WorldWideScience

Sample records for defined time points

  1. Getting It Right the First Time: Defining Regionally Relevant Training Curricula and Provider Core Competencies for Point-of-Care Ultrasound Education on the African Continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Margaret; Landes, Megan; Hunchak, Cheryl; Paluku, Justin; Malemo Kalisya, Luc; Salmon, Christian; Muller, Mundenga Mutendi; Wachira, Benjamin; Mangan, James; Chhaganlal, Kajal; Kalanzi, Joseph; Azazh, Aklilu; Berman, Sara; Zied, El-Sayed; Lamprecht, Hein

    2017-02-01

    Significant evidence identifies point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) as an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool in resource-limited settings. Despite this evidence, local health care providers on the African continent continue to have limited access to and use of ultrasound, even in potentially high-impact fields such as obstetrics and trauma. Dedicated postgraduate emergency medicine residency training programs now exist in 8 countries, yet no current consensus exists in regard to core PoCUS competencies. The current practice of transferring resource-rich PoCUS curricula and delivery methods to resource-limited health systems fails to acknowledge the unique challenges, needs, and disease burdens of recipient systems. As emergency medicine leaders from 8 African countries, we introduce a practical algorithmic approach, based on the local epidemiology and resource constraints, to curriculum development and implementation. We describe an organizational structure composed of nexus learning centers for PoCUS learners and champions on the continent to keep credentialing rigorous and standardized. Finally, we put forth 5 key strategic considerations: to link training programs to hospital systems, to prioritize longitudinal learning models, to share resources to promote health equity, to maximize access, and to develop a regional consensus on training standards and credentialing. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. First line treatment response in patients with transmitted HIV drug resistance and well defined time point of HIV infection: updated results from the German HIV-1 seroconverter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Zu Knyphausen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 (TDR can impair the virologic response to antiretroviral combination therapy. Aim of the study was to assess the impact of TDR on treatment success of resistance test-guided first-line therapy in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort for patients infected with HIV between 1996 and 2010. An update of the prevalence of TDR and trend over time was performed. METHODS: Data of 1,667 HIV-infected individuals who seroconverted between 1996 and 2010 were analysed. The WHO drug resistance mutations list was used to identify resistance-associated HIV mutations in drug-naïve patients for epidemiological analysis. For treatment success analysis the Stanford algorithm was used to classify a subset of 323 drug-naïve genotyped patients who received a first-line cART into three resistance groups: patients without TDR, patients with TDR and fully active cART and patients with TDR and non-fully active cART. The frequency of virologic failure 5 to 12 months after treatment initiation was determined. RESULTS: Prevalence of TDR was stable at a high mean level of 11.9% (198/1,667 in the HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort without significant trend over time. Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance was predominant (6.0% and decreased significantly over time (OR = 0.92, CI = 0.87-0.98, p = 0.01. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (2.4%; OR = 1.00, CI = 0.92-1.09, p = 0.96 and protease inhibitor resistance (2.0%; OR = 0.94, CI = 0.861.03, p = 0.17 remained stable. Virologic failure was observed in 6.5% of patients with TDR receiving fully active cART, 5,6% of patients with TDR receiving non-fully active cART and 3.2% of patients without TDR. The difference between the three groups was not significant (p = 0.41. CONCLUSION: Overall prevalence of TDR remained stable at a rather high level. No significant differences in the frequency of virologic failure were

  3. Defining the end-point of mastication: A conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Stuart, Eli M; Jones, Jim R; Bronlund, John E

    2017-10-01

    The great risks of swallowing are choking and aspiration of food into the lungs. Both are rare in normal functioning humans, which is remarkable given the diversity of foods and the estimated 10 million swallows performed in a lifetime. Nevertheless, it remains a major challenge to define the food properties that are necessary to ensure a safe swallow. Here, the mouth is viewed as a well-controlled processor where mechanical sensory assessment occurs throughout the occlusion-circulation cycle of mastication. Swallowing is a subsequent action. It is proposed here that, during mastication, temporal maps of interfacial property data are generated, which the central nervous system compares against a series of criteria in order to be sure that the bolus is safe to swallow. To determine these criteria, an engineering hazard analysis tool, alongside an understanding of fluid and particle mechanics, is used to deduce the mechanisms by which food may deposit or become stranded during swallowing. These mechanisms define the food properties that must be avoided. By inverting the thinking, from hazards to ensuring safety, six criteria arise which are necessary for a safe-to-swallow bolus. A new conceptual model is proposed to define when food is safe to swallow during mastication. This significantly advances earlier mouth models. The conceptual model proposed in this work provides a framework of decision-making to define when food is safe to swallow. This will be of interest to designers of dietary foods, foods for dysphagia sufferers and will aid the further development of mastication robots for preparation of artificial boluses for digestion research. It enables food designers to influence the swallow-point properties of their products. For example, a product may be designed to satisfy five of the criteria for a safe-to-swallow bolus, which means the sixth criterion and its attendant food properties define the swallow-point. Alongside other organoleptic factors, these

  4. Defining obesity cut-off points for migrant South Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Gray

    Full Text Available Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used to define cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk. We aimed to derive appropriate BMI and WC obesity cut-off points in a migrant South Asian population.4688 White Europeans and 1333 South Asians resident in the UK aged 40-75 years inclusive were screened for type 2 diabetes. Principal components analysis was used to derive a glycaemia, lipid, and a blood pressure factor. Regression models for each factor, adjusted for age and stratified by sex, were used to identify BMI and WC cut-off points in South Asians that correspond to those defined for White Europeans.For South Asian males, derived BMI obesity cut-off points equivalent to 30.0 kg/m(2 in White Europeans were 22.6 kg/m(2 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI 20.7 kg/m(2 to 24.5 kg/m(2 for the glycaemia factor, 26.0 kg/m(2 (95% CI 24.7 kg/m(2 to 27.3 kg/m(2 for the lipid factor, and 28.4 kg/m(2 (95% CI 26.5 kg/m(2 to 30.4 kg/m(2 for the blood pressure factor. For WC, derived cut-off points for South Asian males equivalent to 102 cm in White Europeans were 83.8 cm (95% CI 79.3 cm to 88.2 cm for the glycaemia factor, 91.4 cm (95% CI 86.9 cm to 95.8 cm for the lipid factor, and 99.3 cm (95% CI 93.3 cm to 105.2 cm for the blood pressure factor. Lower ethnicity cut-off points were seen for females for both BMI and WC.Substantially lower obesity cut-off points are needed in South Asians to detect an equivalent level of dysglycemia and dyslipidemia as observed in White Europeans. South Asian ethnicity could be considered as a similar level of risk as obesity (in White Europeans for the development of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Zero Point of Historical Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Khakimov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies are based on the assumption that there is a reference-starting point of the space-time – the Zero point of coordinate system. Due to the bifurcation in the Zero Point, the course of social processes changes sharply and the probabilistic causality replaces the deterministic one. For this reason, changes occur in the structure of social relations and statehood form as well as in the course of the ethnic processes. In such a way emerges a new discourse of the national behavior. With regard to the history of the Tatars and Tatarstan, such bifurcation points occurred in the periods of the formation: 1 of the Turkic Khaganate, which began to exist from the 6th century onward and became a qualitatively new State system that reformatted old elements in the new matrix introducing a new discourse of behavior; 2 of the Volga-Kama Bulgaria, where the rivers (Kama, Volga, Vyatka became the most important trade routes determining the singularity of this State. Here the nomadic culture was connected with the settled one and Islam became the official religion in 922; 3 and of the Golden Hordе, a powerful State with a remarkable system of communication, migration of huge human resources for thousands of kilometers, and extensive trade, that caused severe “mutations” in the ethnic terms and a huge mixing of ethnic groups. Given the dwelling space of Tatar population and its evolution within Russia, it can be argued that the Zero point of Tatar history, which conveyed the cultural invariants until today, begins in the Golden Horde. Neither in the Turkic khaganate nor in the Bulgar State, but namely in the Golden Horde. Despite the radical changes, the Russian Empire failed to transform the Tatars in the Russians. Therefore, contemporary Tatars preserved the Golden Horde tradition as a cultural invariant.

  6. Defining time crystals via representation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemani, Vedika; von Keyserlingk, C. W.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Time crystals are proposed states of matter which spontaneously break time translation symmetry. There is no settled definition of such states. We offer a new definition which follows the traditional recipe for Wigner symmetries and order parameters. Supplementing our definition with a few plausible assumptions we find that a) systems with time-independent Hamiltonians should not exhibit time translation symmetry breaking while b) the recently studied π spin glass/Floquet time crystal can be viewed as breaking a global internal symmetry and as breaking time translation symmetry, as befits its two names.

  7. Defining Time Crystals via Representation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Khemani, Vedika; von Keyserlingk, C. W.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Time crystals are proposed states of matter which spontaneously break time translation symmetry. There is no settled definition of such states. We offer a new definition which follows the traditional recipe for Wigner symmetries and order parameters. Supplementing our definition with a few plausible assumptions we find that a) systems with time independent Hamiltonians should not exhibit TTSB while b) the recently studied $\\pi$ spin glass/Floquet time crystal can be viewed as breaking a globa...

  8. Defining Leadership in a Changing Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Sean M; Elikofer, Amanda N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the difference between leadership and management. Leadership and management have been discussed for many years. Both are important to achieve success in health care, but what does that really mean? Strong leaders possess qualities that inspire others to follow them. This fosters team engagement, goal achievement, and ultimately drives outcomes. Managers plan, organize, and coordinate. It takes dedication, motivation, and passion to be more than a manager and be a good leader. There is not a single correct leadership style, but there are important characteristics that all leaders must demonstrate to get the desired results with the team. In a time when health care is rapidly changing, leadership is important at all levels of an organization.

  9. Degree of a isolated real point or a singular complex point on a plane curve defined over Q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder

    2010-01-01

    Let $X$ be a curve in the affine plane defined by a reduced polynomial of degree $d$ with rational coefficients. Assume that $P$ is an isolated real point or a singular complex point on the curve $X$. The coordinates of $P$ are algebraic numbers over the rationals of degree at most $d^2$. The res......Let $X$ be a curve in the affine plane defined by a reduced polynomial of degree $d$ with rational coefficients. Assume that $P$ is an isolated real point or a singular complex point on the curve $X$. The coordinates of $P$ are algebraic numbers over the rationals of degree at most $d^2...

  10. History and Point in Time in Enterprise Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gelu APOSTOL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available First part points out the main differences between temporal and non-temporal databases. In the second part, based on identification of the three main categories of time involved in database applications: user-defined time, valid time and transaction time, some relevant solutions for their implementation are discussed, mainly from the point of view of database organization and data access level of enterprise applications. The final part is dedicated to the influences of historical data in the business logic and presentation levels of enterprise applications and in application services, as security, workflow, reporting.

  11. When should we recommend use of dual time-point and delayed time-point imaging techniques in FDG PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Gang [Philadelphia VA Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Torigian, Drew A.; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zhuang, Hongming [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    FDG PET and PET/CT are now widely used in oncological imaging for tumor characterization, staging, restaging, and response evaluation. However, numerous benign etiologies may cause increased FDG uptake indistinguishable from that of malignancy. Multiple studies have shown that dual time-point imaging (DTPI) of FDG PET may be helpful in differentiating malignancy from benign processes. However, exceptions exist, and some studies have demonstrated significant overlap of FDG uptake patterns between benign and malignant lesions on delayed time-point images. In this review, we summarize our experience and opinions on the value of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging in oncology, with a review of the relevant literature. We believe that the major value of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging is the increased sensitivity due to continued clearance of background activity and continued FDG accumulation in malignant lesions, if the same diagnostic criteria (as in the initial standard single time-point imaging) are used. The specificity of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging depends on multiple factors, including the prevalence of malignancies, the patient population, and the cut-off values (either SUV or retention index) used to define a malignancy. Thus, DTPI and delayed time-point imaging would be more useful if performed for evaluation of lesions in regions with significant background activity clearance over time (such as the liver, the spleen, the mediastinum), and if used in the evaluation of the extent of tumor involvement rather than in the characterization of the nature of any specific lesion. Acute infectious and non-infectious inflammatory lesions remain as the major culprit for diminished diagnostic performance of these approaches (especially in tuberculosis-endemic regions). Tumor heterogeneity may also contribute to inconsistent performance of DTPI. The authors believe that selective use of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging will improve diagnostic accuracy and

  12. Optimal time points sampling in pathway modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiyan

    2004-01-01

    Modelling cellular dynamics based on experimental data is at the heart of system biology. Considerable progress has been made to dynamic pathway modelling as well as the related parameter estimation. However, few of them gives consideration for the issue of optimal sampling time selection for parameter estimation. Time course experiments in molecular biology rarely produce large and accurate data sets and the experiments involved are usually time consuming and expensive. Therefore, to approximate parameters for models with only few available sampling data is of significant practical value. For signal transduction, the sampling intervals are usually not evenly distributed and are based on heuristics. In the paper, we investigate an approach to guide the process of selecting time points in an optimal way to minimize the variance of parameter estimates. In the method, we first formulate the problem to a nonlinear constrained optimization problem by maximum likelihood estimation. We then modify and apply a quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm, which combines the advantages of both quantum computing and evolutionary computing, to solve the optimization problem. The new algorithm does not suffer from the morass of selecting good initial values and being stuck into local optimum as usually accompanied with the conventional numerical optimization techniques. The simulation results indicate the soundness of the new method.

  13. Point splitting in a curved space-time background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggatt, P.A.J.; Macfarlane, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    A prescription is given for point splitting in a curved space-time background which is a natural generalization of that familiar in quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theory. It is applied (to establish its validity) to the verification of the gravitational anomaly in the divergence of a fermion axial current. Notable features of the prescription are that it defines a point-split current that can be differentiated straightforwardly, and that it involves a natural way of averaging (four-dimensionally) over the directions of point splitting. The method can extend directly from the spin-1/2 fermion case treated to other cases, e.g., to spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fermions. (author)

  14. Statistically defining optimal conditions of coagulation time of skim milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celebi, M.; Ozdemir, Z.O.; Eroglu, E.; Guney, I

    2014-01-01

    Milk consist huge amount of largely water and different proteins. Kappa-kazein of these milk proteins can be coagulated by Mucor miehei rennet enzyme, is an aspartic protease which cleavege 105 (phenly alanine)-106 (methionine) peptide bond. It is commonly used clotting milk proteins for cheese production in dairy industry. The aim of this study to measure milk clotting times of skim milk by using Mucor Miehei rennet and determination of optimal conditions of milk clotting time by mathematical modelling. In this research, milk clotting times of skim milk were measured at different pHs (3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0) and temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75 degree C). It was used statistical approach for defining best pH and temperature for milk clotting time of skim milk. Milk clotting activity was increase at acidic pHs and high temperatures. (author)

  15. Defining Social Class Across Time and Between Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dov; Shin, Faith; Liu, Xi; Ondish, Peter; Kraus, Michael W

    2017-11-01

    We examined changes over four decades and between ethnic groups in how people define their social class. Changes included the increasing importance of income, decreasing importance of occupational prestige, and the demise of the "Victorian bargain," in which poor people who subscribed to conservative sexual and religious norms could think of themselves as middle class. The period also saw changes (among Whites) and continuity (among Black Americans) in subjective status perceptions. For Whites (and particularly poor Whites), their perceptions of enhanced social class were greatly reduced. Poor Whites now view their social class as slightly but significantly lower than their poor Black and Latino counterparts. For Black respondents, a caste-like understanding of social class persisted, as they continued to view their class standing as relatively independent of their achieved education, income, and occupation. Such achievement indicators, however, predicted Black respondents' self-esteem more than they predicted self-esteem for any other group.

  16. Defining tipping points for social-ecological systems scholarship—an interdisciplinary literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkoreit, Manjana; Hodbod, Jennifer; Baggio, Jacopo; Benessaiah, Karina; Calderón-Contreras, Rafael; Donges, Jonathan F.; Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rocha, Juan Carlos; Schoon, Michael; Werners, Saskia E.

    2018-03-01

    The term tipping point has experienced explosive popularity across multiple disciplines over the last decade. Research on social-ecological systems (SES) has contributed to the growth and diversity of the term’s use. The diverse uses of the term obscure potential differences between tipping behavior in natural and social systems, and issues of causality across natural and social system components in SES. This paper aims to create the foundation for a discussion within the SES research community about the appropriate use of the term tipping point, especially the relatively novel term ‘social tipping point.’ We review existing literature on tipping points and similar concepts (e.g. regime shifts, critical transitions) across all spheres of science published between 1960 and 2016 with a special focus on a recent and still small body of work on social tipping points. We combine quantitative and qualitative analyses in a bibliometric approach, rooted in an expert elicitation process. We find that the term tipping point became popular after the year 2000—long after the terms regime shift and critical transition—across all spheres of science. We identify 23 distinct features of tipping point definitions and their prevalence across disciplines, but find no clear taxonomy of discipline-specific definitions. Building on the most frequently used features, we propose definitions for tipping points in general and social tipping points in SES in particular.

  17. Time-resolved spectroscopy defines perturbation in molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    1998-01-01

    Time-resolved LIF spectroscopy is employed in order to investigate perturbations in different excited electronic state of alkali molecules. Dunham Coefficients are used to search the selected excited ro-vibrational level, which is overlap with the other nearby excited states. Lifetime measurement has been performed of more than 50 ro-vibrational levels. Out of these 25 levels were observed drastically different lifetimes from the other unperturbed levels. In this report, influence of different perturbations on this anomalous behavior is investigated and discussed. (author)

  18. The timing of control signals underlying fast point-to-point arm movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, M; Feldman, A G

    2001-04-01

    It is known that proprioceptive feedback induces muscle activation when the facilitation of appropriate motoneurons exceeds their threshold. In the suprathreshold range, the muscle-reflex system produces torques depending on the position and velocity of the joint segment(s) that the muscle spans. The static component of the torque-position relationship is referred to as the invariant characteristic (IC). According to the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis, control systems produce movements by changing the activation thresholds and thus shifting the IC of the appropriate muscles in joint space. This control process upsets the balance between muscle and external torques at the initial limb configuration and, to regain the balance, the limb is forced to establish a new configuration or, if the movement is prevented, a new level of static torques. Taken together, the joint angles and the muscle torques generated at an equilibrium configuration define a single variable called the EP. Thus by shifting the IC, control systems reset the EP. Muscle activation and movement emerge following the EP resetting because of the natural physical tendency of the system to reach equilibrium. Empirical and simulation studies support the notion that the control IC shifts and the resulting EP shifts underlying fast point-to-point arm movements are gradual rather than step-like. However, controversies exist about the duration of these shifts. Some studies suggest that the IC shifts cease with the movement offset. Other studies propose that the IC shifts end early in comparison to the movement duration (approximately, at peak velocity). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the duration of the IC shifts underlying fast point-to-point arm movements. Subjects made fast (hand peak velocity about 1.3 m/s) planar arm movements toward different targets while grasping a handle. Hand forces applied to the handle and shoulder/elbow torques were, respectively, measured from a force sensor placed

  19. Dual-time-point Imaging and Delayed-time-point Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/Computed Tomography Imaging in Various Clinical Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Antonsen Segtnan, Eivind

    2016-01-01

    The techniques of dual-time-point imaging (DTPI) and delayed-time-point imaging, which are mostly being used for distinction between inflammatory and malignant diseases, has increased the specificity of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET for diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. A gradually incr...

  20. Point interactions of the dipole type defined through a three-parametric power regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotaryuk, A V

    2010-01-01

    A family of point interactions of the dipole type is studied in one dimension using a regularization by rectangles in the form of a barrier and a well separated by a finite distance. The rectangles and the distance are parametrized by a squeezing parameter ε → 0 with three powers μ, ν and τ describing the squeezing rates for the barrier, the well and the distance, respectively. This parametrization allows us to construct a whole family of point potentials of the dipole type including some other point interactions, such as e.g. δ-potentials. Varying the power τ, it is possible to obtain in the zero-range limit the following two cases: (i) the limiting δ'-potential is opaque (the conventional result obtained earlier by some authors) or (ii) this potential admits a resonant tunneling (the opposite result obtained recently by other authors). The structure of resonances (if any) also depends on a regularizing sequence. The sets of the {μ, ν, τ}-space where a non-zero (resonant or non-resonant) transmission occurs are found. For all these cases in the zero-range limit the transfer matrix is shown to be with real parameters χ and g depending on a regularizing sequence. Those cases when χ ≠ 1 and g ≠ 0 mean that the corresponding δ'-potential is accompanied by an effective δ-potential.

  1. The physical spacetime as a chronostat defining time. (Prolegomena to a future chronodynamics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, W.

    1993-01-01

    The familiar analogy, appearing in the quantum theory, between the time evolution of an isolated system and the thermal equilibrium of a system with a thermostat, is taken at its face value. This leads us to the phenomenological conjecture that, in reality, the so called isolated system may remain in a ''temporal equilibrium'' with the physical spacetime which plays than the role of a ''chronostat'' defining time equal at all space points (in a Minkowski frame of reference). Such a conjecture suggest virtual deviations from this equilibrium and so seems to imply an extension of the first law of thermodynamics as well as of the state equation in the quantum theory. (author). 5 refs

  2. Time Eigenstates for Potential Functions without Extremal Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabino Torres-Vega

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper, we introduced a way to generate a time coordinate system for classical and quantum systems when the potential function has extremal points. In this paper, we deal with the case in which the potential function has no extremal points at all, and we illustrate the method with the harmonic and linear potentials.

  3. Homeless Point-In-Time (2007-2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — These raw data sets contain Point-in-Time (PIT) estimates and national PIT estimates of homelessness as well as national estimates of homelessness by state and...

  4. Title XVI / Supplemental Security Record Point In Time (SSRPT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This is the point-in-time database to house temporary Supplemental Security Record (SSR) images produced during the course of the operating day before they can be...

  5. Change detection in polarimetric SAR data over several time points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Knut; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Skriver, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A test statistic for the equality of several variance-covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution is introduced. The test statistic is applied successfully to detect change in C-band EMISAR polarimetric SAR data over four time points.......A test statistic for the equality of several variance-covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution is introduced. The test statistic is applied successfully to detect change in C-band EMISAR polarimetric SAR data over four time points....

  6. Attention flexibly trades off across points in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Rachel N; Heeger, David J; Carrasco, Marisa

    2017-08-01

    Sensory signals continuously enter the brain, raising the question of how perceptual systems handle this constant flow of input. Attention to an anticipated point in time can prioritize visual information at that time. However, how we voluntarily attend across time when there are successive task-relevant stimuli has been barely investigated. We developed a novel experimental protocol that allowed us to assess, for the first time, both the benefits and costs of voluntary temporal attention when perceiving a short sequence of two or three visual targets with predictable timing. We found that when humans directed attention to a cued point in time, their ability to perceive orientation was better at that time but also worse earlier and later. These perceptual tradeoffs across time are analogous to those found across space for spatial attention. We concluded that voluntary attention is limited, and selective, across time.

  7. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Babai

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2. Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%. When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%. Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166-1.190. By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093-1.118. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc = 69% and 61%, respectively] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65% with sensitivity and

  8. Hydraulic failure defines the recovery and point of death in water-stressed conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Tim J; Cochard, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    This study combines existing hydraulic principles with recently developed methods for probing leaf hydraulic function to determine whether xylem physiology can explain the dynamic response of gas exchange both during drought and in the recovery phase after rewatering. Four conifer species from wet and dry forests were exposed to a range of water stresses by withholding water and then rewatering to observe the recovery process. During both phases midday transpiration and leaf water potential (Psileaf) were monitored. Stomatal responses to Psileaf were established for each species and these relationships used to evaluate whether the recovery of gas exchange after drought was limited by postembolism hydraulic repair in leaves. Furthermore, the timing of gas-exchange recovery was used to determine the maximum survivable water stress for each species and this index compared with data for both leaf and stem vulnerability to water-stress-induced dysfunction measured for each species. Recovery of gas exchange after water stress took between 1 and >100 d and during this period all species showed strong 1:1 conformity to a combined hydraulic-stomatal limitation model (r2 = 0.70 across all plants). Gas-exchange recovery time showed two distinct phases, a rapid overnight recovery in plants stressed to 50% loss of Kleaf. Maximum recoverable water stress (Psimin) corresponded to a 95% loss of Kleaf. Thus, we conclude that xylem hydraulics represents a direct limit to the drought tolerance of these conifer species.

  9. A Custom Approach for a Flexible, Real-Time and Reliable Software Defined Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have enabled the evolution of traditional electric power distribution networks towards a new paradigm referred to as the smart grid. However, the different elements that compose the ICT plane of a smart grid are usually conceived as isolated systems that typically result in rigid hardware architectures, which are hard to interoperate, manage and adapt to new situations. In the recent years, software-defined systems that take advantage of software and high-speed data network infrastructures have emerged as a promising alternative to classic ad hoc approaches in terms of integration, automation, real-time reconfiguration and resource reusability. The purpose of this paper is to propose the usage of software-defined utilities (SDUs) to address the latent deployment and management limitations of smart grids. More specifically, the implementation of a smart grid’s data storage and management system prototype by means of SDUs is introduced, which exhibits the feasibility of this alternative approach. This system features a hybrid cloud architecture able to meet the data storage requirements of electric utilities and adapt itself to their ever-evolving needs. Conducted experimentations endorse the feasibility of this solution and encourage practitioners to point their efforts in this direction. PMID:29495599

  10. A Custom Approach for a Flexible, Real-Time and Reliable Software Defined Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Zaballos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICTs have enabled the evolution of traditional electric power distribution networks towards a new paradigm referred to as the smart grid. However, the different elements that compose the ICT plane of a smart grid are usually conceived as isolated systems that typically result in rigid hardware architectures, which are hard to interoperate, manage and adapt to new situations. In the recent years, software-defined systems that take advantage of software and high-speed data network infrastructures have emerged as a promising alternative to classic ad hoc approaches in terms of integration, automation, real-time reconfiguration and resource reusability. The purpose of this paper is to propose the usage of software-defined utilities (SDUs to address the latent deployment and management limitations of smart grids. More specifically, the implementation of a smart grid’s data storage and management system prototype by means of SDUs is introduced, which exhibits the feasibility of this alternative approach. This system features a hybrid cloud architecture able to meet the data storage requirements of electric utilities and adapt itself to their ever-evolving needs. Conducted experimentations endorse the feasibility of this solution and encourage practitioners to point their efforts in this direction.

  11. A Custom Approach for a Flexible, Real-Time and Reliable Software Defined Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaballos, Agustín; Navarro, Joan; Martín De Pozuelo, Ramon

    2018-02-28

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have enabled the evolution of traditional electric power distribution networks towards a new paradigm referred to as the smart grid. However, the different elements that compose the ICT plane of a smart grid are usually conceived as isolated systems that typically result in rigid hardware architectures, which are hard to interoperate, manage and adapt to new situations. In the recent years, software-defined systems that take advantage of software and high-speed data network infrastructures have emerged as a promising alternative to classic ad hoc approaches in terms of integration, automation, real-time reconfiguration and resource reusability. The purpose of this paper is to propose the usage of software-defined utilities (SDUs) to address the latent deployment and management limitations of smart grids. More specifically, the implementation of a smart grid's data storage and management system prototype by means of SDUs is introduced, which exhibits the feasibility of this alternative approach. This system features a hybrid cloud architecture able to meet the data storage requirements of electric utilities and adapt itself to their ever-evolving needs. Conducted experimentations endorse the feasibility of this solution and encourage practitioners to point their efforts in this direction.

  12. Defining progression in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: it is time for a new, standard definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamm, D.; Persad, R.; Brausi, M.; Buckley, R.; Witjes, J.A.; Palou, J.; Bohle, A.; Kamat, A.M.; Colombel, M.; Soloway, M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite being one of the most important clinical outcomes in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, there is currently no standard definition of disease progression. Major clinical trials and meta-analyses have used varying definitions or have failed to define this end point altogether. A

  13. User-Defined Clocks in the Real-Time Specification for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellings, Andy; Schoeberl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the new user-defined clock model that is to be supported in Version 1.1 of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). The model is a compromise between the current position, where there is no support for user-defined clocks, and a fully integrated model. The paper investigat...

  14. Nonlinear triple-point problems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Anderson

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We establish the existence of multiple positive solutions to the nonlinear second-order triple-point boundary-value problem on time scales, $$displaylines{ u^{Delta abla}(t+h(tf(t,u(t=0, cr u(a=alpha u(b+delta u^Delta(a,quad eta u(c+gamma u^Delta(c=0 }$$ for $tin[a,c]subsetmathbb{T}$, where $mathbb{T}$ is a time scale, $eta, gamma, deltage 0$ with $Beta+gamma>0$, $0

  15. Definition of distance for nonlinear time series analysis of marked point process data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwayama, Koji, E-mail: koji@sat.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Institute for Food and Agriculture, Ryukoku Univeristy, 1-5 Yokotani, Seta Oe-cho, Otsu-Shi, Shiga 520-2194 (Japan); Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2017-01-30

    Marked point process data are time series of discrete events accompanied with some values, such as economic trades, earthquakes, and lightnings. A distance for marked point process data allows us to apply nonlinear time series analysis to such data. We propose a distance for marked point process data which can be calculated much faster than the existing distance when the number of marks is small. Furthermore, under some assumptions, the Kullback–Leibler divergences between posterior distributions for neighbors defined by this distance are small. We performed some numerical simulations showing that analysis based on the proposed distance is effective. - Highlights: • A new distance for marked point process data is proposed. • The distance can be computed fast enough for a small number of marks. • The method to optimize parameter values of the distance is also proposed. • Numerical simulations indicate that the analysis based on the distance is effective.

  16. Accuracy of multi-point boundary crossing time analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vogt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent multi-spacecraft studies of solar wind discontinuity crossings using the timing (boundary plane triangulation method gave boundary parameter estimates that are significantly different from those of the well-established single-spacecraft minimum variance analysis (MVA technique. A large survey of directional discontinuities in Cluster data turned out to be particularly inconsistent in the sense that multi-point timing analyses did not identify any rotational discontinuities (RDs whereas the MVA results of the individual spacecraft suggested that RDs form the majority of events. To make multi-spacecraft studies of discontinuity crossings more conclusive, the present report addresses the accuracy of the timing approach to boundary parameter estimation. Our error analysis is based on the reciprocal vector formalism and takes into account uncertainties both in crossing times and in the spacecraft positions. A rigorous error estimation scheme is presented for the general case of correlated crossing time errors and arbitrary spacecraft configurations. Crossing time error covariances are determined through cross correlation analyses of the residuals. The principal influence of the spacecraft array geometry on the accuracy of the timing method is illustrated using error formulas for the simplified case of mutually uncorrelated and identical errors at different spacecraft. The full error analysis procedure is demonstrated for a solar wind discontinuity as observed by the Cluster FGM instrument.

  17. Knee point search using cascading top-k sorting with minimized time complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Tseng, Shian-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Anomaly detection systems and many other applications are frequently confronted with the problem of finding the largest knee point in the sorted curve for a set of unsorted points. This paper proposes an efficient knee point search algorithm with minimized time complexity using the cascading top-k sorting when a priori probability distribution of the knee point is known. First, a top-k sort algorithm is proposed based on a quicksort variation. We divide the knee point search problem into multiple steps. And in each step an optimization problem of the selection number k is solved, where the objective function is defined as the expected time cost. Because the expected time cost in one step is dependent on that of the afterwards steps, we simplify the optimization problem by minimizing the maximum expected time cost. The posterior probability of the largest knee point distribution and the other parameters are updated before solving the optimization problem in each step. An example of source detection of DNS DoS flooding attacks is provided to illustrate the applications of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Defining Accelerometer Nonwear Time to Maximize Detection of Sedentary Time in Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cain, Kelli L; Bonilla, Edith; Conway, Terry L

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined various accelerometer nonwear definitions and their impact on detection of sedentary time using different ActiGraph models, filters, and axes. METHODS: In total, 61 youth (34 children and 27 adolescents; aged 5-17 y) wore a 7164 and GT3X+ ActiGraph on a hip......), and GT3X+N (V and VM), and sedentary estimates were computed. RESULTS: The GT3X+LFE-VM was most sensitive to movement and could accurately detect observed sedentary time with the shortest nonwear definition of 20 minutes of consecutive "0" counts for children and 40 minutes for adolescents. The GT3X......+N-V was least sensitive to movement and required longer definitions to detect observed sedentary time (40 min for children and 90 min for adolescents). VM definitions were 10 minutes shorter than V definitions. LFE definitions were 40 minutes shorter than N definitions in adolescents. CONCLUSION: Different...

  19. MeV gamma-ray observation with a well-defined point spread function based on electron tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, A.; Tanimori, T.; Kubo, H.; Mizumoto, T.; Mizumura, Y.; Komura, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Takemura, T.; Yoshikawa, K.; Nakamasu, Y.; Matsuoka, Y.; Oda, M.; Miyamoto, S.; Sonoda, S.; Tomono, D.; Miuchi, K.; Kurosawa, S.; Sawano, T.

    2016-07-01

    The field of MeV gamma-ray astronomy has not opened up until recently owing to imaging difficulties. Compton telescopes and coded-aperture imaging cameras are used as conventional MeV gamma-ray telescopes; however their observations are obstructed by huge background, leading to uncertainty of the point spread function (PSF). Conventional MeV gamma-ray telescopes imaging utilize optimizing algorithms such as the ML-EM method, making it difficult to define the correct PSF, which is the uncertainty of a gamma-ray image on the celestial sphere. Recently, we have defined and evaluated the PSF of an electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) and a conventional Compton telescope, and thereby obtained an important result: The PSF strongly depends on the precision of the recoil direction of electron (scatter plane deviation, SPD) and is not equal to the angular resolution measure (ARM). Now, we are constructing a 30 cm-cubic ETCC for a second balloon experiment, Sub-MeV gamma ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment: SMILE-II. The current ETCC has an effective area of 1 cm2 at 300 keV, a PSF of 10° at FWHM for 662 keV, and a large field of view of 3 sr. We will upgrade this ETCC to have an effective area of several cm2 and a PSF of 5° using a CF4-based gas. Using the upgraded ETCC, our observation plan for SMILE-II is to map of the electron-positron annihilation line and the 1.8 MeV line from 26Al. In this paper, we will report on the current performance of the ETCC and on our observation plan.

  20. Time scale defined by the fractal structure of the price fluctuations in foreign exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yoshiaki

    2010-04-01

    In this contribution, a new time scale named C-fluctuation time is defined by price fluctuations observed at a given resolution. The intraday fractal structures and the relations of the three time scales: real time (physical time), tick time and C-fluctuation time, in foreign exchange markets are analyzed. The data set used is trading prices of foreign exchange rates; US dollar (USD)/Japanese yen (JPY), USD/Euro (EUR), and EUR/JPY. The accuracy of the data is one minute and data within a minute are recorded in order of transaction. The series of instantaneous velocity of C-fluctuation time flowing are exponentially distributed for small C when they are measured by real time and for tiny C when they are measured by tick time. When the market is volatile, for larger C, the series of instantaneous velocity are exponentially distributed.

  1. Discrete-Time Mixing Receiver Architecture for RF-Sampling Software-Defined Radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ru, Z.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—A discrete-time (DT) mixing architecture for RF-sampling receivers is presented. This architecture makes RF sampling more suitable for software-defined radio (SDR) as it achieves wideband quadrature demodulation and wideband harmonic rejection. The paper consists of two parts. In the first

  2. Defining the therapeutic time window for suppressing the inflammatory prostaglandin E2 signaling after status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yifeng; Kemper, Timothy; Qiu, Jiange; Jiang, Jianxiong

    2016-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common feature in nearly all neurological and some psychiatric disorders. Resembling its extraneural counterpart, neuroinflammation can be both beneficial and detrimental depending on the responding molecules. The overall effect of inflammation on disease progression is highly dependent on the extent of inflammatory mediator production and the duration of inflammatory induction. The time-dependent aspect of inflammatory responses suggests that the therapeutic time window for quelling neuroinflammation might vary with molecular targets and injury types. Therefore, it is important to define the therapeutic time window for anti-inflammatory therapeutics, as contradicting or negative results might arise when different treatment regimens are utilized even in similar animal models. Herein, we discuss a few critical factors that can help define the therapeutic time window and optimize treatment paradigm for suppressing the cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin-mediated inflammation after status epilepticus. These determinants should also be relevant to other anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies for the CNS diseases. PMID:26689339

  3. Inflection point inflation and time dependent potentials in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzhaki, Nissan; Kovetz, Ely D.

    2007-01-01

    We consider models of inflection point inflation. The main drawback of such models is that they suffer from the overshoot problem. Namely the initial condition should be fine tuned to be near the inflection point for the universe to inflate. We show that stringy realizations of inflection point inflation are common and offer a natural resolution to the overshoot problem

  4. Defining Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy from a Continuous Measure of Optic Nerve Damage - The Optimal Cut-off Point for Risk-factor Analysis in Population-based Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, Wishal D.; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Diseases characterized by a continuous trait can be defined by setting a cut-off point for the disease measure in question, accepting some misclassification. The 97.5th percentile is commonly used as a cut-off point. However, it is unclear whether this percentile is the optimal cut-off

  5. Observation of environmental radioactivity at definite time and definite point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokoshi, Yukio; Fukuchi, Ryoichi; Irie, Takayuki; Hosoda, Nagako; Okano, Yasuhiro; Shindo, Koutaro

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of environmental radioactivity in Tokyo Metropolis was carried out. The objects of measurement were rainwater, atmospheric floating dusts, spatial dose and the activated sludge in sewage treatment plants. Rainwater, atmospheric floating dusts and spatial dose were analyzed mainly considering radioactive fallout, and activated sludge was analyzed mainly considering radioactive medical matters. For the analysis of nuclides, a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector was used, and spatial dose rate was measured with a DBM type dose rate meter. In activated sludge, the nuclides used for radioactive medicines were found, but in rainwater, atmospheric floating dusts and spatial dose, particular abnormality was not found. The objective of this investigation is to collect over long period at definite time and definite points the data on environmental radioactivity in Tokyo, thus to grasp the level of normal values, and in abnormal case, to clarify the cause and to evaluate the exposure dose. The instruments used, the method of measuring each object and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Different Ultimate Factors Define Timing of Breeding in Two Related Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli-Matti Pakanen

    Full Text Available Correct reproductive timing is crucial for fitness. Breeding phenology even in similar species can differ due to different selective pressures on the timing of reproduction. These selection pressures define species' responses to warming springs. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis suggests that timing of breeding in animals is selected to match with food availability (synchrony. Alternatively, time-dependent breeding success (the date hypothesis can result from other seasonally deteriorating ecological conditions such as intra- or interspecific competition or predation. We studied the effects of two ultimate factors on the timing of breeding, synchrony and other time-dependent factors (time-dependence, in sympatric populations of two related forest-dwelling passerine species, the great tit (Parus major and the willow tit (Poecile montanus by modelling recruitment with long-term capture-recapture data. We hypothesized that these two factors have different relevance for fitness in these species. We found that local recruitment in both species showed quadratic relationships with both time-dependence and synchrony. However, the importance of these factors was markedly different between the studied species. Caterpillar food played a predominant role in predicting the timing of breeding of the great tit. In contrast, for the willow tit time-dependence modelled as timing in relation to conspecifics was more important for local recruitment than synchrony. High caterpillar biomass experienced during the pre- and post-fledging periods increased local recruitment of both species. These contrasting results confirm that these species experience different selective pressures upon the timing of breeding, and hence responses to climate change may differ. Detailed information about life-history strategies is required to understand the effects of climate change, even in closely related taxa. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis should be extended to consider

  7. Administrative Lead Time at Navy Inventory Control Points

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1994-01-01

    .... We also evaluated the internal controls established for administrative lead time and the adequacy of management's implementation of the DoD Internal Management Control Program for monitoring administrative lead time...

  8. Age, sex and ethnic differences in the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the CDC and IOTF cut points in Asian culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    No nationally representative data from middle- and low-income countries have been analyzed to compare the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the International Obesity TaskForce (IOTF) body mass index cut points. To exa...

  9. Point-like Particles in Fuzzy Space-time

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Charles

    1999-01-01

    This paper is withdrawn as I am no longer using the term "fuzzy space- time" to describe the uncertainty in co-ordinate systems implicit in quantum logic. Nor am I using the interpretation that quantum logic can be regarded as a special case of fuzzy logic. This is because there are sufficient differences between quantum logic and fuzzy logic that the explanation is confusing. I give an interpretation of quantum logic in "A Theory of Quantum Space-time"

  10. Just-In-Time Inventory: Proceed with caution exclamation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katterhenry, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    Today's economic climate, the emerging of independent power producers, pending deregulation, and environmental restraints are forcing the utility industry to adopt cost cutting measures in an effort to be more competitive and survive in tomorrow's market place. The cost cutting measure addressed in this paper is ''Just-In-Time Inventory'' of coal for fossil fueled power plants

  11. Simultaneous comparisons of treatments at multiple time points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallmann, Philip; Pretorius, Mias; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    that is measured repeatedly over time and contrast two basic modeling strategies: fitting a joint model across all occasions (with random effects and/or some residual covariance structure to account for heteroscedasticity and serial dependence), and a novel approach combining a set of simple marginal, i...

  12. Defining a National Web Sphere over time from the Perspectives of Collection, Technology and Scholarship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Brügger, Niels; Moesgaard, Jakob

    This paper describes a framework supporting definition of how to automatically identify national webpages outside a country’s top level domain. The framework aims at a definition that can be put into operation in order to make automatic detection of national web pages. At the same time...... the framework aims at a definition that can be reused independent of changed behaviours on the net, changes in jurisdiction and changes in technology. A crucial point in this framework is that the perspectives of collection, technology and Scholarship are present in decision making. The framework origins from...... harvests from the Danish national web archive, Netarkivet. However in both cases a definition of national webpages was needed. Thus the creation of the framework was a prerequisite for the rest of this study. Motivation of the study and framework is based on the fact that human communication activities...

  13. Defining progression in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: it is time for a new, standard definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Donald; Persad, Raj; Brausi, Maurizio; Buckley, Roger; Witjes, J Alfred; Palou, Joan; Böhle, Andreas; Kamat, Ashish M; Colombel, Marc; Soloway, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite being one of the most important clinical outcomes in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, there is currently no standard definition of disease progression. Major clinical trials and meta-analyses have used varying definitions or have failed to define this end point altogether. A standard definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as determined by reproducible and reliable procedures is needed. We examine current definitions of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression, and propose a new definition that will be more clinically useful in determining patient prognosis and comparing treatment options. The IBCG (International Bladder Cancer Group) analyzed published clinical trials and meta-analyses that examined nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as of December 2012. The limitations of the definitions of progression used in these trials were considered, as were additional parameters associated with the advancement of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. The most commonly used definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression is an increase in stage from nonmuscle invasive to muscle invasive disease. Although this definition is clinically important, it fails to include other important parameters of advancing disease such as progression to lamina propria invasion and increase in grade. The IBCG proposes the definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as an increase in T stage from CIS or Ta to T1 (lamina propria invasion), development of T2 or greater or lymph node (N+) disease or distant metastasis (M1), or an increase in grade from low to high. Investigators should consider the use of this new definition to help standardize protocols and improve the reporting of progression. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Feedback Optimal Control Algorithm with Optimal Measurement Time Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Jost

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear model predictive control has been established as a powerful methodology to provide feedback for dynamic processes over the last decades. In practice it is usually combined with parameter and state estimation techniques, which allows to cope with uncertainty on many levels. To reduce the uncertainty it has also been suggested to include optimal experimental design into the sequential process of estimation and control calculation. Most of the focus so far was on dual control approaches, i.e., on using the controls to simultaneously excite the system dynamics (learning as well as minimizing a given objective (performing. We propose a new algorithm, which sequentially solves robust optimal control, optimal experimental design, state and parameter estimation problems. Thus, we decouple the control and the experimental design problems. This has the advantages that we can analyze the impact of measurement timing (sampling independently, and is practically relevant for applications with either an ethical limitation on system excitation (e.g., chemotherapy treatment or the need for fast feedback. The algorithm shows promising results with a 36% reduction of parameter uncertainties for the Lotka-Volterra fishing benchmark example.

