WorldWideScience

Sample records for defined time points

  1. Defining obesity cut points in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Fahad; Anand, Sonia S; Shannon, Harry; Vuksan, Vladimir; Davis, Bonnie; Jacobs, Ruby; Teo, Koon K; McQueen, Matthew; Yusuf, Salim

    2007-04-24

    Body mass index (BMI) is widely used to assess risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Cut points for the classification of obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2) have been developed and validated among people of European descent. It is unknown whether these cut points are appropriate for non-European populations. We assessed the metabolic risk associated with BMI among South Asians, Chinese, Aboriginals, and Europeans. We randomly sampled 1078 subjects from 4 ethnic groups (289 South Asians, 281 Chinese, 207 Aboriginals, and 301 Europeans) from 4 regions in Canada. Principal components factor analysis was used to derive underlying latent or "hidden" factors associated with 14 clinical and biochemical cardiometabolic markers. Ethnic-specific BMI cut points were derived for 3 cardiometabolic factors. Three primary latent factors emerged that accounted for 56% of the variation in markers of glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure. For a given BMI, elevated levels of glucose- and lipid-related factors were more likely to be present in South Asians, Chinese, and Aboriginals compared with Europeans, and elevated levels of the blood pressure-related factor were more likely to be present among Chinese compared with Europeans. The cut point to define obesity, as defined by distribution of glucose and lipid factors, is lower by approximately 6 kg/m2 among non-European groups compared with Europeans. Revisions may be warranted for BMI cut points to define obesity among South Asians, Chinese, and Aboriginals. Using these revised cut points would greatly increase the estimated burden of obesity-related metabolic disorders among non-European populations.

  2. Defining Obesity Cut-Off Points for Migrant South Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Laura J.; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J.; Brady, Emer; Webb, David R.; Sattar, Naveed; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2011-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are used to define cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk. We aimed to derive appropriate BMI and WC obesity cut-off points in a migrant South Asian population. Methods 4688 White Europeans and 1333 South Asians resident in the UK aged 40–75 years inclusive were screened for type 2 diabetes. Principal components analysis was used to derive a glycaemia, lipid, and a blood pressure factor. Regression models for each factor, adjusted for age and stratified by sex, were used to identify BMI and WC cut-off points in South Asians that correspond to those defined for White Europeans. Findings For South Asian males, derived BMI obesity cut-off points equivalent to 30.0 kg/m2 in White Europeans were 22.6 kg/m2 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 20.7 kg/m2 to 24.5 kg/m2) for the glycaemia factor, 26.0 kg/m2 (95% CI 24.7 kg/m2 to 27.3 kg/m2) for the lipid factor, and 28.4 kg/m2 (95% CI 26.5 kg/m2 to 30.4 kg/m2) for the blood pressure factor. For WC, derived cut-off points for South Asian males equivalent to 102 cm in White Europeans were 83.8 cm (95% CI 79.3 cm to 88.2 cm) for the glycaemia factor, 91.4 cm (95% CI 86.9 cm to 95.8 cm) for the lipid factor, and 99.3 cm (95% CI 93.3 cm to 105.2 cm) for the blood pressure factor. Lower ethnicity cut-off points were seen for females for both BMI and WC. Conclusions Substantially lower obesity cut-off points are needed in South Asians to detect an equivalent level of dysglycemia and dyslipidemia as observed in White Europeans. South Asian ethnicity could be considered as a similar level of risk as obesity (in White Europeans) for the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22039493

  3. Multiple sequence alignment with user-defined anchor points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pöhler Dirk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated software tools for multiple alignment often fail to produce biologically meaningful results. In such situations, expert knowledge can help to improve the quality of alignments. Results Herein, we describe a semi-automatic version of the alignment program DIALIGN that can take pre-defined constraints into account. It is possible for the user to specify parts of the sequences that are assumed to be homologous and should therefore be aligned to each other. Our software program can use these sites as anchor points by creating a multiple alignment respecting these constraints. This way, our alignment method can produce alignments that are biologically more meaningful than alignments produced by fully automated procedures. As a demonstration of how our method works, we apply our approach to genomic sequences around the Hox gene cluster and to a set of DNA-binding proteins. As a by-product, we obtain insights about the performance of the greedy algorithm that our program uses for multiple alignment and about the underlying objective function. This information will be useful for the further development of DIALIGN. The described alignment approach has been integrated into the TRACKER software system.

  4. Acquisition Cycle Time: Defining the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    prescribe appetite suppression and fiscal discipline . Still others diagnose inept management and excessive bureaucracy, and prescribe streamlined...complex the system, the higher this bound. • Software development consists of completing known work and discovering new work. There are fundamental ... taxonomy of acquisition risk categories, with corresponding development timelines. In that report, a low-risk acquisition is defined to be one that

  5. Fixed Point Theorems for Times Reasonable Expansive Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chunfang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on previous notions of expansive mapping, times reasonable expansive mapping is defined. The existence of fixed point for times reasonable expansive mapping is discussed and some new results are obtained.

  6. Defining Leadership in a Changing Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Sean M; Elikofer, Amanda N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the difference between leadership and management. Leadership and management have been discussed for many years. Both are important to achieve success in health care, but what does that really mean? Strong leaders possess qualities that inspire others to follow them. This fosters team engagement, goal achievement, and ultimately drives outcomes. Managers plan, organize, and coordinate. It takes dedication, motivation, and passion to be more than a manager and be a good leader. There is not a single correct leadership style, but there are important characteristics that all leaders must demonstrate to get the desired results with the team. In a time when health care is rapidly changing, leadership is important at all levels of an organization.

  7. Degree of a isolated real point or a singular complex point on a plane curve defined over Q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder

    2010-01-01

    Let $X$ be a curve in the affine plane defined by a reduced polynomial of degree $d$ with rational coefficients. Assume that $P$ is an isolated real point or a singular complex point on the curve $X$. The coordinates of $P$ are algebraic numbers over the rationals of degree at most $d^2$. The res...

  8. History and Point in Time in Enterprise Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gelu APOSTOL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available First part points out the main differences between temporal and non-temporal databases. In the second part, based on identification of the three main categories of time involved in database applications: user-defined time, valid time and transaction time, some relevant solutions for their implementation are discussed, mainly from the point of view of database organization and data access level of enterprise applications. The final part is dedicated to the influences of historical data in the business logic and presentation levels of enterprise applications and in application services, as security, workflow, reporting.

  9. Change point estimation in monitoring survival time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Assareh

    Full Text Available Precise identification of the time when a change in a hospital outcome has occurred enables clinical experts to search for a potential special cause more effectively. In this paper, we develop change point estimation methods for survival time of a clinical procedure in the presence of patient mix in a Bayesian framework. We apply Bayesian hierarchical models to formulate the change point where there exists a step change in the mean survival time of patients who underwent cardiac surgery. The data are right censored since the monitoring is conducted over a limited follow-up period. We capture the effect of risk factors prior to the surgery using a Weibull accelerated failure time regression model. Markov Chain Monte Carlo is used to obtain posterior distributions of the change point parameters including location and magnitude of changes and also corresponding probabilistic intervals and inferences. The performance of the Bayesian estimator is investigated through simulations and the result shows that precise estimates can be obtained when they are used in conjunction with the risk-adjusted survival time CUSUM control charts for different magnitude scenarios. The proposed estimator shows a better performance where a longer follow-up period, censoring time, is applied. In comparison with the alternative built-in CUSUM estimator, more accurate and precise estimates are obtained by the Bayesian estimator. These superiorities are enhanced when probability quantification, flexibility and generalizability of the Bayesian change point detection model are also considered.

  10. Time Stamps for Fixed-Point Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, Daniela

    2001-01-01

    Time stamps were introduced in Shivers's PhD thesis for approximating the result of a control-flow analysis. We show them to be suitable for computing program analyses where the space of results (e.g., control-flow graphs) is large. We formalize time-stamping as a top-down, fixed-point approximat......Time stamps were introduced in Shivers's PhD thesis for approximating the result of a control-flow analysis. We show them to be suitable for computing program analyses where the space of results (e.g., control-flow graphs) is large. We formalize time-stamping as a top-down, fixed......-point approximation algorithm which maintains a single copy of intermediate results. We then prove the correctness of this algorithm....

  11. Robust fitting of Zernike polynomials to noisy point clouds defined over connected domains of arbitrary shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Diego Rodríguez; Gómez-Pedrero, José A; Alonso, Jose; Quiroga, Juan A

    2016-03-21

    A new method for fitting a series of Zernike polynomials to point clouds defined over connected domains of arbitrary shape defined within the unit circle is presented in this work. The method is based on the application of machine learning fitting techniques by constructing an extended training set in order to ensure the smooth variation of local curvature over the whole domain. Therefore this technique is best suited for fitting points corresponding to ophthalmic lenses surfaces, particularly progressive power ones, in non-regular domains. We have tested our method by fitting numerical and real surfaces reaching an accuracy of 1 micron in elevation and 0.1 D in local curvature in agreement with the customary tolerances in the ophthalmic manufacturing industry.

  12. Runoff response time of a loosely defined supraglacial microbasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Scott Munro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A micrometeorological experiment was conducted in the summer of 2008, at Peyto Glacier, during four meltwater production periods of 1, 3, 4 and 5 days duration, the last two days marked by late summer snow cover. The data include a breakdown of net radiation into its short- and long-wave components, as well as wind speed, temperature and humidity profile data for use in bulk transfer estimates of sensible heat and moisture transfer. In addition, a hydrological experiment was conducted, the data comprising sonic sounder measurements of ablation and stage level records of discharge from a supraglacial microbasin. As expected, the ratio of daily average runoff flow measurement to energy budget flow estimates is less than one on most days because of weathering crust development. Also, the conversion of stage level data into discharge from a supraglacial catchment presents challenges, notably defining the area of a loosely defined basin and specifying stage level on a downward moving surface. Nevertheless, it is clear that peak discharge lags peak meltwater energy input by periods of four to six hours. A suitably lagged flow estimate can be achieved by passing the flow through a simple storage reservoir, using delay times of 14.5, 15, 7.5 and 9 h for each respective measurement period. This suggests that a substantial part of the delay in runoff from a glacier basin is tied up in ice surface hydrological processes.

  13. Gate-defined graphene quantum point contact in the quantum Hall regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaharai, S; Williams, J R; Marcus, C M

    2011-07-15

    We investigate transport in a gate-defined graphene quantum point contact in the quantum Hall regime. Edge states confined to the interface of p and n regions in the graphene sheet are controllably brought together from opposite sides of the sample and allowed to mix in this split-gate geometry. Among the expected quantum Hall features, an unexpected additional plateau at 0.5h/e2 is observed. We propose that chaotic mixing of edge channels gives rise to the extra plateau.

  14. Subaxial cervical pedicle screw insertion with newly defined entry point and trajectory: accuracy evaluation in cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiujun; Chaudhari, Rahul; Wu, Chunhui; Mehbod, Amir A; Transfeldt, Ensor E

    2010-01-01

    Successful placement of cervical pedicle screws requires accurate identification of both entry point and trajectory. However, literature has not provided consistent recommendations regarding the direction of pedicle screw insertion and entry point location. The objective of this study was to define a guideline regarding the optimal entry point and trajectory in placing subaxial cervical pedicle screws and to evaluate the screw accuracy in cadaver cervical spines. The guideline for entry point and trajectory for each vertebra was established based on the recently published morphometric data. Six fresh frozen cervical spines (C3-C7) were used. There were two men and four women. After posterior exposure, the entry point was determined and the cortical bone of the entry point was removed using a 2-mm burr. Pilot holes were created with a cervical probe based on the guideline using fluoroscopy. After tapping, 3.5-mm screws with appropriate length were inserted. After screw insertion, every vertebra was dissected and inspected for pedicle breach. The pedicle width, height, pedicle transverse angulation and actual screw insertion angle were measured. A total of 60 pedicle screws were inserted. No statistical difference in pedicle width and height was found between the left and right sides for each level. The overall accuracy of pedicle screws was 83.3%. The remaining 13.3% screws had noncritical breach, and 3.3% had critical breach. The critical breach was not caused by the guideline. There was no statistical difference between the pedicle transverse angulation and the actual screw trajectory created using the guideline. There was statistical difference in pedicle width between the breach and non-breach screws. In conclusion, high success rate of subaxial cervical pedicle screw placement can be achieved using the recently proposed operative guideline and oblique views of fluoroscopy. However, careful preoperative planning and good surgical skills are still required to

  15. Thermal runaway limit of tubular reactors, defined at the inflection point of the temperature profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir, S.; Chovan, T.; Masri, B.J.; Mukherjee, A.; Pant, A.; Sen, S.; Vijayaragharvan, P. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Berty, J.M. (Berty Reaction Engineers, Ltd., Fogelsville, PA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    The predicted maximum temperature difference between reacting fluid and wall to avoid thermal runaways can be exceeded in production reactors. This has been known for some time but the explanation has been lacking. The reason for this deviation was found in that the traditional approximation of the sensitivity criterion by [Delta]T [le] RT[sup 2]/E is correct for a limiting value at the inflection point but not at the hot spot, where it can be much higher. The exact expression for the limiting value at the inflection point is the total temperature derivative of the rate, and this is proven in this paper mathematically. The total temperature derivative of a rate can be measured in a few, well-designed recycle reactor experiments. Results were checked by computer simulation of tubular reactors. Matching to those predicted from CSTR or recycle reactor (RR) measurements was excellent. The proposed interpretation explains why previously predicted limits could be exceeded in practice.

  16. Defining Social Class Across Time and Between Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dov; Shin, Faith; Liu, Xi; Ondish, Peter; Kraus, Michael W

    2017-08-01

    We examined changes over four decades and between ethnic groups in how people define their social class. Changes included the increasing importance of income, decreasing importance of occupational prestige, and the demise of the "Victorian bargain," in which poor people who subscribed to conservative sexual and religious norms could think of themselves as middle class. The period also saw changes (among Whites) and continuity (among Black Americans) in subjective status perceptions. For Whites (and particularly poor Whites), their perceptions of enhanced social class were greatly reduced. Poor Whites now view their social class as slightly but significantly lower than their poor Black and Latino counterparts. For Black respondents, a caste-like understanding of social class persisted, as they continued to view their class standing as relatively independent of their achieved education, income, and occupation. Such achievement indicators, however, predicted Black respondents' self-esteem more than they predicted self-esteem for any other group.

  17. Arctic tipping points: governance in turbulent times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Oran R

    2012-02-01

    Interacting forces of climate change and globalization are transforming the Arctic. Triggered by a non-linear shift in sea ice, this transformation has unleashed mounting interest in opportunities to exploit the region's natural resources as well as growing concern about environmental, economic, and political issues associated with such efforts. This article addresses the implications of this transformation for governance, identifies limitations of existing arrangements, and explores changes needed to meet new demands. It advocates the development of an Arctic regime complex featuring flexibility across issues and adaptability over time along with an enhanced role for the Arctic Council both in conducting policy-relevant assessments and in promoting synergy in interactions among the elements of the emerging Arctic regime complex. The emphasis throughout is on maximizing the fit between the socioecological features of the Arctic and the character of the governance arrangements needed to steer the Arctic toward a sustainable future.

  18. Defining solar park location using shadow over time detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, Ivan; Kauranne, Tuomo

    2016-06-01

    There is nowadays a high demand for research on using renewable sources of energy including solar energy. The availability of stable and efficient solar energy is of paramount importance. Therefore, it is vital to install solar panels in locations which are most of the time not in shadow. To illustrate this idea we have developed a shadow identification method for digital elevation models (DEMs) using the computational means of MATLAB whose environment and tools allow fast and easy image processing. As a source of DEMs we use the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) database since it covers most of the terrain of our planet.

  19. Dual-time-point Imaging and Delayed-time-point Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/Computed Tomography Imaging in Various Clinical Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Segtnan, Eivind Antonsen; Grupe, Peter; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

    2016-01-01

    The techniques of dual-time-point imaging (DTPI) and delayed-time-point imaging, which are mostly being used for distinction between inflammatory and malignant diseases, has increased the specificity of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET for diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. A gradually increasing trend of FDG uptake over time has been shown in malignant cells, and a decreasing or constant trend has been shown in inflammatory/infectious processes. Tumor heterogeneity can be assessed by using early and delayed imaging because differences between primary versus metastatic sites become more detectable compared with single time points. This article discusses the applications of DTPI and delayed-time-point imaging.

  20. Integration Over Curves and Surfaces Defined by the Closest Point Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    their respective lengths or 13 surface areas by integrating the constant 1 over the curve or surface. Each of these tests were designed to exhibit the...xi,j) ≈ ( ( Ux )i,j (Uy)i,j (Vx)i,j (Vy)i,j ) . The discretization of U and V have to be defined together because the two functions are not...independent of each other. With (U±x )i,j := ± 1 2h (−3Ui,j + 4Ui±1,j − Ui±2,j) , and the smoothness indicator S±i,j = S ±(Ui,j) := 4+4−Ui±1,j we define ( Ux )i,j

  1. Dual-time-point Imaging and Delayed-time-point Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/Computed Tomography Imaging in Various Clinical Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Antonsen Segtnan, Eivind;

    2016-01-01

    The techniques of dual-time-point imaging (DTPI) and delayed-time-point imaging, which are mostly being used for distinction between inflammatory and malignant diseases, has increased the specificity of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET for diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. A gradually...

  2. Point prevalence of complex wounds in a defined United Kingdom population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jill; Buckley, Hannah L; Lamb, Karen A; Stubbs, Nikki; Saramago, Pedro; Dumville, Jo C; Cullum, Nicky A

    2014-01-01

    Complex wounds (superficial-, partial-, or full-thickness skin loss wounds healing by secondary intention) are common; however, there is a lack of high-quality, contemporary epidemiological data. This paper presents point prevalence estimates for complex wounds overall as well as for individual types. A multiservice, cross-sectional survey was undertaken across a United Kingdom city (Leeds, population 751,485) during 2 weeks in spring of 2011. The mean age of people with complex wounds was approximately 70 years, standard deviation 19.41. The point prevalence of complex wounds was 1.47 per 1,000 of the population, 95% confidence interval 1.38 to 1.56. While pressure ulcers and leg ulcers were the most frequent, one in five people in the sample population had a less common wound type. Surveys confined to people with specific types of wound would underestimate the overall impact of complex wounds on the population and health care resources.

  3. Is the present cut-point to define type 2 diabetes appropriate in Latin-Americans?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricio; López-Jaramillo; Carlos; Velandia-Carrillo; Diego; Gómez-Arbeláez; Martin; Aldana-Campos

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2(DM2) is based either on increased plasma glucose or Glycated hemoglobin levels. Since these measures are the only means for diagnosis of DM2, they must be well adapted to each population according to their metabolic characteristics, given that these may vary in each population. The World Health Organization(WHO) determined the cut-points of plasma glucose levels for the diagnosis of DM2 by associating hyperglycemia with the risk of a specific microvascular complication-retinopathy. Cardiovascular diseases are however the principal causes of mortality in patients with DM2 and we reported that in the Colombo-Ecuadorian population impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance are both riskmarkers for myocardial infarction. We propose that the current cut-points accepted by the WHO need to be revaluated in populations such as Latin America and that there should be lower cut points for glycaemia in this population, to reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular complications associated with DM2.

  4. Skiba points in free end-time problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caulkins, J.P.; Feichtinger, G.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, Peter; Seidl, A.

    Since the end of the seventies Skiba points have been studied in infinite time optimal control problems with multiple steady states. At such a Skiba point the decision maker is indifferent between choosing trajectories that approach different steady states. This paper extends this theory towards

  5. Time Eigenstates for Potential Functions without Extremal Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabino Torres-Vega

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper, we introduced a way to generate a time coordinate system for classical and quantum systems when the potential function has extremal points. In this paper, we deal with the case in which the potential function has no extremal points at all, and we illustrate the method with the harmonic and linear potentials.

  6. Waist circumference cutoff points for Chinese adults with metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhui LU; Yuqing ZHANG; Changyu PAN; Juming LU; Shuyu WANG; Chunlin LI; Lisheng LIU; Runping ZHENG; Hui TIAN; Xianling WANG; Lijuan YANG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the appropriate waist circumference (WC) cutoff points for central obesity in the middle-aged and elderly Beijing residents by the metabolic syndrome definition of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Methods A total of 2,344Beijing residents aged ≥40 years were investigated. They answered questionnaires, received physical examinations, and underwent plasma glucose and lipid profile measurement. Those non-diabetic subjects underwent a 75g oral glucose tolerance test. All data were analyzed to calculate the appropriate WC cutoff points for central obesity reaching the diagonsis of MS. Results 1) Both in males and females, the triglyceride (TG), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) increased linearly with WC, and the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased linearly with WC (P<0.05). 2)The prevalence of elevated TG,reduced HDL-C, elevated blood pressure, elevated FBG, or ≥ 2 of these factors increased with WC (P<0.05). 3) Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and Youden index, the WC values for central obesity and for detecting BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2were about 90 cm for men and 80 cm for women. 4) The odds ratio for the presence of two or more metabolic risk factors increased abruptly in men with WC ≥ 90 cm and in women with WC ≥ 80 cm. Conclusions The appropriate WC cutoff point for central obesity was determined to be 90 cm for men and 80 cm for women in the middle-aged and elderly Beijing residents by the metabolic syndrome definition of IDF.

  7. Title XVI / Supplemental Security Record Point In Time (SSRPT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This is the point-in-time database to house temporary Supplemental Security Record (SSR) images produced during the course of the operating day before they can be...

  8. Homeless Point-In-Time (2007-2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — These raw data sets contain Point-in-Time (PIT) estimates and national PIT estimates of homelessness as well as national estimates of homelessness by state and...

  9. Change detection in polarimetric SAR data over several time points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Knut; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Skriver, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A test statistic for the equality of several variance-covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution is introduced. The test statistic is applied successfully to detect change in C-band EMISAR polarimetric SAR data over four time points.......A test statistic for the equality of several variance-covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution is introduced. The test statistic is applied successfully to detect change in C-band EMISAR polarimetric SAR data over four time points....

  10. Supporting One-Time Point Annotations for Gesture Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Dinh, Long-Van; Calatroni, Alberto; Troester, Gerhard

    2016-12-08

    This paper investigates a new annotation technique that reduces significantly the amount of time to annotate training data for gesture recognition. Conventionally, the annotations comprise the start and end times, and the corresponding labels of gestures in sensor recordings. In this work, we propose a one-time point annotation in which labelers do not have to select the start and end time carefully, but just mark a one-time point within the time a gesture is happening. The technique gives more freedom and reduces significantly the burden for labelers. To make the one-time point annotations applicable, we propose a novel BoundarySearch algorithm to find automatically the correct temporal boundaries of gestures by discovering data patterns around their given one-time point annotations. The corrected annotations are then used to train gesture models. We evaluate the method on three applications from wearable gesture recognition with various gesture classes (10-17 classes) recorded with different sensor modalities. The results show that training on the corrected annotations can achieve performances close to a fully supervised training on clean annotations (lower by just up to 5% F1-score on average). Furthermore, the BoundarySearch algorithm is also evaluated on the ChaLearn 2014 multi-modal gesture recognition challenge recorded with Kinect sensors from computer vision and achieves similar results.

  11. Fixed Points in Self-Similar Analysis of Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V. I.

    1998-01-01

    Two possible definitions of fixed points in the self-similar analysis of time series are considered. One definition is based on the minimal-difference condition and another, on a simple averaging. From studying stock market time series, one may conclude that these two definitions are practically equivalent. A forecast is made for the stock market indices for the end of March 1998.

  12. Parametric time delay modeling for floating point units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Hossam A. H.; Liddicoat, Albert A.; Flynn, Michael J.

    2002-12-01

    A parametric time delay model to compare floating point unit implementations is proposed. This model is used to compare a previously proposed floating point adder using a redundant number representation with other high-performance implementations. The operand width, the fan-in of the logic gates and the radix of the redundant format are used as parameters to the model. The comparison is done over a range of operand widths, fan-in and radices to show the merits of each implementation.

  13. Finding Strong Bridges and Strong Articulation Points in Linear Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italiano, Giuseppe F.; Laura, Luigi; Santaroni, Federico

    Given a directed graph G, an edge is a strong bridge if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. Similarly, we say that a vertex is a strong articulation point if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. In this paper, we present linear-time algorithms for computing all the strong bridges and all the strong articulation points of directed graphs, solving an open problem posed in [2].

  14. Return times at periodic points in random dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Nicolai; Todd, Mike

    2017-01-01

    We prove a quenched limiting law for random measures on subshifts at periodic points. We consider a family of measures {≤ft\\{{{μω}\\right\\}}ω \\in Ω } , where the ‘driving space’ Ω is equipped with a probability measure which is invariant under a transformation θ. We assume that the fibred measures {μω} satisfy a generalised invariance property and are ψ-mixing. We then show that for almost every ω the return times to cylinders A n at periodic points are in the limit compound Poisson distributed for a parameter ϑ which is given by the escape rate at the periodic point.

  15. Severe ulcerative colitis: At what point should we define resistance to steroids?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Esteve; Javier P Gisbert

    2008-01-01

    Corticoesteroids are still the first-line treatment for active ulcerative colitis more than 50 years after the publication of trials assessing their beneficial effect, with about a 50% remission rate in cases of severe disease. The mortality related to severe attacks of ulcerative colitis has decreased dramatically, to less than 1%, in experienced centers, due to the appropriate use of intensive therapeutic measures (intravenous steroids, fluids and electrolytes, artificial nutritional support, antibiotics, etc),along with timely decision-making about second-line medical therapy and early identification of patients requiring colectomy. One of the most difficult decisions in the management of severe ulcerative colitis is knowing for how long corticosteroids should be administered before deciding that a patient is a non-responder. Studies assessing the outcome of acute attacks after steroid initiation have demonstrated that, n steroid-sensitive patients, the response generally occurs early on, in the first days of treatment. Different indexes to predict treatment failure, when applied on the third day of treatment, have demonstrated a high positive predictive value for colectomy. In contrast to this resolute approach, which is the most widely accepted, other authors have suggested that in some patients a complete and prolonged response to steroids may take longer. Either way, physicians taking care of these patients need to recognize that severe ulcerative colitis may be life-threatening, and they need to be careful with excessively prolonged medical treatment and delayed surgery.

  16. Defining progression in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: it is time for a new, standard definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamm, D.; Persad, R.; Brausi, M.; Buckley, R.; Witjes, J.A.; Palou, J.; Bohle, A.; Kamat, A.M.; Colombel, M.; Soloway, M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite being one of the most important clinical outcomes in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, there is currently no standard definition of disease progression. Major clinical trials and meta-analyses have used varying definitions or have failed to define this end point altogether. A stand

  17. User-Defined Clocks in the Real-Time Specification for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellings, Andy; Schoeberl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the new user-defined clock model that is to be supported in Version 1.1 of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). The model is a compromise between the current position, where there is no support for user-defined clocks, and a fully integrated model. The paper investigat...

  18. Accessing the exceptional points of parity-time symmetric acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengzhi; Dubois, Marc; Chen, Yun; Cheng, Lei; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-03-01

    Parity-time (PT) symmetric systems experience phase transition between PT exact and broken phases at exceptional point. These PT phase transitions contribute significantly to the design of single mode lasers, coherent perfect absorbers, isolators, and diodes. However, such exceptional points are extremely difficult to access in practice because of the dispersive behaviour of most loss and gain materials required in PT symmetric systems. Here we introduce a method to systematically tame these exceptional points and control PT phases. Our experimental demonstration hinges on an active acoustic element that realizes a complex-valued potential and simultaneously controls the multiple interference in the structure. The manipulation of exceptional points offers new routes to broaden applications for PT symmetric physics in acoustics, optics, microwaves and electronics, which are essential for sensing, communication and imaging.

  19. Stereo Matching of Planar Curves Composed of Time Stamped Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuwen; Zhang Tianxu

    2006-01-01

    Matching features such as curve segments in stereo images play a very important role in scene reconstruction. In this paper, a stereo matching algorithm for the trajectories composed of time stamped points is proposed. Based on time stamped points, planar curve match measurements are given first, such as time constraint, cross-ratio invariant constraint and epipolar geometry constraint;then, a trajectory matching method is proposed based on epipolar geometry constraint and cross-ratio invariant constraint. In order to match the planar curve segments projected by perspective projection system, the curve start time and end time are selected first to prepare match candidates. Then, the epipolar equation is used to discard the unmatched curve segment candidates. At last, a cross ratio invariant constraint is used to find the most matched curve segments. If their match measurement is higher than the specialized threshold, a candidate with the least cross ratio difference is then selected as the match result; otherwise, no match is found. Unlike the conventional planar curve segments matching algorithm, this paper presents a weakly calibrated binocular stereo vision system which is based on wide baseline. The stamped points are obtained by targets detecting method of flying objects from image sequences.Due to wide baseline, there must exist the projection not in epipolar monotonic order or the curve segments located in very short distance and keeping the epipolar monotonic order. By using the method mentioned above, experiments are made to match planar curve segments not only in epipolar monotonic order but also not in epipolar monotonic order. The results show that the performance of our curve matching algorithm is effective for matching the arc-like planar trajectories composed of time stamped points.

  20. Null-stream pointing with pulsar timing arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Hazboun, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Locating sources on the sky is one of the largest challenges in gravitational wave astronomy, owing to the omni-directional nature of gravitational wave detection techniques, and the often intrinsically weak signals being observed. Ground-based detectors can address the pointing problem by observing with a network of detectors, effectively triangulating signal locations by observing the arrival times across the network. Space-based detectors will observe long-lived sources that persist while the detector moves relative to their location on the sky, using Doppler shifts of the signal to locate the sky position. While these methods improve the pointing capability of a detector or network, the angular resolution is still coarse compared to the standards one expects from electromagnetic astronomy. Another technique that can be used for sky localization is null-stream pointing. In the case where multiple independent data streams exist, a single astrophysical source of gravitational waves will appear in each of the...

  1. Defining optimal DEM resolutions and point densities for modelling hydrologically sensitive areas in agricultural catchments dominated by microtopography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, I. A.; Jordan, P.; Shine, O.; Fenton, O.; Mellander, P.-E.; Dunlop, P.; Murphy, P. N. C.

    2017-02-01

    Defining critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments depends upon the accurate delineation of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest risk of generating surface runoff pathways. In topographically complex landscapes, this delineation is constrained by digital elevation model (DEM) resolution and the influence of microtopographic features. To address this, optimal DEM resolutions and point densities for spatially modelling HSAs were investigated, for onward use in delineating CSAs. The surface runoff framework was modelled using the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and maps were derived from 0.25 m LiDAR DEMs (40 bare-earth points m-2), resampled 1 m and 2 m LiDAR DEMs, and a radar generated 5 m DEM. Furthermore, the resampled 1 m and 2 m LiDAR DEMs were regenerated with reduced bare-earth point densities (5, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 points m-2) to analyse effects on elevation accuracy and important microtopographic features. Results were compared to surface runoff field observations in two 10 km2 agricultural catchments for evaluation. Analysis showed that the accuracy of modelled HSAs using different thresholds (5%, 10% and 15% of the catchment area with the highest TWI values) was much higher using LiDAR data compared to the 5 m DEM (70-100% and 10-84%, respectively). This was attributed to the DEM capturing microtopographic features such as hedgerow banks, roads, tramlines and open agricultural drains, which acted as topographic barriers or channels that diverted runoff away from the hillslope scale flow direction. Furthermore, the identification of 'breakthrough' and 'delivery' points along runoff pathways where runoff and mobilised pollutants could be potentially transported between fields or delivered to the drainage channel network was much higher using LiDAR data compared to the 5 m DEM (75-100% and 0-100%, respectively). Optimal DEM resolutions of 1-2 m were identified for modelling HSAs, which balanced the need

  2. Definition of distance for nonlinear time series analysis of marked point process data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwayama, Koji, E-mail: koji@sat.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Institute for Food and Agriculture, Ryukoku Univeristy, 1-5 Yokotani, Seta Oe-cho, Otsu-Shi, Shiga 520-2194 (Japan); Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2017-01-30

    Marked point process data are time series of discrete events accompanied with some values, such as economic trades, earthquakes, and lightnings. A distance for marked point process data allows us to apply nonlinear time series analysis to such data. We propose a distance for marked point process data which can be calculated much faster than the existing distance when the number of marks is small. Furthermore, under some assumptions, the Kullback–Leibler divergences between posterior distributions for neighbors defined by this distance are small. We performed some numerical simulations showing that analysis based on the proposed distance is effective. - Highlights: • A new distance for marked point process data is proposed. • The distance can be computed fast enough for a small number of marks. • The method to optimize parameter values of the distance is also proposed. • Numerical simulations indicate that the analysis based on the distance is effective.

  3. Use of multiple time points to model parotid differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Metzler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the process of terminal differentiation in salivary acinar cells, mRNA and microRNA expression was measured across the month long process of differentiation in the parotid gland of the rat. Acinar cells were isolated at either nine time points (mRNA or four time points (microRNA in triplicate using laser capture microdissection (LCM. One of the values of this dataset comes from the high quality RNA (RIN > 7 that was used in this study, which can be prohibitively difficult to obtain from such an RNaseI-rich tissue. Global mRNA expression was measured by rat genome microarray hybridization (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE65586, and expression of microRNAs by qPCR array (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE65324. Comparing expression at different ages, 2656 mRNAs and 64 microRNAs were identified as differentially expressed. Because mRNA expression was sampled at many time points, clustering and regression analysis were able to identify dynamic expression patterns that had not been implicated in acinar differentiation before. Integration of the two datasets allowed the identification of microRNA target genes, and a gene regulatory network. Bioinformatics R code and additional details of experimental methods and data analysis are provided.

  4. Nonlinear triple-point problems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Anderson

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We establish the existence of multiple positive solutions to the nonlinear second-order triple-point boundary-value problem on time scales, $$displaylines{ u^{Delta abla}(t+h(tf(t,u(t=0, cr u(a=alpha u(b+delta u^Delta(a,quad eta u(c+gamma u^Delta(c=0 }$$ for $tin[a,c]subsetmathbb{T}$, where $mathbb{T}$ is a time scale, $eta, gamma, deltage 0$ with $Beta+gamma>0$, $0

  5. A unique point mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene (FGFR3) defines a new craniosynostosis syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenke, M.; Gripp, K.W.; McDonald-McGinn, D.M. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    The underlying basis of many forms of syndromic craniosynostosis has been defined on a molecular level. However, many patients with familial or sporadic craniosynostosis do not have the classical findings of those craniosynostosis syndromes. Here we present 61 individuals from 20 unrelated families where coronal synostosis is due to an amino acid substitution (Pro250Arg) that results from a single point mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene on chromosome 4p. In this instance, a new clinical syndrome is being defined on the basis of the molecular finding. In addition to the skull findings, some patients had abnormalities on radiographs of hands and feet, including thimble-like middle phalanges, coned epiphyses, and carpal and tarsal fusions. Brachydactyly was seen in some cases; none had clinically significant syndactyly or deviation of the great toe. Sensorineural hearing loss was present in some, and developmental delay was seen in a minority. While the radiological findings of hands and feet can be very helpful in diagnosing this syndrome, it is not in all cases clearly distinguishable on a clinical basis from other craniosynostosis syndromes. Therefore, this mutation should be tested for in patients with coronal synostosis. 54 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Parity-time symmetry broken by point-group symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Francisco M., E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar; Garcia, Javier [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), División Química Teórica, Blvd. 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2014-04-15

    We discuss a parity-time (PT) symmetric Hamiltonian with complex eigenvalues. It is based on the dimensionless Schrödinger equation for a particle in a square box with the PT-symmetric potential V(x, y) = iaxy. Perturbation theory clearly shows that some of the eigenvalues are complex for sufficiently small values of |a|. Point-group symmetry proves useful to guess if some of the eigenvalues may already be complex for all values of the coupling constant. We confirm those conclusions by means of an accurate numerical calculation based on the diagonalization method. On the other hand, the Schrödinger equation with the potential V(x, y) = iaxy{sup 2} exhibits real eigenvalues for sufficiently small values of |a|. Point group symmetry suggests that PT-symmetry may be broken in the former case and unbroken in the latter one.

  7. Discrete-Time Mixing Receiver Architecture for RF-Sampling Software-Defined Radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ru, Z.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—A discrete-time (DT) mixing architecture for RF-sampling receivers is presented. This architecture makes RF sampling more suitable for software-defined radio (SDR) as it achieves wideband quadrature demodulation and wideband harmonic rejection. The paper consists of two parts. In the first

  8. A Defining Time for Physical Education Futures? Exploring the Legacy of Fritz Duras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the legacy of Dr Fritz Duras in order to address the issue of whether the implementation of a new curriculum for health and physical education in Australia represents a defining time for the subject. Dr Duras was Director of the first physical education teacher education course at the University of Melbourne during an earlier…

  9. How to Define the Equality of Durations in Measurement of Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zheng; TIAN Gui-Hua; LIU Liao; GAO Si-Jie

    2006-01-01

    We develop the research on measurement of time worked by Poincaré, Einstein, Landau and other researchers.Based on the convention that the velocity of light is isotropic and is a constant in empty spacetime, we not only answer the question about the definition of the synchronization of rate of clocks located at different places, but also find the solution to the issue of how to define the equality of two durations in measurement of time.

  10. Single time point isothermal drug stability experiments at constant humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jian-Lin; Zhan, Xian-Cheng; Li, Lin-Li; Lin, Bing; Jiang, Lu

    2009-03-01

    A single time point isothermal drug stability experiments at constant humidity is introduced. In the new method, kinetic parameters related to both moisture and temperature were obtained by a single pair of experiments: these related to moisture by one with a group of testing humidities and a fixed temperature, those related to temperature by the other with a group of testing temperatures and a constant humidity. By a simulation, the estimates for the kinetic parameters (E(a), m, A) obtained by the proposed method and the reported programmed humidifying and heating method were statistically evaluated and were compared with those obtained by the isothermal measurements at constant humidity. Results indicated that under the same experimental conditions, the estimates obtained by the proposed method were significantly more precise than those obtained by the reported programmed humidifying and heating method. The estimates obtained by the isothermal method at constant humidity were somewhat more precise than those obtained by the proposed method. However, the experimental period needed by the isothermal method at constant humidity was greatly longer than that needed by the proposed method. The stability of dicloxacillin sodium, as a solid state model, was investigated by the single time point isothermal drug stability experiments at constant humidity. The results indicated that the kinetic parameters obtained by the proposed method were comparable to those from the reported.

  11. Defining the Microglia Response during the Time Course of Chronic Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, James E; Murphy, Lita; Grabert, Kathleen; McColl, Barry W; Cancellotti, Enrico; Freeman, Tom C; Manson, Jean C

    2015-12-30

    Inflammation has been proposed as a major component of neurodegenerative diseases, although the precise role it plays has yet to be defined. We examined the role of key contributors to this inflammatory process, microglia, the major resident immune cell population of the brain, in a prion disease model of chronic neurodegeneration. Initially, we performed an extensive reanalysis of a large study of prion disease, where the transcriptome of mouse brains had been monitored throughout the time course of disease. Our analysis has provided a detailed classification of the disease-associated genes based on cell type of origin and gene function. This revealed that the genes upregulated during disease, regardless of the strain of mouse or prion protein, are expressed predominantly by activated microglia. In order to study the microglia contribution more specifically, we established a mouse model of prion disease in which the 79A murine prion strain was introduced by an intraperitoneal route into BALB/cJ(Fms-EGFP/-) mice, which express enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of the c-fms operon. Samples were taken at time points during disease progression, and histological analysis of the brain and transcriptional analysis of isolated microglia was carried out. The analysis of isolated microglia revealed a disease-specific, highly proinflammatory signature in addition to an upregulation of genes associated with metabolism and respiratory stress. This study strongly supports the growing recognition of the importance of microglia within the prion disease process and identifies the nature of the response through gene expression analysis of isolated microglia. Inflammation has been proposed as a major component of neurodegenerative diseases. We have examined the role of key contributors to this inflammatory process, microglia, the major resident immune cell population of the brain, in a murine prion disease model of chronic neurodegeneration. Our study demonstrates

  12. On the local integrability of almost-product structures defined by space-time metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Delphenich, D H

    2016-01-01

    The splitting of the tangent bundle of space-time into temporal and spatial sub-bundles defines an almost-product structure. In particular, any space-time metric can be locally expressed in time-orthogonal form, in such a way that whether or not that almost-product structure is locally generated by a coordinate chart is a matter of the integrability of the Pfaff equation that the temporal 1-form of that expression for the metric defines. When one applies that analysis to the known exact solutions to the Einstein field equations, one finds that many of the common ones are completely-integrable, although some of the physically-interesting ones are not.

  13. Taming the Exceptional Points of Parity-Time Symmetric Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Marc; Shi, Chengzhi; Chen, Yun; Cheng, Lei; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    Parity-time (PT) symmetric concept and development lead to a wide range of applications including coherent perfect absorbers, single mode lasers, unidirectional cloaking and sensing, and optical isolators. These new applications and devices emerge from the existence of a phase transition in PT symmetric complex-valued potential obtained by balancing gain and loss materials. However, the systematic extension of such devices is adjourned by the key challenge in the management of the complex scattering process within the structure in order to engineer PT phase and exceptional points. Here, based on active acoustic elements, we experimentally demonstrate the simultaneous control of complex-valued potentials and multiple interference inside the structure at any given frequency. This method broadens the scope of applications for PT symmetric devices in many fields including optics, microwaves, electronics, which are crucial for sensing, imaging, cloaking, lasing, absorbing, etc.

  14. Space time as a continuum with a point defect

    CERN Document Server

    Tartaglia, A

    2006-01-01

    In cosmology it has become usual to try and explain observational data, such as the temperature distribution of the cosmic microwave background or the accelerated expansion of the universe, introducing new entities as dark matter and dark energy. Here we describe a different approach treating space time as a continuum endowed with properties similar to the ones of ordinary material continua, such as internal viscosity and strain distributions originated by defects in the texture. A Lagrangian modelled on the one valid for simple dissipative phenomena in fluids is build and used for empty space time. The internal "viscosity" is shown to correspond to a four-vector field. Using the known symmetry of the universe, assuming the vector field to be divergence-less and solving the Euler-Lagrange equation we obtain directly inflation and a phase of accelerated expansion of space time. The vector field is shown to be connected with the displacement vector field induced by a point defect in a four-dimensional continuum...

  15. Slope Transit Time (STT): A Pulse Transit Time Proxy requiring Only a Single Signal Fiducial Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2016-11-01

    A novel pulse transit time proxy measurement, slope transit time (STT), is proposed in this letter. STT is based on geometrical considerations of the arriving photoplethysmographic cardiac waveform and its computation requires only the measurement of a single point on each cardiac beat arriving at the peripheral site. This novel transit time is explained conceptually and its implementation illustrated through its application to signals from respiratory effort, Müller maneuver, and obstructive sleep apnea trials.

  16. Perihematoma Damage at Different Time Points in Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The damage degree of neurons in perilesion at different time points was observed in order to explore the optimal operation occasion. Piglet lobar hematomas were produced by pressure-controlled infusions of 2.5 mL autonomous blood into the right frontal hemispheric white matter over 15 min, and the metabolic changes were ambulatorily detected with MRS at 3rd, 12th, 24th and 48th h after hematoma induction. Brain tissues of perihematoma were also obtained at different time points. The transcription level of Bax gene was detected by in situ hybridization and apoptosis by TUNEL technique, and the pathologic change of neurons was observed under an electron microscope. The results showed that the number of Bax positive cells reached the peak at 24 h (79.00±4. 243/5 fields). There was no significant difference in A values between 3 h and 6 h, 12 h (P>0.05), but there significant difference between 24 h and 3 h, 6 h, 12 h (P<0.05). The number of apoptotic cells reached the peak at 24 h (P<0. 001), and there was no significant difference betw een 3 h and 6 h (P=0. 999). The area of the apoptotic cells showed no significant difference between 3 h and 6 h or among 3 h, 6 h and 6 h (P>0.05). Lac peak mainly occurred at 24 h and 48 h, while on the healthy side, no Lac peak was detectable. The ratio of NAA/Cr presented a descent tendency, but there was no significant difference among the groups before 12 h (P>0.05), there was very significant difference between 3, 6 and 24, 48 h (P<0.01). Under electronic microscopy, the neuronal damage surrounding hematoma in 3 to 6 h was milder than in 24 h to 48 h. It was concluded that the secondary apoptosis, damage and metabolic disturbance of the neurons surround ing hematoma was milder in 3-6 h in acute intracerebral hemorrhage, while obviously aggravated in 24-48 h. An effective intervention is needed to reduce secondary damage as soon as possible.

  17. How Many Grid Points Are Required for Time Accurate Simulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoh, Ayaboe; Karagozian, Ann; Mundis, Nathan; Sankaran, Venkateswaran

    2015-11-01

    Grid resolution is a key element in a numerical discretization scheme's ability to accurately capture complex fluid dynamics phenomena encountered in LES and DNS calculations. The fundamental question to be asked concerns the minimum number of points required to represent relevant flow phenomena such as vortex and acoustic wave propagation. The answer is naturally dependent upon the choice of numerical scheme, but it is also influenced by the modal content of the fluid dynamics. Specifically, this study looks at high-order and optimized spatial stencils and their associated dispersion and dissipation characteristics coupled with several time integration schemes. Scheme stabilization is also addressed with respect to artificial dissipation and filtering techniques. The theoretical investigations based on von Neumann analysis are substantiated by calculations of pure mode and multiple mode wave propagation problems, isentropic vortex propagation and the DNS of Taylor Green vortex transition, all of which are used to establish the accuracy properties of the schemes. Distribution A: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. Supported by AFOSR (PM: Drs. F. Fahroo and Chiping Li).

  18. Different Ultimate Factors Define Timing of Breeding in Two Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakanen, Veli-Matti; Orell, Markku; Vatka, Emma; Rytkönen, Seppo; Broggi, Juli

    2016-01-01

    Correct reproductive timing is crucial for fitness. Breeding phenology even in similar species can differ due to different selective pressures on the timing of reproduction. These selection pressures define species' responses to warming springs. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis suggests that timing of breeding in animals is selected to match with food availability (synchrony). Alternatively, time-dependent breeding success (the date hypothesis) can result from other seasonally deteriorating ecological conditions such as intra- or interspecific competition or predation. We studied the effects of two ultimate factors on the timing of breeding, synchrony and other time-dependent factors (time-dependence), in sympatric populations of two related forest-dwelling passerine species, the great tit (Parus major) and the willow tit (Poecile montanus) by modelling recruitment with long-term capture-recapture data. We hypothesized that these two factors have different relevance for fitness in these species. We found that local recruitment in both species showed quadratic relationships with both time-dependence and synchrony. However, the importance of these factors was markedly different between the studied species. Caterpillar food played a predominant role in predicting the timing of breeding of the great tit. In contrast, for the willow tit time-dependence modelled as timing in relation to conspecifics was more important for local recruitment than synchrony. High caterpillar biomass experienced during the pre- and post-fledging periods increased local recruitment of both species. These contrasting results confirm that these species experience different selective pressures upon the timing of breeding, and hence responses to climate change may differ. Detailed information about life-history strategies is required to understand the effects of climate change, even in closely related taxa. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis should be extended to consider subsequent

  19. Pixel timing correction in time-lapsed calcium imaging using point scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Oke, Yoshihiko; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Oku, Yoshitaka

    2014-11-30

    In point scanning imaging, data are acquired by sequentially scanning each pixel of a predetermined area. This way of scanning leads to time delays between pixels, especially for lower scanning speed or large scanned areas. Therefore, experiments are often performed at lower framerates in order to ensure a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, even though framerates above 30 frames per second are technically feasible. For these framerates, we suggest that it becomes crucial to correct the time delay between image pixels prior to analyses. In this paper, we apply temporal interpolation (or pixel timing correction) for calcium imaging in two-photon microscopy as an example of fluorescence imaging. We present and compare three interpolation methods (linear, Lanczos and cubic B-spline). We test these methods on a simulated network of coupled bursting neurons at different framerates. In this network, we introduce a time delay to simulate a scanning by point scanning microscopy. We also assess these methods on actual microscopic calcium imaging movies recorded at usual framerates. Our numerical results suggest that point scanning microscopy imaging introduces statistically significant time delays between image pixels at low frequency. However, we demonstrate that pixel timing correction compensates for these time delays, regardless of the used interpolation method.

  20. Defining Prolonged Dwell Time: When Are Advanced Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval Techniques Necessary? An Analysis in 762 Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Kush R; Laws, James L; Salem, Riad; Mouli, Samdeep K; Errea, Martin F; Karp, Jennifer K; Yang, Yihe; Ryu, Robert K; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Despite growth in placement of retrievable inferior vena cava filters, retrieval rates remain low. Filters with extended implantation times present a challenge to retrieval, where standard techniques often fail. The development of advanced retrieval techniques has positively impacted retrieval of retrievable inferior vena cava filters with prolonged dwell times; however, there is no precise definition of the time point when advanced techniques become necessary. We aim to define prolonged retrievable inferior vena cava filters dwell time by determining the inflection point when the risk of standard retrieval technique failure increases significantly, necessitating advanced retrieval techniques to maintain overall technical success of retrieval. From January 2009 to April 2015, 762 retrieval procedures were identified from a prospectively acquired database. We assessed patient age/sex, filter dwell time, procedural technical success, the use of advanced techniques, and procedure-related adverse events. Overall retrieval success rate was 98% (n=745). When standard retrieval techniques failed, advanced techniques were used; this was necessary 18% of the time (n=138). Logistic regression identified that dwell time was the only risk factor for failure of standard retrieval technique (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.10; Ptechnique failure was 40.9%. Adverse events occurred at a rate of 2% (n=18; 15 minor and 3 major). The necessity of advanced techniques to maintain technical success of retrieval increases with dwell time. Patients with retrievable inferior vena cava filters in place beyond 7 months may benefit from referral to centers with expertise in advanced filter retrieval. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Defining the timing of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV outbreaks: an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enders Martin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seasonal RSV infections occur every year and affect particularly children under six months of age. Passive immunoprophylaxis with monoclonal antibody Palivizumab is recommended in the period with high risk of RSV infection. This study aims to define the period for the southern part of Germany (Stuttgart area. Methods Epidemiological analysis of the RSV situation in southern Germany from 1996 to 2004 and comparison of results with literature was made. The respiratory tract specimens were sent in for the detection of RSV mainly by paediatric clinics. Detection of RSV was carried out mainly by real-time RT-PCR or by ELISA "Pathfinder". RSV outbreaks were depicted as an absolute number and as a percentage of RSV diagnoses in a month. Onsets, offsets, peaks, duration and severity of RSV seasons were defined and analysed. Results An early season with strong RSV activity (early-high phase was followed by a weaker late season (late-low phase in a regular biennial rhythm. However, onsets, offsets and durations of outbreaks varied significantly from year to year. RSV epidemics in southern Germany were found to oscillate in an antiphase with RSV epidemics in Finland and Sweden. Conclusion The long-term regular biennial rhythm allows predicting whether the next outbreak will be late or early and whether RSV activity will be strong or weak. Not foreseeable, however, is the precise time of increase and decrease of RSV activity. Moreover, the regular seasonal pattern may be disrupted by irregular outbreaks. Thus, activity of RSV has to be monitored every year to define the period with high risk of infection.

  2. Defining a Trend for a Time Series Which Makes Use of the Intrinsic Time-Scale Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Restrepo, Juan M; Comeau, Darin; Flaschka, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    We propose criteria that define a trend for time series with inherent multi-scale features. We call this trend the {\\it tendency} of a time series. The tendency is defined empirically by a set of criteria and captures the large-scale temporal variability of the original signal as well as the most frequent events in its histogram. Among other properties, the tendency has a variance no larger than that of the original signal; the histogram of the difference between the original signal and the tendency is as symmetric as possible; and with reduced complexity, the tendency captures essential features of the signal. To find the tendency we first use the Intrinsic Time-Scale Decomposition (ITD) of the signal, introduced in 2007 by Frei and Osorio, to produce a set of candidate tendencies. We then apply the criteria to each of the candidates to single out the one that best agrees with them. While the criteria for the tendency are independent of the signal decomposition scheme, it is found that the ITD is a simple an...

  3. Two-point functions on deformed space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Trampetic, Josip

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of one-loop photon (\\Pi) and neutrino (\\Sigma) two-point functions in a covariant and deformed U(1) gauge-theory on d-dimensional noncommutative spaces, determined by a constant antisymmetric tensor \\theta, and by a parameter-space (\\kappa_f,\\kappa_g), respectively. For the general fermion-photon S_f(\\kappa_f) and photon self-interaction S_g(\\kappa_g) the closed form results reveal two-point functions with all kind of pathological terms: the UV divergence, the quadratic UV/IR mixing terms as well as a logarithmic IR divergent term of the type ln(\\mu^2(\\theta p)^2). In addition, the photon-loop produces new tensor structures satisfying transversality condition by themselves. We show that the photon two-point function in four-dimensional Euclidean spacetime can be reduced to two finite terms by imposing a specific full rank of \\theta and setting deformation parameters (\\kappa_f,\\kappa_g)=(0,3). In this case the neutrino two-point function vanishes. Thus for a specific point (0,3) in the para...

  4. CFTR biomarkers : Time for promotion to surrogate end-point?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boeck, K.; Kent, L.; Davies, J.; Derichs, N.; Amaral, M.; Rowe, S. M.; Middleton, P.; de Jonge, Hendrik; Bronsveld, I.; Wilschanski, M.; Melotti, P.; Danner-Boucher, I.; Boerner, S.; Fajac, I.; Southern, K.; de Nooijer, R. A.; Bot, A.; de Rijke, Y.; de Wachter, E.; Leal, T.; Vermeulen, F.; Hug, M. J.; Rault, G.; Nguyen-Khoa, T.; Barreto, C.; Proesmans, M.; Sermet-Gaudelus, I.

    2013-01-01

    In patients with cystic fibrosis, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) biomarkers, such as sweat chloride concentration and/or nasal potential difference, are used as end-points of efficacy in phase-III clinical trials with the disease modifying drugs ivacaftor (VX-770), VX809

  5. CFTR biomarkers: Time for promotion to surrogate end-point?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Boeck; L. Kent; J. Davies (J.); N. Derichs; M.D. Amaral (Margarida); S.M. Rowe (S.); P. Middleton (P.); H.R. de Jonge (Hugo); I. Bronsveld (Inez); M. Wilschanski (Michael); P. Melotti; I. Danner-Boucher (I.); S. Boerner (S.); I. Fajac; K. Southern; R.A. de Nooijer; A.G. Bot (Alice); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); E. de Wachter (E.); T. Leal (Teresinha); F. Vermeulen; M. Hug; G. Rault (G.); T. Nguyen-Khoa (T.); C. Barreto (C.); W. Proesmans (Willem); I. Sermet-Gaudelus (I.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn patients with cystic fibrosis, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) biomarkers, such as sweat chloride concentration and/or nasal potential difference, are used as end-points of efficacy in phase-III clinical trials with the disease modifying drugs ivacaftor (VX-

  6. CFTR biomarkers: Time for promotion to surrogate end-point?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Boeck; L. Kent; J. Davies (J.); N. Derichs; M.D. Amaral (Margarida); S.M. Rowe (S.); P. Middleton (P.); H.R. de Jonge (Hugo); I. Bronsveld (Inez); M. Wilschanski (Michael); P. Melotti; I. Danner-Boucher (I.); S. Boerner (S.); I. Fajac; K. Southern; R.A. de Nooijer; A.G. Bot (Alice); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); E. de Wachter (E.); T. Leal (Teresinha); F. Vermeulen; M. Hug; G. Rault (G.); T. Nguyen-Khoa (T.); C. Barreto (C.); W. Proesmans (Willem); I. Sermet-Gaudelus (I.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn patients with cystic fibrosis, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) biomarkers, such as sweat chloride concentration and/or nasal potential difference, are used as end-points of efficacy in phase-III clinical trials with the disease modifying drugs ivacaftor (VX-

  7. CFTR biomarkers : Time for promotion to surrogate end-point?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boeck, K.; Kent, L.; Davies, J.; Derichs, N.; Amaral, M.; Rowe, S. M.; Middleton, P.; de Jonge, Hendrik; Bronsveld, I.; Wilschanski, M.; Melotti, P.; Danner-Boucher, I.; Boerner, S.; Fajac, I.; Southern, K.; de Nooijer, R. A.; Bot, A.; de Rijke, Y.; de Wachter, E.; Leal, T.; Vermeulen, F.; Hug, M. J.; Rault, G.; Nguyen-Khoa, T.; Barreto, C.; Proesmans, M.; Sermet-Gaudelus, I.

    2013-01-01

    In patients with cystic fibrosis, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) biomarkers, such as sweat chloride concentration and/or nasal potential difference, are used as end-points of efficacy in phase-III clinical trials with the disease modifying drugs ivacaftor (VX-770), VX809

  8. Point particle motion in topologically nontrivial space-times

    CERN Document Server

    Matas, Andrew; Starkman, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that compactifying a space can break symmetries that are present in the covering space. In this paper we study the effects of such topological symmetry breaking on point-particle motion when the particle is coupled to a massless field on the space. For a torus topology where Lorentz invariance is broken but translation invariance is maintained, particles can move at a constant velocity through the space; however, non-local, velocity-dependent forces arise whenever the particle is accelerated. For a topology where translation invariance is broken, such as the Klein bottle, interactions with the massless field generate an effective potential as a function of position. The potential creates special stable points in the space, and prevents constant velocity motion. This latter would appear to be the generic case. This class of effects may be applicable whenever a localized object moves through a compactified bulk, such as in brane-world cosmology, or some condensed matter systems.

  9. Defining the optimal time to the operating room may salvage early trauma deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, Kyle N; Schwab, C William; Smith, Brian P; Monshizadeh, Amir; Kim, Patrick K; Reilly, Patrick M

    2014-05-01

    Early trauma deaths have the potential for salvage with immediate surgery. We studied time from injury to death in this group to qualify characteristics and quantify time to the operating room, yielding the greatest opportunity for salvage. The Pennsylvania Trauma Outcomes Study (PTOS) is a comprehensive registry including all Pennsylvania trauma centers. PTOS was queried for adult trauma patients from 1999 to 2010 dying within 4 hours of injury. The distribution of time to death (TD) was examined for subgroups according to mechanism of injury, hypotension (defined as systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mm Hg), and operation required. The 5th percentile (TD5) and the 50th percentile (TD50) were calculated from the distributions and compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The PTOS yielded 6,547 deaths within 4 hours of injury. The overall TD5 and TD50 were 0:23 (hour:minute) and 0:59, respectively. Median penetrating injury times were significantly shorter than blunt injury times (TD5/TD50, 0:19/0:43 vs. 0:29/1:10). Median time was significantly shorter for hypotensive versus normotensive patients (TD5/TD50, 0:22/0:52 vs. 0:43/2:18). Operative subgroups had different TD5/TD50 (abdominal surgery [n = 607], 1:07/2:26; thoracic surgery [n = 756] 0:25/1:25; vascular surgery [n = 156], 0:35/2:15; and cranial surgery [n = 18], 1:20/2:42). Early trauma deaths have the potential for salvage with immediate surgery. We found TD to vary based on mechanism of injury, presence of hypotension, and type of surgery needed. With the use of TD5 and TD50 benchmarks in these subgroups, a trauma system may determine if decreased time to the operating room decreases mortality. Trauma systems can use these data to further improve prehospital and initial hospital phases of care for this subset of early death trauma patients. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  10. Defining Decisive: Toward Developing a Doctrinal Understanding of Decisive Operations and Decisive Points for the 21st Century Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-30

    final.” As Clausewitz observed : “Lastly, even the ultimate outcome of a war is not always to be regarded as final. The defeated state often...Josephus’ observation of their prowess in the quotation above, turned decisive military action into an empire of amazing political stability. That...uniform application of a decisive point methology (to include the Marine Corps’ CC – CR – CV approach) within military doctrine, will be required before

  11. Inflationary spectra from near $\\Omega$-deformed space-time transition point in Loop Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Long

    2016-01-01

    Anomaly-free perturbations of loop quantum cosmology with holonomy corrections reveal a $\\Omega$ -deformed space-time structure, $\\Omega:=1-2\\rho/\\rho_c$, where $\\Omega0$ means a Lorentz-like space. It would be reasonable to give the initial value at the space-time transition point, $\\rho=\\rho_c/2$, but we find it is impossible to define a Minkowski-like vacuum even for large $k$-modes at that time. However if we loose the condition and give the initial value near after $\\Omega=0$, e.g. $\\Omega\\simeq 0.2$, the vacuum state can be well defined and furthermore the slow roll approximation also works well in that region. Both scalar and tensor spectra are considered in the framework of loop quantum cosmology with holonomy corrections. We find that if the energy density is not too small compared with $\\rho_c/2$ when the considered $k$-mode crossing the horizon, effective theory can give a much smaller scalar power spectrum than classical theory and the spectrum of tensor perturbations could blue shift. But when co...

  12. Real time simulator with Ti floating point digital signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razazian, K.; Bobis, J.P.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a Real Time Simulator using Texas Instruments TMS320C30 digital signal processor. This system operates with two banks of memory which provide the input data to digital signal processor chip. This feature enables the TMS320C30 to be utilized in variety of applications for which external connections to acquire input data is not needed. In addition, some practical applications of this Real Time Simulator are discussed.

