioactives. 2. table ronde - Les risques des dechets et matieres nucleaires. 3. table ronde - Le probleme de la gestion a long terme des dechets a MA/HAVL. Le processus defini par la loi de 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the first round table of Paris about the problems raised by nuclear wastes in the case of the geologic disposal option. Four families of questions have been tackled: 1 - the exhaustiveness of ANDRA's inventory, the solutions foreseen for the different types of wastes; 2 - the high-medium activity wastes and their processing; 3 - the management of non-reprocessed spent MOX fuels; 4 - the safety and security standards used and their establishment. Four presentations are attached to these proceedings and deal with: the measured and estimated inventory of all radioactive wastes; the inventory and management of radioactive wastes and the place of citizens; the point of view of the nuclear safety authority; conditioning and storage. (J.S.)

  3. Problems diagnosis in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leugner, L.

    1986-10-01

    Diagnosis of engine problems in diesel engines used in Western Canadian coal mines is discussed. Areas to which attention must be paid include the air cleaners, turbocharger, engine compression and the fuel system. Exhaust smoke should be analysed to help diagnose combustion related problems.

  4. Subspace Methods for Eigenvalue Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, Michiel Erik

    2003-01-01

    This thesis treats a number of aspects of subspace methods for various eigenvalue problems. Vibrations and their corresponding eigenvalues (or frequencies) arise in science, engineering, and daily life. Matrix eigenvalue problems come from a large number of areas, such as chemistry, mechanics, dyn

  5. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  6. Robot computer problem solving system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.

  7. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  8. An Initial Load-Based Green Software Defined Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Software defined network (SDN is a new network architecture in which the control function is decoupled from the data forwarding plane, that is attracting wide attentions from both research and industry sectors. However, SDN still faces the energy waste problem as do traditional networks. At present, research on energy saving in SDN is mainly focused on the static optimization of the network with zero load when new traffic arrives, changing the transmission path of the uncompleted traffic which arrived before the optimization, possibly resulting in route oscillation and other deleterious effects. To avoid this, a dynamical energy saving optimization scheme in which the paths of the uncompleted flows will not be changed when new traffic arrives is designed. To find the optimal solution for energy saving, the problem is modeled as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP problem. As the high complexity of the problem prohibits the optimal solution, an improved heuristic routing algorithm called improved constant weight greedy algorithm (ICWGA is proposed to find a sub-optimal solution. Simulation results show that the energy saving capacity of ICWGA is close to that of the optimal solution, offering desirable improvement in the energy efficiency of the network.

  9. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  10. Defining, constructing and assessing learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M

    2009-08-01

    Learning outcomes define the veterinary curriculum and inform students about what they must be able to demonstrate to succeed. Stakeholder consultation during their development ensures that programme learning outcomes equip graduates to contribute to the veterinary profession. Effective learning outcomes form a hierarchy linking the programme, its courses and tasks. Clear outcomes direct students towards higher quality learning by indicating the achievements intended, but leave scope for emergent learning outcomes. Defined technical competencies fit within this overarching framework, complementing higher order learning. Mapping is used to align learning outcomes horizontally and vertically so students are systematically guided towards entry-level competence and professional independence. Constructively aligned learning and assessment tasks ensure learners spend the focused time required to sequentially develop programme outcomes. Assessment by staff, peers and other stakeholders certifies achievement of intended outcomes. Effective assessment also empowers students to define and achieve their own learning outcomes, so they develop the habits of autonomous life-long learning. Evaluation of the quality and consistency of achieved outcomes informs ongoing programme improvement. If we are going to achieve the objectives of this set of papers, i.e. to improve public health education globally (Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz. 28 [2] 2009), then it is essential that they be well defined in the learning outcomes statement of all veterinary schools.

  11. Restandardisation defined as democratising language planning1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aims to define restandardisation as democratising language planning, i.e. a .... disintegration of the Soviet Union of Yugoslavia, the opening of borders in Europe, and the ..... descriptive framework for standardisation as a language planning process. .... belonging to the same language group in order to form one common ...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions § 51.2 Terms defined. Words in the regulations in this part in the singular form shall be deemed.... “Federal-State Inspection Agency” means any State agency, business association or trade organization... plant. “Packing plant” means the premises, buildings, structures, and equipment including but...