  15. Point-prevalence survey of healthcare facility-onset healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection in Greek hospitals outside the intensive care unit: The C. DEFINE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoutelis, Athanasios; Pefanis, Angelos; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Lelekis, Moyssis; Lazanas, Marios C; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Dalekos, George N; Roilides, Emmanuel; Samonis, George; Maltezos, Efstratios; Hatzigeorgiou, Dimitrios; Lada, Malvina; Metallidis, Symeon; Stoupis, Athena; Chrysos, Georgios; Karnesis, Lazaros; Symbardi, Styliani; Loupa, Chariclia V; Giamarellou, Helen; Kioumis, Ioannis; Sambatakou, Helen; Tsianos, Epameinondas; Kotsopoulou, Maria; Georgopali, Areti; Liakou, Klairi; Perlorentzou, Stavroula; Levidiotou, Stamatina; Giotsa-Toutouza, Marina; Tsorlini-Christoforidou, Helen; Karaiskos, Ilias; Kouppari, Georgia; Trikka-Graphakos, Eleftheria; Ntrivala, Maria-Anna; Themeli-Digalaki, Kate; Pangalis, Anastasia; Kachrimanidou, Melina; Martsoukou, Maria; Karapsias, Stergios; Panopoulou, Maria; Maraki, Sofia; Orfanou, Anagnostina; Petinaki, Efthymia; Orfanidou, Maria; Baka, Vasiliki; Stylianakis, Antonios; Spiliopoulou, Iris; Smilakou, Stavroula; Zerva, Loukia; Vogiatzakis, Evangelos; Belesiotou, Eleni; Gogos, Charalambos A

    2017-01-01

    The correlation of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with in-hospital morbidity is important in hospital settings where broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents are routinely used, such as in Greece. The C. DEFINE study aimed to assess point-prevalence of CDI in Greece during two study periods in 2013. There were two study periods consisting of a single day in March and another in October 2013. Stool samples from all patients hospitalized outside the ICU aged ≥18 years old with diarrhea on each day in 21 and 25 hospitals, respectively, were tested for CDI. Samples were tested for the presence of glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (GDH) and toxins A/B of C. difficile; samples positive for GDH and negative for toxins were further tested by culture and PCR for the presence of toxin genes. An analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors for CDI among patients with diarrhea. 5,536 and 6,523 patients were screened during the first and second study periods, respectively. The respective point-prevalence of CDI in all patients was 5.6 and 3.9 per 10,000 patient bed-days whereas the proportion of CDI among patients with diarrhea was 17% and 14.3%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that solid tumor malignancy [odds ratio (OR) 2.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-6.15, p = 0.019] and antimicrobial administration (OR 3.61, 95% CI: 1.03-12.76, p = 0.045) were independent risk factors for CDI development. Charlson's Comorbidity Index (CCI) >6 was also found as a risk factor of marginal statistical significance (OR 2.24, 95% CI: 0.98-5.10). Median time to CDI from hospital admission was shorter with the presence of solid tumor malignancy (3 vs 5 days; p = 0.002) and of CCI >6 (4 vs 6 days, p = 0.009). The point-prevalence of CDI in Greek hospitals was consistent among cases of diarrhea over a 6-month period. Major risk factors were antimicrobial use, solid tumor malignancy and a CCI score >6.

  16. Defining biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy and timing of early salvage radiotherapy. Informing the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budaeus, Lars; Schiffmann, Jonas; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Tennstedt, Pierre; Siegmann, Alessandra; Boehmer, Dirk; Budach, Volker; Bartkowiak, Detlef; Wiegel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The optimal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level after radical prostatectomy (RP) for defining biochemical recurrence and initiating salvage radiation therapy (SRT) is still debatable. Whereas adjuvant or extremely early SRT irrespective of PSA progression might be overtreatment for some patients, SRT at PSA >0.2 ng/ml might be undertreatment for others. The current study addresses the optimal timing of radiation therapy after RP. Cohort 1 comprised 293 men with PSA 0.1-0.19 ng/ml after RP. Cohort 2 comprised 198 men with SRT. PSA progression and metastases were assessed in cohort 1. In cohort 2, we compared freedom from progression according to pre-SRT PSA (0.03-0.19 vs. 0.2-0.499 ng/ml). Multivariable Cox regression analyses predicted progression after SRT. In cohort 1, 281 (95.9%) men had further PSA progression ≥0.2 ng/ml and 27 (9.2%) men developed metastases within a median follow-up of 74.3 months. In cohort 2, we recorded improved freedom from progression according to lower pre-SRT PSA (0.03-0.19 vs. 0.2-0.499 ng/ml: 69 vs. 53%; log-rank p = 0.051). Patients with higher pre-SRT PSA ≥0.2 ng/ml were at a higher risk of progression after SRT (hazard ratio: 1.8; p [de

  17. Malware Propagation and Prevention Model for Time-Varying Community Networks within Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the adoption of Software Defined Networks (SDNs grows, the security of SDN still has several unaddressed limitations. A key network security research area is in the study of malware propagation across the SDN-enabled networks. To analyze the spreading processes of network malware (e.g., viruses in SDN, we propose a dynamic model with a time-varying community network, inspired by research models on the spread of epidemics in complex networks across communities. We assume subnets of the network as communities and links that are dense in subnets but sparse between subnets. Using numerical simulation and theoretical analysis, we find that the efficiency of network malware propagation in this model depends on the mobility rate q of the nodes between subnets. We also find that there exists a mobility rate threshold qc. The network malware will spread in the SDN when the mobility rate q>qc. The malware will survive when q>qc and perish when q

  18. Dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT versus single time point 18FDG-PET/CT for the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules - A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Yinzhong; Lei, Junqiang; Tian, Jinhui; Zhai, Yanan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is one of the most common cancer types in the world. An accurate diagnosis of lung cancer is crucial for early treatment and management. Purpose: To perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual time point 18F-fluorodexyglucose position emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) and single time point 18FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules. Material and Methods: PubMed (1966-2011.11), EMBASE (1974-2011.11), Web of Science (1972-2011.11), Cochrane Library (-2011.11), and four Chinese databases; CBM (1978-2011.11), CNKI (1994-2011.11), VIP (1989-2011.11), and Wanfang Database (1994-2011.11) were searched. Summary sensitivity, summary specificity, summary diagnostic odds ratios (DOR), and summary positive likelihood ratios (LR+) and negative likelihood ratios (LR-) were obtained using Meta-Disc software. Summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT and single time point 18FDG-PET/CT. Results: The inclusion criteria were fulfilled by eight articles, with a total of 415 patients and 430 pulmonary nodules. Compared with the gold standard (pathology or clinical follow-up), the summary sensitivity of dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT was 79% (95%CI, 74.0 - 84.0%), and its summary specificity was 73% (95%CI, 65.0-79.0%); the summary LR+ was 2.61 (95%CI, 1.96-3.47), and the summary LR- was 0.29 (95%CI, 0.21 - 0.41); the summary DOR was 10.25 (95%CI, 5.79 - 18.14), and the area under the SROC curve (AUC) was 0.8244. The summary sensitivity for single time point 18FDG-PET/CT was 77% (95%CI, 71.9 - 82.3%), and its summary specificity was 59% (95%CI, 50.6 - 66.2%); the summary LR+ was 1.97 (95%CI, 1.32 - 2.93), and the summary LR- was 0.37 (95%CI, 0.29 - 0.49); the summary DOR was 6.39 (95%CI, 3.39 - 12.05), and the AUC was 0.8220. Conclusion: The results indicate that dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT and single

  19. LiDAR-IMU Time Delay Calibration Based on Iterative Closest Point and Iterated Sigma Point Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanli

    2017-03-08

    The time delay calibration between Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) is an essential prerequisite for its applications. However, the correspondences between LiDAR and IMU measurements are usually unknown, and thus cannot be computed directly for the time delay calibration. In order to solve the problem of LiDAR-IMU time delay calibration, this paper presents a fusion method based on iterative closest point (ICP) and iterated sigma point Kalman filter (ISPKF), which combines the advantages of ICP and ISPKF. The ICP algorithm can precisely determine the unknown transformation between LiDAR-IMU; and the ISPKF algorithm can optimally estimate the time delay calibration parameters. First of all, the coordinate transformation from the LiDAR frame to the IMU frame is realized. Second, the measurement model and time delay error model of LiDAR and IMU are established. Third, the methodology of the ICP and ISPKF procedure is presented for LiDAR-IMU time delay calibration. Experimental results are presented that validate the proposed method and demonstrate the time delay error can be accurately calibrated.

  20. Guidelines for time-to-event end-point definitions in trials for pancreatic cancer. Results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnetain, Franck; Bonsing, Bert; Conroy, Thierry; Dousseau, Adelaide; Glimelius, Bengt; Haustermans, Karin; Lacaine, François; Van Laethem, Jean Luc; Aparicio, Thomas; Aust, Daniela; Bassi, Claudio; Berger, Virginie; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Chibaudel, Benoist; Dahan, Laeticia; De Gramont, Aimery; Delpero, Jean Robert; Dervenis, Christos; Ducreux, Michel; Gal, Jocelyn; Gerber, Erich; Ghaneh, Paula; Hammel, Pascal; Hendlisz, Alain; Jooste, Valérie; Labianca, Roberto; Latouche, Aurelien; Lutz, Manfred; Macarulla, Teresa; Malka, David; Mauer, Muriel; Mitry, Emmanuel; Neoptolemos, John; Pessaux, Patrick; Sauvanet, Alain; Tabernero, Josep; Taieb, Julien; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Gourgou-Bourgade, Sophie; Bellera, Carine; Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone; Collette, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    Using potential surrogate end-points for overall survival (OS) such as Disease-Free- (DFS) or Progression-Free Survival (PFS) is increasingly common in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, end-points are too often imprecisely defined which largely contributes to a lack of homogeneity across trials, hampering comparison between them. The aim of the DATECAN (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials)-Pancreas project is to provide guidelines for standardised definition of time-to-event end-points in RCTs for pancreatic cancer. Time-to-event end-points currently used were identified from a literature review of pancreatic RCT trials (2006-2009). Academic research groups were contacted for participation in order to select clinicians and methodologists to participate in the pilot and scoring groups (>30 experts). A consensus was built after 2 rounds of the modified Delphi formal consensus approach with the Rand scoring methodology (range: 1-9). For pancreatic cancer, 14 time to event end-points and 25 distinct event types applied to two settings (detectable disease and/or no detectable disease) were considered relevant and included in the questionnaire sent to 52 selected experts. Thirty experts answered both scoring rounds. A total of 204 events distributed over the 14 end-points were scored. After the first round, consensus was reached for 25 items; after the second consensus was reached for 156 items; and after the face-to-face meeting for 203 items. The formal consensus approach reached the elaboration of guidelines for standardised definitions of time-to-event end-points allowing cross-comparison of RCTs in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Time to Define: Making the Specific Learning Disability Definition Prescribe Specific Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Spaulding, Lucinda S.; Beam, Andrea P.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike other special education categories defined in U.S. law (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), the definition of specific learning disability (SLD) has not changed since first proposed in 1968. Thus, although the operational definition of SLD has responded to new knowledge and understanding about the construct, the formal definition…

  2. Defining biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy and timing of early salvage radiotherapy. Informing the debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budaeus, Lars; Schiffmann, Jonas; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Tennstedt, Pierre [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Center, Hamburg (Germany); Siegmann, Alessandra; Boehmer, Dirk; Budach, Volker [Charite University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Bartkowiak, Detlef; Wiegel, Thomas [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ulm (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    The optimal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level after radical prostatectomy (RP) for defining biochemical recurrence and initiating salvage radiation therapy (SRT) is still debatable. Whereas adjuvant or extremely early SRT irrespective of PSA progression might be overtreatment for some patients, SRT at PSA >0.2 ng/ml might be undertreatment for others. The current study addresses the optimal timing of radiation therapy after RP. Cohort 1 comprised 293 men with PSA 0.1-0.19 ng/ml after RP. Cohort 2 comprised 198 men with SRT. PSA progression and metastases were assessed in cohort 1. In cohort 2, we compared freedom from progression according to pre-SRT PSA (0.03-0.19 vs. 0.2-0.499 ng/ml). Multivariable Cox regression analyses predicted progression after SRT. In cohort 1, 281 (95.9%) men had further PSA progression ≥0.2 ng/ml and 27 (9.2%) men developed metastases within a median follow-up of 74.3 months. In cohort 2, we recorded improved freedom from progression according to lower pre-SRT PSA (0.03-0.19 vs. 0.2-0.499 ng/ml: 69 vs. 53%; log-rank p = 0.051). Patients with higher pre-SRT PSA ≥0.2 ng/ml were at a higher risk of progression after SRT (hazard ratio: 1.8; p < 0.05). The vast majority of patients with PSA ≥0.1 ng/ml after RP will progress to PSA ≥0.2 ng/ml. Additionally, early administration of SRT at post-RP PSA level <0.2 ng/ml might improve freedom from progression. Consequently, we suggest a PSA threshold of 0.1 ng/ml to define biochemical recurrence after RP. (orig.) [German] Der optimale Wert des prostataspezifischen Antigens (PSA) nach radikaler Prostatektomie (RP) zur Definition eines biochemischen Rezidivs und zur Initiierung einer Salvage-Strahlentherapie (SRT) ist noch immer umstritten. Waehrend eine adjuvante oder extrem fruehe SRT unabhaengig vom PSA-Verlauf fuer einige Patienten eine Uebertherapie bedeuten wuerde, waere eine SRT bei einem PSA >0,2 ng/ml fuer andere eine Untertherapie. In der vorliegenden Studie wird der optimale

  3. Evaluation of 2-point, 3-point, and 6-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging with flexible echo timing for muscle fat quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alexandra; Meyer, Heiko; Nickel, Marcel D; Nittka, Mathias; Raithel, Esther; Chaudry, Oliver; Friedberger, Andreas; Uder, Michael; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Quick, Harald H; Engelke, Klaus

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare 2-point (2pt), 3-point (3pt), and 6-point (6pt) Dixon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences with flexible echo times (TE) to measure proton density fat fraction (PDFF) within muscles. Two subject groups were recruited (G1: 23 young and healthy men, 31 ± 6 years; G2: 50 elderly men, sarcopenic, 77 ± 5 years). A 3-T MRI system was used to perform Dixon imaging on the left thigh. PDFF was measured with six Dixon prototype sequences: 2pt, 3pt, and 6pt sequences once with optimal TEs (in- and opposed-phase echo times), lower resolution, and higher bandwidth (optTE sequences) and once with higher image resolution (highRes sequences) and shortest possible TE, respectively. Intra-fascia PDFF content was determined. To evaluate the comparability among the sequences, Bland-Altman analysis was performed. The highRes 6pt Dixon sequences served as reference as a high correlation of this sequence to magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been shown before. The PDFF difference between the highRes 6pt Dixon sequence and the optTE 6pt, both 3pt, and the optTE 2pt was low (between 2.2% and 4.4%), however, not to the highRes 2pt Dixon sequence (33%). For the optTE sequences, difference decreased with the number of echoes used. In conclusion, for Dixon sequences with more than two echoes, the fat fraction measurement was reliable with arbitrary echo times, while for 2pt Dixon sequences, it was reliable with dedicated in- and opposed-phase echo timing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The relative timing between eye and hand rapid sequential pointing is affected by time pressure, but not by advance knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deconinck, F.; van Polanen, V.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Bennett, S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of timing constraints and advance knowledge on eye-hand coordination strategy in a sequential pointing task. Participants were required to point at two successively appearing targets on a screen while the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) and the trial order were

  5. Defining and measuring the mean residence time of lateral surface transient storage zones in small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.R. Jackson; R. Haggerty; S.V. Apte; A. Coleman; K.J. Drost

    2012-01-01

    Surface transient storage (STS) has functional significance in stream ecosystems because it increases solute interaction with sediments. After volume, mean residence time is the most important metric of STS, but it is unclear how this can be measured accurately or related to other timescales and field-measureable parameters. We studied mean residence time of lateral...

  6. The synaptic properties of cells define the hallmarks of interval timing in a recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Oswaldo; Merchant, Hugo

    2018-04-03

    Extensive research has described two key features of interval timing. The bias property is associated with accuracy and implies that time is overestimated for short intervals and underestimated for long intervals. The scalar property is linked to precision and states that the variability of interval estimates increases as a function of interval duration. The neural mechanisms behind these properties are not well understood. Here we implemented a recurrent neural network that mimics a cortical ensemble and includes cells that show paired-pulse facilitation and slow inhibitory synaptic currents. The network produces interval selective responses and reproduces both bias and scalar properties when a Bayesian decoder reads its activity. Notably, the interval-selectivity, timing accuracy, and precision of the network showed complex changes as a function of the decay time constants of the modeled synaptic properties and the level of background activity of the cells. These findings suggest that physiological values of the time constants for paired-pulse facilitation and GABAb, as well as the internal state of the network, determine the bias and scalar properties of interval timing. Significant Statement Timing is a fundamental element of complex behavior, including music and language. Temporal processing in a wide variety of contexts shows two primary features: time estimates exhibit a shift towards the mean (the bias property) and are more variable for longer intervals (the scalar property). We implemented a recurrent neural network that includes long-lasting synaptic currents, which can not only produce interval selective responses but also follow the bias and scalar properties. Interestingly, only physiological values of the time constants for paired-pulse facilitation and GABAb, as well as intermediate background activity within the network can reproduce the two key features of interval timing. Copyright © 2018 the authors.

  7. Point-splitting in a curved space-time background. 1 -gravitational contribution to the axial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggatt, P.A.J.; Macfarlane, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A prescription is given for point-splitting in a curved space-time background which is a natural generalization of that familiar in quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theory. It is applied (to establish its validity) to the verification of the gravitational anomaly in the divergence of a fermion axial current. Notable features of the prescription are that it defines a point-split current which can be differentiated straightforwardly, and that it involves a natural way of averaging (four dimensionally) over the directions of point splitting. The method can extend directly from the spin-1/2 fermion case treated to other cases, e.g. to spin -3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fermions. (author)

  8. A travel time forecasting model based on change-point detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Shupeng; GUANG, Xiaoping; QIAN, Yongsheng; ZENG, Junwei

    2017-06-01

    Travel time parameters obtained from road traffic sensors data play an important role in traffic management practice. A travel time forecasting model is proposed for urban road traffic sensors data based on the method of change-point detection in this paper. The first-order differential operation is used for preprocessing over the actual loop data; a change-point detection algorithm is designed to classify the sequence of large number of travel time data items into several patterns; then a travel time forecasting model is established based on autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. By computer simulation, different control parameters are chosen for adaptive change point search for travel time series, which is divided into several sections of similar state.Then linear weight function is used to fit travel time sequence and to forecast travel time. The results show that the model has high accuracy in travel time forecasting.

  9. Defining the Timing of Action of Antimalarial Drugs against Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Christine; Goodman, Christopher D.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.

    2013-01-01

    Most current antimalarials for treatment of clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria fall into two broad drug families and target the food vacuole of the trophozoite stage. No antimalarials have been shown to target the brief extracellular merozoite form of blood-stage malaria. We studied a panel of 12 drugs, 10 of which have been used extensively clinically, for their invasion, schizont rupture, and growth-inhibitory activity using high-throughput flow cytometry and new approaches for the study of merozoite invasion and early intraerythrocytic development. Not surprisingly, given reported mechanisms of action, none of the drugs inhibited merozoite invasion in vitro. Pretreatment of erythrocytes with drugs suggested that halofantrine, lumefantrine, piperaquine, amodiaquine, and mefloquine diffuse into and remain within the erythrocyte and inhibit downstream growth of parasites. Studying the inhibitory activity of the drugs on intraerythrocytic development, schizont rupture, and reinvasion enabled several different inhibitory phenotypes to be defined. All drugs inhibited parasite replication when added at ring stages, but only artesunate, artemisinin, cycloheximide, and trichostatin A appeared to have substantial activity against ring stages, whereas the other drugs acted later during intraerythrocytic development. When drugs were added to late schizonts, only artemisinin, cycloheximide, and trichostatin A were able to inhibit rupture and subsequent replication. Flow cytometry proved valuable for in vitro assays of antimalarial activity, with the free merozoite population acting as a clear marker for parasite growth inhibition. These studies have important implications for further understanding the mechanisms of action of antimalarials, studying and evaluating drug resistance, and developing new antimalarials. PMID:23318799

  10. Defining the Costs of Reusable Flexible Ureteroscope Reprocessing Using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Dylan; Ahmad, Tessnim; Metzler, Ian; Tzou, David T; Taguchi, Kazumi; Usawachintachit, Manint; Zetumer, Samuel; Sherer, Benjamin; Stoller, Marshall; Chi, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Careful decontamination and sterilization of reusable flexible ureteroscopes used in ureterorenoscopy cases prevent the spread of infectious pathogens to patients and technicians. However, inefficient reprocessing and unavailability of ureteroscopes sent out for repair can contribute to expensive operating room (OR) delays. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) was applied to describe the time and costs involved in reprocessing. Direct observation and timing were performed for all steps in reprocessing of reusable flexible ureteroscopes following operative procedures. Estimated times needed for each step by which damaged ureteroscopes identified during reprocessing are sent for repair were characterized through interviews with purchasing analyst staff. Process maps were created for reprocessing and repair detailing individual step times and their variances. Cost data for labor and disposables used were applied to calculate per minute and average step costs. Ten ureteroscopes were followed through reprocessing. Process mapping for ureteroscope reprocessing averaged 229.0 ± 74.4 minutes, whereas sending a ureteroscope for repair required an estimated 143 minutes per repair. Most steps demonstrated low variance between timed observations. Ureteroscope drying was the longest and highest variance step at 126.5 ± 55.7 minutes and was highly dependent on manual air flushing through the ureteroscope working channel and ureteroscope positioning in the drying cabinet. Total costs for reprocessing totaled $96.13 per episode, including the cost of labor and disposable items. Utilizing TDABC delineates the full spectrum of costs associated with ureteroscope reprocessing and identifies areas for process improvement to drive value-based care. At our institution, ureteroscope drying was one clearly identified target area. Implementing training in ureteroscope drying technique could save up to 2 hours per reprocessing event, potentially preventing expensive OR delays.

  11. Time to insulin initiation can not be used in defining Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults [LADA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brophy, S; Yderstræde, K; Mauricio, D

    2007-01-01

    and clinicians reported on criteria for initiating insulin. All patients were tested for glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA) in a central laboratory. We examined time to insulin treatment for GADA positive patients in 6 participating centres. Results: There was inter-centre variation......Objective: Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults [LADA] is type 1 diabetes presenting as non-insulin dependent diabetes. One feature of the selection criteria is time independent of insulin treatment. We examine the validity of this criterion. Methods: Patients were recruited in 9 European centres...

  12. Discrete-Time receivers for software-defined radio: challenges and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ru, Z.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—CMOS radio receiver architectures, based on radio frequency (RF) sampling followed by discrete-time (DT) signal processing via switched-capacitor circuits, have recently been proposed for dedicated radio standards. This paper explores the suitability of such DT receivers for highly flexible

  13. On the Suitability of Discrete-Time Receivers for Software-Defined Radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ru, Z.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—CMOS radio receiver architectures, based on radio frequency (RF) sampling followed by discrete-time (D-T) signal processing via switched-capacitor circuits, have recently been proposed for dedicated radio standards. This paper explores the suitability of such D-T receivers for highly

  14. Starting ART following cryptococcal meningitis:The optimal time has yet to be defined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Bicanic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the public sector rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART in 2004, the question of the optimal time to start ART following diagnosis of an opportunistic infection has aroused controversy among South African HIV clinicians and researchers.

  15. Novel technique for prediction of time points for scheduling of multipurpose batch plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seid, R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available . Consequently this avoids costly computational times due to iterations. In the model by Majozi and Zhu (2001) the sequence constraint that pertains to tasks that consume and produce the same state, the starting time of the consuming task at time point p must...

  16. Quality control methods in accelerometer data processing: defining minimum wear time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Rich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When using accelerometers to measure physical activity, researchers need to determine whether subjects have worn their device for a sufficient period to be included in analyses. We propose a minimum wear criterion using population-based accelerometer data, and explore the influence of gender and the purposeful inclusion of children with weekend data on reliability. METHODS: Accelerometer data obtained during the age seven sweep of the UK Millennium Cohort Study were analysed. Children were asked to wear an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for seven days. Reliability coefficients(r of mean daily counts/minute were calculated using the Spearman-Brown formula based on the intraclass correlation coefficient. An r of 1.0 indicates that all the variation is between- rather than within-children and that measurement is 100% reliable. An r of 0.8 is often regarded as acceptable reliability. Analyses were repeated on data from children who met different minimum daily wear times (one to 10 hours and wear days (one to seven days. Analyses were conducted for all children, separately for boys and girls, and separately for children with and without weekend data. RESULTS: At least one hour of wear time data was obtained from 7,704 singletons. Reliability increased as the minimum number of days and the daily wear time increased. A high reliability (r = 0.86 and sample size (n = 6,528 was achieved when children with ≥ two days lasting ≥10 hours/day were included in analyses. Reliability coefficients were similar for both genders. Purposeful sampling of children with weekend data resulted in comparable reliabilities to those calculated independent of weekend wear. CONCLUSION: Quality control procedures should be undertaken before analysing accelerometer data in large-scale studies. Using data from children with ≥ two days lasting ≥10 hours/day should provide reliable estimates of physical activity. It's unnecessary to include only children

  17. Real-time product attribute control to manufacture antibodies with defined N-linked glycan levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupke, Craig; Brady, Lowell J; Slade, Peter G; Clark, Philip; Caspary, R Guy; Livingston, Brittney; Taylor, Lisa; Bigham, Kyle; Morris, Arvia E; Bailey, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Pressures for cost-effective new therapies and an increased emphasis on emerging markets require technological advancements and a flexible future manufacturing network for the production of biologic medicines. The safety and efficacy of a product is crucial, and consistent product quality is an essential feature of any therapeutic manufacturing process. The active control of product quality in a typical biologic process is challenging because of measurement lags and nonlinearities present in the system. The current study uses nonlinear model predictive control to maintain a critical product quality attribute at a predetermined value during pilot scale manufacturing operations. This approach to product quality control ensures a more consistent product for patients, enables greater manufacturing efficiency, and eliminates the need for extensive process characterization by providing direct measures of critical product quality attributes for real time release of drug product. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Coding ill-defined and unknown cause of death is 13 times more frequent in Denmark than in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Sajantila, Antti; Lalu, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    Exact cause and manner of death determination improves legislative safety for the individual and for society and guides aspects of national public health. In the International Classification of Diseases, codes R00-R99 are used for "symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings......, not elsewhere classified" designated as "ill-defined" or "with unknown etiology". The World Health Organisation recommends avoiding the use of ill-defined and unknown causes of death in the death certificate as this terminology does not give any information concerning the possible conditions that led...... autopsy. Our study suggests that if all deaths in all age groups with unclear cause of death were systematically investigated with a forensic autopsy, only 2-3/1000 deaths per year would be coded as an ill-defined and unknown cause of death in national mortality statistics. At the same time the risk...

  19. Real-time three-dimensional ultrasound-assisted axillary plexus block defines soft tissue planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenen, Steven R; Riutort, Kevin; Ladlie, Beth L; Robards, Christopher; Franco, Carlo D; Greengrass, Roy A

    2009-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound is commonly used for regional block of the axillary brachial plexus. In this technical case report, we described a real-time three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound-guided axillary block. The difference between 2D and 3D ultrasound is similar to the difference between plain radiograph and computer tomography. Unlike 2D ultrasound that captures a planar image, 3D ultrasound technology acquires a 3D volume of information that enables multiple planes of view by manipulating the image without movement of the ultrasound probe. Observation of the brachial plexus in cross-section demonstrated distinct linear hyperechoic tissue structures (loose connective tissue) that initially inhibited the flow of the local anesthesia. After completion of the injection, we were able to visualize the influence of arterial pulsation on the spread of the local anesthesia. Possible advantages of this novel technology over current 2D methods are wider image volume and the capability to manipulate the planes of the image without moving the probe.

  20. Visualizing Robustness of Critical Points for 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, B.

    2013-06-01

    Analyzing critical points and their temporal evolutions plays a crucial role in understanding the behavior of vector fields. A key challenge is to quantify the stability of critical points: more stable points may represent more important phenomena or vice versa. The topological notion of robustness is a tool which allows us to quantify rigorously the stability of each critical point. Intuitively, the robustness of a critical point is the minimum amount of perturbation necessary to cancel it within a local neighborhood, measured under an appropriate metric. In this paper, we introduce a new analysis and visualization framework which enables interactive exploration of robustness of critical points for both stationary and time-varying 2D vector fields. This framework allows the end-users, for the first time, to investigate how the stability of a critical point evolves over time. We show that this depends heavily on the global properties of the vector field and that structural changes can correspond to interesting behavior. We demonstrate the practicality of our theories and techniques on several datasets involving combustion and oceanic eddy simulations and obtain some key insights regarding their stable and unstable features. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Visualizing Robustness of Critical Points for 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, B.; Rosen, P.; Skraba, P.; Bhatia, H.; Pascucci, V.

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing critical points and their temporal evolutions plays a crucial role in understanding the behavior of vector fields. A key challenge is to quantify the stability of critical points: more stable points may represent more important phenomena or vice versa. The topological notion of robustness is a tool which allows us to quantify rigorously the stability of each critical point. Intuitively, the robustness of a critical point is the minimum amount of perturbation necessary to cancel it within a local neighborhood, measured under an appropriate metric. In this paper, we introduce a new analysis and visualization framework which enables interactive exploration of robustness of critical points for both stationary and time-varying 2D vector fields. This framework allows the end-users, for the first time, to investigate how the stability of a critical point evolves over time. We show that this depends heavily on the global properties of the vector field and that structural changes can correspond to interesting behavior. We demonstrate the practicality of our theories and techniques on several datasets involving combustion and oceanic eddy simulations and obtain some key insights regarding their stable and unstable features. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. The delayed reproduction of long time intervals defined by innocuous thermal sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnejad, Mina; Martinu, Kristina; Grondin, Simon; Rainville, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The presence of discrete events during an interval to be estimated generally causes a dilation of perceived duration (event-filling effect). Here, we investigated this phenomenon in the thermal modality using multi-seconds (19 s) innocuous cool stimuli that were either constant (continuous interval) or fluctuating to create three discrete sensory events (segmented interval). Moreover, we introduced a delay following stimulus offset, before the reproduction phase, to allow for a direct comparison with our recent study showing an underestimation of duration in a delayed reproduction task of heat pain sensations (Khoshnejad et al. in Pain 155:581-590, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.12.015 ). The event-filling effect was tested by comparing the delayed reproduction of the segmented and the continuous stimuli in experimental conditions asking participants to (1) reproduce the dynamics of the sensation (i.e., changes in sensory intensity over time) or (2) reproduce only the interval duration (i.e., sensation onset-to-offset). A perceptual (control) condition required participants to report changes in sensation concurrently with the stimulus. Results of the dynamic task confirmed the underestimation of duration in the delayed reproduction task, but this effect was only found with the continuous and not with the segmented stimulus. This implies that the dilation of duration produced by segmentation might compensate for the underestimation of duration in this delayed reproduction task. However, this temporal dilation effect was only observed when participants were required to attend and reproduce the dynamics of sensation. These results suggest that the event-filling effect can be observed in the thermal sensory modality and that attention directed toward changes in sensory intensity might contribute to this effect.

  3. Method to minimize the low-frequency neutral-point voltage oscillations with time-offset injection for neutral-point-clamped inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to reduce the low-frequency neutral-point voltage oscillations. The neutral-point voltage oscillations are considerably reduced by adding a time-offset to the three phase turn-on times. The proper time-offset is simply calculated considering the phase currents and dwell...

  4. Method to Minimize the Low-Frequency Neutral-Point Voltage Oscillations With Time-Offset Injection for Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lee, Kyo-Beum

    2015-01-01

    time of small- and medium-voltage vectors. However, if the power factor is lower, there is a limitation to eliminate neutral-point oscillations. In this case, the proposed method can be improved by changing the switching sequence properly. Additionally, a method for neutral-point voltage balancing......This paper proposes a method to reduce the low-frequency neutral-point voltage oscillations. The neutral-point voltage oscillations are considerably reduced by adding a time offset to the three-phase turn-on times. The proper time offset is simply calculated considering the phase currents and dwell...

  5. Farey Statistics in Time n^{2/3} and Counting Primitive Lattice Points in Polygons

    OpenAIRE

    Patrascu, Mihai

    2007-01-01

    We present algorithms for computing ranks and order statistics in the Farey sequence, taking time O (n^{2/3}). This improves on the recent algorithms of Pawlewicz [European Symp. Alg. 2007], running in time O (n^{3/4}). We also initiate the study of a more general algorithmic problem: counting primitive lattice points in planar shapes.

  6. Dual time-point FDG PET/CT for differentiating benign from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) with the greatest uptake in the lesion were calculated for two time points (SUV1 and SUV2), and the percentage change over time per lesion was calculated (%DSUV). Routine histological findings served as the gold standard. Results. Histological examination showed that 14 ...

  7. Evaluation of methods for characterizing the melting curves of a high temperature cobalt-carbon fixed point to define and determine its melting temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, David; Machin, Graham

    2012-06-01

    The future mise en pratique for the realization of the kelvin will be founded on the melting temperatures of particular metal-carbon eutectic alloys as thermodynamic temperature references. However, at the moment there is no consensus on what should be taken as the melting temperature. An ideal melting or freezing curve should be a completely flat plateau at a specific temperature. Any departure from the ideal is due to shortcomings in the realization and should be accommodated within the uncertainty budget. However, for the proposed alloy-based fixed points, melting takes place over typically some hundreds of millikelvins. Including the entire melting range within the uncertainties would lead to an unnecessarily pessimistic view of the utility of these as reference standards. Therefore, detailed analysis of the shape of the melting curve is needed to give a value associated with some identifiable aspect of the phase transition. A range of approaches are or could be used; some purely practical, determining the point of inflection (POI) of the melting curve, some attempting to extrapolate to the liquidus temperature just at the end of melting, and a method that claims to give the liquidus temperature and an impurity correction based on the analytical Scheil model of solidification that has not previously been applied to eutectic melting. The different methods have been applied to cobalt-carbon melting curves that were obtained under conditions for which the Scheil model might be valid. In the light of the findings of this study it is recommended that the POI continue to be used as a pragmatic measure of temperature but where required a specified limits approach should be used to define and determine the melting temperature.

  8. Spatially heterogeneous dynamics investigated via a time-dependent four-point density correlation function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacevic, N.; Starr, F. W.; Schrøder, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    correlation function g4(r,t) and corresponding "structure factor" S4(q,t) which measure the spatial correlations between the local liquid density at two points in space, each at two different times, and so are sensitive to dynamical heterogeneity. We study g4(r,t) and S4(q,t) via molecular dynamics......Relaxation in supercooled liquids above their glass transition and below the onset temperature of "slow" dynamics involves the correlated motion of neighboring particles. This correlated motion results in the appearance of spatially heterogeneous dynamics or "dynamical heterogeneity." Traditional...... two-point time-dependent density correlation functions, while providing information about the transient "caging" of particles on cooling, are unable to provide sufficiently detailed information about correlated motion and dynamical heterogeneity. Here, we study a four-point, time-dependent density...

  9. New Bounds of Ostrowski–Gruss Type Inequality for (k + 1 Points on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eze R. Nwaeze

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present three new bounds of the Ostrowski--Gr\\"uss type inequality for points $x_0,x_1,x_2,\\cdots,x_k$ on time scales. Our results generalize result of Ng\\^o and Liu, and extend results of Ujevi\\'c to time scales with $(k+1$ points. We apply our results to the continuous, discrete, and quantum calculus to obtain many new interesting inequalities. An example is also considered. The estimates obtained in this paper will be very useful in numerical integration especially for the continuous case.

  10. Use of Time-Frequency Analysis and Neural Networks for Mode Identification in a Wireless Software-Defined Radio Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Gandetto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of time-frequency distributions is proposed as a nonlinear signal processing technique that is combined with a pattern recognition approach to identify superimposed transmission modes in a reconfigurable wireless terminal based on software-defined radio techniques. In particular, a software-defined radio receiver is described aiming at the identification of two coexistent communication modes: frequency hopping code division multiple access and direct sequence code division multiple access. As a case study, two standards, based on the previous modes and operating in the same band (industrial, scientific, and medical, are considered: IEEE WLAN 802.11b (direct sequence and Bluetooth (frequency hopping. Neural classifiers are used to obtain identification results. A comparison between two different neural classifiers is made in terms of relative error frequency.

  11. Defining chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian R; Ott, Edward

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose, discuss, and illustrate a computationally feasible definition of chaos which can be applied very generally to situations that are commonly encountered, including attractors, repellers, and non-periodically forced systems. This definition is based on an entropy-like quantity, which we call "expansion entropy," and we define chaos as occurring when this quantity is positive. We relate and compare expansion entropy to the well-known concept of topological entropy to which it is equivalent under appropriate conditions. We also present example illustrations, discuss computational implementations, and point out issues arising from attempts at giving definitions of chaos that are not entropy-based.

  12. Empiric model for mean generation time adjustment factor for classic point kinetics equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, David A.B.V. de; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Goncalves, Alessandro da C., E-mail: david.goes@poli.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: alessandro@con.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    Point reactor kinetics equations are the easiest way to observe the neutron production time behavior in a nuclear reactor. These equations are derived from the neutron transport equation using an approximation called Fick's law leading to a set of first order differential equations. The main objective of this study is to review classic point kinetics equation in order to approximate its results to the case when it is considered the time variation of the neutron currents. The computational modeling used for the calculations is based on the finite difference method. The results obtained with this model are compared with the reference model and then it is determined an empirical adjustment factor that modifies the point reactor kinetics equation to the real scenario. (author)

  13. Empiric model for mean generation time adjustment factor for classic point kinetics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, David A.B.V. de; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Goncalves, Alessandro da C.

    2017-01-01

    Point reactor kinetics equations are the easiest way to observe the neutron production time behavior in a nuclear reactor. These equations are derived from the neutron transport equation using an approximation called Fick's law leading to a set of first order differential equations. The main objective of this study is to review classic point kinetics equation in order to approximate its results to the case when it is considered the time variation of the neutron currents. The computational modeling used for the calculations is based on the finite difference method. The results obtained with this model are compared with the reference model and then it is determined an empirical adjustment factor that modifies the point reactor kinetics equation to the real scenario. (author)

  14. A point-based rendering approach for real-time interaction on mobile devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG XiaoHui; ZHAO QinPing; HE ZhiYing; XIE Ke; LIU YuBo

    2009-01-01

    Mobile device is an Important interactive platform. Due to the limitation of computation, memory, display area and energy, how to realize the efficient and real-time interaction of 3D models based on mobile devices is an important research topic. Considering features of mobile devices, this paper adopts remote rendering mode and point models, and then, proposes a transmission and rendering approach that could interact in real time. First, improved simplification algorithm based on MLS and display resolution of mobile devices is proposed. Then, a hierarchy selection of point models and a QoS transmission control strategy are given based on interest area of operator, interest degree of object in the virtual environment and rendering error. They can save the energy consumption. Finally, the rendering and interaction of point models are completed on mobile devices. The experiments show that our method is efficient.

  15. Bayesian inference for multivariate point processes observed at sparsely distributed times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper; Aukema, B.H.

    We consider statistical and computational aspects of simulation-based Bayesian inference for a multivariate point process which is only observed at sparsely distributed times. For specicity we consider a particular data set which has earlier been analyzed by a discrete time model involving unknown...... normalizing constants. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using continuous time processes compared to discrete time processes in the setting of the present paper as well as other spatial-temporal situations. Keywords: Bark beetle, conditional intensity, forest entomology, Markov chain Monte Carlo...

  16. Clinical Significance of F 18 FP CIT Dual Time Point PET Imaging in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jin Kyoung; Yoo, Ik Dong; Seo, Ye Young; Chung, Youg An; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Song, In Uk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of dual time point F 18 FP CIT PET imaging in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty four patients with PD (mean age 69.6) and 18 healthy people (mean age 70.26) underwent two sequential PET/CT scans (dual time point imaging) at 90 and 210 min after F 18 FP CIT injection. Tracer activity of region of interest was measured in the caudate, putamen and a reference region in the brain from both time points. The outcome parameter was the striatooccipital ratio (SOR). Normal SOR values were obtained in the control group. The percent change in tracer activity between 90 and 210 min images was calculated. The SOR values and the percent change in tracer activity were compared between the patients and healthy control group. The SOR values for the caudate, anterior and posterior putamen at both 90 and 210 min images were significantly reduced in the patients with PD. The lowest P value was obtained for the anterior and posterior putamen (p<0.001) at both time points. There were significant differences of the percent change in tracer activity for the anterior and posterior putamen in the two groups (p=0.01) F 18 FP CIT PET scans at 90 and 210 min after injection are both able to diagnose PD. Therefore, the 90 min image by itself in sufficient for diagnosing PD.

  17. A test of alternative estimators for volume at time 1 from remeasured point samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis A. Roesch; Edwin J. Green; Charles T. Scott

    1993-01-01

    Two estimators for volume at time 1 for use with permanent horizontal point samples are evaluated. One estimator, used traditionally, uses only the trees sampled at time 1, while the second estimator, originally presented by Roesch and coauthors (F.A. Roesch, Jr., E.J. Green, and C.T. Scott. 1989. For. Sci. 35(2):281-293). takes advantage of additional sample...

  18. On the Fibration Defined by the Field Lines of a Knotted Class of Electromagnetic Fields at a Particular Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Arrayás

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A class of vacuum electromagnetic fields in which the field lines are knotted curves are reviewed. The class is obtained from two complex functions at a particular instant t = 0 so they inherit the topological properties of red the level curves of these functions. We study the complete topological structure defined by the magnetic and electric field lines at t = 0 . This structure is not conserved in time in general, although it is possible to red find special cases in which the field lines are topologically equivalent for every value of t.

  19. Computationally determining the salience of decision points for real-time wayfinding support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Takemiya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the concept of computational salience to explain the discriminatory efficacy of decision points, which in turn may have applications to providing real-time assistance to users of navigational aids. This research compared algorithms for calculating the computational salience of decision points and validated the results via three methods: high-salience decision points were used to classify wayfinders; salience scores were used to weight a conditional probabilistic scoring function for real-time wayfinder performance classification; and salience scores were correlated with wayfinding-performance metrics. As an exploratory step to linking computational and cognitive salience, a photograph-recognition experiment was conducted. Results reveal a distinction between algorithms useful for determining computational and cognitive saliences. For computational salience, information about the structural integration of decision points is effective, while information about the probability of decision-point traversal shows promise for determining cognitive salience. Limitations from only using structural information and motivations for future work that include non-structural information are elicited.