  13. A deterministic approach to define the useful integration time for in-situ precipitation observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djallel Dilmi, Mohamed; Mallet, Cécile; Barthes, Laurent; Chazottes, Aymeric

    2017-04-01

    The Precipitations are due to complex meteorological phenomenon and can be described as intermittent process. Theirs spatial and temporal variability is significant and covers large scales. These precipitation properties induce a very strong constraint on the measurement, which must be as continuous as possible, both in time and in space. . In particular, studies of climate change need high-resolution rainfall with resolutions much higher than 1 hour to obtain statistics of extrem rainfall and wet and dry spell duration. For all these reasons, several instruments were used for the observation of precipitations, of which the tipping bucket rain gauge is the oldest and the most commonly used for the precipitations in-situ measurements. Each specific device properties can induces systematical occurring errors that can lead to statistical biases. For example, for low precipitation, the tipping bucket rain gauge, records false dry periods. So, during the past few years, other instruments more accurate than the tipping bucket rain gauge (eg disdrometer and weighting rain gauge) were placed for in-situ observation but their costs hinder the installation of large networks The present study focuses on the impact of the rain gauge volume. The aim is to define a minimal integration time according to the bucket volume for a given climatic region Our study focuses on Ile-de-France, this French region is a relatively dry region if we consider the annual amount of precipitation: 600 mm, a rainy region if we consider the number of days of precipitation per year: 160 days. It records Strong storm events sometimes but its precipitations are dominated by low rainfall. Eight year time series observed with a disdrometer and different rain gauges located on the French Atmospheric Research Observatory (SIRTA) , are used. Simulated tipping bucket rain gauge series for different tipping bucket volumes and weighting rain gauge series for different weights as precision are performed. The

  14. Time will tell: a retrospective study investigating the relationship between insomnia and objectively defined punctuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Kyle, Simon D; Endres, Dominique; Nissen, Christoph; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter

    2012-06-01

    Primary insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder affecting approximately 3% of the general population. Studies suggest that personality traits such as perfectionism and neuroticism might be implicated in the aetiology of the disorder. However, to date, no study has investigated behavioural indicators of these factors in a hypothesis-driven manner. In the present study, we assessed punctuality as a behavioural indicator of perfectionism and neuroticism in 635 consecutive clinical patients of the sleep laboratory of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg Medical Center. The primary aim was to compare primary insomnia patients (n = 148) with another group of patients with other sleep-related diagnoses (n = 487). Primary insomnia patients arrived on average 4 min earlier when compared to other patients (P = 0.041). However, this effect failed to reach statistical significance when correcting for the influence of potential confounding variables. Of note, we found a strong relationship between polysomnographic sleep parameters and punctuality. That is, short sleep duration was associated significantly with early arrival times at the sleep laboratory (P = 0.023). These findings support the proposal that personality traits, which we predict underlie obsessive punctuality, may be involved in the aetiology of objectively defined sleep disturbances. Clinical implications of the current results for cognitive behavioural treatments of insomnia are discussed.

  15. Watching the World Cup, one data point at a time

    OpenAIRE

    Silver, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    Sound the vuvuzelas, the World Cup is officially here. The biggest sporting event in the world is set to break all kinds of viewing records. Sporting in the digital world is just as much about stats as it is about the game itself. Enter Brandwatch. The social media analytics company has taken it upon itself to track social media statistics for the entire run of the World Cup with their new real-time data visualization tool.

  16. Simultaneous comparisons of treatments at multiple time points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallmann, Philip; Pretorius, Mias; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    that is measured repeatedly over time and contrast two basic modeling strategies: fitting a joint model across all occasions (with random effects and/or some residual covariance structure to account for heteroscedasticity and serial dependence), and a novel approach combining a set of simple marginal, i...... hypotheses as well as a global test decision. We compare via simulation the powers of multiple contrast tests based on a joint model and multiple marginal models, respectively, and quantify the benefit of incorporating longitudinal correlation, i.e. the advantage over Bonferroni. Practical application...

  17. A Feedback Optimal Control Algorithm with Optimal Measurement Time Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Jost

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear model predictive control has been established as a powerful methodology to provide feedback for dynamic processes over the last decades. In practice it is usually combined with parameter and state estimation techniques, which allows to cope with uncertainty on many levels. To reduce the uncertainty it has also been suggested to include optimal experimental design into the sequential process of estimation and control calculation. Most of the focus so far was on dual control approaches, i.e., on using the controls to simultaneously excite the system dynamics (learning as well as minimizing a given objective (performing. We propose a new algorithm, which sequentially solves robust optimal control, optimal experimental design, state and parameter estimation problems. Thus, we decouple the control and the experimental design problems. This has the advantages that we can analyze the impact of measurement timing (sampling independently, and is practically relevant for applications with either an ethical limitation on system excitation (e.g., chemotherapy treatment or the need for fast feedback. The algorithm shows promising results with a 36% reduction of parameter uncertainties for the Lotka-Volterra fishing benchmark example.

  18. Bifurcated method and apparatus for floating point addition with decreased latency time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmwald, Paul M. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for decreasing the latency time associated with floating point addition and subtraction in a computer, using a novel bifurcated, pre-normalization/post-normalization approach that distinguishes between differences of floating point exponents.

  19. Index for Evaluating Heart Rate Variability based on the Extreme Point of Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    In this study, it aimed at the proposal of real time and continuous estimating method of physiological states using biological signals. The proposal method will be one of the basic technology to develop physiological state monitor. The proposal index is defined in the ratio of the number of extreme points of the heart rate time series and the number of heart rate. This index is called NEP. The characteristic of the NEP was shown by simulation analysis. The NEP was compared with classical indices of heart rate variability by the analysis of measured heart rate time series. NEP decreased significantly (p<0.05) when posture changed from supine to standing. In this case, the autonomic nervous activity balance changes from the parasympathetic to the sympathetic nerve. Moreover, the NEP was correlated with the respiratory frequency in supine position (p<0.01). It is not necessary to consider individual variation of NEP in the physiological state evaluation. Standardization process or relative value is not necessary to compare individual persons. This parameter is applicable to evaluate physiological state at real time and continuously.

  20. Dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT versus single time point 18FDG-PET/CT for the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules - A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Yinzhong [The First Clinical Medical School of Lanzhou Univ., Lanzhou, Gansu (China); Evidence-based Medicine Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou Univ., Lanzhou, Gansu (China); Lei, Junqiang; Tian, Jinhui; Zhai, Yanan [The First Clinical Medical School of Lanzhou Univ., Lanzhou, Gansu (China); Evidence-based Medicine Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou Univ., Lanzhou, Gansu (China); The First Hospital of Lanzhou Univ., Lanzhou, Gansu (China)

    2013-09-15

    Background: Lung cancer is one of the most common cancer types in the world. An accurate diagnosis of lung cancer is crucial for early treatment and management. Purpose: To perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual time point 18F-fluorodexyglucose position emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) and single time point 18FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules. Material and Methods: PubMed (1966-2011.11), EMBASE (1974-2011.11), Web of Science (1972-2011.11), Cochrane Library (-2011.11), and four Chinese databases; CBM (1978-2011.11), CNKI (1994-2011.11), VIP (1989-2011.11), and Wanfang Database (1994-2011.11) were searched. Summary sensitivity, summary specificity, summary diagnostic odds ratios (DOR), and summary positive likelihood ratios (LR+) and negative likelihood ratios (LR-) were obtained using Meta-Disc software. Summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT and single time point 18FDG-PET/CT. Results: The inclusion criteria were fulfilled by eight articles, with a total of 415 patients and 430 pulmonary nodules. Compared with the gold standard (pathology or clinical follow-up), the summary sensitivity of dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT was 79% (95%CI, 74.0 - 84.0%), and its summary specificity was 73% (95%CI, 65.0-79.0%); the summary LR+ was 2.61 (95%CI, 1.96-3.47), and the summary LR- was 0.29 (95%CI, 0.21 - 0.41); the summary DOR was 10.25 (95%CI, 5.79 - 18.14), and the area under the SROC curve (AUC) was 0.8244. The summary sensitivity for single time point 18FDG-PET/CT was 77% (95%CI, 71.9 - 82.3%), and its summary specificity was 59% (95%CI, 50.6 - 66.2%); the summary LR+ was 1.97 (95%CI, 1.32 - 2.93), and the summary LR- was 0.37 (95%CI, 0.29 - 0.49); the summary DOR was 6.39 (95%CI, 3.39 - 12.05), and the AUC was 0.8220. Conclusion: The results indicate that dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT and single

  1. Guidelines for time-to-event end-point definitions in trials for pancreatic cancer. Results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnetain, Franck; Bonsing, Bert; Conroy, Thierry; Dousseau, Adelaide; Glimelius, Bengt; Haustermans, Karin; Lacaine, François; Van Laethem, Jean Luc; Aparicio, Thomas; Aust, Daniela; Bassi, Claudio; Berger, Virginie; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Chibaudel, Benoist; Dahan, Laeticia; De Gramont, Aimery; Delpero, Jean Robert; Dervenis, Christos; Ducreux, Michel; Gal, Jocelyn; Gerber, Erich; Ghaneh, Paula; Hammel, Pascal; Hendlisz, Alain; Jooste, Valérie; Labianca, Roberto; Latouche, Aurelien; Lutz, Manfred; Macarulla, Teresa; Malka, David; Mauer, Muriel; Mitry, Emmanuel; Neoptolemos, John; Pessaux, Patrick; Sauvanet, Alain; Tabernero, Josep; Taieb, Julien; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Gourgou-Bourgade, Sophie; Bellera, Carine; Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone; Collette, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    Using potential surrogate end-points for overall survival (OS) such as Disease-Free- (DFS) or Progression-Free Survival (PFS) is increasingly common in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, end-points are too often imprecisely defined which largely contributes to a lack of homogeneity across trials, hampering comparison between them. The aim of the DATECAN (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials)-Pancreas project is to provide guidelines for standardised definition of time-to-event end-points in RCTs for pancreatic cancer. Time-to-event end-points currently used were identified from a literature review of pancreatic RCT trials (2006-2009). Academic research groups were contacted for participation in order to select clinicians and methodologists to participate in the pilot and scoring groups (>30 experts). A consensus was built after 2 rounds of the modified Delphi formal consensus approach with the Rand scoring methodology (range: 1-9). For pancreatic cancer, 14 time to event end-points and 25 distinct event types applied to two settings (detectable disease and/or no detectable disease) were considered relevant and included in the questionnaire sent to 52 selected experts. Thirty experts answered both scoring rounds. A total of 204 events distributed over the 14 end-points were scored. After the first round, consensus was reached for 25 items; after the second consensus was reached for 156 items; and after the face-to-face meeting for 203 items. The formal consensus approach reached the elaboration of guidelines for standardised definitions of time-to-event end-points allowing cross-comparison of RCTs in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LiDAR-IMU Time Delay Calibration Based on Iterative Closest Point and Iterated Sigma Point Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanli

    2017-03-08

    The time delay calibration between Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) is an essential prerequisite for its applications. However, the correspondences between LiDAR and IMU measurements are usually unknown, and thus cannot be computed directly for the time delay calibration. In order to solve the problem of LiDAR-IMU time delay calibration, this paper presents a fusion method based on iterative closest point (ICP) and iterated sigma point Kalman filter (ISPKF), which combines the advantages of ICP and ISPKF. The ICP algorithm can precisely determine the unknown transformation between LiDAR-IMU; and the ISPKF algorithm can optimally estimate the time delay calibration parameters. First of all, the coordinate transformation from the LiDAR frame to the IMU frame is realized. Second, the measurement model and time delay error model of LiDAR and IMU are established. Third, the methodology of the ICP and ISPKF procedure is presented for LiDAR-IMU time delay calibration. Experimental results are presented that validate the proposed method and demonstrate the time delay error can be accurately calibrated.

  3. Social behavior in a genetic model of dopamine dysfunction at different neurodevelopmental time points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabitzke, P A; Simpson, E H; Kandel, E R; Balsam, P D

    2015-09-01

    Impairments in social behavior characterize many neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. In fact, the temporal emergence and trajectory of these deficits can define the disorder, specify their treatment and signal their prognosis. The sophistication of mouse models with neurobiological endophenotypes of many aspects of psychiatric diseases has increased in recent years, with the necessity to evaluate social behavior in these models. We adapted an assay for the multimodal characterization of social behavior at different development time points (juvenile, adolescent and adult) in control mice in different social contexts (specifically, different sex pairings). Although social context did not affect social behavior in juvenile mice, it did have an effect on the quantity and type of social interaction as well as ultrasonic vocalizations in both adolescence and adulthood. We compared social development in control mice to a transgenic mouse model of the increase in postsynaptic striatal D2R activity observed in patients with schizophrenia (D2R-OE mice). Genotypic differences in social interactions emerged in adolescence and appeared to become more pronounced in adulthood. That vocalizations emitted from dyads with a D2R-OE subject were negatively correlated with active social behavior while vocalizations from control dyads were positively correlated with both active and passive social behavior also suggest social deficits. These data show that striatal dopamine dysfunction plays an important role in the development of social behavior and mouse models such as the one studied here provide an opportunity for screening potential therapeutics at different developmental time points. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. Defining a National Web Sphere over time from the Perspectives of Collection, Technology and Scholarship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Brügger, Niels; Moesgaard, Jakob

    the framework aims at a definition that can be reused independent of changed behaviours on the net, changes in jurisdiction and changes in technology. A crucial point in this framework is that the perspectives of collection, technology and Scholarship are present in decision making. The framework origins from...... etc., and changes in jurisdiction influencing the way that the web can be collected technology, thus regularly adjustments of what is national web pages may likely be needed. Therefore the presented framework consists of a list of general criteria as basis for adjustment of web collection strategies...

  5. Object oriented Full Function Point Analysis: A Model for Real Time Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeba Praveen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available this research work focused on determining the functional size of real time application at early stage. This paper will describe how to estimate the functional size of real time system using OO methodology. In this research we are proposing a Model which is very useful for estimating the size of real time system. And this model is fully based on Object oriented development Methodology due to the adaptation of the Function Point Analysis (FPA to Object Point Analysis (OPA. This model is for Real Time Application due to that have to take the FFP metric because FFP is best for size measurement of real time system. So the mapping is done in between Full Function Point metrics (FFP to Object Oriented Function Point metrics (OOFP and finally we are proposing a new metrics known as OOFFP and the based analysis is known as Object Oriented Full Function Point Analysis (OOFFPA.

  6. Starting ART following cryptococcal meningitis:The optimal time has yet to be defined

    OpenAIRE

    T A Bicanic; Jarvis, J. N.; A. Loyse; Harrison, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the public sector rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 2004, the question of the optimal time to start ART following diagnosis of an opportunistic infection has aroused controversy among South African HIV clinicians and researchers.

  7. Evaluating the Possibility of Defining Cut-Off Points for ΔFA% in Order to Differentiate Four Major Types of Peri-Tumoral White Matter Tract Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deilami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and its different scalar values such as fractional anisotropy (FA have recently been used for evaluation of peri-tumoral white matter (WM involvement to help define safer surgical excision margins. Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of defining diagnostic cut-off points for differentiating four major types of peri-tumoral WM involvement using FA. Patients and Methods DTI was performed in 12 patients with high presumption of having brain tumors, on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. DTI data was processed by MedINRIA software. Two-hundred region of interests (ROI were evaluated: 100 in the lesion zone and the rest in the normal WM in the contralateral hemisphere. FA value related to each ROI was measured, and the percentage of FA decrement (ΔFAs% was calculated. Results Of the 100 ROIs on the lesion side, 74 were related to high-grade lesions, 23 to low-grade ones, and three to “gliosis”. There were 54 “infiltrated”, 22 “displaced”, 15 “disrupted”, and 9 “edematous” tracts. The major type of fiber involvement, both in low-grade and high-grade tumors was “infiltrated, whereas “edematous” fibers comprised the minority. ΔFA% was more than -35 for “displaced” and “edematous” fibers, and less than -35 for the majority of “disrupted” ones, but “infiltrated” fibers had scattered distribution. Mean ΔFA% was the least for “disrupted”, followed by “infiltrated”, “edematous” and “displaced” parts. Conclusion Introducing definite diagnostic cut-points was not possible, due to overlap. Based on the fact that “disruption” is the most aggressive process, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for “disrupted” fibers for several presumptive cut-off points.

  8. Defining trauma in complex care management: Safety-net providers' perspectives on structural vulnerability and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Lastad, Ariana; Yen, Irene H; Fleming, Mark D; Van Natta, Meredith; Rubin, Sara; Shim, Janet K; Burke, Nancy J

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we delineate how staff of two complex care management (CCM) programs in urban safety net hospitals in the United States understand trauma. We seek to (1) describe how staff in CCM programs talk about trauma in their patients' lives; (2) discuss how trauma concepts allow staff to understand patients' symptoms, health-related behaviors, and responses to care as results of structural conditions; and (3) delineate the mismatch between long-term needs of patients with histories of trauma and the short-term interventions that CCM programs provide. Observation and interview data gathered between February 2015 and August 2016 indicate that CCM providers define trauma expansively to include individual experiences of violence such as childhood abuse and neglect or recent assault, traumatization in the course of accessing health care and structural violence. Though CCM staff implement elements of trauma-informed care, the short-term design of CCM programs puts pressure on the staff to titrate their efforts, moving patients towards graduation or discharge. Trauma concepts enable clinicians to name structural violence in clinically legitimate language. As such, trauma-informed care and structural competency approaches can complement each other. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Defining a Formal Semantics for Real-Time Test Specification with TTCN-31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Alina Serbanescu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Real-time software is usually used in circumstances where safety is important and the margin for errors isnarrow. These kinds of systems have applicability in a broad band of domains as: automotive, avionics, airtraffic control, nuclear power stations, industrial control, etc. As the name denotes, the main feature of"real-time" applications is the criticality of their timeliness. Guaranteeing certain timeliness requiresappropriate testing. As manual testing is burdensome and error prone, automated testing techniques arerequired. Although the importance of having a standard environment for automatic testing is high, thetechnologies in this area are not sufficiently developed. This paper reviews the standardized testdescription language "Testing and Test Control Notation version 3 (TTCN-3" as a mean for real-timetesting and proposes extensions to enable real-time testing with TTCN-3. The aim is to provide a completetesting solution for automatic functional and real-time testing, built around this already standardizedtesting language. The solution includes an environment for designing and running the tests written in theextended language. As a proof of concept, test examples, designed using the enhanced TTCN-3, are mappedto real-time platform implementations and the timeliness of each implementation is analyzed.

  10. Distributed Real-Time Emulation of Formally-Defined Patterns for Safe Medical Device Control

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Mu; 10.4204/EPTCS.36.9

    2010-01-01

    Safety of medical devices and of their interoperation is an unresolved issue causing severe and sometimes deadly accidents for patients with shocking frequency. Formal methods, particularly in support of highly reusable and provably safe patterns which can be instantiated to many device instances can help in this regard. However, this still leaves open the issue of how to pass from their formal specifications in logical time to executable emulations that can interoperate in physical time with other devices and with simulations of patient and/or doctor behaviors. This work presents a specification-based methodology in which virtual emulation environments can be easily developed from formal specifications in Real-Time Maude, and can support interactions with other real devices and with simulation models. This general methodology is explained in detail and is illustrated with two concrete scenarios which are both instances of a common safe formal pattern: one scenario involves the interaction of a provably safe ...

  11. Defining the Costs of Reusable Flexible Ureteroscope Reprocessing Using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Dylan; Ahmad, Tessnim; Metzler, Ian; Tzou, David T; Taguchi, Kazumi; Usawachintachit, Manint; Zetumer, Samuel; Sherer, Benjamin; Stoller, Marshall; Chi, Thomas

    2017-09-20

    Careful decontamination and sterilization of reusable flexible ureteroscopes used in ureterorenoscopy cases prevent the spread of infectious pathogens to patients and technicians. However, inefficient reprocessing and unavailability of ureteroscopes sent out for repair can contribute to expensive operating room (OR) delays. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) was applied to describe the time and costs involved in reprocessing. Direct observation and timing were performed for all steps in reprocessing of reusable flexible ureteroscopes following operative procedures. Estimated times needed for each step by which damaged ureteroscopes identified during reprocessing are sent for repair were characterized through interviews with purchasing analyst staff. Process maps were created for reprocessing and repair detailing individual step times and their variances. Cost data for labor and disposables used were applied to calculate per minute and average step costs. Ten ureteroscopes were followed through reprocessing. Process mapping for ureteroscope reprocessing averaged 229.0 ± 74.4 minutes, whereas sending a ureteroscope for repair required an estimated 143 minutes per repair. Most steps demonstrated low variance between timed observations. Ureteroscope drying was the longest and highest variance step at 126.5 ± 55.7 minutes and was highly dependent on manual air flushing through the ureteroscope working channel and ureteroscope positioning in the drying cabinet. Total costs for reprocessing totaled $96.13 per episode, including the cost of labor and disposable items. Utilizing TDABC delineates the full spectrum of costs associated with ureteroscope reprocessing and identifies areas for process improvement to drive value-based care. At our institution, ureteroscope drying was one clearly identified target area. Implementing training in ureteroscope drying technique could save up to 2 hours per reprocessing event, potentially preventing expensive OR delays.

  12. Index Financial Time Series Based on Zigzag-Perceptually Important Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Selamat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Financial time series were usually large in size, unstructured and of high dimensionality. Since, the illustration of financial time series shape was typically characterized by a few number of important points. These important points moved in zigzag directions which could form technical patterns. However, these important points exhibited in different resolutions and difficult to determine. Approach: In this study, we proposed novel methods of financial time series indexing by considering their zigzag movement. The methods consist of two major algorithms: first, the identification of important points, namely the Zigzag-Perceptually Important Points (ZIPs identification method and next, the indexing method namely Zigzag based M-ary Tree (ZM-Tree to structure and organize the important points. Results: The errors of the tree building and retrieving compared to the original time series increased when the important points increased. The dimensionality reduction using ZM-Tree based on tree pruning and number of retrieved points techniques performed better when the number of important points increased. Conclusion: Our proposed techniques illustrated mostly acceptable performance in tree operations and dimensionality reduction comparing to existing similar technique like Specialize Binary Tree (SB-Tree.

  13. Starting ART following cryptococcal meningitis:The optimal time has yet to be defined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Bicanic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the public sector rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART in 2004, the question of the optimal time to start ART following diagnosis of an opportunistic infection has aroused controversy among South African HIV clinicians and researchers.

  14. Time to insulin initiation can not be used in defining Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults [LADA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brophy, S; Yderstræde, K; Mauricio, D;

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults [LADA] is type 1 diabetes presenting as non-insulin dependent diabetes. One feature of the selection criteria is time independent of insulin treatment. We examine the validity of this criterion. Methods: Patients were recruited in 9 European centres...

  15. Existence of Solutions for Nonlinear Four-Point -Laplacian Boundary Value Problems on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topal SGulsan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with proving the existence of positive solutions of a nonlinear second-order four-point boundary value problem with a -Laplacian operator on time scales. The proofs are based on the fixed point theorems concerning cones in a Banach space. Existence result for -Laplacian boundary value problem is also given by the monotone method.

  16. Quality control methods in accelerometer data processing: defining minimum wear time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Rich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When using accelerometers to measure physical activity, researchers need to determine whether subjects have worn their device for a sufficient period to be included in analyses. We propose a minimum wear criterion using population-based accelerometer data, and explore the influence of gender and the purposeful inclusion of children with weekend data on reliability. METHODS: Accelerometer data obtained during the age seven sweep of the UK Millennium Cohort Study were analysed. Children were asked to wear an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for seven days. Reliability coefficients(r of mean daily counts/minute were calculated using the Spearman-Brown formula based on the intraclass correlation coefficient. An r of 1.0 indicates that all the variation is between- rather than within-children and that measurement is 100% reliable. An r of 0.8 is often regarded as acceptable reliability. Analyses were repeated on data from children who met different minimum daily wear times (one to 10 hours and wear days (one to seven days. Analyses were conducted for all children, separately for boys and girls, and separately for children with and without weekend data. RESULTS: At least one hour of wear time data was obtained from 7,704 singletons. Reliability increased as the minimum number of days and the daily wear time increased. A high reliability (r = 0.86 and sample size (n = 6,528 was achieved when children with ≥ two days lasting ≥10 hours/day were included in analyses. Reliability coefficients were similar for both genders. Purposeful sampling of children with weekend data resulted in comparable reliabilities to those calculated independent of weekend wear. CONCLUSION: Quality control procedures should be undertaken before analysing accelerometer data in large-scale studies. Using data from children with ≥ two days lasting ≥10 hours/day should provide reliable estimates of physical activity. It's unnecessary to include only children

  17. Novel technique for prediction of time points for scheduling of multipurpose batch plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seid, R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available and it is active for most of the time points when it is compared to other units. A linear model is used to predict how many times the critical unit is used. In conjunction with knowledge of recipe, this information is used to determine the optimal number of time...

  18. Quantum mechanics of many particles defined on twisted N-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-times

    CERN Document Server

    Daszkiewicz, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    We provide the quantum mechanics of many particles moving in twisted N-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-time. In particular, we consider the example of such noncommutative system - the set of M particles moving in Coulomb field of external point-like source and interacting each other also by Coulomb potential.

  19. Is it possible to define an optimal time for chemotherapy after surgery for ovarian cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lydiksen, L; Christensen, Lisbeth Lydiksen; Jensen-Fangel, S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to investigate the actual time from primary surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer (OC) to initiation of chemotherapy (TI) amongst Danish women in 2005-2006, and to compare the survival for groups with early initiation (≤median TI) and late initiation...... for death in patients with TI>32days compared with TI≤32days was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.70; 1.04), p-value 0.12. When adjusted for residual tumour and FIGO-stage the HR was 1.13 (95% CI: 0.92; 1.39), p-value 0.26. The overall five-year survival was 42.8%, (95% CI: 38.9%; 46.5%). CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide...... population-based cohort study revealed a non-significant increased risk of death for patients with TI>32days compared with the reference TI≤32days. The strongest prognostic factors were residual tumour after surgery and FIGO-stage. The overall five-year survival was 42.8% (95% CI: 38.9%; 46.5%)....

  20. Method to test the long-term stability of functional electrical stimulation via multichannel electrodes (e.g., applicable for laryngeal pacing) and to define best points for stimulation: in vivo animal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faenger, Bernd; Arnold, Dirk; Schumann, Nikolaus P; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Scholle, Hans-Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The study aim was to identify and analyze intramuscular electrically sensitive points. Electrically sensitive points are herein defined as positions, which allow muscles stimulation with a minimum possible fatigue for a maximum amount of time. A multichannel array electrode was used which could be interesting to retain the function of larynx muscle after paralysis. Eight array electrodes were implanted in the triceps brachii muscle of four rats. While being under anesthesia, the animals were intramuscularly stimulated at 16 different positions. Sihler's staining technique was used to make visible the nerves routes and the intramuscular position of the individual electrode plate. The positions of the motor end plates were determined by means of multichannel-electromyography. The positions that allow longest stimulation periods are located close to the points where the nerves enter the muscle. Stimulation at the position of the motor end plates does not result in stimulation periods above average. Locations initially causing strong muscle contractions are not necessarily identical to the ones allowing long stimulation periods. The animal model identified the stimulation points for minimal possible muscle fatigue stimulation as being located close to the points of entrance of the nerve into the muscle. Stimulation causing an initially strong contraction response is no indication of optimal location of the stimulation electrode in terms of chronic stimulation. The array electrode of this study could be interesting as a stimulation electrode for a larynx pacemaker.

  1. Performance evaluation of time-aware enhanced software defined networking (TeSDN) for elastic data center optical interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yongli; Ji, Yuefeng; Li, Hui; Lin, Yi; Li, Gang; Han, Jianrui; Lee, Young; Ma, Teng

    2014-07-28

    Data center interconnection with elastic optical networks is a promising scenario to meet the high burstiness and high-bandwidth requirements of data center services. We previously implemented enhanced software defined networking over elastic optical network for data center application [Opt. Express 21, 26990 (2013)]. On the basis of it, this study extends to consider the time-aware data center service scheduling with elastic service time and service bandwidth according to the various time sensitivity requirements. A novel time-aware enhanced software defined networking (TeSDN) architecture for elastic data center optical interconnection has been proposed in this paper, by introducing a time-aware resources scheduling (TaRS) scheme. The TeSDN can accommodate the data center services with required QoS considering the time dimensionality, and enhance cross stratum optimization of application and elastic optical network stratums resources based on spectrum elasticity, application elasticity and time elasticity. The overall feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture is experimentally verified on our OpenFlow-based testbed. The performance of TaRS scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on TeSDN architecture in terms of blocking probability and resource occupation rate.

  2. Detecting shifts in gene regulatory networks during time-course experiments at single-time-point temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yoichi; Seno, Shigeto; Matsuda, Hideo

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensively understanding the dynamics of biological systems is one of the greatest challenges in biology. Vastly improved biological technologies have provided vast amounts of information that must be understood by bioinformatics and systems biology researchers. Gene regulations have been frequently modeled by ordinary differential equations or graphical models based on time-course gene expression profiles. The state-of-the-art computational approaches for analyzing gene regulations assume that their models are same throughout time-course experiments. However, these approaches cannot easily analyze transient changes at a time point, such as diauxic shift. We propose a score that analyzes the gene regulations at each time point. The score is based on the information gains of information criterion values. The method detects the shifts in gene regulatory networks (GRNs) during time-course experiments with single-time-point resolution. The effectiveness of the method is evaluated on the diauxic shift from glucose to lactose in Escherichia coli. Gene regulation shifts were detected at two time points: the first corresponding to the time at which the growth of E. coli ceased and the second corresponding to the end of the experiment, when the nutrient sources (glucose and lactose) had become exhausted. According to these results, the proposed score and method can appropriately detect the time of gene regulation shifts. The method based on the proposed score provides a new tool for analyzing dynamic biological systems. Because the score value indicates the strength of gene regulation at each time point in a gene expression profile, it can potentially infer hidden GRNs from time-course experiments.

  3. Location of Yaotong Point and the Optimal Time of Its Needling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Rilan; Yue Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the location of Yaotong point and the optimal time of its needling in the treatment of acute lumbar sprain. Method: Thirty-five cases of acute lumbar sprain were retrospectively analyzed for the location of Yaotong point and the method of its needling according to their disease courses and effects. Results: The optimal time of needling is 1-3 days after lumbar sprain, and the location of Yaotong points on both hands correspond to the location of sprain. Conclusion: This correspondence is useful in practice.

  4. Identification of cut-points in commonly used hip osteoarthritis-related outcome measures that define the patient acceptable symptom state (PASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson Kavchak, Alicia J; Cook, Chad; Hegedus, Eric J; Wright, Alexis A

    2013-11-01

    To determine patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) estimates in outcome measures commonly used in hip osteoarthritis (OA). Identification of cut-points on commonly used outcome measures associated with patient satisfaction with their current state of health. As part of a randomized controlled trial, 70 patients with a clinical diagnosis of hip OA undergoing a 9-session physiotherapy treatment program completed four physical performance measures and three self-report measures at 9 weeks and 1 year. Upon completion of treatment, patients assessed their current health status according to the PASS question. Cut-points were estimated using receiver operating characteristic curves (anchor-based method), based on the patient's response to the PASS question. At 9 weeks and 1 year, identified cut-points were, respectively, ≤10 and ≤11 for the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale; ≤35 and ≤40 on the WOMAC physical function subscale; ≥+5 and ≥+6 on the global rating of change score; ≤6.05 and ≤5.30 s for the timed-up-and-go; ≤28.3 and ≤24.9 for the 40-m self-paced walk test; ≥11 and ≥12 repetitions for the 30-s chair stand test; and ≥46 repetitions for the 20-cm step test. Initial target cut-points signaling patient satisfaction with their current symptom state following physiotherapy in patients with hip osteoarthritis were determined for seven outcome measures over 1 year.

  5. Visualizing Robustness of Critical Points for 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, B.

    2013-06-01

    Analyzing critical points and their temporal evolutions plays a crucial role in understanding the behavior of vector fields. A key challenge is to quantify the stability of critical points: more stable points may represent more important phenomena or vice versa. The topological notion of robustness is a tool which allows us to quantify rigorously the stability of each critical point. Intuitively, the robustness of a critical point is the minimum amount of perturbation necessary to cancel it within a local neighborhood, measured under an appropriate metric. In this paper, we introduce a new analysis and visualization framework which enables interactive exploration of robustness of critical points for both stationary and time-varying 2D vector fields. This framework allows the end-users, for the first time, to investigate how the stability of a critical point evolves over time. We show that this depends heavily on the global properties of the vector field and that structural changes can correspond to interesting behavior. We demonstrate the practicality of our theories and techniques on several datasets involving combustion and oceanic eddy simulations and obtain some key insights regarding their stable and unstable features. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Method to minimize the low-frequency neutral-point voltage oscillations with time-offset injection for neutral-point-clamped inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to reduce the low-frequency neutral-point voltage oscillations. The neutral-point voltage oscillations are considerably reduced by adding a time-offset to the three phase turn-on times. The proper time-offset is simply calculated considering the phase currents and dwell...

  7. Method to Minimize the Low-Frequency Neutral-Point Voltage Oscillations With Time-Offset Injection for Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lee, Kyo-Beum

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to reduce the low-frequency neutral-point voltage oscillations. The neutral-point voltage oscillations are considerably reduced by adding a time offset to the three-phase turn-on times. The proper time offset is simply calculated considering the phase currents and dwell...

  8. A Well-Clear Volume Based on Time to Entry Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Upchurch, Jason M.; Chamberlain, James P.; Consiglio, Maria C.

    2014-01-01

    A well-clear volume is a key component of NASA's Separation Assurance concept for the integration of UAS in the NAS. This paper proposes a mathematical definition of the well-clear volume that uses, in addition to distance thresholds, a time threshold based on time to entry point (TEP). The mathematical model that results from this definition is more conservative than other candidate definitions of the wellclear volume that are based on range over closure rate and time to closest point of approach.

  9. Assessment of atherosclerotic plaque inflammation can be improved by delayed time point FDG PET CT imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn; Thomassen, Anders; Hildebrandt, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Blood pool FDG activity can cloud the atherosclerotic plaque FDG signal. Over time, blood pool FDG activity declines. Therefore, delayed time point FDG PET CT imaging can potentially enhance the assessment of atherosclerotic plaque inflammation. Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers with...

  10. Anomalous parity-time-symmetry transition away from an exceptional point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li

    2016-07-01

    Parity-time (PT ) symmetric systems have two distinguished phases, e.g., one with real-energy eigenvalues and the other with complex-conjugate eigenvalues. To enter one phase from the other, it is believed that the system must pass through an exceptional point, which is a non-Hermitian degenerate point with coalesced eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Here we reveal an anomalous PT transition that takes place away from an exceptional point in a nonlinear system: as the nonlinearity increases, the original linear system evolves along two distinct PT -symmetric trajectories, each of which can have an exceptional point. However, the two trajectories collide and vanish away from these exceptional points, after which the system is left with a PT -broken phase. We first illustrate this phenomenon using a coupled-mode theory and then exemplify it using paraxial wave propagation in a transverse periodic potential.

  11. Anomalous Parity-Time Symmetry Transition away from an Exceptional Point

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Li

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time (PT) symmetric systems have two distinguished phases, e.g., one with real energy eigenvalues and the other with complex conjugate eigenvalues. To enter one phase from the other, it is believed that the system must pass through an exceptional point, which is a non-Hermitian degenerate point with coalesced eigenvalues and eigenvectors. In this letter we reveal an anomalous PT transition that takes place away from an exceptional point in a nonlinear system: as the nonlinearity increases, the original linear system evolves along two distinct PT-symmetric trajectories, each of which can have an exceptional point. However, the two trajectories collide and vanish away from these exceptional points, after which the system is left with a PT-broken phase. We first illustrate this phenomenon using a coupled mode theory and then exemplify it using paraxial wave propagation in a transverse periodic potential.

  12. Use of Time-Frequency Analysis and Neural Networks for Mode Identification in a Wireless Software-Defined Radio Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Gandetto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of time-frequency distributions is proposed as a nonlinear signal processing technique that is combined with a pattern recognition approach to identify superimposed transmission modes in a reconfigurable wireless terminal based on software-defined radio techniques. In particular, a software-defined radio receiver is described aiming at the identification of two coexistent communication modes: frequency hopping code division multiple access and direct sequence code division multiple access. As a case study, two standards, based on the previous modes and operating in the same band (industrial, scientific, and medical, are considered: IEEE WLAN 802.11b (direct sequence and Bluetooth (frequency hopping. Neural classifiers are used to obtain identification results. A comparison between two different neural classifiers is made in terms of relative error frequency.

  13. Selecting the most appropriate time points to profile in high-throughput studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleyman, Michael; Sefer, Emre; Nicola, Teodora; Espinoza, Celia; Chhabra, Divya; Hagood, James S; Kaminski, Naftali; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems are increasingly being studied by high throughput profiling of molecular data over time. Determining the set of time points to sample in studies that profile several different types of molecular data is still challenging. Here we present the Time Point Selection (TPS) method that solves this combinatorial problem in a principled and practical way. TPS utilizes expression data from a small set of genes sampled at a high rate. As we show by applying TPS to study mouse lung development, the points selected by TPS can be used to reconstruct an accurate representation for the expression values of the non selected points. Further, even though the selection is only based on gene expression, these points are also appropriate for representing a much larger set of protein, miRNA and DNA methylation changes over time. TPS can thus serve as a key design strategy for high throughput time series experiments. Supporting Website: www.sb.cs.cmu.edu/TPS DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18541.001 PMID:28124972

  14. Comparison of nutrient intakes from two selected diet plans considered healthful versus the cutoff points for green lights as defined by the UK's multiple traffic light scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H; Fern, E

    2016-02-01

    This study compared nutrient intakes from 7-day menus for the US MyPlate and DASH Eating Plan versus the cutoff points for green lights defined by the UK's multiple traffic light (MTL) scheme. For both diets, the foods achieved green lights for saturated fat and salt, and for beverages for total fat, saturated fat and salt. The other nutrients achieved amber lights but were within the range of the two diets. By contrast, the MTL threshold for salt in beverages was outside the range of the diets. The values for salt in beverages in the MyPlate and Dash diet plans were 0.06±0.07 and 0.19±0.01 (s.d.) g/100 ml, which are both considerably lower compared with the cutoff of 0.3 g/100 ml for an MTL green light. Adjusting the green MTL threshold values to the median values for a healthful diet could help make MTL labelling a more valid way of helping consumers choose a healthful diet.

  15. Toward the Optimal Configuration of Dynamic Voltage Scaling Points in Real-Time Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Zhan Yi; Xue-Jun Yang

    2006-01-01

    In real-time applications, compiler-directed dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) could reduce energy consumption efficiently, where compiler put voltage scaling points in the proper places, and the supply voltage and clock frequency were adjusted to the relationship between the reduced time and the reduced workload. This paper presents the optimal configuration of dynamic voltage scaling points without voltage scaling overhead, which minimizes energy consumption. The conclusion is proved theoretically. Finally, it is confirmed by simulations with equally-spaced voltage scaling configuration.

  16. A proxy method for real-time 3-DOF haptic rendering of streaming point cloud data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, Fredrik; Chizeck, Howard Jay

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new haptic rendering method for streaming point cloud data. It provides haptic rendering of moving physical objects using data obtained from RGB-D cameras. Thus, real-time haptic interaction with moving objects can be achieved using noncontact sensors. This method extends "virtual coupling"-based proxy methods in a way that does not require preprocessing of points and allows for spatial point cloud discontinuities. The key ideas of the algorithm are iterative motion of the proxy with respect to the points, and the use of a variable proxy step size that results in better accuracy for short proxy movements and faster convergence for longer movements. This method provides highly accurate haptic interaction for geometries in which the proxy can physically fit. Another advantage is a significant reduction in the risk of "pop through" during haptic interaction with dynamic point clouds, even in the presence of noise. This haptic rendering method is computationally efficient; it can run in real time on available personal computers without the need for downsampling of point clouds from commercially available depth cameras.

  17. PtProcess: An R Package for Modelling Marked Point Processes Indexed by Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harte

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the package PtProcess which uses the R statistical language. The package provides a unified approach to fitting and simulating a wide variety of temporal point process or temporal marked point process models. The models are specified by an intensity function which is conditional on the history of the process. The user needs to provide routines for calculating the conditional intensity function. Then the package enables one to carry out maximum likelihood fitting, goodness of fit testing, simulation and comparison of models. The package includes the routines for the conditional intensity functions for a variety of standard point process models. The package is intended to simplify the fitting of point process models indexed by time in much the same way as generalized linear model programs have simplified the fitting of various linear models. The primary examples used in this paper are earthquake sequences but the package is intended to have a much wider applicability.

  18. Detecting topological exceptional points in a parity-time symmetric system with cold atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Du, Yan-Xiong; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Dan-Wei

    2017-07-10

    We reveal a novel topological property of the exceptional points in a two-level parity-time symmetric system and then propose a scheme to detect the topological exceptional points in the system, which is embedded in a larger Hilbert space constructed by a four-level cold atomic system. We show that a tunable parameter in the presented system for simulating the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian can be tuned to sweep the eigenstates through the exceptional points in parameter space. The non-trivial Berry phases of the eigenstates obtained in this loop from the exceptional points can be measured by the atomic interferometry. Since the proposed operations and detection are experimentally feasible, our scheme may pave a promising way to explore the novel properties of non-Hermitian systems.

  19. A new method of time difference measurement: The time difference method by dual phase coincidence points detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei

    1993-01-01

    In the high accurate measurement of periodic signals, the greatest common factor frequency and its characteristics have special functions. A method of time difference measurement - the time difference method by dual 'phase coincidence points' detection is described. This method utilizes the characteristics of the greatest common factor frequency to measure time or phase difference between periodic signals. It can suit a very wide frequency range. Measurement precision and potential accuracy of several picoseconds were demonstrated with this new method. The instrument based on this method is very simple, and the demand for the common oscillator is low. This method and instrument can be used widely.

  20. Generation of live piglets from cryopreserved oocytes for the first time using a defined system for in vitro embryo production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somfai, Tamás; Yoshioka, Koji; Tanihara, Fuminori; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Junko; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Nagai, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    We report the successful piglet production from cryopreserved oocytes for the first time by using a simple, high capacity vitrification protocol for preservation and a defined system for in vitro embryo production. Immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from prepubertal gilts were vitrified in microdrops and stored in liquid nitrogen. After warming, COCs were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF), and subsequent culture (IVC). Adjusting warmplate temperature to 42 °C during warming prevented temperature drops in a medium below 34.0 °C and significantly increased the percentage of oocyte survival and thus blastocyst yields obtained from total vitrified oocytes compared with that of warming at 38 °C (87.1% vs 66.9% and 4.4% vs 2.7%, respectively). Nuclear maturation and fertilization of oocytes were not affected by vitrification and warming temperature. Blastocyst development on day 7 (day 0 = IVF) of the surviving oocytes after warming at 38 °C and 42 °C was not different but lower (Pvitro using defined media. Using these modifications, live piglets could be obtained from cryopreserved oocytes for the first time.

  1. A point-based rendering approach for real-time interaction on mobile devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG XiaoHui; ZHAO QinPing; HE ZhiYing; XIE Ke; LIU YuBo

    2009-01-01

    Mobile device is an Important interactive platform. Due to the limitation of computation, memory, display area and energy, how to realize the efficient and real-time interaction of 3D models based on mobile devices is an important research topic. Considering features of mobile devices, this paper adopts remote rendering mode and point models, and then, proposes a transmission and rendering approach that could interact in real time. First, improved simplification algorithm based on MLS and display resolution of mobile devices is proposed. Then, a hierarchy selection of point models and a QoS transmission control strategy are given based on interest area of operator, interest degree of object in the virtual environment and rendering error. They can save the energy consumption. Finally, the rendering and interaction of point models are completed on mobile devices. The experiments show that our method is efficient.

  2. Convergence Analysis of Saddle Point Problems in Time Varying Wireless Systems - Control Theoretical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Junting

    2011-01-01

    Saddle point problems arise from many wireless applications, and primal-dual iterative algorithms are widely applied to find the saddle points. In the existing literature, the convergence results of such algorithms are established assuming the problem specific parameters remain unchanged during the iterations. However, this assumption is unrealistic in time varying wireless systems, as explicit message passing is usually involved in the iterations and the channel state information (CSI) may change in a time scale comparable to the algorithm update period. This paper investigates the convergence behavior and the tracking error of primal-dual iterative algorithms under time varying CSI. The convergence results are established by studying the stability of an equivalent virtual dynamic system derived in the paper, and the Lyapunov theory is applied for the stability analysis. We show that the average tracking error is proportional to the time variation rate of the CSI. Based on these analyses, we also derive an a...

  3. Bayesian inference for multivariate point processes observed at sparsely distributed times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper; Aukema, B.H.;

    normalizing constants. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using continuous time processes compared to discrete time processes in the setting of the present paper as well as other spatial-temporal situations. Keywords: Bark beetle, conditional intensity, forest entomology, Markov chain Monte Carlo......We consider statistical and computational aspects of simulation-based Bayesian inference for a multivariate point process which is only observed at sparsely distributed times. For specicity we consider a particular data set which has earlier been analyzed by a discrete time model involving unknown...

  4. Point Processes Modeling of Time Series Exhibiting Power-Law Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaulakys, B; Gontis, V

    2010-01-01

    We consider stochastic point processes generating time series exhibiting power laws of spectrum and distribution density (Phys. Rev. E 71, 051105 (2005)) and apply them for modeling the trading activity in the financial markets and for the frequencies of word occurrences in the language.

  5. SUVmax by dual time point FDG-PET/CT in recurrent breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Malene; Blomberg, Björn; Falch Braas, Kirsten

    Objectives Calculation of standardized uptake values (SUV) seems to be an important discriminatory factor for accurately diagnosing recurrent breast cancer. We examined the variability in maximum SUV (SUVmax) calculation between observers and types of software at two scan time points. Methods 18F...

  6. Measures and time points relevant for post-surgical follow-up in patients with inflammatory arthritis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tägil Magnus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatic diseases commonly affect joints and other structures in the hand. Surgery is a traditional way to treat hand problems in inflammatory rheumatic diseases with the purposes of pain relief, restore function and prevent progression. There are numerous measures to choose from, and a combination of outcome measures is recommended. This study evaluated if instruments commonly used in rheumatologic clinical practice are suitable to measure outcome of hand surgery and to identify time points relevant for follow-up. Methods Thirty-one patients (median age 56 years, median disease duration 15 years with inflammatory rheumatic disease and need for post-surgical occupational therapy intervention formed this pilot study group. Hand function was assessed regarding grip strength (Grippit, pain (VAS, range of motion (ROM (Signals of Functional Impairment (SOFI and grip ability (Grip Ability Test (GAT. Activities of daily life (ADL were assessed by means of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome (DASH and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM. The instruments were evaluated by responsiveness and feasibility; follow-up points were 0, 3, 6 and 12 months. Results All instruments showed significant change at one or more follow-up points. Satisfaction with activities (COPM showed the best responsiveness (SMR>0.8, while ROM measured with SOFI had low responsiveness at most follow-up time points. The responsiveness of the instruments was stable between 6 and 12 month follow-up which imply that 6 month is an appropriate time for evaluating short-term effect of hand surgery in rheumatic diseases. Conclusion We suggest a core set of instruments measuring pain, grip strength, grip ability, perceived symptoms and self-defined daily activities. This study has shown that VAS pain, the Grippit instrument, GAT, DASH symptom scale and COPM are suitable outcome instruments for hand surgery, while SOFI may be a more insensitive

  7. Coding ill-defined and unknown cause of death is 13 times more frequent in Denmark than in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Sajantila, Antti; Lalu, Kaisa; Bøggild, Henrik; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2014-11-01

    Exact cause and manner of death determination improves legislative safety for the individual and for society and guides aspects of national public health. In the International Classification of Diseases, codes R00-R99 are used for "symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified" designated as "ill-defined" or "with unknown etiology". The World Health Organisation recommends avoiding the use of ill-defined and unknown causes of death in the death certificate as this terminology does not give any information concerning the possible conditions that led to the death. Thus, the aim of the study was, firstly, to analyse the frequencies of R00-R99-coded deaths in mortality statistics in Finland and in Denmark and, secondly, to compare these and the methods used to investigate the cause of death. To do so, we extracted a random 90% sample of the Finnish death certificates and 100% of the Danish certificates from the national mortality registries for 2000, 2005 and 2010. Subsequently, we analysed the frequencies of forensic and medical autopsies and external clinical examinations of the bodies in R00-R99-coded deaths. The use of R00-R99 codes was significantly higher in Denmark than in Finland; OR 18.6 (95% CI 15.3-22.4; pFinland, all of these deaths were investigated with a forensic autopsy. Our study suggests that if all deaths in all age groups with unclear cause of death were systematically investigated with a forensic autopsy, only 2-3/1000 deaths per year would be coded as an ill-defined and unknown cause of death in national mortality statistics. At the same time the risk to overlook unnatural deaths is decreased to a minimum. To achieve this in Denmark requires that the existing legislation on cause of death investigation would need to be changed to ensure that all deaths with unknown cause of death are investigated with a forensic autopsy.

  8. Generalization of the analytical solution of neutron point kinetics equations with time-dependent external source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidi, M.; Behnia, S.; Khodabakhsh, R.

    2014-09-01

    Point reactor kinetics equations with one group of delayed neutrons in the presence of the time-dependent external neutron source are solved analytically during the start-up of a nuclear reactor. Our model incorporates the random nature of the source and linear reactivity variation. We establish a general relationship between the expectation values of source intensity and the expectation values of neutron density of the sub-critical reactor by ignoring the term of the second derivative for neutron density in neutron point kinetics equations. The results of the analytical solution are in good agreement with the results obtained with numerical solution.

  9. Portable Dew Point Mass Spectrometry System for Real-Time Gas and Moisture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, C.; Gillespie, Stacey; Ratzel, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    A portable instrument incorporates both mass spectrometry and dew point measurement to provide real-time, quantitative gas measurements of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, along with real-time, quantitative moisture analysis. The Portable Dew Point Mass Spectrometry (PDP-MS) system comprises a single quadrupole mass spectrometer and a high vacuum system consisting of a turbopump and a diaphragm-backing pump. A capacitive membrane dew point sensor was placed upstream of the MS, but still within the pressure-flow control pneumatic region. Pressure-flow control was achieved with an upstream precision metering valve, a capacitance diaphragm gauge, and a downstream mass flow controller. User configurable LabVIEW software was developed to provide real-time concentration data for the MS, dew point monitor, and sample delivery system pressure control, pressure and flow monitoring, and recording. The system has been designed to include in situ, NIST-traceable calibration. Certain sample tubing retains sufficient water that even if the sample is dry, the sample tube will desorb water to an amount resulting in moisture concentration errors up to 500 ppm for as long as 10 minutes. It was determined that Bev-A-Line IV was the best sample line to use. As a result of this issue, it is prudent to add a high-level humidity sensor to PDP-MS so such events can be prevented in the future.

  10. Equal-time two-point correlation functions in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Campagnari, D; Reinhardt, H; Astorga, F; Schleifenbaum, W

    2009-01-01

    We apply a new functional perturbative approach to the calculation of the equal-time two-point correlation functions and the potential between static color charges to one-loop order in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory. The functional approach proceeds through a solution of the Schroedinger equation for the vacuum wave functional to order g^2 and derives the equal-time correlation functions from a functional integral representation via new diagrammatic rules. We show that the results coincide with those obtained from the usual Lagrangian functional integral approach, extract the beta function and determine the anomalous dimensions of the equal-time gluon and ghost two-point functions and the static potential under the assumption of multiplicative renormalizability to all orders.

  11. Spatially heterogeneous dynamics investigated via a time-dependent four-point density correlation function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacevic, N.; Starr, F. W.; Schrøder, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    two-point time-dependent density correlation functions, while providing information about the transient "caging" of particles on cooling, are unable to provide sufficiently detailed information about correlated motion and dynamical heterogeneity. Here, we study a four-point, time-dependent density...... simulations of a binary Lennard-Jones mixture approaching the mode coupling temperature from above. We find that the correlations between particles measured by g4(r,t) and S4(q,t) become increasingly pronounced on cooling. The corresponding dynamical correlation length xi4(t) extracted from the small......-q behavior of S4(q,t) provides an estimate of the range of correlated particle motion. We find that xi4(t) has a maximum as a function of time t, and that the value of the maximum of xi4(t) increases steadily from less than one particle diameter to a value exceeding nine particle diameters in the temperature...

  12. Minimum time solar sailing from geosynchronous orbit to the sun-earth L2 point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun H.; Bryson, Arthur E., Jr.

    1992-08-01

    An approximate time-optimal of a solar sail from a geosynchronous orbit to the sun-earth L2 libration point is found using a combined method of local optimization and single shooting. The local optimization strategy is based on maximizing the time rate of change of an energy variable at each time. This strategy overcomes the numerical difficulties associated with solving optimal control problems of long duration like the solar sail transfer problem. The single shooting portion of the method is employed to meet the terminal constraints. The combined method can be applied to other optimal low thrust transfer problems of long duration.

  13. Generation of live piglets from cryopreserved oocytes for the first time using a defined system for in vitro embryo production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Somfai

    Full Text Available We report the successful piglet production from cryopreserved oocytes for the first time by using a simple, high capacity vitrification protocol for preservation and a defined system for in vitro embryo production. Immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs from prepubertal gilts were vitrified in microdrops and stored in liquid nitrogen. After warming, COCs were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM, fertilization (IVF, and subsequent culture (IVC. Adjusting warmplate temperature to 42 °C during warming prevented temperature drops in a medium below 34.0 °C and significantly increased the percentage of oocyte survival and thus blastocyst yields obtained from total vitrified oocytes compared with that of warming at 38 °C (87.1% vs 66.9% and 4.4% vs 2.7%, respectively. Nuclear maturation and fertilization of oocytes were not affected by vitrification and warming temperature. Blastocyst development on day 7 (day 0 = IVF of the surviving oocytes after warming at 38 °C and 42 °C was not different but lower (P<0.05 than those of non-vitrified control oocytes (4.6%, 5.2% and 17.9%, respectively. However, blastocyst cell numbers in the control and vitrified groups were similar irrespective of warming temperature. Omitting porcine follicular fluid (pFF from IVM medium (POM did not affect maturation, fertilization and embryo development of vitrified-warmed oocytes. Transfer of blastocysts obtained on day 5 from vitrified oocytes matured either with or without pFF into 4 recipients (2 for each group resulted in 4 pregnancies and the delivery of a total of 18 piglets. In conclusion, optimization of warming temperature was a key factor for achieving high survival rates, and surviving oocytes could be utilized in vitro using defined media. Using these modifications, live piglets could be obtained from cryopreserved oocytes for the first time.

  14. Two Time Point MS Lesion Segmentation in Brain MRI: An Expectation-Maximization Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Saurabh; Ribbens, Annemie; Sima, Diana M; Cambron, Melissa; De Keyser, Jacques; Wang, Chenyu; Barnett, Michael H; Van Huffel, Sabine; Maes, Frederik; Smeets, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Lesion volume is a meaningful measure in multiple sclerosis (MS) prognosis. Manual lesion segmentation for computing volume in a single or multiple time points is time consuming and suffers from intra and inter-observer variability. Methods: In this paper, we present MSmetrix-long: a joint expectation-maximization (EM) framework for two time point white matter (WM) lesion segmentation. MSmetrix-long takes as input a 3D T1-weighted and a 3D FLAIR MR image and segments lesions in three steps: (1) cross-sectional lesion segmentation of the two time points; (2) creation of difference image, which is used to model the lesion evolution; (3) a joint EM lesion segmentation framework that uses output of step (1) and step (2) to provide the final lesion segmentation. The accuracy (Dice score) and reproducibility (absolute lesion volume difference) of MSmetrix-long is evaluated using two datasets. Results: On the first dataset, the median Dice score between MSmetrix-long and expert lesion segmentation was 0.63 and the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) was equal to 0.96. On the second dataset, the median absolute volume difference was 0.11 ml. Conclusions: MSmetrix-long is accurate and consistent in segmenting MS lesions. Also, MSmetrix-long compares favorably with the publicly available longitudinal MS lesion segmentation algorithm of Lesion Segmentation Toolbox.

  15. Incremental Real-Time Bundle Adjustment for Multi-Camera Systems with Points at Infinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J.; Läbe, T.; Förstner, W.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a concept and first experiments on a keyframe-based incremental bundle adjustment for real-time structure and motion estimation in an unknown scene. In order to avoid periodic batch steps, we use the software iSAM2 for sparse nonlinear incremental optimization, which is highly efficient through incremental variable reordering and fluid relinearization. We adapted the software to allow for (1) multi-view cameras by taking the rigid transformation between the cameras into account, (2) omnidirectional cameras as it can handle arbitrary bundles of rays and (3) scene points at infinity, which improve the estimation of the camera orientation as points at the horizon can be observed over long periods of time. The real-time bundle adjustment refers to sets of keyframes, consisting of frames, one per camera, taken in a synchronized way, that are initiated if a minimal geometric distance to the last keyframe set is exceeded. It uses interest points in the keyframes as observations, which are tracked in the synchronized video streams of the individual cameras and matched across the cameras, if possible. First experiments show the potential of the incremental bundle adjustment w.r.t. time requirements. Our experiments are based on a multi-camera system with four fisheye cameras, which are mounted on a UAV as two stereo pairs, one looking ahead and one looking backwards, providing a large field of view.

  16. Real-time retrieval of precipitable water vapor from GPS precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yubin; Zhang, Kefei; Rohm, Witold; Choy, Suelynn; Norman, Robert; Wang, Chuan-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    Sensing of precipitable water vapor (PWV) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been intensively investigated in the past 2 decades. However, it still remains a challenging task at a high temporal resolution and in the real-time mode. In this study the accuracy of real-time zenith total delay (ZTD) and PWV using the GPS precise point positioning (PPP) technique is investigated. GPS observations in a 1 month period from 20 globally distributed stations are selected for testing. The derived real-time ZTDs at most stations agree well with the tropospheric products from the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Service, and the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are conditions. This implies that the real-time GPS PPP technique can be complementary to current atmospheric sounding systems, especially for nowcasting of extreme weather due to its real-time, all-day, and all-weather capabilities and high temporal resolutions.

  17. Real-Time Hand Motion Parameter Estimation with Feature Point Detection Using Kinect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Ming Chang; Che-Hao Chang; Chung-Lin Huang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time Kinect-based hand pose estimation method. Different from model-based and appearance-based approaches, our approach retrieves continuous hand motion parameters in real time. First, the hand region is segmented from the depth image. Then, some specific feature points on the hand are located by the random forest classifier, and the relative displacements of these feature points are transformed to a rotation invariant feature vector. Finally, the system retrieves the hand joint parameters by applying the regression functions on the feature vectors. Experimental results are compared with the ground truth dataset obtained by a data glove to show the effectiveness of our approach. The effects of different distances and different rotation angles for the estimation accuracy are also evaluated.

  18. Short-Time Decoherence of Solid-State Qubit at Optimal Operation Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the short-time decoherence of a solid-state qubit under Ohmic noise at optimal operation points. The decoherence is analyzed by maximum norm of the deviation density operator. It is shown that at the temperature T = 3 mK, the loss of the fidelity due to decoherence is much smaller than the DiVincenzo low decoherence criterion, which means that the model may be an optimal candidate of qubit for quantum computation.

  19. Time-Averaged Behaviour at the Critical Parameter Point of Transition to Spatiotemporal Chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺凯芬

    2001-01-01

    A time-averaged behaviour is found to be important for investigating the critical behaviour in parameter space for the transition from temporal chaos to spatiotemporal chaos by using an energy representation. Considering any wave solution as a superposition of the steady wave with its perturbation wave, we find that when approaching the critical parameter point the averaged positive interaction energy for the k = 1 mode becomes competitive with the negative one, with the summation displaying a scaling behaviour of power law.

  20. Global Stability of Polytopic Linear Time-Varying Dynamic Systems under Time-Varying Point Delays and Impulsive Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Sen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stability properties of a class of dynamic linear systems possessing several linear time-invariant parameterizations (or configurations which conform a linear time-varying polytopic dynamic system with a finite number of time-varying time-differentiable point delays. The parameterizations may be timevarying and with bounded discontinuities and they can be subject to mixed regular plus impulsive controls within a sequence of time instants of zero measure. The polytopic parameterization for the dynamics associated with each delay is specific, so that (q+1 polytopic parameterizations are considered for a system with q delays being also subject to delay-free dynamics. The considered general dynamic system includes, as particular cases, a wide class of switched linear systems whose individual parameterizations are timeinvariant which are governed by a switching rule. However, the dynamic system under consideration is viewed as much more general since it is time-varying with timevarying delays and the bounded discontinuous changes of active parameterizations are generated by impulsive controls in the dynamics and, at the same time, there is not a prescribed set of candidate potential parameterizations.

  1. Derivation of equations to define inflection point and its analysis in flattening filter free photon beams based on the principle of polynomial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KR Muralidhar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this work is to (1 present a mechanism for calculating inflection points on profiles at various depths and field sizes, and (2 study the doses at the inflection points for various field sizes at depth of maximum dose (Dmax for flattening filter free (FFF photon beam profiles. Methods: Graphical representation was done on percentage of dose versus inflection points. Also, using the polynomial function, the author formulated equations for calculating spot-on inflection point on the profiles for both the 6MV and 10 MV energies for different field sizes at various depths. Results: In a 10 MV FFF radiation beam, the dose at inflection point of the profile decreases as the field size increases. However, in 6MV FFF radiation beam, the dose at the inflection point initially increases with an increase in the field size up to 10 ×10 cm2 and decreases after 10 ×10 cm2. The polynomial function was fitted for both the 6 MV and 10 MV FFF beams for all field sizes and depths. Conclusion: Polynomial function is one of the easiest ways of identifying the inflection point in FFF beam for various field sizes and depths. Graphical representation of dose versus inflection point for both FFF energies was derived.