  13. Defining benzodiazepine dependence: The confusion persists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linsen, S.M.; Zitman, F.G.; Breteler, M.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Little consensus exists on the risk of benzodiazepine (BZD) dependence. We investigated how often BZD dependence and related concepts have been defined in the literature on BZD effects in humans. In addition, the definitions of BZD dependence were compared in order to assess the similarity of conten

  14. 47 CFR 54.401 - Lifeline defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.401 Lifeline defined. (a) As used in this... assistance. Eligible telecommunications carriers not subject to state commission jurisdiction also shall...

  15. THEORETICAL APPROACHES DEFINE SENSE OF INVESTMENT PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. A. Burduzha

    2010-01-01

    The essence of terms “project”, “investment project” is defined in the article, as well as the difference between definitions of terms “project”, “plan” and “program” is determined. The main approaches to the treatment of definition of term “investment project” are considered.

  16. Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

  17. Externally definable sets and dependent pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Chernikov, Artem

    2010-01-01

    We prove that externally definable sets in first order NIP theories have honest definitions, giving a new proof of Shelah's expansion theorem. Also we discuss a weak notion of stable embeddedness true in this context. Those results are then used to prove a general theorem on dependent pairs, which in particular answers a question of Baldwin and Benedikt on naming an indiscernible sequence.

  18. Defining Parental Involvement: Perception of School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Clara Y.; Austin, Sheila M.; Growe, Roslin

    2013-01-01

    There remains a plaguing question of how to get parents involved with their child's education. Many parents and educators have different perceptions of what parental involvement means. Miscommunication between the two groups often exists because of how parental involvement is conceptualized. While educators define parental involvement as…

  19. Defining enthesitis in spondyloarthritis by ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terslev, Lene; Naredo, E; Iagnocco, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To standardize ultrasound (US) in enthesitis. Methods: An Initial Delphi exercise was undertaken to define US detected enthesitis and its core components. These definitions were subsequently tested on static images taken from Spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients in order to evaluate...

  20. 16 CFR 303.1 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that solicit ultimate consumers to purchase such textile products by mail, telephone, electronic mail... REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.1 Terms defined. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise specifically requires: (a) The term Act means the Textile Fiber...

  1. Defining Grammatical Difficulty: A Student Teacher Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, Johan; Coppen, Peter-Arno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous second language acquisition (SLA) researchers have tried to define grammatical difficulty in second and foreign language acquisition--often as part of an attempt to relate the efficacy of different types of instruction to the degree of difficulty of grammatical structures. The resulting proliferation of definitions and the lack of a…

  2. 16 CFR 502.2 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and customary and regular when used with the term price means the price at which a consumer commodity..., package, label, person, commerce, principal display panel, and random package have the same meaning as those terms are defined under part 500 of this chapter. (b) The term packager and labeler means any...

  3. Software-defined anything challenges status quo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Wayne; Borders, Tammie

    2015-01-01

    INL successfully developed a proof of concept for "Software Defined Anything" by emulating the laboratory's business applications that run on Virtual Machines. The work INL conducted demonstrates to industry on how this methodology can be used to improve security, automate and repeat processes, and improve consistency.

  4. Defining collaborative business rules management solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Johan Versendaal

    2014-01-01

    From the publishers' website: The goal of this research is to define a method for configuring a collaborative business rules management solution from a value proposition perspective. In an earlier published study (Business rules management solutions: added value by means of business

  5. THEORETICAL APPROACHES DEFINE SENSE OF INVESTMENT PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Burduzha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The essence of terms “project”, “investment project” is defined in the article, as well as the difference between definitions of terms “project”, “plan” and “program” is determined. The main approaches to the treatment of definition of term “investment project” are considered.

  6. Survey of psychological and behavioral problems of left-behind junior middle school students in rural area%农村留守初中生心理行为问题的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霞; 张跃兵; 李荣琴; 翟景花; 许艳