  20. Guidelines for time-to-event end-point definitions in trials for pancreatic cancer. Results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnetain, Franck; Bonsing, Bert; Conroy, Thierry; Dousseau, Adelaide; Glimelius, Bengt; Haustermans, Karin; Lacaine, François; van Laethem, Jean Luc; Aparicio, Thomas; Aust, Daniela; Bassi, Claudio; Berger, Virginie; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Chibaudel, Benoist; Dahan, Laeticia; de Gramont, Aimery; Delpero, Jean Robert; Dervenis, Christos; Ducreux, Michel; Gal, Jocelyn; Gerber, Erich; Ghaneh, Paula; Hammel, Pascal; Hendlisz, Alain; Jooste, Valérie; Labianca, Roberto; Latouche, Aurelien; Lutz, Manfred; Macarulla, Teresa; Malka, David; Mauer, Muriel; Mitry, Emmanuel; Neoptolemos, John; Pessaux, Patrick; Sauvanet, Alain; Tabernero, Josep; Taieb, Julien; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Gourgou-Bourgade, Sophie; Bellera, Carine; Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone; Collette, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Using potential surrogate end-points for overall survival (OS) such as Disease-Free- (DFS) or Progression-Free Survival (PFS) is increasingly common in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, end-points are too often imprecisely defined which largely contributes to a lack of homogeneity across

  1. Measures and time points relevant for post-surgical follow-up in patients with inflammatory arthritis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tägil Magnus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatic diseases commonly affect joints and other structures in the hand. Surgery is a traditional way to treat hand problems in inflammatory rheumatic diseases with the purposes of pain relief, restore function and prevent progression. There are numerous measures to choose from, and a combination of outcome measures is recommended. This study evaluated if instruments commonly used in rheumatologic clinical practice are suitable to measure outcome of hand surgery and to identify time points relevant for follow-up. Methods Thirty-one patients (median age 56 years, median disease duration 15 years with inflammatory rheumatic disease and need for post-surgical occupational therapy intervention formed this pilot study group. Hand function was assessed regarding grip strength (Grippit, pain (VAS, range of motion (ROM (Signals of Functional Impairment (SOFI and grip ability (Grip Ability Test (GAT. Activities of daily life (ADL were assessed by means of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome (DASH and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM. The instruments were evaluated by responsiveness and feasibility; follow-up points were 0, 3, 6 and 12 months. Results All instruments showed significant change at one or more follow-up points. Satisfaction with activities (COPM showed the best responsiveness (SMR>0.8, while ROM measured with SOFI had low responsiveness at most follow-up time points. The responsiveness of the instruments was stable between 6 and 12 month follow-up which imply that 6 month is an appropriate time for evaluating short-term effect of hand surgery in rheumatic diseases. Conclusion We suggest a core set of instruments measuring pain, grip strength, grip ability, perceived symptoms and self-defined daily activities. This study has shown that VAS pain, the Grippit instrument, GAT, DASH symptom scale and COPM are suitable outcome instruments for hand surgery, while SOFI may be a more insensitive

  2. Modified mean generation time parameter in the neutron point kinetics equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Rodrigo C.; Gonçalves, Alessandro C.; Rosa, Felipe S.S., E-mail: alessandro@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: frosa@if.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes an approximation for the modified point kinetics equations proposed by NUNES et. al, 2015, through the adjustment of a kinetic parameter. This approximation consists of analyzing the terms of the modified point kinetics equations in order to identify the least important ones for the solution, resulting in a modification of the mean generation time parameter that incorporates all influences of the additional terms of the modified kinetics. This approximation is applied on the inverse kinetics, to compare the results with the inverse kinetics from the modified kinetics in order to validate the proposed model. (author)

  3. Modified mean generation time parameter in the neutron point kinetics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Rodrigo C.; Gonçalves, Alessandro C.; Rosa, Felipe S.S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an approximation for the modified point kinetics equations proposed by NUNES et. al, 2015, through the adjustment of a kinetic parameter. This approximation consists of analyzing the terms of the modified point kinetics equations in order to identify the least important ones for the solution, resulting in a modification of the mean generation time parameter that incorporates all influences of the additional terms of the modified kinetics. This approximation is applied on the inverse kinetics, to compare the results with the inverse kinetics from the modified kinetics in order to validate the proposed model. (author)

  4. Portable Dew Point Mass Spectrometry System for Real-Time Gas and Moisture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, C.; Gillespie, Stacey; Ratzel, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    A portable instrument incorporates both mass spectrometry and dew point measurement to provide real-time, quantitative gas measurements of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, along with real-time, quantitative moisture analysis. The Portable Dew Point Mass Spectrometry (PDP-MS) system comprises a single quadrupole mass spectrometer and a high vacuum system consisting of a turbopump and a diaphragm-backing pump. A capacitive membrane dew point sensor was placed upstream of the MS, but still within the pressure-flow control pneumatic region. Pressure-flow control was achieved with an upstream precision metering valve, a capacitance diaphragm gauge, and a downstream mass flow controller. User configurable LabVIEW software was developed to provide real-time concentration data for the MS, dew point monitor, and sample delivery system pressure control, pressure and flow monitoring, and recording. The system has been designed to include in situ, NIST-traceable calibration. Certain sample tubing retains sufficient water that even if the sample is dry, the sample tube will desorb water to an amount resulting in moisture concentration errors up to 500 ppm for as long as 10 minutes. It was determined that Bev-A-Line IV was the best sample line to use. As a result of this issue, it is prudent to add a high-level humidity sensor to PDP-MS so such events can be prevented in the future.

  5. Real-time estimation of FLE for point-based registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Andrew D.; Peters, Terry M.

    2009-02-01

    In image-guide surgery, optimizing the accuracy in localizing the surgical tools within the virtual reality environment or 3D image is vitally important, significant effort has been spent reducing the measurement errors at the point of interest or target. This target registration error (TRE) is often defined by a root-mean-square statistic which reduces the vector data to a single term that can be minimized. However, lost in the data reduction is the directionality of the error which, can be modelled using a 3D covariance matrix. Recently, we developed a set of expressions that modeled the TRE statistics for point-based registrations as a function of the fiducial marker geometry, target location and the fiducial localizer error (FLE). Unfortunately, these expressions are only as good as the definition of the FLE. In order to close the gap, we have subsequently developed a closed form expression that estimates the FLE as a function of the estimated fiducial registration error (FRE, the error between the measured fiducials and the best fit locations of those fiducials). The FRE covariance matrix is estimated using a sliding window technique and used as input into the closed form expression to estimate the FLE. The estimated FLE can then used to estimate the TRE which, can be given to the surgeon to permit the procedure to be designed such that the errors associated with the point-based registrations are minimized.

  6. Time discretization of the point kinetic equations using matrix exponential method and First-Order Hold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yujin; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Parlos, Alexander G.; Chong, Kil To

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical solution for stiff differential equations using matrix exponential method. • The approximation is based on First Order Hold assumption. • Various input examples applied to the point kinetics equations. • The method shows superior useful and effective activity. - Abstract: A system of nonlinear differential equations is derived to model the dynamics of neutron density and the delayed neutron precursors within a point kinetics equation modeling framework for a nuclear reactor. The point kinetic equations are mathematically characterized as stiff, occasionally nonlinear, ordinary differential equations, posing significant challenges when numerical solutions are sought and traditionally resulting in the need for smaller time step intervals within various computational schemes. In light of the above realization, the present paper proposes a new discretization method inspired by system-theoretic notions and technically based on a combination of the matrix exponential method (MEM) and the First-Order Hold (FOH) assumption. Under the proposed time discretization structure, the sampled-data representation of the nonlinear point kinetic system of equations is derived. The performance of the proposed time discretization procedure is evaluated using several case studies with sinusoidal reactivity profiles and multiple input examples (reactivity and neutron source function). It is shown, that by applying the proposed method under a First-Order Hold for the neutron density and the precursor concentrations at each time step interval, the stiffness problem associated with the point kinetic equations can be adequately addressed and resolved. Finally, as evidenced by the aforementioned detailed simulation studies, the proposed method retains its validity and accuracy for a wide range of reactor operating conditions, including large sampling periods dictated by physical and/or technical limitations associated with the current state of sensor and

  7. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields. I

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We study definably compact definably connected groups definable in a sufficiently saturated real closed field $R$. We introduce the notion of group-generic point for $\\bigvee$-definable groups and show the existence of group-generic points for definably compact groups definable in a sufficiently saturated o-minimal expansion of a real closed field. We use this notion along with some properties of generic sets to prove that for every definably compact definably connected group $G$ definable in...

  8. Machine scheduling to minimize weighted completion times the use of the α-point

    CERN Document Server

    Gusmeroli, Nicoló

    2018-01-01

    This work reviews the most important results regarding the use of the α-point in Scheduling Theory. It provides a number of different LP-relaxations for scheduling problems and seeks to explain their polyhedral consequences. It also explains the concept of the α-point and how the conversion algorithm works, pointing out the relations to the sum of the weighted completion times. Lastly, the book explores the latest techniques used for many scheduling problems with different constraints, such as release dates, precedences, and parallel machines. This reference book is intended for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students who are interested in scheduling theory. It is also inspiring for researchers wanting to learn about sophisticated techniques and open problems of the field.

  9. Time Series UAV Image-Based Point Clouds for Landslide Progression Evaluation Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla; Moussa, Adel; Foroutan, Marzieh; El-Sheimy, Naser; Habib, Ayman

    2017-10-18

    Landslides are major and constantly changing threats to urban landscapes and infrastructure. It is essential to detect and capture landslide changes regularly. Traditional methods for monitoring landslides are time-consuming, costly, dangerous, and the quality and quantity of the data is sometimes unable to meet the necessary requirements of geotechnical projects. This motivates the development of more automatic and efficient remote sensing approaches for landslide progression evaluation. Automatic change detection involving low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle image-based point clouds, although proven, is relatively unexplored, and little research has been done in terms of accounting for volumetric changes. In this study, a methodology for automatically deriving change displacement rates, in a horizontal direction based on comparisons between extracted landslide scarps from multiple time periods, has been developed. Compared with the iterative closest projected point (ICPP) registration method, the developed method takes full advantage of automated geometric measuring, leading to fast processing. The proposed approach easily processes a large number of images from different epochs and enables the creation of registered image-based point clouds without the use of extensive ground control point information or further processing such as interpretation and image correlation. The produced results are promising for use in the field of landslide research.

  10. Meta-Analysis of Effect Sizes Reported at Multiple Time Points Using General Linear Mixed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musekiwa, Alfred; Manda, Samuel O. M.; Mwambi, Henry G.; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies combines effect sizes measured at pre-determined time points. The most common approach involves performing separate univariate meta-analyses at individual time points. This simplistic approach ignores dependence between longitudinal effect sizes, which might result in less precise parameter estimates. In this paper, we show how to conduct a meta-analysis of longitudinal effect sizes where we contrast different covariance structures for dependence between effect sizes, both within and between studies. We propose new combinations of covariance structures for the dependence between effect size and utilize a practical example involving meta-analysis of 17 trials comparing postoperative treatments for a type of cancer, where survival is measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post randomization. Although the results from this particular data set show the benefit of accounting for within-study serial correlation between effect sizes, simulations are required to confirm these results. PMID:27798661

  11. A method for untriggered time-dependent searches for multiple flares from neutrino point sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gora, D.; Bernardini, E.; Cruz Silva, A.H.

    2011-04-01

    A method for a time-dependent search for flaring astrophysical sources which can be potentially detected by large neutrino experiments is presented. The method uses a time-clustering algorithm combined with an unbinned likelihood procedure. By including in the likelihood function a signal term which describes the contribution of many small clusters of signal-like events, this method provides an effective way for looking for weak neutrino flares over different time-scales. The method is sensitive to an overall excess of events distributed over several flares which are not individually detectable. For standard cases (one flare) the discovery potential of the method is worse than a standard time-dependent point source analysis with unknown duration of the flare by a factor depending on the signal-to-background level. However, for flares sufficiently shorter than the total observation period, the method is more sensitive than a time-integrated analysis. (orig.)

  12. A method for untriggered time-dependent searches for multiple flares from neutrino point sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gora, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Cracow (Poland); Bernardini, E.; Cruz Silva, A.H. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Cracow (Poland)

    2011-04-15

    A method for a time-dependent search for flaring astrophysical sources which can be potentially detected by large neutrino experiments is presented. The method uses a time-clustering algorithm combined with an unbinned likelihood procedure. By including in the likelihood function a signal term which describes the contribution of many small clusters of signal-like events, this method provides an effective way for looking for weak neutrino flares over different time-scales. The method is sensitive to an overall excess of events distributed over several flares which are not individually detectable. For standard cases (one flare) the discovery potential of the method is worse than a standard time-dependent point source analysis with unknown duration of the flare by a factor depending on the signal-to-background level. However, for flares sufficiently shorter than the total observation period, the method is more sensitive than a time-integrated analysis. (orig.)

  13. Noise and time delay induce critical point in a bistable system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqiang; Nie, Linru; Yu, Lilong; Zhang, Xinyu

    2014-07-01

    We study relaxation time Tc of time-delayed bistable system driven by two cross-correlated Gaussian white noises that one is multiplicative and the other is additive. By means of numerical calculations, the results indicate that: (i) Combination of noise and time delay can induce two critical points about the relaxation time at some certain noise cross-correlation strength λ under the condition that the multiplicative intensity D equals to the additive noise intensity α. (ii) For each fixed D or α, there are two symmetrical critical points which locates in the regions of positive and negative correlations, respectively. Namely, as λ equals to the critical value λc, Tc is independent of the delay time and the result of Tc versus τ is a horizontal line, but as |λ|>|λc| (or |λ|decreases) with the delay time increasing. (iii) In the presence of D = α, the change of λc with D is two symmetrical curves about the axis of λc = 0, and the critical value λc is close to zero for a smaller D, which approaches to +1 or -1 for a greater D.

  14. A real-time GNSS-R system based on software-defined radio and graphics processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Amagai, Jun; Aida, Masanori; Narita, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    Reflected signals of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) from the sea or land surface can be utilized to deduce and monitor physical and geophysical parameters of the reflecting area. Unlike most other remote sensing techniques, GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) operates as a passive radar that takes advantage from the increasing number of navigation satellites that broadcast their L-band signals. Thereby, most of the GNSS-R receiver architectures are based on dedicated hardware solutions. Software-defined radio (SDR) technology has advanced in the recent years and enabled signal processing in real-time, which makes it an ideal candidate for the realization of a flexible GNSS-R system. Additionally, modern commodity graphic cards, which offer massive parallel computing performances, allow to handle the whole signal processing chain without interfering with the PC's CPU. Thus, this paper describes a GNSS-R system which has been developed on the principles of software-defined radio supported by General Purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPGPUs), and presents results from initial field tests which confirm the anticipated capability of the system.

  15. Time-Dependent Selection of an Optimal Set of Sources to Define a Stable Celestial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bail, Karine; Gordon, David

    2010-01-01

    Temporal statistical position stability is required for VLBI sources to define a stable Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) and has been studied in many recent papers. This study analyzes the sources from the latest realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) with the Allan variance, in addition to taking into account the apparent linear motions of the sources. Focusing on the 295 defining sources shows how they are a good compromise of different criteria, such as statistical stability and sky distribution, as well as having a sufficient number of sources, despite the fact that the most stable sources of the entire ICRF2 are mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Nevertheless, the selection of a stable set is not unique: studying different solutions (GSF005a and AUG24 from GSFC and OPA from the Paris Observatory) over different time periods (1989.5 to 2009.5 and 1999.5 to 2009.5) leads to selections that can differ in up to 20% of the sources. Observing, recording, and network improvement are some of the causes, showing better stability for the CRF over the last decade than the last twenty years. But this may also be explained by the assumption of stationarity that is not necessarily right for some sources.

  16. PolyWaTT: A polynomial water travel time estimator based on Derivative Dynamic Time Warping and Perceptually Important Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claure, Yuri Navarro; Matsubara, Edson Takashi; Padovani, Carlos; Prati, Ronaldo Cristiano

    2018-03-01

    Traditional methods for estimating timing parameters in hydrological science require a rigorous study of the relations of flow resistance, slope, flow regime, watershed size, water velocity, and other local variables. These studies are mostly based on empirical observations, where the timing parameter is estimated using empirically derived formulas. The application of these studies to other locations is not always direct. The locations in which equations are used should have comparable characteristics to the locations from which such equations have been derived. To overcome this barrier, in this work, we developed a data-driven approach to estimate timing parameters such as travel time. Our proposal estimates timing parameters using historical data of the location without the need of adapting or using empirical formulas from other locations. The proposal only uses one variable measured at two different locations on the same river (for instance, two river-level measurements, one upstream and the other downstream on the same river). The recorded data from each location generates two time series. Our method aligns these two time series using derivative dynamic time warping (DDTW) and perceptually important points (PIP). Using data from timing parameters, a polynomial function generalizes the data by inducing a polynomial water travel time estimator, called PolyWaTT. To evaluate the potential of our proposal, we applied PolyWaTT to three different watersheds: a floodplain ecosystem located in the part of Brazil known as Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland area; and the Missouri River and the Pearl River, in United States of America. We compared our proposal with empirical formulas and a data-driven state-of-the-art method. The experimental results demonstrate that PolyWaTT showed a lower mean absolute error than all other methods tested in this study, and for longer distances the mean absolute error achieved by PolyWaTT is three times smaller than empirical

  17. Global Stability of Polytopic Linear Time-Varying Dynamic Systems under Time-Varying Point Delays and Impulsive Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Sen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stability properties of a class of dynamic linear systems possessing several linear time-invariant parameterizations (or configurations which conform a linear time-varying polytopic dynamic system with a finite number of time-varying time-differentiable point delays. The parameterizations may be timevarying and with bounded discontinuities and they can be subject to mixed regular plus impulsive controls within a sequence of time instants of zero measure. The polytopic parameterization for the dynamics associated with each delay is specific, so that (q+1 polytopic parameterizations are considered for a system with q delays being also subject to delay-free dynamics. The considered general dynamic system includes, as particular cases, a wide class of switched linear systems whose individual parameterizations are timeinvariant which are governed by a switching rule. However, the dynamic system under consideration is viewed as much more general since it is time-varying with timevarying delays and the bounded discontinuous changes of active parameterizations are generated by impulsive controls in the dynamics and, at the same time, there is not a prescribed set of candidate potential parameterizations.

  18. Heterogeneous dynamics of ionic liquids: A four-point time correlation function approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiannan; Willcox, Jon A. L.; Kim, Hyung J.

    2018-05-01

    Many ionic liquids show behavior similar to that of glassy systems, e.g., large and long-lasted deviations from Gaussian dynamics and clustering of "mobile" and "immobile" groups of ions. Herein a time-dependent four-point density correlation function—typically used to characterize glassy systems—is implemented for the ionic liquids, choline acetate, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Dynamic correlation beyond the first ionic solvation shell on the time scale of nanoseconds is found in the ionic liquids, revealing the cooperative nature of ion motions. The traditional solvent, acetonitrile, on the other hand, shows a much shorter length-scale that decays after a few picoseconds.

  19. The motion of a classical spinning point particle in a Riemann-Cartan space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, R.

    1983-01-01

    A consistent set of equations of motion for classical charged point particles with spin and magnetic dipole moment in a Riemann-Cartan space-time is generated from a generalized Lagrangean formalism. The equations avoid the spurius free helicoidal solutions and at the same time conserve the canonical condition of normalization of the 4-velocity. The 4-velocity and the mechanical moment are paralell in this theory, where the condition of orthogonality between the spin and the 4-velocity is treated as a non-holonomic one. (Author) [pt

  20. Real time estimation of photovoltaic modules characteristics and its application to maximum power point operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrigos, Ausias; Blanes, Jose M.; Carrasco, Jose A. [Area de Tecnologia Electronica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 03202 Elche, Alicante (Spain); Ejea, Juan B. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Avda. Dr Moliner 50, 46100 Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    In this paper, an approximate curve fitting method for photovoltaic modules is presented. The operation is based on solving a simple solar cell electrical model by a microcontroller in real time. Only four voltage and current coordinates are needed to obtain the solar module parameters and set its operation at maximum power in any conditions of illumination and temperature. Despite its simplicity, this method is suitable for low cost real time applications, as control loop reference generator in photovoltaic maximum power point circuits. The theory that supports the estimator together with simulations and experimental results are presented. (author)

  1. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junbo; Wang, Gaojing; Han, Xianquan; Guo, Jiming

    2017-06-12

    Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS) predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm-dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  2. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm–dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  3. Polar coordinated fuzzy controller based real-time maximum-power point control of photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syafaruddin; Hiyama, Takashi [Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering of Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Karatepe, Engin [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering of Ege University, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    It is crucial to improve the photovoltaic (PV) system efficiency and to develop the reliability of PV generation control systems. There are two ways to increase the efficiency of PV power generation system. The first is to develop materials offering high conversion efficiency at low cost. The second is to operate PV systems optimally. However, the PV system can be optimally operated only at a specific output voltage and its output power fluctuates under intermittent weather conditions. Moreover, it is very difficult to test the performance of a maximum-power point tracking (MPPT) controller under the same weather condition during the development process and also the field testing is costly and time consuming. This paper presents a novel real-time simulation technique of PV generation system by using dSPACE real-time interface system. The proposed system includes Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and fuzzy logic controller scheme using polar information. This type of fuzzy logic rules is implemented for the first time to operate the PV module at optimum operating point. ANN is utilized to determine the optimum operating voltage for monocrystalline silicon, thin-film cadmium telluride and triple junction amorphous silicon solar cells. The verification of availability and stability of the proposed system through the real-time simulator shows that the proposed system can respond accurately for different scenarios and different solar cell technologies. (author)

  4. Subclinical ketosis in post-partum dairy cows fed a predominantly pasture-based diet: defining cut-points for diagnosis using concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood and determining prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    Firstly, to define, in dairy cows in the first 5 weeks post-calving fed a predominantly pasture-based diet, cut-points of concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood, above which there were associations with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), reduced pregnancy rates (PR) and decreased milk production, in order to better define subclinical ketosis (SCK) in such cattle; and secondly, to determine the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for SCK. An observational field study was conducted in 565 cows from 15 spring-calving and predominantly pasture-fed dairy herds in two regions of New Zealand during the 2010- 2011 dairy season. Within each herd, a cohort of randomly selected cows (approximately 40 per herd) was blood sampled to determine concentrations of BHBA on six occasions at weekly intervals starting within 5 days of calving. The key outcome variables were the presence/absence of PVD at 5 weeks post-calving, PR after 6 weeks (6-week PR) and after the completion of the breeding season (final PR), and mean daily milk solids production. Two cut-points for defining SCK were identified: firstly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L within 5 days post-calving, which was associated with an increased diagnosis of PVD (24 vs. 8%); and secondly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L at any stage within 5 weeks post-calving, which was associated with decreased 6-week PR (78 vs. 85%). The mean herd-level incidence of SCK within 5 weeks post-calving was 68 (min 12; max 100)% and large variations existed between herds in peak prevalence of SCK and the interval post-calving at which such peaks occurred. Cows>8 years of age and cows losing body condition were at increased risk of SCK within 5 weeks of calving. Cows with concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L in early lactation had a higher risk of PVD and lower 6-week PR. Cow and herd-level prevalence of SCK varied widely in early lactation. Subclinical ketosis is common and is significantly

  5. Interevent Time Distribution of Renewal Point Process, Case Study: Extreme Rainfall in South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunusi, Nurtiti

    2018-03-01

    The study of time distribution of occurrences of extreme rain phenomena plays a very important role in the analysis and weather forecast in an area. The timing of extreme rainfall is difficult to predict because its occurrence is random. This paper aims to determine the inter event time distribution of extreme rain events and minimum waiting time until the occurrence of next extreme event through a point process approach. The phenomenon of extreme rain events over a given period of time is following a renewal process in which the time for events is a random variable τ. The distribution of random variable τ is assumed to be a Pareto, Log Normal, and Gamma. To estimate model parameters, a moment method is used. Consider Rt as the time of the last extreme rain event at one location is the time difference since the last extreme rainfall event. if there are no extreme rain events up to t 0, there will be an opportunity for extreme rainfall events at (t 0, t 0 + δt 0). Furthermore from the three models reviewed, the minimum waiting time until the next extreme rainfall will be determined. The result shows that Log Nrmal model is better than Pareto and Gamma model for predicting the next extreme rainfall in South Sulawesi while the Pareto model can not be used.

  6. A point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadioglu, Samet Y., E-mail: kadioglu@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Mathematical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34210 Davutpasa-Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Berry, Ray A., E-mail: ray.berry@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 3840, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Martineau, Richard C. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 3840, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • This new method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods. • It is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. • It exhibits the simplicity of implementation of an explicit method. • It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration such as can occur inside nuclear reactor coolant systems. • Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very efficiently; and its implementation is very robust. - Abstract: We introduce a point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems. The method treats the solution variables of interest (that can be located at cell centers, cell edges, or cell nodes) implicitly and the rest of the information related to same or other variables are handled explicitly. The method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods, except it involves a few additional function(s) evaluation steps. Moreover, the method is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. This new approach exhibits the simplicity of implementation of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods. It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration wherein one would like to perform time integrations with very large time steps. Because the method can be time inaccurate for fast transient problems, particularly with larger time steps, an appropriate solution strategy for a problem that evolves from a fast to a slow transient would be to integrate the fast transient with an explicit or semi-implicit technique and then switch to this point implicit method as soon as the time variation slows sufficiently. We have solved several test problems that result from scalar or systems of flow equations. Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very

  7. A point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadioglu, Samet Y.; Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This new method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods. • It is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. • It exhibits the simplicity of implementation of an explicit method. • It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration such as can occur inside nuclear reactor coolant systems. • Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very efficiently; and its implementation is very robust. - Abstract: We introduce a point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems. The method treats the solution variables of interest (that can be located at cell centers, cell edges, or cell nodes) implicitly and the rest of the information related to same or other variables are handled explicitly. The method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods, except it involves a few additional function(s) evaluation steps. Moreover, the method is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. This new approach exhibits the simplicity of implementation of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods. It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration wherein one would like to perform time integrations with very large time steps. Because the method can be time inaccurate for fast transient problems, particularly with larger time steps, an appropriate solution strategy for a problem that evolves from a fast to a slow transient would be to integrate the fast transient with an explicit or semi-implicit technique and then switch to this point implicit method as soon as the time variation slows sufficiently. We have solved several test problems that result from scalar or systems of flow equations. Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very

  8. SUPRA: open-source software-defined ultrasound processing for real-time applications : A 2D and 3D pipeline from beamforming to B-mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbl, Rüdiger; Navab, Nassir; Hennersperger, Christoph

    2018-06-01

    Research in ultrasound imaging is limited in reproducibility by two factors: First, many existing ultrasound pipelines are protected by intellectual property, rendering exchange of code difficult. Second, most pipelines are implemented in special hardware, resulting in limited flexibility of implemented processing steps on such platforms. With SUPRA, we propose an open-source pipeline for fully software-defined ultrasound processing for real-time applications to alleviate these problems. Covering all steps from beamforming to output of B-mode images, SUPRA can help improve the reproducibility of results and make modifications to the image acquisition mode accessible to the research community. We evaluate the pipeline qualitatively, quantitatively, and regarding its run time. The pipeline shows image quality comparable to a clinical system and backed by point spread function measurements a comparable resolution. Including all processing stages of a usual ultrasound pipeline, the run-time analysis shows that it can be executed in 2D and 3D on consumer GPUs in real time. Our software ultrasound pipeline opens up the research in image acquisition. Given access to ultrasound data from early stages (raw channel data, radiofrequency data), it simplifies the development in imaging. Furthermore, it tackles the reproducibility of research results, as code can be shared easily and even be executed without dedicated ultrasound hardware.

  9. GPU-accelerated Modeling and Element-free Reverse-time Migration with Gauss Points Partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Z.; Jia, X.

    2014-12-01

    Element-free method (EFM) has been applied to seismic modeling and migration. Compared with finite element method (FEM) and finite difference method (FDM), it is much cheaper and more flexible because only the information of the nodes and the boundary of the study area are required in computation. In the EFM, the number of Gauss points should be consistent with the number of model nodes; otherwise the accuracy of the intermediate coefficient matrices would be harmed. Thus when we increase the nodes of velocity model in order to obtain higher resolution, we find that the size of the computer's memory will be a bottleneck. The original EFM can deal with at most 81×81 nodes in the case of 2G memory, as tested by Jia and Hu (2006). In order to solve the problem of storage and computation efficiency, we propose a concept of Gauss points partition (GPP), and utilize the GPUs to improve the computation efficiency. Considering the characteristics of the Gaussian points, the GPP method doesn't influence the propagation of seismic wave in the velocity model. To overcome the time-consuming computation of the stiffness matrix (K) and the mass matrix (M), we also use the GPUs in our computation program. We employ the compressed sparse row (CSR) format to compress the intermediate sparse matrices and try to simplify the operations by solving the linear equations with the CULA Sparse's Conjugate Gradient (CG) solver instead of the linear sparse solver 'PARDISO'. It is observed that our strategy can significantly reduce the computational time of K and Mcompared with the algorithm based on CPU. The model tested is Marmousi model. The length of the model is 7425m and the depth is 2990m. We discretize the model with 595x298 nodes, 300x300 Gauss cells and 3x3 Gauss points in each cell. In contrast to the computational time of the conventional EFM, the GPUs-GPP approach can substantially improve the efficiency. The speedup ratio of time consumption of computing K, M is 120 and the

  10. A point-of-care chemistry test for reduction of turnaround and clinical decision time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eui Jung; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Seong Chun; Cho, Jin Seong; Lee, Seung Chul; Park, Ju Ok; Cha, Won Chul

    2011-06-01

    Our study compared clinical decision time between patients managed with a point-of-care chemistry test (POCT) and patients managed with the traditional central laboratory test (CLT). This was a randomized controlled multicenter trial in the emergency departments (EDs) of 5 academic teaching hospitals. We randomly assigned patients to POCT or CLT stratified by the Emergency Severity Index. A POCT chemistry analyzer (Piccolo; Abaxis, Inc, Union City, Calif), which is able to test liver panel, renal panel, pancreas enzymes, lipid panel, electrolytes, and blood gases, was set up in each ED. Primary and secondary end point was turnaround time and door-to-clinical-decision time. The total 2323 patients were randomly assigned to the POCT group (n = 1167) or to the CLT group (n = 1156). All of the basic characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. The turnaround time (median, interquartile range [IQR]) of the POCT group was shorter than that of the CLT group (14, 12-19 versus 55, 45-69 minutes; P CLT group (46, 33-61 versus 86, 68-107 minutes; P CLT group (P CLT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dual time point FDG-PET/CT imaging...; Potential tool for diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zytoon, A.A.; Murakami, K.; El-Kholy, M.R.; El-Shorbagy, E.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: This prospective study was designed to assess the utility of the dual time point imaging technique using 2- [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to detect primary breast cancer and to determine whether it is useful for the detection of small and non-invasive cancers, as well as cancers in dense breast tissue. Methods: One hundred and eleven patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent two sequential PET/CT examinations (dual time point imaging) for preoperative staging. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of FDG was measured from both time points. The percentage change in SUVmax (ΔSUVmax%) between time points 1 (SUVmax1) and 2 (SUVmax2) was calculated. The patients were divided into groups: invasive (n = 82), non invasive (n = 29); large (>10 mm; n = 80), small (≤10 mm; n = 31); tumours in dense breasts (n = 61), and tumours in non-dense breasts (n = 50). The tumour:background (T:B) ratios at both time points were measured and the ΔSUVmax%, ΔT:B% values were calculated. All PET study results were correlated with the histopathology results. Results: Of the 111 cancer lesions, 88 (79.3%) showed an increase and 23 (20.7%) showed either no change [10 (9%)] or a decrease [13 (11.7%)] in the SUVmax over time. Of the 111 contralateral normal breasts, nine (8.1%) showed an increase and 102 (91.9%) showed either no change [17 (15.3%)] or a decrease [85 (76.6%)] in the SUVmax over time. The mean ± SD of SUVmax1, SUVmax2, Δ%SUVmax were 4.9 ± 3.6, 6.0 ± 4.5, and 22.6 ± 13.1% for invasive cancers, 4.1 ± 3.8, 4.4 ± 4.8, and -2.4 ± 18.5% for non-invasive cancers, 2.3 ± 1.9, 2.7 ± 2.3, and 12.9 ± 21.1% for small cancers, 5.6 ± 3.7, 6.8 ± 4.8, and 17.3 ± 17.1% for large cancers, 4.9 ± 3.7, 5.8 ± 4.8, and 15.1 ± 17.6% for cancers in dense breast, and 4.5 ± 3.6, 5.4 ± 4.5, and 17.2 ± 19.2% for cancers in non-dense breast. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis

  12. Large Prospective Study of Ovarian Cancer Screening in High-risk Women: CA125 Cut-point Defined by Menopausal Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skates, Steven J.; Mai, Phuong; Horick, Nora K.; Piedmonte, Marion; Drescher, Charles W.; Isaacs, Claudine; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Buys, Saundra S.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Horowitz, Ira R.; Berchuck, Andrew; Daly, Mary B.; Domchek, Susan; Cohn, David E.; Van Le, Linda; Schorge, John O.; Newland, William; Davidson, Susan A.; Barnes, Mack; Brewster, Wendy; Azodi, Masoud; Nerenstone, Stacy; Kauff, Noah D.; Fabian, Carol J.; Sluss, Patrick M.; Nayfield, Susan G.; Kasten, Carol H.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Greene, Mark H.; Lu, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous screening trials for early detection of ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women have used the standard CA125 cut-point of 35 U/mL, the 98th percentile in this population yielding a 2% false positive rate, while the same cut-point in trials of premenopausal women results in substantially higher false positive rates. We investigated demographic and clinical factors predicting CA125 distributions, including 98th percentiles, in a large population of high-risk women participating in two ovarian cancer screening studies with common eligibility criteria and screening protocols. Methods Baseline CA125 values and clinical and demographic data from 3,692 women participating in screening studies conducted by the NCI-sponsored Cancer Genetics Network and Gynecologic Oncology Group were combined for this pre-planned analysis. Due to the large effect of menopausal status on CA125 levels, statistical analyses were conducted separately in pre- and postmenopausal subjects to determine the impact of other baseline factors on predicted CA125 cut-points based on the 98th percentile. Results The primary clinical factor affecting CA125 cut-points was menopausal status, with premenopausal women having a significantly higher cut-point of 50 U/mL while in postmenopausal subjects the standard cut-point of 35 U/mL was recapitulated. In premenopausal women, current oral contraceptive (OC) users had a cut-point of 40 U/mL. Conclusions To achieve a 2% false positive rate in ovarian cancer screening trials and in high-risk women choosing to be screened, the cut-point for initial CA125 testing should be personalized primarily for menopausal status (~ 50 for premenopausal women, 40 for premenopausal on OC, 35 for postmenopausal women). PMID:21893500

  13. Value of dual-time-point 18FDG PET-CT imaging on involved-field radiotherapy for hilar and mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Man; Sun Xindong; Liu Ningbo; Gong Heyi; Fu Zheng; Ma Li; Li Xinke; Xu Xiaoqing; Yu Jinming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of dual-time-point 18 FDG PET-CT imaging on involved-field radiotherapy for hilar and mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Fifty-four patients with NSCLC were included in this analysis, including 34 men and 20 women with mean age of 59 (34-76) years. Two sequential PET-CT scans given 3-5 days before surgery were standard single-time-point imaging for the whole body and delayed imaging for the thorax. The pathologic data were used as golden standard to determine the difference between the standard single-time-point and dual-time-point PET-CT imaging in the definition of gross target volume (GTV) of involved-field radiotherapy for metastatic lymph nodes. Results: For hilar metastatic lymph nodes, the GTV defined by single-time-point imaging was consistent with pathologic GTV in 21 patients (39%), comparing with 31 patients (57%) by dual-time-point imaging. Using pathologic data as golden standard, GTV alteration defined by single-time-point imaging had statistically significant difference comparing with that defined by dual-time-point imaging( =519.00, P=0.023). For mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes, the GTV defined by single-time-point imaging was consistent with pathologic GTV in 30 patients (56%), comparing with 36 patients (67%) by dual-time-point imaging. Using pathologic data as golden standard, GTV alteration defined by single-time-point imaging had no statistically significant difference comparing with that defined by dual-time-point imaging (u= 397.50, P=0.616). Conclusions: For patients with NSCLC receiving involved-field radiotherapy, GTV definition for hilar and mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes by dual-time-point imaging is more consistent with that by pathologic data. Dual-time-point imaging has a larger value in terms of target delineation for hilar and mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes. (authors)

  14. Past Negative Time Perspective as a Predictor of Grade Point Average in Occupational Therapy Doctoral Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat J. Precin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Time perspective is a fundamental dimension in psychological time, dividing human experiences into past, present, and future. Time perspective influences individuals’ functioning in all occupations, including education. Previous research has examined the relationship between time perspective and academic outcomes, but the same research has not been done, to date, with occupational therapy doctoral students. This quantitative, cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between time perspective and academic success in occupational therapy doctoral students across the United States. Data from the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI and grade point averages (GPAs were collected from 50 participants via surveymonkey.com. Past Negative time perspective statistically predicted GPA in the negative direction (p = .001 for students in pre-professional OTD programs, but did not predict GPA for post-professional students. Age, gender, and learning environment did not significantly influence the prediction of GPA in either group. The method and results of this study demonstrate that the ZTPI, an instrument used in the field of psychology, may have value in the profession of occupational therapy and occupational therapy doctoral programs.

  15. Improving Gastric Cancer Outcome Prediction Using Single Time-Point Artificial Neural Network Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsaz-Dezfouli, Hamid; Abu-Bakar, Mohd Rizam; Arasan, Jayanthi; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin

    2017-01-01

    In cancer studies, the prediction of cancer outcome based on a set of prognostic variables has been a long-standing topic of interest. Current statistical methods for survival analysis offer the possibility of modelling cancer survivability but require unrealistic assumptions about the survival time distribution or proportionality of hazard. Therefore, attention must be paid in developing nonlinear models with less restrictive assumptions. Artificial neural network (ANN) models are primarily useful in prediction when nonlinear approaches are required to sift through the plethora of available information. The applications of ANN models for prognostic and diagnostic classification in medicine have attracted a lot of interest. The applications of ANN models in modelling the survival of patients with gastric cancer have been discussed in some studies without completely considering the censored data. This study proposes an ANN model for predicting gastric cancer survivability, considering the censored data. Five separate single time-point ANN models were developed to predict the outcome of patients after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years. The performance of ANN model in predicting the probabilities of death is consistently high for all time points according to the accuracy and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. PMID:28469384

  16. Association between time to disease progression end points and overall survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Simron Singh,1 Xufang Wang,2 Calvin HL Law1 1Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Novartis Oncology, Florham Park, NJ, USA Abstract: Overall survival can be difficult to determine for slowly progressing malignancies, such as neuroendocrine tumors. We investigated whether time to disease progression is positively associated with overall survival in patients with such tumors. A literature review identified 22 clinical trials in patients with neuroendocrine tumors that reported survival probabilities for both time to disease progression (progression-free survival and time to progression and overall survival. Associations between median time to disease progression and median overall survival and between treatment effects on time to disease progression and treatment effects on overall survival were analyzed using weighted least-squares regression. Median time to disease progression was significantly associated with median overall survival (coefficient 0.595; P=0.022. In the seven randomized studies identified, the risk reduction for time to disease progression was positively associated with the risk reduction for overall survival (coefficient on −ln[HR] 0.151; 95% confidence interval −0.843, 1.145; P=0.713. The significant association between median time to disease progression and median overall survival supports the assertion that time to disease progression is an alternative end point to overall survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. An apparent albeit not significant trend correlates treatment effects on time to disease progression and treatment effects on overall survival. Informal surveys of physicians’ perceptions are consistent with these concepts, although additional randomized trials are needed. Keywords: neuroendocrine tumors, progression-free survival, disease progression, mortality

  17. A time domain inverse dynamic method for the end point tracking control of a flexible manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    The inverse dynamic equation of a flexible manipulator was solved in the time domain. By dividing the inverse system equation into the causal part and the anticausal part, we calculated the torque and the trajectories of all state variables for a given end point trajectory. The interpretation of this method in the frequency domain was explained in detail using the two-sided Laplace transform and the convolution integral. The open loop control of the inverse dynamic method shows an excellent result in simulation. For real applications, a practical control strategy is proposed by adding a feedback tracking control loop to the inverse dynamic feedforward control, and its good experimental performance is presented.

  18. Numerical instability of time-discretized one-point kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kengo; Ikeda, Hideaki; Takeda, Toshikazu

    2000-01-01

    The one-point kinetic equations with numerical errors induced by the explicit, implicit and Crank-Nicolson integration methods are derived. The zero-power transfer functions based on the present equations are demonstrated to investigate the numerical stability of the discretized systems. These demonstrations indicate unconditional stability for the implicit and Crank-Nicolson methods but present the possibility of numerical instability for the explicit method. An upper limit of time mesh spacing for the stability is formulated and several numerical calculations are made to confirm the validity of this formula

  19. EBT time-dependent point model code: description and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.F.; Uckan, N.A.

    1977-07-01

    A D-T time-dependent point model has been developed to assess the energy balance in an EBT reactor plasma. Flexibility is retained in the model to permit more recent data to be incorporated as they become available from the theoretical and experimental studies. This report includes the physics models involved, the program logic, and a description of the variables and routines used. All the files necessary for execution are listed, and the code, including a post-execution plotting routine, is discussed

  20. End points for adjuvant therapy trials: has the time come to accept disease-free survival as a surrogate end point for overall survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sharlene; Sargent, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    The intent of adjuvant therapy is to eradicate micro-metastatic residual disease following curative resection with the goal of preventing or delaying recurrence. The time-honored standard for demonstrating efficacy of new adjuvant therapies is an improvement in overall survival (OS). This typically requires phase III trials of large sample size with lengthy follow-up. With the intent of reducing the cost and time of completing such trials, there is considerable interest in developing alternative or surrogate end points. A surrogate end point may be employed as a substitute to directly assess the effects of an intervention on an already accepted clinical end point such as mortality. When used judiciously, surrogate end points can accelerate the evaluation of new therapies, resulting in the more timely dissemination of effective therapies to patients. The current review provides a perspective on the suitability and validity of disease-free survival (DFS) as an alternative end point for OS. Criteria for establishing surrogacy and the advantages and limitations associated with the use of DFS as a primary end point in adjuvant clinical trials and as the basis for approval of new adjuvant therapies are discussed.