  2. A time-domain CMOS oscillator-based thermostat with digital set-point programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Lin, Shih-Hao

    2013-01-29

    This paper presents a time-domain CMOS oscillator-based thermostat with digital set-point programming [without a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) or external resistor] to achieve on-chip thermal management of modern VLSI systems. A time-domain delay-line-based thermostat with multiplexers (MUXs) was used to substantially reduce the power consumption and chip size, and can benefit from the performance enhancement due to the scaling down of fabrication processes. For further cost reduction and accuracy enhancement, this paper proposes a thermostat using two oscillators that are suitable for time-domain curvature compensation instead of longer linear delay lines. The final time comparison was achieved using a time comparator with a built-in custom hysteresis to generate the corresponding temperature alarm and control. The chip size of the circuit was reduced to 0.12 mm2 in a 0.35-mm TSMC CMOS process. The thermostat operates from 0 to 90 °C, and achieved a fine resolution better than 0.05 °C and an improved inaccuracy of ± 0.6 °C after two-point calibration for eight packaged chips. The power consumption was 30 µW at a sample rate of 10 samples/s.

  3. A fuzzy/Bayesian approach for the time series change point detection problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Flávio S.V. D'Angelo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the change point detection problem in time series. A methodology based on the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm applied to time series modeled as a process with Beta distribution is discussed. In order to make this methodology useful in practice, a fuzzy cluster technique is applied to the initial time series at first, generating a new data set with Beta distribution. Bayesian procedures are considered for inference and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is used to sample from the posteriors. In the clustering process, a Kohonen neural network is used having as objective to find the best centers of the time series to be used in the fuzzyfication process. Finally, it will be presented a simulation results in the series of the electric energy consumption in Brazil, between January of 1976 and December of 2000, five months before the blackout occurred in 2001. Such result illustrates the efficiency of the proposed methodology for change point detection in time series.

  4. A Time-Domain CMOS Oscillator-Based Thermostat with Digital Set-Point Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hao Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a time-domain CMOS oscillator-based thermostat with digital set-point programming [without a digital-to-analog converter (DAC or external resistor] to achieve on-chip thermal management of modern VLSI systems. A time-domain delay-line-based thermostat with multiplexers (MUXs was used to substantially reduce the power consumption and chip size, and can benefit from the performance enhancement due to the scaling down of fabrication processes. For further cost reduction and accuracy enhancement, this paper proposes a thermostat using two oscillators that are suitable for time-domain curvature compensation instead of longer linear delay lines. The final time comparison was achieved using a time comparator with a built-in custom hysteresis to generate the corresponding temperature alarm and control. The chip size of the circuit was reduced to 0.12 mm2 in a 0.35-mm TSMC CMOS process. The thermostat operates from 0 to 90 °C, and achieved a fine resolution better than 0.05 °C and an improved inaccuracy of ± 0.6 °C after two-point calibration for eight packaged chips. The power consumption was 30 µW at a sample rate of 10 samples/s.

  5. Consistent multi-time-point brain atrophy estimation from the boundary shift integral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kelvin K; Ridgway, Gerard R; Ourselin, Sébastien; Fox, Nick C

    2012-02-15

    Brain atrophy measurement is increasingly important in studies of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), with particular relevance to trials of potential disease-modifying drugs. Automated registration-based methods such as the boundary shift integral (BSI) have been developed to provide more precise measures of change from a pair of serial MR scans. However, when a method treats one image of the pair (typically the baseline) as the reference to which the other is compared, this systematic asymmetry risks introducing bias into the measurement. Recent concern about potential biases in longitudinal studies has led to several suggestions to use symmetric image registration, though some of these methods are limited to two time-points per subject. Therapeutic trials and natural history studies increasingly involve several serial scans, it would therefore be useful to have a method that can consistently estimate brain atrophy over multiple time-points. Here, we use the log-Euclidean concept of a within-subject average to develop affine registration and differential bias correction methods suitable for any number of time-points, yielding a longitudinally consistent multi-time-point BSI technique. Baseline, 12-month and 24-month MR scans of healthy controls, subjects with mild cognitive impairment and AD patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative are used for testing the bias in processing scans with different amounts of atrophy. Four tests are used to assess bias in brain volume loss from BSI: (a) inverse consistency with respect to ordering of pairs of scans 12 months apart; (b) transitivity consistency over three time-points; (c) randomly ordered back-to-back scans, expected to show no consistent change over subjects; and (d) linear regression of the atrophy rates calculated from the baseline and 12-month scans and the baseline and 24-month scans, where any additive bias should be indicated by a non-zero intercept. Results

  6. General covariance and the objectivity of space-time point-events

    CERN Document Server

    Lusanna, L

    2005-01-01

    "The last remnant of physical objectivity of space-time" is disclosed, beyond the Leibniz equivalence, in the case of a continuous family of spatially non-compact models of general relativity. The {\\it physical individuation} of point-events is furnished by the intrinsic degrees of freedom of the gravitational field, (viz, the {\\it Dirac observables}) that represent - as it were - the {\\it ontic} part of the metric field. The physical role of the {\\it epistemic} part (viz. the {\\it gauge} variables) is likewise clarified. At the end, a peculiar four-dimensional {\\it holistic and structuralist} view of space-time emerges which includes elements common to the tradition of both {\\it substantivalism} and {\\it relationism}. The observables of our models undergo real {\\it temporal change} and thereby provide a counter-example to the thesis of the {\\it frozen-time} picture of evolution. Invited Contribution to the ESF 2004 Oxford Conference on Space-Time

  7. EXISTENCE AND MULTIPLE EXISTENCE OF POSITIVE SOLUTIONS TO SECOND-ORDER m-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM ON TIME SCALES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By different fixed point theorems in cones, sufficient conditions for the existence and multiple existence of positive solutions to a class of second-order multi-point boundary value problem for dynamic equation on time scales are obtained.

  8. GPU-accelerated Modeling and Element-free Reverse-time Migration with Gauss Points Partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Z.; Jia, X.

    2014-12-01

    Element-free method (EFM) has been applied to seismic modeling and migration. Compared with finite element method (FEM) and finite difference method (FDM), it is much cheaper and more flexible because only the information of the nodes and the boundary of the study area are required in computation. In the EFM, the number of Gauss points should be consistent with the number of model nodes; otherwise the accuracy of the intermediate coefficient matrices would be harmed. Thus when we increase the nodes of velocity model in order to obtain higher resolution, we find that the size of the computer's memory will be a bottleneck. The original EFM can deal with at most 81×81 nodes in the case of 2G memory, as tested by Jia and Hu (2006). In order to solve the problem of storage and computation efficiency, we propose a concept of Gauss points partition (GPP), and utilize the GPUs to improve the computation efficiency. Considering the characteristics of the Gaussian points, the GPP method doesn't influence the propagation of seismic wave in the velocity model. To overcome the time-consuming computation of the stiffness matrix (K) and the mass matrix (M), we also use the GPUs in our computation program. We employ the compressed sparse row (CSR) format to compress the intermediate sparse matrices and try to simplify the operations by solving the linear equations with the CULA Sparse's Conjugate Gradient (CG) solver instead of the linear sparse solver 'PARDISO'. It is observed that our strategy can significantly reduce the computational time of K and Mcompared with the algorithm based on CPU. The model tested is Marmousi model. The length of the model is 7425m and the depth is 2990m. We discretize the model with 595x298 nodes, 300x300 Gauss cells and 3x3 Gauss points in each cell. In contrast to the computational time of the conventional EFM, the GPUs-GPP approach can substantially improve the efficiency. The speedup ratio of time consumption of computing K, M is 120 and the

  9. Real-Time IGS products verification in the context of their use in Precise Point Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Tomasz; Bosy, Jaroslaw; Kaplon, Jan; Sierny, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a positioning technique of single GNSS receiver which applies high quality products from permanent GNSS observations to utilize the computational potential of global network analysis. Estimated satellite orbits and clocks corrections are introduced into equation system as known parameters. PPP requires the application of precise products, since their quality directly reflects the positioning accuracy. In June 2007 IGS Real-time Pilot Project has started in order to satisfy real-time users, which is especially important for Precise Point Positioning. Currently available streams including precise orbits, clocks and code biases are standardized on RTCM-SC 104 formats and may be used as a substitute for ultra-rapid products. The target combination product performances are 0.3ns for satellite clock accuracy and orbit accuracy at the level of the IGS Ultra predictions with maximum latency of 10s. This study presents the quality assessment of currently available Real-Time IGS products. Long-term test include comparisons of disseminated information with final and high-rate products, stability assessment over time, as well as latency validation of available RTCM streams.

  10. Event Detection at Vehicle Location Points using Spatial Time Invariant Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.Karpagalakshmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The localization and recognition of moving objects from single monocular intensity images has been a popular issue in image analysis and computer vision over many years. It is also one of the fundamental crisis in model based vehicle localization and recognition. The recently used scheme is model based on simple object recognition and localization of road vehicles using the position and orientation of vehicle image data. But the drawback of the approach is that the shape of the vehicle and its pose varies in multiple junction coordination, the model based recognition is an inefficient one. To overcome the issues, our first work implemented a surveillance image object recognition and localization using improved local gradient model. The vehicle-object shape recognition and pose recovery in the traffic junction is carried out for varied traffic densities. But the drawback of the approach is that it considers only the vehicle shape and pose variations in the road network and does not discuss about the occurrences of event at the vehicle junction points. Now we have to focus on the process of occurrences of event like accident met at traffic junctions. For this, in this work, spatial time invariant model is introduced to measure the event occurrences of the vehicle traffic location points. The event which has been takes place is recorded as the reference context for standardization of the traffic modality. With the reference context, the detector can easily find out the reason of the event takes place. An experimental evaluation is carried out to estimate the performance of the proposed event detection at vehicle location points using spatial time invariant model (EDSTIM in terms of spatial events, multiple time scales, traffic controlling time and compared with an existing model based on simple object recognition and localization and the previous work Surveillance of Vehicle Object Recognition and Localization.

  11. Off-Axis Orbits in Realistic Helical Wigglers Fixed Points and Time Averaged Dynamical Variables

    CERN Document Server

    ThomasDonohue, John

    2004-01-01

    Many years ago Fajans, Kirkpatrick and Bekefi studied off-axis orbits in a realistic helical wiggler, both experimentally and theoretically. They found that as the distance from the axis of symmetry to the guiding center increased, both the mean axial velocity and the precession frequency of the guiding center varied. . They proposed a clever semi-empirical model which yielded an excellent description of both these variations. We point out that a approximate model proposed by us several years ago can be made to predict these delicate effects correctly, provided we extend our truncated quadratic Hamiltonian to include appropriate cubic terms. We develop an argument similar to the virial theorem to compare time averaged and fixed-point values of dynamical variables. Illustrative comparisons of our model with numerical calculation are presented.

  12. A Real-Time Capable Software-Defined Receiver Using GPU for Adaptive Anti-Jam GPS Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Akos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to their weak received signal power, Global Positioning System (GPS signals are vulnerable to radio frequency interference. Adaptive beam and null steering of the gain pattern of a GPS antenna array can significantly increase the resistance of GPS sensors to signal interference and jamming. Since adaptive array processing requires intensive computational power, beamsteering GPS receivers were usually implemented using hardware such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs. However, a software implementation using general-purpose processors is much more desirable because of its flexibility and cost effectiveness. This paper presents a GPS software-defined radio (SDR with adaptive beamsteering capability for anti-jam applications. The GPS SDR design is based on an optimized desktop parallel processing architecture using a quad-core Central Processing Unit (CPU coupled with a new generation Graphics Processing Unit (GPU having massively parallel processors. This GPS SDR demonstrates sufficient computational capability to support a four-element antenna array and future GPS L5 signal processing in real time. After providing the details of our design and optimization schemes for future GPU-based GPS SDR developments, the jamming resistance of our GPS SDR under synthetic wideband jamming is presented. Since the GPS SDR uses commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and processors, it can be easily adopted in civil GPS applications requiring anti-jam capabilities.

  13. A real-time capable software-defined receiver using GPU for adaptive anti-jam GPS sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jiwon; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; De Lorenzo, David S; Lo, Sherman; Enge, Per; Akos, Dennis; Lee, Jiyun

    2011-01-01

    Due to their weak received signal power, Global Positioning System (GPS) signals are vulnerable to radio frequency interference. Adaptive beam and null steering of the gain pattern of a GPS antenna array can significantly increase the resistance of GPS sensors to signal interference and jamming. Since adaptive array processing requires intensive computational power, beamsteering GPS receivers were usually implemented using hardware such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). However, a software implementation using general-purpose processors is much more desirable because of its flexibility and cost effectiveness. This paper presents a GPS software-defined radio (SDR) with adaptive beamsteering capability for anti-jam applications. The GPS SDR design is based on an optimized desktop parallel processing architecture using a quad-core Central Processing Unit (CPU) coupled with a new generation Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) having massively parallel processors. This GPS SDR demonstrates sufficient computational capability to support a four-element antenna array and future GPS L5 signal processing in real time. After providing the details of our design and optimization schemes for future GPU-based GPS SDR developments, the jamming resistance of our GPS SDR under synthetic wideband jamming is presented. Since the GPS SDR uses commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and processors, it can be easily adopted in civil GPS applications requiring anti-jam capabilities.

  14. Large prospective study of ovarian cancer screening in high-risk women: CA125 cut-point defined by menopausal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skates, Steven J; Mai, Phuong; Horick, Nora K; Piedmonte, Marion; Drescher, Charles W; Isaacs, Claudine; Armstrong, Deborah K; Buys, Saundra S; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Horowitz, Ira R; Berchuck, Andrew; Daly, Mary B; Domchek, Susan; Cohn, David E; Van Le, Linda; Schorge, John O; Newland, William; Davidson, Susan A; Barnes, Mack; Brewster, Wendy; Azodi, Masoud; Nerenstone, Stacy; Kauff, Noah D; Fabian, Carol J; Sluss, Patrick M; Nayfield, Susan G; Kasten, Carol H; Finkelstein, Dianne M; Greene, Mark H; Lu, Karen

    2011-09-01

    Previous screening trials for early detection of ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women have used the standard CA125 cut-point of 35 U/mL, the 98th percentile in this population yielding a 2% false positive rate, whereas the same cut-point in trials of premenopausal women results in substantially higher false positive rates. We investigated demographic and clinical factors predicting CA125 distributions, including 98th percentiles, in a large population of high-risk women participating in two ovarian cancer screening studies with common eligibility criteria and screening protocols. Baseline CA125 values and clinical and demographic data from 3,692 women participating in screening studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute-sponsored Cancer Genetics Network and Gynecologic Oncology Group were combined for this preplanned analysis. Because of the large effect of menopausal status on CA125 levels, statistical analyses were conducted separately in pre- and postmenopausal subjects to determine the impact of other baseline factors on predicted CA125 cut-points on the basis of 98th percentile. The primary clinical factor affecting CA125 cut-points was menopausal status, with premenopausal women having a significantly higher cut-point of 50 U/mL, while in postmenopausal subjects the standard cut-point of 35 U/mL was recapitulated. In premenopausal women, current oral contraceptive (OC) users had a cut-point of 40 U/mL. To achieve a 2% false positive rate in ovarian cancer screening trials and in high-risk women choosing to be screened, the cut-point for initial CA125 testing should be personalized primarily for menopausal status (50 for premenopausal women, 40 for premenopausal on OC, and 35 for postmenopausal women).

  15. New real-time-PCR method to identify single point mutations in hepatitis C virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Belmonte, Irene; Buti, Maria; Nieto, Leonardo; Garcia-Cehic, Damir; Gregori, Josep; Perales, Celia; Ordeig, Laura; Llorens, Meritxell; Soria, Maria Eugenia; Esteban, Rafael; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco; Quer, Josep

    2016-01-01

    AIM To develop a fast, low-cost diagnostic strategy to identify single point mutations in highly variable genomes such as hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS In patients with HCV infection, resistance-associated amino acid substitutions within the viral quasispecies prior to therapy can confer decreased susceptibility to direct-acting antiviral agents and lead to treatment failure and virological relapse. One such naturally occurring mutation is the Q80K substitution in the HCV-NS3 protease gene, which confers resistance to PI inhibitors, particularly simeprevir. Low-cost, highly sensitive techniques enabling routine detection of these single point mutations would be useful to identify patients at a risk of treatment failure. LightCycler methods, based on real-time PCR with sequence-specific probe hybridization, have been implemented in most diagnostic laboratories. However, this technique cannot identify single point mutations in highly variable genetic environments, such as the HCV genome. To circumvent this problem, we developed a new method to homogenize all nucleotides present in a region except the point mutation of interest. RESULTS Using nucleotide-specific probes Q, K, and R substitutions at position 80 were clearly identified at a sensitivity of 10% (mutations present at a frequency of at least 10% were detected). The technique was successfully applied to identify the Q80K substitution in 240 HCV G1 serum samples, with performance comparable to that of direct Sanger sequencing, the current standard procedure for this purpose. The new method was then validated in a Catalonian population of 202 HCV G1-infected individuals. Q80K was detected in 14.6% of G1a patients and 0% of G1b in our setting. CONCLUSION A fast, low-cost diagnostic strategy based on real-time PCR and fluorescence resonance energy transfer probe melting curve analysis has been successfully developed to identify single point mutations in highly variable genomes such as hepatitis C virus. This

  16. Definable deduction relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉平

    1999-01-01

    The nonmonotonic deduction relation in default reasoning is defined with fixed point style, which has the many-extension property that classical logic is not possessed of. These two kinds of deductions both have boolean definability property, that is, their extensions or deductive closures can be defined by boolean formulas. A generalized form of fixed point method is employed to define a class of deduction relations, which all have the above property. Theorems on definability and atomless boolean algebras in model theory are essential in dealing with this assertion.

  17. Past Negative Time Perspective as a Predictor of Grade Point Average in Occupational Therapy Doctoral Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat J. Precin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Time perspective is a fundamental dimension in psychological time, dividing human experiences into past, present, and future. Time perspective influences individuals’ functioning in all occupations, including education. Previous research has examined the relationship between time perspective and academic outcomes, but the same research has not been done, to date, with occupational therapy doctoral students. This quantitative, cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between time perspective and academic success in occupational therapy doctoral students across the United States. Data from the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI and grade point averages (GPAs were collected from 50 participants via surveymonkey.com. Past Negative time perspective statistically predicted GPA in the negative direction (p = .001 for students in pre-professional OTD programs, but did not predict GPA for post-professional students. Age, gender, and learning environment did not significantly influence the prediction of GPA in either group. The method and results of this study demonstrate that the ZTPI, an instrument used in the field of psychology, may have value in the profession of occupational therapy and occupational therapy doctoral programs.

  18. Stability Analysis of Fixed points in a Parity-time symmetric coupler with Kerr nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Deka, Jyoti Prasad

    2016-01-01

    We report our study on nonlinear parity-time (PT) symmetric coupler from a dynamical perspective. In the linear regime, the differential equations governing the dynamics of the coupler, under some parametric changes, can be solved exactly. But with the inclusion of nonlinearity, analytical solution of the system is a rather complicated job. And the sensitiveness of the system on the initial conditions is yet another critical issue. To circumvent the situation, we have employed the mathematical framework of nonlinear dynamics. Considering the parity-time threshold of the linear PT-coupler as the reference point, we find that in nonlinear coupler the parity-time symmetric threshold governs the existence of fixed points. We have found that the stability of the ground state undergoes a phase transition when the gain/loss coefficient is increased from zero to beyond the PT threshold. In the unbroken PT regime, we find that the instabilities in the initial launch conditions can trigger an exponential growth and dec...

  19. An Investigation on the Contribution of GLONASS to the Precise Point Positioning for Short Time Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulug, R.; Ozludemir, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    After 2011, through the modernization process of GLONASS, the number of satellites increased rapidly. This progress has made the GLONASS the only fully operational system alternative to GPS in point positioning. So far, many researches have been conducted to investigate the contribution of GLONASS to point positioning considering different methods such as Real Time Kinematic (RTK) and Precise Point Positioning (PPP). The latter one, PPP, is a method that performs precise position determination using a single GNSS receiver. PPP method has become very attractive since the early 2000s and it provided great advantages for engineering and scientific applications. However, PPP method needs at least 2 hours observation time and the required observation length may be longer depending on several factors, such as the number of satellites, satellite configuration etc. The more satellites, the less observation time. Nevertheless the impact of the number of satellites included must be known very well. In this study, to determine the contribution of GLONASS on PPP, GLONASS satellite observations were added one by one from 1 to 5 satellite in 2, 4 and 6 hours of observations. For this purpose, the data collected at the IGS site ISTA was used. Data processing has been done for Day of Year (DOY) 197 in 2016. 24 hours GPS observations have been processed by Bernese 5.2 PPP module and the output was selected as the reference while 2, 4 and 6 hours GPS and GPS/GLONASS observations have been processed by magic GNSS PPP module. The results clearly showed that GPS/GLONASS observations improved positional accuracy, precision, dilution of precision and convergence to the reference coordinates. In this context, coordinate differences between 24 hours GPS observations and 6 hours GPS/GLONASS observations have been obtained as less than 2 cm.

  20. Association between time to disease progression end points and overall survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Simron Singh,1 Xufang Wang,2 Calvin HL Law1 1Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Novartis Oncology, Florham Park, NJ, USA Abstract: Overall survival can be difficult to determine for slowly progressing malignancies, such as neuroendocrine tumors. We investigated whether time to disease progression is positively associated with overall survival in patients with such tumors. A literature review identified 22 clinical trials in patients with neuroendocrine tumors that reported survival probabilities for both time to disease progression (progression-free survival and time to progression and overall survival. Associations between median time to disease progression and median overall survival and between treatment effects on time to disease progression and treatment effects on overall survival were analyzed using weighted least-squares regression. Median time to disease progression was significantly associated with median overall survival (coefficient 0.595; P=0.022. In the seven randomized studies identified, the risk reduction for time to disease progression was positively associated with the risk reduction for overall survival (coefficient on −ln[HR] 0.151; 95% confidence interval −0.843, 1.145; P=0.713. The significant association between median time to disease progression and median overall survival supports the assertion that time to disease progression is an alternative end point to overall survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. An apparent albeit not significant trend correlates treatment effects on time to disease progression and treatment effects on overall survival. Informal surveys of physicians’ perceptions are consistent with these concepts, although additional randomized trials are needed. Keywords: neuroendocrine tumors, progression-free survival, disease progression, mortality

  1. Leveraging the Power of Smartphones: Real Time Monitoring of Water Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ally S. Nyamawe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the world has become more sophisticated. Different aspects of today’s life has been digitized, this include; business, education, health, communication and numerous community services. With the existing extended coverage of cellular networks, most services are constantly deployed to be accessed via mobile phones, as they are also the most pervasive pocket carried devices. Though, both regular and smartphone can be used to convey the basics of mobile based services such as mobile banking, calling and text messaging, smartphone goes extra mile. While regular phones are still the better choice for some, smartphones are tremendously taking over the cellphone market. Smartphones are powered by the vast amount of mobile apps available today which offer unprecedented features and functionalities and as well more advanced internet connectivity. To ensure reliable, sufficient and safe water supply to public, the installed water points need to be well monitored. Quality and quantity parameters of water produced from the water points are constantly tracked to determine if they are within the acceptable range. In case of acute condition, the identified parameters need to be instantly communicated to the District Water Engineer (DWE for prompt intervention. In this paper we explore the popularity and advantages of smartphones and present a proposed prototype that exploit the power of smartphones in real time monitoring of water points.

  2. IWGT report on quantitative approaches to genotoxicity risk assessment I. Methods and metrics for defining exposure-response relationships and points of departure (PoDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the discussion, conclusions, and points of consensus of the IWGT Working Group on Quantitative Approaches to Genetic Toxicology Risk Assessment (QWG) based on a meeting in Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil October 31–November 2, 2013. Topics addressed incl...

  3. Numerical Time Integration Methods for a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Kramer, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this abstract is to provide a review of models for motion simulation of marine structures with a special emphasis on wave energy converters. The time-domain model is applied to a point absorber system working in pitch mode only. The device is similar to the well-known Wavestar...... float located in the Danish North Sea. The main objective is to produce a tool that can accurately simulate the dynamics of a floating structure with an arbitrary geometry provided the frequency domain coefficients are calculated beforehand. The latter calculation is based on linear fluid structure...... interaction (small deformations of the fluid surface and body), inviscid incompressible, irrotational flow and a linearized Euler-Bernoulli formulation of the fluid pressure. The time-domain analysis of a floating structure involves the calculation of a convolution integral between the impulse response...

  4. Real-time IP-hologram conversion hardware based on floating point DSPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Ryutaro; Mishina, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Kenji; Okui, Makoto

    2009-02-01

    Holography is a 3-D display method that fully satisfies the visual characteristics of the human eye. However, the hologram must be developed in a darkroom under laser illumination. We attempted hologram generation under white light by adopting an integral photography (IP) technique as the input. In this research, we developed a hardware converter to convert IP input (with 120×66 elemental images) to a hologram with high definition television (HDTV) resolution (approximately 2 million pixels). This conversion could be carried out in real time. In this conversion method, each elemental image can be independently extracted and processed. Our hardware contains twenty 300-MHz floating-point digital signal processors (DSPs) operating in parallel. We verified real-time conversion operations by the implemented hardware.

  5. Repair of Physiologic Time Series: Replacement of Anomalous Data Points to Preserve Fractal Exponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Lowen, Steven B.

    2017-01-01

    Extraction of fractal exponents via the slope of the power spectrum is common in the analysis of many physiological time series. The fractal structure thus characterized is a manifestation of long-term correlations, for which the temporal order of the sample values is crucial. However, missing data points due to artifacts and dropouts are common in such data sets, which can seriously disrupt the computation of fractal parameters. We evaluated a number of methods for replacing missing data in time series to enable reliable extraction of the fractal exponent and make recommendations as to the preferred replacement method depending on the proportion of missing values and any a priori estimate of the fractal exponent. PMID:28271060

  6. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, N.

    2016-05-27

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  7. Real-time gesture recognition by learning and selective control of visual interest points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirishima, Toshiyuki; Sato, Kosuke; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2005-03-01

    For the real-time recognition of unspecified gestures by an arbitrary person, a comprehensive framework is presented that addresses two important problems in gesture recognition systems: selective attention and processing frame rate. To address the first problem, we propose the Quadruple Visual Interest Point Strategy. No assumptions are made with regard to scale or rotation of visual features, which are computed from dynamically changing regions of interest in a given image sequence. In this paper, each of the visual features is referred to as a visual interest point, to which a probability density function is assigned, and the selection is carried out. To address the second problem, we developed a selective control method to equip the recognition system with self-load monitoring and controlling functionality. Through evaluation experiments, we show that our approach provides robust recognition with respect to such factors as type of clothing, type of gesture, extent of motion trajectories, and individual differences in motion characteristics. In order to indicate the real-time performance and utility aspects of our approach, a gesture video system is developed that demonstrates full video-rate interaction with displayed image objects.

  8. Scattering experiments with microwave billiards at an exceptional point under broken time-reversal invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, S; Dietz, B; Harney, H L; Miski-Oglu, M; Richter, A; Schäfer, F

    2014-03-01

    Scattering experiments with microwave cavities were performed and the effects of broken time-reversal invariance (TRI), induced by means of a magnetized ferrite placed inside the cavity, on an isolated doublet of nearly degenerate resonances were investigated. All elements of the effective Hamiltonian of this two-level system were extracted. As a function of two experimental parameters, the doublet and the associated eigenvectors could be tuned to coalesce at a so-called exceptional point (EP). The behavior of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors when encircling the EP in parameter space was studied, including the geometric amplitude that builds up in the case of broken TRI. A one-dimensional subspace of parameters was found where the differences of the eigenvalues are either real or purely imaginary. There, the Hamiltonians were found to be PT invariant under the combined operation of parity (P) and time reversal (T) in a generalized sense. The EP is the point of transition between both regions. There a spontaneous breaking of PT occurs.

  9. Optimizing the diagnostic power with gastric emptying scintigraphy at multiple time points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Byron J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy (GES at intervals over 4 hours after a standardized radio-labeled meal is commonly regarded as the gold standard for diagnosing gastroparesis. The objectives of this study were: 1 to investigate the best time point and the best combination of multiple time points for diagnosing gastroparesis with repeated GES measures, and 2 to contrast and cross-validate Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, a rank based Distribution Free (DF approach, and the Classification And Regression Tree (CART model. Methods A total of 320 patients with GES measures at 1, 2, 3, and 4 hour (h after a standard meal using a standardized method were retrospectively collected. Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve and the rate of false classification through jackknife cross-validation were used for model comparison. Results Due to strong correlation and an abnormality in data distribution, no substantial improvement in diagnostic power was found with the best linear combination by LDA approach even with data transformation. With DF method, the linear combination of 4-h and 3-h increased the Area Under the Curve (AUC and decreased the number of false classifications (0.87; 15.0% over individual time points (0.83, 0.82; 15.6%, 25.3%, for 4-h and 3-h, respectively at a higher sensitivity level (sensitivity = 0.9. The CART model using 4 hourly GES measurements along with patient's age was the most accurate diagnostic tool (AUC = 0.88, false classification = 13.8%. Patients having a 4-h gastric retention value >10% were 5 times more likely to have gastroparesis (179/207 = 86.5% than those with ≤10% (18/113 = 15.9%. Conclusions With a mixed group of patients either referred with suspected gastroparesis or investigated for other reasons, the CART model is more robust than the LDA and DF approaches, capable of accommodating covariate effects and can be generalized for cross institutional applications, but

  10. The risk of AIDS-defining events is decreasing over time in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altmann Mathias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With ageing of the HIV-infected population, long-term exposure to treatment, varying adherence, emerging resistance and complications to therapies, effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART needs to be monitored continuously at the population level. The German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort is a multi-centre, open, long-term observational cohort including patients with a known or reliably estimated date of HIV-infection i.e. last negative and first positive HIV antibody test within a maximum three-year interval or laboratory evidence of seroconversion. Our study aims to investigate survival improvements and changes in AIDS risk over calendar periods in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort. Methods Retrospective (for the pre-1997 period and prospective (since 1997 data from the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort were used. Time from seroconversion to first AIDS-defining event over calendar periods was analysed by using Cox models adjusting for age at seroconversion, sex, transmission groups and short HIV test interval. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to determine expected survival (remaining AIDS-free by calendar period. Results 2162 seroconverters with 8976 person-years of observation were included in our analysis (up to 31.12.2010. A total of 196 first AIDSdefining events were reported. Two periods i.e. 19972000 and 2007-2010 were statistically associated with a reduction in the risk of AIDS, accounting for an overall reduction of 80%. Compared to1997-2000, hazard ratios were 2.6 (95%CI, 1.6-4.8; p=0.000 in pre-1997 and 0.5 (95%CI, 0.3-0.8; p=0.007 in 20072010. Independent risk factor for AIDS progression was age at seroconversion (HR, 1.3 per 10year-increase; p=0.001. Conclusion HAART effectiveness has improved in the German HIV-1-Seroconverter Cohort. The risk to develop AIDS decreased significantly in 19972000 and in 20072010. However, elderly may require particular monitoring in view of their faster

  11. Comparison of Result Times Between Urine and Whole Blood Point-of-care Pregnancy Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Michael; Wnek, Kristopher; Moskoff, Jordan; Christian, Errick; Bailitz, John

    2016-07-01

    Point-of-care (POC) pregnancy testing is commonly performed in the emergency department (ED). One prior study demonstrated equivalent accuracy between urine and whole blood for one common brand of POC pregnancy testing. Our study sought to determine the difference in result times when comparing whole blood versus urine for the same brand of POC pregnancy testing. We conducted a prospective, observational study at an urban, academic, tertiary care hospital comparing the turnaround time between order and result for urine and whole blood pregnancy tests collected according to standard protocol without intervention from the investigators. After the blood was collected, the nurse would place three drops onto a Beckman Coulter ICON 25 Rapid HCG bedside pregnancy test and set a timer for 10 minutes. At the end of the 10 minutes, the result and time were recorded on an encoded data sheet and not used clinically. The same make and model analyzer was also used for urine tests in the lab located within the ED. The primary outcome was the difference in mean turnaround time between whole blood in the ED and urine testing in the adjacent lab results. Concordance between samples was assessed as a secondary outcome. 265 total patients were included in the study. The use of whole blood resulted in a mean time savings of 21 minutes (95% CI 16-25 minutes) when compared with urine (presults, with one false negative urine specimen with a quantitative HCG level of 81 mIU/L. Our results suggest that the use of whole blood in place of urine for bedside pregnancy testing may reduce the total result turnaround time without significant changes in accuracy in this single-center study.

  12. Defining excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, B

    1993-05-01

    Excellence in the pharmacy profession, particularly pharmacy management, is defined. Several factors have a significant effect on the ability to reach a given level of excellence. The first is the economic and political climate in which pharmacists practice. Stricter controls, reduced resources, and the velocity of change all necessitate nurturing of values and a work ethic to maintain excellence. Excellence must be measured by the services provided with regard to the resources available; thus, the ability to achieve excellence is a true test of leadership and innovation. Excellence is also time dependent, and today's innovation becomes tomorrow's standard. Programs that raise the level of patient care, not those that aggrandize the profession, are the most important. In addition, basic services must be practiced at a level of excellence. Quality assessment is a way to improve care and bring medical treatment to a higher plane of excellence. For such assessment to be effective and not punitive, the philosophy of the program must be known, and the goal must be clear. Excellence in practice is dependent on factors such as political and social norms, standards of practice, available resources; perceptions, time, the motivation to progress to a higher level, and the continuous innovation required to reshape the profession to meet the needs of society.

  13. Non-AIDS defining cancers in the D:A:D Study--time trends and predictors of survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe W; Bower, Mark; Reiss, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Using data from a large international cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we described the incidence of NADC from 2004-2010, and described subsequent mortality and predictors of these....

  14. Estimation of main diversification time-points of hantaviruses using phylogenetic analyses of complete genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Guillaume; Tordo, Noël; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2017-04-02

    Because of the great variability of their reservoir hosts, hantaviruses are excellent models to evaluate the dynamics of virus-host co-evolution. Intriguing questions remain about the timescale of the diversification events that influenced this evolution. In this paper we attempted to estimate the first ever timing of hantavirus diversification based on thirty five available complete genomes representing five major groups of hantaviruses and the assumption of co-speciation of hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts. Phylogenetic analyses were used to estimate the main diversification points during hantavirus evolution in mammals while host diversification was mostly estimated from independent calibrators taken from fossil records. Our results support an earlier developed hypothesis of co-speciation of known hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts and hence a common ancestor for all hantaviruses carried by placental mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence of Invariance of Time Scale at Critical Point in Ising Meanfield Equilibrium Equation of State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muktish Acharyya; Ajanta Bhowal Acharyya

    2011-01-01

    We solve the equilibrium meanfield equation of state of Ising ferromagnet (obtained from Bragg-Williams theory) by Newton-Raphson method.The number of iterations required to get a convergent solution (within a specified accuracy) of equilibrium magnetisation, at any particular temperature, is observed to diverge in a power law fashion as the temperature approaches the critical value.This is identified as the critical slowing down.The exponent is also estimated.This value of the exponent is compared with that obtained from analytic solution.Besides this, the numerical results are also compared with some experimental results exhibiting satisfactory degree of agreement.It is observed from this study that the information of the invariance of time scale at the critical point is present in the meanfield equilibrium equation of state of Ising ferromagnet.

  16. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinjun; Zou, Yajie; Ash, John; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai

    2016-01-01

    Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed) collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN), two learning processes are proposed: (1) a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2) a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute relative error (MARE) are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR), instantaneous model (IM), linear model (LM), neural network (NN), and cumulative plots (CP).

  17. Real-time Precise Point Positioning with Ambiguity Resolution for Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J.; Meng, X.; Teferle, F. N.; Dodson, A. H.; Ge, M.; Shi, C.; Liu, J.

    2009-04-01

    Real-time provision of information on large scale crustal deformation during an earthquake can be crucial in assessing property damage and managing relief operations. Moreover, such a real-time monitoring system may even lead to the accurate prediction of earthquakes in future and help the subsequent studies on the mechanism involved. During the past two decades, Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements have been extensively applied to investigate such processes in the geosciences. Precise point positioning (PPP) using GPS based on single stations can achieve comparable accuracies to conventional relative positioning, when precise satellite orbits and clocks, and Earth rotation products are used. Thus, PPP does not need any reference stations to achieve high positioning accuracy, e.g. at the millimetre level in static and centimetre level in kinematic applications. This has both technical and economic advantages and may be the only feasible option in some specific applications such as Tsunami early warning systems. However, unlike relative positioning, PPP suffers from unresolved integer ambiguities, which prevented further accuracy improvements within short observation periods or in real-time. On account of the great potential of PPP, we developed a prototype real-time PPP system which also employs ambiguity resolution at a single station. This development is based on the PANDA (Positioning And Navigation Data Analyst) software, which was originally developed at Wuhan University in China, and has been significantly refined by the authors. To assess this system, about 30 stations from the EUREF Permanent Network Internet Protocol (EUREF-IP) pilot project are used to produce the real-time satellite clocks, with satellite orbits and Earth rotation parameters (ERP) fixed to the predicted part of the IGS (International GNSS Service) ultra-rapid products. This is followed by the estimation of the uncalibrated hardware delays (UHD), which are crucial in resolving the

  18. Neuromorphic implementation of a software-defined camera that can see through fire and smoke in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae H.; Abbott, A. Lynn; Szu, Harold H.; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Krapels, Keith A.

    2014-05-01

    Software-defined Cameras (SDC) based on Boltzmann's molecular thermodynamics can "see" through visually-degraded fields such as fire, fog, and dust in some situations. This capability is possible by means of unsupervised learning implemented on a neuromorphic algo-tecture. This paper describes the SDC algorithm design strategy with respect to nontrivial solutions, stability, and accuracy. An example neuromorphic learning algorithm is presented along with unsupervised learning stopping criteria.

  19. On pole-placement controllers for linear time-delay systems with commensurate point delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Sen M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the exact and approximate spectrum assignment properties associated with realizable output-feedback pole-placement-type controllers for single-input single-output linear time-invariant time-delay systems with commensurate point delays. The controller synthesis problem is discussed through the solvability of a set of coupled Diophantine equations of polynomials. An extra complexity is incorporated in the above design to cancel extra unsuitable dynamics being generated when solving the above Diophantine equations. Thus, the complete controller tracks any arbitrary prefixed (either finite or delay-dependent closed-loop spectrum. However, if the controller is simplified by deleting the above-mentioned extra complexity, then robust stability and approximated spectrum assignment are still achievable for a certain sufficiently small amount of delayed dynamics. Finally, the approximate spectrum assignment and robust stability problems are revisited under plant disturbances if the nominal controller is maintained. In the current approach, the finite spectrum assignment is only considered as a particular case of the designer's choice of a (delay-dependent arbitrary spectrum assignment objective.

  20. POLE PLACEMENT CONTROLLERS FOR LINEAR TIME-DELAY SYSTEMS WITH COMMENSURATE POINT DELAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. de la Sen

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the exact and approximate spectrum assignment properties associated with realizable output-feedback pole-placement type controllers for single-input single-output linear time-invariant time-delay systems with commensurate point delays. The controller synthesis problem is discussed through the solvability of a set of coupled diophantine equations of polynomials. An extra complexity is incorporated to the above design to cancel extra unsuitable dynamics being generated when solving the above diophantine equations. Thus, the complete controller tracks any arbitrary prefixed (either finite or delaydependent) closed-loop spectrum. However, if the controller is simplified by deleting the above mentioned extra complexity, then the robust stability and approximated spectrum assignment are still achievable for a certain sufficiently small amount of delayed dynamics. Finally, the approximate spectrum assignment and robust stability problems are revisited under plant disturbances if the nominal controller is maintained. In the current approach, the finite spectrum assignment is only considered as a particular case to the designer's choice of a (delay-dependent) arbitrary spectrum assignment objective.

  1. Terahertz time domain interferometry of a SIS tunnel junction and a quantum point contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadi, Chandu [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-09-01

    The author has applied the Terahertz Time Domain Interferometric (THz-TDI) technique to probe the ultrafast dynamic response of a Superconducting-Insulating-Superconducting (SIS) tunnel junction and a Quantum Point Contact (QPC). The THz-TDI technique involves monitoring changes in the dc current induced by interfering two picosecond electrical pulses on the junction as a function of time delay between them. Measurements of the response of the Nb/AlOxNb SIS tunnel junction from 75--200 GHz are in full agreement with the linear theory for photon-assisted tunneling. Likewise, measurements of the induced current in a QPC as a function of source-drain voltage, gate voltage, frequency, and magnetic field also show strong evidence for photon-assisted transport. These experiments together demonstrate the general applicability of the THz-TDI technique to the characterization of the dynamic response of any micron or nanometer scale device that exhibits a non-linear I-V characteristic.

  2. Determining Influenza Virus Shedding at Different Time Points in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Abdoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Monitoring of influenza virus shedding and optimization of multiplicities of infection (MOI is important in the investigation of a virus one step growth cycle and for obtaining a high yield of virus in vaccine development and conventional basic diagnostic methods. However, eluted infectious viruses may still be present immediately after virus inoculation and when cells are washed following virus cultivation which may lead to a false positive virus infectivity assay.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we investigated influenza virus progeny production in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells with five different MOI at determined time points. The results were analyzed by end point titration tests and immunofluorescence assay.Results: Higher titers of eluted virus were observed following a high MOI inoculation of virus in cell culture. Most probably, this was the result of sialic acid residues from viral hemagglutin in proteins that were cleaved by neuraminidase glycoproteins on the surface of the influenza virus, which promoted viral spread from the host cell to the culture supernatant or during endocytosis, where viruses recycle to the cell surface by recycling endosomes which culminated in virus shedding without replication.Conclusion: We demonstrated that the pattern of influenza virus progeny production was dose-dependent and not uniform. This production was influenced by several factors, particularly MOI. Understanding the exact features of viral particle propagation has a major impact in producing high virus yields in the development of vaccines. Use of lower MOI (0.01 could result in accurate, precise quantitative assays in virus diagnosis and titration methods.

  3. Quantitation of the a priori dosimetric capabilities of spatial points in inverse planning and its significant implication in defining IMRT solution space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Cotrutz, C.; Levy, D.; Xing, Lei

    2005-04-01

    In inverse planning, the likelihood for the points in a target or sensitive structure to meet their dosimetric goals is generally heterogeneous and represents the a priori knowledge of the system once the patient and beam configuration are chosen. Because of this intrinsic heterogeneity, in some extreme cases, a region in a target may never meet the prescribed dose without seriously deteriorating the doses in other areas. Conversely, the prescription in a region may be easily met without violating the tolerance of any sensitive structure. In this work, we introduce the concept of dosimetric capability to quantify the a priori information and develop a strategy to integrate the data into the inverse planning process. An iterative algorithm is implemented to numerically compute the capability distribution on a case specific basis. A method of incorporating the capability data into inverse planning is developed by heuristically modulating the importance of the individual voxels according to the a priori capability distribution. The formalism is applied to a few specific examples to illustrate the technical details of the new inverse planning technique. Our study indicates that the dosimetric capability is a useful concept to better understand the complex inverse planning problem and an effective use of the information allows us to construct a clinically more meaningful objective function to improve IMRT dose optimization techniques. Part of this work was presented in the 14th International Conference on the Use of Computers in Radiation Therapy, Seoul, Korea, 2004.

  4. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Tang

    Full Text Available Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN, two learning processes are proposed: (1 a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2 a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE, root mean square error (RMSE, and mean absolute relative error (MARE are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR, instantaneous model (IM, linear model (LM, neural network (NN, and cumulative plots (CP.

  5. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinjun; Zou, Yajie; Ash, John; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai

    2016-01-01

    Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed) collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN), two learning processes are proposed: (1) a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2) a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute relative error (MARE) are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR), instantaneous model (IM), linear model (LM), neural network (NN), and cumulative plots (CP). PMID:26829639

  6. Computational time reduction for sequential batch solutions in GNSS precise point positioning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Furones, Angel; Anquela Julián, Ana Belén; Dimas-Pages, Alejandro; Cos-Gayón, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) is a well established Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technique that only requires information from the receiver (or rover) to obtain high-precision position coordinates. This is a very interesting and promising technique because eliminates the need for a reference station near the rover receiver or a network of reference stations, thus reducing the cost of a GNSS survey. From a computational perspective, there are two ways to solve the system of observation equations produced by static PPP either in a single step (so-called batch adjustment) or with a sequential adjustment/filter. The results of each should be the same if they are both well implemented. However, if a sequential solution (that is, not only the final coordinates, but also those observed in previous GNSS epochs), is needed, as for convergence studies, finding a batch solution becomes a very time consuming task owing to the need for matrix inversion that accumulates with each consecutive epoch. This is not a problem for the filter solution, which uses information computed in the previous epoch for the solution of the current epoch. Thus filter implementations need extra considerations of user dynamics and parameter state variations between observation epochs with appropriate stochastic update parameter variances from epoch to epoch. These filtering considerations are not needed in batch adjustment, which makes it attractive. The main objective of this research is to significantly reduce the computation time required to obtain sequential results using batch adjustment. The new method we implemented in the adjustment process led to a mean reduction in computational time by 45%.

  7. Voronoi distance based prospective space-time scans for point data sets: a dengue fever cluster analysis in a southeast Brazilian town

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The Prospective Space-Time scan statistic (PST) is widely used for the evaluation of space-time clusters of point event data. Usually a window of cylindrical shape is employed, with a circular or elliptical base in the space domain. Recently, the concept of Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) was applied to specify the set of potential clusters, through the Density-Equalizing Euclidean MST (DEEMST) method, for the detection of arbitrarily shaped clusters. The original map is cartogram transformed, such that the control points are spread uniformly. That method is quite effective, but the cartogram construction is computationally expensive and complicated. Results A fast method for the detection and inference of point data set space-time disease clusters is presented, the Voronoi Based Scan (VBScan). A Voronoi diagram is built for points representing population individuals (cases and controls). The number of Voronoi cells boundaries intercepted by the line segment joining two cases points defines the Voronoi distance between those points. That distance is used to approximate the density of the heterogeneous population and build the Voronoi distance MST linking the cases. The successive removal of edges from the Voronoi distance MST generates sub-trees which are the potential space-time clusters. Finally, those clusters are evaluated through the scan statistic. Monte Carlo replications of the original data are used to evaluate the significance of the clusters. An application for dengue fever in a small Brazilian city is presented. Conclusions The ability to promptly detect space-time clusters of disease outbreaks, when the number of individuals is large, was shown to be feasible, due to the reduced computational load of VBScan. Instead of changing the map, VBScan modifies the metric used to define the distance between cases, without requiring the cartogram construction. Numerical simulations showed that VBScan has higher power of detection, sensitivity and positive

  8. Voronoi distance based prospective space-time scans for point data sets: a dengue fever cluster analysis in a southeast Brazilian town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Ricardo HC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Prospective Space-Time scan statistic (PST is widely used for the evaluation of space-time clusters of point event data. Usually a window of cylindrical shape is employed, with a circular or elliptical base in the space domain. Recently, the concept of Minimum Spanning Tree (MST was applied to specify the set of potential clusters, through the Density-Equalizing Euclidean MST (DEEMST method, for the detection of arbitrarily shaped clusters. The original map is cartogram transformed, such that the control points are spread uniformly. That method is quite effective, but the cartogram construction is computationally expensive and complicated. Results A fast method for the detection and inference of point data set space-time disease clusters is presented, the Voronoi Based Scan (VBScan. A Voronoi diagram is built for points representing population individuals (cases and controls. The number of Voronoi cells boundaries intercepted by the line segment joining two cases points defines the Voronoi distance between those points. That distance is used to approximate the density of the heterogeneous population and build the Voronoi distance MST linking the cases. The successive removal of edges from the Voronoi distance MST generates sub-trees which are the potential space-time clusters. Finally, those clusters are evaluated through the scan statistic. Monte Carlo replications of the original data are used to evaluate the significance of the clusters. An application for dengue fever in a small Brazilian city is presented. Conclusions The ability to promptly detect space-time clusters of disease outbreaks, when the number of individuals is large, was shown to be feasible, due to the reduced computational load of VBScan. Instead of changing the map, VBScan modifies the metric used to define the distance between cases, without requiring the cartogram construction. Numerical simulations showed that VBScan has higher power of detection

  9. Real Time Precise Point Positioning: Preliminary Results for the Brazilian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João.; Hirokazu Shimabukuro, Milton; Aquino, Marcio

    2010-05-01

    GNSS positioning can be carried out in relative or absolute approach. In the last years, more attention has been driven to the real time precise point positioning (PPP). To achieve centimeter accuracy with this method in real time it is necessary to have available the satellites precise coordinates as well as satellites clocks corrections. The coordinates can be used from the predicted IGU ephemeris, but the satellites clocks must be estimated in a real time. It can be made from a GNSS network as can be seen from EUREF Permanent Network. The infra-structure to realize the PPP in real time is being available in Brazil through the Brazilian Continuous Monitoring Network (RBMC) together with the Sao Paulo State GNSS network which are transmitting GNSS data using NTRIP (Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol) caster. Based on this information it was proposed a PhD thesis in the Univ. Estadual Paulista (UNESP) aiming to investigate and develop the methodology to estimate the satellites clocks and realize PPP in real time. Then, software is being developed to process GNSS data in the real time PPP mode. A preliminary version of the software was called PPP_RT and is able to process GNSS code and phase data using precise ephemeris and satellites clocks. The PPP processing can be accomplished considering the absolute satellite antenna Phase Center Variation (PCV), Ocean Tide Loading (OTL), Earth Body Tide, among others. The first order ionospheric effects can be eliminated or minimized by ion-free combination or parameterized in the receiver-satellite direction using a stochastic process, e.g. random walk or white noise. In the case of ionosphere estimation, a pseudo-observable is introduced in the mathematical model for each satellite and the initial value can be computed from Klobuchar model or from Global Ionospheric Map (GIM). The adjustment is realized in the recursive mode and the DIA (Detection Identification and Adaptation) is used for quality control. In

  10. Both Earlier Times and the Future Are "Front": The Distinction Between Time- and Ego-Reference-Points in Mandarin Speakers' Temporal Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chengli; Zhao, Mengya; Chen, Lei

    2017-09-28

    Mandarin speakers, like most other language speakers around the world, use spatial terms to talk about time. However, the direction of their mental temporal representation along the front-back axis remains controversial because they use the spatial term "front" to refer to both earlier times (e.g., front-year means "the year before last") and the future (e.g., front-road means "prospect"). Although the linguistic distinction between time- and ego-reference-point spatiotemporal metaphors in Mandarin suggests a promising clarification of the above controversy, there is little empirical evidence verifying this distinction. In this study, Mandarin speakers' time- and ego-reference-point temporal representations on three axes (i.e., sagittal, lateral, and vertical) were separately examined through two tasks. In a time-reference-point task, Mandarin speakers judged whether the time point of the second picture was earlier or later than the time point of the first picture, while in an ego-reference-point task, they judged whether an event or phase had happened in the past or would happen in the future. The results indicate that Mandarin speakers construe an earlier-times-in-front-of-later-times temporal sequence and adopt the front-to-the-future orientation. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Stare and chase of space debris targets using real-time derived pointing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindorfer, Michael A.; Kirchner, Georg; Koidl, Franz; Wang, Peiyuan; Antón, Alfredo; Fernández Sánchez, Jaime; Merz, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    We successfully demonstrate Stare & Chase: Space debris laser ranging to uncooperative targets has been achieved without a priori knowledge of any orbital information. An analog astronomy CCD with a standard objective, piggyback mounted on our 50 cm Graz SLR receive telescope, 'stares' into the sky in a fixed direction. The CCD records the stellar background within a field of view of approx. 7°. From the stellar X/Y positions on the sensor a plate solving algorithm determines the pointing data of the image center with an accuracy of approx. 15 arc seconds. If a sunlit target passes through this field of view, its equatorial coordinates are calculated, stored and a Consolidated Prediction Format (CPF) file is created in near real time. The derived CPF data is used to start laser ranging ('chase' the object) within the same pass to retrieve highly accurate distance information. A comparison of Stare & Chase CPFs with standard TLE predictions shows the possibilities and limits of this method.

  12. Combining point context and dynamic time warping for online gesture recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xia; Li, Chen

    2017-05-01

    Previous gesture recognition methods usually focused on recognizing gestures after the entire gesture sequences were obtained. However, in many practical applications, a system has to identify gestures before they end to give instant feedback. We present an online gesture recognition approach that can realize early recognition of unfinished gestures with low latency. First, a curvature buffer-based point context (CBPC) descriptor is proposed to extract the shape feature of a gesture trajectory. The CBPC descriptor is a complete descriptor with a simple computation, and thus has its superiority in online scenarios. Then, we introduce an online windowed dynamic time warping algorithm to realize online matching between the ongoing gesture and the template gestures. In the algorithm, computational complexity is effectively decreased by adding a sliding window to the accumulative distance matrix. Lastly, the experiments are conducted on the Australian sign language data set and the Kinect hand gesture (KHG) data set. Results show that the proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods especially when gesture information is incomplete.

  13. Distinguished hyperbolic trajectories in time-dependent fluid flows: analytical and computational approach for velocity fields defined as data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ide

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop analytical and numerical methods for finding special hyperbolic trajectories that govern geometry of Lagrangian structures in time-dependent vector fields. The vector fields (or velocity fields may have arbitrary time dependence and be realized only as data sets over finite time intervals, where space and time are discretized. While the notion of a hyperbolic trajectory is central to dynamical systems theory, much of the theoretical developments for Lagrangian transport proceed under the assumption that such a special hyperbolic trajectory exists. This brings in new mathematical issues that must be addressed in order for Lagrangian transport theory to be applicable in practice, i.e. how to determine whether or not such a trajectory exists and, if it does exist, how to identify it in a sequence of instantaneous velocity fields. We address these issues by developing the notion of a distinguished hyperbolic trajectory (DHT. We develop an existence criteria for certain classes of DHTs in general time-dependent velocity fields, based on the time evolution of Eulerian structures that are observed in individual instantaneous fields over the entire time interval of the data set. We demonstrate the concept of DHTs in inhomogeneous (or "forced" time-dependent linear systems and develop a theory and analytical formula for computing DHTs. Throughout this work the notion of linearization is very important. This is not surprising since hyperbolicity is a "linearized" notion. To extend the analytical formula to more general nonlinear time-dependent velocity fields, we develop a series of coordinate transforms including a type of linearization that is not typically used in dynamical systems theory. We refer to it as Eulerian linearization, which is related to the frame independence of DHTs, as opposed to the Lagrangian linearization, which is typical in dynamical systems theory, which is used in the computation of Lyapunov exponents. We

  14. Defining 5S rRNA structure space: point mutation data can be used to predict the phenotype of multichange variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Madhavi; Fox, George E

    2011-09-01

    A portion of the 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) structure space in the vicinity of the Vibrio proteolyticus 5S rRNA sequence is explored in detail with the intention of establishing principles that will allow a priori prediction of which sequences would be valid members of a particular RNA structure space. Four hundred and one sequence variants differing from the V. proteolyticus 5S rRNA wild-type sequence in 1-7 positions were characterized using an in vivo assay system. Most significantly, it was found that in general, the phenotypic effects of single changes were independent of the phenotypic effect of a second change. As a result, it was possible to use the new data in conjunction with results from prior studies of the same RNA to develop "truth tables" to predict which multiple change variants would be functional and which would be nonfunctional. The actual phenotype of 93.8% of the multichange variants studied was consistent with the predictions made using truth tables thereby providing for perhaps the first time an upper limit estimate of how frequent unexpected interactions are. It was also observed that single changes at positions involved in secondary structure were no more likely to be invalid than changes in other regions. In particular, internal changes in long standard stems were in fact almost always tolerated. Changes at positions that were hypervariable in the context of an alignment of related sequences were, as expected, usually found to be valid. However, the potential validity of changes that were idiosyncratic to a single lineage of related sequences when placed in the V. proteolyticus 5S rRNA context was unpredictable.

  15. Time trends and predictors of mortality from ill-defined causes in old age: 9 year follow-up of the Bambuí cohort study (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Matos, Divane Leite; Laurenti, Ruy; Mello-Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de; Cesar, Cibele Comini

    2010-03-01

    The study objective was to examine differentials in time trends and predictors of deaths assigned to symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions in comparison with other ill-defined conditions (ill-defined cardiovascular diseases, cancer and injury) in a population-based cohort study. Of 1,606 baseline participants aged 60 years and over, 524 died during 9-year follow-up and were included in this study. Deaths coded to "symptoms" declined by 77% in the period from 1997-1999 to 2003-2005. Deaths coded to other ill-defined conditions remained unchanged. The calendar period 2003-2005 (RR = 0.25; 95%CI: 0.09-0.70) and in-hospital deaths (RR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.08-0.34) were independently associated with "symptoms", but not with other ill-defined conditions. Baseline socio-demographic characteristics and chronic diseases were not predictors of these outcomes. International and national agencies have focused on the reduction of deaths assigned to "symptoms" to improve the registration of vital statistics, while other ill-defined conditions have received little attention. Our data provide evidence supporting the need to redress this situation.

  16. GNSS related periodic signals in coordinate time-series from Precise Point Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraha, K. E.; Teferle, F. N.; Hunegnaw, A.; Dach, R.

    2017-03-01

    In Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) coordinate time-series unrecognized errors and unmodelled (periodic) effects may bias nonlinear motions induced by geophysical signals. Hence, understanding and mitigating these errors is vital to reducing biases and on revealing subtle geophysical signals. To assess the nature of periodic signals in coordinate time-series Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solutions for the period 2008-2015 are generated. The solutions consider Global Positioning System (GPS), GLObalnaya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) or combined GPS+GLONASS (GNSS) observations. We assess the periodic signals of station coordinates computed using the combined International GNSS Service (IGS) and four of its Analysis Centers (ACs) products. Furthermore, we make use of different filtering methods to investigate the sources of the periodic signals. A faint fortnightly signal in our PPP solution based on Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) products and the existence of an 8 d period for those ACs generating combined GPS+GLONASS products are the main features in the GPS-only solutions. The existence of the 8 d period in the GPS-only solution indicates that GPS orbits computed in a combined GNSS solution contain GLONASS-specific signals. The GLONASS-only solution shows highly elevated powers at the third draconitic harmonic (˜120 d period), at the 8 d period and its harmonics (4 d, 2.67 d) besides the well-known annual, semi-annual and other draconitic harmonics. We show that the GLONASS constellation gaps before December 2011 contribute to the power at some of the frequencies. However, the well-known fortnightly signal in GPS-only solutions is not discernible in the GLONASS-only solution. The combined GNSS solution contains periodic signals from both systems, with most of the powers being reduced when compared to the single-GNSS solutions. A 52 per cent reduction for the horizontal components and a 36 per cent reduction for the vertical component

  17. Perceptual inequality between two neighboring time intervals defined by sound markers: correspondence between neurophysiological and psychological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako eMitsudo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain activity related to time estimation processes in humans was analyzed using a perceptual phenomenon called auditory temporal assimilation. In a typical stimulus condition, two neighboring time intervals (T1 and T2 in this order are perceived as equal even when the physical lengths of these time intervals are considerably different. Our previous event-related potential (ERP study demonstrated that a slow negative component (SNCt appears in the right-frontal brain area (around the F8 electrode after T2, which is associated with judgment of the equality/inequality of T1 and T2. In the present study, we conducted two ERP experiments to further confirm the robustness of the SNCt. The stimulus patterns consisted of two neighboring time intervals marked by three successive tone bursts. Thirteen participants only listened to the patterns in the first session, and judged the equality/inequality of T1 and T2 in the next session. Behavioral data showed typical temporal assimilation. The ERP data revealed that three components (N1; contingent negative variation, CNV; and SNCt emerged related to the temporal judgment. The N1 appeared in the central area, and its peak latencies corresponded to the physical timing of each marker onset. The CNV component appeared in the frontal area during T2 presentation, and its amplitude increased as a function of T1. The SNCt appeared in the right-frontal area after the presentation of T1 and T2, and its magnitude was larger for the temporal patterns causing perceptual inequality. The SNCt was also correlated with the perceptual equality/inequality of the same stimulus pattern, and continued up to about 400 ms after the end of T2. These results suggest that the SNCt can be a signature of equality/inequality judgment, which derives from the comparison of the two neighboring time intervals.

  18. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas, 75390 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. Methods: The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced

  19. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  20. Transabdominal Ultrasonography-Defined Optimal and Definitive Bladder-Filling Protocol With Time Trends During Pelvic Radiation for Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Mahantshetty; Kumar, Deepak P; Chadha, Pranav; Choudary, Rajiv; Kembhavi, Seema; Thakur, Meenakshi; Reena, Engineer; Chopra, Supriya; Shrivastava, Shyamkishore

    2017-01-01

    Advanced radiotherapy techniques have emphasized on the importance of accurate target volume localization and delineation. The aim of this study was to determine time taken to achieve moderate bladder volume under physiological conditions, using transabdominal ultrasound. Patients with cervical cancer undergoing radical radiation with or without concomitant chemotherapy underwent serial ultrasound to estimate bladder filling. With a strict bladder protocol of consuming 1000 mL of water orally over 30 minutes after emptying the bladder, ultrasound was done after 45 minutes from bladder emptying time and repeated at 15-minute interval till 300 (25) mL filling was achieved and repeated every week. Forty-six patients with weekly ultrasound for bladder-filling documentation were evaluated. The mean (standard deviation) bladder volume measured at 45 minutes was 220 (93), 210 (95), 195 (91), 195 (96), and 190 (85) mL (average: 200; median: 195 mL) for the first to fifth week, respectively, and the mean (standard deviation) volume at 75 minutes was 300 (95), 310 (80), 290 (80), 295 (80), and 285 (70) mL (average: 295; median: 300 mL). The mean (standard deviation) time for bladder filling to 300 mL in the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth week was 57 ( 13.5), 67 (16.6), 66 (16.7), 66 (15.5), and 69 (17.1) minutes, respectively. Bladder filling to a definitive moderate volume at a reasonably fixed time period in each week of radiation is well tolerated, feasible, and measurable by weekly transabdominal ultrasound measurements.