    2011-01-01

    Aim To explore unhealthy behavior,life events and coping style of left-behind junior middle school students in rural areas. Methods There 905 left-behind junior middle school students were recruited with multi-stage sampling method,Adolescent Life Events and Coping Strategies Scale were applied. Results The incidence of unhealthy behavior and life events in the left-behind students was 29.5%,most of the left-behind students were brought up by their father or mother alone or their grandparents. Compared to the non-left-behind students,the incidence of psychological,physical violence and skipping class of the left-behind students was much hiher (46.1% vs 31.8%; 50.6% vs 31.0%; 13.1% vs 8.5%),showing significant difference (P<0.05). The scores of the left-behind group were higher than the non-left-behind group,the differences of factors except deprivation were significant (P<0.05);and the scores of left-behind students in seeking support, enduring and escaping factors were higher than non-left-behind students (18.54±3.95 vs 17.87±3.90; 8.48± 2.71 vs 7.98±2.43;6.97±2.43 vs 6.56±2.20). Correlation analysis showed that the scores of Adolescent Life Events scale was positively correlated with the emotional coping strategies. Conclusion There were certain differences in unhealthy behavior,life events and coping strategies between the left-behind and non-left-behind students,life events was positively correlated with the emotional coping strategies of the left-behind students. The education and management of left-behind students in rural areas is a social problem to be solved for the good of the family, the students and the society.%目的 了解农村留守初中生不良行为、生活事件和应对方式及其之间的关系.方法 采用多阶段抽样方法,随机抽取济宁地区905名农村初中生,采用青少年生活事件量表和中学生应对方式量表对其进行测量.结果 农村留守初中生的发生率为29.5%,留守初中

  7. Urban Air Pollution Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1995-09-01

    This document focuses on the specific problems of urban air pollution related to emissions, urban climate, meteorology, smog potential, specific locations, air pollution measurements and trends. Examples are given with cases from European cities in particular. The north south differences, coastal and inland problems and data from various parts of Europe are presented. Global trends and results from the UNEP programme are used to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of different sources and their importance in selected cities. Different types of atmospheric dispersion models, their development and use, is outlined. The importance of local and regional meteorological data for explanation purposes and for estimating and forecasting urban air quality is presented. Finally, monitoring programmes, mapping, impact assessment and optimum abatement strategy planning are illustrated with examples from different areas in the world. 9 refs., 56 figs., 1 table

  8. Creativity and problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Victor Valqui Vidal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.

  9. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....

  10. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....

  11. 国家重点生态功能区生态补偿制度建设的主要问题与对策研究%Major Problems and Countermeasures for the Establishment of Ecological Compensation Systems for National Key Ecological Function Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙新章; 鲁春霞

    2015-01-01

    At the end of the 1990s China started to construct an ecological compensation system for national key ecological function areas. An eco-compensation system focusing on the "Transfer Payment of National Key Ecological Function Areas" has been established. The current eco-compensation system has played a positive role in improving the ecological environment of national key ecological function areas; but the ecological effect is weakening due to existing problems in the eco-compensation system such as unreasonable calculation of compensation standards, poor expression of rights and interests of stakeholders, simple sources of capital and modes of compensation. For better development, the eco-compensation system should be improved by (ⅰ) adhering to the combination of vertical compensation (oriented) and horizontal compensation (auxiliary) on the whole and establishing a transfer payment system of eco-compensation at national scale; (ⅱ) defining the compensation standard according to ecological protection costs, development opportunity costs and ecological service values and adding indicators that relfect economic green transformation to evaluate compensation effects; (ⅲ) gradually building a utilization system of eco-compensation funds in which multi-stakeholders participate and establishing a green development-oriented system to evaluate the performance of local governments; and (ⅳ) cultivating a new business pattern where ecological services are the product, to grow the ecological service industry.%我国于20世纪90年代末期启动了国家重点生态功能区的生态补偿制度建设,经过十余年的探索,目前形成了以"国家重点生态功能区转移支付"为主体的补偿制度.从实施效果看,现行的生态补偿制度的确为改善重点生态功能区的生态环境发挥了一定的积极作用,但其效果呈现减弱趋势,这主要是由于现行的补偿制度本身存在许多问题,突出地体现在补偿标准的计算

  12. Defining Low-Dimensional Projections to Guide Protein Conformational Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novinskaya, Anastasia; Devaurs, Didier; Moll, Mark; Kavraki, Lydia E

    2017-01-01

    Exploring the conformational space of proteins is critical to characterize their functions. Numerous methods have been proposed to sample a protein's conformational space, including techniques developed in the field of robotics and known as sampling-based motion-planning algorithms (or sampling-based planners). However, these algorithms suffer from the curse of dimensionality when applied to large proteins. Many sampling-based planners attempt to mitigate this issue by keeping track of sampling density to guide conformational sampling toward unexplored regions of the conformational space. This is often done using low-dimensional projections as an indirect way to reduce the dimensionality of the exploration problem. However, how to choose an appropriate projection and how much it influences the planner's performance are still poorly understood issues. In this article, we introduce two methodologies defining low-dimensional projections that can be used by sampling-based planners for protein conformational sampling. The first method leverages information about a protein's flexibility to construct projections that can efficiently guide conformational sampling, when expert knowledge is available. The second method builds similar projections automatically, without expert intervention. We evaluate the projections produced by both methodologies on two conformational search problems involving three middle-size proteins. Our experiments demonstrate that (i) defining projections based on expert knowledge can benefit conformational sampling and (ii) automatically constructing such projections is a reasonable alternative.