  1. A Real-Time Capable Software-Defined Receiver Using GPU for Adaptive Anti-Jam GPS Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jiwon; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; De Lorenzo, David S.; Lo, Sherman; Enge, Per; Akos, Dennis; Lee, Jiyun

    2011-01-01

    Due to their weak received signal power, Global Positioning System (GPS) signals are vulnerable to radio frequency interference. Adaptive beam and null steering of the gain pattern of a GPS antenna array can significantly increase the resistance of GPS sensors to signal interference and jamming. Since adaptive array processing requires intensive computational power, beamsteering GPS receivers were usually implemented using hardware such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). However, a software implementation using general-purpose processors is much more desirable because of its flexibility and cost effectiveness. This paper presents a GPS software-defined radio (SDR) with adaptive beamsteering capability for anti-jam applications. The GPS SDR design is based on an optimized desktop parallel processing architecture using a quad-core Central Processing Unit (CPU) coupled with a new generation Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) having massively parallel processors. This GPS SDR demonstrates sufficient computational capability to support a four-element antenna array and future GPS L5 signal processing in real time. After providing the details of our design and optimization schemes for future GPU-based GPS SDR developments, the jamming resistance of our GPS SDR under synthetic wideband jamming is presented. Since the GPS SDR uses commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and processors, it can be easily adopted in civil GPS applications requiring anti-jam capabilities. PMID:22164116

  2. A Real-Time Capable Software-Defined Receiver Using GPU for Adaptive Anti-Jam GPS Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Akos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to their weak received signal power, Global Positioning System (GPS signals are vulnerable to radio frequency interference. Adaptive beam and null steering of the gain pattern of a GPS antenna array can significantly increase the resistance of GPS sensors to signal interference and jamming. Since adaptive array processing requires intensive computational power, beamsteering GPS receivers were usually implemented using hardware such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs. However, a software implementation using general-purpose processors is much more desirable because of its flexibility and cost effectiveness. This paper presents a GPS software-defined radio (SDR with adaptive beamsteering capability for anti-jam applications. The GPS SDR design is based on an optimized desktop parallel processing architecture using a quad-core Central Processing Unit (CPU coupled with a new generation Graphics Processing Unit (GPU having massively parallel processors. This GPS SDR demonstrates sufficient computational capability to support a four-element antenna array and future GPS L5 signal processing in real time. After providing the details of our design and optimization schemes for future GPU-based GPS SDR developments, the jamming resistance of our GPS SDR under synthetic wideband jamming is presented. Since the GPS SDR uses commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and processors, it can be easily adopted in civil GPS applications requiring anti-jam capabilities.

  3. Time-resolved studies define the nature of toxic IAPP intermediates, providing insight for anti-amyloidosis therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Andisheh; Plesner, Annette; Cao, Ping; Ridgway, Zachary; Zhang, Jinghua; Tu, Ling-Hsien; Middleton, Chris T; Chao, Brian; Sartori, Daniel J; Meng, Fanling; Wang, Hui; Wong, Amy G; Zanni, Martin T; Verchere, C Bruce; Raleigh, Daniel P; Schmidt, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    Islet amyloidosis by IAPP contributes to pancreatic β-cell death in diabetes, but the nature of toxic IAPP species remains elusive. Using concurrent time-resolved biophysical and biological measurements, we define the toxic species produced during IAPP amyloid formation and link their properties to induction of rat INS-1 β-cell and murine islet toxicity. These globally flexible, low order oligomers upregulate pro-inflammatory markers and induce reactive oxygen species. They do not bind 1-anilnonaphthalene-8-sulphonic acid and lack extensive β-sheet structure. Aromatic interactions modulate, but are not required for toxicity. Not all IAPP oligomers are toxic; toxicity depends on their partially structured conformational states. Some anti-amyloid agents paradoxically prolong cytotoxicity by prolonging the lifetime of the toxic species. The data highlight the distinguishing properties of toxic IAPP oligomers and the common features that they share with toxic species reported for other amyloidogenic polypeptides, providing information for rational drug design to treat IAPP induced β-cell death. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12977.001 PMID:27213520

  4. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, N.; Auhl, D.; Bailly, C.; Lindner, P.; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Wischnewski, A.; Leal, L. G.; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Richter, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  5. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, N.

    2016-05-27

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  6. Optimizing the diagnostic power with gastric emptying scintigraphy at multiple time points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Byron J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy (GES at intervals over 4 hours after a standardized radio-labeled meal is commonly regarded as the gold standard for diagnosing gastroparesis. The objectives of this study were: 1 to investigate the best time point and the best combination of multiple time points for diagnosing gastroparesis with repeated GES measures, and 2 to contrast and cross-validate Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, a rank based Distribution Free (DF approach, and the Classification And Regression Tree (CART model. Methods A total of 320 patients with GES measures at 1, 2, 3, and 4 hour (h after a standard meal using a standardized method were retrospectively collected. Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve and the rate of false classification through jackknife cross-validation were used for model comparison. Results Due to strong correlation and an abnormality in data distribution, no substantial improvement in diagnostic power was found with the best linear combination by LDA approach even with data transformation. With DF method, the linear combination of 4-h and 3-h increased the Area Under the Curve (AUC and decreased the number of false classifications (0.87; 15.0% over individual time points (0.83, 0.82; 15.6%, 25.3%, for 4-h and 3-h, respectively at a higher sensitivity level (sensitivity = 0.9. The CART model using 4 hourly GES measurements along with patient's age was the most accurate diagnostic tool (AUC = 0.88, false classification = 13.8%. Patients having a 4-h gastric retention value >10% were 5 times more likely to have gastroparesis (179/207 = 86.5% than those with ≤10% (18/113 = 15.9%. Conclusions With a mixed group of patients either referred with suspected gastroparesis or investigated for other reasons, the CART model is more robust than the LDA and DF approaches, capable of accommodating covariate effects and can be generalized for cross institutional applications, but

  7. Double point source W-phase inversion: Real-time implementation and automated model selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealy, Jennifer; Hayes, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and accurate characterization of an earthquake source is an extremely important and ever evolving field of research. Within this field, source inversion of the W-phase has recently been shown to be an effective technique, which can be efficiently implemented in real-time. An extension to the W-phase source inversion is presented in which two point sources are derived to better characterize complex earthquakes. A single source inversion followed by a double point source inversion with centroid locations fixed at the single source solution location can be efficiently run as part of earthquake monitoring network operational procedures. In order to determine the most appropriate solution, i.e., whether an earthquake is most appropriately described by a single source or a double source, an Akaike information criterion (AIC) test is performed. Analyses of all earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 and greater occurring since January 2000 were performed with extended analyses of the September 29, 2009 magnitude 8.1 Samoa earthquake and the April 19, 2014 magnitude 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake. The AIC test is shown to be able to accurately select the most appropriate model and the selected W-phase inversion is shown to yield reliable solutions that match published analyses of the same events.

  8. Repeated diffusion MRI reveals earliest time point for stratification of radiotherapy response in brain metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Faisal; Johannesen, Helle H; Geertsen, Poul

    2017-01-01

    An imaging biomarker for early prediction of treatment response potentially provides a non-invasive tool for better prognostics and individualized management of the disease. Radiotherapy (RT) response is generally related to changes in gross tumor volume manifesting months later. In this prospect......An imaging biomarker for early prediction of treatment response potentially provides a non-invasive tool for better prognostics and individualized management of the disease. Radiotherapy (RT) response is generally related to changes in gross tumor volume manifesting months later....... In this prospective study we investigated the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), perfusion fraction and pseudo diffusion coefficient derived from diffusion weighted MRI as potential early biomarkers for radiotherapy response of brain metastases. It was a particular aim to assess the optimal time point...

  9. Estimation of main diversification time-points of hantaviruses using phylogenetic analyses of complete genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Guillaume; Tordo, Noël; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2017-04-02

    Because of the great variability of their reservoir hosts, hantaviruses are excellent models to evaluate the dynamics of virus-host co-evolution. Intriguing questions remain about the timescale of the diversification events that influenced this evolution. In this paper we attempted to estimate the first ever timing of hantavirus diversification based on thirty five available complete genomes representing five major groups of hantaviruses and the assumption of co-speciation of hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts. Phylogenetic analyses were used to estimate the main diversification points during hantavirus evolution in mammals while host diversification was mostly estimated from independent calibrators taken from fossil records. Our results support an earlier developed hypothesis of co-speciation of known hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts and hence a common ancestor for all hantaviruses carried by placental mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Undergraduate Consent Form Reading in Relation to Conscientiousness, Procrastination, and the Point-of-Time Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Justin D; Hobbs, William B; Giordano, Peter J; Brunson, Olivia M

    2014-07-01

    Informed consent is central to conducting ethical research with human participants. The present study investigated differences in consent form reading in relation to conscientiousness, procrastination, and the point-of-time (PT) effect among undergraduate participants at a U.S. university. As hypothesized, conscientious participants and those who signed up to participate in a research study more days in advance and for earlier sessions (PT effect) read the consent form more thoroughly. However, procrastination was not related to consent form reading. Most importantly, consent form reading in general was poor, with 80% of participants demonstrating that they had not read the consent form. Conscientious participants were more likely to self-report reading the consent form, irrespective of their measured consent form reading. The article closes with suggestions to improve the process of obtaining informed consent with undergraduate participants. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinjun; Zou, Yajie; Ash, John; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai

    2016-01-01

    Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed) collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN), two learning processes are proposed: (1) a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2) a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute relative error (MARE) are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR), instantaneous model (IM), linear model (LM), neural network (NN), and cumulative plots (CP).

  12. Dual time point FDG PET imaging in evaluating pulmonary nodules with low FDG avidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiang; Zhao Jinhua; Song Jianhua; Xing Yan; Wang Taisong; Qiao Wenli

    2010-01-01

    A standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5 is frequently used as criteria to evaluate pulmonary lesions. However, false results may occur. Some studies have shown the usefulness of delayed PET for improving accuracy, while others recently have shown fewer promising results. This study was designed to investigate the accuracy of dual time point (DTP) FDG PET imaging in the evaluation of pulmonary lesions with an initial SUV less than 2.5. DTP FDG PET studies were conducted about 1 and 2 hours after FDG injection, and pulmonary lesions with an initial SUV less than 2.5 were identified. Nodules with pathologic results or imaging follow up were included. The differences in SUV and retention index (RI) between benign and malignant pulmonary lesions were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the discriminating validity of SUV and RI. 51 lesions were finally included. A RI greater than 0% was observed in 64% of the benign lesions; 56% had a RI greater than 10%. Among the malignancies, 80.8% had a RI greater than 0%, and 61.5% had a RI greater than 10%. We found no significant differences in SUV and RI between benign and malignant lesions. The area under the ROC curve did not differ from 0.5 whether using SUV or the retention index. Utilizing a SUV increase of 10%, the sensitivity was 61.5%, specificity 44% and accuracy was 52.9%. Dual time point FDG PET may not be of benefit in the evaluation of pulmonary nodules with low FDG avidity. (authors)

  13. Near-real-time regional troposphere models for the GNSS precise point positioning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadas, T; Kaplon, J; Bosy, J; Sierny, J; Wilgan, K

    2013-01-01

    The GNSS precise point positioning (PPP) technique requires high quality product (orbits and clocks) application, since their error directly affects the quality of positioning. For real-time purposes it is possible to utilize ultra-rapid precise orbits and clocks which are disseminated through the Internet. In order to eliminate as many unknown parameters as possible, one may introduce external information on zenith troposphere delay (ZTD). It is desirable that the a priori model is accurate and reliable, especially for real-time application. One of the open problems in GNSS positioning is troposphere delay modelling on the basis of ground meteorological observations. Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics of Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (IGG WUELS) has developed two independent regional troposphere models for the territory of Poland. The first one is estimated in near-real-time regime using GNSS data from a Polish ground-based augmentation system named ASG-EUPOS established by Polish Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography (GUGiK) in 2008. The second one is based on meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure and humidity) gathered from various meteorological networks operating over the area of Poland and surrounding countries. This paper describes the methodology of both model calculation and verification. It also presents results of applying various ZTD models into kinematic PPP in the post-processing mode using Bernese GPS Software. Positioning results were used to assess the quality of the developed models during changing weather conditions. Finally, the impact of model application to simulated real-time PPP on precision, accuracy and convergence time is discussed. (paper)

  14. The risk of AIDS-defining events is decreasing over time in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altmann Mathias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With ageing of the HIV-infected population, long-term exposure to treatment, varying adherence, emerging resistance and complications to therapies, effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART needs to be monitored continuously at the population level. The German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort is a multi-centre, open, long-term observational cohort including patients with a known or reliably estimated date of HIV-infection i.e. last negative and first positive HIV antibody test within a maximum three-year interval or laboratory evidence of seroconversion. Our study aims to investigate survival improvements and changes in AIDS risk over calendar periods in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort. Methods Retrospective (for the pre-1997 period and prospective (since 1997 data from the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort were used. Time from seroconversion to first AIDS-defining event over calendar periods was analysed by using Cox models adjusting for age at seroconversion, sex, transmission groups and short HIV test interval. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to determine expected survival (remaining AIDS-free by calendar period. Results 2162 seroconverters with 8976 person-years of observation were included in our analysis (up to 31.12.2010. A total of 196 first AIDSdefining events were reported. Two periods i.e. 19972000 and 2007-2010 were statistically associated with a reduction in the risk of AIDS, accounting for an overall reduction of 80%. Compared to1997-2000, hazard ratios were 2.6 (95%CI, 1.6-4.8; p=0.000 in pre-1997 and 0.5 (95%CI, 0.3-0.8; p=0.007 in 20072010. Independent risk factor for AIDS progression was age at seroconversion (HR, 1.3 per 10year-increase; p=0.001. Conclusion HAART effectiveness has improved in the German HIV-1-Seroconverter Cohort. The risk to develop AIDS decreased significantly in 19972000 and in 20072010. However, elderly may require particular monitoring in view of their faster

  15. Young adult females' views regarding online privacy protection at two time points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Kelleher, Erin; Ameenuddin, Nusheen; Rastogi, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    Risks associated with adolescent Internet use include exposure to inappropriate information and privacy violations. Privacy expectations and policies have changed over time. Recent Facebook security setting changes heighten these risks. The purpose of this study was to investigate views and experiences with Internet safety and privacy protection among older adolescent females at two time points, in 2009 and 2012. Two waves of focus groups were conducted, one in 2009 and the other in 2012. During these focus groups, female university students discussed Internet safety risks and strategies and privacy protection. All focus groups were audio recorded and manually transcribed. Qualitative analysis was conducted at the end of each wave and then reviewed and combined in a separate analysis using the constant comparative method. A total of 48 females participated across the two waves. The themes included (1) abundant urban myths, such as the ability for companies to access private information; (2) the importance of filtering one's displayed information; and (3) maintaining age limits on social media access to avoid younger teens' presence on Facebook. The findings present a complex picture of how adolescents view privacy protection and online safety. Older adolescents may be valuable partners in promoting safe and age-appropriate Internet use for younger teens in the changing landscape of privacy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Terahertz time domain interferometry of a SIS tunnel junction and a quantum point contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadi, Chandu [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-09-01

    The author has applied the Terahertz Time Domain Interferometric (THz-TDI) technique to probe the ultrafast dynamic response of a Superconducting-Insulating-Superconducting (SIS) tunnel junction and a Quantum Point Contact (QPC). The THz-TDI technique involves monitoring changes in the dc current induced by interfering two picosecond electrical pulses on the junction as a function of time delay between them. Measurements of the response of the Nb/AlOxNb SIS tunnel junction from 75--200 GHz are in full agreement with the linear theory for photon-assisted tunneling. Likewise, measurements of the induced current in a QPC as a function of source-drain voltage, gate voltage, frequency, and magnetic field also show strong evidence for photon-assisted transport. These experiments together demonstrate the general applicability of the THz-TDI technique to the characterization of the dynamic response of any micron or nanometer scale device that exhibits a non-linear I-V characteristic.

  17. Gene expression pattern at different time points following ALA-PDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwanger, T.; Sanovic, R.; Ruhdorfer, S.; Aberger, F.; Frischauf, A.; Krammer, B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The photo sensitizer protoporphyrin IX, endogenously accumulated from the precursor aminolevulinic acid (ALA), is a successful agent in photodynamic tumor therapy. In spite of encouraging clinical results, the basic mechanisms leading to cell death are not fully understood. We therefore set out to analyze the alteration of the gene expression pattern in the squamous cell carcinoma cell line A-431 at different time points after photodynamic treatment with endogenous protoporphyrin IX by cDNA-array technique. Cells were incubated for 16 hours with 100 μg/ml ALA and irradiated with a fluence of 3.5 J/cm 2 resulting in 50 % survival until 8 hours post treatment. RNA was isolated at 1.5, 3, 5 and 8 hours post treatment as well as of 3 controls (untreated, light only and dark), radioactively labelled by reverse transcription with 33P-dCTP and hybridized onto macroarray PCR filters containing PCR products of 2135 genes, which were selected for relevance in tumors, stress response and signal transduction. Verification of observed expression changes was carried out by real time PCR. We found a strong induction of expression of immediate early genes like c-fos as well as decreased expression of genes involved in proliferation like myc and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). (author)

  18. The laboratory information float, time-based competition, and point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, B A

    1994-01-01

    A new term, the laboratory information float, should be substituted for turnaround-time when evaluating the performance of the clinical laboratory because it includes the time necessary to make test results both available (ready to use) and accessible (easy to use) to clinicians ordering tests. The laboratory information float can be greatly reduced simply by telescoping the analytic phase of laboratory testing into the preanalytic phase. Significant costs are incurred by such a change, some of which can be reduced by developing a mobile clinical laboratory (sometimes referred to as a "lab-on-a-slab" or "rolling thunder") to transport the analytic devices directly to patient care units. The mobile clinical laboratory should be equipped with an integrated personal computer that can communicate continuously with the host laboratory information system and achieve some semblance of continuous flow processing despite test performance in point-of-care venues. Equipping clinicians with palmtop computers will allow the mobile clinician to access test results and order tests on the run. Such devices can be easily configured to operate in a passive mode, accessing relevant information automatically instead of forcing clinicians to query the laboratory information system periodically for the test results necessary to render care to their patients. The laboratory information float of the year 2,000 will surely be measured in minutes through the judicious deployment of relevant technology such as mobile clinical laboratories and palmtop computers.

  19. Terahertz time domain interferometry of a SIS tunnel junction and a quantum point contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadi, C.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-09-01

    The author has applied the Terahertz Time Domain Interferometric (THz-TDI) technique to probe the ultrafast dynamic response of a Superconducting-Insulating-Superconducting (SIS) tunnel junction and a Quantum Point Contact (QPC). The THz-TDI technique involves monitoring changes in the dc current induced by interfering two picosecond electrical pulses on the junction as a function of time delay between them. Measurements of the response of the Nb/AlO x /Nb SIS tunnel junction from 75--200 GHz are in full agreement with the linear theory for photon-assisted tunneling. Likewise, measurements of the induced current in a QPC as a function of source-drain voltage, gate voltage, frequency, and magnetic field also show strong evidence for photon-assisted transport. These experiments together demonstrate the general applicability of the THz-TDI technique to the characterization of the dynamic response of any micron or nanometer scale device that exhibits a non-linear I-V characteristic. 133 refs., 49 figs

  20. Time Frame Affects Vantage Point in Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory: Evidence from Response Latencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy J. Karylowski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that, with the passage of time, representations of self in episodic memory become less dependent on their initial (internal vantage point and shift toward an external perspective that is normally characteristic of how other people are represented. The present experiment examined this phenomenon in both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory using latency of self-judgments as a measure of accessibility of the internal vs. the external perspective. Results confirmed that in the case of representations of the self retrieved from recent autobiographical memories, trait-judgments regarding unobservable self-aspects (internal perspective were faster than trait judgments regarding observable self-aspects (external perspective. Yet, in the case of self-representations retrieved from memories of a more distant past, judgments regarding observable self-aspects were faster. Those results occurred for both self-representations retrieved from episodic memory and for representations retrieved from the semantic memory. In addition, regardless of the effect of time, greater accessibility of unobservable (vs. observable self-aspects was associated with the episodic rather than semantic autobiographical memory. Those results were modified by neither declared trait’s self-descriptiveness (yes vs. no responses nor by its desirability (highly desirable vs. moderately desirable traits. Implications for compatibility between how self and others are represented and for the role of self in social perception are discussed.

  1. Time Frame Affects Vantage Point in Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory: Evidence from Response Latencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karylowski, Jerzy J; Mrozinski, Blazej

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that, with the passage of time, representations of self in episodic memory become less dependent on their initial (internal) vantage point and shift toward an external perspective that is normally characteristic of how other people are represented. The present experiment examined this phenomenon in both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory using latency of self-judgments as a measure of accessibility of the internal vs. the external perspective. Results confirmed that in the case of representations of the self retrieved from recent autobiographical memories, trait-judgments regarding unobservable self-aspects (internal perspective) were faster than trait judgments regarding observable self-aspects (external perspective). Yet, in the case of self-representations retrieved from memories of a more distant past, judgments regarding observable self-aspects were faster. Those results occurred for both self-representations retrieved from episodic memory and for representations retrieved from the semantic memory. In addition, regardless of the effect of time, greater accessibility of unobservable (vs. observable) self-aspects was associated with the episodic rather than semantic autobiographical memory. Those results were modified by neither declared trait's self-descriptiveness ( yes vs. no responses) nor by its desirability (highly desirable vs. moderately desirable traits). Implications for compatibility between how self and others are represented and for the role of self in social perception are discussed.

  2. Decreasing Computational Time for VBBinaryLensing by Point Source Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirrell, Bethany M.; Visgaitis, Tiffany A.; Bozza, Valerio

    2018-01-01

    The gravitational lens of a binary system produces a magnification map that is more intricate than a single object lens. This map cannot be calculated analytically and one must rely on computational methods to resolve. There are generally two methods of computing the microlensed flux of a source. One is based on ray-shooting maps (Kayser, Refsdal, & Stabell 1986), while the other method is based on an application of Green’s theorem. This second method finds the area of an image by calculating a Riemann integral along the image contour. VBBinaryLensing is a C++ contour integration code developed by Valerio Bozza, which utilizes this method. The parameters at which the source object could be treated as a point source, or in other words, when the source is far enough from the caustic, was of interest to substantially decrease the computational time. The maximum and minimum values of the caustic curves produced, were examined to determine the boundaries for which this simplification could be made. The code was then run for a number of different maps, with separation values and accuracies ranging from 10-1 to 10-3, to test the theoretical model and determine a safe buffer for which minimal error could be made for the approximation. The determined buffer was 1.5+5q, with q being the mass ratio. The theoretical model and the calculated points worked for all combinations of the separation values and different accuracies except the map with accuracy and separation equal to 10-3 for y1 max. An alternative approach has to be found in order to accommodate a wider range of parameters.

  3. A Real-Time GPP Software-Defined Radio Testbed for the Physical Layer of Wireless Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    We present our contribution to the general-purpose-processor-(GPP)-based radio. We describe a baseband software-defined radio testbed for the physical layer of wireless LAN standards. All physical layer functions have been successfully mapped on a Pentium 4 processor that performs these functions in

  4. Fecal short-chain fatty acids at different time points after ceftriaxone administration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Holota

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs are major products of the microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon. Recent studies suggest that these products of microbial metabolism in the gut act as signaling molecules, influence host energy homeostasis and play major immunological roles. In the present study, defined the long-term effects of ceftriaxone administration on the fecal SCFAs concentration in Wistar rats. Ceftriaxone (300 mg/kg, i.m. was administered daily for 14 days. Rats were euthanized in 1, 15 and 56 days after ceftriaxone withdrawal. Caecal weight and fecal concentration of SCFAs by gas chromatography were measured. Ceftriaxone administration induced time-dependent rats’ caecal enlargement through accumulation of undigestable substances. In 1 day after ceftriaxone withdrawal, the concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric acids and total SCFAs were decreased 2.9-, 13.8-, 8.5-, 4.8-fold (P < 0.05, respectively. Concentration of valeric, isovaleric and caproic acids was below the detectable level. That was accompanied by decreased 4.3-fold anaerobic index and increased the relative amount of acetic acid (P < 0.05. In 56 days, concentration of SCFAs was still below control value but higher than in 1 day (except propionic acid. Anaerobic index was lower 1.3-fold (P < 0.05 vs. control. Conclusion: antibiotic therapy induced long-term disturbance in colonic microbiota metabolic activity.

  5. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Tang

    Full Text Available Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN, two learning processes are proposed: (1 a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2 a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE, root mean square error (RMSE, and mean absolute relative error (MARE are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR, instantaneous model (IM, linear model (LM, neural network (NN, and cumulative plots (CP.

  6. A new integrated dual time-point amyloid PET/MRI data analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchin, Diego; Zucchetta, Pietro; Turco, Paolo; Bui, Franco [University Hospital of Padua, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine - DIMED, Padua (Italy); Barthel, Henryk; Tiepolt, Solveig; Sabri, Osama [Leipzig University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Poggiali, Davide; Cagnin, Annachiara; Gallo, Paolo [University Hospital of Padua, Neurology, Department of Neurosciences (DNS), Padua (Italy); Frigo, Anna Chiara [University Hospital of Padua, Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Public Health Unit, Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, Padua (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    In the initial evaluation of patients with suspected dementia and Alzheimer's disease, there is no consensus on how to perform semiquantification of amyloid in such a way that it: (1) facilitates visual qualitative interpretation, (2) takes the kinetic behaviour of the tracer into consideration particularly with regard to at least partially correcting for blood flow dependence, (3) analyses the amyloid load based on accurate parcellation of cortical and subcortical areas, (4) includes partial volume effect correction (PVEC), (5) includes MRI-derived topographical indexes, (6) enables application to PET/MRI images and PET/CT images with separately acquired MR images, and (7) allows automation. A method with all of these characteristics was retrospectively tested in 86 subjects who underwent amyloid ({sup 18}F-florbetaben) PET/MRI in a clinical setting (using images acquired 90-110 min after injection, 53 were classified visually as amyloid-negative and 33 as amyloid-positive). Early images after tracer administration were acquired between 0 and 10 min after injection, and later images were acquired between 90 and 110 min after injection. PVEC of the PET data was carried out using the geometric transfer matrix method. Parametric images and some regional output parameters, including two innovative ''dual time-point'' indexes, were obtained. Subjects classified visually as amyloid-positive showed a sparse tracer uptake in the primary sensory, motor and visual areas in accordance with the isocortical stage of the topographic distribution of the amyloid plaque (Braak stages V/VI). In patients classified visually as amyloid-negative, the method revealed detectable levels of tracer uptake in the basal portions of the frontal and temporal lobes, areas that are known to be sites of early deposition of amyloid plaques that probably represented early accumulation (Braak stage A) that is typical of normal ageing. There was a strong correlation between

  7. A new integrated dual time-point amyloid PET/MRI data analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchin, Diego; Zucchetta, Pietro; Turco, Paolo; Bui, Franco; Barthel, Henryk; Tiepolt, Solveig; Sabri, Osama; Poggiali, Davide; Cagnin, Annachiara; Gallo, Paolo; Frigo, Anna Chiara

    2017-01-01

    In the initial evaluation of patients with suspected dementia and Alzheimer's disease, there is no consensus on how to perform semiquantification of amyloid in such a way that it: (1) facilitates visual qualitative interpretation, (2) takes the kinetic behaviour of the tracer into consideration particularly with regard to at least partially correcting for blood flow dependence, (3) analyses the amyloid load based on accurate parcellation of cortical and subcortical areas, (4) includes partial volume effect correction (PVEC), (5) includes MRI-derived topographical indexes, (6) enables application to PET/MRI images and PET/CT images with separately acquired MR images, and (7) allows automation. A method with all of these characteristics was retrospectively tested in 86 subjects who underwent amyloid ( 18 F-florbetaben) PET/MRI in a clinical setting (using images acquired 90-110 min after injection, 53 were classified visually as amyloid-negative and 33 as amyloid-positive). Early images after tracer administration were acquired between 0 and 10 min after injection, and later images were acquired between 90 and 110 min after injection. PVEC of the PET data was carried out using the geometric transfer matrix method. Parametric images and some regional output parameters, including two innovative ''dual time-point'' indexes, were obtained. Subjects classified visually as amyloid-positive showed a sparse tracer uptake in the primary sensory, motor and visual areas in accordance with the isocortical stage of the topographic distribution of the amyloid plaque (Braak stages V/VI). In patients classified visually as amyloid-negative, the method revealed detectable levels of tracer uptake in the basal portions of the frontal and temporal lobes, areas that are known to be sites of early deposition of amyloid plaques that probably represented early accumulation (Braak stage A) that is typical of normal ageing. There was a strong correlation between age

  8. Working Together to Define Antibiotic Appropriateness: Point Prevalence Survey in 47 Intensive Care Units from 12 US Hospitals, Partnership for Quality Care, March 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Kavita K; Ostrowsky, Belinda; Abbo, Lilian M; Srinivasan, Arjun; Bartash, Rachel; Cassera, Fred; Fleisher, Jorge; Kubiak, David W; Letourneau, Alyssa R; Nori, Priya; Parodi, Stephen; Aragon, Laura; Dollard, Eliza; Gagliardo, Christina; Ghitan, Monica; Giles, Amber; Mayer, Suri; Quevedo, Jennifer; Rieg, Gunter; Shteyman, Galina; Vargas, Jaclyn; Kelley, Shannon; Silver, Phyllis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background A national assessment of antibiotic appropriateness in intensive care units (ICUs) with benchmarking was performed to assist antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) identify improvement opportunities. Methods A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tool was adapted by an expert panel from the Partnership for Quality Care (PQC), a coalition dedicated to high quality care in US hospitals, to validate appropriate antibiotic use measurement via a point prevalence survey on a single day. Data were collected by ASP personnel at each hospital, de-identified and submitted in aggregate to PQC for benchmarking. Hospitals identified reasons for inappropriate antibiotic use by category and antibiotics misused. Results Forty-seven ICUs from 12 PQC hospitals participated: California (2), Florida (2), Massachusetts (3), Minnesota (1), and New York (4). Most hospitals identified as teaching (83%) with 252-1550 bed size (median: 563) and 20–270 licensed ICU beds (median: 70). All hospitals reported a formal ASP. On March 1, 2017, 362 (54%) of 667 patients in participating ICUs were on antibiotics (range: 8-81 patients); 1 patient was not assessed. Of the remaining 361 antibiotic regimens, 112 (31%) were identified as inappropriate from among all 12 hospitals (range: 9-82%) (figure). The table displays inappropriate antibiotic use by ICU type. Reasons for inappropriate use included unnecessarily broad spectrum of activity (29%), duration longer than necessary (21%), and treatment of a non-infectious syndrome (19%). The antibiotic most commonly misused was vancomycin in 7 (58%) hospitals. Conclusion Up to 80% of antibiotic use in some ICUs is inappropriate, underscoring the need for ASP interventions, standardized assessment tools and benchmarking. Strategies should focus on de-escalation of broad-spectrum antibiotics and reducing duration of therapy. Disclosures D. W. Kubiak, Shionogi: Consultant, Consulting fee. Astellas Pharma: Consultant, Consulting

  9. Real Time Precise Point Positioning: Preliminary Results for the Brazilian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João.; Hirokazu Shimabukuro, Milton; Aquino, Marcio

    2010-05-01

    GNSS positioning can be carried out in relative or absolute approach. In the last years, more attention has been driven to the real time precise point positioning (PPP). To achieve centimeter accuracy with this method in real time it is necessary to have available the satellites precise coordinates as well as satellites clocks corrections. The coordinates can be used from the predicted IGU ephemeris, but the satellites clocks must be estimated in a real time. It can be made from a GNSS network as can be seen from EUREF Permanent Network. The infra-structure to realize the PPP in real time is being available in Brazil through the Brazilian Continuous Monitoring Network (RBMC) together with the Sao Paulo State GNSS network which are transmitting GNSS data using NTRIP (Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol) caster. Based on this information it was proposed a PhD thesis in the Univ. Estadual Paulista (UNESP) aiming to investigate and develop the methodology to estimate the satellites clocks and realize PPP in real time. Then, software is being developed to process GNSS data in the real time PPP mode. A preliminary version of the software was called PPP_RT and is able to process GNSS code and phase data using precise ephemeris and satellites clocks. The PPP processing can be accomplished considering the absolute satellite antenna Phase Center Variation (PCV), Ocean Tide Loading (OTL), Earth Body Tide, among others. The first order ionospheric effects can be eliminated or minimized by ion-free combination or parameterized in the receiver-satellite direction using a stochastic process, e.g. random walk or white noise. In the case of ionosphere estimation, a pseudo-observable is introduced in the mathematical model for each satellite and the initial value can be computed from Klobuchar model or from Global Ionospheric Map (GIM). The adjustment is realized in the recursive mode and the DIA (Detection Identification and Adaptation) is used for quality control. In

  10. Improving multi-GNSS ultra-rapid orbit determination for real-time precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Chen, Xinghan; Ge, Maorong; Schuh, Harald

    2018-03-01

    Currently, with the rapid development of multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), the real-time positioning and navigation are undergoing dramatic changes with potential for a better performance. To provide more precise and reliable ultra-rapid orbits is critical for multi-GNSS real-time positioning, especially for the three merging constellations Beidou, Galileo and QZSS which are still under construction. In this contribution, we present a five-system precise orbit determination (POD) strategy to fully exploit the GPS + GLONASS + BDS + Galileo + QZSS observations from CDDIS + IGN + BKG archives for the realization of hourly five-constellation ultra-rapid orbit update. After adopting the optimized 2-day POD solution (updated every hour), the predicted orbit accuracy can be obviously improved for all the five satellite systems in comparison to the conventional 1-day POD solution (updated every 3 h). The orbit accuracy for the BDS IGSO satellites can be improved by about 80, 45 and 50% in the radial, cross and along directions, respectively, while the corresponding accuracy improvement for the BDS MEO satellites reaches about 50, 20 and 50% in the three directions, respectively. Furthermore, the multi-GNSS real-time precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity resolution has been performed by using the improved precise satellite orbits. Numerous results indicate that combined GPS + BDS + GLONASS + Galileo (GCRE) kinematic PPP ambiguity resolution (AR) solutions can achieve the shortest time to first fix (TTFF) and highest positioning accuracy in all coordinate components. With the addition of the BDS, GLONASS and Galileo observations to the GPS-only processing, the GCRE PPP AR solution achieves the shortest average TTFF of 11 min with 7{°} cutoff elevation, while the TTFF of GPS-only, GR, GE and GC PPP AR solution is 28, 15, 20 and 17 min, respectively. As the cutoff elevation increases, the reliability and accuracy of GPS-only PPP AR solutions

  11. Studying the potential of point detectors in time-resolved dose verification of dynamic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierholm, A.R.; Behrens, C.F.; Andersen, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    Modern megavoltage x-ray radiotherapy with high spatial and temporal dose gradients puts high demands on the entire delivery system, including not just the linear accelerator and the multi-leaf collimator, but also algorithms used for optimization and dose calculations, and detectors used for quality assurance and dose verification. In this context, traceable in-phantom dosimetry using a well-characterized point detector is often an important supplement to 2D-based quality assurance methods based on radiochromic film or detector arrays. In this study, an in-house developed dosimetry system based on fiber-coupled plastic scintillator detectors was evaluated and compared with a Farmer-type ionization chamber and a small-volume ionization chamber. An important feature of scintillator detectors is that the sensitive volume of the detector can easily be scaled, and five scintillator detectors of different scintillator length were thus employed to quantify volume averaging effects by direct measurement. The dosimetric evaluation comprised several complex-shape static fields as well as simplified dynamic deliveries using RapidArc, a volumetric-modulated arc therapy modality often used at the participating clinic. The static field experiments showed that the smallest scintillator detectors were in the best agreement with dose calculations, while needing the smallest volume averaging corrections. Concerning total dose measured during RapidArc, all detectors agreed with dose calculations within 1.1 ± 0.7% when positioned in regions of high homogenous dose. Larger differences were observed for high dose gradient and organ at risk locations, were differences between measured and calculated dose were as large as 8.0 ± 5.5%. The smallest differences were generally seen for the small-volume ionization chamber and the smallest scintillators. The time-resolved RapidArc dose profiles revealed volume-dependent discrepancies between scintillator and ionization chamber response

  12. GPU-accelerated element-free reverse-time migration with Gauss points partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Jia, Xiaofeng; Qiang, Xiaodong

    2018-06-01

    An element-free method (EFM) has been demonstrated successfully in elasticity, heat conduction and fatigue crack growth problems. We present the theory of EFM and its numerical applications in seismic modelling and reverse time migration (RTM). Compared with the finite difference method and the finite element method, the EFM has unique advantages: (1) independence of grids in computation and (2) lower expense and more flexibility (because only the information of the nodes and the boundary of the concerned area is required). However, in EFM, due to improper computation and storage of some large sparse matrices, such as the mass matrix and the stiffness matrix, the method is difficult to apply to seismic modelling and RTM for a large velocity model. To solve the problem of storage and computation efficiency, we propose a concept of Gauss points partition and utilise the graphics processing unit to improve the computational efficiency. We employ the compressed sparse row format to compress the intermediate large sparse matrices and attempt to simplify the operations by solving the linear equations with CULA solver. To improve the computation efficiency further, we introduce the concept of the lumped mass matrix. Numerical experiments indicate that the proposed method is accurate and more efficient than the regular EFM.

  13. SUVmax by dual time point FDG-PET/CT in recurrent breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Malene; Blomberg, Björn; Falch Braas, Kirsten

    ROVER software without partial volume correction. Pearson correlation analysis and Bland-Altman statistics summarized the data. Results The overall mean SUVmax was 8.4 g/mL (SD=3.8) at 1h and 10.9 g/mL (SD=4.7) at 3h. The table displays the Pearson’s r and Bland-Altman statistics. The correlation...... between the two independent observers at 1h and 3h was relatively modest, with r statistics of 0.88 and 0.89, respectively. The intraobserver and intersoftware analyses showed a high correlation, with r statistics of 0.99 to 1.00. Conclusions The interobserver variability was small for both time points......, but slightly greater than the intraobserver and intersoftware variability. This could be explained by a difference in observer selection of FDG avid lesions in patients with multiple lesions. Table Analysis Pearson’s r (95% CI) Bland-Altman plot Mean difference (95% CI) 1h Interobserver 0.88 (0.82 – 0.92) -0...

  14. Analyzing survival curves at a fixed point in time for paired and clustered right-censored data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pei-Fang; Chi, Yunchan; Lee, Chun-Yi; Shyr, Yu; Liao, Yi-De

    2018-01-01

    In clinical trials, information about certain time points may be of interest in making decisions about treatment effectiveness. Rather than comparing entire survival curves, researchers can focus on the comparison at fixed time points that may have a clinical utility for patients. For two independent samples of right-censored data, Klein et al. (2007) compared survival probabilities at a fixed time point by studying a number of tests based on some transformations of the Kaplan-Meier estimators of the survival function. However, to compare the survival probabilities at a fixed time point for paired right-censored data or clustered right-censored data, their approach would need to be modified. In this paper, we extend the statistics to accommodate the possible within-paired correlation and within-clustered correlation, respectively. We use simulation studies to present comparative results. Finally, we illustrate the implementation of these methods using two real data sets. PMID:29456280

  15. Change-point analysis of geophysical time-series: application to landslide displacement rate (Séchilienne rock avalanche, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorese, D.; Grasso, J.-R.; Garambois, S.; Font, M.

    2018-05-01

    The rank-sum multiple change-point method is a robust statistical procedure designed to search for the optimal number and the location of change points in an arbitrary continue or discrete sequence of values. As such, this procedure can be used to analyse time-series data. Twelve years of robust data sets for the Séchilienne (French Alps) rockslide show a continuous increase in average displacement rate from 50 to 280 mm per month, in the 2004-2014 period, followed by a strong decrease back to 50 mm per month in the 2014-2015 period. When possible kinematic phases are tentatively suggested in previous studies, its solely rely on the basis of empirical threshold values. In this paper, we analyse how the use of a statistical algorithm for change-point detection helps to better understand time phases in landslide kinematics. First, we test the efficiency of the statistical algorithm on geophysical benchmark data, these data sets (stream flows and Northern Hemisphere temperatures) being already analysed by independent statistical tools. Second, we apply the method to 12-yr daily time-series of the Séchilienne landslide, for rainfall and displacement data, from 2003 December to 2015 December, in order to quantitatively extract changes in landslide kinematics. We find two strong significant discontinuities in the weekly cumulated rainfall values: an average rainfall rate increase is resolved in 2012 April and a decrease in 2014 August. Four robust changes are highlighted in the displacement time-series (2008 May, 2009 November-December-2010 January, 2012 September and 2014 March), the 2010 one being preceded by a significant but weak rainfall rate increase (in 2009 November). Accordingly, we are able to quantitatively define five kinematic stages for the Séchilienne rock avalanche during this period. The synchronization between the rainfall and displacement rate, only resolved at the end of 2009 and beginning of 2010, corresponds to a remarkable change (fourfold

  16. Relationship Between Dual Time Point FDG PET and Immunohistochemical Parameters in Preoperative Colorectal Cancer: Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Lee, Won Ae; Park, Seok Gun; Park, Dong Kook; Namgung, Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The clinical availability of 2 deoxy 2 [18F] fluoro D glucose (FDG) dual time point positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (DTPP) has been investigated in diverse oncologic fields. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the relationship between various immunohistopathologic markers reflecting disease progression of colorectal cancer and parameters extracted from FDG DTPP in colorectal cancer patients. Forty seven patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer were analyzed in this preliminary study. FDG DTPP consisted of an early scan 1 h after FDG injection and a delayed scan 1.5 h after the early scan. Based on an analysis of FDG DTPP, we estimated the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of tumors on the early and delayed scans (SUV earlya nd SUV delayed, respectively). The retention index (RI) was calculated as follows: (SUV delayed- SUV early) x 100/ SUV early. The clinicopathological findings (size and T and N stages) and immunohistochemical factors [glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1), hexokinase 2 (HK 2), p53, P504S, and β catenin] were analyzed by visual analysis. The RIs calculated from the SUVs ranged from -1.8 to 73.4 (31.8±15.5). The RIs were significantly higher in patients with high T stages (T3 and T4) than with low T stages (T1 and T2; P earlya nd SUV delayeda nd clinicopathologic parameters in this study. The RIs obtained from preoperative colorectal cancers had a significant relationship to tumor size, T staging, GLUT 1, and p53, in contrast to SUV earlyo r SUV delayed. Compared with previous reports, our results showed that RI can better predict GLUT 1 expression than HK 2 and other immunohistochemical markers. This study demonstrated that the RI might have the potential to be applied as a prognostic marked in preoperative colorectal cancer

  17. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2016-05-01

    To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced occlusions. The authors have

  18. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. Methods: The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced

  19. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas, 75390 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. Methods: The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced

  20. Impact of dual-time-point F-18 FDG PET/CT in the assessment of pleural effusion in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhawaldeh, Khaled; Biersack, Hans-J; Henke, Anna; Ezziddin, Samer

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the utility of dual-time-point F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) in differentiating benign from malignant pleural disease, in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. A total of 61 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and pleural effusion were included in this retrospective study. All patients had whole-body FDG PET/CT imaging at 60 ± 10 minutes post-FDG injection, whereas 31 patients had second-time delayed imaging repeated at 90 ± 10 minutes for the chest. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUV(max)) and the average percent change in SUV(max) (%SUV) between time point 1 and time point 2 were calculated. Malignancy was defined using the following criteria: (1) visual assessment using 3-points grading scale; (2) SUV(max) ≥2.4; (3) %SUV ≥ +9; and (4) SUV(max) ≥2.4 and/or %SUV ≥ +9. Analysis of variance test and receiver operating characteristic analysis were used in statistical analysis. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Follow-up revealed 29 patient with malignant pleural disease and 31 patients with benign pleural effusion. The average SUV(max) in malignant effusions was 6.5 ± 4 versus 2.2 ± 0.9 in benign effusions (P < 0.0001). The average %SUV in malignant effusions was +13 ± 10 versus -8 ± 11 in benign effusions (P < 0.0004). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the 5 criteria were as follows: (1) 86%, 72%, and 79%; (2) 93%, 72%, and 82%; (3) 67%, 94%, and 81%; (4) 100%, 94%, and 97%. Dual-time-point F-18 FDG PET can improve the diagnostic accuracy in differentiating benign from malignant pleural disease, with high sensitivity and good specificity.