  1. New definitions of pointing stability - ac and dc effects. [constant and time-dependent pointing error effects on image sensor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Robert L.; Sirlin, Samuel W.; San Martin, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    For most imaging sensors, a constant (dc) pointing error is unimportant (unless large), but time-dependent (ac) errors degrade performance by either distorting or smearing the image. When properly quantified, the separation of the root-mean-square effects of random line-of-sight motions into dc and ac components can be used to obtain the minimum necessary line-of-sight stability specifications. The relation between stability requirements and sensor resolution is discussed, with a view to improving communication between the data analyst and the control systems engineer.

  2. Repeated diffusion MRI reveals earliest time point for stratification of radiotherapy response in brain metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Faisal; Johannesen, Helle H.; Geertsen, Poul; Hansen, Rasmus H.

    2017-04-01

    An imaging biomarker for early prediction of treatment response potentially provides a non-invasive tool for better prognostics and individualized management of the disease. Radiotherapy (RT) response is generally related to changes in gross tumor volume manifesting months later. In this prospective study we investigated the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), perfusion fraction and pseudo diffusion coefficient derived from diffusion weighted MRI as potential early biomarkers for radiotherapy response of brain metastases. It was a particular aim to assess the optimal time point for acquiring the DW-MRI scan during the course of treatment, since to our knowledge this important question has not been addressed directly in previous studies. Twenty-nine metastases (N  =  29) from twenty-one patients, treated with whole-brain fractionated external beam RT were analyzed. Patients were scanned with a 1 T MRI system to acquire DW-, T2*W-, T2W- and T1W scans, before start of RT, at each fraction and at follow up two to three months after RT. The DW-MRI parameters were derived using regions of interest based on high b-value images (b  =  800 s mm‑2). Both volumetric and RECIST criteria were applied for response evaluation. It was found that in non-responding metastases the mean ADC decreased and in responding metastases it increased. The volume based response proved to be far more consistently predictable by the ADC change found at fraction number 7 and later, compared to the linear response (RECIST). The perfusion fraction and pseudo diffusion coefficient did not show sufficient prognostic value with either response assessment criteria. In conclusion this study shows that the ADC derived using high b-values may be a reliable biomarker for early assessment of radiotherapy response for brain metastases patients. The earliest response stratification can be achieved using two DW-MRI scans, one pre-treatment and one at treatment day 7–9 (equivalent to 21

  3. Relationship Between Dual Time Point FDG PET and Immunohistochemical Parameters in Preoperative Colorectal Cancer: Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Lee, Won Ae; Park, Seok Gun; Park, Dong Kook; Namgung, Hwan [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The clinical availability of 2 deoxy 2 [18F] fluoro D glucose (FDG) dual time point positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (DTPP) has been investigated in diverse oncologic fields. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the relationship between various immunohistopathologic markers reflecting disease progression of colorectal cancer and parameters extracted from FDG DTPP in colorectal cancer patients. Forty seven patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer were analyzed in this preliminary study. FDG DTPP consisted of an early scan 1 h after FDG injection and a delayed scan 1.5 h after the early scan. Based on an analysis of FDG DTPP, we estimated the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of tumors on the early and delayed scans (SUV{sup earlya}nd SUV{sup delayed,} respectively). The retention index (RI) was calculated as follows: (SUV{sup delayed-} SUV{sup early)} x 100/ SUV{sup early.} The clinicopathological findings (size and T and N stages) and immunohistochemical factors [glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1), hexokinase 2 (HK 2), p53, P504S, and {beta} catenin] were analyzed by visual analysis. The RIs calculated from the SUVs ranged from -1.8 to 73.4 (31.8{+-}15.5). The RIs were significantly higher in patients with high T stages (T3 and T4) than with low T stages (T1 and T2; P<0.05). Among the immunohistochemical analytic markers, GLUT 1 had the highest positive staining rate (93.6%) compared to other markers. Based on unvariable analysis, it was shown that the RI of high level GLUT 1 expression was significantly higher than low level GLUT 1 expression (p=0.01), and the RI of high level p53 expression (p=0.08). Multivariate analysis to investigate a link between RI and clinico pathologic parameters of colorectal carcinoma showed that GLUT 1, p53, and T staging were independently connected with increased RIs (p<0.05, total) using backward selection methods. There was no significant statistical relationship between SUV

  4. 't Hooft ultimate building blocks and space-time as an infinite dimensional set of transfinite discrete points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S. [Frankfurt Institute of Advanced Studies, Frankfurt (Germany); Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2005-08-01

    The note comments on various views expressed by 't Hooft regarding the exact nature of the geometry of space-time and the possibility or the impossibility of introducing a space-time made purely from discrete points. The role of E-infinity in clarifying this question is outlined.

  5. Combinations of Epoch Durations and Cut-Points to Estimate Sedentary Time and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröberg, Andreas; Berg, Christina; Larsson, Christel; Boldemann, Cecilia; Raustorp, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate how combinations of different epoch durations and cut-points affect the estimations of sedentary time and physical activity in adolescents. Accelerometer data from 101 adolescents were derived and 30 combinations were used to estimate sedentary time, light, moderate, vigorous, and combined…

  6. Free-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory: Application to quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, K.; Yamashita, K.

    2011-01-01

    An extension of free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory (FRFP-OCT) to monotonically convergent free-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FRFP-MTOCT) is presented. The features of our theory include optimization of the external time-dependent perturbations with high transition probabilities, that of the temporal duration, the monotonic convergence, and the ability to optimize multiple-laser pulses simultaneously. The advantage of the theory and a comparison with conventional fixed-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FIFP-MTOCT) are presented by comparing data calculated using the present theory with those published previously [K. Mishima, K. Yamashita, Chem. Phys. 361, (2009), 106]. The qubit system of our interest consists of two polar NaCl molecules coupled by dipole-dipole interaction. The calculation examples show that our theory is useful for minor adjustment of the external fields.

  7. Using expert knowledge and modeling to define mangrove composition, functioning, and threats and estimate time frame for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nibedita; Sutherland, William J; Khan, Md Nabiul I; Berger, Uta; Schmitz, Nele; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2014-06-01

    Mangroves are threatened worldwide, and their loss or degradation could impact functioning of the ecosystem. Our aim was to investigate three aspects of mangroves at a global scale: (1) their constituents (2) their indispensable ecological functions, and (3) the maintenance of their constituents and functions in degraded mangroves. We focused on answering two questions: "What is a mangrove ecosystem" and "How vulnerable are mangrove ecosystems to different impacts"? We invited 106 mangrove experts globally to participate in a survey based on the Delphi technique and provide inputs on the three aspects. The outputs from the Delphi technique for the third aspect, i.e. maintenance of constituents and functions were incorporated in a modeling approach to simulate the time frame for recovery. Presented here for the first time are the consensus definition of the mangrove ecosystem and the list of mangrove plant species. In this study, experts considered even monospecific (tree) stands to be a mangrove ecosystem as long as there was adequate tidal exchange, propagule dispersal, and faunal interactions. We provide a ranking of the important ecological functions, faunal groups, and impacts on mangroves. Degradation due to development was identified as having the largest impact on mangroves globally in terms of spatial scale, intensity, and time needed for restoration. The results indicate that mangroves are ecologically unique even though they may be species poor (from the vegetation perspective). The consensus list of mangrove species and the ranking of the mangrove ecological functions could be a useful tool for restoration and management of mangroves. While there is ample literature on the destruction of mangroves due to aquaculture in the past decade, this study clearly shows that more attention must go to avoiding and mitigating mangrove loss due to coastal development (such as building of roads, ports, or harbors).

  8. In vivo, real-time, transnasal, image-guided Raman endoscopy: defining spectral properties in the nasopharynx and larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Lin, Kan; Zheng, Wei; Lau, David Pang Cheng; Huang, Zhiwei

    2012-07-01

    We report for the first time the implementation of transnasal, image-guided Raman endoscopy to directly assess Raman spectral properties of nasopharyngeal and laryngeal tissue in vivo during clinical endoscopic examinations. A rapid 785-nm excitation Raman endoscopy system, coupled with a miniaturized fiber-optic Raman probe, was utilized for real-time, in vivo Raman measurements of different anatomical locations in the head and neck. A total of 874 high-quality in vivo Raman spectra were successfully acquired from different anatomic locations of the nasopharynx and larynx [i.e., posterior nasopharynx (PN) (n=521), the fossa of Rosenmüller (FOR) (n=157), and true laryngeal vocal chords (LVC) (n=196)] in 23 normal subjects at transnasal endoscopy. Difference spectra and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed for tissue characterization, uncovering the tissue variability at the biomolecular level. The PCA-linear discriminant analysis (LDA) provides sensitivity of 77.0% and specificity of 89.2% for differentiation between PN and FOR, and sensitivity of 68.8% and specificity of 76.0% for distinguishing LVC and PN using the leave-one-subject-out, cross-validation method. This work demonstrates that transnasal, image-guided Raman endoscopy can be used to acquire in vivo Raman spectra from the nasopharynx and larynx in real time. Significant Raman spectral differences (p<0.05) identified as reflecting the distinct composition and morphology in the nasopharynx and larynx should be considered to be important parameters in the interpretation and rendering of diagnostic decision algorithms for in vivo tissue diagnosis and characterization in the head and neck.

  9. The maize INDETERMINATE1 flowering time regulator defines a highly conserved zinc finger protein family in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colasanti Joseph

    2006-06-01

    orthologs from rice and sorghum. These similarities between ID1 and closely related genes in other grasses point to possible similarities in function.

  10. Defining the value of magnetic resonance imaging in prostate brachytherapy using time-driven activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Nikhil G; Orio, Peter F; Potters, Louis

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulation and planning for prostate brachytherapy (PBT) may deliver potential clinical benefits but at an unknown cost to the provider and healthcare system. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) is an innovative bottom-up costing tool in healthcare that can be used to measure the actual consumption of resources required over the full cycle of care. TDABC analysis was conducted to compare patient-level costs for an MRI-based versus traditional PBT workflow. TDABC cost was only 1% higher for the MRI-based workflow, and utilization of MRI allowed for cost shifting from other imaging modalities, such as CT and ultrasound, to MRI during the PBT process. Future initiatives will be required to follow the costs of care over longer periods of time to determine if improvements in outcomes and toxicities with an MRI-based approach lead to lower resource utilization and spending over the long-term. Understanding provider costs will become important as healthcare reform transitions to value-based purchasing and other alternative payment models. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrically tunable coalescence of exceptional points in parity-time symmetric waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jin; Wu, Raymond P H; Mok, T C; Fung, Kin Hung

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically the high electric tunability of the emergence and coalescence of exceptional points in PT-symmetric waveguides bounded by imperfect conductive layers. Owing to the competition effect of multimode interaction, multiple exceptional points and PT phase transitions could be attained in such a simple system and, meanwhile, their occurrences are strongly dependent on the boundary conductive layers. When the conductive layers become very thin, it is found that the sideway transmittance and reflectance of the same system can be tuned between zero and one by a small change in carrier density. The results may provide an effective method for fast tuning and modulation of optical signals through electrical gating.

  12. Time-dependent Taylor–Aris dispersion of an initial point concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Søren; Hovad, Emil; Bruus, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    -specific theoretical results, and furthermore predict new phenomena. In particular, for the transient phase before the well-described steady Taylor–Aris limit is reached, we find anomalous diffusion with a dependence of the temporal scaling exponent on the initial release point, generalizing this finding in specific...... cases. During this transient we furthermore identify maxima in the values of the dispersion coefficient which exceed the Taylor–Aris value by amounts that depend on channel geometry, initial point release position, velocity profile and Péclet number. We show that these effects are caused by a difference...

  13. Exact solution for a random walk in a time-dependent 1D random environment: the point-to-point Beta polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Thimothée; Le Doussal, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We consider the Beta polymer, an exactly solvable model of directed polymer on the square lattice, introduced by Barraquand and Corwin (BC) (2016 Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 1-16). We study the statistical properties of its point to point partition sum. The problem is equivalent to a model of a random walk in a time-dependent (and in general biased) 1D random environment. In this formulation, we study the sample to sample fluctuations of the transition probability distribution function (PDF) of the random walk. Using the Bethe ansatz we obtain exact formulas for the integer moments, and Fredholm determinant formulas for the Laplace transform of the directed polymer partition sum/random walk transition probability. The asymptotic analysis of these formulas at large time t is performed both (i) in a diffusive vicinity, x˜ {{t}1/2} , of the optimal direction (in space-time) chosen by the random walk, where the fluctuations of the PDF are found to be Gamma distributed; (ii) in the large deviations regime, x˜ t , of the random walk, where the fluctuations of the logarithm of the PDF are found to grow with time as t 1/3 and to be distributed according to the Tracy-Widom GUE distribution. Our exact results complement those of BC for the cumulative distribution function of the random walk in regime (ii), and in regime (i) they unveil a novel fluctuation behavior. We also discuss the crossover regime between (i) and (ii), identified as x˜ {{t}3/4} . Our results are confronted to extensive numerical simulations of the model.

  14. Problem with two-point conditions for parabolic equation of second order on time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Symotyuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The  correctness of a problem with two-point conditions ontime-variable and of  Dirichlet-type conditions  on spatialcoordinates for the linear  parabolic equations with variablecoefficients are established. The metric theorem on estimationsfrom below of small denominators of the problem (the notions of Hausdorff measure is proved.

  15. Free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory in quantum mechanics: application to entanglement generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, K; Yamashita, K

    2009-01-21

    We have constructed free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory for quantum systems and applied it to entanglement generation between rotational modes of two polar molecules coupled by dipole-dipole interaction. The motivation of the present work is to solve optimal control problems more flexibly by extending the popular fixed time and fixed end-point optimal control theory for quantum systems to free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory. As a demonstration, the theory that we have constructed in this paper will be applied to entanglement generation in rotational modes of NaCl-NaBr polar molecular systems that are sensitive to the strength of entangling interactions. Our method will significantly be useful for the quantum control of nonlocal interaction such as entangling interaction, which depends crucially on the strength of the interaction or the distance between the two molecules, and other general quantum dynamics, chemical reactions, and so on.

  16. Experimental demonstration of bandwidth on demand (BoD) provisioning based on time scheduling in software-defined multi-domain optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Li, Yajie; Wang, Xinbo; Chen, Bowen; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    A hierarchical software-defined networking (SDN) control architecture is designed for multi-domain optical networks with the Open Daylight (ODL) controller. The OpenFlow-based Control Virtual Network Interface (CVNI) protocol is deployed between the network orchestrator and the domain controllers. Then, a dynamic bandwidth on demand (BoD) provisioning solution is proposed based on time scheduling in software-defined multi-domain optical networks (SD-MDON). Shared Risk Link Groups (SRLG)-disjoint routing schemes are adopted to separate each tenant for reliability. The SD-MDON testbed is built based on the proposed hierarchical control architecture. Then the proposed time scheduling-based BoD (Ts-BoD) solution is experimentally demonstrated on the testbed. The performance of the Ts-BoD solution is evaluated with respect to blocking probability, resource utilization, and lightpath setup latency.

  17. Validation of cytochrome P450 time-dependent inhibition assays: a two-time point IC50 shift approach facilitates kinact assay design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, E S; Mason, A K; Dehal, S S; Blanchard, A P; Morgan, L; Ho, T; Dandeneau, A; Crocker, R M; Chandler, C M; Boily, N; Crespi, C L; Stresser, D M

    2009-02-01

    1. Recent guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has advocated testing of time-dependent inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP), which can be addressed by performing IC(50) shift as well as K(I)/k(inact) determinations. 2. Direct (IC(50), K(i)) and time-dependent inhibition (IC(50) shift, K(I)/k(inact)) assays were validated in human liver microsomes with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis for the following enzyme/substrate/inhibitor combinations: CYP1A2/phenacetin/alpha-naphthoflavone/furafylline, CYP2C8/amodiaquine/montelukast/gemfibrozil-1-O-beta-glucuronide, CYP2C9/diclofenac/sulfaphenazole/tienilic acid, CYP2C19/S-mephenytoin/S-benzylnirvanol/S-fluoxetine, CYP2D6/dextromethorphan/quinidine/paroxetine, and CYP3A4/midazolam/testosterone/ketoconazole/azamulin/verapamil/diltiazem. IC(50) shift assays were performed with two pre-incubation time points (10 and 30 min) to facilitate k(inact) assay design. 3. Data obtained show good agreement with literature values. For rapid acting inhibitors, such as azamulin/CYP3A4 and tienilic acid/CYP2C9, the IC(50) shifts were similar at both time points suggesting a short maximum pre-incubation time with closely spaced time points for the K(I)/k(inact) assay. Slow acting inhibitors (such as verapamil/CYP3A4 or S-fluoxetine/CYP2C19) showed an increase in IC(50) shift between 10 and 30 min suggesting a longer maximum pre-incubation time with wider spacing of time points for K(I)/k(inact). 4. The two-time point IC(50) shift experiment proved to be an excellent method for the selection of appropriate K(I)/k(inact) assay parameters and is suitable for the routine analysis of P450 inhibition by drug candidates.

  18. Point Measurements of Fermi Velocities by a Time-of-Flight Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, David S.; Henningsen, J. O.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt;

    1972-01-01

    The present paper describes in detail a new method of obtaining information about the Fermi velocity of electrons in metals, point by point, along certain contours on the Fermi surface. It is based on transmission of microwaves through thin metal slabs in the presence of a static magnetic field...... obtained one component of the velocity along half the circumference of the centrally symmetric orbit for B→∥[100]. The results are in agreement with current models for the Fermi surface. For B→∥[011], the electrons involved are not moving in a symmetry plane of the Fermi surface. In such cases one cannot...... immediately derive the velocity components, but the method can still be used to provide a comparison of different Fermi surface models. Such a comparison has been made of an augmented-plane-wave model (Christensen) and a Fourier model (Halse), both yielding the experimentally determined areas and cyclotron...

  19. Different RAN Components Relate to Reading at Different Points in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Kaizer, Eleni L.

    2014-01-01

    The present 10-year longitudinal study examined how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components--articulation time and pause time--relate to reading fluency. Seventy-five Greek-speaking children were followed from Grade 1 to Grade 10 and were assessed five times (in Grades 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10) on RAN (digits and objects) and reading fluency (word…

  20. Studying the potential of point detectors in time-resolved dose verification of dynamic radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Behrens, C. F.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2015-01-01

    for quality assurance and dose verification. In this context, traceable in-phantom dosimetry using a well-characterized point detector is often an important supplement to 2D-based quality assurance methods based on radiochromic film or detector arrays. In this study, an in-house developed dosimetry system...... in dose delivery, although exact positioning of detectors remains critical. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  1. Bifurcated method and apparatus for floating point addition with decreased latency time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmwald, P.M.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes a method for performing floating point addition of a pair of floating point binary numbers each expressed as a mantissa and an exponent. The method comprises the steps of alignment of the mantissas, addition of the aligned mantissas and postnormalization of the mantissa of the sum. The improvement described here comprises: comparing the exponents of the two floating point numbers prior to the alignment step; simultaneously performing two separate calculations along first and second separate parallel paths as follows: calculating a first sum in the first path as if the difference of the exponents is either 0 or 1, including performing the alignment step by at most a one place right shift of one mantissa; simultaneously calculating a second sum in the second path as if the difference of the exponents is greater than 1, including performing the postnormalization step by at most a one place shift of the mantissa of the second sum; selecting between the first sum and the second sum after simultaneously performing the two calculations.

  2. Several Existence Theorems of Multiple Positive Solutions of Nonlinear -Point BVP for an Increasing Homeomorphism and Homomorphism on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Shugui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By using fixed point theorems in cones, the existence of multiple positive solutions is considered for nonlinear -point boundary value problem for the following second-order boundary value problem on time scales , , , , where is an increasing homeomorphism and homomorphism and . Some new results are obtained for the existence of twin or an arbitrary odd number of positive solutions of the above problem by applying Avery-Henderson and Leggett-Williams fixed point theorems, respectively. In particular, our criteria generalize and improve some known results by Ma and Castaneda (2001. We must point out for readers that there is only the -Laplacian case for increasing homeomorphism and homomorphism. As an application, one example to demonstrate our results is given.

  3. A Special Physical Phenomenon: Innate Interconnection of Space-time Points

    CERN Document Server

    Eganova, I A

    2014-01-01

    In the light of A.A. Friedman's conceptual analysis of the World of events as a mathematical model of the physical reality in his book "The World as Space and Time", a priory, innate interconnection of events belonging to one and the same moment of time, which can condition the space-time metric, is considered with a summary review of its astronomical observations by N.A.Kozyrev's method.

  4. Time Series Discord Detection in Medical Data using a Parallel Relational Database [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodbridge, Diane; Wilson, Andrew T.; Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Goldstein, Richard H.

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have made continuous real-time health monitoring available in both hospital and non-hospital settings. Since data collected from high frequency medical sensors includes a huge amount of data, storing and processing continuous medical data is an emerging big data area. Especially detecting anomaly in real time is important for patients’ emergency detection and prevention. A time series discord indicates a subsequence that has the maximum difference to the rest of the time series subsequences, meaning that it has abnormal or unusual data trends. In this study, we implemented two versions of time series discord detection algorithms on a high performance parallel database management system (DBMS) and applied them to 240 Hz waveform data collected from 9,723 patients. The initial brute force version of the discord detection algorithm takes each possible subsequence and calculates a distance to the nearest non-self match to find the biggest discords in time series. For the heuristic version of the algorithm, a combination of an array and a trie structure was applied to order time series data for enhancing time efficiency. The study results showed efficient data loading, decoding and discord searches in a large amount of data, benefiting from the time series discord detection algorithm and the architectural characteristics of the parallel DBMS including data compression, data pipe-lining, and task scheduling.

  5. Temperature dependence of the point defect properties of GaN thin films studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, HeNan; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Bin; Li, YeCao; Fu, DeYi; Li, Yi; Xie, ZiLi; Zhuang, Zhe; Zheng, YouDou; Wu, JingBo; Jin, BiaoBing; Chen, Jian; Wu, PeiHeng

    2013-11-01

    The dielectric functions of GaN for the temperature and frequency ranges of 10-300 K and 0.3-1 THz are obtained using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. It is found that there are oscillations of the dielectric functions at various temperatures. Physically, the oscillation behavior is attributed to the resonance states of the point defects in the material. Furthermore, the dielectric functions are well fitted by the combination of the simple Drude model together with the classical damped oscillator model. According to the values of the fitting parameters, the concentration and electron lifetime of the point defects for various temperatures are determined, and the temperature dependences of them are in accordance with the previously reported result. Therefore, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy can be considered as a promising technique for investigating the relevant characteristics of the point defects in semiconductor materials.

  6. Time-Transient Characteristics of a Point-Contact-Type Peltier Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Toru; Yamaguchi, Shigeo

    We proposed a new type of Peltier device, and succeeded in the fabrication of the device, which we call a point-contact-type sandwich-structure (PCS). A micro-object can be cooled or heated using our fabricated device. The tip was cooled through the Peltier effect, and a tip temperature of -36.3°C was achieved at a current of 28 A. When current was reversed, the tip was heated and the maximum tip temperature was 251.5°C at a current of 20 A. The PCS Peltier device can be useful in medical treatment and bioelectronics.

  7. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.;

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...... over time and theoretical implications are discussed, notably by introducing a new approach to autobiographical memory, Transition Theory, which assumes that autobiographical memory is organized by transitional events that can be selfinitiated or externally imposed - historically defined...

  8. The Use and Abuse of Part-Time Faculty: The Part-Timers' Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wendy L.

    Problems faced by part-time faculty members are identified, and suggestions to avoid mistreatment of these teachers are offered. Disadvantages of part-time teaching include the lack of equitable pay and benefits. Since most institutions have a standard pay rate for part-timers, it is suggested that teaching excellence be recognized by creating…

  9. Mapping motorway lanes and real-time lane identification with single-frequency precise point positioning test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bakker, P.F.; Knoop, V.L.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.; Van Arem, B.

    2014-01-01

    Modern advanced motorway traffic control requires lane-specific observations, and provide vehicles with lane-specific control measures. Single-Frequency Precise Point Positioning (SF-PPP) was previously demonstrated to provide sub-meter accurate positions in real-time using a low-cost mass-market re

  10. Developing a Tool Point Control Scheme for a Hydraulic Crane Using Interactive Real-time Dynamic Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Ballebye, Morten

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an interactive real-time dynamic simulation model of a hydraulic crane. The user input to the model is given continuously via joystick and output is presented continuously in a 3D animation. Using this simulation model, a tool point control scheme...

  11. Time evolution of high-altitude plasma bubbles imaged at geomagnetic conjugate points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shiokawa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Temporal and spatial evolution of two high-altitude plasma bubbles (evening and midnight was observed on 4 April 2002, at geomagnetic conjugate points at Sata, Japan (magnetic latitude 24° N, and Darwin, Australia (magnetic latitude 22° S, using two 630-nm airglow imagers. The apex height of the bubbles reached ~1500km. The upward velocity of the evolution was faster in the evening (~170m/s at 20:00-21:00 LT than around midnight (~28m/s at 23:00-00:00 LT. Bifurcating features of the bubbles into a smaller scale size of ~50km were clearly seen for both the evening and midnight bubbles, showing fairly good conjugacy between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  12. Reaction time and movement duration influence on end point accuracy in a fast reaching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurvidas, A; Mickevichiene, D; Cesnavichiene, V; Gutnik, B; Nash, D

    2012-01-01

    In labor and sport physiology a great deal of interest concerns the conceptual model of governance of both rapid and precise target-directed movements. Widely known in the theory of motor control, Fitts' paradigm determines the time of motion, calculated from the distance to the target and the diameter of the target. However this paradigm does not take into account the time of preparation for movement, which can have a significant impact on accuracy. In addition, the literature highlights little evidence of temporal and spatial asymmetry in the production of fast and accurate movements. The aim of our work was to investigate the influence of the duration of the preparatory phase (reaction time - T(R)) and duration of protractile motion of the arm (T(M)) on the speed and accuracy of movement. Also, the in-dividual asymmetry of the temporal characteristics and accuracy of performance of movements were studied. We measured three aspects of translational motion of the arm to the computerized target: reaction time (T(R), s), time of motion of the arm (T(M), s), and error in the achievement of the target (deltaL, mm). The group of participants consisted of 12 healthy, right-handed, untrained girls, each of whom completed 5 series of 10 discrete movements by each of the left and right arms. Mathematical analysis of the results revealed the existence of five models of performance. Each model was represented in the participant's performance with different probability. The combination of high speed and high precision when the arm moved towards the target was found only in model 5, which combines a long period of preparation for the movement (T(R)) and a short time of motion (T(M)). The probability of its occurrence in the untrained subjects was very low (2-3%). We suggest that it may be possible to develop special methods of training, geared towards the ability to increase the probability of appearance of this model. Asymmetry of motor action appeared clearly evident only in

  13. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Levy-Gigi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks. These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  14. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks). These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  15. Atmospheric plume progression as a function of time and distance from the release point for radioactive isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Hayes, James C.; Miley, Harry S.

    2015-10-01

    The International Monitoring System contains up to 80 stations around the world that have aerosol and xenon monitoring systems designed to detect releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere from nuclear tests. A rule of thumb description of plume concentration and duration versus time and distance from the release point is useful when designing and deploying new sample collection systems. This paper uses plume development from atmospheric transport modeling to provide a power-law rule describing atmospheric dilution factors as a function of distance from the release point.

  16. Defining Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunmer, William; Greaney, Keith

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the New Zealand Ministry of Education formally recognized the condition of dyslexia for the first time and has subsequently developed a working definition of the condition. The aim of this article is to draw on contemporary theory and research on reading development, reading difficulties, and reading intervention to describe what the…

  17. Summary statistics for end-point conditioned continuous-time Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    Continuous-time Markov chains are a widely used modelling tool. Applications include DNA sequence evolution, ion channel gating behavior and mathematical finance. We consider the problem of calculating properties of summary statistics (e.g. mean time spent in a state, mean number of jumps between...... two states and the distribution of the total number of jumps) for discretely observed continuous time Markov chains. Three alternative methods for calculating properties of summary statistics are described and the pros and cons of the methods are discussed. The methods are based on (i) an eigenvalue...... decomposition of the rate matrix, (ii) the uniformization method, and (iii) integrals of matrix exponentials. In particular we develop a framework that allows for analyses of rather general summary statistics using the uniformization method....

  18. Numerical Time Integration Methods for a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Kramer, Morten

    2012-01-01

    interaction (small deformations of the fluid surface and body), inviscid incompressible, irrotational flow and a linearized Euler-Bernoulli formulation of the fluid pressure. The time-domain analysis of a floating structure involves the calculation of a convolution integral between the impulse response...... function of the radiation force and the unknown body velocity due to an external force. The convolution integral can be seen as a memory effect where the system response in the past affects the response in the future. Two different time-domain models will be presented. The first one is based......-space model is advantageous regarding the computational effort and the robustness of the solver. Another important feature is the linear-time invariance of the system. In a next step the influence of the nonlinear hydrostatic behavior of the float is investigated by using a simplified formulation....

  19. Determining the Points of Change in Time Series of Polarimetric SAR Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Knut; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Skriver, Henning

    2016-01-01

    We present the likelihood ratio test statistic for the homogeneity of several complex variance–covariance matrices that may be used in order to assess whether at least one change has taken place in a time series of SAR data. Furthermore, we give a factorization of this test statistic into a produ...

  20. Signs of the times. New indicators point the way to progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinzor, N

    1995-01-01

    The US has one of the highest per capita incomes worldwide. Among industrialized countries, however, it also has some of the highest rates of population growth, poverty, infant mortality, and teen pregnancy. This growing contradiction has led to the development of new ways to define progress and development. Indeed, the UN Development Program has found that when standards such as nutrition, education, and life expectancy are considered, residents of low per capita income countries often have high levels of human security. The primary indicator of the macroeconomic health of the US since World War II has been gross national product, recently substituted by gross domestic product (GDP). GDP, however, reflects only dollar values and does not account for many social and environmental factors which strongly influence the quality of life. The human value of one's life transcends economic value. Alternative indicators are therefore called for which reflect the benefit of sustainable planning and development practices, providing a more accurate picture of existing resource levels and how they are used. Hazel Henderson, a pioneer in alternative economics, together with the Calvert Group, a socially-conscious investment firm, is developing a quality of life indicators system for use by communities and policymakers nationwide. The system includes factors such as population growth, education, housing, health care, employment, political participation and civil rights, personal safety, arts and recreation, and environmental quality. This comprehensive approach to assessing community resources has been implemented in several countries around the world, such as the Netherlands and New Zealand, and is gaining ground in the US. Grassroots organizations such as ZPG have an important role to play in helping Americans understand the need for this kind of transition.

  1. [Forestalling policy as a strategic objective of space biology and medicine at the present time point].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, I B

    2011-01-01

    The article ushers into the acrimonious debates about paths of innovative development and criticality of fundamental sciences in technological progress for Russia security, and breakthrough potential. Among the alternative routes of technical development are different forms of priority boost of growing points in which Russia has attained and held steadily the leading position occupying a prominent segment in the international division of labor. Space effort of Russia gives a model example of successful implementation of the national program and demonstrates leadership in this area of human activities. The article presents analysis of the factors and circumstances that predetermined the winning in the early, Gagarin's period of piloted space flights of the forefront position of the country as well as the vector of cosmonautics' advance for many years ahead Despite the host of issues with implementation of the ISS utilization program and planning of exploration missions to the Moon and Mars, the unique experience of preparations and carrying out investigations and tests with humans in space, the enormous groundwork in fundamental biomedical researches over the past 50 years of piloted flights allow optimistic prognosis of gaining headway with essentially new ambitious space projects. The key question is whether the forestalling policy of priority development of piloted cosmonautics as the most integrated and science intensive sector of innovation techniques will be realized. The answer will guide near- and long-term future of the space industry and, consequently, the fortune of national fundamental space sciences, space biomedicine being its part and parcel.

  2. The cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay: A point-of-care diagnostic at an opportune time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Michele W; Clemons, Karl V; Katzenstein, David A; Stevens, David A

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a devastating HIV-related opportunistic infection, affecting nearly 1 million individuals and causing over 500 000 deaths each year. The burden of disease is greatest in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, where cryptococcal disease is the most common cause of meningitis. Rapid, accurate and affordable diagnosis of cryptococcal disease has been lacking in many of the most heavily affected areas. Here, we review a point-of-care assay for cryptococcal disease, the dipstick-formatted cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (LFA) (IMMY, Norman, OK). In comparison to culture, the assay is 99.5% sensitive and 98% specific. In comparison to other commercially available tests for cryptococcal antigen, the LFA has equal or superior sensitivity and specificity in CSF, plasma and serum samples. We discuss potential applications for the use of the assay in resource-limited settings, including what is likely to be an important role of the LFA in screening for early cryptococcal infection before clinical disease and in evaluating pre-emptive treatment.

  3. Convergence Time and Positioning Accuracy Comparison between BDS and GPS Precise Point Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BDS/GPS data from MGEX were processed by TriP 2.0 software developed at Wuhan University. Both static and kinematic float PPP are tested by adopting precise satellite orbits and clocks provided by Research Center of GNSS, Wuhan University. The results show that the convergence time of BDS static PPP is about 80min while kinematic PPP is about 100min. For 3h observations, static positioning accuracy of 5 cm and kinematic positioning accuracy of 8 cm in horizontal, about 12 cm in vertical can be achieved. Similar to GPS PPP, precision in east component is worse than north. At present, BDS PPP needs longer convergence time than GPS PPP to reach an absolute positioning accuracy of cm~dm due to the lack of global tracking stations and the limited accuracy of orbit and clock products.

  4. Maximum Power Point Characteristics of Generalized Heat Engines with Finite Time and Finite Heat Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Khanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the problem of optimal power extraction in four-step cycles (two adiabatic and two heat-transfer branches when the finite-rate heat transfer obeys a linear law and the heat reservoirs have finite heat capacities. The heat-transfer branch follows a polytropic process in which the heat capacity of the working fluid stays constant. For the case of ideal gas as working fluid and a given switching time, it is shown that maximum work is obtained at Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency. Our expressions clearly show the dependence on the relative magnitudes of heat capacities of the fluid and the reservoirs. Many previous formulae, including infinite reservoirs, infinite-time cycles, and Carnot-like and non-Carnot-like cycles, are recovered as special cases of our model.

  5. Real-time performance analysis of wireless multimedia networks based on partially observed multivariate point processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2000-07-01

    Third-generation (3G) wireless networks will support integrated multimedia services based on a cellular extension of a packet-switched architecture using variants of the Internet protocol (IP). Services can be categorized as real- time and delay-sensitive, or non-real-time and delay- insensitive. Each call, arriving to or active within the network, carries demand for one or more services in parallel; each service type with a guaranteed quality of service (QoS). Admission of new calls to the wireless IP network (WIN) from the gateway of a wired network or from a mobile subscriber (MS) is allowed by call admission control procedures. Roaming of the MSs among the nodes of the WIN is controlled by handoff procedures between base stations (BSs), or BS controllers, and the MSs. Metrics such as the probabilities of call blocking and dropping, handoff transition time, processing latency of a call, throughput, and capacity are used to evaluate the performance of network control procedures. The metrics are directly related to the network resources required to provide the QoS for the integrated services.

  6. Preoperative Predictors of Ambulation Ability at Different Time Points after Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kamimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to identify the preoperative factors influencing ambulation ability at different postoperative time points after total hip arthroplasty (THA and to examine the cutoff values of predictive preoperative factors by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Forty-eight women with unilateral THA were measured for hip extensor, hip abductor, and knee extensor muscle strength in both legs; hip pain (visual analog scale, VAS; and the Timed Up and Go (TUG test pre- and postoperatively. Multiple regression analysis indicated that preoperative knee extensor strength (β=-0.379,R2=0.409 at 3 weeks, hip abductor strength (β=-0.572,R2=0.570 at 4 months, and age (β=0.758,R2= 0.561 at 7 months were strongly associated with postoperative ambulation, measured using the TUG test. Optimal preoperative cutoff values for ambulation ability were 0.56 Nm/kg for knee extensor strength, 0.24 Nm/kg for hip abductor strength, and 73 years of age. Our results suggest that preoperative factors predicting ambulation ability vary by postoperative time point. Preoperative knee extensor strength, hip abductor strength, and age were useful predictors of ambulation ability at the early, middle, and late time points, respectively, after THA.

  7. Molecular-timetable methods for detection of body time and rhythm disorders from single-time-point genome-wide expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Hiroki R.; Chen, Wenbin; Minami, Yoichi; Honma, Sato; Honma, Kenichi; Iino, Masamitsu; Hashimoto, Seiichi

    2004-01-01

    Detection of individual body time (BT) via a single-time-point assay has been a longstanding unfulfilled dream in medicine, because BT information can be exploited to maximize potency and minimize toxicity during drug administration and thus will enable highly optimized medication. To achieve this dream, we created a “molecular timetable” composed of >100 “time-indicating genes,” whose gene expression levels can represent internal BT. Here we describe a robust method called the “molecular-tim...

  8. The two chromosomes of Vibrio cholerae are initiated at different time points in the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tue; Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Skovgaard, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the cause of the diarrhoeal disease cholera, has its genome divided between two chromosomes, a feature uncommon for bacteria. The two chromosomes are of different sizes and different initiator molecules control their replication independently. Using novel methods...... at approximately the same time and the average number of replication origins per cell is higher for chromosome I than for chromosome II. Analysis of cell-cycle parameters shows that chromosome replication and segregation is exceptionally fast in V. cholerae. The divided genome and delayed replication of chromosome...

  9. Experience of Dual Time Point Brain F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Infections Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Weung; Kim, Chang Guhn; Park, Soon Ah; Jung, Sang Ah [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Dual time point FDG PET imaging (DTPI) has been considered helpful for discrimination of benign and malignant disease, and staging lymph node status in patients with pulmonary malignancy. However, DTPI for benign disease has been rarely reported, and it may show a better description of metabolic status and extent of benign infection disease than early imaging only. The authors report on the use F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging with additional delayed imaging on a 52-year-old man with sparganosis and a 70-year-old man with tuberculous meningitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on dual time point PET/CT imaging in patients with cerebral sparganosis and tuberculous meningitis.

  10. The Clinical Value of Dual Time Point F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging for the Differentiation of Colonic Focal Uptake Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    F-18 FDG can be accumulated in the liver, bowel, kidney, urinary tract, and muscles physiologically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging for the differentiation of the colonic focal uptake lesions. One hundred thirty two patients (M:F=77:55, Age 62.8{+-}11.6 years) underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT at two time points, prospectively: early image at 50-60 min and delayed image at 4-4.5 hours after the intravenous injection of {sup 18}F-FDG. Focally increased uptake lesions on early images but disappeared or shifted on delayed images defined a physiological uptake. For the differential evaluation of persistent focal uptake lesions on delayed images, colonoscopy and histopathologic examination were performed. SUVmax changes between early and delayed images were also compared. Among the 132 patients, 153 lesions of focal colonic uptake were detected on early images of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Of these, 72 (47.1%) lesions were able to judge with physiological uptake because the focal increased uptake disappeared from delayed image. Among 81 lesions which was showed persistent increased uptake in delayed image, 61 (75.3%) lesions were confirmed as the malignant tumor and 14 (17.3%) lesions were confirmed as the benign lesions including adenoma and inflammatory disease. Remaining 6 (7.4%) lesions were confirmed as the physiological uptake because there was no particular lesion in the colonoscopy. In the malignant lesions, the calculated dual time point change for SUVmax ({delta}%SUVmax) was 20.8%{+-}18.7%, indicating a significant increase in SUVmax between the two point (p<0.01). In contrast, the change in SUVmax for the non-malignant lesions including benign lesions and physiological uptake was -13.7%{+-}24.2%. For the differentiation of the malignant and non-malignant focal colonic uptake lesions, {delta}%SUVmax was the most effective parameter, and the cut-off value using -5% provided the best sensitivity

  11. Developing a Tool Point Control Scheme for a Hydraulic Crane Using Interactive Real-time Dynamic Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel M. Pedersen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an interactive real-time dynamic simulation model of a hydraulic crane. The user input to the model is given continuously via joystick and output is presented continuously in a 3D animation. Using this simulation model, a tool point control scheme is developed for the specific crane, considering the saturation phenomena of the system and practical implementation.

  12. Spinodals and critical point using short-time dynamics for a simple model of liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscar, Ernesto S; Ferrara, C Gastón; Grigera, Tomás S

    2016-04-07

    We have applied the short-time dynamics method to the gas-liquid transition to detect the supercooled gas instability (gas spinodal) and the superheated liquid instability (liquid spinodal). Using Monte Carlo simulation, we have obtained the two spinodals for a wide range of pressure in sub-critical and critical conditions and estimated the critical temperature and pressure. Our method is faster than previous approaches and allows studying spinodals without needing equilibration of the system in the metastable region. It is thus free of the extrapolation problems present in other methods, and in principle could be applied to systems such as glass-forming liquids, where equilibration is very difficult even far from the spinodal. We have also done molecular dynamics simulations, where we find the method again able to detect the both spinodals. Our results are compared with different previous results in the literature and show a good agreement.

  13. An engineering time-domain model for curve squeal: Tangential point-contact model and Green's functions approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenzerovic, I.; Kropp, W.; Pieringer, A.

    2016-08-01

    Curve squeal is a strong tonal sound that may arise when a railway vehicle negotiates a tight curve. In contrast to frequency-domain models, time-domain models are able to capture the nonlinear and transient nature of curve squeal. However, these models are computationally expensive due to requirements for fine spatial and time discretization. In this paper, a computationally efficient engineering model for curve squeal in the time-domain is proposed. It is based on a steady-state point-contact model for the tangential wheel/rail contact and a Green's functions approach for wheel and rail dynamics. The squeal model also includes a simple model of sound radiation from the railway wheel from the literature. A validation of the tangential point-contact model against Kalker's transient variational contact model reveals that the point-contact model performs well within the squeal model up to at least 5 kHz. The proposed squeal model is applied to investigate the influence of lateral creepage, friction and wheel/rail contact position on squeal occurrence and amplitude. The study indicates a significant influence of the wheel/rail contact position on squeal frequencies and amplitudes. Friction and lateral creepage show an influence on squeal occurrence and amplitudes, but this is only secondary to the influence of the contact position.

  14. Multiple Time Courses of Vestibular Set-Point Adaptation Revealed by Sustained Magnetic Field Stimulation of the Labyrinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jareonsettasin, Prem; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Ward, Bryan K; Roberts, Dale C; Schubert, Michael C; Zee, David S

    2016-05-23

    A major focus in neurobiology is how the brain adapts its motor behavior to changes in its internal and external environments [1, 2]. Much is known about adaptively optimizing the amplitude and direction of eye and limb movements, for example, but little is known about another essential form of learning, "set-point" adaptation. Set-point adaptation balances tonic activity so that reciprocally acting, agonist and antagonist muscles have a stable platform from which to launch accurate movements. Here, we use the vestibulo-ocular reflex-a simple behavior that stabilizes the position of the eye while the head is moving-to investigate how tonic activity is adapted toward a new set point to prevent eye drift when the head is still [3, 4]. Set-point adaptation was elicited with magneto-hydrodynamic vestibular stimulation (MVS) by placing normal humans in a 7T MRI for 90 min. MVS is ideal for prolonged labyrinthine activation because it mimics constant head acceleration and induces a sustained nystagmus similar to natural vestibular lesions [5, 6]. The MVS-induced nystagmus diminished slowly but incompletely over multiple timescales. We propose a new adaptation hypothesis, using a cascade of imperfect mathematical integrators, that reproduces the response to MVS (and more natural chair rotations), including the gradual decrease in nystagmus as the set point changes over progressively longer time courses. MVS set-point adaptation is a biological model with applications to basic neurophysiological research into all types of movements [7], functional brain imaging [8], and treatment of vestibular and higher-level attentional disorders by introducing new biases to counteract pathological ones [9].

  15. Instantaneous and time-averaged dispersion and measurement models for estimation theory applications with elevated point source plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, J. M.; Englar, T. S., Jr.; Jazwinski, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Estimation theory, which originated in guidance and control research, is applied to the analysis of air quality measurements and atmospheric dispersion models to provide reliable area-wide air quality estimates. A method for low dimensional modeling (in terms of the estimation state vector) of the instantaneous and time-average pollutant distributions is discussed. In particular, the fluctuating plume model of Gifford (1959) is extended to provide an expression for the instantaneous concentration due to an elevated point source. Individual models are also developed for all parameters in the instantaneous and the time-average plume equations, including the stochastic properties of the instantaneous fluctuating plume.

  16. Stable long-time semiclassical description of zero-point energy in high-dimensional molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garashchuk, Sophya; Rassolov, Vitaly A

    2008-07-14

    Semiclassical implementation of the quantum trajectory formalism [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1181 (2004)] is further developed to give a stable long-time description of zero-point energy in anharmonic systems of high dimensionality. The method is based on a numerically cheap linearized quantum force approach; stabilizing terms compensating for the linearization errors are added into the time-evolution equations for the classical and nonclassical components of the momentum operator. The wave function normalization and energy are rigorously conserved. Numerical tests are performed for model systems of up to 40 degrees of freedom.

  17. Regulation of intracellular Zn homeostasis in two intestinal epithelial cell models at various maturation time points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefeller, Eva-Maria; Bondzio, Angelika; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Martens, Holger; Einspanier, Ralf; Scharfen, Franziska; Zentek, Jürgen; Pieper, Robert; Lodemann, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    After weaning, piglets are often fed diets supplemented with high concentrations of zinc (Zn) to decrease post-weaning diarrhea. The aim of this study was to elucidate the regulation of Zn homeostasis within intestinal epithelial cells during excessive Zn exposure. High Zn concentrations elevated the intracellular Zn level in IPEC-J2 and Caco-2 cells which was influenced by differentiation status and time of exposure. With increasing Zn concentrations, mRNA and protein levels of metallothionein (MT) and zinc transporter 1 (ZnT1) were upregulated, whereas zinc transporter 4 (ZIP4) expression was downregulated. Metal-regulatory transcription factor-1 (MTF1) mRNA expression was upregulated at high Zn concentrations in IPEC-J2 cells, which corresponded to higher intracellular Zn concentrations. Based on these results, we suggest that intestinal epithelial cells adapt the expression of these genes to the amount of extracellular Zn available in order to maintain Zn homeostasis. Cell line-dependent differences in the regulation of Zn homeostasis were detected.

  18. Influence of segmenting fluids on efficiency, crossing point and fluorescence level in real time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E J; King, C; Grimes, R; Gonzalez, A

    2006-03-01

    The two-phase segmented flow approach to the processing and quantitative analysis of biological samples in microdevices offers significant advantages over the single-phase continuous flow methodology. Despite this, little is known about the compatibility of samples and reactants with segmenting fluids, although a number of investigators have reported reduced yield and inhibition of enzymatic reactions depending on the segmenting fluid employed. The current study addresses the compatibility of various segmenting fluids with real time quantitative PCR to understand the physicochemical requirements of this important reaction in biotechnology. The results demonstrate that creating a static segmenting fluid/PCR mix interface has a negligible impact on the reaction efficiency, crossing threshold and end fluorescence levels using a variety of segmenting fluids. The implication is then that the previously reported inhibitory effects are the result of the dynamic motion between the segmenting fluid and the sample in continuously flowing systems. The results presented here are a first step towards understanding the limitations of the segmented flow methodology, which are necessary to bring this approach into mainstream use.

  19. Defining GERD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, S J

    1999-01-01

    in children and adults is gradually weakened over time as a result of chronic straining to defecate and straining in an unphysiologic position, both of which stem from our modern day habits of eating a low-fiber diet and living on the high-seated toilet. We suggest that the chronic traumatic hiatal hernia is (a) the cause of more than 90 percent of the GERD that stalks the Western world; (b) is a direct result of abandoning the popular and worldwide practice of squatting to socialize, eat and defecate; and (c) is our just reward for adopting the "civilized" high sitting position on chairs and modern toilets.

  20. A multiscale-contour-based interpolation framework for generating a time-varying quasi-dense point cloud sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu-hua HUANG; Dong-ming LU; Chang-yu DIAO

    2016-01-01

    To speed up the reconstruction of 3D dynamic scenes in an ordinary hardware platform, we propose an efficient framework to reconstruct 3D dynamic objects using a multiscale-contour-based interpolation from multi-view videos. Our framework takes full advantage of spatio-temporal-contour consistency. It exploits the property to interpolate single contours, two neighboring contours which belong to the same model, and two contours which belong to the same view at different times, cor-responding to point-, contour-, and model-level interpolations, respectively. The framework formulates the interpolation of two models as point cloud transport rather than non-rigid surface deformation. Our framework speeds up the reconstruction of a dynamic scene while improving the accuracy of point-pairing which is used to perform the interpolation. We obtain a higher frame rate, spatio-temporal-coherence, and a quasi-dense point cloud sequence with color information. Experiments with real data were conducted to test the efficiency of the framework.

  1. Defining the value framework for prostate brachytherapy using patient-centered outcome metrics and time-driven activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Nikhil G; Pugh, Thomas J; Mahmood, Usama; Choi, Seungtaek; Spinks, Tracy E; Martin, Neil E; Sio, Terence T; Kudchadker, Rajat J; Kaplan, Robert S; Kuban, Deborah A; Swanson, David A; Orio, Peter F; Zelefsky, Michael J; Cox, Brett W; Potters, Louis; Buchholz, Thomas A; Feeley, Thomas W; Frank, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Value, defined as outcomes over costs, has been proposed as a measure to evaluate prostate cancer (PCa) treatments. We analyzed standardized outcomes and time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) for prostate brachytherapy (PBT) to define a value framework. Patients with low-risk PCa treated with low-dose-rate PBT between 1998 and 2009 were included. Outcomes were recorded according to the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement standard set, which includes acute toxicity, patient-reported outcomes, and recurrence and survival outcomes. Patient-level costs to 1 year after PBT were collected using TDABC. Process mapping and radar chart analyses were conducted to visualize this value framework. A total of 238 men were eligible for analysis. Median age was 64 (range, 46-81). Median followup was 5 years (0.5-12.1). There were no acute Grade 3-5 complications. Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite 50 scores were favorable, with no clinically significant changes from baseline to last followup at 48 months for urinary incontinence/bother, bowel bother, sexual function, and vitality. Ten-year outcomes were favorable, including biochemical failure-free survival of 84.1%, metastasis-free survival 99.6%, PCa-specific survival 100%, and overall survival 88.6%. TDABC analysis demonstrated low resource utilization for PBT, with 41% and 10% of costs occurring in the operating room and with the MRI scan, respectively. The radar chart allowed direct visualization of outcomes and costs. We successfully created a visual framework to define the value of PBT using the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement standard set and TDABC costs. PBT is associated with excellent outcomes and low costs. Widespread adoption of this methodology will enable value comparisons across providers, institutions, and treatment modalities. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparison of nutritional status in three time points of liver transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaina, F E; Lopes, R W; Souza, M R D

    2004-05-01

    Patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) often experience dietary restrictions that may influence their nutritional status. With the objective of comparing the status of liver transplant patients pre- versus in the early and late postoperative periods, a retrospective study evaluated 33 adults (63.6% men and 36.4% women) mean age 47 years for body mass index (BMI), current body weight/ideal body weight (%CBW/IBW), current body weight/usual body weight (%CBW/UBW), adequacy of tricipital skin fold (%TSF), generalized adipose reserve (%F), adequacy of mid-upper arm muscle circumference (%MMC), and serum albumin. The elapsed time between nutritional evaluation and LT was 446 days for the pre-LT group, 31 for the early post-LT group, and 244 for the late post-LT group; 30.3% were Child C and 63.6% B in the pre-LT phase. The median value to %TST in pre-LT, early LT, and late LT were 91.7%, 70.8%, and 78.0%, respectively. The analysis of mean value of %F was 25.9% in the pretransplant, 23.3% in early postoperative, and 25.3% in late postoperative stages %MMC was 85.5% for pretransplant patients, it was 86.6% in the early versus 89.9% in the late stages. While BMI was 24.9 kg/m(2) in the preoperative 22.9 kg/m(2) in early, and 24.2 kg/m(2) in late phases. Similarly, concerning %CBW/UBW the mean values were 96.2% in the preoperative group, 64.1% in early, and 101.9% in late groups. The %CBW/IBW mean values were 113.9% in the pre- versus 104.6% in the early and 111.2% in the late periods. The values of serum albumin and %CBW/UBW were statistically different for Child B,C as well as when the patients were not classified by the Child criteria. There was a deterioration in status from pretransplant period to early postoperative with improvement in the late period.

  3. How Feasible is Multiple Time Point Web-Based Data Collection with Individuals Experiencing Street Homelessness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Moss, Shadiya L

    2017-01-19

    Three barriers investigators often encounter when conducting longitudinal work with homeless or other marginalized populations are difficulty tracking participants, high rates of no-shows for follow-up interviews, and high rates of loss to follow-up. Recent research has shown that homeless populations have substantial access to information technologies, including mobile devices and computers. These technologies have the potential both to make longitudinal data collection with homeless populations easier and to minimize some of these methodological challenges. This pilot study's purpose was to test whether individuals who were homeless and sleeping on the streets-the "street homeless"-would answer questions remotely through a web-based data collection system at regular "follow-up" intervals. We attempted to simulate longitudinal data collection in a condensed time period. Participants (N = 21) completed an in-person baseline interview. Each participant was given a remotely reloadable gift card. Subsequently, weekly for 8 weeks, participants were sent an email with a link to a SurveyMonkey questionnaire. Participants were given 48 h to complete each questionnaire. Data were collected about life on the streets, service use, community inclusion, substance use, and high-risk sexual behaviors. Ten dollars was remotely loaded onto each participant's gift card when they completed the questionnaire within the completion window. A substantial number of participants (67% of the total sample and 86% of the adjusted sample) completed at least seven out of the eight follow-up questionnaires. Most questionnaires were completed at public libraries, but several were completed at other types of locations (social service agencies, places of employment, relative/friend/acquaintance's domiciles, or via mobile phone). Although some of the questions were quite sensitive, very few participants skipped any questions. The only variables associated with questionnaire completion were

  4. An Efficient Real-Time Precise Point Positioning (RT-PPP) Solution for Offshore Surveys in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazeem, Mohamed; Nurhan Çelik, Rahmi

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the international global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) service (IGS) has launched the real-time service (IGS-RTS). The IGS-RTS has shown promise accuracy in precise point positioning applications. Currently, the precise point positioning technique is used extensively in marine applications. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the real-time precise point positioning (RT-PPP) solution using the IGS-RTS for offshore surveys in Turkey. Dual-frequency GPS data is collected onboard a vessel and then processed using the Bernese 5.2 PPP module. The IGS-RTS precise orbit and clock products are used in order to account for the satellite orbit and clock products. To investigate the accuracy of the RT-PPP technique, the positioning accuracy is assessed and compared with the traditional double-difference solution. It is shown that the RT-PPP solution has good agreement with the double-difference solution. Also, the proposed solution efficiently fulfills the international maritime organization (IMO) standards for the offshore surveys.

  5. Is it a fact? Timed arithmetic performance of children with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) varies as a function of how MLD is defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michele M M; Devlin, Kathleen T; McKenney, Sarah J

    2008-01-01

    Poor fact retrieval is a frequently reported characteristic of children with mathematical learning disability (MLD). To better understand the nature and specificity of poor fact retrieval in MLD, in the present study, we examined eighth graders' accuracy on timed addition and multiplication problems of varying levels of difficulty. We compared the performance of 16 children with deficient math achievement (MLD), 19 children with below average (but not deficient) math achievement (LA), and 100 typically achieving (TA) children. Children in all three groups made errors. Errors made by children in the LA group were more numerous, but comparable in type, to those observed for typically developing children. Errors made by children with MLD were more numerous still, and included errors that differ qualitatively from those in the LA and TA groups. Thus the way in which performance linked to "math difficulties" differs from that of typically achieving children varies as a function of how we define math disabilities (MLD vs. LA). Moreover, the frequency and types of errors made by individuals varied within the MLD group, highlighting group heterogeneity even when using strict criteria to define this group of children. Finally, the types of errors made by children with MLD reflect reliance on processes other than retrieval to solve these alleged "math facts."

  6. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  7. Early depth assessment of local burns by videomicroscopy: 24 h after injury is a critical time point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Kyomi; Shindo, Hajime; Ohtani, Minako; Nagasaki, Kotaro; Nakashima, Reiko; Katoh, Norito; Kishimoto, Saburo

    2011-09-01

    Videomicroscopy has simple and prompt operability, and useful in the burn depth assessment in its early phase. A burn wound is, however, a dynamic environment in the first few days and the critical time to assess a burn wound by videomicroscopy has not been investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the critical time point to assess the burn depth by videomicroscopy. Forty one patients with 44 intermediate depth burns admitted within 7 days after injury were included. Accuracies were assessed by comparison with clinical outcome: healing within 21 days after injury or not with conservative treatment. We prospectively evaluated and compared the accuracy of the videomicroscopy measurements with the clinical assessments. All findings were serialized in order of time after injury and divided into three groups, and we compared the appreciation of burn depth by videomicroscopy findings among groups. The videomicroscopy measurements is significantly accurate compared with clinical assessments (p=0.001). The accuracy of videomicroscopy measurements was significantly lower in the post-injury burn depth and the critical time point to assess the burn depth by videomicroscopy is 24 h after injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling Tropospheric Wet Delays and Research of its Contribution on the Real-time GNSS Precise Point Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shengfeng; Zhou, Wei; Zheng, Fu; Gong, Xiaopeng; Ge, Maorong; Schuh, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a well-known technique of positioning at a global scale which can be adopted in many applications. However, the convergence time is too long and limits the development of PPP, especially in real-time applications. By introducing some external corrections such as ionospheric, tropospheric corrections, the convergence time is always expected to be reduced. In this contribution, several methods for modeling of tropospheric wet delays in wide-area are investigated and a desirable model is determined for real-time PPP. Based on the GPT2 model, a modified parameter of zenith wet delay (ZWD) exponential decay is introduced in the modeling of real-time tropospheric delay, which can obtain the same accuracy comparing with the method based on water vapor scale height. Furthermore, this model can accurately model the real-time tropospheric delays up to 10km altitude, which potentially benefits in many applications. The Root Mean Square (RMS) of the zenith troposphere delay (ZTD) is about 1.2cm on average with cross-validation in four seasons. By augmentation of the real-time ZTD model, the BDS/GNSS PPP convergence performance is evaluated. It is shown that the ZTD model can greatly reduce the convergence time for BDS PPP, especially in the vertical direction. Comparing with the standard real-time PPP, the convergence time reduce from 20% to 50% and 2% to 7% for the augmentation PPP in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. The improvement for GPS PPP convergence time is about 6% and 18% on average in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. When combined GPS and BDS, the differences between the augmentation PPP and the standard PPP with blind model is very small. It is concluded that the contribution of the real-time ZTD model will be insignificant on the multi-GNSS PPP, as the satellite geometry is good enough to get a reliable PPP solution.

  9. Analysis of PolSK based FSO system using wavelength and time diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence with pointing errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, K.; Cheepalli, Shashidhar; Kumar, D. Sriram

    2014-08-01

    Free space optics (FSO) or wireless optical communication systems is an evolving alternative to the current radio frequency (RF) links due to its high and secure datarates, large license free bandwidth access, ease of installation, and lower cost for shorter range distances. These systems are largely influenced by atmospheric conditions due to wireless transmission; requirement of line of sight (LOS) propagation may lead to alignment problems in turn pointing errors. In this paper, we consider atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors are the major limitations. We tried to address these difficulties by considering polarization shift keying (PolSK) modulated FSO communication system with wavelength and time diversity. We derived the closed form expressions for estimation of the average bit error rate (BER) and outage probability, which are vital system performance metrics. Analytical results are shown considering different practical cases.

  10. Stabilizing fixed points of time-delay systems close to the Hopf bifurcation using a dynamic delayed feedback control method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaie, B; Motlagh, M R Jahed; Analoui, M [Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorsandi, S [Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez St., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: brezaie@iust.ac.ir

    2009-10-02

    This paper deals with the problem of Hopf bifurcation control for a class of nonlinear time-delay systems. A dynamic delayed feedback control method is utilized for stabilizing unstable fixed points near Hopf bifurcation. Using a linear stability analysis, we show that under certain conditions of the control parameters, and without changing the operating point of the system, the onset of Hopf bifurcation is delayed. Meanwhile, by applying the center manifold theorem and the normal form theory, we obtain formulas for determining the direction of the Hopf bifurcation and the stability of bifurcating periodic solutions of the closed loop system. Numerical simulations are given to justify the validity of the analytical results for the system controlled by the proposed method.

  11. Dual-time-point [18F]-FDG PET/CT in the diagnostic evaluation of suspicious breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, M G; Cangiano, A; Imbriaco, M; Soscia, F; Di Martino, G; Farina, A; Avitabile, G; Pace, L; Forestieri, P; Salvatore, M

    2010-03-01

    The authors sought to evaluate whether the reacquisition of images 3 h after administration of radiotracer improves the sensitivity of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography ([(18)F]-FDG PET/CT) in patients with suspicious breast lesions. Forty-eight patients with 59 breast lesions underwent an [(18)F]-FDG PET/CT study in the prone position with a dual-time-point acquisition performed in the early phase 1 h after FDG administration (PET-1) and in the delayed phase 3 h after FDG administration (PET-2). Both examinations were evaluated qualitatively and semiquantitatively with calculation of the mean percentage variation of the standard uptake values (Delta% SUV(max)) between PET-1 and PET-2. All lesions with an SUV(max) >or=2.5 at PET-1 or a reduction in SUV between PET-1 and PET-2 were considered benign. The definitive histopathological diagnosis was available for all patients included in the study. The dual-time-point acquisition of [(18)F]-FDG PET/CT displayed an accuracy of 85% for lesions with an SUV(max) >or=2.5 and/or positive Delta% SUV(max), with sensitivity and specificity values of 81% and 100% compared with 69%, 63% (both p<0.001) and 100% (p=n.s.), respectively, for the single-time-point acquisition. Malignant lesions showed an increase in FDG uptake between PET-1 and PET-2, with a Delta% SUV(max) of 10+/-7 (p<0.04). In contrast, benign lesions showed a decrease in SUV between PET-1 and PET-2, with a Delta% SUV(max) of -21+/-7 (p<0.001). The delayed repeat acquisition of PET images improves the accuracy of [(18)F]-FDG PET/CT in patients with suspicious breast lesions with respect to the single-time-point acquisition. In addition, malignant breast lesions displayed an increase in FDG uptake over time, whereas benign lesions showed a reduction. These variations in FDG uptake between PET-1 and PET-2 are a reliable parameter that can be used for differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions.