  13. Social learning for solving complex problems: a promising solution or wishful thinking?: a case-study of multi-actor negotiation for the integrated management and the sustainable use of the Drentsche Aa area in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, S.; Röling, N.; Aarts, N.; Turnhout, E.

    2009-01-01

    Social learning has been championed as a promising approach to address complex resource problems. According to theory, social learning requires several pre-conditions to be met, including (1) a divergence of interests, (2) mutual interdependence and (3) the ability to communicate. This article inves

  14. Social learning for solving complex problems: a promising solution or wishful thinking? A case study of multi-actor negotiation for the integrated management and sustainable use of the Drentsche Aa area in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, van S.; Roling, N.G.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Turnhout, E.

    2009-01-01

    Social learning has been championed as a promising approach to address complex resource problems. According to theory, social learning requires several pre-conditions to be met, including (1) a divergence of interests, (2) mutual interdependence and (3) the ability to communicate. This article inves

  15. DNR Division of Enforcement Officer Patrol Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the DNR Division of Enforcement Office Patrol Areas as of January 1, 2003. Patrol areas were defined and verified by Patrol Officers during the fall...

  16. Complementarity Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-He Miao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the Lipschitz continuity of the solution mapping of symmetric cone (linear or nonlinear complementarity problems (SCLCP or SCCP, resp. over Euclidean Jordan algebras. We show that if the transformation has uniform Cartesian P-property, then the solution mapping of the SCCP is Lipschitz continuous. Moreover, we establish that the monotonicity of mapping and the Lipschitz continuity of solutions of the SCLCP imply ultra P-property, which is a concept recently developed for linear transformations on Euclidean Jordan algebra. For a Lyapunov transformation, we prove that the strong monotonicity property, the ultra P-property, the Cartesian P-property, and the Lipschitz continuity of the solutions are all equivalent to each other.

  17. Better Use of Data to Define Nutrition Priority and Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition and dietary survey data has been useful in defining themagnitude of malnutrition and dietary deficit. Such information has been helpful in gaining attention to support or to do more to improve nutrition-advocacy. However, there are also greater opportunities to use the common data to guide the program action. In summary, we have plenty of good nutrition and dietary information available to us in the planning and operation of nutrition intervention program. If we go beyond the use of data to justify area or subject of engagement, we can also use the same data for more efficient and more effective program without additional cost to us.

  18. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING QUALITY AND ITS DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra M. ACHIM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance ofhigh-quality financial statements is highlighted by the main standard-setting institutions activating in the field of accounting and reporting. These have issued Conceptual Frameworks which state and describe the qualitative characteristics of accounting information. In this qualitative study, the research methodology consists of reviewing the literature related to the definition of accounting quality and striving for understanding how it can be explained. The main objective of the study is to identify the characteristics information should possess in order to be of high quality. These characteristics also contribute to the way of defining financial accounting quality. The main conclusions that arise from this research are represented by the facts that indeed financial accounting quality cannot be uniquely defined and that financial information is of good quality when it enhances the characteristics incorporated in the conceptual frameworks issued by both International Accounting Standards Board and Financial Accounting Standards Board.

  19. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2013-09-01

    "Tiger" parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua's own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.

  20. Defining professional nursing accountability: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautscheid, Lorretta C

    2014-01-01

    Professional nursing accountability is described by both professional nursing organizations and nursing education credentialing agencies as a core aspect that underpins professional nursing practice. Although accountability is foundational to professional practice, a review of the literature revealed no consistent language or definition regarding professional nursing accountability. Instead, the literature itself reveals that professional nursing accountability is challenging to both describe and define. The ambiguity surrounding how to define professional nursing accountability contributes to challenges associated with both teaching and evaluating student nurse accountability within nursing education curricula. This article provides a reliable and comprehensive definition of professional nursing accountability derived from a synthesis of the literature. Recommendations for nursing education practice and recommendations for nursing education research are proposed.