  1. New definitions of pointing stability - ac and dc effects. [constant and time-dependent pointing error effects on image sensor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Robert L.; Sirlin, Samuel W.; San Martin, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    For most imaging sensors, a constant (dc) pointing error is unimportant (unless large), but time-dependent (ac) errors degrade performance by either distorting or smearing the image. When properly quantified, the separation of the root-mean-square effects of random line-of-sight motions into dc and ac components can be used to obtain the minimum necessary line-of-sight stability specifications. The relation between stability requirements and sensor resolution is discussed, with a view to improving communication between the data analyst and the control systems engineer.

  2. Stochastic modelling for biodosimetry: Predicting the chromosomal response to radiation at different time points after exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Ritter, Sylvia

    2014-07-01

    Cytogenetic data accumulated from the experiments with peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to densely ionizing radiation clearly demonstrate that for particles with linear energy transfer (LET) >100 keV/ μm the derived relative biological effectiveness (RBE) will strongly depend on the time point chosen for the analysis. A reasonable prediction of radiation-induced chromosome damage and its distribution among cells can be achieved by exploiting Monte Carlo methodology along with the information about the radius of the penetrating ion-track and the LET of the ion beam. In order to examine the relationship between the track structure and the distribution of aberrations induced in human lymphocytes and to clarify the correlation between delays in the cell cycle progression and the aberration burden visible at the first post-irradiation mitosis, we have analyzed chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes exposed to Fe-ions with LET values of 335 keV/ μm and formulated a Monte Carlo model which reflects time-delay in mitosis of aberrant cells. Within the model the frequency distributions of aberrations among cells follow the pattern of local energy distribution and are well approximated by a time-dependent compound Poisson statistics. The cell-division cycle of undamaged and aberrant cells and chromosome aberrations are modelled as a renewal process represented by a random sum of (independent and identically distributed) random elements S N = ∑ N i=0 X i . Here N stands for the number of particle traversals of cell nucleus, each leading to a statistically independent formation of X i aberrations. The parameter N is itself a random variable and reflects the cell cycle delay of heavily damaged cells. The probability distribution of S N follows a general law for which the moment generating function satisfies the relation Φ S N = Φ N ( Φ X i ). Formulation of the Monte Carlo model which allows to predict expected fluxes of aberrant and non-aberrant cells has been based

  3. Distinguished hyperbolic trajectories in time-dependent fluid flows: analytical and computational approach for velocity fields defined as data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ide

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop analytical and numerical methods for finding special hyperbolic trajectories that govern geometry of Lagrangian structures in time-dependent vector fields. The vector fields (or velocity fields may have arbitrary time dependence and be realized only as data sets over finite time intervals, where space and time are discretized. While the notion of a hyperbolic trajectory is central to dynamical systems theory, much of the theoretical developments for Lagrangian transport proceed under the assumption that such a special hyperbolic trajectory exists. This brings in new mathematical issues that must be addressed in order for Lagrangian transport theory to be applicable in practice, i.e. how to determine whether or not such a trajectory exists and, if it does exist, how to identify it in a sequence of instantaneous velocity fields. We address these issues by developing the notion of a distinguished hyperbolic trajectory (DHT. We develop an existence criteria for certain classes of DHTs in general time-dependent velocity fields, based on the time evolution of Eulerian structures that are observed in individual instantaneous fields over the entire time interval of the data set. We demonstrate the concept of DHTs in inhomogeneous (or "forced" time-dependent linear systems and develop a theory and analytical formula for computing DHTs. Throughout this work the notion of linearization is very important. This is not surprising since hyperbolicity is a "linearized" notion. To extend the analytical formula to more general nonlinear time-dependent velocity fields, we develop a series of coordinate transforms including a type of linearization that is not typically used in dynamical systems theory. We refer to it as Eulerian linearization, which is related to the frame independence of DHTs, as opposed to the Lagrangian linearization, which is typical in dynamical systems theory, which is used in the computation of Lyapunov exponents. We

  4. An elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is associated with adverse outcomes following single time-point paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose: a time-course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Darren G; Kitto, Laura; Zafar, Sara; Reid, Thomas W D J; Martin, Kirsty G; Davidson, Janice S; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    The innate immune system is profoundly dysregulated in paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver injury. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple bedside index with prognostic value in a number of inflammatory conditions. To evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the NLR in patients with significant liver injury following single time-point and staggered paracetamol overdoses. Time-course analysis of 100 single time-point and 50 staggered paracetamol overdoses admitted to a tertiary liver centre. Timed laboratory samples were correlated with time elapsed after overdose or admission, respectively, and the NLR was calculated. A total of 49/100 single time-point patients developed hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Median NLRs were higher at both 72 (P=0.0047) and 96 h after overdose (P=0.0041) in single time-point patients who died or were transplanted. Maximum NLR values by 96 h were associated with increasing HE grade (P=0.0005). An NLR of more than 16.7 during the first 96 h following overdose was independently associated with the development of HE [odds ratio 5.65 (95% confidence interval 1.67-19.13), P=0.005]. Maximum NLR values by 96 h were strongly associated with the requirement for intracranial pressure monitoring (Pparacetamol overdoses. Future studies should assess the value of incorporating the NLR into existing prognostic and triage indices of single time-point paracetamol overdose.

  5. Change in intraindividual variability over time as a key metric for defining performance-based cognitive fatigability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Ding, Mingzhou; Kluger, Benzi M

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive fatigability is conventionally quantified as the increase over time in either mean reaction time (RT) or error rate from two or more time periods during sustained performance of a prolonged cognitive task. There is evidence indicating that these mean performance measures may not sufficiently reflect the response characteristics of cognitive fatigue. We hypothesized that changes in intraindividual variability over time would be a more sensitive and ecologically meaningful metric for investigations of fatigability of cognitive performance. To test the hypothesis fifteen young adults were recruited. Trait fatigue perceptions in various domains were assessed with the Multidimensional Fatigue Index (MFI). Behavioral data were then recorded during performance of a three-hour continuous cued Stroop task. Results showed that intraindividual variability, as quantified by the coefficient of variation of RT, increased linearly over the course of three hours and demonstrated a significantly greater effect size than mean RT or accuracy. Change in intraindividual RT variability over time was significantly correlated with relevant subscores of the MFI including reduced activity, reduced motivation and mental fatigue. While change in mean RT over time was also correlated with reduced motivation and mental fatigue, these correlations were significantly smaller than those associated with intraindividual RT variability. RT distribution analysis using an ex-Gaussian model further revealed that change in intraindividual variability over time reflects an increase in the exponential component of variance and may reflect attentional lapses or other breakdowns in cognitive control. These results suggest that intraindividual variability and its change over time provide important metrics for measuring cognitive fatigability and may prove useful for inferring the underlying neuronal mechanisms of both perceptions of fatigue and objective changes in performance. Copyright © 2014

  6. Real-time UAV trajectory generation using feature points matching between video image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Younggi; Song, Jeongheon; Han, Dongyeob

    2017-09-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), equipped with navigation systems and video capability, are currently being deployed for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance mission. In this paper, we present a systematic approach for the generation of UAV trajectory using a video image matching system based on SURF (Speeded up Robust Feature) and Preemptive RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus). Video image matching to find matching points is one of the most important steps for the accurate generation of UAV trajectory (sequence of poses in 3D space). We used the SURF algorithm to find the matching points between video image sequences, and removed mismatching by using the Preemptive RANSAC which divides all matching points to outliers and inliers. The inliers are only used to determine the epipolar geometry for estimating the relative pose (rotation and translation) between image sequences. Experimental results from simulated video image sequences showed that our approach has a good potential to be applied to the automatic geo-localization of the UAVs system

  7. Estimating envelope thermal characteristics from single point in time thermal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshatshati, Salahaldin Faraj

    Energy efficiency programs implemented nationally in the U.S. by utilities have rendered savings which have cost on average 0.03/kWh. This cost is still well below generation costs. However, as the lowest cost energy efficiency measures are adopted, this the cost effectiveness of further investment declines. Thus there is a need to more effectively find the most opportunities for savings regionally and nationally, so that the greatest cost effectiveness in implementing energy efficiency can be achieved. Integral to this process. are at scale energy audits. However, on-site building energy audits process are expensive, in the range of US1.29/m2-$5.37/m2 and there are an insufficient number of professionals to perform the audits. Energy audits that can be conducted at-scale and at low cost are needed. Research is presented that addresses at community-wide scales characterization of building envelope thermal characteristics via drive-by and fly-over GPS linked thermal imaging. A central question drives this research: Can single point-in-time thermal images be used to infer U-values and thermal capacitances of walls and roofs? Previous efforts to use thermal images to estimate U-values have been limited to rare steady exterior weather conditions. The approaches posed here are based upon the development two models first is a dynamic model of a building envelope component with unknown U-value and thermal capacitance. The weather conditions prior to the thermal image are used as inputs to the model. The model is solved to determine the exterior surface temperature, ultimately predicted the temperature at the thermal measurement time. The model U-value and thermal capacitance are tuned in order to force the error between the predicted surface temperature and the measured surface temperature from thermal imaging to be near zero. This model is developed simply to show that such a model cannot be relied upon to accurately estimate the U-value. The second is a data

  8. Time-dependent Taylor–Aris dispersion of an initial point concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Søren; Hovad, Emil; Bruus, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    -specific theoretical results, and furthermore predict new phenomena. In particular, for the transient phase before the well-described steady Taylor–Aris limit is reached, we find anomalous diffusion with a dependence of the temporal scaling exponent on the initial release point, generalizing this finding in specific...... cases. During this transient we furthermore identify maxima in the values of the dispersion coefficient which exceed the Taylor–Aris value by amounts that depend on channel geometry, initial point release position, velocity profile and Péclet number. We show that these effects are caused by a difference...

  9. Combinations of Epoch Durations and Cut-Points to Estimate Sedentary Time and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröberg, Andreas; Berg, Christina; Larsson, Christel; Boldemann, Cecilia; Raustorp, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate how combinations of different epoch durations and cut-points affect the estimations of sedentary time and physical activity in adolescents. Accelerometer data from 101 adolescents were derived and 30 combinations were used to estimate sedentary time, light, moderate, vigorous, and combined…

  10. Perceptual inequality between two neighboring time intervals defined by sound markers: correspondence between neurophysiological and psychological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako eMitsudo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain activity related to time estimation processes in humans was analyzed using a perceptual phenomenon called auditory temporal assimilation. In a typical stimulus condition, two neighboring time intervals (T1 and T2 in this order are perceived as equal even when the physical lengths of these time intervals are considerably different. Our previous event-related potential (ERP study demonstrated that a slow negative component (SNCt appears in the right-frontal brain area (around the F8 electrode after T2, which is associated with judgment of the equality/inequality of T1 and T2. In the present study, we conducted two ERP experiments to further confirm the robustness of the SNCt. The stimulus patterns consisted of two neighboring time intervals marked by three successive tone bursts. Thirteen participants only listened to the patterns in the first session, and judged the equality/inequality of T1 and T2 in the next session. Behavioral data showed typical temporal assimilation. The ERP data revealed that three components (N1; contingent negative variation, CNV; and SNCt emerged related to the temporal judgment. The N1 appeared in the central area, and its peak latencies corresponded to the physical timing of each marker onset. The CNV component appeared in the frontal area during T2 presentation, and its amplitude increased as a function of T1. The SNCt appeared in the right-frontal area after the presentation of T1 and T2, and its magnitude was larger for the temporal patterns causing perceptual inequality. The SNCt was also correlated with the perceptual equality/inequality of the same stimulus pattern, and continued up to about 400 ms after the end of T2. These results suggest that the SNCt can be a signature of equality/inequality judgment, which derives from the comparison of the two neighboring time intervals.

  11. DETERMINATION OF THE DELAY DEPARTURE TIME OF THE BUS FROM STOPPING POINT INTO THE CAR FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gorbachov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for estimation of the bus departure delax from the bus stopping point after passenger loading is presented. The model allows to take into account the traffic density on a particular road section of the transport network, as well as the bus parameters.

  12. Real-time multi-GNSS single-frequency precise point positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, P.F.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a popular Global Positioning System (GPS) processing strategy, thanks to its high precision without requiring additional GPS infrastructure. Single-Frequency PPP (SF-PPP) takes this one step further by no longer relying on expensive dual-frequency GPS receivers,

  13. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  14. "Dermatitis" defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne M; Nedorost, Susan T

    2010-01-01

    The term "dermatitis" can be defined narrowly or broadly, clinically or histologically. A common and costly condition, dermatitis is underresourced compared to other chronic skin conditions. The lack of a collectively understood definition of dermatitis and its subcategories could be the primary barrier. To investigate how dermatologists define the term "dermatitis" and determine if a consensus on the definition of this term and other related terms exists. A seven-question survey of dermatologists nationwide was conducted. Of respondents (n  =  122), half consider dermatitis to be any inflammation of the skin. Nearly half (47.5%) use the term interchangeably with "eczema." Virtually all (> 96%) endorse the subcategory "atopic" under the terms "dermatitis" and "eczema," but the subcategories "contact," "drug hypersensitivity," and "occupational" are more highly endorsed under the term "dermatitis" than under the term "eczema." Over half (55.7%) personally consider "dermatitis" to have a broad meaning, and even more (62.3%) believe that dermatologists as a whole define the term broadly. There is a lack of consensus among experts in defining dermatitis, eczema, and their related subcategories.

  15. Defining an optimum pumping-time requirement for sampling ground-water wells on the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharnhorst, N.L.

    1982-04-01

    The objective was to determine the optimum time period necessary to pump water from a well before a representative sample of the ground water can be obtained. It was assumed that a representative sample has been collected if the concentration of chemical parameters is the same in a number of samples taken consecutively, so that the concentration of parameters does not vary with time of collection. Ground-water samples used in this project were obtained by pumping selected wells on the Hanford Site. At each well, samples were taken at two minute intervals, and on each sample various chemical analyses were performed. Samples were checked for pH, sulfate, iron, specific conductivity, chloride, nitrate and alkalinity. The data showed that pH, alkalinity, sulfate and specific conductivity levels stabilized almost immediately after pumping of the well began. In many wells, the chloride and nitrate levels were unstable throughout the 38-minute sampling period. Iron levels, however, did not behave in either fashion. The concentration of iron in the samples was high when pumping began but dropped rapidly as pumping continued. The best explanation for this is that iron is flushed from the sides of the casing into the well when pumping begins. After several minutes of pumping, most of the dissolved iron is washed from the well casing and the iron concentration reaches a stable plateau representative of the iron concentration in the ground water.Since iron concentration takes longest to stabilize, the optimum pumping time for a well is based on the iron stabilization time for that well

  16. Alpine Serpentinite Geochemistry As Key To Define Timing Of Oceanic Lithosphere Accretion To The Subduction Plate Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, M.; Scambelluri, M.; Agostini, S.; Godard, M.; Pettke, D. T.; Angiboust, S.

    2016-12-01

    Isotopic (Pb, Sr and B) and trace element (B, Be, As, Sb, U, Th) signatures of serpentinites are useful geochemical tools to assess element exchange and fluid-rock interactions in subduction zone settings. They help to unravel geological history and tectonic evolution of subduction serpentinites and associated meta-oceanic crust. Sedimentary-derived fluid influx within HP plate interface environments strongly enriches serpentinites in As, Sb, B, U and Th and resets their B, Sr and Pb isotopic compositions. This HP metasomatic signature is preserved during exhumation and/or released at higher PT through de-serpentinization, fueling partial melting in the sub-arc mantle and recycling such fingerprint into arc magmas. This study focuses on the subduction recrystallization, geochemical diversity and fluid-rock interaction recorded by high- to ultra-high pressure (HP, UHP) Alpine serpentinites from the subducted oceanic plate (Cignana Unit, Zermatt-Saas Complex, Monviso and Lanzo Ultramafic Massifs). The As and Sb compositions of the HP-UHP Alpine ophiolitic rocks reveal the interaction between serpentinite and crust-derived fluids during their emplacement along the plate interface. This enables to define a hypothetical architecture of the Alpine subduction interface, considering large ultramafic slices. In this scenario, the Lanzo peridotite and serpentinite retain an As-Sb composition comparable to DM and PM: i.e. they experienced little exchange with sediment-derived fluids. Lanzo thus belonged to sections of the subducting plate, afar from the plate interface. Serpentinites from the Lago di Cignana Unit and Monviso and Voltri are richer in As and Sb, showing moderate to strong interaction with sediment- and crust-derived fluids during subduction (i.e. they behaved as open systems). These serpentinite slices accreted at the plate interface and exchanged with slab-derived fluids at different depths during Alpine subduction: Voltri accreted at shallower conditions (50

  17. A model of negotiation scenarios based on time, relevance andcontrol used to define advantageous positions in a negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Guillermo Rojas Altamirano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Models that apply to negotiation are based on different perspectives that range from the relationship between the actors, game theory or the steps in a procedure. This research proposes a model of negotiation scenarios that considers three factors (time, relevance and control, which are displayed as the most important in a negotiation. These factors interact with each other and create different scenarios for each of the actors involved in a negotiation. The proposed model not only facilitates the creation of a negotiation strategy but also an ideal choice of effective tactics.

  18. The recovery of a time-dependent point source in a linear transport equation: application to surface water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdi, Adel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to localize the position of a point source and recover the history of its time-dependent intensity function that is both unknown and constitutes the right-hand side of a 1D linear transport equation. Assuming that the source intensity function vanishes before reaching the final control time, we prove that recording the state with respect to the time at two observation points framing the source region leads to the identification of the source position and the recovery of its intensity function in a unique manner. Note that at least one of the two observation points should be strategic. We establish an identification method that determines quasi-explicitly the source position and transforms the task of recovering its intensity function into solving directly a well-conditioned linear system. Some numerical experiments done on a variant of the water pollution BOD model are presented

  19. The maize INDETERMINATE1 flowering time regulator defines a highly conserved zinc finger protein family in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colasanti Joseph

    2006-06-01

    orthologs from rice and sorghum. These similarities between ID1 and closely related genes in other grasses point to possible similarities in function.

  20. Point Measurements of Fermi Velocities by a Time-of-Flight Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, David S.; Henningsen, J. O.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1972-01-01

    The present paper describes in detail a new method of obtaining information about the Fermi velocity of electrons in metals, point by point, along certain contours on the Fermi surface. It is based on transmission of microwaves through thin metal slabs in the presence of a static magnetic field...... applied parallel to the surface. The electrons carry the signal across the slab and arrive at the second surface with a phase delay which is measured relative to a reference signal; the velocities are derived by analyzing the magnetic field dependence of the phase delay. For silver we have in this way...... obtained one component of the velocity along half the circumference of the centrally symmetric orbit for B→∥[100]. The results are in agreement with current models for the Fermi surface. For B→∥[011], the electrons involved are not moving in a symmetry plane of the Fermi surface. In such cases one cannot...

  1. Defining the value of magnetic resonance imaging in prostate brachytherapy using time-driven activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Nikhil G; Orio, Peter F; Potters, Louis

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulation and planning for prostate brachytherapy (PBT) may deliver potential clinical benefits but at an unknown cost to the provider and healthcare system. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) is an innovative bottom-up costing tool in healthcare that can be used to measure the actual consumption of resources required over the full cycle of care. TDABC analysis was conducted to compare patient-level costs for an MRI-based versus traditional PBT workflow. TDABC cost was only 1% higher for the MRI-based workflow, and utilization of MRI allowed for cost shifting from other imaging modalities, such as CT and ultrasound, to MRI during the PBT process. Future initiatives will be required to follow the costs of care over longer periods of time to determine if improvements in outcomes and toxicities with an MRI-based approach lead to lower resource utilization and spending over the long-term. Understanding provider costs will become important as healthcare reform transitions to value-based purchasing and other alternative payment models. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The imaginary-time path integral and non-time-reversal-invariant saddle points of the Euclidean action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, I.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss new bounce-like (but non-time-reversal-invariant) solutions to Euclidean equations of motion, which we dub boomerons. In the Euclidean path integral approach to quantum theories, boomerons make an imaginary contribution to the vacuum energy. The fake vacuum instability can be removed by cancelling boomeron contributions against contributions from time reversed boomerons (anti-boomerons). The cancellation rests on a sign choice whose significance is not completely understood in the path integral method. (orig.)

  3. Using fluorescence lymphangiography to define the ileocolic mesentery: proof of concept for the watershed area using real-time imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, D S; Joshi, H M; Rodriguez-Justo, M; Walsh, D; Coffey, J C; Chand, M

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in mesenteric science have demonstrated that the mesentery is a continuous structure with a 'watershed' area at the mesenteric apex between the right colon and terminal ileum, where lymphatic flow can proceed either proximally or distally. With this new understanding of the anatomy, functional features are emerging, which can have an impact on surgical management. Fluorescence lymphangiography or lymphoscintigraphy with indocyanine green allows real-time visualization of lymphatic channels, which highlights sentinel lymph nodes and may facilitate identification of the ideal margins for mesenteric lymphadenectomy during bowel resection for colon cancer. By using this novel technology, it is possible to demonstrate a watershed area in the ileocolic region and may facilitate more precise mesenteric dissection. In the present study, we provide proof of concept for the ileocolic watershed area using fluorescence lymphangiography.

  4. Time Series Discord Detection in Medical Data using a Parallel Relational Database [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodbridge, Diane; Wilson, Andrew T.; Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Goldstein, Richard H.

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have made continuous real-time health monitoring available in both hospital and non-hospital settings. Since data collected from high frequency medical sensors includes a huge amount of data, storing and processing continuous medical data is an emerging big data area. Especially detecting anomaly in real time is important for patients’ emergency detection and prevention. A time series discord indicates a subsequence that has the maximum difference to the rest of the time series subsequences, meaning that it has abnormal or unusual data trends. In this study, we implemented two versions of time series discord detection algorithms on a high performance parallel database management system (DBMS) and applied them to 240 Hz waveform data collected from 9,723 patients. The initial brute force version of the discord detection algorithm takes each possible subsequence and calculates a distance to the nearest non-self match to find the biggest discords in time series. For the heuristic version of the algorithm, a combination of an array and a trie structure was applied to order time series data for enhancing time efficiency. The study results showed efficient data loading, decoding and discord searches in a large amount of data, benefiting from the time series discord detection algorithm and the architectural characteristics of the parallel DBMS including data compression, data pipe-lining, and task scheduling.

  5. A comparison of the real-time and the imaginary-time formalisms of finite temperature field theory for 2,3, and 4-point Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurenche, P.; Becherrawy, T.

    1991-07-01

    The predictions of the real-time and the imaginary-time formalisms of Finite Temperature Field Theory is compared. Retarded and advanced amplitudes are constructed in the real-time formalism which are linear combinations of the usual time-ordered thermo-field dynamics amplitudes. These amplitudes can be easily compared to the various analytically continued amplitudes of the imaginary-time formalism. Explicit calculation of the 2,3 and 4-point Green's functions in φ 3 field theory is done in the one and two-loop approximations, and the compatibility of the two formalisms is shown. (author) 17 refs., 12 figs

  6. Defining Cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Elizabeth; Donnerstein, Edward; Kowalski, Robin; Lin, Carolyn A; Parti, Katalin

    2017-11-01

    Is cyberbullying essentially the same as bullying, or is it a qualitatively different activity? The lack of a consensual, nuanced definition has limited the field's ability to examine these issues. Evidence suggests that being a perpetrator of one is related to being a perpetrator of the other; furthermore, strong relationships can also be noted between being a victim of either type of attack. It also seems that both types of social cruelty have a psychological impact, although the effects of being cyberbullied may be worse than those of being bullied in a traditional sense (evidence here is by no means definitive). A complicating factor is that the 3 characteristics that define bullying (intent, repetition, and power imbalance) do not always translate well into digital behaviors. Qualities specific to digital environments often render cyberbullying and bullying different in circumstances, motivations, and outcomes. To make significant progress in addressing cyberbullying, certain key research questions need to be addressed. These are as follows: How can we define, distinguish between, and understand the nature of cyberbullying and other forms of digital conflict and cruelty, including online harassment and sexual harassment? Once we have a functional taxonomy of the different types of digital cruelty, what are the short- and long-term effects of exposure to or participation in these social behaviors? What are the idiosyncratic characteristics of digital communication that users can be taught? Finally, how can we apply this information to develop and evaluate effective prevention programs? Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Developing a Tool Point Control Scheme for a Hydraulic Crane Using Interactive Real-time Dynamic Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Ballebye, Morten

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an interactive real-time dynamic simulation model of a hydraulic crane. The user input to the model is given continuously via joystick and output is presented continuously in a 3D animation. Using this simulation model, a tool point control scheme...... is developed for the specific crane, considering the saturation phenomena of the system and practical implementation....

  8. Experimental demonstration of bandwidth on demand (BoD) provisioning based on time scheduling in software-defined multi-domain optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Li, Yajie; Wang, Xinbo; Chen, Bowen; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    A hierarchical software-defined networking (SDN) control architecture is designed for multi-domain optical networks with the Open Daylight (ODL) controller. The OpenFlow-based Control Virtual Network Interface (CVNI) protocol is deployed between the network orchestrator and the domain controllers. Then, a dynamic bandwidth on demand (BoD) provisioning solution is proposed based on time scheduling in software-defined multi-domain optical networks (SD-MDON). Shared Risk Link Groups (SRLG)-disjoint routing schemes are adopted to separate each tenant for reliability. The SD-MDON testbed is built based on the proposed hierarchical control architecture. Then the proposed time scheduling-based BoD (Ts-BoD) solution is experimentally demonstrated on the testbed. The performance of the Ts-BoD solution is evaluated with respect to blocking probability, resource utilization, and lightpath setup latency.

  9. The Strengths and the Weakness Points of Mitch Albom's the TIME Keeper

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo, Bobby Chandra Vinanti

    2015-01-01

    Tugas akhir ini membahas tentang novel karya Mitch Albom yang berjudul The Time Keeper. The Time Keeper adalah sebuah novel yang bercerita tentang Dor, manusia pertama yang menghitung waktu di bumi. Ia dihukum di gua karena mencoba mengukur anugrah terbesar dari Tuhan, yaitu Waktu. Lalu kembali ke dunia, dengan membawa jam pasir ajaib dan sebuah misi yaitu menebus kesalahannya dengan mengajarkan makna Waktu pada dua manusia bumi. Dalam tugas akhir ini penulis memberikan ulasan mengenai keleb...

  10. Time dynamics in the point process modeling of seismicity of Aswan area (Egypt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela Amin; ElGabry, Mohamed; El-hady, Sherif; Abou Elenean, Kamal M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Time dynamics of shallow Aswan seismic events are time-clusterized. ► Super-Poissonian behavior characterizes shallow and deep events. ► Shallow seismicity shows a cycle at about 402 days. - Abstract: The seismicity observed in the Aswan area (Egypt) between 1986 and 2003 was deeply investigated by means of time-fractal methods. The time dynamics of the aftershock-depleted seismicity, investigated by means of the Allan Factor, reveals that the time-clustering behavior for events occurred at shallow depths (down to 12.5 km from the ground) as well as for events occurred at larger depths (from 15 km down to 27.5 km) does not depend on the ordering of the interevent times but mainly on the shape of the probability density functions of the interevent intervals. Moreover, deep seismicity is more compatible with a Poissonian dynamics than shallow seismicity that is definitely more super-Poissonian. Additionally, the set of shallow events shows a periodicity at about 402 days, which could be consistent with the cyclic loading/unloading operations of the Lake Naser Dam. Such findings contribute to better characterize the seismicity of the Aswan area, which is one of the most interesting water reservoirs in the world, featured by reservoir-induced earthquakes.

  11. Exact analytical solution of time-independent neutron transport equation, and its applications to systems with a point source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikata, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An exact solution for the one-speed neutron transport equation is obtained. • This solution as well as its derivation are believed to be new. • Neutron flux for a purely absorbing material with a point neutron source off the origin is obtained. • Spherically as well as cylindrically piecewise constant cross sections are studied. • Neutron flux expressions for a point neutron source off the origin are believed to be new. - Abstract: An exact analytical solution of the time-independent monoenergetic neutron transport equation is obtained in this paper. The solution is applied to systems with a point source. Systematic analysis of the solution of the time-independent neutron transport equation, and its applications represent the primary goal of this paper. To the best of the author’s knowledge, certain key results on the scalar neutron flux as well as their derivations are new. As an application of these results, a scalar neutron flux for a purely absorbing medium with a spherically piecewise constant cross section and an isotropic point neutron source off the origin as well as that for a cylindrically piecewise constant cross section with a point neutron source off the origin are obtained. Both of these results are believed to be new

  12. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks). These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  13. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Levy-Gigi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks. These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  14. Summary statistics for end-point conditioned continuous-time Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    Continuous-time Markov chains are a widely used modelling tool. Applications include DNA sequence evolution, ion channel gating behavior and mathematical finance. We consider the problem of calculating properties of summary statistics (e.g. mean time spent in a state, mean number of jumps between...... two states and the distribution of the total number of jumps) for discretely observed continuous time Markov chains. Three alternative methods for calculating properties of summary statistics are described and the pros and cons of the methods are discussed. The methods are based on (i) an eigenvalue...... decomposition of the rate matrix, (ii) the uniformization method, and (iii) integrals of matrix exponentials. In particular we develop a framework that allows for analyses of rather general summary statistics using the uniformization method....

  15. Free-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory: Application to quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Yamashita, K.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The two-state Deutsch-Jozsa algortihm used to demonstrate the utility of free-time and fixed-end point multi-target optimal control theory. Research highlights: → Free-time and fixed-end point multi-target optimal control theory (FRFP-MTOCT) was constructed. → The features of our theory include optimization of the external time-dependent perturbations with high transition probabilities, that of the temporal duration, the monotonic convergence, and the ability to optimize multiple-laser pulses simultaneously. → The advantage of the theory and a comparison with conventional fixed-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FIFP-MTOCT) are presented by comparing data calculated using the present theory with those published previously [K. Mishima, K. Yamashita, Chem. Phys. 361 (2009) 106]. → The qubit system of our interest consists of two polar NaCl molecules coupled by dipole-dipole interaction. → The calculation examples show that our theory is useful for minor adjustment of the external fields. - Abstract: An extension of free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory (FRFP-OCT) to monotonically convergent free-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FRFP-MTOCT) is presented. The features of our theory include optimization of the external time-dependent perturbations with high transition probabilities, that of the temporal duration, the monotonic convergence, and the ability to optimize multiple-laser pulses simultaneously. The advantage of the theory and a comparison with conventional fixed-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FIFP-MTOCT) are presented by comparing data calculated using the present theory with those published previously [K. Mishima, K. Yamashita, Chem. Phys. 361, (2009), 106]. The qubit system of our interest consists of two polar NaCl molecules coupled by dipole-dipole interaction. The calculation examples show that our theory is useful for minor

  16. Numerical Time Integration Methods for a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Kramer, Morten

    2012-01-01

    on a discretization of the convolution integral. The calculation of the convolution integral is performed at each time step regardless of the chosen numerical scheme. In the second model the convolution integral is replaced by a system of linear ordinary differential equations. The formulation of the state...

  17. Adaptive error detection for HDR/PDR brachytherapy: Guidance for decision making during real-time in vivo point dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kertzscher Schwencke, Gustavo Adolfo Vladimir; Andersen, Claus E.; Tanderup, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This study presents an adaptive error detection algorithm (AEDA) for real-timein vivo point dosimetry during high dose rate (HDR) or pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy (BT) where the error identification, in contrast to existing approaches, does not depend on an a priori reconstruction ......, and the AEDA’s capacity to distinguish between true and false error scenarios. The study further shows that the AEDA can offer guidance in decision making in the event of potential errors detected with real-time in vivo point dosimetry....... of the dosimeter position reconstruction. Given its nearly exclusive dependence on stable dosimeter positioning, the AEDA allows for a substantially simplified and time efficient real-time in vivo BT dosimetry implementation. Methods:In the event of a measured potential treatment error, the AEDA proposes the most...

  18. Study of time dependence and spectral composition of the signal in circuit of ac electric point motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Buryak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to establish the dependence of changes in the time domain and spectral components of the current in the circuit of the AC electric point motor on its technical condition, to identify the common features for the same type of damage. It is necessary using the analysis of the received signals to carry out the remote diagnosis and determination of faults and defects of electric point motors. In addition it suggested to accelerate the process of the failure, malfunction and damage search. Authors propose the automated approach to the service of remote floor automation equipment, which is located in the envelope of trains. Reduction of the threat to life and health of staff by reducing the residence time in the zone of train movement. Reduce the impact of human factors on the result of service. Methodology. The paper studies the structure, parameters and characteristics, the operation and maintenance characteristics of the AC electric point motors. Determination of the main types of possible faults in the process depending on the operating conditions. Presentation of the electric motor as an object of diagnosis. Findings. The time dependences of the current in the circuit of electric point motor for its various states was obtained. The connection between the technical condition of electric point motor and the performance of current curve in time and spectral domains was established. The revealed deviations from the reference signal were justified. According to the obtained results it was made the conclusion. Originality. A method for diagnosing the state of the AC electric point motor by the time dependence and the spectral composition of the current in its circuit was proposed. The connection diagram to the motor windings based on non-infringement of electric parameters of connection circuit in the actual operating conditions was applied. Practical value. The obtained results suggest the possibility and feasibility of

  19. Convergence Time and Positioning Accuracy Comparison between BDS and GPS Precise Point Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BDS/GPS data from MGEX were processed by TriP 2.0 software developed at Wuhan University. Both static and kinematic float PPP are tested by adopting precise satellite orbits and clocks provided by Research Center of GNSS, Wuhan University. The results show that the convergence time of BDS static PPP is about 80min while kinematic PPP is about 100min. For 3h observations, static positioning accuracy of 5 cm and kinematic positioning accuracy of 8 cm in horizontal, about 12 cm in vertical can be achieved. Similar to GPS PPP, precision in east component is worse than north. At present, BDS PPP needs longer convergence time than GPS PPP to reach an absolute positioning accuracy of cm~dm due to the lack of global tracking stations and the limited accuracy of orbit and clock products.

  20. Determining the Points of Change in Time Series of Polarimetric SAR Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Knut; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Skriver, Henning

    2016-01-01

    We present the likelihood ratio test statistic for the homogeneity of several complex variance–covariance matrices that may be used in order to assess whether at least one change has taken place in a time series of SAR data. Furthermore, we give a factorization of this test statistic into a produ....... The pixelwise analyses are applied on homogeneous subareas covered with different vegetation types using the distribution of the observed p-values....

  1. Space and time in the context of equilibrium-point theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G

    2011-05-01

    Advances to the equilibrium-point (EP) theory and solutions to several classical problems of action and perception are suggested and discussed. Among them are (1) the posture-movement problem of how movements away from a stable posture can be made without evoking resistance of posture-stabilizing mechanisms resulting from intrinsic muscle and reflex properties; (2) the problem of kinesthesia or why our sense of limb position is fairly accurate despite ambiguous positional information delivered by proprioceptive and cutaneous signals; (3) the redundancy problems in the control of multiple muscles and degrees of freedom. Central to the EP hypothesis is the notion that there are specific neural structures that represent spatial frames of reference (FRs) selected by the brain in a task-specific way from a set of available FRs. The brain is also able to translate or/and rotate the selected FRs by modifying their major attributes-the origin, metrics, and orientation-and thus substantially influence, in a feed-forward manner, action and perception. The brain does not directly solve redundancy problems: it only limits the amount of redundancy by predetermining where, in spatial coordinates, a task-specific action should emerge and allows all motor elements, including the environment, to interact to deliver a unique action, thus solving the redundancy problem (natural selection of action). The EP theory predicts the existence of specific neurons associated with the control of different attributes of FRs and explains the role of mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus and place cells in the hippocampus. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 287-304 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.108 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Studying the potential of point detectors in time-resolved dose verification of dynamic radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Behrens, C. F.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2015-01-01

    based on fiber-coupled plastic scintillator detectors was evaluated and compared with a Farmer-type ionization chamber and a small-volume ionization chamber. An important feature of scintillator detectors is that the sensitive volume of the detector can easily be scaled, and five scintillator detectors......-volume ionization chamber and the smallest scintillators. The time-resolved RapidArc dose profiles revealed volume-dependent discrepancies between scintillator and ionization chamber response, which confirmed that correction factors for ionization chambers in high temporal and spatial dose gradients are dominated...

  3. [Multiple time scales analysis of spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss within watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-bing; Chen, Xing-wei; Chen, Ying

    2015-07-01

    Identification of the critical source areas of non-point source pollution is an important means to control the non-point source pollution within the watershed. In order to further reveal the impact of multiple time scales on the spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss, a SWAT model of Shanmei Reservoir watershed was developed. Based on the simulation of total nitrogen (TN) loss intensity of all 38 subbasins, spatial distribution characteristics of nitrogen loss and critical source areas were analyzed at three time scales of yearly average, monthly average and rainstorms flood process, respectively. Furthermore, multiple linear correlation analysis was conducted to analyze the contribution of natural environment and anthropogenic disturbance on nitrogen loss. The results showed that there were significant spatial differences of TN loss in Shanmei Reservoir watershed at different time scales, and the spatial differentiation degree of nitrogen loss was in the order of monthly average > yearly average > rainstorms flood process. TN loss load mainly came from upland Taoxi subbasin, which was identified as the critical source area. At different time scales, land use types (such as farmland and forest) were always the dominant factor affecting the spatial distribution of nitrogen loss, while the effect of precipitation and runoff on the nitrogen loss was only taken in no fertilization month and several processes of storm flood at no fertilization date. This was mainly due to the significant spatial variation of land use and fertilization, as well as the low spatial variability of precipitation and runoff.

  4. Defining Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunmer, William; Greaney, Keith

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the New Zealand Ministry of Education formally recognized the condition of dyslexia for the first time and has subsequently developed a working definition of the condition. The aim of this article is to draw on contemporary theory and research on reading development, reading difficulties, and reading intervention to describe what the…

  5. Solving point reactor kinetic equations by time step-size adaptable numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Chaqing

    2007-01-01

    Based on the analysis of effects of time step-size on numerical solutions, this paper showed the necessity of step-size adaptation. Based on the relationship between error and step-size, two-step adaptation methods for solving initial value problems (IVPs) were introduced. They are Two-Step Method and Embedded Runge-Kutta Method. PRKEs were solved by implicit Euler method with step-sizes optimized by using Two-Step Method. It was observed that the control error has important influence on the step-size and the accuracy of solutions. With suitable control errors, the solutions of PRKEs computed by the above mentioned method are accurate reasonably. The accuracy and usage of MATLAB built-in ODE solvers ode23 and ode45, both of which adopt Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method, were also studied and discussed. (authors)

  6. The two chromosomes of Vibrio cholerae are initiated at different time points in the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tue; Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Skovgaard, Ole

    2007-01-01

    for analysing flow cytometry data and marker frequency analysis, we show that the small chromosome II is replicated late in the C period of the cell cycle, where most of chromosome I has been replicated. Owing to the delay in initiation of chromosome II, the two chromosomes terminate replication...... at approximately the same time and the average number of replication origins per cell is higher for chromosome I than for chromosome II. Analysis of cell-cycle parameters shows that chromosome replication and segregation is exceptionally fast in V. cholerae. The divided genome and delayed replication of chromosome...... II may reduce the metabolic burden and complexity of chromosome replication by postponing DNA synthesis to the last part of the cell cycle and reducing the need for overlapping replication cycles during rapid proliferation...

  7. Experience of Dual Time Point Brain F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Infections Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Weung; Kim, Chang Guhn; Park, Soon Ah; Jung, Sang Ah [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Dual time point FDG PET imaging (DTPI) has been considered helpful for discrimination of benign and malignant disease, and staging lymph node status in patients with pulmonary malignancy. However, DTPI for benign disease has been rarely reported, and it may show a better description of metabolic status and extent of benign infection disease than early imaging only. The authors report on the use F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging with additional delayed imaging on a 52-year-old man with sparganosis and a 70-year-old man with tuberculous meningitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on dual time point PET/CT imaging in patients with cerebral sparganosis and tuberculous meningitis.

  8. Effects of point massage of liver and stomach channel combined with pith and trotter soup on postpartum lactation start time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiong; Hu, Yin; Zhang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Delay in lactation initiation causes maternal anxiety and subsequent adverse impact on maternal exclusive breast feeding. It is important to explore a safe and convenient way to promote lactation initiation. The feasibility of point massage of liver and stomach channel combined with pith and trotter soup on prevention of delayed lactation initiation was investigated in the present study. 320 women were enrolled and randomly divided into four groups, control group (80 women), point massage group (80 women), pith and trotter soup group (80 women), and massage + soup group (80 women) to compare the lactation initiation time. We found that women in point massage group, pith and trotter soup group and massage + soup group had earlier initiation of lactation compared with control group. Women in massage + soup group had the earliest initiation time of lactation. There were significant differences between massage + soup group and pith and trotter soup group. But, there were no significant differences between massage + soup group and massage group. We conclude that point massage of the liver and stomach channel is easy to operate and has the preventive effect on delayed lactation initiation. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Initiation of lactation is a critical period in postpartum milk secretion. Delays in lactation initiation lead to maternal anxiety and have an adverse impact on maternal exclusive breastfeeding. Sucking frequently by babies and mammary massage might be effective but insufficient for delayed lactation initiation. What the results of this study add: We found in the present study that lactation initiation is significantly earlier in women receiving routine nursing combined with point massage of liver and stomach channel, or pith trotters soup, or massage of liver and stomach channel with pith and trotters soup than in a control group receiving routine nursing. These three methods are all effective, while the most

  9. Parity-Time Symmetry and the Toy Models of Gain-Loss Dynamics near the Real Kato's Exceptional Points

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2016), s. 52 ISSN 2073-8994 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : parity-time symmetry * Schrodinger equation * physical Hilbert space * inner-product metric operator * real exceptional points * solvable models * quantum Big Bang * quantum Inflation period Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.457, year: 2016

  10. Real-time resolution of point mutations that cause phenovariance in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhan, Xiaowei; Bu, Chun-Hui; Lyon, Stephen; Pratt, David; Hildebrand, Sara; Choi, Jin Huk; Zhang, Zhao; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Kuan-wen; Turer, Emre; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Duanwu; Yue, Tao; Wang, Ying; Shi, Hexin; Wang, Jianhui; Sun, Lei; SoRelle, Jeff; McAlpine, William; Hutchins, Noelle; Zhan, Xiaoming; Fina, Maggy; Gobert, Rochelle; Quan, Jiexia; Kreutzer, McKensie; Arnett, Stephanie; Hawkins, Kimberly; Leach, Ashley; Tate, Christopher; Daniel, Chad; Reyna, Carlos; Prince, Lauren; Davis, Sheila; Purrington, Joel; Bearden, Rick; Weatherly, Jennifer; White, Danielle; Russell, Jamie; Sun, Qihua; Tang, Miao; Li, Xiaohong; Scott, Lindsay; Moresco, Eva Marie Y.; McInerney, Gerald M.; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B.; Xie, Yang; Beutler, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    With the wide availability of massively parallel sequencing technologies, genetic mapping has become the rate limiting step in mammalian forward genetics. Here we introduce a method for real-time identification of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutations that cause phenotypes in mice. All mutations are identified by whole exome G1 progenitor sequencing and their zygosity is established in G2/G3 mice before phenotypic assessment. Quantitative and qualitative traits, including lethal effects, in single or multiple combined pedigrees are then analyzed with Linkage Analyzer, a software program that detects significant linkage between individual mutations and aberrant phenotypic scores and presents processed data as Manhattan plots. As multiple alleles of genes are acquired through mutagenesis, pooled “superpedigrees” are created to analyze the effects. Our method is distinguished from conventional forward genetic methods because it permits (1) unbiased declaration of mappable phenotypes, including those that are incompletely penetrant (2), automated identification of causative mutations concurrent with phenotypic screening, without the need to outcross mutant mice to another strain and backcross them, and (3) exclusion of genes not involved in phenotypes of interest. We validated our approach and Linkage Analyzer for the identification of 47 mutations in 45 previously known genes causative for adaptive immune phenotypes; our analysis also implicated 474 genes not previously associated with immune function. The method described here permits forward genetic analysis in mice, limited only by the rates of mutant production and screening. PMID:25605905

  11. Stable long-time semiclassical description of zero-point energy in high-dimensional molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garashchuk, Sophya; Rassolov, Vitaly A

    2008-07-14

    Semiclassical implementation of the quantum trajectory formalism [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1181 (2004)] is further developed to give a stable long-time description of zero-point energy in anharmonic systems of high dimensionality. The method is based on a numerically cheap linearized quantum force approach; stabilizing terms compensating for the linearization errors are added into the time-evolution equations for the classical and nonclassical components of the momentum operator. The wave function normalization and energy are rigorously conserved. Numerical tests are performed for model systems of up to 40 degrees of freedom.