  12. DALI: Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive care unit patients: a multi-centre point of prevalence study to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients is therapeutic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Jason A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical effects of varying pharmacokinetic exposures of antibiotics (antibacterials and antifungals on outcome in infected critically ill patients are poorly described. A large-scale multi-centre study (DALI Study is currently underway describing the clinical outcomes of patients achieving pre-defined antibiotic exposures. This report describes the protocol. Methods DALI will recruit over 500 patients administered a wide range of either beta-lactam or glycopeptide antibiotics or triazole or echinocandin antifungals in a pharmacokinetic point-prevalence study. It is anticipated that over 60 European intensive care units (ICUs will participate. The primary aim will be to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients achieves plasma concentrations associated with maximal activity. Secondary aims will compare antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures with patient outcome and will describe the population pharmacokinetics of the antibiotics included. Various subgroup analyses will be conducted to determine patient groups that may be at risk of very low or very high concentrations of antibiotics. Discussion The DALI study should inform clinicians of the potential clinical advantages of achieving certain antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures in infected critically ill patients.

  13. Economic Order Quality Model for Determining the Sales Prices of Fresh Goods at Various Points in Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the safe consumption of goods such as food products, medicine, and vaccines is related to their freshness, consumers frequently understand less than suppliers about the freshness of goods when they purchase them. Because of this lack of information, apart from sales prices, consumers refer only to the manufacturing and expiration dates when deciding whether to purchase and how many of these goods to buy. If dealers could determine the sales price at each point in time and customers’ intention to buy goods of varying freshness, then dealers could set an optimal inventory cycle and allocate a weekly sales price for each point in time, thereby maximizing the profit per unit time. Therefore, in this study, an economic order quality model was established to enable discussion of the optimal control of sales prices. The technique for identifying the optimal solution for the model was determined, the characteristics of the optimal solution were demonstrated, and the implications of the solution’s sensitivity analysis were explained.

  14. An investigation into the performance of real-time GPS+GLONASS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harima, Ken; Choy, Suelynn; Rizos, Chris; Kogure, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the performance of real-time Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Precise Point Positioning (PPP) in New Zealand. The motivation of the research is to evaluate the feasibility of using PPP technique and a satellite based augmentation system such as the Japanese Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) to deliver a real-time precise positioning solution in support of a nation-wide high accuracy GNSS positioning coverage in New Zealand. Two IGS real-time correction streams are evaluated alongside with the PPP correction messages transmitted by the QZSS satellite known as MDC1. MDC1 corrections stream is generated by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) using the Multi-GNSS Advanced Demonstration tool for Orbit and Clock Analysis (MADOCA) software and are currently transmitted in test mode by the QZSS satellite. The IGS real-time streams are the CLK9B real-time corrections stream generated by the French Centre National D'études Spatiales (CNES) using the PPP-Wizard software, and the CLK81 real-time corrections stream produced by GMV using their MagicGNSS software. GNSS data is collected from six New Zealand CORS stations operated by Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) over a one-week period in 2015. GPS and GLONASS measurements are processed in a real-time PPP mode using the satellite orbit and clock corrections from the real-time streams. The results show that positioning accuracies of 6 cm in horizontal component and 15 cm in vertical component can be achieved in real-time PPP. The real-time GPS+GLONASS PPP solution required 30 minutes to converge to within 10 cm horizontal positioning accuracy.

  15. Real-time digital simulation of power electronics systems with Neutral Point Piloted multilevel inverter using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotozafy, Mamianja [Groupe de Recherches en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); CONVERTEAM SAS, Parc d' activites Techn' hom, 24 avenue du Marechal Juin, BP 40437, 90008 Belfort Cedex (France); Poure, Philippe [Laboratoire d' Instrumentation Electronique de Nancy (LIEN), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Saadate, Shahrokh [Groupe de Recherches en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Bordas, Cedric; Leclere, Loic [CONVERTEAM SAS, Parc d' activites Techn' hom, 24 avenue du Marechal Juin, BP 40437, 90008 Belfort Cedex (France)

    2011-02-15

    Most of actual real time simulation platforms have practically about ten microseconds as minimum calculation time step, mainly due to computation limits such as processing speed, architecture adequacy and modeling complexities. Therefore, simulation of fast switching converters' instantaneous models requires smaller computing time step. The approach presented in this paper proposes an answer to such limited modeling accuracies and computational bandwidth of the currently available digital simulators.As an example, the authors present a low cost, flexible and high performance FPGA-based real-time digital simulator for a complete complex power system with Neutral Point Piloted (NPP) three-level inverter. The proposed real-time simulator can model accurately and efficiently the complete power system, reducing costs, physical space and avoiding any damage to the actual equipment in the case of any dysfunction of the digital controller prototype. The converter model is computed at a small fixed time step as low as 100 ns. Such a computation time step allows high precision account of the gating signals and thus avoids averaging methods and event compensations. Moreover, a novel high performance model of the NPP three-level inverter has also been proposed for FPGA implementation. The proposed FPGA-based simulator models the environment of the NPP converter: the dc link, the RLE load and the digital controller and gating signals. FPGA-based real time simulation results are presented and compared with offline results obtained using PLECS software. They validate the efficiency and accuracy of the modeling for the proposed high performance FPGA-based real-time simulation approach. This paper also introduces new potential FPGA-based applications such as low cost real time simulator for power systems by developing a library of flexible and portable models for power converters, electrical machines and drives. (author)

  16. Compensation for the settling time and slew rate limitations of the CMS-ECAL Floating Point Preamplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Udriot, Stève; Bourotte, Jean; Hansen, Magnus; Löfstedt, B

    2002-01-01

    The Floating Point Preamplifier of the Very Front End Electronics for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter has been investigated on a 5x6 crystal prototype matrix. Discontinuities at the signal peak were observed in the pulse shape reconstruction from the 40MHz sampled and digitized data. The propositions linked to those observations are described, together with a focalized overview of the detector readout chain. A settling time problem is identified and it is shown that a 5ns delay applied to the ADC clock provides a secure solution. Finally, the implementation in the FPPA design of this delay is presented.

  17. Mean-Square Exponential Stability Analysis of Stochastic Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays via Fixed Point Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxiang Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the stability study for stochastic cellular neural networks with time-varying delays. By utilizing the new research technique of the fixed point theory, we find some new and concise sufficient conditions ensuring the existence and uniqueness as well as mean-square global exponential stability of the solution. The presented algebraic stability criteria are easily checked and do not require the differentiability of delays. The paper is finally ended with an example to show the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  18. Does Delayed-Time-Point Imaging Improve 18F-FDG-PET in Patients With MALT Lymphoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhoefer, Marius E.; Giraudo, Chiara; Senn, Daniela; Hartenbach, Markus; Weber, Michael; Rausch, Ivo; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Herold, Christian J.; Hacker, Marcus; Pones, Matthias; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Müllauer, Leonhard; Dolak, Werner; Lukas, Julius; Raderer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether in patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT), delayed–time-point 2-18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) performs better than standard–time-point 18F-FDG-PET. Materials and Methods Patients with untreated histologically verified MALT lymphoma, who were undergoing pretherapeutic 18F-FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) and consecutive 18F-FDG-PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using a single 18F-FDG injection, in the course of a larger-scale prospective trial, were included. Region-based sensitivity and specificity, and patient-based sensitivity of the respective 18F-FDG-PET scans at time points 1 (45–60 minutes after tracer injection, TP1) and 2 (100–150 minutes after tracer injection, TP2), relative to the reference standard, were calculated. Lesion-to-liver and lesion-to-blood SUVmax (maximum standardized uptake values) ratios were also assessed. Results 18F-FDG-PET at TP1 was true positive in 15 o f 23 involved regions, and 18F-FDG-PET at TP2 was true-positive in 20 of 23 involved regions; no false-positive regions were noted. Accordingly, region-based sensitivities and specificities were 65.2% (confidence interval [CI], 45.73%–84.67%) and 100% (CI, 100%-100%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP1; and 87.0% (CI, 73.26%–100%) and 100% (CI, 100%-100%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP2, respectively. FDG-PET at TP1 detected lymphoma in at least one nodal or extranodal region in 7 of 13 patients, and 18F-FDG-PET at TP2 in 10 of 13 patients; accordingly, patient-based sensitivity was 53.8% (CI, 26.7%–80.9%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP1, and 76.9% (CI, 54.0%–99.8%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP2. Lesion-to-liver and lesion-to-blood maximum standardized uptake value ratios were significantly lower at TP1 (ratios, 1.05 ± 0.40 and 1.52 ± 0.62) than at TP2 (ratios, 1.67 ± 0.74 and 2.56 ± 1.10; P = 0.003 and P = 0.001). Conclusions Delayed–time-point imaging

  19. A Time Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Customer Order Decoupling Point: A Perspective from the Constant Service Operation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC, especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC.

  20. A time scheduling model of logistics service supply chain based on the customer order decoupling point: a perspective from the constant service operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC.

  1. A sample-to-answer, real-time convective polymerase chain reaction system for point-of-care diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bowen; Zhang, Chunsun; Xing, Da

    2017-11-15

    Timely and accurate molecular diagnostics at the point-of-care (POC) level is critical to global health. To this end, we propose a handheld convective-flow real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system capable of direct sample-to-answer genetic analysis for the first time. Such a system mainly consists of a magnetic bead-assisted photothermolysis sample preparation, a closed-loop convective PCR reactor, and a wireless video camera-based real-time fluorescence detection. The sample preparation exploits the dual functionality of vancomycin-modified magnetic beads (VMBs) for bacteria enrichment and photothermal conversion, enabling cell pre-concentration and lysis to be finished in less than 3min. On the presented system, convective thermocycling is driven by a single-heater thermal gradient, and its amplification is monitored in real-time, with an analysis speed of less than 25min, a dynamic linear range from 10(6) to 10(1) copies/µL and a detection sensitivity of as little as 1 copies/µL. Additionally, the proposed PCR system is self-contained with a control electronics, pocket-size and battery-powered, providing a low-cost genetic analysis in a portable format. Therefore, we believe that this integrated system may become a potential candidate for fast, accurate and affordable POC molecular diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Location and release time identification of pollution point source in river networks based on the Backward Probability Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane, Alireza; Mazaheri, Mehdi; Mohammad Vali Samani, Jamal

    2016-09-15

    The pollution of rivers due to accidental spills is a major threat to environment and human health. To protect river systems from accidental spills, it is essential to introduce a reliable tool for identification process. Backward Probability Method (BPM) is one of the most recommended tools that is able to introduce information related to the prior location and the release time of the pollution. This method was originally developed and employed in groundwater pollution source identification problems. One of the objectives of this study is to apply this method in identifying the pollution source location and release time in surface waters, mainly in rivers. To accomplish this task, a numerical model is developed based on the adjoint analysis. Then the developed model is verified using analytical solution and some real data. The second objective of this study is to extend the method to pollution source identification in river networks. In this regard, a hypothetical test case is considered. In the later simulations, all of the suspected points are identified, using only one backward simulation. The results demonstrated that all suspected points, determined by the BPM could be a possible pollution source. The proposed approach is accurate and computationally efficient and does not need any simplification in river geometry and flow. Due to this simplicity, it is highly recommended for practical purposes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Skilled players' and novices' difficulty anticipating left- vs. right-handed opponents' action intentions varies across different points in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert; Schorer, Jörg; Baker, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    A left-handers' performance advantage in interactive sports is assumed to result from their relative rarity compared to right-handers. Part of this advantage may be explained by athletes facing difficulties anticipating left-handers' action intentions, particularly when anticipation is based on kinematic cues available at an early stage of an opponent's movement. Here we tested whether the type of volleyball attack is predicted better against right- vs. left-handed opponents' movements and whether such handedness effects are evident at earlier time points in skilled players than novices. In a video-based experiment volleyball players and novices predicted the type of shot (i.e., smash vs. lob) of left- and right-handed volleyball attacks occluded at six different time points. Overall, right-handed attacks were better anticipated than left-handed attacks, volleyball players outperformed novices, and performance improved in later occlusion conditions. Moreover, in skilled players the handedness effect was most pronounced when attacks were occluded 480 ms prior to hand-ball-contact, whereas in novices it was most evident 240 ms prior to hand-ball-contact. Our findings provide further evidence of the effect of an opponent's handedness on action outcome anticipation and suggest that its occurrence in the course of an opponent's unfolding action likely depends on an observers' domain-specific skill.

  4. Dual-time-point FDG-PET/CT Imaging of Temporal Bone Chondroblastoma: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriihara, Akira; Tsunoda, Atsunobu; Takemoto, Akira; Kubota, Kazunori; Machida, Youichi; Tateishi, Ukihide

    2015-01-01

    Temporal bone chondroblastoma is an extremely rare benign bone tumor. We encountered two cases showing similar imaging findings on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and dual-time-point (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. In both cases, CT images revealed temporal bone defects and sclerotic changes around the tumor. Most parts of the tumor showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI images and non-uniform enhancement on gadolinium contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. No increase in signal intensity was noted in diffusion-weighted images. Dual-time-point PET/CT showed markedly elevated (18)F-FDG uptake, which increased from the early to delayed phase. Nevertheless, immunohistochemical analysis of the resected tumor tissue revealed weak expression of glucose transporter-1 and hexokinase II in both tumors. Temporal bone tumors, showing markedly elevated (18)F-FDG uptake, which increases from the early to delayed phase on PET/CT images, may be diagnosed as malignant bone tumors. Therefore, the differential diagnosis should include chondroblastoma in combination with its characteristic findings on CT and MRI.

  5. Dual-time-point FDG-PET/CT Imaging of Temporal Bone Chondroblastoma: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Toriihara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporal bone chondroblastoma is an extremely rare benign bone tumor. We encountered two cases showing similar imaging findings on computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and dual-time-point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/CT. In both cases, CT images revealed temporal bone defects and sclerotic changes around the tumor. Most parts of the tumor showed low signal intensity on T2- weighted MRI images and non-uniform enhancement on gadolinium contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. No increase in signal intensity was noted in diffusion-weighted images. Dual-time-point PET/CT showed markedly elevated 18F-FDG uptake, which increased from the early to delayed phase. Nevertheless, immunohistochemical analysis of the resected tumor tissue revealed weak expression of glucose transporter-1 and hexokinase II in both tumors. Temporal bone tumors, showing markedly elevated 18F-FDG uptake, which increases from the early to delayed phase on PET/CT images, may be diagnosed as malignant bone tumors. Therefore, the differential diagnosis should include chondroblastoma in combination with its characteristic findings on CT and MRI.

  6. Free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory in dissipative media: application to entanglement generation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, K; Yamashita, K

    2009-07-07

    We develop monotonically convergent free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory (OCT) in the density-matrix representation to deal with quantum systems showing dissipation. Our theory is more general and flexible for tailoring optimal laser pulses in order to control quantum dynamics with dissipation than the conventional fixed-time and fixed end-point OCT in that the optimal temporal duration of laser pulses can also be optimized exactly. To show the usefulness of our theory, it is applied to the generation and maintenance of the vibrational entanglement of carbon monoxide adsorbed on the copper (100) surface, CO/Cu(100). We demonstrate the numerical results and clarify how to combat vibrational decoherence as much as possible by the tailored shapes of the optimal laser pulses. It is expected that our theory will be general enough to be applied to a variety of dissipative quantum dynamics systems because the decoherence is one of the quantum phenomena sensitive to the temporal duration of the quantum dynamics.

  7. Dual-time-point O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine PET for grading of cerebral gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Philipp; Herzog, Hans; Rota Kops, Elena; Stoffels, Gabriele; Judov, Natalie; Filss, Christian; Tellmann, Lutz [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); Galldiks, Norbert [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Weiss, Carolin [University of Cologne, Department of Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); Sabel, Michael [Heinrich-Heine University, Department of Neurosurgery, Duesseldorf (Germany); Coenen, Heinz Hubert [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Juelich (Germany); Shah, Nadim Jon [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Aachen (Germany); Langen, Karl-Josef [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Juelich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of dual-time-point imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) using O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ({sup 18}F-FET) for non-invasive grading of cerebral gliomas compared with a dynamic approach. Thirty-six patients with histologically confirmed cerebral gliomas (21 primary, 15 recurrent; 24 high-grade, 12 low-grade) underwent dynamic PET from 0 to 50 min post-injection (p.i.) of {sup 18}F-FET, and additionally from 70 to 90 min p.i. Mean tumour-to-brain ratios (TBR{sub mean}) of {sup 18}F-FET uptake were determined in early (20-40 min p.i.) and late (70-90 min p.i.) examinations. Time-activity curves (TAC) of the tumours from 0 to 50 min after injection were assigned to different patterns. The diagnostic accuracy of changes of {sup 18}F-FET uptake between early and late examinations for tumour grading was compared to that of curve pattern analysis from 0 to 50 min p.i. of {sup 18}F-FET. The diagnostic accuracy of changes of the TBR{sub mean} of {sup 18}F-FET PET uptake between early and late examinations for the identification of HGG was 81 % (sensitivity 83 %; specificity 75 %; cutoff - 8 %; p < 0.001), and 83 % for curve pattern analysis (sensitivity 88 %; specificity 75 %; p < 0.001). Dual-time-point imaging of {sup 18}F-FET uptake in gliomas achieves diagnostic accuracy for tumour grading that is similar to the more time-consuming dynamic data acquisition protocol. (orig.)

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-time-point 18F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Steffen; Forsting, Michael [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. at Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)], e-mail: steffen.hahn@uk-essen.de; Hecktor, Jennifer; Kimmig, Rainer [Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. at Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany); Grabellus, Florian [Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. at Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany); Hartung, Verena; Poeppel, Thorsten [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. at Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany); Antoch, Gerald; Heusner, Till A. [Univ. of Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Background: The diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET/CT for the detection of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients acquired 60 min after FDG administration is reported to be only moderate, especially due to low sensitivity. Purpose: To test whether a delayed scan 90 min after FDG administration could enhance the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET/CT for the detection of axillary lymph node metastases. Material and Methods: Thirty-eight women suffering from primary breast cancer (mean age 52 years; range 25-78 years; standard deviation 14 years) underwent a pre-therapeutic dual-time-point FDG-PET/CT scan. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of axillary lymph nodes was measured at two different time points (time point T1: 60 min after FDG injection, time point T2: 90 min after FDG injection). SUVmax of axillary lymph nodes at T1 and T2 were assessed for statistical significance using a paired Wilcoxon-Test (P < 0.05). At T1 a qualitative analysis of the FDG-PET/CT scan was performed to define physiologic and metastatic lymph nodes. At T2 an increase of the SUVmax of at least 3.75% over time was rated as indicating malignancy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and the accuracy of FDG-PET/CT for the detection of axillary lymph node metastases was calculated at time points T1 and T2. Statistically significant differences were determined using Fisher's exact test (P < 0.05). Histopathology served as the standard of reference. A compartment based analysis was done. Results: Axillary lymph nodes had a mean SUVmax of 1.6 (range 0.6-10.8; SD 1.9) at T1 and a mean SUVmax of 1.8 (range 0.5-17.9; SD 3.5) at T2. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.047). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of FDG-PET/CT for the detection of axillary lymph node metastases was 81%, 100%, 100%, 88%, and 92% at T1, and 88%, 50%, 56%, 85%, and 66% at T2, respectively. This

  9. Real-time dynamics induced by quenches across the quantum critical points in gapless Fermi systems with a magnetic impurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, Christian; Mußhoff, Julian; Anders, Frithjof B.

    2014-12-01

    The energy-dependent scattering of fermions from a localized orbital at an energy-dependent rate Γ (ɛ ) ∝|ɛ| r gives rise to quantum critical points (QCPs) in the pseudogap single-impurity Anderson model separating a local moment phase with an unscreened spin moment from a strong-coupling phase which slightly deviates from the screened phase of standard Kondo problem. Using the time-dependent numerical renormalization group (TD-NRG) approach we show that local dynamic properties always equilibrate towards a steady-state value even for quenches across the QCP but with systematic deviations from the thermal equilibrium depending on the distance to the critical coupling. Local nonequilibrium properties are presented for interaction quenches and hybridization quenches. We augment our numerical data by an analytical calculation that becomes exact at short times and find excellent agreement between the numerics and the analytical theory. For interaction quenches within the screened phase we find a universal function for the time-dependent local double occupancy. We trace back the discrepancy between our results and the data obtained by a time-dependent Gutzwiller variational approach to restrictions of the wave-function ansatz in the Gutzwiller theory: while the NRG ground states properly account for the formation of an extended spin moment which decouples from the system in the unscreened phase, the Gutzwiller ansatz only allows the formation of the spin moment on the local impurity orbital.

  10. Long-time behavior of the velocity autocorrelation function at low densities and near the critical point of simple fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, R F A; Ould-Kaddour, F; Levesque, D

    2006-07-01

    Numerous theoretical and numerical works have been devoted to the study of the algebraic decrease at large times of the velocity autocorrelation function of particles in a fluid. The derivation of this behavior, the so-called long-time tail, generally based on linearized hydrodynamics, makes no reference to any specific characteristic of the particle interactions. However, in the literature doubts have been expressed about the possibility that by numerical simulations the long-time tail can be observed in the whole fluid phase domain of systems in which the particles interact by soft-core and attractive pair potentials. In this work, extensive and accurate molecular-dynamics simulations establish that the predicted long-time tail of the velocity autocorrelation function exists in a low-density fluid of particles interacting by a soft-repulsive potential and near the liquid-gas critical point of a Lennard-Jones system. These results contribute to the confirmation that the algebraic decay of the velocity autocorrelation function is universal in these fluid systems.

  11. Enhancing real-time precise point positioning with zenith troposphere delay products and the determination of corresponding tropospheric stochastic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yibin; Peng, Wenjie; Xu, Chaoqian; Cheng, Shuyang

    2017-02-01

    By introducing two types of zenith troposphere delay (ZTD) products in precise point positioning (PPP), we developed the ZTD-corrected PPP and the ZTD-constrained PPP, both of them reduced the PPP convergence time. Both enhanced PPP methods are examined by global empirical ZTD models and regional ZTD corrections. For global ZTD models, we verified that ZTD-corrected PPP will deviate the positioning results, while ZTD-constrained PPP could produce unbiased estimations. Therefore, the latter is utilized to study the performance of global ZTD models (ITG, GPT2w, GZTD and UNB3m). After numerous experiments, we found that the performance of ZTD models was positively related to the real ZTD accuracy, and we proposed a universal tropospheric stochastic model 2SQR(9rms) which denotes double the square of nine times ZTD rms, to constrain ZTD in PPP. The proposed model subsequently was validated by real-time static and kinematic ZTD-constrained PPP on the premise that the ZTD rms on every station was known. Compared with traditional PPP, in static PPP, the number of improved stations is increased by 15.5 per cent (ITG), 14.4 per cent (GPT2w), 11.1 per cent (GZTD) and 8.3 per cent (UNB3m). For kinematic PPP, PPP constrained by ITG model still had the best performance, the number of improved stations is increased by 14.4 per cent, after 30 min of initialization time, 13.4 cm east, 13.4 cm north and 11.7 cm up positioning accuracy was obtained, compared with 15.3 cm east, 15.3 cm north and 14.3 cm up accuracy by traditional PPP. In addition, experiments using regional ZTD corrections to enhance real-time PPP showed that both ZTD-corrected PPP and ZTD-constrained PPP can notably reduce the convergence time on the vertical component (within 15 cm).

  12. Four-point high time resolution information on electron densities by the electric field experiments (EFW on Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pedersen

    Full Text Available For accurate measurements of electric fields, spherical double probes are electronically controlled to be at a positive potential of approximately 1 V relative to the ambient magnetospheric plasma. The spacecraft will acquire a potential which balances the photoelectrons escaping to the plasma and the electron flux collected from the plasma. The probe-to-plasma potential difference can be measured with a time resolution of a fraction of a second, and provides information on the electron density over a wide range of electron densities from the lobes (~ 0.01 cm-3 to the magnetosheath (>10 cm-3 and the plasmasphere (>100 cm-3. This technique has been perfected and calibrated against other density measurements on GEOS, ISEE-1, CRRES, GEOTAIL and POLAR. The Cluster spacecraft potential measurements opens the way for new approaches, particularly near boundaries and gradients where four-point measurements will provide information never obtained before. Another interesting point is that onboard data storage of this simple parameter can be done for complete orbits and thereby will provide background information for the shorter full data collection periods on Cluster. Preliminary calibrations against other density measurements on Cluster will be reported.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers Space plasma physics (spacecraft sheaths, wakes, charging; instruments and techniques

  13. Parcellation of the healthy neonatal brain into 107 regions using atlas propagation through intermediate time points in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eBlesa Cabez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2-41+6. An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database, with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33 constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modelling brain growth during development.

  14. Detecting correlation changes in multivariate time series: A comparison of four non-parametric change point detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrieto, Jedelyn; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Kuppens, Peter; Grassmann, Mariel; Ceulemans, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Change point detection in multivariate time series is a complex task since next to the mean, the correlation structure of the monitored variables may also alter when change occurs. DeCon was recently developed to detect such changes in mean and\\or correlation by combining a moving windows approach and robust PCA. However, in the literature, several other methods have been proposed that employ other non-parametric tools: E-divisive, Multirank, and KCP. Since these methods use different statistical approaches, two issues need to be tackled. First, applied researchers may find it hard to appraise the differences between the methods. Second, a direct comparison of the relative performance of all these methods for capturing change points signaling correlation changes is still lacking. Therefore, we present the basic principles behind DeCon, E-divisive, Multirank, and KCP and the corresponding algorithms, to make them more accessible to readers. We further compared their performance through extensive simulations using the settings of Bulteel et al. (Biological Psychology, 98 (1), 29-42, 2014) implying changes in mean and in correlation structure and those of Matteson and James (Journal of the American Statistical Association, 109 (505), 334-345, 2014) implying different numbers of (noise) variables. KCP emerged as the best method in almost all settings. However, in case of more than two noise variables, only DeCon performed adequately in detecting correlation changes.

  15. Defining Z in Q

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsmann, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We show that ${\\mathbb Z}$ is definable in ${\\mathbb Q}$ by a universal first-order formula in the language of rings. We also present an $\\forall\\exists$-formula for ${\\mathbb Z}$ in ${\\mathbb Q}$ with just one universal quantifier. We exhibit new diophantine subsets of ${\\mathbb Q}$ like the set of non-squares or the complement of the image of the norm map under a quadratic extension. Finally, we show that there is no existential formula for ${\\mathbb Z}$ in ${\\mathbb Q}$, provided one assumes a strong variant of the Bombieri-Lang Conjecture for varieties over ${\\mathbb Q}$ with many ${\\mathbb Q}$-rational points.

  16. Polynomial-time interior-point algorithm based on a local self-concordant finite barrier function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zheng-jing; BAI Yan-qin

    2009-01-01

    The choice of self-concordant functions is the key to efficient algorithms for linear and quadratic convex optimizations,which provide a method with polynomial-time iterations to solve linear and quadratic convex optimization problems.The parameters of a self-concordant barrier function can be used to compute the complexity bound of the proposed algorithm.In this paper,it is proved that the finite barrier function is a local self-concordant barrier function.By deriving the local values of parameters of this barrier function,the desired complexity bound of an interior-point algorithm based on this local serf-concordant function for linear optimization problem is obtained.The bound matches the best known bound for smallupdate methods.

  17. Enumerating the Hidden Homeless: Strategies to Estimate the Homeless Gone Missing From a Point-in-Time Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agans Robert P.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To receive federal homeless funds, communities are required to produce statistically reliable, unduplicated counts or estimates of homeless persons in sheltered and unsheltered locations during a one-night period (within the last ten days of January called a point-in-time (PIT count. In Los Angeles, a general population telephone survey was implemented to estimate the number of unsheltered homeless adults who are hidden from view during the PIT count. Two estimation approaches were investigated: i the number of homeless persons identified as living on private property, which employed a conventional household weight for the estimated total (Horvitz-Thompson approach; and ii the number of homeless persons identified as living on a neighbor’s property, which employed an additional adjustment derived from the size of the neighborhood network to estimate the total (multiplicity-based approach. This article compares the results of these two methods and discusses the implications therein.

  18. Computer simulation on reliability of retention index with FDG-PET and optimization of dual-time-point imaging protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The inherent noise in positron emission tomography (PET) leads to the instability of quantitative indicators, which may affect the diagnostic accuracy for differentiating malignant and benign lesions in the management of lung cancer. In this paper, the reliability of retention index (RI) is systematically investigated by using computer simulation for the dual-time-point imaging protocol. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is used to evaluate the optimal protocol. Results demonstrate that the reliability of RI is affected by several factors including noise level, lesion type, and imaging schedule. The Ris with small absolute values suffer from worse reliability than those larger ones. The results of ROC curves show that over delayed second scan cannot help to improve the diag- nostic performance further, while an early first scan is expected. The method of optimization based on ROC analysis can be easily extended to comprise as many lesions as possible.

  19. Real-time one-point out-of-plane displacement measurement system using electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chen; Hu, Wenxin; Zhang, Ming; Miao, Hong

    2016-12-01

    We propose an electronic speckle pattern interferometry-based measurement method in which a hardware device in the reference arm is used to track the out-of-plane displacement in the objective arm. We developed a real-time one-point out-of-plane displacement measurement system, which uses a Michelson interferometer, a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) device, a charge-coupled device camera, and a tracking control system. The system works by checking the movement of carrier fringes, and the PZT is used to track the displacement. We also developed an efficient tracking algorithm based on direction judgment and correlation computation to determine whether the PZT is activated and the distance that the PZT is ordered to move. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the system, and finally, we discuss the detailed mechanism of the system.

  20. Potentials and point symmetries of Klein-Gordon equations in space-time homogenous Gödel-type metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Sameerah

    In this paper, we study the geometric properties of generators for the Klein-Gordon equation on classes of space-time homogeneous Gödel-type metrics. Our analysis complements the study involving the “Symmetries of geodesic motion in Gödel-type spacetimes” by U. Camci (J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys., doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2014/07/002). These symmetries or Killing vectors (KVs) are used to construct potential functions admitted by the Klein-Gordon equation. The criteria for the potential function originates from three primary sources, viz. through generators that are identically the Killing algebra, or with the KV fields that are recast into linear combinations and third, real subalgebras within the Killing algebra. This leads to a classification of the (1 + 3) Klein-Gordon equation according to the catalogue of infinitesimal Lie and Noether point symmetries admitted. A comprehensive list of group invariant functions is provided and their application to analytic solutions is discussed.

  1. On Minimal Realizations and Minimal Partial Realizations of Linear Time-Invariant Systems Subject to Point Incommensurate Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates key aspects of realization and partial realization theories for linear time-invariant systems being subject to a set of incommensurate internal and external point delays. The results are obtained based on the use of formal Laurent expansions whose coefficients are polynomial matrices of appropriate orders and which are also appropriately related to truncated and infinite block Hankel matrices. The above-mentioned polynomial matrices arise in a natural way from the transcendent equations associated with the delayed dynamics. The results are linked to the properties of controllability and observability of dynamic systems. Some related overview is given related to robustness concerned with keeping the realization properties under mismatching between a current transfer matrix and a nominal one.

  2. New time-domain three-point error separation methods for measurement roundness and spindle error motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwen; Tao, Tingting; Zeng, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Error separation is a key technology for online measuring spindle radial error motion or artifact form error, such as roundness and cylindricity. Three time-domain three-point error separation methods are proposed based on solving the minimum norm solution of the linear equations. Three laser displacement sensors are used to collect a set of discrete measurements recorded, by which a group of linear measurement equations is derived according to the criterion of prior separation form (PSF), prior separation spindle error motion (PSM) or synchronous separation both form and spindle error motion (SSFM). The work discussed the correlations between the angles of three sensors in measuring system, rank of coefficient matrix in the measurement equations and harmonics distortions in the separation results, revealed the regularities of the first order harmonics distortion and recommended the applicable situation of the each method. Theoretical research and large simulations show that SSFM is the more precision method because of the lower distortion.

  3. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-12

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission.

  4. POD for Real-Time Simulation of Hyperelastic Soft Biological Tissue Using the Point Collocation Method of Finite Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Banihani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The point collocation method of finite spheres (PCMFS is used to model the hyperelastic response of soft biological tissue in real time within the framework of virtual surgery simulation. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD model order reduction (MOR technique was used to achieve reduced-order model of the problem, minimizing computational cost. The PCMFS is a physics-based meshfree numerical technique for real-time simulation of surgical procedures where the approximation functions are applied directly on the strong form of the boundary value problem without the need for integration, increasing computational efficiency. Since computational speed has a significant role in simulation of surgical procedures, the proposed technique was able to model realistic nonlinear behavior of organs in real time. Numerical results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology through a comparison between full and reduced analyses for several nonlinear problems. It is shown that the proposed technique was able to achieve good agreement with the full model; moreover, the computational and data storage costs were significantly reduced.

  5. Evaluation of articular cartilage in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) using T2* mapping at different time points at 3.0 Tesla MRI: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apprich, S.; Mamisch, T.C. [University of Bern, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Bern (Switzerland); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Welsch, G.H. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Bonel, H. [University of Bern, Department of Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Siebenrock, K.A.; Dudda, M. [University of Bern, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Bern (Switzerland); Kim, Y.J. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Trattnig, S. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    To define the feasibility of utilizing T2* mapping for assessment of early cartilage degeneration prior to surgery in patients with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), we compared cartilage of the hip joint in patients with FAI and healthy volunteers using T2* mapping at 3.0 Tesla over time. Twenty-two patients (13 females and 9 males; mean age 28.1 years) with clinical signs of FAI and Toennis grade {<=} 1 on anterior-posterior x-ray and 35 healthy age-matched volunteers were examined at a 3 T MRI using a flexible body coil. T2* maps were calculated from sagittal- and coronal-oriented gradient-multi-echo sequences using six echoes (TR 125, TE 4.41/8.49/12.57/16.65/20.73/24.81, scan time 4.02 min), both measured at beginning and end of the scan (45 min time span between measurements). Region of interest analysis was manually performed on four consecutive slices for superior and anterior cartilage. Mean T2* values were compared among patients and volunteers, as well as over time using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Whereas quantitative T2* values for the first measurement did not reveal significant differences between patients and volunteers, either for sagittal (p = 0.644) or coronal images (p = 0.987), at the first measurement, a highly significant difference (p {<=} 0.004) was found for both measurements with time after unloading of the joint. Over time we found decreasing mean T2* values for patients, in contrast to increasing mean T2* relaxation times in volunteers. The study proved the feasibility of utilizing T2* mapping for assessment of early cartilage degeneration in the hip joint in FAI patients at 3 Tesla to predict possible success of joint-preserving surgery. However, we suggest the time point for measuring T2* as an MR biomarker for cartilage and the changes in T2* over time to be of crucial importance for designing an MR protocol in patients with FAI. (orig.)

  6. Nouns to Define Homophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo Arias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The term ‘homophobia’ was introduced in the academic context more than 40 years ago. However, its meaning has changed over time. Objective. To review the nouns used in the last twelve years to define homophobia. Methodology. The authors conducted a systematic search in Medline through Pubmed that included editorials, letters to editors, comments and narrative reviews, in English and Spanish. A qualitative analysis (Grounded theory was applied to analyze nouns used to define homophobia since 2001 through 2012. Results. Authors reviewed three papers including ten nouns to define homophobia, the most common noun was fear. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort with homosexuality. Conclusion. Fear is the most used word to describe homophobia. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort toward homosexuality.

  7. Tissue engineering intrafusal fibers: dose- and time-dependent differentiation of nuclear bag fibers in a defined in vitro system using neuregulin 1-beta-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, John W; Das, Mainak; Kang, Jung-Fong; Wagner, Robert; Molnar, Peter; Hickman, James J

    2008-03-01

    While much is known about muscle spindle structure, innervation and function, relatively few factors have been identified that regulate intrafusal fiber differentiation and spindle development. Identification of these factors will be a crucial step in tissue engineering functional muscle systems. In this study, we investigated the role of the growth factor, neuregulin 1-beta-1 (Nrg 1-beta-1) EGF, for its ability to influence myotube fate specification in a defined culture system utilizing the non-biological substrate N-1[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]-diethylenetriamine (DETA). Based on morphological and immunocytochemical criteria, Nrg 1-beta-1 treatment of developing myotubes increases the ratio of nuclear bag fibers to total myotubes from 0.019 to 0.100, approximately a five-fold increase. The myotube cultures were evaluated for expression of the intrafusal fiber-specific alpha cardiac-like myosin heavy chain and for the expression of the non-specific slow myosin heavy chain. Additionally, the expression of ErbB2 receptors on all myotubes was observed, while phosphorylated ErbB2 receptors were only observed in Nrg 1-beta-1-treated intrafusal fibers. After Nrg 1-beta-1 treatment, we were able to observe the expression of the intrafusal fiber-specific transcription factor Egr3 only in fibers exhibiting the nuclear bag phenotype. Finally, nuclear bag fibers were characterized electrophysiologically for the first time in vitro. This data shows conclusively, in a serum-free system, that Nrg 1-beta-1 is necessary to drive specification of forming myotubes to the nuclear bag phenotype.

  8. Existence of countably many positive solutions for nth-order m-point boundary-value problems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence of positive solutions for the nonlinear nth-order with m-point singular boundary-value problem. By using the fixed point index theory and a new fixed point theorem in cones, the existence of countably many positive solutions for a nonlinear singular boundary value problem are obtained.

  9. Adaptive error detection for HDR/PDR brachytherapy: Guidance for decision making during real-time in vivo point dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertzscher, Gustavo, E-mail: guke@dtu.dk; Andersen, Claus E., E-mail: clan@dtu.dk [Centre for Nuclear Technologies, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nutech, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Tanderup, Kari, E-mail: karitand@rm.dk [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Norrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: This study presents an adaptive error detection algorithm (AEDA) for real-timein vivo point dosimetry during high dose rate (HDR) or pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy (BT) where the error identification, in contrast to existing approaches, does not depend on an a priori reconstruction of the dosimeter position. Instead, the treatment is judged based on dose rate comparisons between measurements and calculations of the most viable dosimeter position provided by the AEDA in a data driven approach. As a result, the AEDA compensates for false error cases related to systematic effects of the dosimeter position reconstruction. Given its nearly exclusive dependence on stable dosimeter positioning, the AEDA allows for a substantially simplified and time efficient real-time in vivo BT dosimetry implementation. Methods: In the event of a measured potential treatment error, the AEDA proposes the most viable dosimeter position out of alternatives to the original reconstruction by means of a data driven matching procedure between dose rate distributions. If measured dose rates do not differ significantly from the most viable alternative, the initial error indication may be attributed to a mispositioned or misreconstructed dosimeter (false error). However, if the error declaration persists, no viable dosimeter position can be found to explain the error, hence the discrepancy is more likely to originate from a misplaced or misreconstructed source applicator or from erroneously connected source guide tubes (true error). Results: The AEDA applied on twoin vivo dosimetry implementations for pulsed dose rate BT demonstrated that the AEDA correctly described effects responsible for initial error indications. The AEDA was able to correctly identify the major part of all permutations of simulated guide tube swap errors and simulated shifts of individual needles from the original reconstruction. Unidentified errors corresponded to scenarios where the dosimeter position was

  10. The Research into Pressing Points of Ancient and Modern Times%点按法应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢巧瑜; 廖军; 黄萍萍; 郑春水; 张乐; 郑佳璇

    2016-01-01

    Pressing points is one of the most common basic manipulation,and widely used in treating all kinds of diseases in clinical practice.It has very good functions of warming meridians and expelling cold and stopping cold,unblocking and activating meridians,clearing away heat and calming mind and astringing.It has small contact area,good penetration,and is widely applicable to all parts of the body,so it is often clinically used to treat all kinds of diseases,mainly especially in bone and soft tissue injury,especially old injury in muscles or deep bone or pain points of obstinate arthralgia.The modern medical research into pressing points focuses on biomechanics of the technique,including researching and producing biomechanics of the technique determination instrument,achieving mutual penetration between subjects;Biomechanics indexes of the technique:direction and size and continued time;In terms of working mechanism,mainly into analgesic mechanism aspects involving neurological,circulatory,immunology of modern medicine.However,the working mechanism of pressing points has not been fully revealed yet,the technique standards including mechanical quantitative standard needs further exploring.What's more,besides strengthening both the experimental and clinical studies,thinking and reform of technique teaching should not be ignored in order to promote construction and development of massage subject,and better serve the cause of human health.%点按法是临床上最常用的基础手法之一,被广泛应用于临床各种疾病.点按法具有较好的温经散寒止痛、开通闭塞活络、清热安神收敛功效.点按法接触面积小,有较好的深透性,可广泛应用于全身各个部位,因此常用于治疗临床各科病证.其中以骨伤科和软组织损伤方面居多,特别是对肌肉或骨缝深处的旧伤或顽痹之痛点,有明显“以痛止痛”的作用.现代医学对点按法实验研究大多围绕手法的生物力学进行研究,主要包

  11. A reference station-based GNSS computing mode to support unified precise point positioning and real-time kinematic services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanming; Gu, Shengfeng; Shi, Chuang; Rizos, Chris

    2013-11-01

    Currently, the GNSS computing modes are of two classes: network-based data processing and user receiver-based processing. A GNSS reference receiver station essentially contributes raw measurement data in either the RINEX file format or as real-time data streams in the RTCM format. Very little computation is carried out by the reference station. The existing network-based processing modes, regardless of whether they are executed in real-time or post-processed modes, are centralised or sequential. This paper describes a distributed GNSS computing framework that incorporates three GNSS modes: reference station-based, user receiver-based and network-based data processing. Raw data streams from each GNSS reference receiver station are processed in a distributed manner, i.e., either at the station itself or at a hosting data server/processor, to generate station-based solutions, or reference receiver-specific parameters. These may include precise receiver clock, zenith tropospheric delay, differential code biases, ambiguity parameters, ionospheric delays, as well as line-of-sight information such as azimuth and elevation angles. Covariance information for estimated parameters may also be optionally provided. In such a mode the nearby precise point positioning (PPP) or real-time kinematic (RTK) users can directly use the corrections from all or some of the stations for real-time precise positioning via a data server. At the user receiver, PPP and RTK techniques are unified under the same observation models, and the distinction is how the user receiver software deals with corrections from the reference station solutions and the ambiguity estimation in the observation equations. Numerical tests demonstrate good convergence behaviour for differential code bias and ambiguity estimates derived individually with single reference stations. With station-based solutions from three reference stations within distances of 22-103 km the user receiver positioning results, with various

  12. Transcriptional profiling of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA regulated genes in mineralizing dental pulp cells at early and late time points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry F. Duncan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp tissue can be damaged by a range of irritants, however, if the irritation is removed and/or the tooth is adequately restored, pulp regeneration is possible (Mjör and Tronstad, 1974 [1]. At present, dental restorative materials limit healing by impairing mineralization and repair processes and as a result new biologically-based materials are being developed (Ferracane et al., 2010 [2]. Previous studies have highlighted the benefit of epigenetic modification by histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi application to dental pulp cells (DPCs, which induces changes to chromatin architecture, promoting gene expression and cellular-reparative events (Duncan et al., 2013 [3]; Paino et al., 2014 [4]. In this study a genome-wide transcription profiling in epigenetically-modified mineralizing primary DPC cultures was performed, at relatively early and late time-points, to identify differentially regulated transcripts that may provide novel therapeutic targets for use in restorative dentistry. Here we provide detailed methods and analysis on these microarray data which has been deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE67175.

  13. Software Defined Cyberinfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian; Blaiszik, Ben; Chard, Kyle; Chard, Ryan

    2017-07-17

    Within and across thousands of science labs, researchers and students struggle to manage data produced in experiments, simulations, and analyses. Largely manual research data lifecycle management processes mean that much time is wasted, research results are often irreproducible, and data sharing and reuse remain rare. In response, we propose a new approach to data lifecycle management in which researchers are empowered to define the actions to be performed at individual storage systems when data are created or modified: actions such as analysis, transformation, copying, and publication. We term this approach software-defined cyberinfrastructure because users can implement powerful data management policies by deploying rules to local storage systems, much as software-defined networking allows users to configure networks by deploying rules to switches.We argue that this approach can enable a new class of responsive distributed storage infrastructure that will accelerate research innovation by allowing any researcher to associate data workflows with data sources, whether local or remote, for such purposes as data ingest, characterization, indexing, and sharing. We report on early experiments with this approach in the context of experimental science, in which a simple if-trigger-then-action (IFTA) notation is used to define rules.

  14. Climatic and topographic controls on the style and timing of Late Quaternary glaciation throughout Tibet and the Himalaya defined by 10Be cosmogenic radionuclide surface exposure dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, L.A.; Finkel, R.C.; Barnard, P.L.; Haizhou, Ma; Asahi, K.; Caffee, M.W.; Derbyshire, E.

    2005-01-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in glacier cover throughout the Late Quaternary in Tibet and the bordering mountains are poorly defined because of the inaccessibility and vastness of the region, and the lack of numerical dating. To help reconstruct the timing and extent of glaciation throughout Tibet and the bordering mountains, we use geomorphic mapping and 10Be cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) surface dating in study areas in southeastern (Gonga Shan), southern (Karola Pass) and central (Western Nyainqentanggulha Shan and Tanggula Shan) Tibet, and we compare these with recently determined numerical chronologies in other parts of the plateau and its borderlands. Each of the study regions receives its precipitation mainly during the south Asian summer monsoon when it falls as snow at high altitudes. Gonga Shan receives the most precipitation (>2000 mm a-1) while, near the margins of monsoon influence, the Karola Pass receives moderate amounts of precipitation (500-600 mm a-1) and, in the interior of the plateau, little precipitation falls on the western Nyainqentanggulha Shan (???300 mm a -1) and the Tanggula Shan (400-700 mm a-1). The higher precipitation values for the Tanggula Shan are due to strong orographic effects. In each region, at least three sets of moraines and associated landforms are preserved, providing evidence for multiple glaciations. The 10Be CRN surface exposure dating shows that the formation of moraines in Gonga Shan occurred during the early-mid Holocene, Neoglacial and Little Ice Age, on the Karola Pass during the Lateglacial, Early Holocene and Neoglacial, in the Nyainqentanggulha Shan date during the early part of the last glacial cycle, global Last Glacial Maximum and Lateglacial, and on the Tanggula Shan during the penultimate glacial cycle and the early part of the last glacial cycle. The oldest moraine succession in each of these regions varies from the early Holocene (Gonga Shan), Lateglacial (Karola Pass), early Last Glacial (western

  15. Non-AIDS defining cancers in the D:A:D Study - time trends and predictors of survival : A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, Signe W.; Bower, Mark; Reiss, Peter; Bonnet, Fabrice; Law, Matthew; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Abrams, Donald I.; Grulich, Andrew; Fontas, Eric; Kirk, Ole; Furrer, Hansjakob; Wit, Stephane D.; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens D.; Sabin, Caroline A.; Butcher, D.; Delforge, M.; Fanti, I.; Fontas, E.; Franquet, X.; Geffard, S.; Gras, L.; Helweg-Larsen, J.; Hillebregt, M.; Kamara, D.; Kjær, J.; Krum, E.; Lundgren, J.D.; McManus, H.; Meidahl, P.; Mocroft, A.; Nielsen, J.; Phillips, A.; Powderl, W.; Rickenbach, M.; Rode, R.; Ryom, L.; Sabin, C.A.; Salbøl Brandt, R.; Schmidt Iversen, J.; Shortman, N.; Sjøl, A.; Smith, C.; Torres, F.; Tverland, J.; Wright, S.; Zaheri, S.; de Wolf, F.; Smidt, J.; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J-P.; Girard, P.-M.; Livrozet, J.M.; Vanhems, P.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; Degen, O.; van Lunzen, J.; Stellbrink, H.J.; Staszewski, S.; Bogner, J.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Gargalianos, P.; Kosmidis, J.; Perdios, J.; Xylomenos, G.; Filandras, A.; Karabatsaki, E.; Panos, G.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Mulcahy, F.; Burke, M.; Turner, D.; Yust, I.; Hassoun, G.; Pollack, S.; Maayan, S.; Vella, S.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Arici, C.; Pristera, R.; Gabbuti, A.; Mazzotta, F.; Lichtner, M.; Vullo, V.; Boer, K.; Geerlings, S.E.; Godfried, M.H.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Lange, J.M.A.; Nellen, F.J.B.; Pajkrt, D.; Prins, J.M.; Reiss, P.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Wit, F.W.M.N.; van Vugt, M.; van der Meer, J.T.M.; van der Poll, T.; van der Valk, M.; Chirianni, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Montesarchio, E.; Antonucci, G.; Narciso, P.; Testa, A.; Vlassi, C.; Zaccarelli, M.; Castagna, A.; Gianotti, N.; Lazzarin, A.; Galli, M.; Ridolfo, A.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Rozentale, B.; Zeltina, I.; Chaplinskas, S.; Hemmer, R.; Staub, T.; Reiss, P.; Bruun, J.; Maeland, A.; Ormaasen, V.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Schreij, G.; Gasiorowski, J.; Knysz, B.; Bakowska, E.; Horban, A.; Flisiak, R.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Boron-Kaczmarska, A.; Parczewski, M.; Pynka, M.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Trocha, H.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Antunes, F.; Caldeira, L.; Doroana, M.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Bravenboer, B.; Pronk, M.J.H.; Duiculescu, D.; Rakhmanova, A.; Zakharova, N.; Buzunova, S.; Jevtovic, D.; Mokráš, M.; Staneková, D.; Tomazic, J.; González-Lahoz, J.; Labarga, P.; Medrano, J.; Soriano, V.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Bravo, I.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Puig, J.; Tural, C.; Gelinck, L.B.S.; Nouwen, J.L.; Rijnders, B.J.A.; Schurink, C.A.M.; Slobbe, L.; Verbon, A.; de Vries-Sluijs, T.E.M.S.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; van der Feltz, M.; Gatell, J.M.; Miró, J.M.; Domingo, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Sambeat, M.A.; Karlsson, A.; Flamholc, L.; Ledergerber, B.; Weber, R.; Cavassini, M.; Francioli, P.; Boffi, E.; Hirschel, B.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Chentsova, N.; Kravchenko, E.; Driessen, G.J.A.; Hartwig, N.G.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Servitskiy, S.; Krasnov, M.; Barton, S.; Johnson, A.M.; Mercey, D.; Johnson, M.A.; Mocroft, A.; Phillips, A.; Murphy, M.; Scullard, G.; Weber, J.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Branger, J.; Åkerlund, B.; Morfeldt, L.; Sundström., A.; Thulin, G.; Karlsson, A.; Koppel, K.; Flamholc, L.; Ho̊kangård, C.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Armignacco, O.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Moroni, M.; Perno, C.F.; Viale, P.L.; Von Schlosser, F.; Ammassari, A.; Andreoni, M.; Antinori, A.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M.R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cinque, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; De Luca, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Gervasoni, C.; Girardi, E.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Murri, R.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Torti, C.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Cicconi, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Fanti, I.; Formenti, T.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Costantini, A.; Giacometti, A.; Riva, A.; Angarano, G.; Carrisa, C.; Monno, L.; Lazzari, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Borderi, M.; Verucchi, G.; Viale, P.L.; Kauffmann, R.H.; Schippers, E.F.; Castelli, F.; Minardi, C.; Torti, C.; Abeli, C.; Quirino, T.; Manconi, P.E.; Piano, P.; Falasca, K.; Vecchiet, J.; Segala, D.; Sighinolfi, L.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mazzotta, F.; Alessandrini, A.; Cassola, G.; Mazzarello, G.; Piscopo, R.; Viscoli, G.; Belvisi, V.; Mastroianni, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Caramma, I.; Castelli, P.; Chiodera, A.; Alleman, M.A.; Bouwhuis, J.W.; Groeneveld, P.H.P.; Bigoloni, A.; Carenzi, L.; Castagna, A.; Cicconi, P.; Formenti, T.; Galli, A.; Galli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Moioli, M.C.; Piolini, R.; Puoti, M.; Ridolfo, A.L.; Rizzardini, G.; Rossotti, R.; Salpietro, S.; Spagnuolo, V.; Zucchi, P.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Bisio, L.; Mussini, C.; Gori, A.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Guida, M.G.; Baldelli, F.; Belfiori, B.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M.A.; Acinapura, R.; Andreoni, M.; Antinori, A.; Capozzi, M.; Cauda, R.; De Luca, A.; Gallo, L.; Libertone, R.; Lichtner, M.; Nicastro, E.; Tebano, G.; Tozzi, V.; Vullo, V.; Zaccarelli, M.; d'Avino, A.; Madeddu, G.; Mura, M.S.; Caramello, P.; Di Perri, G.; Orofino, G.C.; Sciandra, M.; Soetekouw, R.; ten Kate, R.W.; Manfrin, V.; Pellizzer, G.; Bernard, E.; Caissotti, C.; Cua, E.; De Salvador-Guillouet, F.; Dellamonica, P.; Dollet, K.; Durant, J.; Ferrando, S.; Fontas, E.; Mondain-Miton, V.; Naqvi, A.; Perbost, I.; Pillet, S.; Pradier, C.; Prouvost-Keller, B.; Pugliese, P.; Rahelinirina, V.; Roger, P.M.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H.C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Cellerai, C.; Dubs, R.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Flepp, M.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H.; Fux, C.A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H.H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez de Tejada, B.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Schultze, D.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.; von Wyl, V.; Arend, S.M.; Jolink, H.; Kroon, F.P.; de Boer, M.G.J.; van Dissel, J.T.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; van den Broek, P.J.; Pogany, K.; den Hollander, J.G.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; Leyten, E.M.S.; Vriesendorp, R.; Kootstra, G.J.; ten Napel, C.H.H.; Blok, W.L.; Brinkman, K.; Frissen, P.H.J.; Schouten, W.E.M.; van den Berk, G.E.L.; Brouwer, A.E.; Juttmann, J.R.; van Kasteren, M.E.E.; Lettinga, K.D.; Veenstra, J.; Mulder, J.W.; Smit, P.M.; Weijer, S.; van Gorp, E.C.M.; Verhagen, D.W.M.; van Eeden, A.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E.H.; Sprenger, H.G.; Stek, C.J.; van Assen, S.; Brouwer, A.M.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Keuter, M.; Koopmans, P.P.; de Groot, R.; ter Hofstede, H.J.M.; van der Flier, M.; van der Ven, A.J.A.M.; Arends, J.E.; Ellerbroek, P.M.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Jaspers, C.A.J.J.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L.J.; Mudrikova, T.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Peters, E.J.G.; Schneider, M.M.E.; Wassenberg, M.W.M.; van der Hilst, J.C.H.; Bierman, W.F.W.; Claessen, F.A.P.; Danner, S.A.; Perenboom, R.M.; bij de Vaate, E.A.; de Jong, E.V.; de Vocht, J.; van Agtmael, M.A.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Wolfs, T.F.W.; Gisolf, E.H.; Richter, J.P.; van der Berg, C.; Stegeman, A.; van den Berge, M.; Polée, M.B.; van Houte, D.P.F.; van Vonderen, M.G.A.; Duits, A.J.; Winkel, C.; Dabis, F.; Bonnet, F.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Dupon, M.; Fleury, H.; Lacoste, D.; Malvy, D.; Mercié, P.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Pellegrin, I.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Thiébaut, R.; Titier, K.; Bruyand, M.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Lawson-Ayayi, S.; Thiébaut, R.; Wittkop, L.; Bernard, N.; Bonnal, F.; Bonnet, F.; Caunègre, L.; Cazanave, C.; Ceccaldi, J.; Chambon, D.; Chossat, I.; Courtaud, K.; Dauchy, F.A.; De Witte, S.; Duffau, P.; Dupon, M.; Dupont, A.; Dutronc, H.; Farbos, S.; Gaboriau, V.; Gemain, M.C.; Gerard, Y.; Greib, C.; Hessamfar, M.; Lacoste, D.; Lafarie-Castet, S.; Lataste, P.; Lazaro, E.; Longy-Boursier, M.; Malvy, D.; Meraud, J.P.; Mercié, P.; Monlun, E.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Ochoa, A.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Pistone, T.; Ragnaud, J.M.; Receveur, M.C.; Roger-Schmeltz, J.; Tchamgoué, S.; Thibaut, P.; Vandenhende, M.A.; Viallard, J.F.; Moreau, J.F.; Pellegrin., I.; Fleury, H.; Lafon, M.E.; Masquelier, B.; Trimoulet, P.; Breilh, D.; Titier, K.; Haramburu, F.; Miremont-Salamé, G.; Blaizeau, M.J.; D'Ivernois, C.; Decoin, M.; Delaune, J.; Delveaux, S.; Hanappier, C.; Leleux, O.; Sicard, X.; Uwamaliya-Nziyumvira, B.; Geffard, S.; Leray, J.; Palmer, G.; Touchard, D.; Baker, D.; Bendall, C.; Bloch, M.; Carr, A.; Cooper, D.; Franic, T.; Law, M.; McManus, H.; Petoumenos, K.; Vale, R.; Wright, S.; Edwards, S.; Hoy, J.; Moore, R.; Nicholson, J.; Roth, N.; Watson, K.; Chuah, J.; Ngieng, M.; Nolan, D.; Skett, J.; Cadafalch, J.; Calvo, G.; Codina, C.; Del Cacho, E.; Domingo, P.; Fuster, M.; Gatell, J.; Mateu, S.; Sambeat, M.A.; Sirera, G.; Torres, F.; Vaqué, A.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Gennotte, A.F.; Gerard, M.; Kabeya, K.; Konopnicki, D.; Libois, A.; Martin, C.; Necsoi, C.; Payen, M.C.; Semaille, P.; Van Laethem, Y.; Bartsch, G.; El-Sadr, W.M.; Krum, E.; Neaton, J.; Thompson, G.; Wentworth, D.; Luskin-Hawk, R.; Telzak, E.; El-Sadr, W.M.; Abrams, D.I.; Cohn, D.; Markowitz, N.; Arduino, R.; Mushatt, D.; Friedland, G.; Perez, G.; Tedaldi, E.; Fisher, E.; Gordin, F.; Crane, L.R.; Sampson, J.; Baxter, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Fischer, A.H.; Grint, D.; Kirk, O.; Kjaer, J.; Kowalska, J.; Lundgren, J.; Mocroft, A.; Nielsen, J.; Peters, L.; Podlekareva, D.; Reekie, J.; Tverland, J.; Elias, C.; Losso, M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V.M.; Suetnov, O.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Colebunders, R.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Jilich, D.; Machala, L.; Sedlacek, D.; Benfield, T.; Kronborg, G.; Larsen, M.; Nielsen, J.; Gerstoft, J.; Hansen, A.-B.E.; Katzenstein, T.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.; Ostergaard, L.; Zilmer, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Using data from a large international cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we described the incidence of NADC from 2004-2010, and described subsequent mortality and predictors

  16. Real-Time RF-DNA Fingerprinting of ZigBee Devices Using a Software-Defined Radio with FPGA Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    SOFTWARE-DEFINED RADIO WITH FPGA PROCESSING THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering... process images , implement an encryption algorithm or even to act as a general purpose microprocessor. An FPGA is typically chosen in an application where...and Processing . Masters thesis , Landshut University, November 1999. [15] R. Lyons. Understanding Digital Signal Processing . Upper Saddle River, NJ

  17. Non-AIDS defining cancers in the D:A:D Study - time trends and predictors of survival : A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, Signe W.; Bower, Mark; Reiss, Peter; Bonnet, Fabrice; Law, Matthew; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Abrams, Donald I.; Grulich, Andrew; Fontas, Eric; Kirk, Ole; Furrer, Hansjakob; Wit, Stephane D.; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens D.; Sabin, Caroline A.; Butcher, D.; Delforge, M.; Fanti, I.; Fontas, E.; Franquet, X.; Geffard, S.; Gras, L.; Helweg-Larsen, J.; Hillebregt, M.; Kamara, D.; Kjær, J.; Krum, E.; Lundgren, J.D.; McManus, H.; Meidahl, P.; Mocroft, A.; Nielsen, J.; Phillips, A.; Powderl, W.; Rickenbach, M.; Rode, R.; Ryom, L.; Sabin, C.A.; Salbøl Brandt, R.; Schmidt Iversen, J.; Shortman, N.; Sjøl, A.; Smith, C.; Torres, F.; Tverland, J.; Wright, S.; Zaheri, S.; de Wolf, F.; Smidt, J.; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J-P.; Girard, P.-M.; Livrozet, J.M.; Vanhems, P.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; Degen, O.; van Lunzen, J.; Stellbrink, H.J.; Staszewski, S.; Bogner, J.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Gargalianos, P.; Kosmidis, J.; Perdios, J.; Xylomenos, G.; Filandras, A.; Karabatsaki, E.; Panos, G.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Mulcahy, F.; Burke, M.; Turner, D.; Yust, I.; Hassoun, G.; Pollack, S.; Maayan, S.; Vella, S.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Arici, C.; Pristera, R.; Gabbuti, A.; Mazzotta, F.; Lichtner, M.; Vullo, V.; Boer, K.; Geerlings, S.E.; Godfried, M.H.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Lange, J.M.A.; Nellen, F.J.B.; Pajkrt, D.; Prins, J.M.; Reiss, P.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Wit, F.W.M.N.; van Vugt, M.; van der Meer, J.T.M.; van der Poll, T.; van der Valk, M.; Chirianni, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Montesarchio, E.; Antonucci, G.; Narciso, P.; Testa, A.; Vlassi, C.; Zaccarelli, M.; Castagna, A.; Gianotti, N.; Lazzarin, A.; Galli, M.; Ridolfo, A.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Rozentale, B.; Zeltina, I.; Chaplinskas, S.; Hemmer, R.; Staub, T.; Reiss, P.; Bruun, J.; Maeland, A.; Ormaasen, V.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Schreij, G.; Gasiorowski, J.; Knysz, B.; Bakowska, E.; Horban, A.; Flisiak, R.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Boron-Kaczmarska, A.; Parczewski, M.; Pynka, M.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Trocha, H.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Antunes, F.; Caldeira, L.; Doroana, M.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Bravenboer, B.; Pronk, M.J.H.; Duiculescu, D.; Rakhmanova, A.; Zakharova, N.; Buzunova, S.; Jevtovic, D.; Mokráš, M.; Staneková, D.; Tomazic, J.; González-Lahoz, J.; Labarga, P.; Medrano, J.; Soriano, V.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Bravo, I.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Puig, J.; Tural, C.; Gelinck, L.B.S.; Nouwen, J.L.; Rijnders, B.J.A.; Schurink, C.A.M.; Slobbe, L.; Verbon, A.; de Vries-Sluijs, T.E.M.S.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; van der Feltz, M.; Gatell, J.M.; Miró, J.M.; Domingo, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Sambeat, M.A.; Karlsson, A.; Flamholc, L.; Ledergerber, B.; Weber, R.; Cavassini, M.; Francioli, P.; Boffi, E.; Hirschel, B.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Chentsova, N.; Kravchenko, E.; Driessen, G.J.A.; Hartwig, N.G.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Servitskiy, S.; Krasnov, M.; Barton, S.; Johnson, A.M.; Mercey, D.; Johnson, M.A.; Mocroft, A.; Phillips, A.; Murphy, M.; Scullard, G.; Weber, J.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Branger, J.; Åkerlund, B.; Morfeldt, L.; Sundström., A.; Thulin, G.; Karlsson, A.; Koppel, K.; Flamholc, L.; Ho̊kangård, C.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Armignacco, O.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Moroni, M.; Perno, C.F.; Viale, P.L.; Von Schlosser, F.; Ammassari, A.; Andreoni, M.; Antinori, A.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M.R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cinque, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; De Luca, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Gervasoni, C.; Girardi, E.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Murri, R.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Torti, C.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Cicconi, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Fanti, I.; Formenti, T.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Costantini, A.; Giacometti, A.; Riva, A.; Angarano, G.; Carrisa, C.; Monno, L.; Lazzari, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Borderi, M.; Verucchi, G.; Viale, P.L.; Kauffmann, R.H.; Schippers, E.F.; Castelli, F.; Minardi, C.; Torti, C.; Abeli, C.; Quirino, T.; Manconi, P.E.; Piano, P.; Falasca, K.; Vecchiet, J.; Segala, D.; Sighinolfi, L.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mazzotta, F.; Alessandrini, A.; Cassola, G.; Mazzarello, G.; Piscopo, R.; Viscoli, G.; Belvisi, V.; Mastroianni, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Caramma, I.; Castelli, P.; Chiodera, A.; Alleman, M.A.; Bouwhuis, J.W.; Groeneveld, P.H.P.; Bigoloni, A.; Carenzi, L.; Castagna, A.; Cicconi, P.; Formenti, T.; Galli, A.; Galli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Moioli, M.C.; Piolini, R.; Puoti, M.; Ridolfo, A.L.; Rizzardini, G.; Rossotti, R.; Salpietro, S.; Spagnuolo, V.; Zucchi, P.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Bisio, L.; Mussini, C.; Gori, A.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Guida, M.G.; Baldelli, F.; Belfiori, B.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M.A.; Acinapura, R.; Andreoni, M.; Antinori, A.; Capozzi, M.; Cauda, R.; De Luca, A.; Gallo, L.; Libertone, R.; Lichtner, M.; Nicastro, E.; Tebano, G.; Tozzi, V.; Vullo, V.; Zaccarelli, M.; d'Avino, A.; Madeddu, G.; Mura, M.S.; Caramello, P.; Di Perri, G.; Orofino, G.C.; Sciandra, M.; Soetekouw, R.; ten Kate, R.W.; Manfrin, V.; Pellizzer, G.; Bernard, E.; Caissotti, C.; Cua, E.; De Salvador-Guillouet, F.; Dellamonica, P.; Dollet, K.; Durant, J.; Ferrando, S.; Fontas, E.; Mondain-Miton, V.; Naqvi, A.; Perbost, I.; Pillet, S.; Pradier, C.; Prouvost-Keller, B.; Pugliese, P.; Rahelinirina, V.; Roger, P.M.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H.C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Cellerai, C.; Dubs, R.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Flepp, M.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H.; Fux, C.A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H.H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez de Tejada, B.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Schultze, D.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.; von Wyl, V.; Arend, S.M.; Jolink, H.; Kroon, F.P.; de Boer, M.G.J.; van Dissel, J.T.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; van den Broek, P.J.; Pogany, K.; den Hollander, J.G.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; Leyten, E.M.S.; Vriesendorp, R.; Kootstra, G.J.; ten Napel, C.H.H.; Blok, W.L.; Brinkman, K.; Frissen, P.H.J.; Schouten, W.E.M.; van den Berk, G.E.L.; Brouwer, A.E.; Juttmann, J.R.; van Kasteren, M.E.E.; Lettinga, K.D.; Veenstra, J.; Mulder, J.W.; Smit, P.M.; Weijer, S.; van Gorp, E.C.M.; Verhagen, D.W.M.; van Eeden, A.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E.H.; Sprenger, H.G.; Stek, C.J.; van Assen, S.; Brouwer, A.M.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Keuter, M.; Koopmans, P.P.; de Groot, R.; ter Hofstede, H.J.M.; van der Flier, M.; van der Ven, A.J.A.M.; Arends, J.E.; Ellerbroek, P.M.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Jaspers, C.A.J.J.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L.J.; Mudrikova, T.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Peters, E.J.G.; Schneider, M.M.E.; Wassenberg, M.W.M.; van der Hilst, J.C.H.; Bierman, W.F.W.; Claessen, F.A.P.; Danner, S.A.; Perenboom, R.M.; bij de Vaate, E.A.; de Jong, E.V.; de Vocht, J.; van Agtmael, M.A.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Wolfs, T.F.W.; Gisolf, E.H.; Richter, J.P.; van der Berg, C.; Stegeman, A.; van den Berge, M.; Polée, M.B.; van Houte, D.P.F.; van Vonderen, M.G.A.; Duits, A.J.; Winkel, C.; Dabis, F.; Bonnet, F.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Dupon, M.; Fleury, H.; Lacoste, D.; Malvy, D.; Mercié, P.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Pellegrin, I.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Thiébaut, R.; Titier, K.; Bruyand, M.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Lawson-Ayayi, S.; Thiébaut, R.; Wittkop, L.; Bernard, N.; Bonnal, F.; Bonnet, F.; Caunègre, L.; Cazanave, C.; Ceccaldi, J.; Chambon, D.; Chossat, I.; Courtaud, K.; Dauchy, F.A.; De Witte, S.; Duffau, P.; Dupon, M.; Dupont, A.; Dutronc, H.; Farbos, S.; Gaboriau, V.; Gemain, M.C.; Gerard, Y.; Greib, C.; Hessamfar, M.; Lacoste, D.; Lafarie-Castet, S.; Lataste, P.; Lazaro, E.; Longy-Boursier, M.; Malvy, D.; Meraud, J.P.; Mercié, P.; Monlun, E.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Ochoa, A.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Pistone, T.; Ragnaud, J.M.; Receveur, M.C.; Roger-Schmeltz, J.; Tchamgoué, S.; Thibaut, P.; Vandenhende, M.A.; Viallard, J.F.; Moreau, J.F.; Pellegrin., I.; Fleury, H.; Lafon, M.E.; Masquelier, B.; Trimoulet, P.; Breilh, D.; Titier, K.; Haramburu, F.; Miremont-Salamé, G.; Blaizeau, M.J.; D'Ivernois, C.; Decoin, M.; Delaune, J.; Delveaux, S.; Hanappier, C.; Leleux, O.; Sicard, X.; Uwamaliya-Nziyumvira, B.; Geffard, S.; Leray, J.; Palmer, G.; Touchard, D.; Baker, D.; Bendall, C.; Bloch, M.; Carr, A.; Cooper, D.; Franic, T.; Law, M.; McManus, H.; Petoumenos, K.; Vale, R.; Wright, S.; Edwards, S.; Hoy, J.; Moore, R.; Nicholson, J.; Roth, N.; Watson, K.; Chuah, J.; Ngieng, M.; Nolan, D.; Skett, J.; Cadafalch, J.; Calvo, G.; Codina, C.; Del Cacho, E.; Domingo, P.; Fuster, M.; Gatell, J.; Mateu, S.; Sambeat, M.A.; Sirera, G.; Torres, F.; Vaqué, A.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Gennotte, A.F.; Gerard, M.; Kabeya, K.; Konopnicki, D.; Libois, A.; Martin, C.; Necsoi, C.; Payen, M.C.; Semaille, P.; Van Laethem, Y.; Bartsch, G.; El-Sadr, W.M.; Krum, E.; Neaton, J.; Thompson, G.; Wentworth, D.; Luskin-Hawk, R.; Telzak, E.; El-Sadr, W.M.; Abrams, D.I.; Cohn, D.; Markowitz, N.; Arduino, R.; Mushatt, D.; Friedland, G.; Perez, G.; Tedaldi, E.; Fisher, E.; Gordin, F.; Crane, L.R.; Sampson, J.; Baxter, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Fischer, A.H.; Grint, D.; Kirk, O.; Kjaer, J.; Kowalska, J.; Lundgren, J.; Mocroft, A.; Nielsen, J.; Peters, L.; Podlekareva, D.; Reekie, J.; Tverland, J.; Elias, C.; Losso, M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V.M.; Suetnov, O.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Colebunders, R.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Jilich, D.; Machala, L.; Sedlacek, D.; Benfield, T.; Kronborg, G.; Larsen, M.; Nielsen, J.; Gerstoft, J.; Hansen, A.-B.E.; Katzenstein, T.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.; Ostergaard, L.; Zilmer, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Using data from a large international cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we described the incidence of NADC from 2004-2010, and described subsequent mortality and predictors o

  18. Non-AIDS defining cancers in the D:A:D Study - time trends and predictors of survival : A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, Signe W.; Bower, Mark; Reiss, Peter; Bonnet, Fabrice; Law, Matthew; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Abrams, Donald I.; Grulich, Andrew; Fontas, Eric; Kirk, Ole; Furrer, Hansjakob; Wit, Stephane D.; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens D.; Sabin, Caroline A.; Butcher, D.; Delforge, M.; Fanti, I.; Fontas, E.; Franquet, X.; Geffard, S.; Gras, L.; Helweg-Larsen, J.; Hillebregt, M.; Kamara, D.; Kjær, J.; Krum, E.; Lundgren, J.D.; McManus, H.; Meidahl, P.; Mocroft, A.; Nielsen, J.; Phillips, A.; Powderl, W.; Rickenbach, M.; Rode, R.; Ryom, L.; Sabin, C.A.; Salbøl Brandt, R.; Schmidt Iversen, J.; Shortman, N.; Sjøl, A.; Smith, C.; Torres, F.; Tverland, J.; Wright, S.; Zaheri, S.; de Wolf, F.; Smidt, J.; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J-P.; Girard, P.-M.; Livrozet, J.M.; Vanhems, P.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; Degen, O.; van Lunzen, J.; Stellbrink, H.J.; Staszewski, S.; Bogner, J.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Gargalianos, P.; Kosmidis, J.; Perdios, J.; Xylomenos, G.; Filandras, A.; Karabatsaki, E.; Panos, G.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Mulcahy, F.; Burke, M.; Turner, D.; Yust, I.; Hassoun, G.; Pollack, S.; Maayan, S.; Vella, S.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Arici, C.; Pristera, R.; Gabbuti, A.; Mazzotta, F.; Lichtner, M.; Vullo, V.; Boer, K.; Geerlings, S.E.; Godfried, M.H.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Lange, J.M.A.; Nellen, F.J.B.; Pajkrt, D.; Prins, J.M.; Reiss, P.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Wit, F.W.M.N.; van Vugt, M.; van der Meer, J.T.M.; van der Poll, T.; van der Valk, M.; Chirianni, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Montesarchio, E.; Antonucci, G.; Narciso, P.; Testa, A.; Vlassi, C.; Zaccarelli, M.; Castagna, A.; Gianotti, N.; Lazzarin, A.; Galli, M.; Ridolfo, A.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Rozentale, B.; Zeltina, I.; Chaplinskas, S.; Hemmer, R.; Staub, T.; Reiss, P.; Bruun, J.; Maeland, A.; Ormaasen, V.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Schreij, G.; Gasiorowski, J.; Knysz, B.; Bakowska, E.; Horban, A.; Flisiak, R.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Boron-Kaczmarska, A.; Parczewski, M.; Pynka, M.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Trocha, H.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Antunes, F.; Caldeira, L.; Doroana, M.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Bravenboer, B.; Pronk, M.J.H.; Duiculescu, D.; Rakhmanova, A.; Zakharova, N.; Buzunova, S.; Jevtovic, D.; Mokráš, M.; Staneková, D.; Tomazic, J.; González-Lahoz, J.; Labarga, P.; Medrano, J.; Soriano, V.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Bravo, I.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Puig, J.; Tural, C.; Gelinck, L.B.S.; Nouwen, J.L.; Rijnders, B.J.A.; Schurink, C.A.M.; Slobbe, L.; Verbon, A.; de Vries-Sluijs, T.E.M.S.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; van der Feltz, M.; Gatell, J.M.; Miró, J.M.; Domingo, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Sambeat, M.A.; Karlsson, A.; Flamholc, L.; Ledergerber, B.; Weber, R.; Cavassini, M.; Francioli, P.; Boffi, E.; Hirschel, B.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Chentsova, N.; Kravchenko, E.; Driessen, G.J.A.; Hartwig, N.G.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Servitskiy, S.; Krasnov, M.; Barton, S.; Johnson, A.M.; Mercey, D.; Johnson, M.A.; Mocroft, A.; Phillips, A.; Murphy, M.; Scullard, G.; Weber, J.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Branger, J.; Åkerlund, B.; Morfeldt, L.; Sundström., A.; Thulin, G.; Karlsson, A.; Koppel, K.; Flamholc, L.; Ho̊kangård, C.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Armignacco, O.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Moroni, M.; Perno, C.F.; Viale, P.L.; Von Schlosser, F.; Ammassari, A.; Andreoni, M.; Antinori, A.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M.R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cinque, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; De Luca, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Gervasoni, C.; Girardi, E.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Murri, R.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Torti, C.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Cicconi, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Fanti, I.; Formenti, T.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Costantini, A.; Giacometti, A.; Riva, A.; Angarano, G.; Carrisa, C.; Monno, L.; Lazzari, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Borderi, M.; Verucchi, G.; Viale, P.L.; Kauffmann, R.H.; Schippers, E.F.; Castelli, F.; Minardi, C.; Torti, C.; Abeli, C.; Quirino, T.; Manconi, P.E.; Piano, P.; Falasca, K.; Vecchiet, J.; Segala, D.; Sighinolfi, L.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mazzotta, F.; Alessandrini, A.; Cassola, G.; Mazzarello, G.; Piscopo, R.; Viscoli, G.; Belvisi, V.; Mastroianni, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Caramma, I.; Castelli, P.; Chiodera, A.; Alleman, M.A.; Bouwhuis, J.W.; Groeneveld, P.H.P.; Bigoloni, A.; Carenzi, L.; Castagna, A.; Cicconi, P.; Formenti, T.; Galli, A.; Galli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Moioli, M.C.; Piolini, R.; Puoti, M.; Ridolfo, A.L.; Rizzardini, G.; Rossotti, R.; Salpietro, S.; Spagnuolo, V.; Zucchi, P.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Bisio, L.; Mussini, C.; Gori, A.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Guida, M.G.; Baldelli, F.; Belfiori, B.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M.A.; Acinapura, R.; Andreoni, M.; Antinori, A.; Capozzi, M.; Cauda, R.; De Luca, A.; Gallo, L.; Libertone, R.; Lichtner, M.; Nicastro, E.; Tebano, G.; Tozzi, V.; Vullo, V.; Zaccarelli, M.; d'Avino, A.; Madeddu, G.; Mura, M.S.; Caramello, P.; Di Perri, G.; Orofino, G.C.; Sciandra, M.; Soetekouw, R.; ten Kate, R.W.; Manfrin, V.; Pellizzer, G.; Bernard, E.; Caissotti, C.; Cua, E.; De Salvador-Guillouet, F.; Dellamonica, P.; Dollet, K.; Durant, J.; Ferrando, S.; Fontas, E.; Mondain-Miton, V.; Naqvi, A.; Perbost, I.; Pillet, S.; Pradier, C.; Prouvost-Keller, B.; Pugliese, P.; Rahelinirina, V.; Roger, P.M.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H.C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Cellerai, C.; Dubs, R.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Flepp, M.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H.; Fux, C.A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H.H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez de Tejada, B.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Schultze, D.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.; von Wyl, V.; Arend, S.M.; Jolink, H.; Kroon, F.P.; de Boer, M.G.J.; van Dissel, J.T.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; van den Broek, P.J.; Pogany, K.; den Hollander, J.G.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; Leyten, E.M.S.; Vriesendorp, R.; Kootstra, G.J.; ten Napel, C.H.H.; Blok, W.L.; Brinkman, K.; Frissen, P.H.J.; Schouten, W.E.M.; van den Berk, G.E.L.; Brouwer, A.E.; Juttmann, J.R.; van Kasteren, M.E.E.; Lettinga, K.D.; Veenstra, J.; Mulder, J.W.; Smit, P.M.; Weijer, S.; van Gorp, E.C.M.; Verhagen, D.W.M.; van Eeden, A.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E.H.; Sprenger, H.G.; Stek, C.J.; van Assen, S.; Brouwer, A.M.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Keuter, M.; Koopmans, P.P.; de Groot, R.; ter Hofstede, H.J.M.; van der Flier, M.; van der Ven, A.J.A.M.; Arends, J.E.; Ellerbroek, P.M.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Jaspers, C.A.J.J.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L.J.; Mudrikova, T.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Peters, E.J.G.; Schneider, M.M.E.; Wassenberg, M.W.M.; van der Hilst, J.C.H.; Bierman, W.F.W.; Claessen, F.A.P.; Danner, S.A.; Perenboom, R.M.; bij de Vaate, E.A.; de Jong, E.V.; de Vocht, J.; van Agtmael, M.A.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Wolfs, T.F.W.; Gisolf, E.H.; Richter, J.P.; van der Berg, C.; Stegeman, A.; van den Berge, M.; Polée, M.B.; van Houte, D.P.F.; van Vonderen, M.G.A.; Duits, A.J.; Winkel, C.; Dabis, F.; Bonnet, F.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Dupon, M.; Fleury, H.; Lacoste, D.; Malvy, D.; Mercié, P.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Pellegrin, I.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Thiébaut, R.; Titier, K.; Bruyand, M.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Lawson-Ayayi, S.; Thiébaut, R.; Wittkop, L.; Bernard, N.; Bonnal, F.; Bonnet, F.; Caunègre, L.; Cazanave, C.; Ceccaldi, J.; Chambon, D.; Chossat, I.; Courtaud, K.; Dauchy, F.A.; De Witte, S.; Duffau, P.; Dupon, M.; Dupont, A.; Dutronc, H.; Farbos, S.; Gaboriau, V.; Gemain, M.C.; Gerard, Y.; Greib, C.; Hessamfar, M.; Lacoste, D.; Lafarie-Castet, S.; Lataste, P.; Lazaro, E.; Longy-Boursier, M.; Malvy, D.; Meraud, J.P.; Mercié, P.; Monlun, E.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Ochoa, A.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Pistone, T.; Ragnaud, J.M.; Receveur, M.C.; Roger-Schmeltz, J.; Tchamgoué, S.; Thibaut, P.; Vandenhende, M.A.; Viallard, J.F.; Moreau, J.F.; Pellegrin., I.; Fleury, H.; Lafon, M.E.; Masquelier, B.; Trimoulet, P.; Breilh, D.; Titier, K.; Haramburu, F.; Miremont-Salamé, G.; Blaizeau, M.J.; D'Ivernois, C.; Decoin, M.; Delaune, J.; Delveaux, S.; Hanappier, C.; Leleux, O.; Sicard, X.; Uwamaliya-Nziyumvira, B.; Geffard, S.; Leray, J.; Palmer, G.; Touchard, D.; Baker, D.; Bendall, C.; Bloch, M.; Carr, A.; Cooper, D.; Franic, T.; Law, M.; McManus, H.; Petoumenos, K.; Vale, R.; Wright, S.; Edwards, S.; Hoy, J.; Moore, R.; Nicholson, J.; Roth, N.; Watson, K.; Chuah, J.; Ngieng, M.; Nolan, D.; Skett, J.; Cadafalch, J.; Calvo, G.; Codina, C.; Del Cacho, E.; Domingo, P.; Fuster, M.; Gatell, J.; Mateu, S.; Sambeat, M.A.; Sirera, G.; Torres, F.; Vaqué, A.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Gennotte, A.F.; Gerard, M.; Kabeya, K.; Konopnicki, D.; Libois, A.; Martin, C.; Necsoi, C.; Payen, M.C.; Semaille, P.; Van Laethem, Y.; Bartsch, G.; El-Sadr, W.M.; Krum, E.; Neaton, J.; Thompson, G.; Wentworth, D.; Luskin-Hawk, R.; Telzak, E.; El-Sadr, W.M.; Abrams, D.I.; Cohn, D.; Markowitz, N.; Arduino, R.; Mushatt, D.; Friedland, G.; Perez, G.; Tedaldi, E.; Fisher, E.; Gordin, F.; Crane, L.R.; Sampson, J.; Baxter, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Fischer, A.H.; Grint, D.; Kirk, O.; Kjaer, J.; Kowalska, J.; Lundgren, J.; Mocroft, A.; Nielsen, J.; Peters, L.; Podlekareva, D.; Reekie, J.; Tverland, J.; Elias, C.; Losso, M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V.M.; Suetnov, O.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Colebunders, R.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Jilich, D.; Machala, L.; Sedlacek, D.; Benfield, T.; Kronborg, G.; Larsen, M.; Nielsen, J.; Gerstoft, J.; Hansen, A.-B.E.; Katzenstein, T.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.; Ostergaard, L.; Zilmer, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Using data from a large international cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we described the incidence of NADC from 2004-2010, and described subsequent mortality and predictors o

  19. FoCuS-point: software for STED fluorescence correlation and time-gated single photon counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waithe, Dominic; Clausen, Mathias P; Sezgin, Erdinc

    2016-01-01

    to be established quickly and efficiently. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: FoCuS-point is written in python and is available through the github repository: https://github.com/dwaithe/FCS_point_correlator. Furthermore, compiled versions of the code are available as executables which can be run directly in Linux...

  20. FoCuS-point: software for STED fluorescence correlation and time-gated single photon counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waithe, Dominic; Clausen, Mathias P; Sezgin, Erdinc

    2016-01-01

    to be established quickly and efficiently. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: FoCuS-point is written in python and is available through the github repository: https://github.com/dwaithe/FCS_point_correlator. Furthermore, compiled versions of the code are available as executables which can be run directly in Linux...

  1. 铁路空车调配的多时点优化模型研究%Multi-time Point Optimization Model for Empty Railcar Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 荣朝和; 黎浩东; 王保华

    2015-01-01

    空车调配优化直接影响铁路运用车辆使用效率和市场需求满足的程度.从实时性优化调整角度,通过定义配空弧与装运弧,确立了配空和装运之间的映射关系,从而形成空车调配服务时空网络.在此基础上,综合考虑决策阶段内收益、成本、服务能力等因素,以空车调配收益最大为目标,构建空车调配的多时点优化模型.最后以粤东地区空车调配为案例,对所构建模型进行验证.案例结果表明,所提出的空车调配时空网络构建方法,有助于综合考虑收益、成本和点线能力等因素,以及降低问题的难度,可为空车调整策略提供新的思路.%Optimization of empty railcar distribution helps to improve the railcar service efficiency and meet the transportation demand. This paper defines empty railcar arcs and loaded railcar arcs from the perspective of real-time optimization, the revenue, cost and service capacity can be denoted on those arcs during the plan horizon. A time space service network of empty railcar distribution is present after mapping the relationship of those arcs. Based on the time space network, a multi-time point optimization model is proposed, with the objective of maximizing the total revenue of empty railcar distribution. At last, the model is verified by a real world example of east region of Guangzhou Railway (Group) Corporation. The result shows that the proposed time space service network and the model can reduce the difficult of the real world problem, and provide a new idea for empty railcar distribution.

  2. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  3. Temporal redistribution of plantar pressure points in diabetic and control subjects: A time-series analysis of neuro-capillary chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh V Oberoi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn diabetic individuals (DI, neuropathy hinders theredistribution of plantar pressure points thus leading tosusceptible areas where there is constant capillaryblanching which may develop into trophic ulcers. Theredistribution of pressure points may precede evidenceof clinical neuropathy. In this study we comparetemporal redistribution of plantar pressure points (areasof capillary blanching between normal subjects taken ascontrols and DI with no clinical signs of neuropathy.MethodFour adults (45±4.55 years diagnosed to have Type-2Diabetes, without signs of clinical neuropathy andage -matched controls (43±3.74 years were studied.The subjects were asked to stand on a glass slab and a10 minute video recording of 10 selected plantarpressure points was made. Changes in the distance ofthese points with reference to a defined point onMayer’s line were measured at every 10 seconds.Standard deviation of difference of redistributedconsecutive pressure point (SDPP in cms., andfractal dimension (FD was used to compare the twogroups.ResultsCombined mean SDPP (DI =0.013 ± 0.008 cms,controls= 0.196±0.233 cms, P <0.001 and FD (DI=1.000 ± 0.000, controls= 1.010±0.017, P <0.001 ofdiabetic patients were significantly lower thancontrols. Pressure point at base of the 4th toe andthe lower limit of blanching to the left Mayers line atthe heel did not differ significantly between DI andcontrols.ConclusionThere is impaired redistribution of plantar pressurepoints in individuals with diabetes without signs ofclinical neuropathy. This can be attributed to loss ofchaos generating mechanisms in DI. Redistributionof pressure points may be essential in theprevention of trophic ulcers in susceptibleindividuals.

  4. Time-integrated Searches for Point-like Sources of Neutrinos with the 40-string IceCube Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brown, A. M.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemming, N.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lehmann, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Matusik, M.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Singh, K.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; IceCube Collaboration

    2011-05-01

    We present the results of time-integrated searches for astrophysical neutrino sources in both the northern and southern skies. Data were collected using the partially completed IceCube detector in the 40-string configuration recorded between 2008 April 5 and 2009 May 20, totaling 375.5 days livetime. An unbinned maximum likelihood ratio method is used to search for astrophysical signals. The data sample contains 36,900 events: 14,121 from the northern sky, mostly muons induced by atmospheric neutrinos, and 22,779 from the southern sky, mostly high-energy atmospheric muons. The analysis includes searches for individual point sources and stacked searches for sources in a common class, sometimes including a spatial extent. While this analysis is sensitive to TeV-PeV energy neutrinos in the northern sky, it is primarily sensitive to neutrinos with energy greater than about 1 PeV in the southern sky. No evidence for a signal is found in any of the searches. Limits are set for neutrino fluxes from astrophysical sources over the entire sky and compared to predictions. The sensitivity is at least a factor of two better than previous searches (depending on declination), with 90% confidence level muon neutrino flux upper limits being between E 2 dΦ/dE ~ 2-200 × 10-12 TeV cm-2 s-1 in the northern sky and between 3-700 × 10-12 TeV cm-2 s-1 in the southern sky. The stacked source searches provide the best limits to specific source classes. The full IceCube detector is expected to improve the sensitivity to dΦ/dEvpropE -2 sources by another factor of two in the first year of operation.

  5. Geodetic Control Points, Hutchinson, KS Benchmarks created by city surveyor at that time, Published in 1980, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geodetic Control Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1980. It is described as 'Hutchinson, KS Benchmarks created...

  6. Comparison of breast DCE-MRI contrast time points for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using deep convolutional neural network features with transfer learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Benjamin Q.; Antropova, Natasha; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2017-03-01

    DCE-MRI datasets have a temporal aspect to them, resulting in multiple regions of interest (ROIs) per subject, based on contrast time points. It is unclear how the different contrast time points vary in terms of usefulness for computer-aided diagnosis tasks in conjunction with deep learning methods. We thus sought to compare the different DCE-MRI contrast time points with regard to how well their extracted features predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy within a deep convolutional neural network. Our dataset consisted of 561 ROIs from 64 subjects. Each subject was categorized as a non-responder or responder, determined by recurrence-free survival. First, features were extracted from each ROI using a convolutional neural network (CNN) pre-trained on non-medical images. Linear discriminant analysis classifiers were then trained on varying subsets of these features, based on their contrast time points of origin. Leave-one-out cross validation (by subject) was used to assess performance in the task of estimating probability of response to therapy, with area under the ROC curve (AUC) as the metric. The classifier trained on features from strictly the pre-contrast time point performed the best, with an AUC of 0.85 (SD = 0.033). The remaining classifiers resulted in AUCs ranging from 0.71 (SD = 0.028) to 0.82 (SD = 0.027). Overall, we found the pre-contrast time point to be the most effective at predicting response to therapy and that including additional contrast time points moderately reduces variance.

  7. Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Gyun; Kim, Sung Min; Kim, Youn Sik; Lee, Hee Kyu; Lee, Seung Hee [Polymer BIN Fusion Research Center, School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Chonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lyu, Jae-Jin; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon [AMLCD Division, Samsung Electronics, Kiheung, Kyunggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lu, Ruibo; Wu, Shin-Tson [College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando FL 32816 (United States)], E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.kr

    2008-03-07

    Conventional multi-domain vertically aligned liquid crystal (LC) cells have defect points due to the collision of LC directors during the formation of multiple domains. In addition, the location of defects changes with time resulting in a slow response time. This paper proposes a robust vertically aligned LC cell, where the LCs are locked by polymer walls, and the azimuthal anchoring on the surface of the alignment layer is controlled by the polymerization of a UV curable reactive mesogen monomer. As a result, the defect points are trapped at a single position, resulting in a greatly improved response time.

  8. Peripheral tuberculous lymphadenitis masquerading as metastatic gastric carcinoma on F 18 FDG dual time point PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Kon; Shin, Jeong Eun; Lee, Jai Hyuen [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A 59 year old woman was hospitalized with weight loss, anorexia, and low grade fever for 2 weeks. she had under gone a total gastrectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy 10 years prior due to advanced gastric cancer to evaluate recurrence, fluorine 19 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) dual time point positron emission tomography/computed tomography (DTPP) was conducted with a gemini GXL 6 PET/CT system (Philips, Hamburg, Germany). FDG DTPP was performed twice, with an early scan 60 min after FDG injection and a delayed scan 150min after FDG injection. The early scan showed that multiple hypermetabolic lesions were located along left supraclavicular, mediastinal (1R, 2R, 3, 4R and 7) and left paraaortic (retroperitoneal) nodal stations. The delayed scan showed that all the above mentioned lesions revealed a more increased maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) than was detected in the early scan. both scans did not show intrapulmonary lesion. For example, the left supraclavicular lymph node, 2R and retroperitoneal lymph node were observed with early and delayed SUV maxes of 4.5/7.6/3.6 and 6.7/7.7/3.6 and 6.7/10.7/4.4, respectively. Tom confirm diagnosis and establish a treatment plan, a mediastinoscopic biopsy of one of the mediastinal lymph nodes (4R) was subsequently performed and tuberculosis was ultimately diagnosed. Then, the patient started an antituberculosis treatment instead of antichemotherapy. A follow up FDG PET/CT performed 12 months later showed disappeared FDG uptake and significant decreased change of multiple peripheral tuberculous lymphadenitis. Whole body FDG PET/CT has widespread use in diagnosing and staging variable malignancies, and plays an important role in detection of gastric cancer recurrence. However, FDG is not cancer specific and some inflammatory diseases have shown higher FDG uptake on PET imaging. Infection, inflammation, and granulomatosis are also known to cause false positive FDG PET scans because activated inflammatory cells show

  9. Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for the reversible reaction H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields OH + O. III - Computed points to define a global potential energy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Duchovic, Ronald J.

    1991-01-01

    Computed energies and geometries are reported which, combined with previously published calculations, permit a global representation of the potential energy surface for the reaction H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields OH + O. These new calculations characterize the potential energy surface (PES) for all H atom angles of approach to O2 and for the region of the inner repulsive wall. The region of the T-shaped H-O2 exchange saddle point is connected with the constrained energy minimum (CEM) path, and a new collinear H-O2 exchange saddle point is characterized which lies only 9 kcal/mol above the H + O2 asymptote. A vibrational analysis which utilizes local cubic and quartic polynomial representations of the PES along the CEM path has been carried out. Optimal geometries, energies, and harmonic frequencies are reported along with anharmonic analyses for the O2 and OH asymptotes and for the HO2 minimum region of the PES.

  10. Can neoadjuvant chemotherapy reduce the surgical risks for localized neuroblastoma patients with image-defined risk factors at the time of diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Akihiro; Nishikawa, Masanori; Uehara, Shuichiro; Oue, Takaharu; Usui, Noriaki; Inoue, Masami; Fukuzawa, Masahiro; Okuyama, Hiroomi

    2016-03-01

    To date, no detailed study of the changes in the image-defined risk factors (IDRFs) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been performed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chemotherapy on IDRFs for stage L2 neuroblastomas. Fifteen stage L2 patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy were selected. Changes after chemotherapy in the number of positive IDRFs, tumor size and major surgical complications were evaluated. All IDRFs disappeared after chemotherapy in four patients (group A) and a reduction in the number of IDRFs, but not disappearance, after chemotherapy was observed in five patients (group B). No change in the number of IDRFs after chemotherapy was observed in six patients (group C). All tumors in groups A shrunk to negative for IDRFs after chemotherapy. For negative IDRFs, tumors should shrink to chemotherapy.

  11. Improved Real-time Implementation of Adaptive Gassian Mixture Model-based Object Detection Algorithm for Fixed-point DSP Processors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byung-eun LEE; Thanh-binh NGUYEN; Sun-tae CHUNG

    2010-01-01

    Foreground moving object detection is an important pocess in various computer vision applicatipons such as intelligent visual sur-veillance,HCI,object-based video compression,etc.One of the most successful moving object detection algorithms is based on Adaptive Gaussian Mixture Model (AGMM).Although AGMM-based object detection shows very good performance with respect to object detection accuracy,AGMM is very complex model requiring lots of floating-point arithmetic so that it should pay for expensive computational cost.Thus,direa implementation of the AGMM-based object detec-tion for embedded DSPs without floating-point arithmetic HW support cannot satisfy the real-time processing requirement.This paper pre-sents a navel real-time implementation of adaptive Gaussian mixture model-based moving object detection algorithm for fixed-point DSPs.In the proposed implementation,in addition to changes of data types into fixed- point ones,magnification of the Gaussian distribution tech nique is introduced so that the integer and fixed-point arithmetic can be easily and consistently utilized instead of real number and floating-point arithmetic in processing of AGMM algorithm.Experimental re-sults shows that the proposed implementation have a high potential in real-time applications.

  12. Adaptive error detection for HDR/PDR brachytherapy: Guidance for decision making during real-time in vivo point dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kertzscher Schwencke, Gustavo Adolfo Vladimir; Andersen, Claus E.; Tanderup, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This study presents an adaptive error detection algorithm (AEDA) for real-timein vivo point dosimetry during high dose rate (HDR) or pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy (BT) where the error identification, in contrast to existing approaches, does not depend on an a priori reconstruction...

  13. Effects of Varying Epoch Lengths, Wear Time Algorithms, and Activity Cut-Points on Estimates of Child Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity from Accelerometer Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Banda

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of accelerometer epoch lengths, wear time (WT algorithms, and activity cut-points on estimates of WT, sedentary behavior (SB, and physical activity (PA.268 7-11 year-olds with BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex wore accelerometers on their right hips for 4-7 days. Data were processed and analyzed at epoch lengths of 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, and 60-seconds. For each epoch length, WT minutes/day was determined using three common WT algorithms, and minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, light (LPA, moderate (MPA, and vigorous (VPA PA were determined using five common activity cut-points. ANOVA tested differences in WT, SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA when using the different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and activity cut-points.WT minutes/day varied significantly by epoch length when using the NHANES WT algorithm (p < .0001, but did not vary significantly by epoch length when using the ≥ 20 minute consecutive zero or Choi WT algorithms. Minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA varied significantly by epoch length for all sets of activity cut-points tested with all three WT algorithms (all p < .0001. Across all epoch lengths, minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA also varied significantly across all sets of activity cut-points with all three WT algorithms (all p < .0001.The common practice of converting WT algorithms and activity cut-point definitions to match different epoch lengths may introduce significant errors. Estimates of SB and PA from studies that process and analyze data using different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and/or activity cut-points are not comparable, potentially leading to very different results, interpretations, and conclusions, misleading research and public policy.

  14. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  15. Cdx is crucial for the timing mechanism driving colinear Hox activation and defines a trunk segment in the Hox cluster topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijts, Roel; Amin, Shilu; van Rooijen, Carina; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2017-02-15

    Cdx and Hox transcription factors are important regulators of axial patterning and are required for tissue generation along the vertebrate body axis. Cdx genes have been demonstrated to act upstream of Hox genes in midgestation embryos. Here, we investigate the role of Cdx transcription factors in the gradual colinear activation of the Hox clusters. We found that Hox temporally colinear expression is severely affected in epiblast stem cells derived from Cdx null embryos. We demonstrate that after initiation of 3' Hox gene transcription, Cdx activity is crucial for H3K27ac deposition and for accessibility of cis-regulatory elements around the central - or 'trunk' - Hox genes. We thereby identify a Cdx-responsive segment of HoxA, immediately 5' to the recently defined regulatory domain orchestrating initial transcription of the first Hox gene. We propose that this partition of HoxA into a Wnt-driven 3' part and the newly found Cdx-dependent middle segment of the cluster, forms a structural fundament of Hox colinearity of expression. Subsequently to initial Wnt-induced activation of 3' Hox genes, Cdx transcription factors would act as crucial effectors for activating central Hox genes, until the last gene of the cluster arrests the process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Time to Review the Role of Surrogate End Points in Health Policy: State of the Art and the Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Oriana; Buyse, Marc; Drummond, Michael; Rasi, Guido; Saad, Everardo D; Taylor, Rod S

    2017-03-01

    The efficacy of medicines, medical devices, and other health technologies should be proved in trials that assess final patient-relevant outcomes such as survival or morbidity. Market access and coverage decisions are, however, often based on surrogate end points, biomarkers, or intermediate end points, which aim to substitute and predict patient-relevant outcomes that are unavailable because of methodological, financial, or practical constraints. We provide a summary of the present use of surrogate end points in health care policy, discussing the case for and against their adoption and reviewing validation methods. We introduce a three-step framework for policymakers to handle surrogates, which involves establishing the level of evidence, assessing the strength of the association, and quantifying relations between surrogates and final outcomes. Although the use of surrogates can be problematic, they can, when selected and validated appropriately, offer important opportunities for more efficient clinical trials and faster access to new health technologies that benefit patients and health care systems. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of inner ear imaging features at different time points of sudden sensorineural hearing loss with three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Honglei; Ou, Yongkang; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Ya; Xiong, Hao; Xu, Yaodong

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that about half of patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) show high signals in the affected inner ear on three-dimensional, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (3D-FLAIR MRI). These signals may reflect minor hemorrhage or an increased concentration of protein in the inner ear, which has passed through blood vessels with increased permeability. Our objective was to compare the positive ratio of the high signal in affected inner ears at different time points to determine the suitable imaging time point for 3D-FLAIR MRI in SSNHL. 3D-FLAIR MRI images were taken at three times, precontrast and approximately 10 min and 4 h after intravenous injection of a single dose of gadodiamide (Gd) (0.1 mmol/kg), in 46 patients with SNHL. We compared the positive findings of the high signals in the inner ear of patients with SNHL as well as the signal intensity ratio (SIR) between the affected cochleae and unaffected cochleae at three time points. The positive ratios of the high signals in the affected inner ear at the time points of precontrast and 10 min and 4 h after the intravenous Gd injection were 26.1, 32.6, and 41.3%, respectively. The high signal intensity ratios of affected inner ears at the three time points were 1.28, 1.31, and 1.48, respectively. The difference between the positive ratios precontrast and at 10 min after the intravenous Gd injection was statistically significant (P = 0.006); the differences between the positive ratios at 4 h after the intravenous Gd injection and precontrast and between the ratios at 4 h and 10 min after the intravenous Gd injection were not statistically significant. The time effects of the median value of SIR were not significant (P = 0.064). We do not recommend 4 h after intravenous Gd injection as a time point to image the inner ear in SNHL. We believe that imaging precontrast and at 10 min after the intravenous Gd injection are suitable time points.

  18. TKI药物换药时机的研究%Research of TKI drugs switching time point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡志梅; 陈泽; 王莹; 赵利东; 薛莲国; 魏计锋

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the best switching time point of TKI drugs. Methods:The patients diagnosed with BCR/ABL positive and in the chronic myelogenous leukemia chronic phase( CML-CP),were treated with the first genera-tion of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The drug conversion was decided by BCR/ABL international standard( IS)value and re-sidual value of the fusion gene. Results:There were 25 CML-CP patients. Among them,the number of patients whose IS value was less than or equal to 10% and the residual value that was less than or equal to 10% at the third month was 18 ca-ses,accounting for 72% of all,which all achieved major molecular reaction( MMR)at the twelfth month. The number of patients whose IS value and residual value were both more than 10% was 4 cases,accounting for 16% of all,and none reached MMR at the twelfth month. There were 3 cases whose IS value was less than or equal to 10% and the residual val-ue was more than 10%,accounting for 12% of all. In these 3 cases,1 case achieved MMR,and 2 cases did not reach MMR who all were replaced with the second generation nilotinib at the fifteenth month. Conclusion:If the IS value and re-sidual value are less than or equal to 10% at the third month treated by imatinib,the original treatment can be kept. If the IS value and residual value are both more than 10%,the second generation nilotinib can be replaced. If the IS value is less than or equal to 10% and the residual value was more than 10%,it depends on the conditions of the patients and it is sug-gested that the drugs be replaced as soon as possible.%目的:探讨TKI类药物的最佳换药时机。方法初诊BCR/ABL阳性的慢性粒细胞白血病慢性期( chro-nic myelogenous leukemia chronic phase,CML-CP)患者,给予第一代酪氨酸激酶抑制剂( tyrosine kinase inhibitors, TKIs)伊马替尼治疗,定期监测BCR/ABL国际标准值( international standard,IS)及融合基因较治疗前基线下降水平(残留值,即治疗后

  19. The impact of scheduling on service reliability: trip-time determination and holding points in long-headway services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.; Boterman, J.W.; Van Nes, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents research on optimizing service reliability of longheadway services in urban public transport. Setting the driving time, and thus the departure time at stops, is an important decision when optimizing reliability in urban public transport. The choice of the percentile out of histor

  20. Correcting and matching time sequence images of plant leaves using Penalized Likelihood Warping and Robust Point Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Jalink, H.; Snel, J.F.H.

    2007-01-01

    Stress in plants can be measured using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. The development of patterns in time can give an indication of the type of stress. Since leaves grow and show leaf movements, there is no pixel to pixel correspondence in time laps imaging data. In this article, Penalized

  1. The covariant and infrared-free graviton two-point function in de Sitter space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Pejhan, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the two-point function of linearized gravitons on de Sitter (dS) space is presented. Technically, respecting the dS ambient space notation, the field equation is given by the coordinate-independent Casimir operators of the de Sitter group. Analogous to the quantization of the electromagnetic field in Minkowski space, the field equation admits gauge solutions. The notation allows to exhibit the formalism of Gupta-Bleuler triplets for the present field in exactly the same manner as it occurs for the electromagnetic field. In this regard, centering on the traceless part, the field solution is written as a product of a generalized polarization tensor and a minimally coupled massless scalar field. Then, admitting a de Sitter-invariant vacuum through the so-called "Krein Space Quantization", the de Sitter fully covariant two-point function is calculated. This function is interestingly free of pathological large distance behavior (infrared divergence). Moreover, the pure-trace part (conformal sector) ...

  2. Dual time point imaging fluorine-18 flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for evaluation of large loco-regional recurrences of breast cancer treated with electrochemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Louise Wichmann; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Skougaard, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    18-Flourine-Flourodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT) could be a method for response evaluation. However, a standard FDG-PET/CT scan cannot differentiate inflammatory tissue from malignant tissue. Dual point time imaging (DTPI) FDG-PET has the potential of doing...

  3. MDCT evaluation of aortic root and aortic valve prior to TAVI. What is the optimal imaging time point in the cardiac cycle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurencak, Tomas; Turek, Jakub; Nijssen, Estelle C. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kietselaer, Bastiaan L.J.H. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mihl, Casper; Kok, Madeleine; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Das, Marco [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht (Netherlands); Ommen, Vincent G.V.A. van [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Garsse, Leen A.F.M. van [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    To determine the optimal imaging time point for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) therapy planning by comprehensive evaluation of the aortic root. Multidetector-row CT (MDCT) examination with retrospective ECG gating was retrospectively performed in 64 consecutive patients referred for pre-TAVI assessment. Eighteen different parameters of the aortic root were evaluated at 11 different time points in the cardiac cycle. Time points at which maximal (or minimal) sizes were determined, and dimension differences to other time points were evaluated. Theoretical prosthesis sizing based on different measurements was compared. Largest dimensions were found between 10 and 20 % of the cardiac cycle for annular short diameter (10 %); mean diameter (10 %); effective diameter and circumference-derived diameter (20 %); distance from the annulus to right coronary artery ostium (10 %); aortic root at the left coronary artery level (20 %); aortic root at the widest portion of coronary sinuses (20 %); and right leaflet length (20 %). Prosthesis size selection differed depending on the chosen measurements in 25-75 % of cases. Significant changes in anatomical structures of the aortic root during the cardiac cycle are crucial for TAVI planning. Imaging in systole is mandatory to obtain maximal dimensions. (orig.)

  4. Timing of HAART defines the integrity of memory B cells and the longevity of humoral responses in HIV-1 vertically-infected children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensieroso, Simone; Cagigi, Alberto; Palma, Paolo; Nilsson, Anna; Capponi, Claudia; Freda, Elio; Bernardi, Stefania; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Chiodi, Francesca; Rossi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 infection induces a progressive disruption of the B cell compartment impairing long-term immune responses to routine immunizations. Depletion of specific memory B cell pools occurs during the 1st stages of the infection and cannot be reestablished by antiretroviral treatment. We reasoned that an early control of viral replication through treatment could preserve the normal development of the memory B cell compartment and responses to routine childhood vaccines. Accordingly, we evaluated the effects of different highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) schedules in 70 HIV-1 vertically-infected pediatric subjects by B cell phenotypic analyses, antigen-specific B cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) and ELISA for common vaccination and HIV-1 antigens. Initiation of HAART within the 1st year of life permits the normal development and maintenance of the memory B cell compartment. On the contrary, memory B cells from patients treated later in time are remarkably reduced and their function is compromised regardless of viral control. A cause for concern is that both late-treated HIV-1 controllers and noncontrollers loose protective antibody titers against common vaccination antigens. Timing of HAART initiation is the major factor predicting the longevity of B cell responses in vaccinated HIV-1-infected children. PMID:19416836

  5. Usefulness of Time-Point Serum Cortisol and ACTH Measurements for the Adjustment of Glucocorticoid Replacement in Adrenal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Elise; Joubert, Michael; Trzepla, Géraldine; Parienti, Jean Jacques; Freret, Thomas; Vanthygem, Marie Christine; Desailloud, Rachel; Lefebvre, Hervé; Coquerel, Antoine; Reznik, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment of daily hydrocortisone dose on clinical criteria lacks sensitivity for fine tuning. Long term hydrocortisone (HC) over-replacement may lead to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI). Biochemical criteria may help detecting over- or under-replacement but have been poorly evaluated. Multicenter, institutional, pharmacokinetic study on ACTH and cortisol plasma profiles during HC replacement in 27 AI patients compared to 29 matched controls. All AI patients were administered HC thrice daily at doses of 6, 10 and 14 mg/m2/d. Blood samples were drawn hourly from 0800h to 1900h. The main outcome measures were: i) plasma peak cortisol and cortisol area under the curve (AUC) in AI patients compared to controls, ii) correlations between cortisol AUC vs single-point cortisol or ACTH decrease from baseline (ΔACTH) and iii) the predictive value of the two latters for obtaining AI patients' cortisol AUC in the control range. Cortisol peaks were observed 1h after each HC intake and a dose response was demonstrated for cortisol peak and cortisol AUC. The comparison of AI patients' cortisol AUC to controls showed that 81.5% AI patients receiving 6mg/m2/d were adequately replaced, whereas most patients receiving higher doses were over-replaced. The correlation coefficient between 1000h/1400h cortisol concentrations and 0800-1900h cortisol AUC were 0.93/0.88 respectively, whereas the 0800-1200h ΔACTH fairly correlated with 0800-1900h cortisol AUC (R = 0.57). ROC curve analysis indicated that the 1000h and 1400h cortisol concentrations best predicted over-replacement. Patients receiving a 6mg/m2 hydrocortisone daily dose exhibited the most physiological daytime cortisol profile. Single point plasma cortisol correlated with daytime cortisol AUC in AI patients. Although hydrocortisone dose should be currently determined on clinical grounds, our data suggest that single point plasma cortisol may be an adjunct for further hydrocortisone

  6. Learning-based subject-specific estimation of dynamic maps of cortical morphology at missing time points in longitudinal infant studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu; Li, Gang; Gao, Yaozong; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-11-01

    Longitudinal neuroimaging analysis of the dynamic brain development in infants has received increasing attention recently. Many studies expect a complete longitudinal dataset in order to accurately chart the brain developmental trajectories. However, in practice, a large portion of subjects in longitudinal studies often have missing data at certain time points, due to various reasons such as the absence of scan or poor image quality. To make better use of these incomplete longitudinal data, in this paper, we propose a novel machine learning-based method to estimate the subject-specific, vertex-wise cortical morphological attributes at the missing time points in longitudinal infant studies. Specifically, we develop a customized regression forest, named dynamically assembled regression forest (DARF), as the core regression tool. DARF ensures the spatial smoothness of the estimated maps for vertex-wise cortical morphological attributes and also greatly reduces the computational cost. By employing a pairwise estimation followed by a joint refinement, our method is able to fully exploit the available information from both subjects with complete scans and subjects with missing scans for estimation of the missing cortical attribute maps. The proposed method has been applied to estimating the dynamic cortical thickness maps at missing time points in an incomplete longitudinal infant dataset, which includes 31 healthy infant subjects, each having up to five time points in the first postnatal year. The experimental results indicate that our proposed framework can accurately estimate the subject-specific vertex-wise cortical thickness maps at missing time points, with the average error less than 0.23 mm. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4129-4147, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Residual analysis methods for space--time point processes with applications to earthquake forecast models in California

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, Robert Alan; Schorlemmer, Danijel; 10.1214/11-AOAS487

    2012-01-01

    Modern, powerful techniques for the residual analysis of spatial-temporal point process models are reviewed and compared. These methods are applied to California earthquake forecast models used in the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). Assessments of these earthquake forecasting models have previously been performed using simple, low-power means such as the L-test and N-test. We instead propose residual methods based on rescaling, thinning, superposition, weighted K-functions and deviance residuals. Rescaled residuals can be useful for assessing the overall fit of a model, but as with thinning and superposition, rescaling is generally impractical when the conditional intensity $\\lambda$ is volatile. While residual thinning and superposition may be useful for identifying spatial locations where a model fits poorly, these methods have limited power when the modeled conditional intensity assumes extremely low or high values somewhere in the observation region, and this is commonly t...

  8. Timing of cART initiation after a first AIDS-defining event (ADE: temporal changes in clinical attitudes in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Cingolani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Criteria of cART initiation after a first ADE have been modified over time based on evidence suggesting that treatment should be initiated earlier. The impact of these changes on clinical practice is unknown. Objective of this analysis was to evaluate temporal changes of time of starting cART after a first diagnosis of ADE in ART-naïve patients (pts. Methods: All HIV+ enrolled in ICONA Foundation Study who presented with a diagnosis of ADE while cART-naïve regardless of CD4 cell count were included. Pts were grouped according to have ADE for which additional medications that may have interactions with cART are required (Tb, atypical mycobacteriosis, non-Hodgkin lymphoma [group A], ADE treatable only by cART (PML, isosporidiasis/cryptosporidiasis, KS, wasting syndrome [group B] and ADE treatable with specific drugs (PCP, toxoplasmic encephalitis, CMV disease, esoph candidiasis, bacterial pneumonia, cervical cancer, cryptococcosis [group C]. Standard survival analysis by KM was used to estimate the cumulative percentage of pts starting cART, overall and after stratification for calendar period of diagnosis (1996–2000, 2001–2008, 2009–2011 and type of ADE (groups A, B, C. Multivariable Cox regression was used to investigate association between calendar year of ADE and time to cART initiation after controlling for demographics. Summary of results: A total of 715 pts with a first ADE were observed over 1996-2011 (group A, n=187; B, n=123; C, n=405. 519 (73% male, median age 38 (IQR:33–45, median CD4+64 (23–187/mm3 and HIV/RNA 5.25 (4.57–5.70 log10 cps/mL, with no differences by calendar period. By 30 days from ADE, 23% (95% CI: 19–27 of those diagnosed in 1996–2000 have started cART vs. 32% (95% CI: 25–39 in 2001–2008 and 36% (28–44 after 2009 (log-rank p=0.001. After stratifying by CD4 at ADE, 45% of pts with CD4<50/mm3, 30% of those with 51–200/mm3 and 16% of those>201/mm3 had started cART by 30 days (p<0.0001. Restricting

  9. Comparison of computation time and image quality between full-parallax 4G-pixels CGHs calculated by the point cloud and polygon-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Noriaki; Matsushima, Kyoji

    2017-03-01

    Full-parallax high-definition CGHs composed of more than billion pixels were so far created only by the polygon-based method because of its high performance. However, GPUs recently allow us to generate CGHs much faster by the point cloud. In this paper, we measure computation time of object fields for full-parallax high-definition CGHs, which are composed of 4 billion pixels and reconstruct the same scene, by using the point cloud with GPU and the polygon-based method with CPU. In addition, we compare the optical and simulated reconstructions between CGHs created by these techniques to verify the image quality.

  10. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  11. Space-Time Point Pattern Analysis of Flavescence Dorée Epidemic in a Grapevine Field: Disease Progression and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Federico; Bosco, Domenico; Galetto, Luciana; Palmano, Sabrina; Marzachì, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Analyses of space-time statistical features of a flavescence dorée (FD) epidemic in Vitis vinifera plants are presented. FD spread was surveyed from 2011 to 2015 in a vineyard of 17,500 m2 surface area in the Piemonte region, Italy; count and position of symptomatic plants were used to test the hypothesis of epidemic Complete Spatial Randomness and isotropicity in the space-time static (year-by-year) point pattern measure. Space-time dynamic (year-to-year) point pattern analyses were applied to newly infected and recovered plants to highlight statistics of FD progression and regression over time. Results highlighted point patterns ranging from disperse (at small scales) to aggregated (at large scales) over the years, suggesting that the FD epidemic is characterized by multiscale properties that may depend on infection incidence, vector population, and flight behavior. Dynamic analyses showed moderate preferential progression and regression along rows. Nearly uniform distributions of direction and negative exponential distributions of distance of newly symptomatic and recovered plants relative to existing symptomatic plants highlighted features of vector mobility similar to Brownian motion. These evidences indicate that space-time epidemics modeling should include environmental setting (e.g., vineyard geometry and topography) to capture anisotropicity as well as statistical features of vector flight behavior, plant recovery and susceptibility, and plant mortality. PMID:28111581

  12. On defining dietary fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Jonathan W

    2003-02-01

    Establishing a definition for dietary fibre has historically been a balance between nutrition knowledge and analytical method capabilities. While the most widely accepted physiologically-based definitions have generally been accurate in defining the dietary fibre in foods, scientists and regulators have tended, in practice, to rely on analytical procedures as the definitional basis in fact. As a result, incongruities between theory and practice have resulted in confusion regarding the components that make up dietary fibre. In November 1998 the president of the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) appointed an expert scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. The committee was further charged with assessing the state of analytical methodology and making recommendations relevant to the updated definition. After due deliberation, an updated definition of dietary fibre was delivered to the AACC Board of Directors for consideration and adoption (Anon, 2000; Jones 2000b). The updated definition includes the same food components as the historical working definition used for approximately 30 years (a very important point, considering that the majority of the research of the past 30 years delineating the positive health effects of dietary fibre is based on that working definition). However, the updated definition more clearly delineates the make-up of dietary fibre and its physiological functionality. As a result, relatively few changes will be necessary in analytical methodology. Current methodologies, in particular AACC-approved method of analysis 32-05 (Grami, 2000), Association of Official Analytical Chemists' official method of analysis 985.29 (Horwitz, 2000a) or AACC 32-07 (Grami, 2000) Association of Official Analytical Chemists 991.43 (Horwitz, 2000a) will continue to be sufficient and used for most foods. A small number of additional methods will be necessary to

  13. A late-preterm, early-term stratified analysis of neonatal outcomes by gestational age in placenta previa: defining the optimal timing for delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayla, Jacques; Wo, Bi Lan; Bédard, Marie-Josée

    2015-01-01

    Though no official guidelines address the issue of the optimal timing of delivery in placenta previa, common practice is to conduct delivery between 36 and 37 weeks gestation. Given the rising concerns regarding unnecessary premature deliveries, the objective of this study was to compare neonatal outcomes among pregnancies complicated by placenta previa delivered at the late-preterm period (35, 36 weeks) relative to the early-term period (37 and 38 weeks). We conducted a retrospective, population-based, cohort study using the CDC’s Linked Birth-Infant Death data files from the U.S. for the year 2004. We stratified the cohort according to gestational age and placenta previa status. Using 38 weeks gestation as reference controls, the effect of delivery in a pregnancy with placenta previa at 35, 36 and 37 weeks gestation on the risk of several neonatal outcomes was estimated using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. We analyzed a total of 4 118 956 births, of which 5675 (0.1%) met inclusion criteria. Late-preterm delivery was associated with lower birthweight and increased adequacy of care. Relative to neonates born at 38 weeks, birth at 35, 36 and 37 weeks was associated with no greater odds of meconium passage, fetal distress, fetal anemia, neonatal seizures, increased ventilator needs, or infant death at 1 year. However, odds of 5-min APGAR scores placenta previa is associated with fewer complications and no greater risk than late-preterm delivery. This information may be helpful in the development of future guidelines, which are currently needed to guide the management of these pregnancies.

  14. Points of Transition: Understanding the Constructed Identities of L2 Learners/Users across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawu, Anthony; Martin-Beltran, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Using sociocultural and poststructuralist theoretical lenses, this study examines the narrative construction of language-learner identity across time and space. We applied cross-narrative methodologies to analyze language-learning autobiographies and interview data from three English users who had recently transitioned to a U.S. context for…

  15. Bacterial screening of platelet concentrates on day 2 and 3 with flow cytometry: the optimal sampling time point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Tanja; Schottstedt, Volkmar; Bux, Juergen; Walther-Wenke, Gabriele; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2014-07-01

    There is growing concern on the residual risk of bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates in Germany, despite the reduction of the shelf-life of these concentrates and the introduction of bacterial screening. In this study, the applicability of the BactiFlow flow cytometric assay for bacterial screening of platelet concentrates on day 2 or 3 of their shelf-life was assessed in two German blood services. The results were used to evaluate currently implemented or newly discussed screening strategies. Two thousand and ten apheresis platelet concentrates were tested on day 2 or day 3 after donation using BactiFlow flow cytometry. Reactive samples were confirmed by the BacT/Alert culture system. Twenty-four of the 2,100 platelet concentrates tested were reactive in the first test by BactiFlow. Of these 24 platelet concentrates, 12 were false-positive and the other 12 were initially reactive. None of the microbiological cultures of the initially reactive samples was positive. Parallel examination of 1,026 platelet concentrates by culture revealed three positive platelet concentrates with bacteria detected only in the anaerobic culture bottle and identified as Staphylococcus species. Two platelet concentrates were confirmed positive for Staphylcoccus epidermidis by culture. Retrospective analysis of the growth kinetics of the bacteria indicated that the bacterial titres were most likely below the diagnostic sensitivity of the BactiFlow assay (screening of platelet concentrates independently of the testing day and the screening strategy. Although the optimal screening strategy could not be defined, this study provides further data to help achieve this goal.

  16. The GAW-PFR aerosol optical depth network: The 2008-2013 time series at Cape Point Station, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeki, S.; Wehrli, C.; Gröbner, J.; Kouremeti, N.; Wacker, S.; Labuschagne, C.; Mbatha, N.; Brunke, E.-G.