  12. How Feasible is Multiple Time Point Web-Based Data Collection with Individuals Experiencing Street Homelessness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Moss, Shadiya L

    2017-02-01

    Three barriers investigators often encounter when conducting longitudinal work with homeless or other marginalized populations are difficulty tracking participants, high rates of no-shows for follow-up interviews, and high rates of loss to follow-up. Recent research has shown that homeless populations have substantial access to information technologies, including mobile devices and computers. These technologies have the potential both to make longitudinal data collection with homeless populations easier and to minimize some of these methodological challenges. This pilot study's purpose was to test whether individuals who were homeless and sleeping on the streets-the "street homeless"-would answer questions remotely through a web-based data collection system at regular "follow-up" intervals. We attempted to simulate longitudinal data collection in a condensed time period. Participants (N = 21) completed an in-person baseline interview. Each participant was given a remotely reloadable gift card. Subsequently, weekly for 8 weeks, participants were sent an email with a link to a SurveyMonkey questionnaire. Participants were given 48 h to complete each questionnaire. Data were collected about life on the streets, service use, community inclusion, substance use, and high-risk sexual behaviors. Ten dollars was remotely loaded onto each participant's gift card when they completed the questionnaire within the completion window. A substantial number of participants (67% of the total sample and 86% of the adjusted sample) completed at least seven out of the eight follow-up questionnaires. Most questionnaires were completed at public libraries, but several were completed at other types of locations (social service agencies, places of employment, relative/friend/acquaintance's domiciles, or via mobile phone). Although some of the questions were quite sensitive, very few participants skipped any questions. The only variables associated with questionnaire completion were

  13. Guidelines for the definition of time-to-event end points in renal cell cancer clinical trials: results of the DATECAN project†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramar, A; Negrier, S; Sylvester, R; Joniau, S; Mulders, P; Powles, T; Bex, A; Bonnetain, F; Bossi, A; Bracarda, S; Bukowski, R; Catto, J; Choueiri, T K; Crabb, S; Eisen, T; El Demery, M; Fitzpatrick, J; Flamand, V; Goebell, P J; Gravis, G; Houédé, N; Jacqmin, D; Kaplan, R; Malavaud, B; Massard, C; Melichar, B; Mourey, L; Nathan, P; Pasquier, D; Porta, C; Pouessel, D; Quinn, D; Ravaud, A; Rolland, F; Schmidinger, M; Tombal, B; Tosi, D; Vauleon, E; Volpe, A; Wolter, P; Escudier, B; Filleron, T

    2015-12-01

    In clinical trials, the use of intermediate time-to-event end points (TEEs) is increasingly common, yet their choice and definitions are not standardized. This limits the usefulness for comparing treatment effects between studies. The aim of the DATECAN Kidney project is to clarify and recommend definitions of TEE in renal cell cancer (RCC) through a formal consensus method for end point definitions. A formal modified Delphi method was used for establishing consensus. From a 2006-2009 literature review, the Steering Committee (SC) selected 9 TEE and 15 events in the nonmetastatic (NM) and metastatic/advanced (MA) RCC disease settings. Events were scored on the range of 1 (totally disagree to include) to 9 (totally agree to include) in the definition of each end point. Rating Committee (RC) experts were contacted for the scoring rounds. From these results, final recommendations were established for selecting pertinent end points and the associated events. Thirty-four experts scored 121 events for 9 end points. Consensus was reached for 31%, 43% and 85% events during the first, second and third rounds, respectively. The expert recommend the use of three and two endpoints in NM and MA setting, respectively. In the NM setting: disease-free survival (contralateral RCC, appearance of metastases, local or regional recurrence, death from RCC or protocol treatment), metastasis-free survival (appearance of metastases, regional recurrence, death from RCC); and local-regional-free survival (local or regional recurrence, death from RCC). In the MA setting: kidney cancer-specific survival (death from RCC or protocol treatment) and progression-free survival (death from RCC, local, regional, or metastatic progression). The consensus method revealed that intermediate end points have not been well defined, because all of the selected end points had at least one event definition for which no consensus was obtained. These clarified definitions of TEE should become standard practice in

  14. Differences in night-time and daytime ambulatory blood pressure when diurnal periods are defined by self-report, fixed-times, and actigraphy: Improving the Detection of Hypertension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John N; Muntner, Paul; Abdalla, Marwah; Diaz, Keith M; Viera, Anthony J; Reynolds, Kristi; Schwartz, Joseph E; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether defining diurnal periods by self-report, fixed-time, or actigraphy produce different estimates of night-time and daytime ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). Over a median of 28 days, 330 participants completed two 24-h ABP and actigraphy monitoring periods with sleep diaries. Fixed night-time and daytime periods were defined as 0000-0600 h and 1000-2000 h, respectively. Using the first ABP period, within-individual differences for mean night-time and daytime ABP and kappa statistics for night-time and daytime hypertension (systolic/diastolic ABP≥120/70 mmHg and ≥135/85 mmHg, respectively) were estimated comparing self-report, fixed-time, or actigraphy for defining diurnal periods. Reproducibility of ABP was also estimated. Within-individual mean differences in night-time systolic ABP were small, suggesting little bias, when comparing the three approaches used to define diurnal periods. The distribution of differences, represented by 95% confidence intervals (CI), in night-time systolic and diastolic ABP and daytime systolic and diastolic ABP was narrowest for self-report versus actigraphy. For example, mean differences (95% CI) in night-time systolic ABP for self-report versus fixed-time was -0.53 (-6.61, +5.56) mmHg, self-report versus actigraphy was 0.91 (-3.61, +5.43) mmHg, and fixed-time versus actigraphy was 1.43 (-5.59, +8.46) mmHg. Agreement for night-time and daytime hypertension was highest for self-report versus actigraphy: kappa statistic (95% CI) = 0.91 (0.86,0.96) and 1.00 (0.98,1.00), respectively. The reproducibility of mean ABP and hypertension categories was similar using each approach. Given the high agreement with actigraphy, these data support using self-report to define diurnal periods on ABP monitoring. Further, the use of fixed-time periods may be a reasonable alternative approach.

  15. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields.II

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We continue the analysis of definably compact groups definable in a real closed field $\\mathcal{R}$. In [3], we proved that for every definably compact definably connected semialgebraic group $G$ over $\\mathcal{R}$ there are a connected $R$-algebraic group $H$, a definable injective map $\\phi$ from a generic definable neighborhood of the identity of $G$ into the group $H\\left(R\\right)$ of $R$-points of $H$ such that $\\phi$ acts as a group homomorphism inside its domain. The above result and o...

  16. Influence of call broadcast timing within point counts and survey duration on detection probability of marsh breeding birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Tozer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol recommends point counts consisting of a 5-min passive observation period, meant to be free of broadcast bias, followed by call broadcasts to entice elusive species to reveal their presence. Prior to this protocol, some monitoring programs used point counts with broadcasts during the first 5 min of 10-min counts, and have since used 15-min counts with an initial 5-min passive period (P1 followed by 5 min of broadcasts (B and a second 5-min passive period (P2 to ensure consistency across years and programs. Influence of timing of broadcasts within point counts and point count duration, however, have rarely been assessed. Using data from 23,973 broadcast-assisted 15-min point counts conducted throughout the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region between 2008 and 2016 by Bird Studies Canada's Marsh Monitoring Program and Central Michigan University's Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program, we estimated detection probabilities of individuals for 14 marsh breeding bird species during P1B compared to BP2, P1 compared to P2, and P1B compared to P1BP2. For six broadcast species and American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus, we found no significant difference in detection during P1B compared to BP2, and no significant difference in four of the same seven species during P1 compared to P2. We observed small but significant differences in detection for 7 of 14 species during P1B compared to P1BP2. We conclude that differences in timing of broadcasts causes no bias based on counts from entire 10-minute surveys, although P1B should be favored over BP2 because the same amount of effort in P1B avoids broadcast bias in all broadcast species, and 10-min surveys are superior to 15-min surveys because modest gains in detection of some species does not warrant the additional effort. We recommend point counts consisting of 5 min of passive observation followed by broadcasts, consistent with the standardized

  17. Remotely-sensed, nocturnal, dew point correlates with malaria transmission in Southern Province, Zambia: a time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, David; Stoyanov, Cristina; Lewold, Clemens; Månsson, Fredrik; Miller, John; Kamanga, Aniset; Shiff, Clive J

    2014-06-13

    Plasmodium falciparum transmission has decreased significantly in Zambia in the last decade. The malaria transmission is influenced by environmental variables. Incorporation of environmental variables in models of malaria transmission likely improves model fit and predicts probable trends in malaria disease. This work is based on the hypothesis that remotely-sensed environmental factors, including nocturnal dew point, are associated with malaria transmission and sustain foci of transmission during the low transmission season in the Southern Province of Zambia. Thirty-eight rural health centres in Southern Province, Zambia were divided into three zones based on transmission patterns. Correlations between weekly malaria cases and remotely-sensed nocturnal dew point, nocturnal land surface temperature as well as vegetation indices and rainfall were evaluated in time-series analyses from 2012 week 19 to 2013 week 36. Zonal as well as clinic-based, multivariate, autoregressive, integrated, moving average (ARIMAX) models implementing environmental variables were developed to model transmission in 2011 week 19 to 2012 week 18 and forecast transmission in 2013 week 37 to week 41. During the dry, low transmission season significantly higher vegetation indices, nocturnal land surface temperature and nocturnal dew point were associated with the areas of higher transmission. Environmental variables improved ARIMAX models. Dew point and normalized differentiated vegetation index were significant predictors and improved all zonal transmission models. In the high-transmission zone, this was also seen for land surface temperature. Clinic models were improved by adding dew point and land surface temperature as well as normalized differentiated vegetation index. The mean average error of prediction for ARIMAX models ranged from 0.7 to 33.5%. Forecasts of malaria incidence were valid for three out of five rural health centres; however, with poor results at the zonal level. In this

  18. DALI: Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive care unit patients: a multi-centre point of prevalence study to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients is therapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason A; De Waele, Jan J; Dimopoulos, George; Koulenti, Despoina; Martin, Claude; Montravers, Philippe; Rello, Jordi; Rhodes, Andrew; Starr, Therese; Wallis, Steven C; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2012-07-06

    The clinical effects of varying pharmacokinetic exposures of antibiotics (antibacterials and antifungals) on outcome in infected critically ill patients are poorly described. A large-scale multi-centre study (DALI Study) is currently underway describing the clinical outcomes of patients achieving pre-defined antibiotic exposures. This report describes the protocol. DALI will recruit over 500 patients administered a wide range of either beta-lactam or glycopeptide antibiotics or triazole or echinocandin antifungals in a pharmacokinetic point-prevalence study. It is anticipated that over 60 European intensive care units (ICUs) will participate. The primary aim will be to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients achieves plasma concentrations associated with maximal activity. Secondary aims will compare antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures with patient outcome and will describe the population pharmacokinetics of the antibiotics included. Various subgroup analyses will be conducted to determine patient groups that may be at risk of very low or very high concentrations of antibiotics. The DALI study should inform clinicians of the potential clinical advantages of achieving certain antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures in infected critically ill patients.

  19. DALI: Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive care unit patients: a multi-centre point of prevalence study to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients is therapeutic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Jason A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical effects of varying pharmacokinetic exposures of antibiotics (antibacterials and antifungals on outcome in infected critically ill patients are poorly described. A large-scale multi-centre study (DALI Study is currently underway describing the clinical outcomes of patients achieving pre-defined antibiotic exposures. This report describes the protocol. Methods DALI will recruit over 500 patients administered a wide range of either beta-lactam or glycopeptide antibiotics or triazole or echinocandin antifungals in a pharmacokinetic point-prevalence study. It is anticipated that over 60 European intensive care units (ICUs will participate. The primary aim will be to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients achieves plasma concentrations associated with maximal activity. Secondary aims will compare antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures with patient outcome and will describe the population pharmacokinetics of the antibiotics included. Various subgroup analyses will be conducted to determine patient groups that may be at risk of very low or very high concentrations of antibiotics. Discussion The DALI study should inform clinicians of the potential clinical advantages of achieving certain antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures in infected critically ill patients.

  20. Numerical study and ex vivo assessment of HIFU treatment time reduction through optimization of focal point trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisey, A.; Yon, S.; Pechoux, T.; Letort, V.; Lafitte, P.

    2017-03-01

    Treatment time reduction is a key issue to expand the use of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery, especially for benign pathologies. This study aims at quantitatively assessing the potential reduction of the treatment time arising from moving the focal point during long pulses. In this context, the optimization of the focal point trajectory is crucial to achieve a uniform thermal dose repartition and avoid boiling. At first, a numerical optimization algorithm was used to generate efficient trajectories. Thermal conduction was simulated in 3D with a finite difference code and damages to the tissue were modeled using the thermal dose formula. Given an initial trajectory, the thermal dose field was first computed, then, making use of Pontryagin's maximum principle, the trajectory was iteratively refined. Several initial trajectories were tested. Then, an ex vivo study was conducted in order to validate the efficicency of the resulting optimized strategies. Single pulses were performed at 3MHz on fresh veal liver samples with an Echopulse and the size of each unitary lesion was assessed by cutting each sample along three orthogonal planes and measuring the dimension of the whitened area based on photographs. We propose a promising approach to significantly shorten HIFU treatment time: the numerical optimization algorithm was shown to provide a reliable insight on trajectories that can improve treatment strategies. The model must now be improved in order to take in vivo conditions into account and extensively validated.

  1. Economic Order Quality Model for Determining the Sales Prices of Fresh Goods at Various Points in Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the safe consumption of goods such as food products, medicine, and vaccines is related to their freshness, consumers frequently understand less than suppliers about the freshness of goods when they purchase them. Because of this lack of information, apart from sales prices, consumers refer only to the manufacturing and expiration dates when deciding whether to purchase and how many of these goods to buy. If dealers could determine the sales price at each point in time and customers’ intention to buy goods of varying freshness, then dealers could set an optimal inventory cycle and allocate a weekly sales price for each point in time, thereby maximizing the profit per unit time. Therefore, in this study, an economic order quality model was established to enable discussion of the optimal control of sales prices. The technique for identifying the optimal solution for the model was determined, the characteristics of the optimal solution were demonstrated, and the implications of the solution’s sensitivity analysis were explained.

  2. Geospatial exposure to point-of-sale tobacco: real-time craving and smoking-cessation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Thomas R; Cantrell, Jennifer; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Ganz, Ollie; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the factors that drive the association between point-of-sale marketing and behavior, because methods that directly link individual-level use outcomes to real-world point-of-sale exposure are only now beginning to be developed. Daily outcomes during smoking cessation were examined as a function of both real-time geospatial exposure to point-of-sale tobacco (POST) and subjective craving to smoke. Continuous individual geospatial location data collected over the first month of a smoking-cessation attempt in 2010-2012 (N=475) were overlaid on a POST outlet geodatabase (N=1060). Participants' mobility data were used to quantify the number of times they came into contact with a POST outlet. Participants recorded real-time craving levels and smoking status via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) on cellular telephones. The final data set spanned a total of 12,871 days of EMA and geospatial tracking. Lapsing was significantly more likely on days with any POST contact (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.18, 1.20), and increasingly likely as the number of daily POST contacts increased (OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.06, 1.08). Overall, daily POST exposure was significantly associated with lapsing when craving was low (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.20, 1.23); high levels of craving were more directly associated with lapse outcomes. These data shed light on the way mobility patterns drive a dynamic interaction between individuals and the POST environment, demonstrating that quantification of individuals' exposure to POST marketing can be used to identify previously unrecognized patterns of association among individual mobility, the built environment, and behavioral outcomes. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  3. The value of dual time point 18F-FDG PET imaging for the differentiation between malignant and benign lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, X.-L.; Zhang, Y.-X.; Wu, Z.-J.; Jia, Q.; Wei, H.; Gao, Z.-R.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess the clinical value of dual time point 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET) imaging for the differentiation between malignant and benign lesions. Materials and methods: Ninety-six patients (28 patients with primary lung cancer, 18 patients with digestive system carcinoma, 13 patients with other malignant tumours, and 37 patients with benign lesions) underwent FDG-PET/CT at two time points: examination 1 at 45-55 min and examination 2 at 160 ± 24 (150-180) min after the intravenous injection of 233 ± 52 (185-370) MBq 18 F-FDG. Reconstructed images were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the lesions were calculated for both time points. An increase was considered to have occurred if the SUVs at examination 2 had increased by >10% as compared with those at the examination 1. Results: The lesions in 24 of 28 (86%) patients with primary lung cancer had an SUVmax ≥2.5 at examination 1. Of these, SUVmax values increased in 23 patients, but had not changed in one patient, at examination 2. The lesions in the other four patients with primary lung tumour had SUVmax values between 1.5 and 2.5 at examination 1, which were considered as suspected positive, increased SUVmax values were observed in three of these patients at examination 2. The malignant lesions in 17 of 18 patients with digestive system carcinoma showed SUVmax values ≥2.5 and only one patient had an SUVmax value 18 F-FDG PET imaging is an important noninvasive method for the differentiation of malignant and nonmalignant lesions

  4. Real-time digital simulation of power electronics systems with Neutral Point Piloted multilevel inverter using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotozafy, Mamianja [Groupe de Recherches en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); CONVERTEAM SAS, Parc d' activites Techn' hom, 24 avenue du Marechal Juin, BP 40437, 90008 Belfort Cedex (France); Poure, Philippe [Laboratoire d' Instrumentation Electronique de Nancy (LIEN), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Saadate, Shahrokh [Groupe de Recherches en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Bordas, Cedric; Leclere, Loic [CONVERTEAM SAS, Parc d' activites Techn' hom, 24 avenue du Marechal Juin, BP 40437, 90008 Belfort Cedex (France)

    2011-02-15

    Most of actual real time simulation platforms have practically about ten microseconds as minimum calculation time step, mainly due to computation limits such as processing speed, architecture adequacy and modeling complexities. Therefore, simulation of fast switching converters' instantaneous models requires smaller computing time step. The approach presented in this paper proposes an answer to such limited modeling accuracies and computational bandwidth of the currently available digital simulators.As an example, the authors present a low cost, flexible and high performance FPGA-based real-time digital simulator for a complete complex power system with Neutral Point Piloted (NPP) three-level inverter. The proposed real-time simulator can model accurately and efficiently the complete power system, reducing costs, physical space and avoiding any damage to the actual equipment in the case of any dysfunction of the digital controller prototype. The converter model is computed at a small fixed time step as low as 100 ns. Such a computation time step allows high precision account of the gating signals and thus avoids averaging methods and event compensations. Moreover, a novel high performance model of the NPP three-level inverter has also been proposed for FPGA implementation. The proposed FPGA-based simulator models the environment of the NPP converter: the dc link, the RLE load and the digital controller and gating signals. FPGA-based real time simulation results are presented and compared with offline results obtained using PLECS software. They validate the efficiency and accuracy of the modeling for the proposed high performance FPGA-based real-time simulation approach. This paper also introduces new potential FPGA-based applications such as low cost real time simulator for power systems by developing a library of flexible and portable models for power converters, electrical machines and drives. (author)

  5. Defining the value framework for prostate brachytherapy using patient-centered outcome metrics and time-driven activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Nikhil G; Pugh, Thomas J; Mahmood, Usama; Choi, Seungtaek; Spinks, Tracy E; Martin, Neil E; Sio, Terence T; Kudchadker, Rajat J; Kaplan, Robert S; Kuban, Deborah A; Swanson, David A; Orio, Peter F; Zelefsky, Michael J; Cox, Brett W; Potters, Louis; Buchholz, Thomas A; Feeley, Thomas W; Frank, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Value, defined as outcomes over costs, has been proposed as a measure to evaluate prostate cancer (PCa) treatments. We analyzed standardized outcomes and time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) for prostate brachytherapy (PBT) to define a value framework. Patients with low-risk PCa treated with low-dose-rate PBT between 1998 and 2009 were included. Outcomes were recorded according to the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement standard set, which includes acute toxicity, patient-reported outcomes, and recurrence and survival outcomes. Patient-level costs to 1 year after PBT were collected using TDABC. Process mapping and radar chart analyses were conducted to visualize this value framework. A total of 238 men were eligible for analysis. Median age was 64 (range, 46-81). Median followup was 5 years (0.5-12.1). There were no acute Grade 3-5 complications. Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite 50 scores were favorable, with no clinically significant changes from baseline to last followup at 48 months for urinary incontinence/bother, bowel bother, sexual function, and vitality. Ten-year outcomes were favorable, including biochemical failure-free survival of 84.1%, metastasis-free survival 99.6%, PCa-specific survival 100%, and overall survival 88.6%. TDABC analysis demonstrated low resource utilization for PBT, with 41% and 10% of costs occurring in the operating room and with the MRI scan, respectively. The radar chart allowed direct visualization of outcomes and costs. We successfully created a visual framework to define the value of PBT using the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement standard set and TDABC costs. PBT is associated with excellent outcomes and low costs. Widespread adoption of this methodology will enable value comparisons across providers, institutions, and treatment modalities. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Defining the Value Framework for Prostate Brachytherapy using Patient-Centered Outcome Metrics and Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Nikhil G.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Mahmood, Usama; Choi, Seungtaek; Spinks, Tracy E.; Martin, Neil E.; Sio, Terence T.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Kaplan, Robert S.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Swanson, David A.; Orio, Peter F.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Cox, Brett W.; Potters, Louis; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Feeley, Thomas W.; Frank, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE Value, defined as outcomes over costs, has been proposed as a measure to evaluate prostate cancer (PCa) treatments. We analyzed standardized outcomes and time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) for prostate brachytherapy (PBT) to define a value framework. METHODS AND MATERIALS Patients with low-risk PCa treated with low-dose rate PBT between 1998 and 2009 were included. Outcomes were recorded according to the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) standard set, which includes acute toxicity, patient-reported outcomes, and recurrence and survival outcomes. Patient-level costs to one year after PBT were collected using TDABC. Process mapping and radar chart analyses were conducted to visualize this value framework. RESULTS A total of 238 men were eligible for analysis. Median age was 64 (range, 46–81). Median follow-up was 5 years (0.5–12.1). There were no acute grade 3–5 complications. EPIC-50 scores were favorable, with no clinically significant changes from baseline to last follow-up at 48 months for urinary incontinence/bother, bowel bother, sexual function, and vitality. Ten-year outcomes were favorable, including biochemical failure-free survival of 84.1%, metastasis-free survival 99.6%, PCa-specific survival 100%, and overall survival 88.6%. TDABC analysis demonstrated low resource utilization for PBT, with 41% and 10% of costs occurring in the operating room and with the MRI scan, respectively. The radar chart allowed direct visualization of outcomes and costs. CONCLUSIONS We successfully created a visual framework to define the value of PBT using the ICHOM standard set and TDABC costs. PBT is associated with excellent outcomes and low costs. Widespread adoption of this methodology will enable value comparisons across providers, institutions, and treatment modalities. PMID:26916105

  7. On the use of mean groundwater age, life expectancy and capture probability for defining aquifer vulnerability and time-of-travel zones for source water protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molson, J W; Frind, E O

    2012-01-01

    Protection and sustainability of water supply wells requires the assessment of vulnerability to contamination and the delineation of well capture zones. Capture zones, or more generally, time-of-travel zones corresponding to specific contaminant travel times, are most commonly delineated using advective particle tracking. More recently, the capture probability approach has been used in which a probability of capture of P=1 is assigned to the well and the growth of a probability-of-capture plume is tracked backward in time using an advective-dispersive transport model. This approach accounts for uncertainty due to local-scale heterogeneities through the use of macrodispersion. In this paper, we develop an alternative approach to capture zone delineation by applying the concept of mean life expectancy E (time remaining before being captured by the well), and we show how life expectancy E is related to capture probability P. Either approach can be used to delineate time-of-travel zones corresponding to specific travel times, as well as the ultimate capture zone. The related concept of mean groundwater age A (time since recharge) can also be applied in the context of defining the vulnerability of a pumped aquifer. In the same way as capture probability, mean life expectancy and groundwater age account for local-scale uncertainty or unresolved heterogeneities through macrodispersion, which standard particle tracking neglects. The approach is tested on 2D and 3D idealized systems, as well as on several watershed-scale well fields within the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors for hyperglycemia in pregnancy in the DALI study differ by period of pregnancy and OGTT time point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendoza, Lilian C; Harreiter, Jürgen; Simmons, David

    2018-01-01

    maternal and current pregnancy characteristics. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS Clinical characteristics independently associated with GDM/overt diabetes were: at ≤19+6 weeks, previous abnormal glucose tolerance (OR 3.11; CI95 1.41-6.85), previous GDM (OR 2.22; CI95 1......; at 35-37 weeks, maternal height (OR 0.41; CI95 0.20-0.87 for upper tertile). Clinical characteristics independently associated with GDM/overt diabetes differed by OGTT time point (e.g. at ≤19+6 weeks, neck circumference was associated with abnormal fasting but not postchallenge glucose). CONCLUSION...

  9. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  10. Validation and Assessment of Multi-GNSS Real-Time Precise Point Positioning in Simulated Kinematic Mode Using IGS Real-Time Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Precise Point Positioning (PPP is a popular technology for precise applications based on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. Multi-GNSS combined PPP has become a hot topic in recent years with the development of multiple GNSSs. Meanwhile, with the operation of the real-time service (RTS of the International GNSS Service (IGS agency that provides satellite orbit and clock corrections to broadcast ephemeris, it is possible to obtain the real-time precise products of satellite orbits and clocks and to conduct real-time PPP. In this contribution, the real-time multi-GNSS orbit and clock corrections of the CLK93 product are applied for real-time multi-GNSS PPP processing, and its orbit and clock qualities are investigated, first with a seven-day experiment by comparing them with the final multi-GNSS precise product ‘GBM’ from GFZ. Then, an experiment involving real-time PPP processing for three stations in the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX network with a testing period of two weeks is conducted in order to evaluate the convergence performance of real-time PPP in a simulated kinematic mode. The experimental result shows that real-time PPP can achieve a convergence performance of less than 15 min for an accuracy level of 20 cm. Finally, the real-time data streams from 12 globally distributed IGS/MGEX stations for one month are used to assess and validate the positioning accuracy of real-time multi-GNSS PPP. The results show that the simulated kinematic positioning accuracy achieved by real-time PPP on different stations is about 3.0 to 4.0 cm for the horizontal direction and 5.0 to 7.0 cm for the three-dimensional (3D direction.

  11. Performance evaluation of FSO system using wavelength and time diversity over malaga turbulence channel with pointing errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, K. A.; Prabu, K.

    2018-03-01

    There is an immense demand for high bandwidth and high data rate systems, which is fulfilled by wireless optical communication or free space optics (FSO). Hence FSO gained a pivotal role in research which has a added advantage of both cost-effective and licence free huge bandwidth. Unfortunately the optical signal in free space suffers from irradiance and phase fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors which deteriorates the signal and degrades the performance of communication system over longer distance which is undesirable. In this paper, we have considered polarization shift keying (POLSK) system applied with wavelength and time diversity technique over Malaga(M)distribution to mitigate turbulence induced fading. We derived closed form mathematical expressions for estimating the systems outage probability and average bit error rate (BER). Ultimately from the results we can infer that wavelength and time diversity schemes enhances these systems performance.

  12. Dual-time-point FDG-PET/CT Imaging of Temporal Bone Chondroblastoma: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Toriihara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporal bone chondroblastoma is an extremely rare benign bone tumor. We encountered two cases showing similar imaging findings on computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and dual-time-point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/CT. In both cases, CT images revealed temporal bone defects and sclerotic changes around the tumor. Most parts of the tumor showed low signal intensity on T2- weighted MRI images and non-uniform enhancement on gadolinium contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. No increase in signal intensity was noted in diffusion-weighted images. Dual-time-point PET/CT showed markedly elevated 18F-FDG uptake, which increased from the early to delayed phase. Nevertheless, immunohistochemical analysis of the resected tumor tissue revealed weak expression of glucose transporter-1 and hexokinase II in both tumors. Temporal bone tumors, showing markedly elevated 18F-FDG uptake, which increases from the early to delayed phase on PET/CT images, may be diagnosed as malignant bone tumors. Therefore, the differential diagnosis should include chondroblastoma in combination with its characteristic findings on CT and MRI.

  13. Dual-time-point O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine PET for grading of cerebral gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, Philipp; Herzog, Hans; Rota Kops, Elena; Stoffels, Gabriele; Judov, Natalie; Filss, Christian; Tellmann, Lutz; Galldiks, Norbert; Weiss, Carolin; Sabel, Michael; Coenen, Heinz Hubert; Shah, Nadim Jon; Langen, Karl-Josef

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of dual-time-point imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) using O-(2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ( 18 F-FET) for non-invasive grading of cerebral gliomas compared with a dynamic approach. Thirty-six patients with histologically confirmed cerebral gliomas (21 primary, 15 recurrent; 24 high-grade, 12 low-grade) underwent dynamic PET from 0 to 50 min post-injection (p.i.) of 18 F-FET, and additionally from 70 to 90 min p.i. Mean tumour-to-brain ratios (TBR mean ) of 18 F-FET uptake were determined in early (20-40 min p.i.) and late (70-90 min p.i.) examinations. Time-activity curves (TAC) of the tumours from 0 to 50 min after injection were assigned to different patterns. The diagnostic accuracy of changes of 18 F-FET uptake between early and late examinations for tumour grading was compared to that of curve pattern analysis from 0 to 50 min p.i. of 18 F-FET. The diagnostic accuracy of changes of the TBR mean of 18 F-FET PET uptake between early and late examinations for the identification of HGG was 81 % (sensitivity 83 %; specificity 75 %; cutoff - 8 %; p < 0.001), and 83 % for curve pattern analysis (sensitivity 88 %; specificity 75 %; p < 0.001). Dual-time-point imaging of 18 F-FET uptake in gliomas achieves diagnostic accuracy for tumour grading that is similar to the more time-consuming dynamic data acquisition protocol. (orig.)

  14. Dual-time-point O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine PET for grading of cerebral gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Philipp; Herzog, Hans; Rota Kops, Elena; Stoffels, Gabriele; Judov, Natalie; Filss, Christian; Tellmann, Lutz [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); Galldiks, Norbert [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Weiss, Carolin [University of Cologne, Department of Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); Sabel, Michael [Heinrich-Heine University, Department of Neurosurgery, Duesseldorf (Germany); Coenen, Heinz Hubert [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Juelich (Germany); Shah, Nadim Jon [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Aachen (Germany); Langen, Karl-Josef [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Juelich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of dual-time-point imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) using O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ({sup 18}F-FET) for non-invasive grading of cerebral gliomas compared with a dynamic approach. Thirty-six patients with histologically confirmed cerebral gliomas (21 primary, 15 recurrent; 24 high-grade, 12 low-grade) underwent dynamic PET from 0 to 50 min post-injection (p.i.) of {sup 18}F-FET, and additionally from 70 to 90 min p.i. Mean tumour-to-brain ratios (TBR{sub mean}) of {sup 18}F-FET uptake were determined in early (20-40 min p.i.) and late (70-90 min p.i.) examinations. Time-activity curves (TAC) of the tumours from 0 to 50 min after injection were assigned to different patterns. The diagnostic accuracy of changes of {sup 18}F-FET uptake between early and late examinations for tumour grading was compared to that of curve pattern analysis from 0 to 50 min p.i. of {sup 18}F-FET. The diagnostic accuracy of changes of the TBR{sub mean} of {sup 18}F-FET PET uptake between early and late examinations for the identification of HGG was 81 % (sensitivity 83 %; specificity 75 %; cutoff - 8 %; p < 0.001), and 83 % for curve pattern analysis (sensitivity 88 %; specificity 75 %; p < 0.001). Dual-time-point imaging of {sup 18}F-FET uptake in gliomas achieves diagnostic accuracy for tumour grading that is similar to the more time-consuming dynamic data acquisition protocol. (orig.)

  15. A Time Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Customer Order Decoupling Point: A Perspective from the Constant Service Operation Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818

  16. A time scheduling model of logistics service supply chain based on the customer order decoupling point: a perspective from the constant service operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC.

  17. Night-time heart rate cut-off point definition by resting office tachycardia in untreated hypertensive patients: data of the Spanish ABPM registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyoles, Ernest; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Roso, Albert; de la Cruz, Juan J; Gorostidi, Manuel; Segura, Julián; Banegas, José R; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Ruilope, Luís M

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that an elevated resting heart rate (HR) is a risk factor for both total and cardiovascular mortality. Our aim was to estimate the night-time HR cut-off point that best predicts cardiovascular risk office tachycardia in hypertensive patients. Untreated hypertensive patients without concomitant cardiovascular diseases were included. Office and ambulatory HRs were measured. Cardiovascular risk office tachycardia was defined by office HR at least 85 beats per minute (bpm). Different night-time HR cut-offs were estimated by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses to predict cardiovascular risk office tachycardia. The best cut-off was selected on the basis of its combined sensitivity and specificity. A total of 32 569 hypertensive patients were included: 46.5% women, mean age (SD) 52 (14) years, office blood pressure 146 (16)/89 (11) mmHg, diabetes 10.3%, smoking 19.2%, BMI 29 (6.8) kg/m, office HR 77 (11.2) bpm, and night-time HR 64.9 (9.3) bpm. A total of 7070 (21.7%) patients were found to have cardiovascular risk office tachycardia. The night-time HR value that better predicted cardiovascular risk office tachycardia was more than 66 bpm. In comparison with patients with night HR below this value, those with night-time tachycardia were predominantly women, younger, with higher ambulatory blood pressure, greater BMI, and higher prevalence of diabetes and smoking. All comparisons were statistically significant (P less than 0.001). A mean night-time HR more than 66 bpm is a good predictor of cardiovascular risk office tachycardia in untreated hypertensive patients and could be considered a variable associated with an increased cardiovascular risk.

  18. TRANSIT TIME THROUGH THE BORDER-CROSSING POINTS: THE CASE STUDY OF THE EU'S ROAD BCP WITH MOLDAVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available . This paper provides an overview on the ACROSSEE project (funded by the ERDF under the SEE program, its objectives, general methodology, and the main results. Moreover, the main survey results are presented as they relate to the Romanian road and rail border-crossing points (BCPs with the Eastern neighbourly country, Moldavia. Results include the actual status of the road BCP, surveys on exiting and entering traffic flows, answers to specific questionnaires of the truck and car drivers in relation with origin-destination of the trips, average waiting time in queue and time required for procedures and controls. Discussion on the mathematical modelling is presented and a provisional simulation model is developed, using ARENA software. The early results are used in order to introduce the need for future assessment of the transit time in a road BCP, with the main purpose: the substantiation of the strategic and operational actions for improvements in trade and transport crossings of the EU borders, considering the need for more vigilant and less time-consuming checks at the outside borders of the EU.

  19. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I; Bastin, Mark E; Boardman, James P

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39(+5) weeks, range 37(+2)-41(+6)). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development.

  20. Parcellation of the healthy neonatal brain into 107 regions using atlas propagation through intermediate time points in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eBlesa Cabez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2-41+6. An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database, with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33 constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modelling brain growth during development.

  1. Point-and-stare operation and high-speed image acquisition in real-time hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Richard D.; Bannon, David P.; Ciccone, Domenic; Hill, Sam L.

    2010-04-01

    The design and optical performance of a small-footprint, low-power, turnkey, Point-And-Stare hyperspectral analyzer, capable of fully automated field deployment in remote and harsh environments, is described. The unit is packaged for outdoor operation in an IP56 protected air-conditioned enclosure and includes a mechanically ruggedized fully reflective, aberration-corrected hyperspectral VNIR (400-1000 nm) spectrometer with a board-level detector optimized for point and stare operation, an on-board computer capable of full system data-acquisition and control, and a fully functioning internal hyperspectral calibration system for in-situ system spectral calibration and verification. Performance data on the unit under extremes of real-time survey operation and high spatial and high spectral resolution will be discussed. Hyperspectral acquisition including full parameter tracking is achieved by the addition of a fiber-optic based downwelling spectral channel for solar illumination tracking during hyperspectral acquisition and the use of other sensors for spatial and directional tracking to pinpoint view location. The system is mounted on a Pan-And-Tilt device, automatically controlled from the analyzer's on-board computer, making the HyperspecTM particularly adaptable for base security, border protection and remote deployments. A hyperspectral macro library has been developed to control hyperspectral image acquisition, system calibration and scene location control. The software allows the system to be operated in a fully automatic mode or under direct operator control through a GigE interface.

  2. An approach for real-time fast point positioning of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System using augmentation information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Jinhai; Lu, Xiaochun

    2018-07-01

    This study proposes an approach to facilitate real-time fast point positioning of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) based on regional augmentation information. We term this as the precise positioning based on augmentation information (BPP) approach. The coordinates of the reference stations were highly constrained to extract the augmentation information, which contained not only the satellite orbit clock error correlated with the satellite running state, but also included the atmosphere error and unmodeled error, which are correlated with the spatial and temporal states. Based on these mixed augmentation corrections, a precise point positioning (PPP) model could be used for the coordinates estimation of the user stations, and the float ambiguity could be easily fixed for the single-difference between satellites. Thus, this technique provided a quick and high-precision positioning service. Three different datasets with small, medium, and large baselines (0.6 km, 30 km and 136 km) were used to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed BPP method. The validations showed that using the BPP model, 1–2 cm positioning service can be provided in a 100 km wide area after just 2 s of initialization. Thus, as the proposed approach not only capitalized on both PPP and RTK but also provided consistent application, it can be used for area augmentation positioning.

  3. A different outlook on time: visual and auditory month names elicit different mental vantage points for a time-space synaesthete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarick, Michelle; Dixon, Mike J; Stewart, Mark T; Maxwell, Emily C; Smilek, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Synaesthesia is a fascinating condition whereby individuals report extraordinary experiences when presented with ordinary stimuli. Here we examined an individual (L) who experiences time units (i.e., months of the year and hours of the day) as occupying specific spatial locations (January is 30 degrees to the left of midline). This form of time-space synaesthesia has been recently investigated by Smilek et al. (2007) who demonstrated that synaesthetic time-space associations are highly consistent, occur regardless of intention, and can direct spatial attention. We extended this work by showing that for the synaesthete L, her time-space vantage point changes depending on whether the time units are seen or heard. For example, when L sees the word JANUARY, she reports experiencing January on her left side, however when she hears the word "January" she experiences the month on her right side. L's subjective reports were validated using a spatial cueing paradigm. The names of months were centrally presented followed by targets on the left or right. L was faster at detecting targets in validly cued locations relative to invalidly cued locations both for visually presented cues (January orients attention to the left) and for aurally presented cues (January orients attention to the right). We replicated this difference in visual and aural cueing effects using hour of the day. Our findings support previous research showing that time-space synaesthesia can bias visual spatial attention, and further suggest that for this synaesthete, time-space associations differ depending on whether they are visually or aurally induced.

  4. [Hypothesis on the equilibrium point and variability of amplitude, speed and time of single-joint movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, M; Gottleib, G

    1990-01-01

    Problems of single-joint movement variability are analysed in the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis (the lambda-model). Control of the movements is described with three parameters related to movement amplitude speed, and time. Three strategies emerge from this description. Only one of them is likely to lead to a Fitts' type speed-accuracy trade-off. Experiments were performed to test one of the predictions of the model. Subjects performed identical sets of single-joint fast movements with open or closed eyes and some-what different instructions. Movements performed with closed eyes were characterized with higher peak speeds and unchanged variability in seeming violation of the Fitt's law and in a good correspondence to the model.

  5. Enumerating the Hidden Homeless: Strategies to Estimate the Homeless Gone Missing From a Point-in-Time Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agans Robert P.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To receive federal homeless funds, communities are required to produce statistically reliable, unduplicated counts or estimates of homeless persons in sheltered and unsheltered locations during a one-night period (within the last ten days of January called a point-in-time (PIT count. In Los Angeles, a general population telephone survey was implemented to estimate the number of unsheltered homeless adults who are hidden from view during the PIT count. Two estimation approaches were investigated: i the number of homeless persons identified as living on private property, which employed a conventional household weight for the estimated total (Horvitz-Thompson approach; and ii the number of homeless persons identified as living on a neighbor’s property, which employed an additional adjustment derived from the size of the neighborhood network to estimate the total (multiplicity-based approach. This article compares the results of these two methods and discusses the implications therein.

  6. POD for Real-Time Simulation of Hyperelastic Soft Biological Tissue Using the Point Collocation Method of Finite Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Banihani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The point collocation method of finite spheres (PCMFS is used to model the hyperelastic response of soft biological tissue in real time within the framework of virtual surgery simulation. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD model order reduction (MOR technique was used to achieve reduced-order model of the problem, minimizing computational cost. The PCMFS is a physics-based meshfree numerical technique for real-time simulation of surgical procedures where the approximation functions are applied directly on the strong form of the boundary value problem without the need for integration, increasing computational efficiency. Since computational speed has a significant role in simulation of surgical procedures, the proposed technique was able to model realistic nonlinear behavior of organs in real time. Numerical results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology through a comparison between full and reduced analyses for several nonlinear problems. It is shown that the proposed technique was able to achieve good agreement with the full model; moreover, the computational and data storage costs were significantly reduced.

  7. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission.