    2015-05-01

    A ground-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) climatology is presented for Cape Point (CPT) station, South Africa, for the 2008-2013 period. CPT is part of the Global Atmosphere Watch-Precision Filter Radiometer network which conducts long-term AOD measurements at remote background sites. AOD (λ = 500 nm) and Ångström exponent (368 to 862 nm; α368-862) averages for the entire period were 0.059 and 0.68, displaying only a weak seasonality. Based on an established method for air mass classification using the in situ wind direction and 222Rn concentration, the following four air mass types were used to further investigate AOD: background marine, marine, mixed, and continental. AOD was similar for all types, but α368-862 was distinctly lower (0.43) for background marine and higher (1.07) for continental air masses, illustrating the presence of coarse mode and anthropogenic aerosols, respectively. Trajectory cluster analysis of 5 day back trajectories confirmed/augmented this classification. AOD for background marine and marine air mass types were consistent with ship-based (Maritime Aerosol Network) and island (AErosol RObotic NETwork) measurements, suggesting that CPT is a suitable site to monitor pristine conditions in the South Atlantic and Southern Oceans when 222Rn concentrations are < 100 mBq m-3.

  17. Point-of-care ultrasonography as a training milestone for internal medicine residents: the time is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabath, Bruce F; Singh, Gurkeerat

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care (POC) ultrasonography is considered fundamental in emergency medicine training and recently has become a milestone in critical care fellowship programs as well. Currently, there is no such standard requirement for internal medicine residency programs in the United States. We present a new case and briefly review another case at our institution - a community hospital - in which internal medicine house staff trained in ultrasonography were able to uncover unexpected and critical diagnoses that significantly changed patient care and outcomes. We also review the growing evidence of the application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of a myriad of conditions encountered in general internal medicine as well as the mounting data on the ability of internal medicine residents to apply this technology accurately at the bedside. We advocate that the literature has sufficiently established the role of POC ultrasonography in general internal medicine that there should no longer be any delay in giving this an official place in the development of internal medicine trainees. This may be particularly useful in the community hospital setting where 24-h echocardiography or other sonography may not be readily available.

  18. TIME-DEPENDENT SEARCHES FOR POINT SOURCES OF NEUTRINOS WITH THE 40-STRING AND 22-STRING CONFIGURATIONS OF ICECUBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, R.; Aguilar, J. A.; Andeen, K.; Baker, M.; BenZvi, S. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Abdou, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Abu-Zayyad, T. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, River Falls, WI 54022 (United States); Adams, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Ahlers, M. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Auffenberg, J.; Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Bai, X. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Barwick, S. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bay, R. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bazo Alba, J. L.; Benabderrahmane, M. L. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Beattie, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Beatty, J. J. [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bechet, S. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Becker, J. K. [Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents four searches for flaring sources of neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope. For the first time, a search is performed over the entire parameter space of energy, direction, and time with sensitivity to neutrino flares lasting between 20 {mu}s and a year duration from astrophysical sources. Searches that integrate over time are less sensitive to flares because they are affected by a larger background of atmospheric neutrinos and muons that can be reduced by the use of additional timing information. Flaring sources considered here, such as active galactic nuclei, soft gamma-ray repeaters, and gamma-ray bursts, are promising candidate neutrino emitters. Two searches are 'untriggered' in the sense that they look for any possible flare in the entire sky and from a predefined catalog of sources from which photon flares have been recorded. The other two searches are triggered by multi-wavelength information on flares from blazars and from a soft gamma-ray repeater. One triggered search uses lightcurves from Fermi-LAT which provides continuous monitoring. A second triggered search uses information where the flux states have been measured only for short periods of time near the flares. The untriggered searches use data taken by 40 strings of IceCube between 2008 April 5 and 2009 May 20. The triggered searches also use data taken by the 22-string configuration of IceCube operating between 2007 May 31 and 2008 April 5. The results from all four searches are compatible with a fluctuation of the background.

  19. Coexistence and local μ-stability of multiple equilibrium points for memristive neural networks with nonmonotonic piecewise linear activation functions and unbounded time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaobing; Zheng, Wei Xing; Cao, Jinde

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the coexistence and dynamical behaviors of multiple equilibrium points are discussed for a class of memristive neural networks (MNNs) with unbounded time-varying delays and nonmonotonic piecewise linear activation functions. By means of the fixed point theorem, nonsmooth analysis theory and rigorous mathematical analysis, it is proven that under some conditions, such n-neuron MNNs can have 5(n) equilibrium points located in ℜ(n), and 3(n) of them are locally μ-stable. As a direct application, some criteria are also obtained on the multiple exponential stability, multiple power stability, multiple log-stability and multiple log-log-stability. All these results reveal that the addressed neural networks with activation functions introduced in this paper can generate greater storage capacity than the ones with Mexican-hat-type activation function. Numerical simulations are presented to substantiate the theoretical results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Field Evaluation of the Time-of-Detection Method to Estimate Population Size and Density for Aural Avian Point Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew W. Alldredge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The time-of-detection method for aural avian point counts is a new method of estimating abundance, allowing for uncertain probability of detection. The method has been specifically designed to allow for variation in singing rates of birds. It involves dividing the time interval of the point count into several subintervals and recording the detection history of the subintervals when each bird sings. The method can be viewed as generating data equivalent to closed capture-recapture information. The method is different from the distance and multiple-observer methods in that it is not required that all the birds sing during the point count. As this method is new and there is some concern as to how well individual birds can be followed, we carried out a field test of the method using simulated known populations of singing birds, using a laptop computer to send signals to audio stations distributed around a point. The system mimics actual aural avian point counts, but also allows us to know the size and spatial distribution of the populations we are sampling. Fifty 8-min point counts (broken into four 2-min intervals using eight species of birds were simulated. Singing rate of an individual bird of a species was simulated following a Markovian process (singing bouts followed by periods of silence, which we felt was more realistic than a truly random process. The main emphasis of our paper is to compare results from species singing at (high and low homogenous rates per interval with those singing at (high and low heterogeneous rates. Population size was estimated accurately for the species simulated, with a high homogeneous probability of singing. Populations of simulated species with lower but homogeneous singing probabilities were somewhat underestimated. Populations of species simulated with heterogeneous singing probabilities were substantially underestimated. Underestimation was caused by both the very low detection probabilities of all distant

  1. Higher-order time-symmetry-breaking phase transition due to meeting of an exceptional point and a Fano resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Garmon, Savannah; Kanki, Kazuki; Petrosky, Tomio

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically investigated the time-symmetry-breaking phase-transition process for two discrete states coupled with a one-dimensional continuum by solving the nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the effective Hamiltonian associated with the discrete spectrum. We obtain the effective Hamiltonian with use of the Feshbach-Brillouin-Wigner projection method. Strong energy dependence of the self-energy appearing in the effective Hamiltonian plays a key role in the time-symmetry-breaking phase transition: As a result of competition in the decay process between the Van Hove singularity and the Fano resonance, the phase transition becomes a higher-order transition when both the two discrete states are located near the continuum threshold.

  2. OPTIMASI OLSR ROUTING PROTOCOL PADA JARINGAN WIRELESS MESH DENGAN ADAPTIVE REFRESHING TIME INTERVAL DAN ENHANCE MULTI POINT RELAY SELECTING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faosan Mapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wireless Mesh Network (WMN adalah suatu konektivitas jaringan yang self-organized, self-configured dan multi-hop. Tujuan dari WMN adalah menawarkan pengguna suatu bentuk jaringan nirkabel yang dapat dengan mudah berkomunikasi dengan jaringan konvensional dengan kecepatan tinggi dan dengan cakupan yang lebih luas serta biaya awal yang minimal. Diperlukan suatu desain protokol routing yang efisien untuk WMN yang secara adaptif dapat mendukung mesh routers dan mesh clients. Dalam tulisan ini, diusulkan untuk mengoptimalkan protokol OLSR, yang merupakan protokol routing proaktif. Digunakan heuristik yang meningkatkan protokol OLSR melalui adaptive refreshing time interval dan memperbaiki metode MPR selecting algorithm. Suatu analisa dalam meningkatkan protokol OLSR melalui adaptive refreshing time interval dan memperbaiki algoritma pemilihan MPR menunjukkan kinerja yang signifikan dalam hal throughput jika dibandingkan dengan protokol OLSR yang asli. Akan tetapi, terdapat kenaikan dalam hal delay. Pada simulasi yang dilakukan dapat disimpulkan bahwa OLSR dapat dioptimalkan dengan memodifikasi pemilihan node MPR berdasarkan cost effective dan penyesuaian waktu interval refreshing hello message sesuai dengan keadaan

  3. Glycemic Excursions in Type 1 Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Semiparametric Statistical Approach to Identify Sensitive Time Points during Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmi Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the gestational glycemic profile and identify specific times during pregnancy that variability in glucose levels, measured by change in velocity and acceleration/deceleration of blood glucose fluctuations, is associated with delivery of a large-for-gestational-age (LGA baby, in women with type 1 diabetes. Methods. Retrospective analysis of capillary blood glucose levels measured multiple times daily throughout gestation in women with type 1 diabetes was performed using semiparametric mixed models. Results. Velocity and acceleration/deceleration in glucose levels varied across gestation regardless of delivery outcome. Compared to women delivering LGA babies, those delivering babies appropriate for gestational age exhibited significantly smaller rates of change and less variation in glucose levels between 180 days of gestation and birth. Conclusions. Use of innovative statistical methods enabled detection of gestational intervals in which blood glucose fluctuation parameters might influence the likelihood of delivering LGA baby in mothers with type 1 diabetes. Understanding dynamics and being able to visualize gestational changes in blood glucose are a potentially useful tool to assist care providers in determining the optimal timing to initiate continuous glucose monitoring.

  4. Magnetic field pitch angle and perpendicular velocity measurements from multi-point time-delay estimation of poloidal correlation reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisiazhniuk, D.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Conway, G. D.; Happel, T.; Lebschy, A.; Manz, P.; Nikolaeva, V.; Stroth, U.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-02-01

    In fusion machines, turbulent eddies are expected to be aligned with the direction of the magnetic field lines and to propagate in the perpendicular direction. Time delay measurements of density fluctuations can be used to calculate the magnetic field pitch angle α and perpendicular velocity {{v}\\bot} profiles. The method is applied to poloidal correlation reflectometry installed at ASDEX Upgrade and TEXTOR, which measure density fluctuations from poloidally and toroidally separated antennas. Validation of the method is achieved by comparing the perpendicular velocity (composed of the E× B drift and the phase velocity of turbulence {{v}\\bot}={{v}E× B}+{{v}\\text{ph}} ) with Doppler reflectometry measurements and with neoclassical {{v}E× B} calculations. An important condition for the application of the method is the presence of turbulence with a sufficiently long decorrelation time. It is shown that at the shear layer the decorrelation time is reduced, limiting the application of the method. The magnetic field pitch angle measured by this method shows the expected dependence on the magnetic field, plasma current and radial position. The profile of the pitch angle reproduces the expected shape and values. However, comparison with the equilibrium reconstruction code cliste suggests an additional inclination of turbulent eddies at the pedestal position (2-3°). This additional angle decreases towards the core and at the edge.

  5. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Our...... residuals generalise the well-known residuals for point processes in time, used in signal processing and survival analysis. An important difference is that the conditional intensity or hazard rate of the temporal point process must be replaced by the Papangelou conditional intensity $lambda$ of the spatial...... process. Residuals are ascribed to locations in the empty background, as well as to data points of the point pattern. We obtain variance formulae, and study standardised residuals. There is also an analogy between our spatial residuals and the usual residuals for (non-spatial) generalised linear models...

  6. Defining universality classes for three different local bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-10-01

    The convergence to the fixed point at a bifurcation and near it is characterized via scaling formalism for three different types of local bifurcations of fixed points in differential equations, namely: (i) saddle-node; (ii) transcritical; and (iii) supercritical pitchfork. At the bifurcation, the convergence is described by a homogeneous function with three critical exponents α, β and z. A scaling law is derived hence relating the three exponents. Near the bifurcation the evolution towards the fixed point is given by an exponential function whose relaxation time is marked by a power law of the distance of the bifurcation point with an exponent δ. The four exponents α, β, z and δ can be used to defined classes of universality for the local bifurcations of fixed points in differential equations.

  7. Quantifying [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the arterial wall: the effects of dual time-point imaging and partial volume effect correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, Bjoern A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark); Bashyam, Arjun; Ramachandran, Abhinay; Gholami, Saeid; Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Werner, Tom; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zaidi, Habib [Geneva University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    The human arterial wall is smaller than the spatial resolution of current positron emission tomographs. Therefore, partial volume effects should be considered when quantifying arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. We evaluated the impact of a novel method for partial volume effect (PVE) correction with contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) assistance on quantification of arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at different imaging time-points. Ten subjects were assessed by CECT imaging and dual time-point PET/CT imaging at approximately 60 and 180 min after {sup 18}F-FDG administration. For both time-points, uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG was determined in the aortic wall by calculating the blood pool-corrected maximum standardized uptake value (cSUV{sub MAX}) and cSUV{sub MEAN}. The PVE-corrected SUV{sub MEAN} (pvcSUV{sub MEAN}) was also calculated using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CECT images. Finally, corresponding target-to-background ratios (TBR) were calculated. At 60 min, pvcSUV{sub MEAN} was on average 3.1 times greater than cSUV{sub MAX} (P <.0001) and 8.5 times greater than cSUV{sub MEAN} (P <.0001). At 180 min, pvcSUV{sub MEAN} was on average 2.6 times greater than cSUV{sub MAX} (P <.0001) and 6.6 times greater than cSUV{sub MEAN} (P <.0001). This study demonstrated that CECT-assisted PVE correction significantly influences quantification of arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Therefore, partial volume effects should be considered when quantifying arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake with PET. (orig.)

  8. Turbulent pair separation due to multi scale stagnation point structure and its time asymmetry in two-dimensional turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Tristan; Vassilicos, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The pair separation model of Goto and Vassilicos (S Goto and J C Vassilicos, 2004, New J.Phys., 6, p.65) is revisited and placed on a sound mathematical foundation. A DNS of two dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence with an inverse energy cascade and a k^{-5/3} power law is used to investigate properties of pair separation in two dimensional turbulence. A special focus lies on the time asymmetry observed between forward and backward separation. Application of the present model to this ...

  9. Point of care technology or standard laboratory service in an emergency department: is there a difference in time to action? A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer Mogensen, Christian; Borch, Anders; Brandslund, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Emergency Departments (ED) have a high flow of patients and time is often crucial. New technologies for laboratory analysis have been developed, including Point of Care Technologies (POCT), which can reduce the transport time and time of analysis significantly compared with central laboratory...... services. However, the question is if the time to clinical action is also reduced if a decisive laboratory answer is available during the first contact between the patient and doctor. The present study addresses this question: Does a laboratory answer, provided by POCT to the doctor who first attends...... the patient on admission, change the time to clinical decision in commonly occurring diseases in an ED compared with the traditional service from a central laboratory?...

  10. The unsteady flow of a nanofluid in the stagnation point region of a time-dependent rotating sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvandi Amir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of nanofluid over a time-dependent rotating sphere where the free stream velocity varies continuously with time. The boundary layer equations were normalized via similarity variables and solved numerically. Best accuracy of the results has been obtained for regular fluid with previous studies. The nanofluid is treated as a two-component mixture (base fluid+nanoparticles that incorporates the effects of Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis simultaneously as the two most important mechanisms of slip velocity in laminar flows. Our outcomes indicated that as A and λ increase, surface shear stresses, heat transfer and concentration rates, climb up. Also, Increasing the thermophoresis Nt is found to decrease in the both values of heat transfer and concentration rates. This decrease supresses for higher thermophoresis number. In addition, it was observed that unlike the heat transfer rate, a rise in Brownian motion Nb, leads to an increase in concentration rate.

  11. A new method to identify water masses -- a network-based analysis of oceanographic point measurement time series

    CERN Document Server

    Greil, Florian

    2012-01-01

    This is a statistical analysis of the oceanographic time series measured across Fram Strait at a latitude of 78{\\deg}50'N. Fram Strait is the deepest passage between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. There are up to 16 mooring lines with instruments at different depths measuring water temperature and velocity. These variables vary on different time scales and the challenge is to distinguish different spatial flow regimes. For Fram Strait, a temperature criterion is traditionally applied to identify water-masses, i.e. water volumes of similar origin. Interpolation leads to a vertical latitudinal 2D cross-section from which a scalar - the hypothetical area of waters within a certain temperature interval - can be extracted. The scalar is combined with a similar interpolation of the velocities to approximate the volume flows through the gateway. This approach is not only numerically expensive but also incorporates many assumptions. The present study suggest a new network-based approach to discriminate betw...

  12. Theory of non-local point transformations - Part 3: Theory of NLPT-acceleration and the physical origin of acceleration effects in curved space-times

    CERN Document Server

    Tessarotto, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the introduction of a new functional setting of General Relativity (GR) based on the adoption of suitable group non-local point transformations (NLPT). Unlike the customary local point transformatyion usually utilized in GR, these transformations map in each other intrinsically different curved space-times. In this paper the problem is posed of determining the tensor transformation laws holding for the $4-$% acceleration with respect to the group of general NLPT. Basic physical implications are considered. These concern in particular the identification of NLPT-acceleration effects, namely the relationship established via general NLPT between the $4-$accelerations existing in different curved-space times. As a further application the tensor character of the EM Faraday tensor.with respect to the NLPT-group is established.

  13. Time-lapse analysis of methane quantity in Mary Lee group of coal seams using filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area.

  14. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of upper abdominal organs at different time points: Apparent diffusion coefficient normalization using a reference organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Soo; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Byon, Jung Hee; Jin, Gong Yong

    2017-05-01

    To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of upper abdominal organs acquired at different time points, and to investigate the usefulness of normalization. We retrospectively evaluated 58 patients who underwent three rounds of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging of the upper abdomen. MR examinations were performed using three different 3.0 Tesla (T) and one 1.5T systems, with variable b value combinations and respiratory motion compensation techniques. The ADC values of the upper abdominal organs from three different time points were analyzed, using the ADC values of the paraspinal muscle (ADCpsm ) and spleen (ADCspleen ) for normalization. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and comparison of dependent ICCs were used for statistical analysis. The ICCs of the original ADC and ADCpsm showed fair to substantial agreement, while ADCspleen showed substantial to almost perfect agreement. The ICC of ADCspleen of all anatomical regions showed less variability compared with that of the original ADC (P measurement of the upper abdominal organs in different MR systems at different time points and could be regarded as an imaging biomarker for future multicenter, longitudinal studies. 5 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1494-1501. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...

  16. Exponential decay of equal-time four-point correlation functions in the Hubbard model on the copper-oxide lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Kashima, Yohei

    2012-01-01

    For the Hubbard model on the two-dimensional copper-oxide lattice, equal-time four-point correlation functions at positive temperature are proved to decay exponentially in the thermodynamic limit if the magnitude of the on-site interactions is smaller than some power of temperature. This result especially implies that the equal-time correlation functions for singlet Cooper pairs of various symmetries decay exponentially in the distance between the Cooper pairs in high temperatures or in low-temperature weak-coupling regimes. The proof is based on a multi-scale integration over the Matsubara frequency.

  17. Identification of polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolites based on calculated boiling points from COSMO-RS, experimental retention times, and mass spectral fragmentation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott; Gross, Michael S; Olson, James R; Zurek, Eva; Aga, Diana S

    2015-02-17

    The COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvents (COSMO-RS) was used to predict the boiling points of several polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methylated derivatives (MeO-BDEs) of monohydroxylated BDE (OH-BDE) metabolites. The linear correlation obtained by plotting theoretical boiling points calculated by COSMO-RS against experimentally determined retention times from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry facilitated the identification of PBDEs and OH-BDEs. This paper demonstrates the applicability of COSMO-RS in identifying unknown PBDE metabolites of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100). Metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-100 were formed through individual incubations of each PBDE with recombinant cytochrome P450 2B6. Using calculated boiling points and characteristic mass spectral fragmentation patterns of the MeO-BDE positional isomers, the identities of the unknown monohydroxylated metabolites were proposed to be 2'-hydroxy-2,3',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (2'-OH-BDE-66) from BDE-47, and 2'-hydroxy-2,3',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (2'-OH-BDE-119) and 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-91) from BDE-100. The collective use of boiling points predicted with COSMO-RS, and characteristic mass spectral fragmentation patterns provided a valuable tool toward the identification of isobaric compounds.

  18. Several Existence Theorems of Multiple Positive Solutions of Nonlinear m-Point BVP for an Increasing Homeomorphism and Homomorphism on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By using fixed point theorems in cones, the existence of multiple positive solutions is considered for nonlinear m-point boundary value problem for the following second-order boundary value problem on time scales (ϕ(uΔ∇+a(tf(t,u(t=0, t∈(0,T, ϕ(uΔ(0=∑i=1m−2aiϕ(uΔ(ξi, u(T=∑i=1m−2biu(ξi, where ϕ:R→R is an increasing homeomorphism and homomorphism and ϕ(0=0. Some new results are obtained for the existence of twin or an arbitrary odd number of positive solutions of the above problem by applying Avery-Henderson and Leggett-Williams fixed point theorems, respectively. In particular, our criteria generalize and improve some known results by Ma and Castaneda (2001. We must point out for readers that there is only the p-Laplacian case for increasing homeomorphism and homomorphism. As an application, one example to demonstrate our results is given.

  19. Application of the nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm for forecasting surface wind of point station in the South China Sea with scatterometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian; Dong, Gang; Sun, Yimei; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wu, Yuqin

    2016-11-01

    The present work reports the development of nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm (GA) with singular spectrum analysis (SSA) for forecasting the surface wind of a point station in the South China Sea (SCS) with scatterometer observations. Before the nonlinear technique GA is used for forecasting the time series of surface wind, the SSA is applied to reduce the noise. The surface wind speed and surface wind components from scatterometer observations at three locations in the SCS have been used to develop and test the technique. The predictions have been compared with persistence forecasts in terms of root mean square error. The predicted surface wind with GA and SSA made up to four days (longer for some point station) in advance have been found to be significantly superior to those made by persistence model. This method can serve as a cost-effective alternate prediction technique for forecasting surface wind of a point station in the SCS basin. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41230421 and 41605075) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB430101).

  20. Does point of care prothrombin time measurement reduce the transfusion of fresh frozen plasma in patients undergoing major surgery? The POC-OP randomized-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberio Lorenzo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bleeding is a frequent complication during surgery. The intraoperative administration of blood products, including packed red blood cells, platelets and fresh frozen plasma (FFP, is often live saving. Complications of blood transfusions contribute considerably to perioperative costs and blood product resources are limited. Consequently, strategies to optimize the decision to transfuse are needed. Bleeding during surgery is a dynamic process and may result in major blood loss and coagulopathy due to dilution and consumption. The indication for transfusion should be based on reliable coagulation studies. While hemoglobin levels and platelet counts are available within 15 minutes, standard coagulation studies require one hour. Therefore, the decision to administer FFP has to be made in the absence of any data. Point of care testing of prothrombin time ensures that one major parameter of coagulation is available in the operation theatre within minutes. It is fast, easy to perform, inexpensive and may enable physicians to rationally determine the need for FFP. Methods/Design The objective of the POC-OP trial is to determine the effectiveness of point of care prothrombin time testing to reduce the administration of FFP. It is a patient and assessor blind, single center randomized controlled parallel group trial in 220 patients aged between 18 and 90 years undergoing major surgery (any type, except cardiac surgery and liver transplantation with an estimated blood loss during surgery exceeding 20% of the calculated total blood volume or a requirement of FFP according to the judgment of the physicians in charge. Patients are randomized to usual care plus point of care prothrombin time testing or usual care alone without point of care testing. The primary outcome is the relative risk to receive any FFP perioperatively. The inclusion of 110 patients per group will yield more than 80% power to detect a clinically relevant relative risk

  1. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  2. Definably amenable NIP groups

    OpenAIRE

    Chernikov, Artem; Simon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We study definably amenable NIP groups. We develop a theory of generics, showing that various definitions considered previously coincide, and study invariant measures. Applications include: characterization of regular ergodic measures, a proof of the conjecture of Petrykowski connecting existence of bounded orbits with definable amenability in the NIP case, and the Ellis group conjecture of Newelski and Pillay connecting the model-theoretic connected component of an NIP group with the ideal s...

  3. Point of no return in diving emperor penguins: is the timing of the decision to return limited by the number of strokes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Kozue; Sato, Katsufumi; Ponganis, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    At some point in a dive, breath-hold divers must decide to return to the surface to breathe. The issue of when to end a dive has been discussed intensively in terms of foraging ecology and behavioral physiology, using dive duration as a temporal parameter. Inevitably, however, a time lag exists between the decision of animals to start returning to the surface and the end of the dive, especially in deep dives. In the present study, we examined the decision time in emperor penguins under two different conditions: during foraging trips at sea and during dives at an artificial isolated dive hole. It was found that there was an upper limit for the decision-to-return time irrespective of dive depth in birds diving at sea. However, in a large proportion of dives at the isolated dive hole, the decision-to-return time exceeded the upper limit at sea. This difference between the decision times in dives at sea versus the isolated dive hole was accounted for by a difference in stroke rate. The stroke rates were much lower in dives at the isolated hole and were inversely correlated with the upper limit of decision times in individual birds. Unlike the decision time to start returning, the cumulative number of strokes at the decision time fell within a similar range in the two experiments. This finding suggests that the number of strokes, but not elapsed time, constrained the decision of emperor penguins to return to the surface. While the decision to return and to end a dive may be determined by a variety of ecological, behavioral and physiological factors, the upper limit to that decision time may be related to cumulative muscle workload.

  4. Recursive Least-Squares Wiener Fixed-Point Smoother with Uncertain Observations for Colored Observation Noise in Linear Discrete-Time Stochastic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes recursive least-squares (RLS) Wiener fixed-point smoothing and filtering algorithms with uncertain observations for colored observation noise in linear discrete-time stochastic systems. The observation equation is given by y(k) = γ(k)z(k) + v_c(k), z(k) = Hx(k), where {γ(k)} is a binary switching sequence with conditional probability, which satisfies (3). The estimators require the following information. (1) The system matrix φ for the state vector x(k). (2) The observatio...

  5. The Clinical Role of Dual-Time-Point {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in Differential Diagnosis of the Thyroid Incidentaloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sinae; Park, Taegyu; Park, Soyeon; Pahk, Kisoo; Rhee, Seunghong; Cho, Jaehyuk; Jeong, Eugene; Kim, Sungeun; Choe, Jae Gol [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Thyroid incidentalomas are common findings during imaging studies including {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for cancer evaluation. Although the overall incidence of incidental thyroid uptake detected on PET imaging is low, clinical attention should be warranted owing to the high incidence of harboring primary thyroid malignancy.We retrospectively reviewed 2,368 dual-time-point {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT cases that were undertaken for cancer evaluation from November 2007 to February 2009, to determine the clinical impact of dual-time-point imaging in the differential diagnosis of thyroid incidentalomas. Focal thyroid uptake was identified in 64 PET cases and final diagnosis was clarified with cytology/histology in a total of 27 patients with {sup 18}F-FDG-avid incidental thyroid lesion. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the initial image (SUV1) and SUVmax of the delayed image (SUV2) were determined, and the retention index (RI) was calculated by dividing the difference between SUV2 and SUV1 by SUV1 (i. e., RI=[SUV2-SUV1]/SUV1Χ100). These indices were compared between patient groups that were proven to have pathologically benign or malignant thyroid lesions. There was no statistically significant difference in SUV1 between benign and malignant lesions. SUV2 and RI of the malignant lesions were significantly higher than the benign lesions. The areas under the ROC curves showed that SUV2 and RI have the ability to discriminate between benign and malignant thyroid lesions. The predictability of dual-time-point PET parameters for thyroid malignancy was assessed by ROC curve analyses. When SUV2 of 3.9 was used as cut-off threshold, malignancy on the pathology could be predicted with a sensitivity of 87.5 % and specificity of 75 %. A thyroid lesion that shows RI greater than 12.5 % could be expected to be malignant (sensitivity 88.9 %, specificity 66.3 %). All malignant lesions showed an

  6. The Clinical Role of Dual-Time-Point (18)F-FDG PET/CT in Differential Diagnosis of the Thyroid Incidentaloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sinae; Park, Taegyu; Park, Soyeon; Pahk, Kisoo; Rhee, Seunghong; Cho, Jaehyuk; Jeong, Eugene; Kim, Sungeun; Choe, Jae Gol

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid incidentalomas are common findings during imaging studies including (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for cancer evaluation. Although the overall incidence of incidental thyroid uptake detected on PET imaging is low, clinical attention should be warranted owing to the high incidence of harboring primary thyroid malignancy. We retrospectively reviewed 2,368 dual-time-point (18)F-FDG PET/CT cases that were undertaken for cancer evaluation from November 2007 to February 2009, to determine the clinical impact of dual-time-point imaging in the differential diagnosis of thyroid incidentalomas. Focal thyroid uptake was identified in 64 PET cases and final diagnosis was clarified with cytology/histology in a total of 27 patients with (18)F-FDG-avid incidental thyroid lesion. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the initial image (SUV1) and SUVmax of the delayed image (SUV2) were determined, and the retention index (RI) was calculated by dividing the difference between SUV2 and SUV1 by SUV1 (i.e., RI = [SUV2 - SUV1]/SUV1 × 100). These indices were compared between patient groups that were proven to have pathologically benign or malignant thyroid lesions. There was no statistically significant difference in SUV1 between benign and malignant lesions. SUV2 and RI of the malignant lesions were significantly higher than the benign lesions. The areas under the ROC curves showed that SUV2 and RI have the ability to discriminate between benign and malignant thyroid lesions. The predictability of dual-time-point PET parameters for thyroid malignancy was assessed by ROC curve analyses. When SUV2 of 3.9 was used as cut-off threshold, malignancy on the pathology could be predicted with a sensitivity of 87.5 % and specificity of 75 %. A thyroid lesion that shows RI greater than 12.5 % could be expected to be malignant (sensitivity 88.9 %, specificity 66.3 %). All malignant lesions showed

  7. Simple and Fast Continuous Estimation Method of Respiratory Frequency During Sleep using the Number of Extreme Points of Heart Rate Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    It is reported that frequency component of approximately 0.25Hz of heart rate time series (RSA) is corresponding to the respiratory frequency. In this paper, we proposed that continuous estimation method of respiratory fequency during sleep using the number of extreme points of heart rate time series in real time. Equation for calculation of the method is very simple and the method can continuously calculate frequency by window width of about 18 beats. To evaluate accuracy of proposal method, RSA frequency was calculated using proposal method from the heart rate time series during supine rest. Result, minimum error rate was observed when RSA had time lag for about 11s and error rate was about 13.8%. Result of estimating RSA frequency time series during sleep, it varied regularly during non-REM and varied irregularly during REM. This result is similar as report of previous study about respiratory variability during sleep. Therefore, it is considered that proposal method possible to apply respiratory monitoring system during sleep.

  8. Digital Investigations of AN Archaeological Smart Point Cloud: a Real Time Web-Based Platform to Manage the Visualisation of Semantical Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Neuville, R.; Hallot, P.; Van Wersch, L.; Luczfalvy Jancsó, A.; Billen, R.

    2017-05-01

    While virtual copies of the real world tend to be created faster than ever through point clouds and derivatives, their working proficiency by all professionals' demands adapted tools to facilitate knowledge dissemination. Digital investigations are changing the way cultural heritage researchers, archaeologists, and curators work and collaborate to progressively aggregate expertise through one common platform. In this paper, we present a web application in a WebGL framework accessible on any HTML5-compatible browser. It allows real time point cloud exploration of the mosaics in the Oratory of Germigny-des-Prés, and emphasises the ease of use as well as performances. Our reasoning engine is constructed over a semantically rich point cloud data structure, where metadata has been injected a priori. We developed a tool that directly allows semantic extraction and visualisation of pertinent information for the end users. It leads to efficient communication between actors by proposing optimal 3D viewpoints as a basis on which interactions can grow.

  9. DIGITAL INVESTIGATIONS OF AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SMART POINT CLOUD: A REAL TIME WEB-BASED PLATFORM TO MANAGE THE VISUALISATION OF SEMANTICAL QUERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While virtual copies of the real world tend to be created faster than ever through point clouds and derivatives, their working proficiency by all professionals’ demands adapted tools to facilitate knowledge dissemination. Digital investigations are changing the way cultural heritage researchers, archaeologists, and curators work and collaborate to progressively aggregate expertise through one common platform. In this paper, we present a web application in a WebGL framework accessible on any HTML5-compatible browser. It allows real time point cloud exploration of the mosaics in the Oratory of Germigny-des-Prés, and emphasises the ease of use as well as performances. Our reasoning engine is constructed over a semantically rich point cloud data structure, where metadata has been injected a priori. We developed a tool that directly allows semantic extraction and visualisation of pertinent information for the end users. It leads to efficient communication between actors by proposing optimal 3D viewpoints as a basis on which interactions can grow.

  10. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops t....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it........ The academic imperative of definition seems to be linked to the positivistic attempts – and produces sometimes monstrous definitions. Have they any philosophical value for our knowledge of what play is? Definition is not a universal instrument of knowledge-building, but a culturally specific construction...

  11. Defining "intermittent UVR exposure"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Petersen, Bibi Øager;

    2016-01-01

    to define and quantify “intermittent UVR exposure” by an objective measure. Methods: A broad study population of adults and children had data collected during a summer period. Data were personal UVR dosimetry measurements, from which the number of “intermittent days” was derived, sun behaviour diaries.......001). The corresponding numbers for prediction of nevi and lentigo density by retrospective questionnaire data was lower (R2 = 0.11, R2 = 0.26, p defined objective measure of intermittent UVR exposure. This measure may provide a better prediction of solar skin damage and CMM...

  12. Are self-report measures able to define individuals as physically active or inactive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steene-Johannessen, J.; Anderssen, S.A.; Ploeg, H.P. van der; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Donnelly, A.E.; Brage, S.; Ekelund, U.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Methods: Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in 171

  13. Model-based testing for space-time interaction using point processes: An application to psychiatric hospital admissions in an urban area

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Sebastian; Rössler, Wulf; Held, Leonhard

    2015-01-01

    Spatio-temporal interaction is inherent to cases of infectious diseases and occurrences of earthquakes, whereas the spread of other events, such as cancer or crime, is less evident. Statistical significance tests of space-time clustering usually assess the correlation between the spatial and temporal (transformed) distances of the events. Although appealing through simplicity, these classical tests do not adjust for the underlying population nor can they account for a distance decay of interaction. We propose to use the framework of an endemic-epidemic point process model to jointly estimate a background event rate explained by seasonal and areal characteristics, as well as a superposed epidemic component representing the hypothesis of interest. We illustrate this new model-based test for space-time interaction by analysing psychiatric inpatient admissions in Zurich, Switzerland (2007-2012). Several socio-economic factors were found to be associated with the admission rate, but there was no evidence of genera...

  14. The Consistency of a Bounded, Self-Adjoint Time Operator Canonically Conjugate to a Hamiltonian with Non-empty Point Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Galapon, E A

    1999-01-01

    Pauli's well known theorem (W. Pauli, Hanbuch der Physik vol. 5/1, ed. S. Flugge, (1926) p.60) asserts that the existence of a self-adjoint time operator canonically conjugate to a given Hamiltonian implies that the time operator and the Hamitlonian posses completely continuous spectra spanning the entire real line. Thus the conclusion that there exists no self-adjoint time operator conjugate to a Hamiltonian with a spectrum which is a proper subspace of the real line. But we challenge this conclusion. We show rigourously the consitency of assuming a bounded, self-adjoint time operator conjugate to a Hamiltonian with an unbounded, or semibounded, or finitely countable point spectrum. Pauli implicitly assumed unconditionally that the domain of the Hamiltonian is invariant under the action of $U_\\beta=\\exp(-i\\beta T)$, where $T$ is the time operator, for arbitrary real number $\\betaA$. But we show that the $\\beta$'s are at most the differences of the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian. And this happens, under some ...

  15. A systematic review of near real-time and point-of-care clinical decision support in anesthesia information management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpao, Allan F; Tan, Jonathan M; Lingappan, Arul M; Gálvez, Jorge A; Morgan, Sherry E; Krall, Michael A

    2016-08-16

    Anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) are sophisticated hardware and software technology solutions that can provide electronic feedback to anesthesia providers. This feedback can be tailored to provide clinical decision support (CDS) to aid clinicians with patient care processes, documentation compliance, and resource utilization. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles on near real-time and point-of-care CDS within AIMS using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols. Studies were identified by searches of the electronic databases Medline and EMBASE. Two reviewers screened studies based on title, abstract, and full text. Studies that were similar in intervention and desired outcome were grouped into CDS categories. Three reviewers graded the evidence within each category. The final analysis included 25 articles on CDS as implemented within AIMS. CDS categories included perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, post-operative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis, vital sign monitors and alarms, glucose management, blood pressure management, ventilator management, clinical documentation, and resource utilization. Of these categories, the reviewers graded perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis and clinical documentation as having strong evidence per the peer reviewed literature. There is strong evidence for the inclusion of near real-time and point-of-care CDS in AIMS to enhance compliance with perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis and clinical documentation. Additional research is needed in many other areas of AIMS-based CDS.

  16. Blood Urea Nitrogen as a Predictor of Severe Acute Pancreatitis Based on the Revised Atlanta Criteria: Timing of Measurement and Cutoff Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhan Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. This study evaluated the prognostic accuracy of BUN for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP and in-hospital mortality (IHM in terms of the best timing for BUN measurement and the optimal BUN cutoff points. Methods. BUN determinants at the time of admission and 24 hrs after hospital admission were recorded and analyzed statistically. The ability of BUN in predicting the SAP and the occurrence of IHM were assessed using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve. Results. For SAP, AUC of BUN at admission and 24 hrs after hospital admission was 0.75 and 0.80, respectively. For IHM in acute pancreatitis, it was 0.86 at admission and 0.84 after 24 hrs of hospital admission, respectively. The optimal cutoff point of BUN 24 hrs after hospital admission for SAP and at admission for IHM was 8.3 mmol/L and 13.3 mmol/L, respectively. Conclusion. BUN determination after 24 hrs of hospital admission has high accuracy for prediction of SAP while BUN at initial admission has high accuracy for prediction of IHM.

  17. Dual time point 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET/CT: nodal staging in locally advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vicente, A M; Soriano Castrejón, A; Cruz Mora, M Á; Ortega Ruiperez, C; Espinosa Aunión, R; León Martín, A; González Ageitos, A; Van Gómez López, O

    2014-01-01

    To assess dual time point 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (18)(F)FDG PET-CT accuracy in nodal staging and in detection of extra-axillary involvement. Dual time point [(18)F] FDG PET/CT scan was performed in 75 patients. Visual and semiquantitative assessment of lymph nodes was performed. Semiquantitative measurement of SUV and ROC-analysis were carried out to calculate SUV(max) cut-off value with the best diagnostic performance. Axillary and extra-axillary lymph node chains were evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity of visual assessment was 87.3% and 75%, respectively. SUV(max) values with the best sensitivity were 0.90 and 0.95 for early and delayed PET, respectively. SUV(max) values with the best specificity were 1.95 and 2.75, respectively. Extra-axillary lymph node involvement was detected in 26.7%. FDG PET/CT detected extra-axillary lymph node involvement in one-fourth of the patients. Semiquantitative lymph node analysis did not show any advantage over the visual evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of a multibiomarker disease activity score at multiple time-points with radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: results from the SWEFOT trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambardzumyan, Karen; Bolce, Rebecca J; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Forslind, Kristina; Wallman, Johan K; Cruickshank, Scott E; Sasso, Eric H; Chernoff, David; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), predictive biomarkers for subsequent radiographic progression (RP) could improve therapeutic choices for individual patients. We previously showed that the multibiomarker disease activity (MBDA) score in patients with newly diagnosed RA identified patients at risk for RP. We evaluated the MBDA score at multiple time-points as a predictor of RP during 2 years of follow-up. Methods A subset of patients with RA (N=220) from the Swedish Farmacotherapy (SWEFOT) trial were analysed for MBDA score, disease activity score of 28 joints (DAS28), C reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at baseline (BL), month 3 and year 1, for predicting RP based on modified Sharp/van der Heijde scores at BL, year 1 and year 2. Results Patients with persistently low MBDA (44) MBDA scores. Among methotrexate non-responders with a high MBDA score at BL or month 3, significantly more of those who received triple therapy had RP at year 2 compared with those who received antitumour necrosis factor therapy. Conclusions Measuring the MBDA score both before and during treatment in RA was useful for the assessment of individual patient risk for RP during 2 years of follow-up. In comparison with low CRP, ESR or DAS28, a low MBDA score at any time-point was associated with numerically lower proportions of RP. Trial registration number NCT00764725. PMID:26958364

  19. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  20. Defining Data Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yangyong; Xiong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Data science is gaining more and more and widespread attention, but no consensus viewpoint on what data science is has emerged. As a new science, its objects of study and scientific issues should not be covered by established sciences. Data in cyberspace have formed what we call datanature. In the present paper, data science is defined as the science of exploring datanature.

  1. Defining Mathematical Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical paper outlines the process of defining "mathematical giftedness" for a present study on how primary school teaching shapes the mindsets of children who are mathematically gifted. Mathematical giftedness is not a badge of honour or some special value attributed to a child who has achieved something exceptional.…

  2. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...

  3. Defining Effective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, L.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at the meaning of specific terminology commonly used in student surveys: "effective teaching." The research seeks to determine if there is a difference in how "effective teaching" is defined by those taking student surveys and those interpreting the results. To investigate this difference, a sample group of professors and students…

  4. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  5. Defining in Classroom Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Maria Alessandra; Fischbein, Efraim

    1997-01-01

    Discusses some aspects of the defining process in geometrical context in the reference frame of the theory of "figural concepts." Presents analysis of some examples taken from a teaching experiment at the sixth-grade level. Contains 30 references. (Author/ASK)

  6. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  7. Cardiac EASE (Ensuring Access and Speedy Evaluation) – the impact of a single-point-of-entry multidisciplinary outpatient cardiology consultation program on wait times in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungard, Tammy J; Smigorowsky, Marcie J; Lalonde, Lucille D; Hogan, Terry; Doliszny, Katharine M; Gebreyesus, Ghirmay; Garg, Sipi; Archer, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Universal access to health care is valued in Canada but increasing wait times for services (eg, cardiology consultation) raise safety questions. Observations suggest that deficiencies in the process of care contribute to wait times. Consequently, an outpatient clinic was designed for Ensuring Access and Speedy Evaluation (Cardiac EASE) in a university group practice, providing cardiac consultative services for northern Alberta. Cardiac EASE has two components: a single-point-of-entry intake service (prospective testing using physician-approved algorithms and previsit triage) and a multidisciplinary clinic (staffed by cardiologists, nurse practitioners and doctoral-trained pharmacists). OBJECTIVES: It was hypothesized that Cardiac EASE would reduce the time to initial consultation and a definitive diagnosis, and also increase the referral capacity. METHODS: The primary and secondary outcomes were time from referral to initial consultation, and time to achieve a definitive diagnosis and management plan, respectively. A conventionally managed historical control group (three-month pre-EASE period in 2003) was compared with the EASE group (2004 to 2006). The conventional referral mechanism continued concurrently with EASE. RESULTS: A comparison between pre-EASE (n=311) and EASE (n=3096) revealed no difference in the mean (± SD) age (60±16 years), sex (55% and 52% men, respectively) or reason for referral, including chest pain (31% and 40%, respectively) and arrhythmia (27% and 29%, respectively). Cardiac EASE reduced the time to initial cardiac consultation (from 71±45 days to 33±19 days) and time to a definitive diagnosis (from 120±86 days to 51±58 days) (P<0.0001). The annual number of new referrals increased from 1512 in 2002 to 2574 in 2006 due to growth in the Cardiac EASE clinic. The number of patients seen through the conventional referral mechanism and their wait times remained constant during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac EASE reduced

  8. Defining the fascial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adstrum, Sue; Hedley, Gil; Schleip, Robert; Stecco, Carla; Yucesoy, Can A

    2017-01-01

    Fascia is a widely used yet indistinctly defined anatomical term that is concurrently applied to the description of soft collagenous connective tissue, distinct sections of membranous tissue, and a body pervading soft connective tissue system. Inconsistent use of this term is causing concern due to its potential to confuse technical communication about fascia in global, multiple discipline- and multiple profession-spanning discourse environments. The Fascia Research Society acted to address this issue by establishing a Fascia Nomenclature Committee (FNC) whose purpose was to clarify the terminology relating to fascia. This committee has since developed and defined the terms a fascia, and, more recently, the fascial system. This article reports on the FNC's proposed definition of the fascial system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  10. Define Digital Vernacular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 李海英; James Stevens; Rough Nelson

    2014-01-01

    As science and technology developed, the tools of humans developed from humans’hands, to mechanical and digital technologies. The tools influ-ence almost everything in the humans’world, so does vernacular. The digital vernacular could be understood as using digital technology to vernacular; the digital means technologies. It also could be understood as doing vernacular in a digital way;the digital means data and information, in other words it can be seeking truth from facts. Define digital vernacular is not only what is digital vernacular, but also about how to do the digital vernacular and what kind of attitude we should hold to-ward the digital vernacular. Define digital vernacular as both thinking and doing.

  11. [To define internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonioni, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction is a new behavioral disorder difficult to define, especially when referring to young teenagers who make great use of web-mediated relationships. It's necessary to separate the cases of overt dependency on those in which the abuse of internet seems to have a different value, offering the only way to achieve the possible relationship. Internet is mediating a new way of communicating and thinking, this may favor the onset of clinical phenomena intended to surprise.

  12. Decidability of definability

    CERN Document Server

    Tsankov, Manuel Bodirsky; Michael Pinsker; Todor

    2010-01-01

    For a fixed infinite structure $\\Gamma$ with finite signature $\\tau$, we study the following computational problem: Input are quantifier-free first-order $\\tau$-formulas $\\phi_0,\\phi_1,\\dots,\\phi_n$ that define relations $R_0,R_1,\\dots,R_n$ over $\\Gamma$. The question is whether the relation $R_0$ is primitive positive definable from $R_1,\\ldots,R_n$, i.e., definable by a first-order formula that uses only relation symbols for $R_1, \\dots, R_n$, equality, conjunctions, and existential quantification (disjunction, negation, and universal quantification are forbidden). We show decidability of this problem for all structures $\\Gamma$ that have a first-order definition in an ordered homogeneous structure $\\Delta$ with a finite language whose age is a Ramsey class and determined by finitely many forbidden substructures. Examples for structures $\\Gamma$ with this property are the order of the rationals, the random graph, the homogeneous universal poset, the random tournament, all homogeneous universal $C$-relations...

  13. Time evolution of phase composition and microstructure in the Ag/Bi-2223 composite superconductor heat-treated at specific pO2/temperature set points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurceanu, R. M.; Maroni, V. A.; Merchant, N. N.; Fischer, A. K.; McNallan, M. J.; Parrella, R. D.

    2002-07-01

    The time evolution of the phases present in the ceramic cores of silver-sheathed (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Ag/Bi-2223) multifilament superconducting tapes heat-treated at selected oxygen partial pressure/temperature (pO2/T) set points was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy coupled with computer-based image processing methods. The numerical values for individual phase contents and non-superconducting second phase (NSP) size distributions generated in this way were used to quantify the temporal evolution of composition in the variably treated Ag/Bi-2223 tapes. Results for the three pO2/T set points investigated (21.0% O2/835 °C, 7.5% O2/825 °C and 4.0% O2/815 °C) revealed characteristic patterns of recurring maxima and minima in the time evolution of the NSPs. (Ca, Sr)14Cu24O41 was found to be the stable phase at 21.0% O2/835 °C, possibly evolving as a co-product of the Bi-2223 formation reaction, while (Ca, Sr)2CuO3 and CuO were stable at 4.0% O2/815 °C, presumably as a consequence of competitive secondary reactions proceeding in parallel with Bi-2223 formation. The best-aligned grains were formed in Ag/Bi-2223 tapes treated at 21.0% O2/835 °C, while the best conversion to Bi-2223, together with the least amount of NSP particles >0.5 μm in major dimension, was produced by the 7.5% O2/825 °C treatment. A forward-looking conclusion of the study is that it appears possible to minimize the amount and size of NSP particles during Ag/Bi-2223 heat treatment by using a combinatorial sequence of appropriately timed pO2/T set points.

  14. Effect of a single oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum DSMZ 8862/8866 before and at the time point of weaning on intestinal microbial communities in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, R; Janczyk, P; Urubschurov, V; Korn, U; Pieper, B; Souffrant, W B

    2009-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a single administration of two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (DSMZ 8862 and 8866) either before or at the time point of weaning can influence the intestinal microbiota of piglets. A total of 176 piglets were allocated into five groups: control (LP0), administration of 5 x 10(9) or 5x10(10) cfu at day 25 of life (LP1, LP2) and administration of 5 x 10(9) or 5 x 10(10) cfu at day 28 of life (LP3, LP4). Piglets were weaned on day 28 of life. On day 25 (LP1, LP2), 28 (LP0, LP3, LP4), 33 (all groups) and 39 (all groups) of life, 10-13 animals of each group were killed and genomic DNA was extracted from small and large intestinal contents. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis demonstrated that administration of L. plantarum had a significant effect in GIT microbial communities as revealed by the Simpson's index of diversity and cluster analysis based on the Dice similarity index; this effect was more pronounced in groups LP3 and LP4. A treatment dependent presence of Clostridium glycolicum-like, Lactobacillus sobrius-like, Eubacterium rectale-like and Roseburia faecalis-like phylotypes was observed. The results show that the administration of L. plantarum at the point of weaning can influence gastrointestinal microbiota in weaning piglets which may have positive results on gastrointestinal health.

  15. Dynamics of pulsed laser ablation plasmas in high-density CO2 near the critical point investigated by time-resolved shadowgraph imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Keiichiro; Kato, Toru; Himeno, Shohei; Kato, Satoshi; Stauss, Sven; Baba, Motoyoshi; Suemoto, Tohru; Terashima, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) plasmas generated in high-density gases and liquids are promising for the synthesis of nanomaterials. However, the characteristics of such plasmas are still not well understood. In order to improve the understandings of PLA plasmas in high-density fluids including gases, liquids, and supercritical fluids (SCFs), we have investigated the dynamics of PLA plasmas in high-density carbon dioxide (CO2) . We report on experimental results of time-resolved shadowgraph imaging, from the generation of plasma plume to the extinction of cavitation bubbles. Shadowgraph images revealed that the PLA plasma dynamics showed two distinct behaviors. These are divided by gas-liquid coexistence curve and the so-called Widom line, which separates gas-like and liquid-like SCF domains. Furthermore, cavitation bubble observed in liquid CO2 near the critical point showed peculiar characteristics, the formation of an inner bubble and an outer shell structure, which so far has never been reported. The experiments indicate that thermophysical properties of PLA plasmas can be tuned by controlling solvent temperature and pressure around the critical point, which may be useful for materials processing. This work was supported financially in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (No. 21110002) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

  16. A procedure for tuning automatic controllers with determining a second-order plant model with time delay from two points of a complex frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzishchin, V. F.; Petrov, S. V.

    2012-10-01

    The problem of obtaining the mathematical model of a plant in the course of adaptively tuning the operating automatic closed-loop control systems is considered. A new method is proposed for calculating the parameters of a model with four free coefficients represented by two inertial sections with a time delay. The model parameters are calculated from the data of experiments on determining two points of a plant's complex frequency response. The results from checking the performance of the method in combination with obtaining information on the plant dynamics by applying the Fourier transform to the impulse transient response of the system are presented. The PID controller is tuned using a parameter scanning algorithm with directly checking the amplitude-frequency response of the closed-loop system, using which the stability margin can be calculated and different quality criteria can be applied.

  17. Habitat use by mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni determined using stem bite diameters at point of browse, bite rates, and time budgets in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon A. TADESSE, Burt P. KOTLER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the habitat use of mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the northern edge of the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. The aims of this study were to: (1 measure and quantify habitat-specific stem bite diameters of mountain nyala foraging on common natural plant species in two major habitat types (i.e. grasslands versus woodlands, and (2 quantify the bite rates (number of bites per minute and the activity time budgets of mountain nyala as functions of habitat type and sex-age category. We randomly laid out three transects in each habitat type. Following each transect, through focal animal observations, we assessed and quantified stem diameters at point of browse (dpb, bite rates, and time budgets of mountain nyala in grasslands versus woodlands. Stem dpb provide a measure of natural giving-up densities (GUDs and can be used to assess foraging costs and efficiencies, with greater stem dpb corresponding to lower costs and greater efficiencies. The results showed that stem dpb, bite rates, induced vigilance, and proportion of time spent in feeding differed between habitats. In particular, mountain nyala had greater stem dpb, higher bite rates, and spent a greater proportion of their time in feeding and less in induced vigilance in the grasslands. In addition, adult females had the highest bite rates, and the browse species Solanum marginatum had the greatest stem dpb. Generally, grasslands provide the mountain nyala with several advantages over the woodlands, including offering lower foraging costs, greater safety, and more time for foraging. The study advocates how behavioural indicators and natural GUDs are used to examine the habitat use of the endangered mountain nyala through applying non-invasive techniques. We conclude that the resulting measures are helpful for guiding conservation and management efforts and could be applicable to a number of endangered wildlife species including the mountain nyala [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 707

  18. Laboratory Tests Turnaround Time in Outpatient and Emergency Patients in Nigeria: Results of A Physician Survey on Point of Care Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolodeoku J

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory analytical turnaround time is a well-recognised indicator of how well a laboratory is performing and is sometimes regarded as the benchmark for laboratory performance. Methods: Total 104 doctors in public and private health institutions in Nigeria, spread across all six geo-political zones participated in survey requesting information on their experience with laboratory turnaround times in emergency situations (emergency room, special care baby unit, intensive care unit, dialysis unit and outpatient situations (general medicine and diabetes. Results: The average turnaround time in hours was 5.12, 8.35, 7.32 and 8.33 for the emergency room, special care baby unit, intensive care unit and dialysis unit, respectively. For the outpatient situations, the average turnaround time in hours was 10.74 and 15.70 hours for the diabetes and general medical outpatients. The median range (hours and modal range (hours for: the emergency room was 2-4 and <2; the special care baby unit was 4-8 and 4-8; the intensive care unit was 2-4 and 2-4; the dialysis unit was 4-8 and 4-8. The median range (hours and modal range (hours for: the general outpatient clinic was 12-24 and 12-24; the diabetic clinic was 4-8 and 12-24 hours. Conclusion: These turnaround time results are quite consistent with published data from other countries. However, there is some measure of improvement that is required in some areas to reduce the laboratory turnaround in the emergency situations. This could be overcome with the introduction of more point of care testing devices into emergency units.

  19. SOD mRNA and MDA expression in rectus femoris muscle of rats with different eccentric exercise programs and time points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heng; Liu, Jiani; Pan, Shinong; Sun, Yingwei; Li, Qi; Li, Fei; Ma, Li; Guo, Qiyong

    2013-01-01

    Although superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) affect Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS), their effects are unclear in rectus femoris muscles (RFM) of rats with different eccentric exercise programs and time points. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the various eccentric exercise programs at different time points on the SOD mRNA expression and MDA using rat as the animal model. 248 male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (CTL, n = 8), once-only exercise group (OEG, n = 80), continuous exercise group (CEG, n = 80), and intermittent exercise group (IEG, n = 80). Each exercise group was divided into 10 subgroups that exercised 0.5 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 120 h, 144 h, or 168 h. Rats were sacrificed and their SOD mRNA expression, and MDA concentrations of skeletal muscle tissue were measured. The specimen in all eccentric exercise programs showed increased RFM SOD1 mRNA expression levels at 0.5 h (Peccentric exercise (CE) significantly enhanced muscle SOD2 mRNA level at 0.5 h (Peccentric exercise (OE), SOD1, SOD2, and SOD3 mRNA expression significantly increased at 96 h, whereas MDA concentrations decreased at 96 h. After CE, the correlation coefficients of SOD1, SOD2, SOD3 mRNA expression levels and MDA concentrations were -0.814, -0.763, -0.845 (all Peccentric exercise, especially CE could enhance SOD1 and SOD2 mRNA expression in acute stage and the SOD2 mRNA expression correlates to MDA concentration in vivo, which may improve the oxidative adaption ability of skeletal muscles.

  20. Assessing the Influence of Land Use and Land Cover Datasets with Different Points in Time and Levels of Detail on Watershed Modeling in the North River Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC information is an important component influencing watershed modeling with regards to hydrology and water quality in the river basin. In this study, the sensitivity of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model to LULC datasets with three points in time and three levels of detail was assessed in a coastal subtropical watershed located in Southeast China. The results showed good agreement between observed and simulated values for both monthly and daily streamflow and monthly NH4+-N and TP loads. Three LULC datasets in 2002, 2007 and 2010 had relatively little influence on simulated monthly and daily streamflow, whereas they exhibited greater effects on simulated monthly NH4+-N and TP loads. When using the two LULC datasets in 2007 and 2010 compared with that in 2002, the relative differences in predicted monthly NH4+-N and TP loads were −11.0 to −7.8% and −4.8 to −9.0%, respectively. There were no significant differences in simulated monthly and daily streamflow when using the three LULC datasets with ten, five and three categories. When using LULC datasets from ten categories compared to five and three categories, the relative differences in predicted monthly NH4+-N and TP loads were −6.6 to −6.5% and −13.3 to −7.3%, respectively. Overall, the sensitivity of the SWAT model to LULC datasets with different points in time and levels of detail was lower in monthly and daily streamflow simulation than in monthly NH4+-N and TP loads prediction. This research provided helpful insights into the influence of LULC datasets on watershed modeling.

  1. End-point limiting-dilution real-time PCR assay for evaluation of hepatitis C virus quasispecies in serum: performance under optimal and suboptimal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sumathi; Xia, Guo-Liang; Ganova-Raeva, Lilia M; Nainan, Omana V; Khudyakov, Yury

    2008-08-01

    An approach for determination of hepatitis C virus (HCV) quasispecies by end-point limiting-dilution real-time PCR (EPLD-PCR) is described. It involves isolation of individual coexisting sequence variants of the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the HCV genome from serum specimens using a limiting-dilution protocol. EPLD-PCR applied to an HCV outbreak study provided insights into the epidemiological relationships between incident and chronic cases. When applied to samples from a longitudinal study of infected patients, HVR1 sequences from each sampling time-point were observed to group as distinct phylogenetic clusters. Melting peak analysis conducted on EPLD-PCR products generated from these patients could be used for evaluation of HVR1 sequence heterogeneity without recourse to clonal sequencing. Further, to better understand the mechanism of single-molecule PCR, experiments were conducted under optimal and suboptimal annealing temperatures. Under all temperature conditions tested, HVR1 variants from the major phylogenetic clusters of quasispecies could be amplified, revealing that successful HVR1 quasispecies analysis is not contingent to dilution of starting cDNA preparations to a single-molecule state. It was found that EPLD-PCR conducted at suboptimal annealing temperatures generated distributions of unique-sequence variants slightly different from the distribution obtained by PCR conducted at the optimal temperature. Hence, EPLD-PCR conditions can be manipulated to access different subpopulations of HCV HVR1 quasispecies, thus, improving the range of the quasispecies detection. Although EPLD-PCR conducted at different conditions detect slightly different quasispecies populations, as was shown in this study, the resulted samples of quasispecies are completely suitable for molecular epidemiological investigation in different clinical and epidemiological settings.

  2. Keratocyte apoptosis and not myofibroblast differentiation mark the graft/host interface at early time-points post-DSAEK in a cat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Weis

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate myofibroblast differentiation as an etiology of haze at the graft-host interface in a cat model of Descemet's Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK. METHODS: DSAEK was performed on 10 eyes of 5 adult domestic short-hair cats. In vivo corneal imaging with slit lamp, confocal, and optical coherence tomography (OCT were performed twice weekly. Cats were sacrificed and corneas harvested 4 hours, and 2, 4, 6, and 9 days post-DSAEK. Corneal sections were stained with the TUNEL method and immunohistochemistry was performed for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and fibronectin with DAPI counterstain. RESULTS: At all in vivo imaging time-points, corneal OCT revealed an increase in backscatter of light and confocal imaging revealed an acellular zone at the graft-host interface. At all post-mortem time-points, immunohistochemistry revealed a complete absence of α-SMA staining at the graft-host interface. At 4 hours, extracellular fibronectin staining was identified along the graft-host interface and both fibronectin and TUNEL assay were positive within adjacent cells extending into the host stroma. By day 2, fibronectin and TUNEL staining diminished and a distinct acellular zone was present in the region of previously TUNEL-positive cells. CONCLUSIONS: OCT imaging consistently showed increased reflectivity at the graft-host interface in cat corneas in the days post-DSAEK. This was not associated with myofibroblast differentiation at the graft-host interface, but rather with apoptosis and the development of a subsequent acellular zone. The roles of extracellular matrix changes and keratocyte cell death and repopulation should be investigated further as potential contributors to the interface optical changes.

  3. The impact of multiple memory formation on dendritic complexity in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex assessed at recent and remote time points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartman, Brianne C; Holahan, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Consolidation processes, involving synaptic and systems level changes, are suggested to stabilize memories once they are formed. At the synaptic level, dendritic structural changes are associated with long-term memory storage. At the systems level, memory storage dynamics between the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) may be influenced by the number of sequentially encoded memories. The present experiment utilized Golgi-Cox staining and neuron reconstruction to examine recent and remote structural changes in the hippocampus and ACC following training on three different behavioral procedures. Rats were trained on one hippocampal-dependent task only (a water maze task), two hippocampal-dependent tasks (a water maze task followed by a radial arm maze task), or one hippocampal-dependent and one non-hippocampal-dependent task (a water maze task followed by an operant conditioning task). Rats were euthanized recently or remotely. Brains underwent Golgi-Cox processing and neurons were reconstructed using Neurolucida software (MicroBrightField, Williston, VT, USA). Rats trained on two hippocampal-dependent tasks displayed increased dendritic complexity compared to control rats, in neurons examined in both the ACC and hippocampus at recent and remote time points. Importantly, this behavioral group showed consistent, significant structural differences in the ACC compared to the control group at the recent time point. These findings suggest that taxing the demand placed upon the hippocampus, by training rats on two hippocampal-dependent tasks, engages synaptic and systems consolidation processes in the ACC at an accelerated rate for recent and remote storage of spatial memories.

  4. The impact of multiple memory formation on dendritic complexity in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex assessed at recent and remote time points.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne Courtney Wartman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation processes, involving synaptic and systems level changes, are suggested to stabilize memories once they are formed. At the synaptic level, dendritic structural changes are associated with long-term memory storage. At the systems level, memory storage dynamics between the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC may be influenced by the number of sequentially encoded memories. The present experiment utilized Golgi-Cox staining and neuron reconstruction to examine recent and remote structural changes in the hippocampus and ACC following training on three different behavioural procedures.Rats were trained on one hippocampal-dependent task only (a water maze task, two hippocampal-dependent tasks (a water maze task followed by a radial arm maze task, or one hippocampal-dependent and one non-hippocampal-dependent task (a water maze task followed by an operant conditioning task. Rats were euthanized recently or remotely. Brains underwent Golgi-Cox processing and neurons were reconstructed using Neurolucida software (MicroBrightField, Williston, VT, USA. Rats trained on two hippocampal-dependent tasks displayed increased dendritic complexity compared to control rats, in neurons examined in both the ACC and hippocampus at recent and remote time points. Importantly, this behavioural group showed consistent, significant structural differences in the ACC compared to the control group at the recent time point. These findings suggest that taxing the demand placed upon the hippocampus, by training rats on two hippocampal-dependent tasks, engages synaptic and systems consolidation processes in the ACC at an accelerated rate for recent and remote storage of spatial memories.

  5. Defining Learning Objectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍鑫红

    2014-01-01

    <正>This article attempts to introduce the teacher to developments in the area of specifying learning objectives.When you have studied this article carefully,you should be able to(a)distinguish between statements of aims and statements of objectives,(b)discuss the merits of writing objectives from the point of view of the learner,and(c)write both complete and abbreviated statements of learning objectives for different language skills,functions,and notions.

  6. The drug efficacy and adverse reactions in a mouse model of oral squamous cell carcinoma treated with oxaliplatin at different time points during a day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kai Yang,1,2 Ningbo Zhao,1 Dan Zhao,1,2 Dan Chen,1 Yadong Li1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 2Chongqing Key Laboratory for Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: Recent studies have shown that the growth and proliferation of cancer cells in vivo exhibit circadian rhythm, and the efficacy and adverse reactions of platinum-based anticancer drugs administered at different times of the day vary significantly on colon cancer. However, since the circadian rhythms of growth and proliferation of various cancer cells often differ, the question of whether the administration of platinum anticancer drugs at different times of the day exerts significantly different efficacy and adverse effects on oral cancers remains to be elucidated. This study has compared the efficacy and adverse effects of oxaliplatin (L-OHP administration at different times during a day on oral squamous cell carcinoma in mice and has analyzed cellular circadian rhythms. Methods: The mouse model for oral squamous cell carcinoma was established in 75 nude mice, housed in a 12 hour light/12 hour dark cycle environment. The mice were randomly divided into five groups; four experimental groups were intravenously injected with L-OHP at four time points within a 24-hour period (4, 10, 16, and 22 hours after lights on [HALO]. The control group was intravenously injected with the same volume of saline. Treatment efficacy and adverse reactions were compared on the seventh day after the injection, at 22 HALO. The existence of circadian rhythms was determined by cosine analysis. Results: Only injections of L-OHP at 16 and 22 HALO significantly prolonged animal survival time. The adverse reactions in mice injected with L-OHP at 16 and 22 HALO were significantly less than those observed in mice administered L-OHP at 4 and 10 HALO

  7. Software-Defined Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂华; 杨晓君; 刘淘英

    2015-01-01

    The cluster architecture has played an important role in high-end computing for the past 20 years. With the advent of Internet services, big data, and cloud computing, traditional clusters face three challenges: 1) providing flexible system balance among computing, memory, and I/O capabilities;2) reducing resource pooling overheads;and 3) addressing low performance-power efficiency. This position paper proposes a software-defined cluster (SDC) architecture to deal with these challenges. The SDC architecture inherits two features of traditional cluster: its architecture is multicomputer and it has loosely-coupled interconnect. SDC provides two new mechanisms: global I/O space (GIO) and hardware-supported native access (HNA) to remote devices. Application software can define a virtual cluster best suited to its needs from resources pools provided by a physical cluster, and traditional cluster ecosystems need no modification. We also discuss a prototype design and implementation of a 32-processor cloud server utilizing the SDC architecture.

  8. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  9. A Seamless Handoff Scheme with Access Point Load Balance for Real-Time Services Support in 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manodham, Thavisak; Loyola, Luis; Miki, Tetsuya

    IEEE 802.11 wirelesses LANs (WLANs) have been rapidly deployed in enterprises, public areas, and households. Voice-over-IP (VoIP) and similar applications are now commonly used in mobile devices over wireless networks. Recent works have improved the quality of service (QoS) offering higher data rates to support various kinds of real-time applications. However, besides the need for higher data rates, seamless handoff and load balancing among APs are key issues that must be addressed in order to continue supporting real-time services across wireless LANs and providing fair services to all users. In this paper, we introduce a novel access point (AP) with two transceivers that improves network efficiency by supporting seamless handoff and traffic load balancing in a wireless network. In our proposed scheme, the novel AP uses the second transceiver to scan and find neighboring STAs in the transmission range and then sends the results to neighboring APs, which compare and analyze whether or not the STA should perform a handoff. The initial results from our simulations show that the novel AP module is more effective than the conventional scheme and a related work in terms of providing a handoff process with low latency and sharing traffic load with neighbor APs.

  10. The relation between doses or post-plasma time points and apoptosis of leukemia cells induced by dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma was applied to induce apoptosis of LT-12 leukemia cells. Plasma effects on cell death was evaluated by MTT assay and FCM apoptosis assay with Annexin V/PI double staining, suggesting that plasma killing cells rate and inducing cell apoptosis rate both positively were related to the plasma doses or the post-plasma time points. The cell death rates increased from 15.2% to 33.1% and the apoptosis rate raise from 23.8% to 28% when the dose raise from 60s to 120 s at 8 h post-plasma, while they increased from 15.4% to 34.9% and from 48% to 55.3% respectively at the same doses at 12 h post-plasma. Furthermore, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, gene and protein expression for Caspases and Bcl-2 family members were measured for exploring the related apoptotic mechanisms phenomenon. We found ROS immediately increased to 1.24 times of the original amount, then increasing to 5.39-fold at 20 h after treatment. The gene and protein expression for Caspases and Bcl-2 family members are very active at 8-12 h post-plasma. Our results demonstrate that DBD plasma can effectively induce tumor cell death through primarily related apoptotic mechanisms.

  11. Model-based testing for space-time interaction using point processes: An application to psychiatric hospital admissions in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sebastian; Warnke, Ingeborg; Rössler, Wulf; Held, Leonhard

    2016-05-01

    Spatio-temporal interaction is inherent to cases of infectious diseases and occurrences of earthquakes, whereas the spread of other events, such as cancer or crime, is less evident. Statistical significance tests of space-time clustering usually assess the correlation between the spatial and temporal (transformed) distances of the events. Although appealing through simplicity, these classical tests do not adjust for the underlying population nor can they account for a distance decay of interaction. We propose to use the framework of an endemic-epidemic point process model to jointly estimate a background event rate explained by seasonal and areal characteristics, as well as a superposed epidemic component representing the hypothesis of interest. We illustrate this new model-based test for space-time interaction by analysing psychiatric inpatient admissions in Zurich, Switzerland (2007-2012). Several socio-economic factors were found to be associated with the admission rate, but there was no evidence of general clustering of the cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parity-Time Symmetry and the Toy Models of Gain-Loss Dynamics near the Real Kato’s Exceptional Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Znojil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For a given operator D ( t of an observable in theoretical parity-time symmetric quantum physics (or for its evolution-generator analogues in the experimental gain-loss classical optics, etc. the instant t c r i t i c a l of a spontaneous breakdown of the parity-time alias gain-loss symmetry should be given, in the rigorous language of mathematics, the Kato’s name of an “exceptional point”, t c r i t i c a l = t ( E P . In the majority of conventional applications the exceptional point (EP values are not real. In our paper, we pay attention to several exactly tractable toy-model evolutions for which at least some of the values of t ( E P become real. These values are interpreted as “instants of a catastrophe”, be it classical or quantum. In the classical optical setting the discrete nature of our toy models might make them amenable to simulations. In the latter context the instant of Big Bang is mentioned as an illustrative sample of possible physical meaning of such an EP catastrophe in quantum cosmology.

  13. Defining political community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladeček Michal M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.

  14. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  15. Design of a multi-point real-time RF electromagnetic radiation detection system%一种多点实时电磁辐射检测系统设计及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡京冬; 季启政; 郭凯; 高志良

    2013-01-01

    航天器研制生产过程中辐射源的危害,一直都被航天器型号参试人员所关注。基于此,文章提出了一种多点、实时、可在线的电磁辐射检测系统,不仅能有效完成对辐射源电磁辐射强度的测试,还可以根据检测结果,在辐射源附近划定安全区域,从而有效降低参试人员可能遭受的辐射伤害。%The radiation source is always a major concern in the spacecraft development process. This paper proposes a multi-point real-time on-line electromagnetic radiation detection system, which not only can effectively perform the electromagnetic radiation intensity test of the radiation source, but also, according to the test results, can define the safety area around the radiation source, thus effectively prevent the test personnel from suffering any radiation damage.

  16. Separation of Availability and Perception Processes for Aural Detection in Avian Point Counts: a Combined Multiple-Observer and Time-of-Detection Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Stanislav

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we review various methods of estimating detection probabilities for avian point counts: distance sampling, multiple observer methods, and recently proposed time-of-detection methods. Both distance and multiple observer methods require the sometimes unrealistic assumption that all birds in the population sing during the count interval. We provide a general model of detection where the total probability of detection is made up of the probability of a bird singing, i.e., availability, and the probability of detecting a bird, conditional on its having sung. We show that the time-of-detection method provides an estimate of the total probability, whereas combining the time-of-detection method with a multiple observer method enables estimation of the two components of the detection process separately. Our approach is shown to be a special case of Pollock's robust capture-recapture design where the probability that a bird does not sing is equivalent to the probability that an animal is a temporary emigrant. We estimate Hooded Warbler and Ovenbird population size, through maximum likelihood estimation, using experimentally simulated field data for which the true population sizes were known. The method performs well when singing rates and detection probabilities are high, and when observers are able to accurately localize individual birds. Population sizes are underestimated when there is heterogeneity of singing rates among individual birds, especially when singing rates are close to zero. Despite the additional expense and the potential for counting and matching errors, we encourage field ornithologists to consider using this combined method in their field studies to better understand the detection process, and to obtain better abundance estimates.

  17. UNIQLO, Define Your Own Fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ Yes,women like and enjoy shopping.Always,they want to buy some well-designed clothes with the most 'in'factors; and what's of the great importance,they would like to hear the words:"wow! You fit the wear well!"However,the most satisfied right things could not be always waiting for you there or you would not help complaining the so-fast changing trends day by day.At that time,why not to seek some delights from the basic classic collections?UNIQLO maybe is a choice for you to define your own fashion.

  18. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  19. Time-integrated passive sampling as a complement to conventional point-in-time sampling for investigating drinking-water quality, McKenzie River Basin, Oregon, 2007 and 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Alvarez, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Eugene Water & Electric Board (EWEB) supplies drinking water to approximately 200,000 people in Eugene, Oregon. The sole source of this water is the McKenzie River, which has consistently excellent water quality relative to established drinking-water standards. To ensure that this quality is maintained as land use in the source basin changes and water demands increase, EWEB has developed a proactive management strategy that includes a combination of conventional point-in-time discrete water sampling and time‑integrated passive sampling with a combination of chemical analyses and bioassays to explore water quality and identify where vulnerabilities may lie. In this report, we present the results from six passive‑sampling deployments at six sites in the basin, including the intake and outflow from the EWEB drinking‑water treatment plant (DWTP). This is the first known use of passive samplers to investigate both the source and finished water of a municipal DWTP. Results indicate that low concentrations of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organohalogen compounds are consistently present in source waters, and that many of these compounds are also present in finished drinking water. The nature and patterns of compounds detected suggest that land-surface runoff and atmospheric deposition act as ongoing sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, some currently used pesticides, and several legacy organochlorine pesticides. Comparison of results from point-in-time and time-integrated sampling indicate that these two methods are complementary and, when used together, provide a clearer understanding of contaminant sources than either method alone.

  20. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR – effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žel Jana

    2006-08-01

    chosen as the primary criterion by which to evaluate the quality and performance on different matrixes and extraction techniques. The effect of PCR efficiency on the resulting GMO content is demonstrated. Conclusion The crucial influence of extraction technique and sample matrix properties on the results of GMO quantification is demonstrated. Appropriate extraction techniques for each matrix need to be determined to achieve accurate DNA quantification. Nevertheless, as it is shown that in the area of food and feed testing matrix with certain specificities is impossible to define strict quality controls need to be introduced to monitor PCR. The results of our study are also applicable to other fields of quantitative testing by real-time PCR.

  1. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR – effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Štebih, Dejan; Dreo, Tanja; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    criterion by which to evaluate the quality and performance on different matrixes and extraction techniques. The effect of PCR efficiency on the resulting GMO content is demonstrated. Conclusion The crucial influence of extraction technique and sample matrix properties on the results of GMO quantification is demonstrated. Appropriate extraction techniques for each matrix need to be determined to achieve accurate DNA quantification. Nevertheless, as it is shown that in the area of food and feed testing matrix with certain specificities is impossible to define strict quality controls need to be introduced to monitor PCR. The results of our study are also applicable to other fields of quantitative testing by real-time PCR. PMID:16907967

  2. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR--effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Stebih, Dejan; Dreo, Tanja; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2006-08-14

    evaluate the quality and performance on different matrixes and extraction techniques. The effect of PCR efficiency on the resulting GMO content is demonstrated. The crucial influence of extraction technique and sample matrix properties on the results of GMO quantification is demonstrated. Appropriate extraction techniques for each matrix need to be determined to achieve accurate DNA quantification. Nevertheless, as it is shown that in the area of food and feed testing matrix with certain specificities is impossible to define strict quality controls need to be introduced to monitor PCR. The results of our study are also applicable to other fields of quantitative testing by real-time PCR.

  3. Fixed-Point Configurable Hardware Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocher Romuald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the gap between the VLSI technology capability and the designer productivity, design reuse based on IP (intellectual properties is commonly used. In terms of arithmetic accuracy, the generated architecture can generally only be configured through the input and output word lengths. In this paper, a new kind of method to optimize fixed-point arithmetic IP has been proposed. The architecture cost is minimized under accuracy constraints defined by the user. Our approach allows exploring the fixed-point search space and the algorithm-level search space to select the optimized structure and fixed-point specification. To significantly reduce the optimization and design times, analytical models are used for the fixed-point optimization process.

  4. Chlamydia psittaci reference genes for normalisation of expression data differ depending on the culture conditions and selected time points during the chlamydial replication cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Lent Sarah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia psittaci is a gram-negative obligate intracellular pathogen of birds. Poultry infections lead to economic losses and can be transmitted to humans. No vaccine is available and the bacterium-host cell interaction is not completely understood. Replicating bacteria cause pneumonia, but C. psittaci can also be non-replicating and persistent inside the cytoplasm of avian cells. RT-qPCR provides insight into the molecular pathogenesis of both active replicating and persistent Chlamydia psittaci in birds, but requires identification of stably expressed reference genes to avoid biases. Material and Methods: We investigated the expression stability of 10 C. psittaci candidate reference genes for gene expression analysis during normal growth and penicillin-induced persistence. C. psittaci Cal10 was cultured in HeLa229 and RNA was extracted. The expression level of each candidate was examined by RT-qPCR and Cq values were analysed using geNorm. Results: The genes tyrS, gidA, radA, and 16S rRNA ranked among the most stably expressed. The final selected reference genes differed according to the bacterial growth status (normal growth versus persistent status, and the time points selected during the duration of the normal chlamydial developmental cycle. Conclusion: The study data show the importance of systematic validation of reference genes to confirm their stability within the strains and under the conditions selected.

  5. Evaluation of image reconstruction algorithms encompassing Time-Of-Flight and Point Spread Function modelling for quantitative cardiac PET: phantom studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presotto, L; Gianolli, L; Gilardi, M C; Bettinardi, V

    2015-04-01

    To perform kinetic modelling quantification, PET dynamic data must be acquired in short frames, where different critical conditions are met. The accuracy of reconstructed images influences quantification. The added value of Time-Of-Flight (TOF) and Point Spread Function (PSF) in cardiac image reconstruction was assessed. A static phantom was used to simulate two extreme conditions: (i) the bolus passage and (ii) the steady uptake. Various count statistics and independent noise realisations were considered. A moving phantom filled with two different radionuclides was used to simulate: (i) a great range of contrasts and (ii) the cardio/respiratory motion. Analytical and iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms also encompassing TOF and PSF modelling were evaluated. Both analytic and IR algorithms provided good results in all the evaluated conditions. The amount of bias introduced by IR was found to be limited. TOF allowed faster convergence and lower noise levels. PSF achieved near full myocardial activity recovery in static conditions. Motion degraded performances, but the addition of both TOF and PSF maintained the best overall behaviour. IR accounting for TOF and PSF can be recommended for the quantification of dynamic cardiac PET studies as they improve the results compared to analytic and standard IR.

  6. Fully automated lobe-based airway taper index calculation in a low dose MDCT CF study over 4 time-points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinheimer, Oliver; Wielpütz, Mark O.; Konietzke, Philip; Heussel, Claus P.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Brochhausen, Christoph; Hollemann, David; Savage, Dasha; Galbán, Craig J.; Robinson, Terry E.

    2017-02-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) results in severe bronchiectasis in nearly all cases. Bronchiectasis is a disease where parts of the airways are permanently dilated. The development and the progression of bronchiectasis is not evenly distributed over the entire lungs - rather, individual functional units are affected differently. We developed a fully automated method for the precise calculation of lobe-based airway taper indices. To calculate taper indices, some preparatory algorithms are needed. The airway tree is segmented, skeletonized and transformed to a rooted acyclic graph. This graph is used to label the airways. Then a modified version of the previously validated integral based method (IBM) for airway geometry determination is utilized. The rooted graph, the airway lumen and wall information are then used to calculate the airway taper indices. Using a computer-generated phantom simulating 10 cross sections of airways we present results showing a high accuracy of the modified IBM. The new taper index calculation method was applied to 144 volumetric inspiratory low-dose MDCT scans. The scans were acquired from 36 children with mild CF at 4 time-points (baseline, 3 month, 1 year, 2 years). We found a moderate correlation with the visual lobar Brody bronchiectasis scores by three raters (r2 = 0.36, p < .0001). The taper index has the potential to be a precise imaging biomarker but further improvements are needed. In combination with other imaging biomarkers, taper index calculation can be an important tool for monitoring the progression and the individual treatment of patients with bronchiectasis.

  7. Arrests for child pornography production: data at two time points from a national sample of U.S. law enforcement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Jones, Lisa M

    2011-08-01

    This study collected information on arrests for child pornography (CP) production at two points (2000-2001 and 2006) from a national sample of more than 2,500 law enforcement agencies. In addition to providing descriptive data about an understudied crime, the authors examined whether trends in arrests suggested increasing CP production, shifts in victim populations, and challenges to law enforcement. Arrests for CP production more than doubled from an estimated 402 in 2000-2001 to an estimated 859 in 2006. Findings suggest the increase was related to increased law enforcement activity rather than to growth in the population of CP producers. Adolescent victims increased, but there was no increase in the proportion of arrest cases involving very young victims or violent images. Producers distributed images in 23% of arrest cases, a proportion that did not change over time. This suggests that much CP production may be primarily for private use. Proactive law enforcement operations increased, as did other features consistent with a robust law enforcement response.

  8. Survival outcomes and effect of early vs. deferred cART among HIV-infected patients diagnosed at the time of an AIDS-defining event: a cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, Jose M; Manzardo, Christian; Mussini, Cristina; Johnson, Margaret; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Antinori, Andrea; Gill, M John; Sighinolfi, Laura; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; Borghi, Vanni; Sabin, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed clinical progression among persons diagnosed with HIV at the time of an AIDS-defining event, and assessed the impact on outcome of timing of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART). Retrospective, European and Canadian multicohort study.. Patients were diagnosed with HIV from 1997-2004 and had clinical AIDS from 30 days before to 14 days after diagnosis. Clinical progression (new AIDS event, death) was described using Kaplan-Meier analysis stratifying by type of AIDS event. Factors associated with progression were identified with multivariable Cox regression. Progression rates were compared between those starting early (AIDS event) or deferred (30-270 days after AIDS event) cART. The median (interquartile range) CD4 count and viral load (VL) at diagnosis of the 584 patients were 42 (16, 119) cells/µL and 5.2 (4.5, 5.7) log(10) copies/mL. Clinical progression was observed in 165 (28.3%) patients. Older age, a higher VL at diagnosis, and a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (vs. other AIDS events) were independently associated with disease progression. Of 366 patients with an opportunistic infection, 178 (48.6%) received early cART. There was no significant difference in clinical progression between those initiating cART early and those deferring treatment (adjusted hazard ratio 1.32 [95% confidence interval 0.87, 2.00], p = 0.20). Older patients and patients with high VL or NHL at diagnosis had a worse outcome. Our data suggest that earlier initiation of cART may be beneficial among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with clinical AIDS in our setting.

  9. Survival outcomes and effect of early vs. deferred cART among HIV-infected patients diagnosed at the time of an AIDS-defining event: a cohort analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Miro

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We analyzed clinical progression among persons diagnosed with HIV at the time of an AIDS-defining event, and assessed the impact on outcome of timing of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART. METHODS: Retrospective, European and Canadian multicohort study.. Patients were diagnosed with HIV from 1997-2004 and had clinical AIDS from 30 days before to 14 days after diagnosis. Clinical progression (new AIDS event, death was described using Kaplan-Meier analysis stratifying by type of AIDS event. Factors associated with progression were identified with multivariable Cox regression. Progression rates were compared between those starting early (<30 days after AIDS event or deferred (30-270 days after AIDS event cART. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range CD4 count and viral load (VL at diagnosis of the 584 patients were 42 (16, 119 cells/µL and 5.2 (4.5, 5.7 log(10 copies/mL. Clinical progression was observed in 165 (28.3% patients. Older age, a higher VL at diagnosis, and a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (vs. other AIDS events were independently associated with disease progression. Of 366 patients with an opportunistic infection, 178 (48.6% received early cART. There was no significant difference in clinical progression between those initiating cART early and those deferring treatment (adjusted hazard ratio 1.32 [95% confidence interval 0.87, 2.00], p = 0.20. CONCLUSIONS: Older patients and patients with high VL or NHL at diagnosis had a worse outcome. Our data suggest that earlier initiation of cART may be beneficial among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with clinical AIDS in our setting.

  10. Defining Art Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabolt, Betty Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the differences and goals of four areas: (1) art appreciation; (2) art history; (3) art aesthetics; and (4) art criticism. Offers a definition of art appreciation and information on how the view of art appreciation in education has changed over time. (CMK)

  11. Calcareous Fens - Source Feature Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Pursuant to the provisions of Minnesota Statutes, section 103G.223, this database contains points that represent calcareous fens as defined in Minnesota Rules, part...

  12. Detection of Lupine (Lupinus spp. L. as a food allergen using three methods: end-point PCR, Real-Time PCR and Elisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Revák

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare three methods for the detection and quantification of lupine as an allergen in food. The methods that were used in this work were the direct method: ELISA and the indirect methods: end-point PCR and real-time PCR. We examined the detection limit (the sensitivity with which we can detect the presence of the allergen in a sample and the reliability for performing an analysis. We used 17 samples of plant species from a processing plant for dehydrated soups production and lupine samples from lupine processing companies. Its practical use is wide and it is used mainly in the bakery industry, in the manufacture of confectionery, pasta, sauces, as a substitute for soy and also in the production of gluten-free food, because it does not contain gluten. Lupine, however, is also included in the list of 14 allergenic substances, which in accordance with the EU legislation must be listed on food labels. The high risk group, which suffers from primary sensitization or cross-reaction with peanuts, are allergic patients. In the EU, people who are allergic to peanuts range from 0.7 to 1.5%. In experiment 1, we detected the presence of lupine using primers for the detection of α- and δ-conglutine in the samples, using the end-point PCR method and the detection limit of this reaction was at the level of 100 ppm. For the vizualization of the DNA fragments, we used a 2% agarose gel and UV visualizer. In experiment 2 we detected lupine using the TaqMan real-time PCR reaction and primers for the detection of α and δ-conglutine at the level of 10 ppm of lupine in sample. The CP values of lupine using primers for the detection of α-conglutine was 24.85 ± 0.12 and the reliability equation was R2 = 0.9767. The CP lupine values using primers for the detection of δ-conglutine was 22.52 ± 0.17 and the reliability equation was R2 = 0.9925. In experiment 3, we used a sandwich ELISA method for the detection of lupine and the

  13. Determination of n-octanol/water partition coefficient for DDT-related compounds by RP-HPLC with a novel dual-point retention time correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-ying; Qiao, Jun-qin; Zhang, Yun-yang; Yang, Li-li; Lian, Hong-zhen; Ge, Xin; Chen, Hong-yuan

    2011-03-01

    n-Octanol/water partition coefficients (P) for DDTs and dicofol were determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on a C(18) column using methanol-water mixture as mobile phase. A dual-point retention time correction (DP-RTC) was proposed to rectify chromatographic retention time (t(R)) shift resulted from stationary phase aging. Based on this correction, the relationship between logP and logk(w), the logarithm of the retention factor extrapolated to pure water, was investigated for a set of 12 benzene homologues and DDT-related compounds with reliable experimental P as model compounds. A linear regression logP=(1.10±0.04) logk(w) - (0.60±0.17) was established with correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.988, cross-validated correlation coefficient R(cv)(2) of 0.983 and standard deviation (SD) of 0.156. This model was further validated using four verification compounds, naphthalene, biphenyl, 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (p,p'-DDD) and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE) with similar structure to DDT. The RP-HPLC-determined P values showed good consistency with shake-flask (SFM) or slow-stirring (SSM) results, especially for highly hydrophobic compounds with logP in the range of 4-7. Then, the P values for five DDT-related compounds, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (o,p'-DDT), 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (o,p'-DDD), 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (o,p'-DDE), and 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol) and its main degradation product 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (p,p'-DBP) were evaluated by the improved RP-HPLC method for the first time. The excellent precision with SD less than 0.03 proved that the novel DP-RTC protocol can significantly increases the determination accuracy and reliability of P by RP-HPLC.

  14. Differential Diagnosis of Malaria on Truelab Uno®, a Portable, Real-Time, MicroPCR Device for Point-Of-Care Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Chandrasekhar Bhaskaran; Manjula, Jagannath; Subramani, Pradeep Annamalai; Nagendrappa, Prakash B; Manoj, Mulakkapurath Narayanan; Malpani, Sukriti; Pullela, Phani Kumar; Subbarao, Pillarisetti Venkata; Ramamoorthy, Siva; Ghosh, Susanta K

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive and specific detection of malarial parasites is crucial in controlling the significant malaria burden in the developing world. Also important is being able to identify life threatening Plasmodium falciparum malaria quickly and accurately to reduce malaria related mortality. Existing methods such as microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have major shortcomings. Here, we describe a new real-time PCR-based diagnostic test device at point-of-care service for resource-limited settings. Truenat® Malaria, a chip-based microPCR test, was developed by bigtec Labs, Bangalore, India, for differential identification of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites. The Truenat Malaria tests runs on bigtec's Truelab Uno® microPCR device, a handheld, battery operated, and easy-to-use real-time microPCR device. The performance of Truenat® Malaria was evaluated versus the WHO nested PCR protocol. The Truenat® Malaria was further evaluated in a triple-blinded study design using a sample panel of 281 specimens created from the clinical samples characterized by expert microscopy and a rapid diagnostic test kit by the National Institute of Malaria Research (NIMR). A comparative evaluation was done on the Truelab Uno® and a commercial real-time PCR system. The limit of detection of the Truenat Malaria assay was found to be test was found to have sensitivity and specificity of 100% each, compared to the WHO nested PCR protocol based on the evaluation of 100 samples. The sensitivity using expert microscopy as the reference standard was determined to be around 99.3% (95% CI: 95.5-99.9) at the species level. Mixed infections were identified more accurately by Truenat Malaria (32 samples identified as mixed) versus expert microscopy and RDTs which detected 4 and 5 mixed samples, respectively. The Truenat® Malaria microPCR test is a valuable diagnostic tool and implementation should be considered not only for malaria diagnosis but also for active surveillance

  15. Development of a versatile tool for the simultaneous differential detection of Pseudomonas savastanoi pathovars by End Point and Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santilli Elena

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi is the causal agent of olive knot disease. The strains isolated from oleander and ash belong to the pathovars nerii and fraxini, respectively. When artificially inoculated, pv. savastanoi causes disease also on ash, and pv. nerii attacks also olive and ash. Surprisingly nothing is known yet about their distribution in nature on these hosts and if spontaneous cross-infections occur. On the other hand sanitary certification programs for olive plants, also including P. savastanoi, were launched in many countries. The aim of this work was to develop several PCR-based tools for the rapid, simultaneous, differential and quantitative detection of these P. savastanoi pathovars, in multiplex and in planta. Results Specific PCR primers and probes for the pathovars savastanoi, nerii and fraxini of P. savastanoi were designed to be used in End Point and Real-Time PCR, both with SYBR® Green or TaqMan® chemistries. The specificity of all these assays was 100%, as assessed by testing forty-four P. savastanoi strains, belonging to the three pathovars and having different geographical origins. For comparison strains from the pathovars phaseolicola and glycinea of P. savastanoi and bacterial epiphytes from P. savastanoi host plants were also assayed, and all of them tested always negative. The analytical detection limits were about 5 - 0.5 pg of pure genomic DNA and about 102 genome equivalents per reaction. Similar analytical thresholds were achieved in Multiplex Real-Time PCR experiments, even on artificially inoculated olive plants. Conclusions Here for the first time a complex of PCR-based assays were developed for the simultaneous discrimination and detection of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi, pv. nerii and pv. fraxini. These tests were shown to be highly reliable, pathovar-specific, sensitive, rapid and able to quantify these pathogens, both in multiplex reactions and in vivo. Compared with the other

  16. Defining Political Extremism in the Balkans. The Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Marko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Political extremism (and particularly right wing political extremism remains relatively insufficiently explored due to the fact that the phenomenon is controversial and hard to define. Its ambiguity and variability depending on time and spatial point of view further complicates its definition. Its structure is amorphous and eclectic as it often includes elements from different ideologies and connects incompatible ideas. A multidimensional conceptualization and an interdisciplinary approach - sociological, social, psychological and historical, are the Author’s tools in explaining the phenomenon of political extremism in Serbia, hopefully contributing to its clarification and laying a foundation for its further explanatory theoretical studies.

  17. Floating-Point Arithmetic on Round-to-Nearest Representations

    CERN Document Server

    Kornerup, Peter; Panhaleux, Adrien

    2012-01-01

    Recently we introduced a class of number representations denoted RN-representations, allowing an un-biased rounding-to-nearest to take place by a simple truncation. In this paper we briefly review the binary fixed-point representation in an encoding which is essentially an ordinary 2's complement representation with an appended round-bit. Not only is this rounding a constant time operation, so is also sign inversion, both of which are at best log-time operations on ordinary 2's complement representations. Addition, multiplication and division is defined in such a way that rounding information can be carried along in a meaningful way, at minimal cost. Based on the fixed-point encoding we here define a floating point representation, and describe to some detail a possible implementation of a floating point arithmetic unit employing this representation, including also the directed roundings.

  18. Defining a Forensic Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson G. Smith

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Disclosures about new financial frauds and scandals are continually appearing in the press.  As a consequence, the accounting profession's traditional methods of monitoring corporate financial activities are under intense scrutiny.  At the same time, there is recognition that principles-based GAAP from the International Accounting Standards Board will become the recognized standard in the U.S.  The authors argue that these two factors will change the practices used to fight corporate malfeasance as investigators adapt the techniques of accounting into a forensic audit engagement model.

  19. Prediction of Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy Using Early-Time-Point (18)F-FDG PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Advanced Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Steve Y; Lipson, Evan J; Im, Hyung-Jun; Rowe, Steven P; Gonzalez, Esther Mena; Blackford, Amanda; Chirindel, Alin; Pardoll, Drew M; Topalian, Suzanne L; Wahl, Richard L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate (18)F-FDG PET/CT scanning as an early predictor of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in patients with advanced melanoma. Methods: Twenty patients with advanced melanoma receiving ICI prospectively underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT at 3 scan intervals: before treatment initiation (SCAN-1), at days 21-28 (SCAN-2), and at 4 mo (SCAN-3). This study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was received from all patients who were enrolled between April 2012 and December 2013. Tumor response at each posttreatment time point was assessed according to RECIST 1.1, immune-related response criteria, PERCIST (PERCIST 1.0), and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria. Performance characteristics of each metric to predict best overall response (BOR) at ≥ 4 mo were assessed. Results: Twenty evaluable patients were treated with ipilimumab (n = 16), BMS-936559 (n = 3), or nivolumab (n = 1). BOR at ≥ 4 mo included complete response (n = 2), partial response (n = 2), stable disease (n = 1), and progressive disease (n = 15). Response evaluations at SCAN-2 using RECIST 1.1, immune-related response criteria, PERCIST, and EORTC criteria demonstrated accuracies of 75%, 70%, 70%, and 65%, respectively, to predict BOR at ≥ 4 mo. Interestingly, the optimal PERCIST and EORTC threshold values at SCAN-2 to predict BOR were >15.5% and >14.7%, respectively. By combining anatomic and functional imaging data collected at SCAN-2, we developed criteria to predict eventual response to ICI with 100% sensitivity, 93% specificity, and 95% accuracy. Conclusion: Combining functional and anatomic imaging parameters from (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans performed early in ICI appears predictive for eventual response in patients with advanced melanoma. These findings require validation in larger cohorts. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  20. Assessment of FDG retention differences between the FDG-avid benign pulmonary lesion and primary lung cancer using dual-time-point FDG-PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Koichiro; Sadashima, Eiji; Sadashima, Shinji; Irie, Koji; Hayashi, Akihiro; Masunari, Satoru; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Omagari, Junichi

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify FDG retention differences between FDG-avid benign pulmonary lesions (BPLs) and primary lung cancers (PLCs), and between tuberculous and non-tuberculous BPLs using dual-time-point FDG-PET imaging. Thirty-four BPLs and 47 PLCs with a maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) >2.5 and a maximal axial diameter >10 mm were enrolled. We compared the retention index (RI) among different types of lesions, and evaluated the relationship between RI and SUVmax at 1 h (SUV1). Glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) and hexokinase (HK)-2 expression was assessed in eight non-tuberculous BPLs. BPLs and PLCs showed similar high RIs (mean ± SD 33.6 ± 22.6 and 32.5 ± 23.7, respectively; p = 0.95). In BPLs, both tuberculous and non-tuberculous lesions showed high RIs (39.1 ± 25.8 and 30.3 ± 20.3, respectively; p = 0.43). However, BPLs and PLCs exhibited a different relationship between RI and SUV1. BPLs tended to show lower RIs with higher SUV1s, and a mild negative correlation, whereas PLCs showed persistent high RIs and no significant correlation. Glut-1 and HK-2 expression was found in 75 and 12.5 % of non-tuberculous BPLs, respectively. FDG-avid BPLs could show high RIs regardless of their being tuberculous and non-tuberculous lesions, and no significant difference with PLC RIs was found. FDG-avid BPLs and PLCs showed different relationships between RI and SUV1, and it seemed to be related with different mechanisms of high FDG retention. However, the mechanisms of high FDG retention in FDG-avid BPLs remain unclear, and this matter requires further investigation.

  1. Defining orthologs and pangenome size metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Emanuele; Fani, Renato; Fondi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Since the advent of ultra-massive sequencing techniques, the consequent drop-off in both price and time required made feasible the sequencing of increasingly more genomes from microbes belonging to the same taxonomic unit. Eventually, this led to the concept of pangenome, that is, the entire set of genes present in a group of representatives of the same genus/species, which, in turn, can be divided into core genome, defined as the set of those genes present in all the genomes under study, and a dispensable genome, the set of genes possessed only by one or a subset of organism. When analyzing a pangenome, an interesting point is to measure its size, thus estimating the gene repertoire of a given taxonomic group. This is usually performed counting the novel genes added to the overall pangenome when new genomes are sequenced and annotated. A pangenome can be also classified as open or close: in an open pangenome its size increases indefinitely when adding new genomes; thus sequencing additional strains will likely yield novel genes. Conversely, in a close pangenome, adding new genomes will not lead to the discovery of new coding capabilities. A central point in pangenomics is the definition of homology relationships between genes belonging to different genomes. This may turn into the search of those genes with similar sequences between different organisms (and including both paralogous and orthologous genes). In this chapter, methods for finding groups of orthologs between genomes and for estimating the pangenome size are discussed. Also, working codes to address these tasks are provided.

  2. Mathematical points as didactical ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics teaching in Denmark was recently recommended better organized in sequences with clear mathematical pedagogical goals and a focus on mathematical points. In this paper I define a mathematical point and inform on coding of transcripts in a video based Danish research study on grade 8...

  3. Strain distribution in thin concrete pavement panels under three-point loading to failure with pre-pulse-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (Presentation Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yi; Cain, John; Chen, Yizheng; Huang, Ying; Chen, Genda; Palek, Leonard

    2015-04-01

    Thin concrete panels reinforced with alloy polymer macro-synthetic fibers have recently been introduced to rapidly and cost-effectively improve the driving condition of existing roadways by laying down a fabric sheet on the roadways, casting a thin layer of concrete, and then cutting the layer into panels. This study is aimed to understand the strain distribution and potential crack development of concrete panels under three-point loading. To this end, six full-size 6ft×6ft×3in concrete panels were tested to failure in the laboratory. They were instrumented with three types of single-mode optical fiber sensors whose performance and ability to measure the strain distribution and detect cracks were compared. Each optical fiber sensor was spliced and calibrated, and then attached to a fabric sheet using adhesive. A thin layer of mortar (0.25 ~ 0.5 in thick) was cast on the fabric sheet. The three types of distributed sensors were bare SM-28e+ fiber, SM-28e+ fiber with a tight buffer, and concrete crack cable, respectively. The concrete crack cable consisted of one SM-28e+ optical fiber with a tight buffer, one SM-28e+ optical fiber with a loose buffer for temperature compensation, and an outside protective tight sheath. Distributed strains were collected from the three optical fiber sensors with pre-pulse-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis in room temperature. Among the three sensors, the bare fiber was observed to be most fragile during construction and operation, but most sensitive to strain change or micro-cracks. The concrete crack cable was most rugged, but not as sensitive to micro-cracks and robust in micro-crack measurement as the bare fiber. The ruggedness and sensitivity of the fiber with a tight buffer were in between the bare fiber and the concrete crack cable. The strain distribution resulted from the three optical sensors are in good agreement, and can be applied to successfully locate cracks in the concrete panels. It was observed that the

  4. Rates of Convergence of Recursively Defined Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambov, Branimir Zdravkov

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives a generalization of a result by Matiyasevich which gives explicit rates of convergence for monotone recursively defined sequences. The generalization is motivated by recent developments in fixed point theory and the search for applications of proof mining to the field. It relaxes...... the requirement for monotonicity to the form xn+1 ≤ (1+an)xn+bn where the parameter sequences have to be bounded in sum, and also provides means to treat computational errors. The paper also gives an example result, an application of proof mining to fixed point theory, that can be achieved by the means discussed...

  5. Exploration and practice of marketing inspection working mechanism about sequential, time point and time period%营销稽查“三时”工作机制的探索实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷勤

    2014-01-01

    电力营销稽查是电力营销环节内控约束机制的主要组成部分,是电力营销风险管理的重要内容和有效途径。介绍在“三集五大”建设背景下,结合江苏苏州地域特色和苏州供电公司工作实际,从现实需求和管理创新角度对营销稽查工作办法进行探索,提出“时序等级排列、时点定置监控、时段动态控制”的措施,切实推动营销稽查精益化管理水平再度提升。%Electric power marketing inspection is the main part of the internal restraint mechanism of electric power market-ing link, is an important content and effective way of electric power marketing risk management. Under the background of"three inte-grations and five large constructions“and combined with regional characteristics of Suzhou and the actual work of Suzhou power sup-ply company, the article explores the marketing inspection work method from the realistic demand and the management innovation, puts forward measuresof”sequential rank order, time point set monitoring, time periods dynamic control", in order to promote mar-keting inspection lean management to further higher level.

  6. PEOPLE & POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    “I have read similar reports on environment and health many times, released by varied research institutes. Every time, the figures are different.” Zhou Jian, Vice Minister of the State Environmental Protection Administration, questioning a World Bank rep

  7. Estimated times to exhaustion and power outputs at the gas exchange threshold, physical working capacity at the rating of perceived exertion threshold, and respiratory compensation point

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergstrom, Haley C; Housh, Terry J; Zuniga, Jorge M; Camic, Clayton L; Traylor, Daniel A; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O

    2012-01-01

    ... ), and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Three male and 5 female subjects (mean ± SD: age, 22.4 ± 2.8 years) performed an incremental test to exhaustion on an electronically braked cycle ergometer to determine peak oxygen consumption rate, GET, and RCP...

  8. SOE-LRed: a simple and time-efficient method to localize genes with point mutations onto the Escherichia coli chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Ryan W.; Cafarelli, Tiziana M.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2011-01-01

    We report a powerful method to replace wild type genes on the chromosome of Escherichia coli. Employing a unique form of PCR, we generate easily constructible gene fusions bearing single point mutations. Used in conjunction with homologous recombination, this method eliminates cloning procedures previously used for this purpose. PMID:21185880

  9. Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions

  10. Defining life: synthesis and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. Section 1 defends that the recognition of "life" has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. Section 2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. Section 3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about "life". The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (Section 4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. Section 5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers

  11. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  12. PEOPLE & POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Ace Gymnast PrimedAs the first man to successfully defend the all-around title at World Gymnastics Championships since 1926, three-time Olympian Yang Wei is agold hopeful in almost all gymnastic events.

  13. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    also describe an indexing scheme in which the number of I/Os required to answer a query depends monotonically on the difference between the query time stamp t and the current time. Finally, we develop an efficient indexing scheme to answer approximate nearest-neighbor queries among moving points.......We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present...... an indexing structure that, for any given constant >0, uses O(N/B) disk blocks and answers a query in O((N/B)1/2+ +K/B) I/Os, where B is the block size. It can also report all the points of S that lie inside R during a given time interval. A point can be inserted or deleted, or the trajectory of a point can...

  14. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  15. PEOPLE & POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Smashing the Record China's Olympic gold medalist Liu Xiang smashed the 1 IOmeter hurdles world record on July 12, setting a time of 12.88 seconds, 0.03 seconds faster than the previous mark, which had been shared by Liu and British sprinter Colin Jackson.

  16. PEOPLE & POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Embattled Leader Taiwan leader Chen Shui-bian, since his election in 2000, seems to have gotten used to diverting the heat from his own political maladies by provoking the Chinese mainland with pro-independence moves, such as drafting a "new constitution" for the island. But the wily politician may find his antics won't achieve their desired effect this time.

  17. NONDENSELY DEFINED IMPULSIVE NEUTRAL FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL INCLUSIONS WITH NONLOCAL CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueju Cao; Xianlong Fu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, using a fixed point theorem for condensing multi-valued maps, we investigate the existence of integral solutions to a class of nondensely defined neutral evolution impulsive differential inclusions with nonlocal conditions in Banach spaces.

  18. PEOPLE & POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    "The extent and timing of any additional firming that may be needed to address these risks will depend on the evolution of the outlook for both inflation and economic growth, as implied by incoming information." Statement of the U.S. Federal Open Market Committee on August 8, in keeping its target for the federal funds rate at 5.25 percent and halting an unbroken stretch of interest rate hikes for more than two years

  19. PEOPLE & POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Saudi Monarch in Beijing Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud's visit to China at the end of January marked the first time a head of state of the oil-rich kingdom has set foot on Chinese soil since the two countries established diplomatic relations in 1990. China was also the first stop on the king's fournation Asia tour, his first trip outside the Middle East since

  20. Time point survey of drug use inpatients of psychiatric hospital%某精神病院住院患者药物使用时点调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颖; 王川

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解某精神病院住院患者药物使用状况,提高医院临床合理用药水平。方法利用天津市安宁医院 HIS系统对全部住院患者采用一日法进行用药时点调查。结果当日共调查616例患者,其中单用一种抗精神病药有499例(81.0%),联用两种59例(9.6%),联用三种1例(0.2%)。抗精神病药总用药例次为635,其中利培酮使用频度居首位317例(49.9%),其次为氯氮平163例(25.7%),喹硫平40例(6.3%)。共54例(8.8%)患者使用心境稳定剂,使用频率居前三位的分别为丙戊酸镁26例(48.1%),丙戊酸钠19例(35.2%),卡马西平9例(16.7%)。共222例(36.0%)患者使用抗焦虑和镇静催眠药物,其中苯二氮艹卓类药物中使用氯硝西泮74例(33.3%),其次为阿普唑仑61例(27.5%)、艾司唑仑30例(13.5%)。在躯体疾病辅助用药中,心脑血管疾病药、降糖药、保肝药物使用例数分别为468例(76.0%)、123例(20.0%)、73例(11.9%)。结论精神病院住院患者中非典型抗精神病药的使用占主导地位,且符合单一用药原则,药物使用剂量合理,但应控制苯二氮艹卓类药物的使用。%Objective To learn the status of drug use of inpatients in psychiatric hospitals,and to improve the level of hospital clinical rational drug use. Methods All hospitalized patients were investigated with a day of drug use point of time survey by the HIS system of Tianjin Anning Hospital. Results A total of 616 patients were investigated at that day. There were 499 cases(81. 0% )of single use of antipsychotic drugs,59 cases(9. 6% )with two kinds of drugs,1 case(0. 2% )with three kinds of drugs. The total cases of antipsychotic drug use were 635. The frequency of use in the first place was risperidone(317 cases,49. 9 % ),the second was 163 cases with clozapine(25. 7 % ),the third was 40 cases with quetiapine(6. 3 % ). A total of 54(8. 8

  1. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  2. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  3. Asymptotic Comparison of the Solutions of Linear Time-Delay Systems with Point and Distributed Lags with Those of Their Limiting Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relations between the particular eigensolutions of a limiting functional differential equation of any order, which is the nominal (unperturbed linear autonomous differential equations, and the associate ones of the corresponding perturbed functional differential equation. Both differential equations involve point and distributed delayed dynamics including Volterra class dynamics. The proofs are based on a Perron-type theorem for functional equations so that the comparison is governed by the real part of a dominant zero of the characteristic equation of the nominal differential equation. The obtained results are also applied to investigate the global stability of the perturbed equation based on that of its corresponding limiting equation.

  4. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    where the networks meet and establish contact. Thus we argue for the usefulness of the notion of Critical Point of Contact (CPC) to deepen our understanding of the actual life within networks. En route to this notion we draw upon theories within as diverse realms such as interaction design, service...... design, geography, and mobility studies. After the introduction in section we develop and define the notion of CPC based upon a broad set of disciplines and theories. We illustrate the usefulness of the notion within the field of mobility in the network city and within the field of service design...

  5. Real-time ed end-point Polymerase Chain Reaction per la quantizzazione del DNA di Citomegalovirus: confronto tra metodi e con il test per l’antigene pp65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Allice

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitave Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR for Cytomegalovirus (CMV DNA provides highly sensitive and specific data for detecting CMV as well as monitoring the infection and determining the appropriate antiviral strategy.To determine the clinical application of a recently introduced real-time (RT PCR assay for CMV DNA quantitation in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs and defining its correlation with the commercial quantitative end-point (EP PCR method COBAS AMPLICOR CMV Monitor and pp65 antigen test. Sequential PBL samples (n=158 from 32 liver transplanted patients with CMV asymptomatic infection and positive for CMV DNA by EP-PCR were retrospectively analysed with RT-PCR and studied according to pp65 antigen levels. A good correlation was found between RT-PCR and pp65 antigen test (r=0.691 and between the two PCR assays (r=0.761. RT-PCR data were significantly higher in pre-emptive treated patients (those with >20 pp65+positive cells, median value: 3.8 log10 copies/500,000 PBLs than in not-treated ones (2.9 logs.According to pp65 levels of 0, 1-10, 11-20, 21-50, 51-100 and >100 positive cells/200,000 PBLs, median CMV DNA load by RT-PCR was 2.6, 3.0, 3.6, 4.0. 4.2 and 4.8, log10 copies/ 500,000 PBLs, respectively (EP-PCR CMV DNA levels: 2. 8, 2.9, 3.8, 3.7, 3.9 and 4.0 logs. For samples with >20 pp65+cells, that is above the level at which pre-emptive therapy was started, RT-PCR values were significantly higher than in groups with less than 20 pp65+cells, whereas EP-PCR values did not significantly differ and showed a slower progression rate. Dilutions of DNA from CMV AD169 strain were used to probe RT-PCR reproducibility (between and intra-assay variability < 2% and sensitivity (100% detection rate at 10 copies/reaction, 28.5% with EP-PCR. A significant improvement is coming from the introduction of RT-PCR to the study of CMV DNA dynamics in differently CMV infected patients due to a more reliable quantitation of CMV DNA for moderate and high

  6. 基于TOF三维相机相邻散乱点云配准技术研究%Adjacent Scatter Point Cloud Registration Technology Research Based on Three-dimensional Camera of Time of Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭东; 吴国松; 胡良梅; 王竹萌

    2013-01-01

    Against the problem of low accuracy,slow speed of point cloud registration in 3D point cloud modeling on the surface of the object based on the principle of time of flight(TOF) camera,a fast,easy method is proposed to realize the scattered points clouds registration,this method realize the point cloud initial position registration through extracting feature point from distance image of target objects,obtaining the initial transform parameter using an iterative solving process.Based on this,using gradient value of intensity image of TOF camera and K-nearest neighbor algorithm based on the local decomposition of 3D space to find the closest point between point cloud as the matching point pair.According to the iterative process of primitive iterative closest point(ICP) algorithm to iterate the matching point pair and obtain the best transform parameter in point cloud,at the same time,improving the precision of iterative point clouds registration combined with the error matching point removing rule,to realize the point cloud precise location registration.To verify the algorithm combined with the actual space objects,the experimental results show that this point cloud registration improved speed and the precision of registration compared with the traditional registration method,this will help to improve the precision of object surface reconstruction,have a high practical value.%针对基于飞行时间(Time-of-flight,TOF)原理的三维测距相机对物体完整表面进行三维点云建模中点云配准速度慢、精度低的问题,提出一种快速、易实现的散乱点云配准方法,该方法通过提取目标物体距离图像的特征点,采用非迭代的求解过程获取初始变换参数,实现点云初始位置配准.在此基础上,利用TOF相机强度图像的梯度值与基于局部3D空间分解的Knn算法寻找点云之间最邻近点作为匹配点对,根据原始迭代最近点算法的迭代过程对这些匹配点对进行迭代求解,获

  7. Detection of the A2058G and A2059G 23S rRNA gene point mutations associated with azithromycin resistance in Treponema pallidum by use of a TaqMan real-time multiplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Yen; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Nachamkin, Eli; Su, John R; Ballard, Ronald C

    2013-03-01

    Macrolide treatment failure in syphilis patients is associated with a single point mutation (either A2058G or A2059G) in both copies of the 23S rRNA gene in Treponema pallidum strains. The conventional method for the detection of both point mutations uses nested PCR combined with restriction enzyme digestions, which is laborious and time-consuming. We initially developed a TaqMan-based real-time duplex PCR assay for detection of the A2058G mutation, and upon discovery of the A2059G mutation, we modified the assay into a triplex format to simultaneously detect both mutations. The point mutations detected by the real-time triplex PCR were confirmed by pyrosequencing. A total of 129 specimens PCR positive for T. pallidum that were obtained from an azithromycin resistance surveillance study conducted in the United States were analyzed. Sixty-six (51.2%) of the 129 samples with the A2058G mutation were identified by both real-time PCR assays. Of the remaining 63 samples that were identified as having a macrolide-susceptible genotype by the duplex PCR assay, 17 (27%) were found to contain the A2059G mutation by the triplex PCR. The proportions of macrolide-susceptible versus -resistant genotypes harboring either the A2058G or the A2059G mutation among the T. pallidum strains were 35.6, 51.2, and 13.2%, respectively. None of the T. pallidum strains examined had both point mutations. The TaqMan-based real-time triplex PCR assay offers an alternative to conventional nested PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses for the rapid detection of both point mutations associated with macrolide resistance in T. pallidum.

  8. 股指时间序列突变点小波检测研究%Study on wavelet detection of change point of stock exchange index time series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋学深; 杨忠海

    2007-01-01

    预测股指时间序列突变点是在股票市场上进行投资的一个关键问题,而检测突变点是预测的基础.在检测深沪两市股指时间序列月度收益率突变点位置和个数时采用了非参数方法,该方法基于小波数据依赖门限技术.研究显示了运用Lipschitz指数解释的突变点的数学特征.使用的模型证明了小波变换模的极大值能够检测出突变点的位置,实证结果也显示出突变点的位置和个数是精确的.%Forecasting the change point of stock exchanges index time series is a key problem to the investment on stock market and then the detection of change point is a basis to the forecast. A non-parametric method, based on a wavelet data-dependent threshold technique for change point detection, is applied to detect the location and the number of change point of the monthly return rate of Shanghai stock exchanges index time series. It shows the explanation of the mathematical characterization of change point with Lipschitz exponents. The model mentioned in this paper proves that the local maxima of the wavelet transform modulus detect the locations of change points. The real example result shows that the location and number of change point is precisely.

  9. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam;

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...

  10. Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

  11. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  12. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  13. Polynomial approximation and cubature at approximate Fekete and Leja points of the cylinder

    CERN Document Server

    De Marchi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with polynomial interpolation, least-square approximation and cubature of functions defined on the rectangular cylinder, $K=D\\times [-1,1]$, with $D$ the unit disk. The nodes used for these processes are the {\\it Approximate Fekete Points} (AFP) and the {\\it Discrete Leja Points} (DLP) extracted from suitable {\\it Weakly Admissible Meshes} (WAMs) of the cylinder. From the analysis of the growth of the Lebesgue constants, approximation and cubature errors, we show that the AFP and the DLP extracted from WAM are good points for polynomial approximation and numerical integration of functions defined on the cylinder.

  14. Evaluation of tumor response, disease control, progression-free survival, and time to progression as potential surrogate end points in metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burzykowski, Tomasz; Buyse, Marc; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J.; Sledge, George; Carmichael, James; Lueck, Hans-Joachim; Mackey, John R.; Nabholtz, Jean-Marc; Paridaens, Robert; Biganzoli, Laura; Jassem, Jacek; Bontenbal, Marijke; Bonneterre, Jacques; Chan, Stephen; Basaran, Gul Atalay; Therasse, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Overall survival (OS) can be observed only after prolonged follow-up, and any potential effect of first-line therapies on OS may be confounded by the effects of subsequent therapy. We investigated whether tumor response, disease control, progression-free survival (PFS), or time to progressio

  15. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...... and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  16. Time-dependent Searches for Point Sources of Neutrinos with the 40-string and 22-string Configurations of IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brown, A. M.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Denger, T.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stössl, A.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Stür, M.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; IceCube Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents four searches for flaring sources of neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope. For the first time, a search is performed over the entire parameter space of energy, direction, and time with sensitivity to neutrino flares lasting between 20 μs and a year duration from astrophysical sources. Searches that integrate over time are less sensitive to flares because they are affected by a larger background of atmospheric neutrinos and muons that can be reduced by the use of additional timing information. Flaring sources considered here, such as active galactic nuclei, soft gamma-ray repeaters, and gamma-ray bursts, are promising candidate neutrino emitters. Two searches are "untriggered" in the sense that they look for any possible flare in the entire sky and from a predefined catalog of sources from which photon flares have been recorded. The other two searches are triggered by multi-wavelength information on flares from blazars and from a soft gamma-ray repeater. One triggered search uses lightcurves from Fermi-LAT which provides continuous monitoring. A second triggered search uses information where the flux states have been measured only for short periods of time near the flares. The untriggered searches use data taken by 40 strings of IceCube between 2008 April 5 and 2009 May 20. The triggered searches also use data taken by the 22-string configuration of IceCube operating between 2007 May 31 and 2008 April 5. The results from all four searches are compatible with a fluctuation of the background.

  17. Exploratory space-time analysis of dengue incidence in Trinidad: a retrospective study using travel hubs as dispersal points, 1998-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Karmesh D; Mahabir, Ron S; Curtin, Kevin M; Sutherland, Joan M; Agard, John B; Chadee, Dave D

    2014-07-22

    Dengue is an acute arboviral disease responsible for most of the illness and death in tropical and subtropical regions. Over the last 25 years there has been increase epidemic activity of the disease in the Caribbean, with the co-circulation of multiple serotypes. An understanding of the space and time dynamics of dengue could provide health agencies with important clues for reducing its impact. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) cases observed for the period 1998-2004 were georeferenced using Geographic Information System software. Spatial clustering was calculated for individual years and for the entire study period using the Nearest Neighbor Index. Space and time interaction between DHF cases was determined using the Knox Test while the Nearest Neighbor Hierarchical method was used to extract DHF hot spots. All space and time distances calculated were validated using the Pearson r significance test. Results shows that (1) a decrease in mean distance between DHF cases correlates with activity leading up to an outbreak, (2) a decrease in temporal distance between DHF cases leads to increased geographic spread of the disease, with an outbreak occurrence about every 2 years, and (3) a general pattern in the movement of dengue incidents from more rural to urban settings leading up to an outbreak with hotspot areas associated with transportation hubs in Trinidad. Considering only the spatial dimension of the disease, results suggest that DHF cases become more concentrated leading up to an outbreak. However, with the additional consideration of time, results suggest that when an outbreak occurs incidents occur more rapidly in time leading to a parallel increase in the rate of distribution of the disease across space. The results of this study can be used by public health officers to help visualize and understand the spatial and temporal patterns of dengue, and to prepare warnings for the public. Dengue space-time patterns and hotspot detection will provide useful

  18. Sociometabolic transitions defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Kowalski, Prof; Krausmann, Prof; Pallua, Mag

    2014-05-01

    We search for a valid and quantifiable description of how and when humans acquire the ability to dominate major features of the Earth system. While common approaches (such as Kaplan et al. 2011 for example) seek to quantify the human impact upon the carbon cycle by identifying the area of land cleared by humans, we choose a more comprehensive path. Our point of departure is different human modes of subsistence, and we base our analysis on their social metabolism, in particular their energy metabolism. As a starting point, we use Ehrlich's classical IPAT formula, and give it a specific interpretation: human impact on Earth equals population size times affluence (interpreted as energy available per person) times technology - for each mode of subsistence. The overall impact (or rather human pressure) then equals the composite sum of these. We qualitatively describe the functional characteristics of hunter gatherers, agrarian and industrial modes of subsistence such as population dynamics, energy regime and the technologies by which they interact with their environment. In a 'toy' model, we translate these considerations into global numbers for the past millennia: we estimate the respective population sizes and affluence (energy), and finally also technology concerning its impact on the carbon cycle. Along this path, there are a number of findings: that it is reasonably possible to cross-check the size of pre-industrial agrarian populations from the size of urban populations; that it was in the last centuries BC that the size of agrarian populations exceeded those of hunter gatherers; that there seems to be a loglinear function of increasing average energetic metabolic rate from human basic metabolism across hunter gatherers and the agrarian mode to the industrial regime; and that from AD 1500 onwards, there is a very close relation between the urban population and fossil fuel use. We see a major historical dividing line around AD 1500: up to then, human population

  19. Comparison between a Broad-Range Real-Time and a Broad-Range End-Point PCR Assays for the Detection of Bacterial 16S rRNA in Clinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddeb, Mariam; Koebel, Christelle; Jaulhac, Benoît; Schramm, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Broad range PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene is widely used to test clinical samples for the presence of bacterial DNA. End-point 16S PCR is both time-consuming and at high risk of cross-contamination. Prior to the replacement of the 16S end-point PCR assay routinely used in our clinical laboratory by a new 16S real-time PCR assay, we aimed to compare the performances of both techniques for the direct diagnosis of bacterial infections in clinical samples. In this prospective study, 129 clinical samples were included for direct comparison of both techniques. The sensitivity of 16S real-time PCR assay (76%) was significantly higher than that of end-point 16S PCR assay (41%) (pPCR assays did not differ significantly (p=0.43). The 16S real-time PCR assay yielded an etiological diagnosis in 19% of culture-negative samples. It constitutes a reliable and complementary diagnostic tool to the bacterial culture.

  20. The reliability of point-of-care prothrombin time testing. A comparison of CoaguChek S and XS INR measurements with hospital laboratory monitoring.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, F

    2010-02-01

    The development of point-of-care (POC) testing devices enables patients to test their own international normalized ratio (INR) at home. However, previous st