  8. Atmospheric plume progression as a function of time and distance from the release point for radioactive isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, Paul W; Bowyer, Ted W; Cameron, Ian M; Hayes, James C; Miley, Harry S

    2015-10-01

    The radionuclide network of the International Monitoring System comprises up to 80 stations around the world that have aerosol and xenon monitoring systems designed to detect releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere from nuclear explosions. A rule of thumb description of plume concentration and duration versus time and distance from the release point is useful when designing and deploying new sample collection systems. This paper uses plume development from atmospheric transport modeling to provide a power-law rule describing atmospheric dilution factors as a function of distance from the release point. Consider the plume center-line concentration seen by a ground-level sampler as a function of time based on a short-duration ground-level release of a nondepositing radioactive tracer. The concentration C (Bq m(-3)) near the ground varies with distance from the source with the relationship C=R×A(D,C) ×e (-λ(-1.552+0.0405×D)) × 5.37×10(-8) × D(-2.35) where R is the release magnitude (Bq), D is the separation distance (km) from the ground level release to the measurement location, λ is the decay constant (h(-1)) for the radionuclide of interest and AD,C is an attenuation factor that depends on the length of the sample collection period. This relationship is based on the median concentration for 10 release locations with different geographic characteristics and 365 days of releases at each location, and it has an R(2) of 0.99 for 32 distances from 100 to 3000 km. In addition, 90 percent of the modeled plumes fall within approximately one order of magnitude of this curve for all distances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Near Real Time Change-Point detection in Optical and Thermal Infrared Time Series Using Bayesian Inference over the Dry Chaco Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza Bernadas, V.; Grings, F.; Roitberg, E.; Perna, P.; Karszenbaum, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Dry Chaco region (DCF) has the highest absolute deforestation rates of all Argentinian forests. The most recent report indicates a current deforestation rate of 200,000 Ha year-1. In order to better monitor this process, DCF was chosen to implement an early warning program for illegal deforestation. Although the area is intensively studied using medium resolution imagery (Landsat), the products obtained have a yearly pace and therefore unsuited for an early warning program. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of an online Bayesian change-point detection algorithm for MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) datasets. The goal was to to monitor the abrupt changes in vegetation dynamics associated with deforestation events. We tested this model by simulating 16-day EVI and 8-day LST time series with varying amounts of seasonality, noise, length of the time series and by adding abrupt changes with different magnitudes. This model was then tested on real satellite time series available through the Google Earth Engine, over a pilot area in DCF, where deforestation was common in the 2004-2016 period. A comparison with yearly benchmark products based on Landsat images is also presented (REDAF dataset). The results shows the advantages of using an automatic model to detect a changepoint in the time series than using only visual inspection techniques. Simulating time series with varying amounts of seasonality and noise, and by adding abrupt changes at different times and magnitudes, revealed that this model is robust against noise, and is not influenced by changes in amplitude of the seasonal component. Furthermore, the results compared favorably with REDAF dataset (near 65% of agreement). These results show the potential to combine LST and EVI to identify deforestation events. This work is being developed within the frame of the national Forest Law for the protection and sustainable development of Native Forest in Argentina in

  10. Breast cancer with low FDG uptake: Characterization by means of dual-time point FDG-PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zytoon, Ashraf Anas; Murakami, Koji; El-Kholy, Mohamed Ramdan; El-Shorbagy, Emad; Ebied, Osama

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malignant breast lesions usually are differentiated by FDG-PET with a semiquantitative FDG standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5. However, the frequency of breast cancer with an SUV of less than or equal to 2.5 is noteworthy, and often present diagnostic challenges. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of dual-time point FDG-PET/CT with FDG standardized uptake value (SUV) calculation in the characterization of such breast tumors. Methods: Forty-nine female patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer were found to have primary breast cancer with minimally increased FDG uptake and met the criteria for inclusion in this study by having borderline levels of increased FDG uptake (SUVmax less than or equal to 2.5) in the initial FDG-PET/CT images. Consequently, they underwent further delayed phase FDG-PET/CT scan for better evaluation of the disease. Results: Of the 49 cancer lesions; the majority were found to have rising or unvarying dual-time changes in SUVmax (75.5%). The median value of SUVmax increases by 25% between the early and delayed scan. The means ± S.D. of the SUVmax1, the SUVmax2, and the ΔSUVmax% were 1.2 ± 0.6%, 1.3 ± 0.9%, and 5.1 ± 22.4%, respectively. The receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis proved that the highest accuracy for characterization of malignant breast lesions was obtained when a ΔSUVmax% cut-off value 0.0% was used as criteria for malignant FDG uptake-change over time with sensitivity 75.5%, and false-positive rate 20.4%. Conclusion: These results suggested that dual-time FDG-PET/CT imaging with standardized uptake value (SUV) estimation can improve the accuracy of the test in the evaluation of breast cancer with low FDG uptake.

  11. De-optical-line-terminal hybrid access-aggregation optical network for time-sensitive services based on software-defined networking orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wei; Yang, Hui; Xiao, Hongyun; Yu, Ao; He, Linkuan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Zhen; Du, Yi

    2017-11-01

    With the increase in varieties of services in network, time-sensitive services (TSSs) appear and bring forward an impending need for delay performance. Ultralow-latency communication has become one of the important development goals for many scenarios in the coming 5G era (e.g., robotics and driverless cars). However, the conventional methods, which decrease delay by promoting the available resources and the network transmission speed, have limited effect; a new breakthrough for ultralow-latency communication is necessary. We propose a de-optical-line-terminal (De-OLT) hybrid access-aggregation optical network (DAON) for TSS based on software-defined networking (SDN) orchestration. In this network, low-latency all-optical communication based on optical burst switching can be achieved by removing OLT. For supporting this network and guaranteeing the quality of service for TSSs, we design SDN-driven control method and service provision method. Numerical results demonstrate the proposed DAON promotes network service efficiency and avoids traffic congestion.

  12. Evaluation of articular cartilage in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) using T2* mapping at different time points at 3.0 Tesla MRI: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apprich, S.; Mamisch, T.C.; Welsch, G.H.; Bonel, H.; Siebenrock, K.A.; Dudda, M.; Kim, Y.J.; Trattnig, S.

    2012-01-01

    To define the feasibility of utilizing T2* mapping for assessment of early cartilage degeneration prior to surgery in patients with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), we compared cartilage of the hip joint in patients with FAI and healthy volunteers using T2* mapping at 3.0 Tesla over time. Twenty-two patients (13 females and 9 males; mean age 28.1 years) with clinical signs of FAI and Toennis grade ≤ 1 on anterior-posterior x-ray and 35 healthy age-matched volunteers were examined at a 3 T MRI using a flexible body coil. T2* maps were calculated from sagittal- and coronal-oriented gradient-multi-echo sequences using six echoes (TR 125, TE 4.41/8.49/12.57/16.65/20.73/24.81, scan time 4.02 min), both measured at beginning and end of the scan (45 min time span between measurements). Region of interest analysis was manually performed on four consecutive slices for superior and anterior cartilage. Mean T2* values were compared among patients and volunteers, as well as over time using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Whereas quantitative T2* values for the first measurement did not reveal significant differences between patients and volunteers, either for sagittal (p = 0.644) or coronal images (p = 0.987), at the first measurement, a highly significant difference (p ≤ 0.004) was found for both measurements with time after unloading of the joint. Over time we found decreasing mean T2* values for patients, in contrast to increasing mean T2* relaxation times in volunteers. The study proved the feasibility of utilizing T2* mapping for assessment of early cartilage degeneration in the hip joint in FAI patients at 3 Tesla to predict possible success of joint-preserving surgery. However, we suggest the time point for measuring T2* as an MR biomarker for cartilage and the changes in T2* over time to be of crucial importance for designing an MR protocol in patients with FAI. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of articular cartilage in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) using T2* mapping at different time points at 3.0 Tesla MRI: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apprich, S; Mamisch, T C; Welsch, G H; Bonel, H; Siebenrock, K A; Kim, Y-J; Trattnig, S; Dudda, M

    2012-08-01

    To define the feasibility of utilizing T2* mapping for assessment of early cartilage degeneration prior to surgery in patients with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), we compared cartilage of the hip joint in patients with FAI and healthy volunteers using T2* mapping at 3.0 Tesla over time. Twenty-two patients (13 females and 9 males; mean age 28.1 years) with clinical signs of FAI and Tönnis grade ≤ 1 on anterior-posterior x-ray and 35 healthy age-matched volunteers were examined at a 3 T MRI using a flexible body coil. T2* maps were calculated from sagittal- and coronal-oriented gradient-multi-echo sequences using six echoes (TR 125, TE 4.41/8.49/12.57/16.65/20.73/24.81, scan time 4.02 min), both measured at beginning and end of the scan (45 min time span between measurements). Region of interest analysis was manually performed on four consecutive slices for superior and anterior cartilage. Mean T2* values were compared among patients and volunteers, as well as over time using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Whereas quantitative T2* values for the first measurement did not reveal significant differences between patients and volunteers, either for sagittal (p = 0.644) or coronal images (p = 0.987), at the first measurement, a highly significant difference (p ≤ 0.004) was found for both measurements with time after unloading of the joint. Over time we found decreasing mean T2* values for patients, in contrast to increasing mean T2* relaxation times in volunteers. The study proved the feasibility of utilizing T2* mapping for assessment of early cartilage degeneration in the hip joint in FAI patients at 3 Tesla to predict possible success of joint-preserving surgery. However, we suggest the time point for measuring T2* as an MR biomarker for cartilage and the changes in T2* over time to be of crucial importance for designing an MR protocol in patients with FAI.

  14. Mobile, real-time, and point-of-care augmented reality is robust, accurate, and feasible: a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenngott, Hannes Götz; Preukschas, Anas Amin; Wagner, Martin; Nickel, Felix; Müller, Michael; Bellemann, Nadine; Stock, Christian; Fangerau, Markus; Radeleff, Boris; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Lena; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter

    2018-06-01

    Augmented reality (AR) systems are currently being explored by a broad spectrum of industries, mainly for improving point-of-care access to data and images. Especially in surgery and especially for timely decisions in emergency cases, a fast and comprehensive access to images at the patient bedside is mandatory. Currently, imaging data are accessed at a distance from the patient both in time and space, i.e., at a specific workstation. Mobile technology and 3-dimensional (3D) visualization of radiological imaging data promise to overcome these restrictions by making bedside AR feasible. In this project, AR was realized in a surgical setting by fusing a 3D-representation of structures of interest with live camera images on a tablet computer using marker-based registration. The intent of this study was to focus on a thorough evaluation of AR. Feasibility, robustness, and accuracy were thus evaluated consecutively in a phantom model and a porcine model. Additionally feasibility was evaluated in one male volunteer. In the phantom model (n = 10), AR visualization was feasible in 84% of the visualization space with high accuracy (mean reprojection error ± standard deviation (SD): 2.8 ± 2.7 mm; 95th percentile = 6.7 mm). In a porcine model (n = 5), AR visualization was feasible in 79% with high accuracy (mean reprojection error ± SD: 3.5 ± 3.0 mm; 95th percentile = 9.5 mm). Furthermore, AR was successfully used and proved feasible within a male volunteer. Mobile, real-time, and point-of-care AR for clinical purposes proved feasible, robust, and accurate in the phantom, animal, and single-trial human model shown in this study. Consequently, AR following similar implementation proved robust and accurate enough to be evaluated in clinical trials assessing accuracy, robustness in clinical reality, as well as integration into the clinical workflow. If these further studies prove successful, AR might revolutionize data access at patient

  15. Transcriptional profiling of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA regulated genes in mineralizing dental pulp cells at early and late time points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry F. Duncan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp tissue can be damaged by a range of irritants, however, if the irritation is removed and/or the tooth is adequately restored, pulp regeneration is possible (Mjör and Tronstad, 1974 [1]. At present, dental restorative materials limit healing by impairing mineralization and repair processes and as a result new biologically-based materials are being developed (Ferracane et al., 2010 [2]. Previous studies have highlighted the benefit of epigenetic modification by histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi application to dental pulp cells (DPCs, which induces changes to chromatin architecture, promoting gene expression and cellular-reparative events (Duncan et al., 2013 [3]; Paino et al., 2014 [4]. In this study a genome-wide transcription profiling in epigenetically-modified mineralizing primary DPC cultures was performed, at relatively early and late time-points, to identify differentially regulated transcripts that may provide novel therapeutic targets for use in restorative dentistry. Here we provide detailed methods and analysis on these microarray data which has been deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE67175.

  16. Multiple Positive Solutions of a Nonlinear Four-Point Singular Boundary Value Problem with a p-Laplacian Operator on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihuang Hong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present sufficient conditions for the existence of at least twin or triple positive solutions of a nonlinear four-point singular boundary value problem with a p-Laplacian dynamic equation on a time scale. Our results are obtained via some new multiple fixed point theorems.

  17. FoCuS-point: software for STED fluorescence correlation and time-gated single photon counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waithe, Dominic; Clausen, Mathias P; Sezgin, Erdinc

    2016-01-01

    to be established quickly and efficiently. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: FoCuS-point is written in python and is available through the github repository: https://github.com/dwaithe/FCS_point_correlator. Furthermore, compiled versions of the code are available as executables which can be run directly in Linux...

  18. Job Demands, Burnout, and Teamwork in Healthcare Professionals Working in a General Hospital that Was Analysed At Two Points in Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Mijakoski

    2018-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Actual longitudinal study revealed significantly higher mean values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in 2014 that could be explained by significantly increased job demands between analysed points in time.

  19. Missing the Mark? A Two Time Point Cohort Study Estimating Intestinal Parasite Prevalence in Informal Settlements in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael Townsend; Searing, Rapha A; Thompson, David M; Bard, David; Carabin, Hélène; Gonzales, Carlos; Zavala, Carmen; Woodson, Kyle; Naifeh, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations list Peru as potentially needing prevention of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). Prevalence of STH varies regionally and remains understudied in the newest informal settlements of the capital city, Lima. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the need for Mass Drug Administration (MDA) of antiparasitic drugs in the newest informal settlements of Lima. The aim of this study was to estimate the season-specific prevalence of STH to determine if these prevalence estimates met the WHO threshold for MDA in 3 informal settlements. Methods : A 2 time point cohort study was conducted among a sample of 140 children aged 1 to 10 years living in 3 purposively sampled informal settlements of Lima, Peru. Children were asked to provide 2 stool samples that were analyzed with the spontaneous sedimentation in tube technique. The season-specific prevalence proportions of MDA-targeted STH were estimated using a hidden (latent) Markov modeling approach to adjust for repeated measurements over the 2 seasons and the imperfect validity of the screening tests. Results : The prevalence of MDA targeted STH was low at 2.2% (95% confidence interval = 0.3% to 6%) and 3.8% (95% confidence interval = 0.7% to 9.3%) among children sampled in the summer and winter months, respectively, when using the most conservative estimate of test sensitivity. These estimates were below the WHO threshold for MDA (20%). Conclusions : Empiric treatment for STH by organizations active in the newest informal settlements is not supported by the data and could contribute to unnecessary medication exposures and poor allocation of resources.

  20. Anisomycin administered in the olfactory bulb and dorsal hippocampus impaired social recognition memory consolidation in different time-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, R R; Pereira-Caixeta, A R; Moraes, M F D; Pereira, G S

    2014-10-01

    To identify an individual as familiar, rodents form a specific type of memory named social recognition memory. The olfactory bulb (OB) is an important structure for social recognition memory, while the hippocampus recruitment is still controversial. The present study was designed to elucidate the OB and the dorsal hippocampus contribution to the consolidation of social memory. For that purpose, we tested the effect of anisomycin (ANI), which one of the effects is the inhibition of protein synthesis, on the consolidation of social recognition memory. Swiss adult mice with cannulae implanted into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus or into the OB were exposed to a juvenile during 5 min (training session; TR), and once again 1.5 h or 24 h later to test social short-term memory (S-STM) or social long-term memory (S-LTM), respectively. To study S-LTM consolidation, mice received intra-OB or intra-CA1 infusion of saline or ANI immediately, 3, 6 or 18 h after TR. ANI impaired S-LTM consolidation in the OB, when administered immediately or 6h after TR. In the dorsal hippocampus, ANI was amnesic only if administered 3 h after TR. Furthermore, the infusion of ANI in either OB or CA1, immediately after training, did not affect S-STM. Moreover, ANI administered into the OB did not alter the animal's performance in the buried food-finding task. Altogether, our results suggest the consolidation of S-LTM requires both OB and hippocampus participation, although in different time points. This study may help shedding light on the specific roles of the OB and dorsal hippocampus in social recognition memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship of Estimated SHIV Acquisition Time Points During the Menstrual Cycle and Thinning of Vaginal Epithelial Layers in Pigtail Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersh, Ellen N; Ritter, Jana; Butler, Katherine; Ostergaard, Sharon Dietz; Hanson, Debra; Ellis, Shanon; Zaki, Sherif; McNicholl, Janet M

    2015-12-01

    HIV acquisition in the female genital tract remains incompletely understood. Quantitative data on biological HIV risk factors, the influence of reproductive hormones, and infection risk are lacking. We evaluated vaginal epithelial thickness during the menstrual cycle in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). This model previously revealed increased susceptibility to vaginal infection during and after progesterone-dominated periods in the menstrual cycle. Nucleated and nonnucleated (superficial) epithelial layers were quantitated throughout the menstrual cycle of 16 macaques. We examined the relationship with previously estimated vaginal SHIVSF162P3 acquisition time points in the cycle of 43 different animals repeatedly exposed to low virus doses. In the luteal phase (days 17 to cycle end), the mean vaginal epithelium thinned to 66% of mean follicular thickness (days 1-16; P = 0.007, Mann-Whitney test). Analyzing 4-day segments, the epithelium was thickest on days 9 to 12 and thinned to 31% thereof on days 29 to 32, with reductions of nucleated and nonnucleated layers to 36% and 15% of their previous thickness, respectively. The proportion of animals with estimated SHIV acquisition in each cycle segment correlated with nonnucleated layer thinning (Pearson r = 0.7, P layer thinning (Pearson r = 0.6, P = 0.15). These data provide a detailed picture of dynamic cycle-related changes in the vaginal epithelium of pigtail macaques. Substantial thinning occurred in the superficial, nonnucleated layer, which maintains the vaginal microbiome. The findings support vaginal tissue architecture as susceptibility factor for infection and contribute to our understanding of innate resistance to SHIV infection.

  2. Timing of surgery following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer - A comparison of magnetic resonance imaging at two time points and histopathological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M A; Dimitrov, B D; Moyses, H E; Kemp, G J; Loughney, L; White, D; Grocott, M P W; Jack, S; Brown, G

    2016-09-01

    There is wide inter-institutional variation in the interval between neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer. We aimed to assess the association of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 9 and 14 weeks post-NACRT; T-staging (ymrT) and post-NACRT tumour regression grading (ymrTRG) with histopathological outcomes; histopathological T-stage (ypT) and histopathological tumour regression grading (ypTRG) in order to inform decision-making about timing of surgery. We prospectively studied 35 consecutive patients (26 males) with MRI-defined resection margin threatened rectal cancer who had completed standardized NACRT. Patients underwent a MRI at Weeks 9 and 14 post-NACRT, and surgery at Week 15. Two readers independently assessed MRIs for ymrT, ymrTRG and volume change. ymrT and ymrTRG were analysed against histopathological ypT and ypTRG as predictors by logistic regression modelling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Thirty-five patients were recruited. Inter-observer agreement was good for all MR variables (Kappa > 0.61). Considering ypT as an outcome variable, a stronger association of favourable ymrTRG and volume change at Week 14 compared to Week 9 was found (ymrTRG - p = 0.064 vs. p = 0.010; Volume change - p = 0.062 vs. p = 0.007). Similarly, considering ypTRG as an outcome variable, a greater association of favourable ymrTRG and volume change at Week 14 compared to Week 9 was found (ymrTRG - p = 0.005 vs. p = 0.042; Volume change - p = 0.004 vs. 0.055). Following NACRT, greater tumour down-staging and volume reduction was observed at Week 14. Timing of surgery, in relation to NACRT, merits further investigation. NCT01325909. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Software Defined Cyberinfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian; Blaiszik, Ben; Chard, Kyle; Chard, Ryan

    2017-07-17

    Within and across thousands of science labs, researchers and students struggle to manage data produced in experiments, simulations, and analyses. Largely manual research data lifecycle management processes mean that much time is wasted, research results are often irreproducible, and data sharing and reuse remain rare. In response, we propose a new approach to data lifecycle management in which researchers are empowered to define the actions to be performed at individual storage systems when data are created or modified: actions such as analysis, transformation, copying, and publication. We term this approach software-defined cyberinfrastructure because users can implement powerful data management policies by deploying rules to local storage systems, much as software-defined networking allows users to configure networks by deploying rules to switches.We argue that this approach can enable a new class of responsive distributed storage infrastructure that will accelerate research innovation by allowing any researcher to associate data workflows with data sources, whether local or remote, for such purposes as data ingest, characterization, indexing, and sharing. We report on early experiments with this approach in the context of experimental science, in which a simple if-trigger-then-action (IFTA) notation is used to define rules.

  4. Non-AIDS defining cancers in the D:A:D Study - time trends and predictors of survival : A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, Signe W.; Bower, Mark; Reiss, Peter; Bonnet, Fabrice; Law, Matthew; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Abrams, Donald I.; Grulich, Andrew; Fontas, Eric; Kirk, Ole; Furrer, Hansjakob; Wit, Stephane D.; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens D.; Sabin, Caroline A.; Butcher, D.; Delforge, M.; Fanti, I.; Fontas, E.; Franquet, X.; Geffard, S.; Gras, L.; Helweg-Larsen, J.; Hillebregt, M.; Kamara, D.; Kjær, J.; Krum, E.; Lundgren, J.D.; McManus, H.; Meidahl, P.; Mocroft, A.; Nielsen, J.; Phillips, A.; Powderl, W.; Rickenbach, M.; Rode, R.; Ryom, L.; Sabin, C.A.; Salbøl Brandt, R.; Schmidt Iversen, J.; Shortman, N.; Sjøl, A.; Smith, C.; Torres, F.; Tverland, J.; Wright, S.; Zaheri, S.; de Wolf, F.; Smidt, J.; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J-P.; Girard, P.-M.; Livrozet, J.M.; Vanhems, P.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; Degen, O.; van Lunzen, J.; Stellbrink, H.J.; Staszewski, S.; Bogner, J.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Gargalianos, P.; Kosmidis, J.; Perdios, J.; Xylomenos, G.; Filandras, A.; Karabatsaki, E.; Panos, G.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Mulcahy, F.; Burke, M.; Turner, D.; Yust, I.; Hassoun, G.; Pollack, S.; Maayan, S.; Vella, S.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Arici, C.; Pristera, R.; Gabbuti, A.; Mazzotta, F.; Lichtner, M.; Vullo, V.; Boer, K.; Geerlings, S.E.; Godfried, M.H.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Lange, J.M.A.; Nellen, F.J.B.; Pajkrt, D.; Prins, J.M.; Reiss, P.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Wit, F.W.M.N.; van Vugt, M.; van der Meer, J.T.M.; van der Poll, T.; van der Valk, M.; Chirianni, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Montesarchio, E.; Antonucci, G.; Narciso, P.; Testa, A.; Vlassi, C.; Zaccarelli, M.; Castagna, A.; Gianotti, N.; Lazzarin, A.; Galli, M.; Ridolfo, A.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Rozentale, B.; Zeltina, I.; Chaplinskas, S.; Hemmer, R.; Staub, T.; Reiss, P.; Bruun, J.; Maeland, A.; Ormaasen, V.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Schreij, G.; Gasiorowski, J.; Knysz, B.; Bakowska, E.; Horban, A.; Flisiak, R.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Boron-Kaczmarska, A.; Parczewski, M.; Pynka, M.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Trocha, H.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Antunes, F.; Caldeira, L.; Doroana, M.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Bravenboer, B.; Pronk, M.J.H.; Duiculescu, D.; Rakhmanova, A.; Zakharova, N.; Buzunova, S.; Jevtovic, D.; Mokráš, M.; Staneková, D.; Tomazic, J.; González-Lahoz, J.; Labarga, P.; Medrano, J.; Soriano, V.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Bravo, I.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Puig, J.; Tural, C.; Gelinck, L.B.S.; Nouwen, J.L.; Rijnders, B.J.A.; Schurink, C.A.M.; Slobbe, L.; Verbon, A.; de Vries-Sluijs, T.E.M.S.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; van der Feltz, M.; Gatell, J.M.; Miró, J.M.; Domingo, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Sambeat, M.A.; Karlsson, A.; Flamholc, L.; Ledergerber, B.; Weber, R.; Cavassini, M.; Francioli, P.; Boffi, E.; Hirschel, B.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Chentsova, N.; Kravchenko, E.; Driessen, G.J.A.; Hartwig, N.G.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Servitskiy, S.; Krasnov, M.; Barton, S.; Johnson, A.M.; Mercey, D.; Johnson, M.A.; Mocroft, A.; Phillips, A.; Murphy, M.; Scullard, G.; Weber, J.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Branger, J.; Åkerlund, B.; Morfeldt, L.; Sundström., A.; Thulin, G.; Karlsson, A.; Koppel, K.; Flamholc, L.; Ho̊kangård, C.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Armignacco, O.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Moroni, M.; Perno, C.F.; Viale, P.L.; Von Schlosser, F.; Ammassari, A.; Andreoni, M.; Antinori, A.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M.R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cinque, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; De Luca, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Gervasoni, C.; Girardi, E.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Murri, R.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Torti, C.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Cicconi, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Fanti, I.; Formenti, T.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Costantini, A.; Giacometti, A.; Riva, A.; Angarano, G.; Carrisa, C.; Monno, L.; Lazzari, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Borderi, M.; Verucchi, G.; Viale, P.L.; Kauffmann, R.H.; Schippers, E.F.; Castelli, F.; Minardi, C.; Torti, C.; Abeli, C.; Quirino, T.; Manconi, P.E.; Piano, P.; Falasca, K.; Vecchiet, J.; Segala, D.; Sighinolfi, L.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mazzotta, F.; Alessandrini, A.; Cassola, G.; Mazzarello, G.; Piscopo, R.; Viscoli, G.; Belvisi, V.; Mastroianni, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Caramma, I.; Castelli, P.; Chiodera, A.; Alleman, M.A.; Bouwhuis, J.W.; Groeneveld, P.H.P.; Bigoloni, A.; Carenzi, L.; Castagna, A.; Cicconi, P.; Formenti, T.; Galli, A.; Galli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Moioli, M.C.; Piolini, R.; Puoti, M.; Ridolfo, A.L.; Rizzardini, G.; Rossotti, R.; Salpietro, S.; Spagnuolo, V.; Zucchi, P.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Bisio, L.; Mussini, C.; Gori, A.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Guida, M.G.; Baldelli, F.; Belfiori, B.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M.A.; Acinapura, R.; Andreoni, M.; Antinori, A.; Capozzi, M.; Cauda, R.; De Luca, A.; Gallo, L.; Libertone, R.; Lichtner, M.; Nicastro, E.; Tebano, G.; Tozzi, V.; Vullo, V.; Zaccarelli, M.; d'Avino, A.; Madeddu, G.; Mura, M.S.; Caramello, P.; Di Perri, G.; Orofino, G.C.; Sciandra, M.; Soetekouw, R.; ten Kate, R.W.; Manfrin, V.; Pellizzer, G.; Bernard, E.; Caissotti, C.; Cua, E.; De Salvador-Guillouet, F.; Dellamonica, P.; Dollet, K.; Durant, J.; Ferrando, S.; Fontas, E.; Mondain-Miton, V.; Naqvi, A.; Perbost, I.; Pillet, S.; Pradier, C.; Prouvost-Keller, B.; Pugliese, P.; Rahelinirina, V.; Roger, P.M.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H.C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Cellerai, C.; Dubs, R.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Flepp, M.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H.; Fux, C.A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H.H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez de Tejada, B.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Schultze, D.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.; von Wyl, V.; Arend, S.M.; Jolink, H.; Kroon, F.P.; de Boer, M.G.J.; van Dissel, J.T.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; van den Broek, P.J.; Pogany, K.; den Hollander, J.G.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; Leyten, E.M.S.; Vriesendorp, R.; Kootstra, G.J.; ten Napel, C.H.H.; Blok, W.L.; Brinkman, K.; Frissen, P.H.J.; Schouten, W.E.M.; van den Berk, G.E.L.; Brouwer, A.E.; Juttmann, J.R.; van Kasteren, M.E.E.; Lettinga, K.D.; Veenstra, J.; Mulder, J.W.; Smit, P.M.; Weijer, S.; van Gorp, E.C.M.; Verhagen, D.W.M.; van Eeden, A.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E.H.; Sprenger, H.G.; Stek, C.J.; van Assen, S.; Brouwer, A.M.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Keuter, M.; Koopmans, P.P.; de Groot, R.; ter Hofstede, H.J.M.; van der Flier, M.; van der Ven, A.J.A.M.; Arends, J.E.; Ellerbroek, P.M.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Jaspers, C.A.J.J.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L.J.; Mudrikova, T.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Peters, E.J.G.; Schneider, M.M.E.; Wassenberg, M.W.M.; van der Hilst, J.C.H.; Bierman, W.F.W.; Claessen, F.A.P.; Danner, S.A.; Perenboom, R.M.; bij de Vaate, E.A.; de Jong, E.V.; de Vocht, J.; van Agtmael, M.A.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Wolfs, T.F.W.; Gisolf, E.H.; Richter, J.P.; van der Berg, C.; Stegeman, A.; van den Berge, M.; Polée, M.B.; van Houte, D.P.F.; van Vonderen, M.G.A.; Duits, A.J.; Winkel, C.; Dabis, F.; Bonnet, F.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Dupon, M.; Fleury, H.; Lacoste, D.; Malvy, D.; Mercié, P.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Pellegrin, I.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Thiébaut, R.; Titier, K.; Bruyand, M.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Lawson-Ayayi, S.; Thiébaut, R.; Wittkop, L.; Bernard, N.; Bonnal, F.; Bonnet, F.; Caunègre, L.; Cazanave, C.; Ceccaldi, J.; Chambon, D.; Chossat, I.; Courtaud, K.; Dauchy, F.A.; De Witte, S.; Duffau, P.; Dupon, M.; Dupont, A.; Dutronc, H.; Farbos, S.; Gaboriau, V.; Gemain, M.C.; Gerard, Y.; Greib, C.; Hessamfar, M.; Lacoste, D.; Lafarie-Castet, S.; Lataste, P.; Lazaro, E.; Longy-Boursier, M.; Malvy, D.; Meraud, J.P.; Mercié, P.; Monlun, E.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Ochoa, A.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Pistone, T.; Ragnaud, J.M.; Receveur, M.C.; Roger-Schmeltz, J.; Tchamgoué, S.; Thibaut, P.; Vandenhende, M.A.; Viallard, J.F.; Moreau, J.F.; Pellegrin., I.; Fleury, H.; Lafon, M.E.; Masquelier, B.; Trimoulet, P.; Breilh, D.; Titier, K.; Haramburu, F.; Miremont-Salamé, G.; Blaizeau, M.J.; D'Ivernois, C.; Decoin, M.; Delaune, J.; Delveaux, S.; Hanappier, C.; Leleux, O.; Sicard, X.; Uwamaliya-Nziyumvira, B.; Geffard, S.; Leray, J.; Palmer, G.; Touchard, D.; Baker, D.; Bendall, C.; Bloch, M.; Carr, A.; Cooper, D.; Franic, T.; Law, M.; McManus, H.; Petoumenos, K.; Vale, R.; Wright, S.; Edwards, S.; Hoy, J.; Moore, R.; Nicholson, J.; Roth, N.; Watson, K.; Chuah, J.; Ngieng, M.; Nolan, D.; Skett, J.; Cadafalch, J.; Calvo, G.; Codina, C.; Del Cacho, E.; Domingo, P.; Fuster, M.; Gatell, J.; Mateu, S.; Sambeat, M.A.; Sirera, G.; Torres, F.; Vaqué, A.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Gennotte, A.F.; Gerard, M.; Kabeya, K.; Konopnicki, D.; Libois, A.; Martin, C.; Necsoi, C.; Payen, M.C.; Semaille, P.; Van Laethem, Y.; Bartsch, G.; El-Sadr, W.M.; Krum, E.; Neaton, J.; Thompson, G.; Wentworth, D.; Luskin-Hawk, R.; Telzak, E.; El-Sadr, W.M.; Abrams, D.I.; Cohn, D.; Markowitz, N.; Arduino, R.; Mushatt, D.; Friedland, G.; Perez, G.; Tedaldi, E.; Fisher, E.; Gordin, F.; Crane, L.R.; Sampson, J.; Baxter, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Fischer, A.H.; Grint, D.; Kirk, O.; Kjaer, J.; Kowalska, J.; Lundgren, J.; Mocroft, A.; Nielsen, J.; Peters, L.; Podlekareva, D.; Reekie, J.; Tverland, J.; Elias, C.; Losso, M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V.M.; Suetnov, O.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Colebunders, R.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Jilich, D.; Machala, L.; Sedlacek, D.; Benfield, T.; Kronborg, G.; Larsen, M.; Nielsen, J.; Gerstoft, J.; Hansen, A.-B.E.; Katzenstein, T.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.; Ostergaard, L.; Zilmer, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Using data from a large international cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we described the incidence of NADC from 2004-2010, and described subsequent mortality and predictors

  5. Space- and time-resolved diagnostic of line emission from the separatrix region in JET X-point plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, P.; Breton, C.; DeMichelis, C.; Mattioli, M.; Ramette, J.; Saoutic, B.; Denne, B.; Giannella, R.; Gottardi, N.; Magyar, G.

    1989-01-01

    The SPEX GISMO VUV spectrometer installed on JET has appeared to be appropriate to study the impurities radiation during X-point operation. Preliminary results have been obtained with 2 of the 3 spectrometers. They concern mainly the light impurities emission, CIII, O VI in the vicinity of the X-point during the transition from L to H mode. The results are reported for both single X and double X discharges and future prospects are assessed. (author) 4 refs., 6 figs

  6. Change Points in the Population Trends of Aerial-Insectivorous Birds in North America: Synchronized in Time across Species and Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Smith

    Full Text Available North American populations of aerial insectivorous birds are in steep decline. Aerial insectivores (AI are a group of bird species that feed almost exclusively on insects in flight, and include swallows, swifts, nightjars, and flycatchers. The causes of the declines are not well understood. Indeed, it is not clear when the declines began, or whether the declines are shared across all species in the group (e.g., caused by changes in flying insect populations or specific to each species (e.g., caused by changes in species' breeding habitat. A recent study suggested that population trends of aerial insectivores changed for the worse in the 1980s. If there was such a change point in trends of the group, understanding its timing and geographic pattern could help identify potential causes of the decline. We used a hierarchical Bayesian, penalized regression spline, change point model to estimate group-level change points in the trends of 22 species of AI, across 153 geographic strata of North America. We found evidence for group-level change points in 85% of the strata. Change points for flycatchers (FC were distinct from those for swallows, swifts and nightjars (SSN across North America, except in the Northeast, where all AI shared the same group-level change points. During the 1980s, there was a negative change point across most of North America, in the trends of SSN. For FC, the group-level change points were more geographically variable, and in many regions there were two: a positive change point followed by a negative change point. This group-level synchrony in AI population trends is likely evidence of a response to a common environmental factor(s with similar effects on many species across broad spatial extents. The timing and geographic patterns of the change points that we identify here should provide a spring-board for research into the causes behind aerial insectivore declines.

  7. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement surrounding the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is associated with discovering the mechanism responsible for the masses of the elementary particles. This paper will first briefly examine the leading definitions, pointing out their shortcomings. Then, utilizing relativity theory, it will propose—for consideration by the community of physicists—a conceptual definition of mass predicated on the more fundamental concept of energy, more fundamental in that everything that has mass has energy, yet not everything that has energy has mass.

  8. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  9. Variation in type and frequency of diagnostic imaging during trauma care across multiple time points by patient insurance type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Nathaniel; Repáraz, Laura; Fry, William R.; Smith, R. Stephen; Luis, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that uninsured patients receive fewer radiographic studies during trauma care, but less is known as to whether differences in care are present among other insurance groups or across different time points during hospitalization. Our objective was to examine the number of radiographic studies administered to a cohort of trauma patients over the entire hospital stay as well as during the first 24-hours of care. Patient data were obtained from an American College of Surgeons (ACS) verified Level I Trauma Center between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012. We used negative binomial regression to construct relative risk (RR) ratios for type and frequency of radiographic imaging received among persons with Medicare, Medicaid, no insurance, or government insurance plans in reference to those with commercial indemnity plans. The analysis was adjusted for patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, injury severity score, injury mechanism, comorbidities, complications, hospital length of stay, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. A total of 3621 records from surviving patients age > =18 years were assessed. After adjustment for potential confounders, the expected number of radiographic studies decreased by 15 % among Medicare recipients (RR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.78–0.93), 11 % among Medicaid recipients (0.89, 0.81–0.99), 10 % among the uninsured (0.90, 0.85–0.96) and 19 % among government insurance groups (0.81, 0.72–0.90), compared with the reference group. This disparity was observed during the first 24-hours of care among patients with Medicare (0.78, 0.71–0.86) and government insurance plans (0.83, 0.74–0.94). Overall, there were no differences in the number of radiographic studies among the uninsured or among Medicaid patients during the first 24-hours of care compared with the reference group, but differences were observed among the uninsured in a sub-analysis of severely injured patients (ISS > 15). Both uninsured and insured patients treated at a

  10. Peripheral tuberculous lymphadenitis masquerading as metastatic gastric carcinoma on F 18 FDG dual time point PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Kon; Shin, Jeong Eun; Lee, Jai Hyuen [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A 59 year old woman was hospitalized with weight loss, anorexia, and low grade fever for 2 weeks. she had under gone a total gastrectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy 10 years prior due to advanced gastric cancer to evaluate recurrence, fluorine 19 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) dual time point positron emission tomography/computed tomography (DTPP) was conducted with a gemini GXL 6 PET/CT system (Philips, Hamburg, Germany). FDG DTPP was performed twice, with an early scan 60 min after FDG injection and a delayed scan 150min after FDG injection. The early scan showed that multiple hypermetabolic lesions were located along left supraclavicular, mediastinal (1R, 2R, 3, 4R and 7) and left paraaortic (retroperitoneal) nodal stations. The delayed scan showed that all the above mentioned lesions revealed a more increased maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) than was detected in the early scan. both scans did not show intrapulmonary lesion. For example, the left supraclavicular lymph node, 2R and retroperitoneal lymph node were observed with early and delayed SUV maxes of 4.5/7.6/3.6 and 6.7/7.7/3.6 and 6.7/10.7/4.4, respectively. Tom confirm diagnosis and establish a treatment plan, a mediastinoscopic biopsy of one of the mediastinal lymph nodes (4R) was subsequently performed and tuberculosis was ultimately diagnosed. Then, the patient started an antituberculosis treatment instead of antichemotherapy. A follow up FDG PET/CT performed 12 months later showed disappeared FDG uptake and significant decreased change of multiple peripheral tuberculous lymphadenitis. Whole body FDG PET/CT has widespread use in diagnosing and staging variable malignancies, and plays an important role in detection of gastric cancer recurrence. However, FDG is not cancer specific and some inflammatory diseases have shown higher FDG uptake on PET imaging. Infection, inflammation, and granulomatosis are also known to cause false positive FDG PET scans because activated inflammatory cells show

  11. Effects of Point Count Duration, Time-of-Day, and Aural Stimuli on Detectability of Migratory and Resident Bird Species in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Lynch

    1995-01-01

    Effects of count duration, time-of-day, and aural stimuli were studied in a series of unlimited-radius point counts conducted during winter in Quintana Roo, Mexico. The rate at which new species were detected was approximately three times higher during the first 5 minutes of each 15- minute count than in the final 5 minutes. The number of individuals and species...

  12. A simple method for regional cerebral blood flow measurement by one-point arterial blood sampling and 123I-IMP microsphere model (part 2). A study of time correction of one-point blood sample count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yasuhiko; Makino, Kenichi; Gotoh, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    In our previous paper regarding determination of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using the 123 I-IMP microsphere model, we reported that the accuracy of determination of the integrated value of the input function from one-point arterial blood sampling can be increased by performing correction using the 5 min: 29 min ratio for the whole-brain count. However, failure to carry out the arterial blood collection at exactly 5 minutes after 123 I-IMP injection causes errors with this method, and there is thus a time limitation. We have now revised out method so that the one-point arterial blood sampling can be performed at any time during the interval between 5 minutes and 20 minutes after 123 I-IMP injection, with addition of a correction step for the sampling time. This revised method permits more accurate estimation of the integral of the input functions. This method was then applied to 174 experimental subjects: one-point blood samples collected at random times between 5 and 20 minutes, and the estimated values for the continuous arterial octanol extraction count (COC) were determined. The mean error rate between the COC and the actual measured continuous arterial octanol extraction count (OC) was 3.6%, and the standard deviation was 12.7%. Accordingly, in 70% of the cases, the rCBF was able to be estimated within an error rate of 13%, while estimation was possible in 95% of the cases within an error rate of 25%. This improved method is a simple technique for determination of the rCBF by 123 I-IMP microsphere model and one-point arterial blood sampling which no longer shows a time limitation and does not require any octanol extraction step. (author)

  13. Identification of a time-varying point source in a system of two coupled linear diffusion-advection- reaction equations: application to surface water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdi, Adel

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the identification of a point source (localization of its position and recovering the history of its time-varying intensity function) that constitutes the right-hand side of the first equation in a system of two coupled 1D linear transport equations. Assuming that the source intensity function vanishes before reaching the final control time, we prove the identifiability of the sought point source from recording the state relative to the second coupled transport equation at two observation points framing the source region. Note that at least one of the two observation points should be strategic. We establish an identification method that uses these records to identify the source position as the root of a continuous and strictly monotonic function. Whereas the source intensity function is recovered using a recursive formula without any need of an iterative process. Some numerical experiments on a variant of the surface water pollution BOD–OD coupled model are presented

  14. Twin Positive Solutions of a Nonlinear m-Point Boundary Value Problem for Third-Order p-Laplacian Dynamic Equations on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several existence theorems of twin positive solutions are established for a nonlinear m-point boundary value problem of third-order p-Laplacian dynamic equations on time scales by using a fixed point theorem. We present two theorems and four corollaries which generalize the results of related literature. As an application, an example to demonstrate our results is given. The obtained conditions are different from some known results.

  15. TH-AB-202-08: A Robust Real-Time Surface Reconstruction Method On Point Clouds Captured From a 3D Surface Photogrammetry System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W; Sawant, A; Ruan, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Surface photogrammetry (e.g. VisionRT, C-Rad) provides a noninvasive way to obtain high-frequency measurement for patient motion monitoring in radiotherapy. This work aims to develop a real-time surface reconstruction method on the acquired point clouds, whose acquisitions are subject to noise and missing measurements. In contrast to existing surface reconstruction methods that are usually computationally expensive, the proposed method reconstructs continuous surfaces with comparable accuracy in real-time. Methods: The key idea in our method is to solve and propagate a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud (measurement) manifold to the surface (reconstruction) manifold, taking advantage of the similarity in local geometric topology in both manifolds. With consistent point cloud acquisition, we propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, building the point correspondences by the iterative closest point (ICP) method. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions, we further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to account for the large and sparse error built by ICP, with a Laplacian prior. We evaluated our method on both clinical acquired point clouds under consistent conditions and simulated point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The reconstruction accuracy was evaluated w.r.t. root-mean-squared-error, by comparing the reconstructed surfaces against those from the variational reconstruction method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models achieved sub-millimeter accuracy, with mean reconstruction time reduced from 82.23 seconds to 0.52 seconds and 0.94 seconds, respectively. On simulated point cloud with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent performance despite the introduced occlusions. Conclusion: We have developed a real-time

  16. Job Demands, Burnout, and Teamwork in Healthcare Professionals Working in a General Hospital that Was Analysed At Two Points in Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzhinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Stoleski, Sasho; Minov, Jordan; Atanasovska, Aneta; Bihorac, Elida

    2018-04-15

    The purpose of the paper was to assess job demands, burnout, and teamwork in healthcare professionals (HPs) working in a general hospital that was analysed at two points in time with a time lag of three years. Time 1 respondents (N = 325) were HPs who participated during the first wave of data collection (2011). Time 2 respondents (N = 197) were HPs from the same hospital who responded at Time 2 (2014). Job demands, burnout, and teamwork were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, respectively. Significantly higher scores of emotional exhaustion (21.03 vs. 15.37, t = 5.1, p job demands were found at Time 2. Teamwork levels were similar at both points in time (Time 1 = 3.84 vs. Time 2 = 3.84, t = 0.043, p = 0.97). Actual longitudinal study revealed significantly higher mean values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in 2014 that could be explained by significantly increased job demands between analysed points in time.

  17. Effects of Varying Epoch Lengths, Wear Time Algorithms, and Activity Cut-Points on Estimates of Child Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity from Accelerometer Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Jorge A; Haydel, K Farish; Davila, Tania; Desai, Manisha; Bryson, Susan; Haskell, William L; Matheson, Donna; Robinson, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of accelerometer epoch lengths, wear time (WT) algorithms, and activity cut-points on estimates of WT, sedentary behavior (SB), and physical activity (PA). 268 7-11 year-olds with BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex wore accelerometers on their right hips for 4-7 days. Data were processed and analyzed at epoch lengths of 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, and 60-seconds. For each epoch length, WT minutes/day was determined using three common WT algorithms, and minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) PA were determined using five common activity cut-points. ANOVA tested differences in WT, SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA when using the different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and activity cut-points. WT minutes/day varied significantly by epoch length when using the NHANES WT algorithm (p algorithms. Minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA varied significantly by epoch length for all sets of activity cut-points tested with all three WT algorithms (all p algorithms (all p algorithms and activity cut-point definitions to match different epoch lengths may introduce significant errors. Estimates of SB and PA from studies that process and analyze data using different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and/or activity cut-points are not comparable, potentially leading to very different results, interpretations, and conclusions, misleading research and public policy.

  18. Performance evaluation of a real time OFDM radio over fiber system at 2.5 GHz using software defined radio SDR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David Cepeda, Juan; Rodriguez, Santiago Isaac; Rico-Martinez, Monica

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an OFDM radio over fiber (RoF) system at 2.5 GHz using software defined radio (SDR). In this work, first we present an introduction of the main concepts about radio over fiber and an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system at 2.5 GHz......, then we present a comparison of an OFDM RoF system in three scenarios, modifying the wireless distances and the optical fiber distance in order to evaluate the performance of the system taking into account the symbol error rate (SER) vs signal to noise ratio (SNR) curves....

  19. Job Demands, Burnout, and Teamwork in Healthcare Professionals Working in a General Hospital that Was Analysed At Two Points in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzhinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Stoleski, Sasho; Minov, Jordan; Atanasovska, Aneta; Bihorac, Elida

    2018-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of the paper was to assess job demands, burnout, and teamwork in healthcare professionals (HPs) working in a general hospital that was analysed at two points in time with a time lag of three years. METHODS: Time 1 respondents (N = 325) were HPs who participated during the first wave of data collection (2011). Time 2 respondents (N = 197) were HPs from the same hospital who responded at Time 2 (2014). Job demands, burnout, and teamwork were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, respectively. RESULTS: Significantly higher scores of emotional exhaustion (21.03 vs. 15.37, t = 5.1, p Teamwork levels were similar at both points in time (Time 1 = 3.84 vs. Time 2 = 3.84, t = 0.043, p = 0.97). CONCLUSION: Actual longitudinal study revealed significantly higher mean values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in 2014 that could be explained by significantly increased job demands between analysed points in time. PMID:29731948

  20. Green Grape Detection and Picking-Point Calculation in a Night-Time Natural Environment Using a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD Vision Sensor with Artificial Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Xiong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Night-time fruit-picking technology is important to picking robots. This paper proposes a method of night-time detection and picking-point positioning for green grape-picking robots to solve the difficult problem of green grape detection and picking in night-time conditions with artificial lighting systems. Taking a representative green grape named Centennial Seedless as the research object, daytime and night-time grape images were captured by a custom-designed visual system. Detection was conducted employing the following steps: (1 The RGB (red, green and blue. Color model was determined for night-time green grape detection through analysis of color features of grape images under daytime natural light and night-time artificial lighting. The R component of the RGB color model was rotated and the image resolution was compressed; (2 The improved Chan–Vese (C–V level set model and morphological processing method were used to remove the background of the image, leaving out the grape fruit; (3 Based on the character of grape vertical suspension, combining the principle of the minimum circumscribed rectangle of fruit and the Hough straight line detection method, straight-line fitting for the fruit stem was conducted and the picking point was calculated using the stem with an angle of fitting line and vertical line less than 15°. The visual detection experiment results showed that the accuracy of grape fruit detection was 91.67% and the average running time of the proposed algorithm was 0.46 s. The picking-point calculation experiment results showed that the highest accuracy for the picking-point calculation was 92.5%, while the lowest was 80%. The results demonstrate that the proposed method of night-time green grape detection and picking-point calculation can provide technical support to the grape-picking robots.

  1. Uniqueness in time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, P.

    1981-01-01

    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  2. The impact of scheduling on service reliability : Trip-time determination and holding points in long-headway services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.; Boterman, J.W.; Van Nes, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents research on optimizing service reliability of longheadway services in urban public transport. Setting the driving time, and thus the departure time at stops, is an important decision when optimizing reliability in urban public transport. The choice of the percentile out of

  3. Is it time to include point-of-care ultrasound in general surgery training? A review to stimulate discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenkopf, Maximilian; Tait, Noel

    2013-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound scanning or POCUS is a focused ultrasound (US) scan, performed by non-imaging clinicians during physical examination, an invasive procedure or surgery. As this technology becomes cheaper, smaller and easier to use, its scope for use by surgeons grows, a trend that may generate a gap between use and training. Opportunities for enhanced general surgery skill sets may be reduced unless consideration is given to inclusion of POCUS in general surgery training. To stimulate discussion regarding inclusion of POCUS in the general surgery curriculum; to resource this discussion with an overview of current trends and issues around POCUS; and to discuss concerns and controversies that may arise if POCUS was adopted into general surgery training. A literature search was performed using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google and Google Scholar, using the terms 'ultrasound', 'point-of-care-ultrasound', 'bedside ultrasound', 'portable ultrasound' and 'hand-held ultrasound'. Literature, references and non-literature resources found were reviewed for relevance to US education in general surgery. Increasingly, medical students are graduating with basic POCUS skills. Specialty-specific uses of POCUS are proliferating. Training and assessment resources are not keeping up, in accessibility or standardization. A learned surgical college led training and accreditation process would require aligned education in anatomy and US technology and collaboration with the specialist imaging community to ensure appropriate standards are clarified and met. Research is also required into how general surgery trainees can best achieve and maintain POCUS competence. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. Application of the nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm for forecasting surface wind of point station in the South China Sea with scatterometer observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jian; Dong Gang; Sun Yimei; Zhang Zhaoyang; Wu Yuqin

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports the development of nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm (GA) with singular spectrum analysis (SSA) for forecasting the surface wind of a point station in the South China Sea (SCS) with scatterometer observations. Before the nonlinear technique GA is used for forecasting the time series of surface wind, the SSA is applied to reduce the noise. The surface wind speed and surface wind components from scatterometer observations at three locations in the SCS have been used to develop and test the technique. The predictions have been compared with persistence forecasts in terms of root mean square error. The predicted surface wind with GA and SSA made up to four days (longer for some point station) in advance have been found to be significantly superior to those made by persistence model. This method can serve as a cost-effective alternate prediction technique for forecasting surface wind of a point station in the SCS basin. (paper)

  5. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  6. Usefulness of Time-Point Serum Cortisol and ACTH Measurements for the Adjustment of Glucocorticoid Replacement in Adrenal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Elise; Joubert, Michael; Trzepla, Géraldine; Parienti, Jean Jacques; Freret, Thomas; Vanthygem, Marie Christine; Desailloud, Rachel; Lefebvre, Hervé; Coquerel, Antoine; Reznik, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment of daily hydrocortisone dose on clinical criteria lacks sensitivity for fine tuning. Long term hydrocortisone (HC) over-replacement may lead to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI). Biochemical criteria may help detecting over- or under-replacement but have been poorly evaluated. Multicenter, institutional, pharmacokinetic study on ACTH and cortisol plasma profiles during HC replacement in 27 AI patients compared to 29 matched controls. All AI patients were administered HC thrice daily at doses of 6, 10 and 14 mg/m2/d. Blood samples were drawn hourly from 0800h to 1900h. The main outcome measures were: i) plasma peak cortisol and cortisol area under the curve (AUC) in AI patients compared to controls, ii) correlations between cortisol AUC vs single-point cortisol or ACTH decrease from baseline (ΔACTH) and iii) the predictive value of the two latters for obtaining AI patients' cortisol AUC in the control range. Cortisol peaks were observed 1h after each HC intake and a dose response was demonstrated for cortisol peak and cortisol AUC. The comparison of AI patients' cortisol AUC to controls showed that 81.5% AI patients receiving 6mg/m2/d were adequately replaced, whereas most patients receiving higher doses were over-replaced. The correlation coefficient between 1000h/1400h cortisol concentrations and 0800-1900h cortisol AUC were 0.93/0.88 respectively, whereas the 0800-1200h ΔACTH fairly correlated with 0800-1900h cortisol AUC (R = 0.57). ROC curve analysis indicated that the 1000h and 1400h cortisol concentrations best predicted over-replacement. Patients receiving a 6mg/m2 hydrocortisone daily dose exhibited the most physiological daytime cortisol profile. Single point plasma cortisol correlated with daytime cortisol AUC in AI patients. Although hydrocortisone dose should be currently determined on clinical grounds, our data suggest that single point plasma cortisol may be an adjunct for further hydrocortisone

  7. The Dynamics of Smoking-Related Disturbed Methylation: A Two Time-Point Study of Methylation Change in Smokers, Non-Smokers and Former Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The evidence for epigenome-wide associations between smoking and DNA methylation continues to grow through cross-sectional studies. However, few large­ scale investigations have explored the associations using observations for individuals at multiple time-points. ...

  8. MDCT evaluation of aortic root and aortic valve prior to TAVI. What is the optimal imaging time point in the cardiac cycle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurencak, Tomas; Turek, Jakub; Nijssen, Estelle C. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kietselaer, Bastiaan L.J.H. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mihl, Casper; Kok, Madeleine; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Das, Marco [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht (Netherlands); Ommen, Vincent G.V.A. van [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Garsse, Leen A.F.M. van [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    To determine the optimal imaging time point for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) therapy planning by comprehensive evaluation of the aortic root. Multidetector-row CT (MDCT) examination with retrospective ECG gating was retrospectively performed in 64 consecutive patients referred for pre-TAVI assessment. Eighteen different parameters of the aortic root were evaluated at 11 different time points in the cardiac cycle. Time points at which maximal (or minimal) sizes were determined, and dimension differences to other time points were evaluated. Theoretical prosthesis sizing based on different measurements was compared. Largest dimensions were found between 10 and 20 % of the cardiac cycle for annular short diameter (10 %); mean diameter (10 %); effective diameter and circumference-derived diameter (20 %); distance from the annulus to right coronary artery ostium (10 %); aortic root at the left coronary artery level (20 %); aortic root at the widest portion of coronary sinuses (20 %); and right leaflet length (20 %). Prosthesis size selection differed depending on the chosen measurements in 25-75 % of cases. Significant changes in anatomical structures of the aortic root during the cardiac cycle are crucial for TAVI planning. Imaging in systole is mandatory to obtain maximal dimensions. (orig.)

  9. Lab-in-a-tube: Real-time molecular point-of-care diagnostics for influenza A and B using the cobas(R) Liat(R) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchers, W.J.G.; Kuijpers, J; Sickler, J.J.; Rahamat-Langendoen, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis of influenza A and B is important for direct treatment decisions in patient care and for the reduction of in-hospital transmissions. The new real-time PCR based molecular point-of-care (POC) assay, the cobas(R) Influenza A/B test on the cobas(R) Liat(R) System (cobas(R) Liat(R)

  10. How Well Does High School Grade Point Average Predict College Performance by Student Urbanicity and Timing of College Entry? REL 2017-250

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodara, Michelle; Lewis, Karyn

    2017-01-01

    This report is a companion to a study that found that high school grade point average was a stronger predictor of performance in college-level English and math than were standardized exam scores among first-time students at the University of Alaska who enrolled directly in college-level courses. This report examines how well high school grade…

  11. Point Climat no. 13 'Will there still be a market price for CERs and ERUs in two years time?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellassen, Valentin; Stephan, Nicolas; Leguet, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: Medium-term (i.e. pre-2015) demand for credits from the EU ETS and secondary sources of demand appears to be limited to 1.6 billion tCO 2 e. The supply of Kyoto credits is relatively predictable, and will cover demand between now and 2013-2014 according to our base-case scenario. Our view is that the demand-supply equilibrium will lead to a de-correlation between the price of Kyoto credits and the EUA price, and may lead to a price for Kyoto credits that is very low, or almost nil. Unless CER and ERU demand-side policies are modified, we do not foresee any rebound in CER and ERU prices beyond the current year

  12. Transition times between the extremum points of the current–voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode with hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishakov, K. S., E-mail: ksgrishakov@yahoo.com; Elesin, V. F. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    A numerical solution to the problem of transient processes in a resonant tunneling diode featuring a current–voltage characteristic with hysteresis is found for the first time in the context of a coherent model (based on the coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations) taking into account the Fermi distribution of electrons. The transitions from the high-current to the low-current state and vice versa, which result from the existence of hysteresis and are of great practical importance for ultrafast switches based on resonant tunneling diodes, are studied in detail. It is shown that the transition times for such processes initiated by the application of a small voltage can significantly exceed the characteristic time ℏ/Γ (where G is the width of the resonance level). It is established for the first time that the transition time can be reduced and made as short as the characteristic time ℏ/Γ by applying a sufficiently high voltage. For the parameters of the resonant-tunnelingdiode structure considered in this study, the required voltage is about 0.01 V.

  13. IWGT report on quantitative approaches to genotoxicity risk assessment II. Use of point-of-departure (PoD) metrics in defining acceptable exposure limits and assessing human risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, James T; Frötschl, Roland; White, Paul A; Crump, Kenny S; Eastmond, David A; Fukushima, Shoji; Guérard, Melanie; Hayashi, Makoto; Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G; Johnson, George E; Kasamatsu, Toshio; Levy, Dan D; Morita, Takeshi; Müller, Lutz; Schoeny, Rita; Schuler, Maik J; Thybaud, Véronique

    2015-05-01

    This is the second of two reports from the International Workshops on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) Working Group on Quantitative Approaches to Genetic Toxicology Risk Assessment (the QWG). The first report summarized the discussions and recommendations of the QWG related to the need for quantitative dose-response analysis of genetic toxicology data, the existence and appropriate evaluation of threshold responses, and methods to analyze exposure-response relationships and derive points of departure (PoDs) from which acceptable exposure levels could be determined. This report summarizes the QWG discussions and recommendations regarding appropriate approaches to evaluate exposure-related risks of genotoxic damage, including extrapolation below identified PoDs and across test systems and species. Recommendations include the selection of appropriate genetic endpoints and target tissues, uncertainty factors and extrapolation methods to be considered, the importance and use of information on mode of action, toxicokinetics, metabolism, and exposure biomarkers when using quantitative exposure-response data to determine acceptable exposure levels in human populations or to assess the risk associated with known or anticipated exposures. The empirical relationship between genetic damage (mutation and chromosomal aberration) and cancer in animal models was also examined. It was concluded that there is a general correlation between cancer induction and mutagenic and/or clastogenic damage for agents thought to act via a genotoxic mechanism, but that the correlation is limited due to an inadequate number of cases in which mutation and cancer can be compared at a sufficient number of doses in the same target tissues of the same species and strain exposed under directly comparable routes and experimental protocols. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Computing travel time when the exact address is unknown: a comparison of point and polygon ZIP code approximation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Ethan M; Shi, Xun

    2009-04-29

    Travel time is an important metric of geographic access to health care. We compared strategies of estimating travel times when only subject ZIP code data were available. Using simulated data from New Hampshire and Arizona, we estimated travel times to nearest cancer centers by using: 1) geometric centroid of ZIP code polygons as origins, 2) population centroids as origin, 3) service area rings around each cancer center, assigning subjects to rings by assuming they are evenly distributed within their ZIP code, 4) service area rings around each center, assuming the subjects follow the population distribution within the ZIP code. We used travel times based on street addresses as true values to validate estimates. Population-based methods have smaller errors than geometry-based methods. Within categories (geometry or population), centroid and service area methods have similar errors. Errors are smaller in urban areas than in rural areas. Population-based methods are superior to the geometry-based methods, with the population centroid method appearing to be the best choice for estimating travel time. Estimates in rural areas are less reliable.

  15. Points of Transition: Understanding the Constructed Identities of L2 Learners/Users across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawu, Anthony; Martin-Beltran, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Using sociocultural and poststructuralist theoretical lenses, this study examines the narrative construction of language-learner identity across time and space. We applied cross-narrative methodologies to analyze language-learning autobiographies and interview data from three English users who had recently transitioned to a U.S. context for…

  16. Point-of-care ultrasonography as a training milestone for internal medicine residents: the time is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabath, Bruce F; Singh, Gurkeerat

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care (POC) ultrasonography is considered fundamental in emergency medicine training and recently has become a milestone in critical care fellowship programs as well. Currently, there is no such standard requirement for internal medicine residency programs in the United States. We present a new case and briefly review another case at our institution - a community hospital - in which internal medicine house staff trained in ultrasonography were able to uncover unexpected and critical diagnoses that significantly changed patient care and outcomes. We also review the growing evidence of the application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of a myriad of conditions encountered in general internal medicine as well as the mounting data on the ability of internal medicine residents to apply this technology accurately at the bedside. We advocate that the literature has sufficiently established the role of POC ultrasonography in general internal medicine that there should no longer be any delay in giving this an official place in the development of internal medicine trainees. This may be particularly useful in the community hospital setting where 24-h echocardiography or other sonography may not be readily available.

  17. Guidelines for time-to-event end point definitions in breast cancer trials: results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials)†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgou-Bourgade, S; Cameron, D; Poortmans, P; Asselain, B; Azria, D; Cardoso, F; A'Hern, R; Bliss, J; Bogaerts, J; Bonnefoi, H; Brain, E; Cardoso, M J; Chibaudel, B; Coleman, R; Cufer, T; Dal Lago, L; Dalenc, F; De Azambuja, E; Debled, M; Delaloge, S; Filleron, T; Gligorov, J; Gutowski, M; Jacot, W; Kirkove, C; MacGrogan, G; Michiels, S; Negreiros, I; Offersen, B V; Penault Llorca, F; Pruneri, G; Roche, H; Russell, N S; Schmitt, F; Servent, V; Thürlimann, B; Untch, M; van der Hage, J A; van Tienhoven, G; Wildiers, H; Yarnold, J; Bonnetain, F; Mathoulin-Pélissier, S; Bellera, C; Dabakuyo-Yonli, T S

    2015-05-01

    Using surrogate end points for overall survival, such as disease-free survival, is increasingly common in randomized controlled trials. However, the definitions of several of these time-to-event (TTE) end points are imprecisely which limits interpretation and cross-trial comparisons. The estimation of treatment effects may be directly affected by the definitions of end points. The DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials) aims to provide recommendations for definitions of TTE end points. We report guidelines for randomized cancer clinical trials (RCTs) in breast cancer. A literature review was carried out to identify TTE end points (primary or secondary) reported in publications of randomized trials or guidelines. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts proposed recommendations for the definitions of these end points based on a validated consensus method that formalize the degree of agreement among experts. Recommended guidelines for the definitions of TTE end points commonly used in RCTs for breast cancer are provided for non-metastatic and metastatic settings. The use of standardized definitions should facilitate comparisons of trial results and improve the quality of trial design and reporting. These guidelines could be of particular interest to those involved in the design, conducting, reporting, or assessment of RCT. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Guidelines for time-to-event end point definitions in sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) trials: results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials)†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellera, C A; Penel, N; Ouali, M; Bonvalot, S; Casali, P G; Nielsen, O S; Delannes, M; Litière, S; Bonnetain, F; Dabakuyo, T S; Benjamin, R S; Blay, J-Y; Bui, B N; Collin, F; Delaney, T F; Duffaud, F; Filleron, T; Fiore, M; Gelderblom, H; George, S; Grimer, R; Grosclaude, P; Gronchi, A; Haas, R; Hohenberger, P; Issels, R; Italiano, A; Jooste, V; Krarup-Hansen, A; Le Péchoux, C; Mussi, C; Oberlin, O; Patel, S; Piperno-Neumann, S; Raut, C; Ray-Coquard, I; Rutkowski, P; Schuetze, S; Sleijfer, S; Stoeckle, E; Van Glabbeke, M; Woll, P; Gourgou-Bourgade, S; Mathoulin-Pélissier, S

    2015-05-01

    The use of potential surrogate end points for overall survival, such as disease-free survival (DFS) or time-to-treatment failure (TTF) is increasingly common in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in cancer. However, the definition of time-to-event (TTE) end points is rarely precise and lacks uniformity across trials. End point definition can impact trial results by affecting estimation of treatment effect and statistical power. The DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End points in CANcer trials) aims to provide recommendations for definitions of TTE end points. We report guidelines for RCT in sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). We first carried out a literature review to identify TTE end points (primary or secondary) reported in publications of RCT. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts proposed recommendations for the definitions of these end points. Recommendations were developed through a validated consensus method formalizing the degree of agreement among experts. Recommended guidelines for the definition of TTE end points commonly used in RCT for sarcomas and GIST are provided for adjuvant and metastatic settings, including DFS, TTF, time to progression and others. Use of standardized definitions should facilitate comparison of trials' results, and improve the quality of trial design and reporting. These guidelines could be of particular interest to research scientists involved in the design, conduct, reporting or assessment of RCT such as investigators, statisticians, reviewers, editors or regulatory authorities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The use of real-time cell analyzer technology in drug discovery: defining optimal cell culture conditions and assay reproducibility with different adherent cellular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzar, Franck A; Tilmant, Karen; Gerets, Helga H; Toussaint, Gaelle; Speeckaert, Sebastien; Hanon, Etienne; Depelchin, Olympe; Dhalluin, Stephane

    2011-07-01

    The use of impedance-based label-free technology applied to drug discovery is nowadays receiving more and more attention. Indeed, such a simple and noninvasive assay that interferes minimally with cell morphology and function allows one to perform kinetic measurements and to obtain information on proliferation, migration, cytotoxicity, and receptor-mediated signaling. The objective of the study was to further assess the usefulness of a real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) platform based on impedance in the context of quality control and data reproducibility. The data indicate that this technology is useful to determine the best coating and cellular density conditions for different adherent cellular models including hepatocytes, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, and hybrid neuroblastoma/neuronal cells. Based on 31 independent experiments, the reproducibility of cell index data generated from HepG2 cells exposed to DMSO and to Triton X-100 was satisfactory, with a coefficient of variation close to 10%. Cell index data were also well reproduced when cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts were exposed to 21 compounds three times (correlation >0.91, p technology appears to be a powerful and reliable tool in drug discovery because of the reasonable throughput, rapid and efficient performance, technical optimization, and cell quality control.

  20. OPTIMASI OLSR ROUTING PROTOCOL PADA JARINGAN WIRELESS MESH DENGAN ADAPTIVE REFRESHING TIME INTERVAL DAN ENHANCE MULTI POINT RELAY SELECTING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faosan Mapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wireless Mesh Network (WMN adalah suatu konektivitas jaringan yang self-organized, self-configured dan multi-hop. Tujuan dari WMN adalah menawarkan pengguna suatu bentuk jaringan nirkabel yang dapat dengan mudah berkomunikasi dengan jaringan konvensional dengan kecepatan tinggi dan dengan cakupan yang lebih luas serta biaya awal yang minimal. Diperlukan suatu desain protokol routing yang efisien untuk WMN yang secara adaptif dapat mendukung mesh routers dan mesh clients. Dalam tulisan ini, diusulkan untuk mengoptimalkan protokol OLSR, yang merupakan protokol routing proaktif. Digunakan heuristik yang meningkatkan protokol OLSR melalui adaptive refreshing time interval dan memperbaiki metode MPR selecting algorithm. Suatu analisa dalam meningkatkan protokol OLSR melalui adaptive refreshing time interval dan memperbaiki algoritma pemilihan MPR menunjukkan kinerja yang signifikan dalam hal throughput jika dibandingkan dengan protokol OLSR yang asli. Akan tetapi, terdapat kenaikan dalam hal delay. Pada simulasi yang dilakukan dapat disimpulkan bahwa OLSR dapat dioptimalkan dengan memodifikasi pemilihan node MPR berdasarkan cost effective dan penyesuaian waktu interval refreshing hello message sesuai dengan keadaan

  1. Glycemic Excursions in Type 1 Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Semiparametric Statistical Approach to Identify Sensitive Time Points during Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmi Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the gestational glycemic profile and identify specific times during pregnancy that variability in glucose levels, measured by change in velocity and acceleration/deceleration of blood glucose fluctuations, is associated with delivery of a large-for-gestational-age (LGA baby, in women with type 1 diabetes. Methods. Retrospective analysis of capillary blood glucose levels measured multiple times daily throughout gestation in women with type 1 diabetes was performed using semiparametric mixed models. Results. Velocity and acceleration/deceleration in glucose levels varied across gestation regardless of delivery outcome. Compared to women delivering LGA babies, those delivering babies appropriate for gestational age exhibited significantly smaller rates of change and less variation in glucose levels between 180 days of gestation and birth. Conclusions. Use of innovative statistical methods enabled detection of gestational intervals in which blood glucose fluctuation parameters might influence the likelihood of delivering LGA baby in mothers with type 1 diabetes. Understanding dynamics and being able to visualize gestational changes in blood glucose are a potentially useful tool to assist care providers in determining the optimal timing to initiate continuous glucose monitoring.

  2. Magnetic field pitch angle and perpendicular velocity measurements from multi-point time-delay estimation of poloidal correlation reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisiazhniuk, D.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Conway, G. D.; Happel, T.; Lebschy, A.; Manz, P.; Nikolaeva, V.; Stroth, U.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-02-01

    In fusion machines, turbulent eddies are expected to be aligned with the direction of the magnetic field lines and to propagate in the perpendicular direction. Time delay measurements of density fluctuations can be used to calculate the magnetic field pitch angle α and perpendicular velocity {{v}\\bot} profiles. The method is applied to poloidal correlation reflectometry installed at ASDEX Upgrade and TEXTOR, which measure density fluctuations from poloidally and toroidally separated antennas. Validation of the method is achieved by comparing the perpendicular velocity (composed of the E× B drift and the phase velocity of turbulence {{v}\\bot}={{v}E× B}+{{v}\\text{ph}} ) with Doppler reflectometry measurements and with neoclassical {{v}E× B} calculations. An important condition for the application of the method is the presence of turbulence with a sufficiently long decorrelation time. It is shown that at the shear layer the decorrelation time is reduced, limiting the application of the method. The magnetic field pitch angle measured by this method shows the expected dependence on the magnetic field, plasma current and radial position. The profile of the pitch angle reproduces the expected shape and values. However, comparison with the equilibrium reconstruction code cliste suggests an additional inclination of turbulent eddies at the pedestal position (2-3°). This additional angle decreases towards the core and at the edge.

  3. Do you see what I hear? Vantage point preference and visual dominance in a time-space synaesthete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarick, Michelle; Stewart, Mark T; Smilek, Daniel; Dixon, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Time-space synaesthetes "see" time units organized in a spatial form. While the structure might be invariant for most synaesthetes, the perspective by which some view their calendar is somewhat flexible. One well-studied synaesthete L adopts different viewpoints for months seen vs. heard. Interestingly, L claims to prefer her auditory perspective, even though the month names are represented visually upside down. To verify this, we used a spatial-cueing task that included audiovisual month cues. These cues were either congruent with L's preferred "auditory" viewpoint (auditory-only and auditory + month inverted) or incongruent (upright visual-only and auditory + month upright). Our prediction was that L would show enhanced cueing effects (larger response time difference between valid and invalid targets) following the audiovisual congruent cues since both elicit the "preferred" auditory perspective. Also, when faced with conflicting cues, we predicted L would choose the preferred auditory perspective over the visual perspective. As we expected, L did show enhanced cueing effects following the audiovisual congruent cues that corresponded with her preferred auditory perspective, but that the visual perspective dominated when L was faced with both viewpoints simultaneously. The results are discussed with relation to the reification hypothesis of sequence space synaesthesia (Eagleman, 2009).

  4. A Field Evaluation of the Time-of-Detection Method to Estimate Population Size and Density for Aural Avian Point Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew W. Alldredge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The time-of-detection method for aural avian point counts is a new method of estimating abundance, allowing for uncertain probability of detection. The method has been specifically designed to allow for variation in singing rates of birds. It involves dividing the time interval of the point count into several subintervals and recording the detection history of the subintervals when each bird sings. The method can be viewed as generating data equivalent to closed capture-recapture information. The method is different from the distance and multiple-observer methods in that it is not required that all the birds sing during the point count. As this method is new and there is some concern as to how well individual birds can be followed, we carried out a field test of the method using simulated known populations of singing birds, using a laptop computer to send signals to audio stations distributed around a point. The system mimics actual aural avian point counts, but also allows us to know the size and spatial distribution of the populations we are sampling. Fifty 8-min point counts (broken into four 2-min intervals using eight species of birds were simulated. Singing rate of an individual bird of a species was simulated following a Markovian process (singing bouts followed by periods of silence, which we felt was more realistic than a truly random process. The main emphasis of our paper is to compare results from species singing at (high and low homogenous rates per interval with those singing at (high and low heterogeneous rates. Population size was estimated accurately for the species simulated, with a high homogeneous probability of singing. Populations of simulated species with lower but homogeneous singing probabilities were somewhat underestimated. Populations of species simulated with heterogeneous singing probabilities were substantially underestimated. Underestimation was caused by both the very low detection probabilities of all distant

  5. Time dependence of the field energy densities surrounding sources: Application to scalar mesons near point sources and to electromagnetic fields near molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persico, F.; Power, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The time dependence of the dressing-undressing process, i.e., the acquiring or losing by a source of a boson field intensity and hence of a field energy density in its neighborhood, is considered by examining some simple soluble models. First, the loss of the virtual field is followed in time when a point source is suddenly decoupled from a neutral scalar meson field. Second, an initially bare point source acquires a virtual meson cloud as the coupling is switched on. The third example is that of an initially bare molecule interacting with the vacuum of the electromagnetic field to acquire a virtual photon cloud. In all three cases the dressing-undressing is shown to take place within an expanding sphere of radius r = ct centered at the source. At each point in space the energy density tends, for large times, to that of the ground state of the total system. Differences in the time dependence of the dressing between the massive scalar field and the massless electromagnetic field are discussed. The results are also briefly discussed in the light of Feinberg's ideas on the nature of half-dressed states in quantum field theory

  6. The unsteady flow of a nanofluid in the stagnation point region of a time-dependent rotating sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvandi Amir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of nanofluid over a time-dependent rotating sphere where the free stream velocity varies continuously with time. The boundary layer equations were normalized via similarity variables and solved numerically. Best accuracy of the results has been obtained for regular fluid with previous studies. The nanofluid is treated as a two-component mixture (base fluid+nanoparticles that incorporates the effects of Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis simultaneously as the two most important mechanisms of slip velocity in laminar flows. Our outcomes indicated that as A and λ increase, surface shear stresses, heat transfer and concentration rates, climb up. Also, Increasing the thermophoresis Nt is found to decrease in the both values of heat transfer and concentration rates. This decrease supresses for higher thermophoresis number. In addition, it was observed that unlike the heat transfer rate, a rise in Brownian motion Nb, leads to an increase in concentration rate.

  7. Best single time point correlations with AUC for cyclosporine and tacrolimus in HIV-infected kidney and liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, Lynda A; Tan-Tam, Clara C; Barin, Burc; Browne, Matt; Wolfe, Alan R; Stock, Peter G; Roland, Michelle; Benet, Leslie Z

    2014-03-27

    Interactions between antiretrovirals (ARVs) and transplant immunosuppressant agents (IS) among HIV-infected transplant recipients may lead to lack of efficacy or toxicity. In transplant recipients not infected with HIV, tacrolimus (TAC) trough levels (C0) or cyclosporine (CsA) drawn at C0 or 2 hours after dosing (C2) correlate with drug exposure (area under the curve [AUC]/dose) and outcomes. Because of ARV-IS interactions in HIV-infected individuals, and the high rate of rejection in these subjects, this study investigated the correlations between IS concentrations and exposure to determine the best method to monitor immunosuppressant levels. This study prospectively studied 50 HIV-infected transplant recipients undergoing kidney or liver transplantation evaluating the pharmacokinetics of the IS in 150 studies over time after transplantation (weeks 2 to 4, 12, 28, 52, and 104). IS levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and AUC calculated using WinNonlin 9.0. Correlation analyses were run on SAS 9.2. CsA concentration at C4 correlated better with AUC than C0 or C2, and over time TAC concentration correlated better at C0 or C2. It is suggested that C0 is acceptable for TAC monitoring, but poor predictability will occur at C0 with CsA. The low correlation of C0 with CsA AUC could be responsible for the higher rejection rates on CsA that has been reported in these subjects.

  8. Advances in Non-Destructive Early Assessment of Fruit Ripeness towards Defining Optimal Time of Harvest and Yield Prediction—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global food security for the increasing world population not only requires increased sustainable production of food but a significant reduction in pre- and post-harvest waste. The timing of when a fruit is harvested is critical for reducing waste along the supply chain and increasing fruit quality for consumers. The early in-field assessment of fruit ripeness and prediction of the harvest date and yield by non-destructive technologies have the potential to revolutionize farming practices and enable the consumer to eat the tastiest and freshest fruit possible. A variety of non-destructive techniques have been applied to estimate the ripeness or maturity but not all of them are applicable for in situ (field or glasshouse assessment. This review focuses on the non-destructive methods which are promising for, or have already been applied to, the pre-harvest in-field measurements including colorimetry, visible imaging, spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Machine learning and regression models used in assessing ripeness are also discussed.

  9. Quantifying [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the arterial wall: the effects of dual time-point imaging and partial volume effect correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, Bjoern A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark); Bashyam, Arjun; Ramachandran, Abhinay; Gholami, Saeid; Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Werner, Tom; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zaidi, Habib [Geneva University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    The human arterial wall is smaller than the spatial resolution of current positron emission tomographs. Therefore, partial volume effects should be considered when quantifying arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. We evaluated the impact of a novel method for partial volume effect (PVE) correction with contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) assistance on quantification of arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at different imaging time-points. Ten subjects were assessed by CECT imaging and dual time-point PET/CT imaging at approximately 60 and 180 min after {sup 18}F-FDG administration. For both time-points, uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG was determined in the aortic wall by calculating the blood pool-corrected maximum standardized uptake value (cSUV{sub MAX}) and cSUV{sub MEAN}. The PVE-corrected SUV{sub MEAN} (pvcSUV{sub MEAN}) was also calculated using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CECT images. Finally, corresponding target-to-background ratios (TBR) were calculated. At 60 min, pvcSUV{sub MEAN} was on average 3.1 times greater than cSUV{sub MAX} (P <.0001) and 8.5 times greater than cSUV{sub MEAN} (P <.0001). At 180 min, pvcSUV{sub MEAN} was on average 2.6 times greater than cSUV{sub MAX} (P <.0001) and 6.6 times greater than cSUV{sub MEAN} (P <.0001). This study demonstrated that CECT-assisted PVE correction significantly influences quantification of arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Therefore, partial volume effects should be considered when quantifying arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake with PET. (orig.)

  10. Real-time computing of the environmental consequences of an atmospheric accidental release of radioactive material: user's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeri, G.; Caracciolo, R.; Dickerson, M.

    1985-07-01

    All calculations of the consequences of an atmospheric release must start with atmospheric dispersion calculations. Time factors make external and inhalation dose estimates of immediate concern closely followed by ground contamination of land, pastures and onch agricultural crops. In general, the difficulties in modeling the source term and atmospheric transport and diffusion account for most of the error in calculating the dose to man. Thus, sophisticated treatment of the dose part of the calculating is not usually justified, though the relative distribution of dose in individual organs may be needed for correct decision marking. This paper emphasizes the atmospheric transport and diffusion part of the dose estimate and relates how this calculation can be used to estimate dose. 12 refs

  11. Applicability of a Single Time Point Strategy for the Prediction of Area Under the Concentration Curve of Linezolid in Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R; Syed, Muzeeb

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Linezolid, a oxazolidinone, was the first in class to be approved for the treatment of bacterial infections arising from both susceptible and resistant strains of Gram-positive bacteria. Since overt exposure of linezolid may precipitate serious toxicity issues......, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may be required in certain situations, especially in patients who are prescribed other co-medications. Methods: Using appropriate oral pharmacokinetic data (single dose and steady state) for linezolid, both maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) versus area under the plasma...... concentration–time curve (AUC) and minimum plasma drug concentration (Cmin) versus AUC relationship was established by linear regression models. The predictions of the AUC values were performed using published mean/median Cmax or Cmin data and appropriate regression lines. The quotient of observed and predicted...

  12. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  13. Time-lapse analysis of methane quantity in Mary Lee group of coal seams using filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area.

  14. Multiple Time-Point 68Ga-PSMA I&T PET/CT for Characterization of Primary Prostate Cancer: Value of Early Dynamic and Delayed Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Sebastian; Mamach, Martin; Wilke, Florian; von Klot, Christoph A; Henkenberens, Christoph; Thackeray, James T; Sohns, Jan M; Geworski, Lilli; Ross, Tobias L; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Christiansen, Hans; Bengel, Frank M; Derlin, Thorsten

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to gain mechanistic insights into prostate cancer biology using dynamic imaging and to evaluate the usefulness of multiple time-point Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) I&T PET/CT for the assessment of primary prostate cancer before prostatectomy. Twenty patients with prostate cancer underwent Ga-PSMA I&T PET/CT before prostatectomy. The PET protocol consisted of early dynamic pelvic imaging, followed by static scans at 60 and 180 minutes postinjection (p.i.). SUVs, time-activity curves, quantitative analysis based on a 2-tissue compartment model, Patlak analysis, histopathology, and Gleason grading were compared between prostate cancer and benign prostate gland. Primary tumors were identified on both early dynamic and delayed imaging in 95% of patients. Tracer uptake was significantly higher in prostate cancer compared with benign prostate tissue at any time point (P ≤ 0.0003) and increased over time. Consequently, the tumor-to-nontumor ratio within the prostate gland improved over time (2.8 at 10 minutes vs 17.1 at 180 minutes p.i.). Tracer uptake at both 60 and 180 minutes p.i. was significantly higher in patients with higher Gleason scores (P dynamic and static delayed Ga-PSMA ligand PET images. The tumor-to-nontumor ratio in the prostate gland improves over time, supporting a role of delayed imaging for optimal visualization of prostate cancer.

  15. Generalized zero point anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose Alexandre; Maia Junior, Adolfo

    1994-01-01

    It is defined Zero point Anomaly (ZPA) as the difference between the Effective Potential (EP) and the Zero point Energy (ZPE). It is shown, for a massive and interacting scalar field that, in very general conditions, the renormalized ZPA vanishes and then the renormalized EP and ZPE coincide. (author). 3 refs

  16. The problem of the prediction of the time from the point of view of the mechanics and the physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerknes, V.

    2000-01-01

    Of being true, like each man that thinks scientifically that the later atmospheric states are developed of the previous, according to physical laws believes, then it can understand each other that the necessary and enough conditions for a rational solution of the problem of predict in meteorology they are these requirements: it is necessary to know with enough precision the state of the atmosphere in a given instant. It is necessary to know with enough precision the laws that govern the evolution of an atmospheric state toward another. The knowledge of the state of the atmosphere in appropriate instants, fixed by general agreement, is the task of the observational meteorology. For the purposes of a rational forecast of the time, the resolution of this task has not been sufficiently complete. There are two particularly sensitive lagoons. In the first place, the stations that contribute to maintain the service meteorological newspaper are located in earth. In the seas that four recruits of the terrestrial surface cover, and that therefore they exercise a rolling influence, observations are not still made in benefit of the service meteorological newspaper. Also, the observations that are processed for the regular services of meteorology only come from the surface of the soil, and it lacks all fact of the state of the superior layers of air. The technical means that will allow us to fill both lagoons are already in our power. With the help of the radiotelegraphy they will be included, in the environment of the stations, the steam ships with fixed routes, which can send meteorological telegrams daily. And with the big progresses of the aeronautical meteorology in the last years, it will be possible to carry out observations of the superior layers, from stations in surface and, on the sea, from stations steering wheels. It is necessary to wait, because that the time this to arrive in that will be able to prepare, either daily or in certain days, of a complete diagnose of

  17. Textural features and SUV-based variables assessed by dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT in locally advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vicente, Ana María; Molina, David; Pérez-Beteta, Julián; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Martínez-González, Alicia; Bueno, Gloria; Tello-Galán, María Jesús; Soriano-Castrejón, Ángel

    2017-12-01

    To study the influence of dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT in textural features and SUV-based variables and their relation among them. Fifty-six patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) were prospectively included. All of them underwent a standard 18F-FDG PET/CT (PET-1) and a delayed acquisition (PET-2). After segmentation, SUV variables (SUVmax, SUVmean, and SUVpeak), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were obtained. Eighteen three-dimensional (3D) textural measures were computed including: run-length matrices (RLM) features, co-occurrence matrices (CM) features, and energies. Differences between all PET-derived variables obtained in PET-1 and PET-2 were studied. Significant differences were found between the SUV-based parameters and MTV obtained in the dual time point PET/CT, with higher values of SUV-based variables and lower MTV in the PET-2 with respect to the PET-1. In relation with the textural parameters obtained in dual time point acquisition, significant differences were found for the short run emphasis, low gray-level run emphasis, short run high gray-level emphasis, run percentage, long run emphasis, gray-level non-uniformity, homogeneity, and dissimilarity. Textural variables showed relations with MTV and TLG. Significant differences of textural features were found in dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT. Thus, a dynamic behavior of metabolic characteristics should be expected, with higher heterogeneity in delayed PET acquisition compared with the standard PET. A greater heterogeneity was found in bigger tumors.

  18. Hypovitamininosis D in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Importance of Vitamin D Supplementation and Measurement Over Different Points of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Ashraf; Kandil, Shaimaa; Boujettif, Khadijah; Fayea, Najwa

    2018-03-01

    This observational retrospective cross-sectional and case-controlled study measures levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-VD) in pediatric cancer survivors at different intervals and assesses the effect of 2 supplementation regimens over a period of 12 months. Sixty-eight patients were included in this quasi-experimental study, of which 32 were boys and 36 were girls. A control group of 30 healthy children were included. It was found that initial 25-OH-VD levels were insufficient (vitamin D during the 12 months in comparison with patients supplemented with 1000 IU/day. Our findings indicate that pediatric cancer survivors who require frequent monitoring of their 25-OH-VD levels yielded better results when supplemented with higher doses of vitamin D over longer periods of time. A course of oral vitamin D supplementation regimen of 50,000 IU/month gave effective results with excellent compliance and no reports of any adverse or harmful effects.

  19. Pb enamel biomarker: Deposition of pre- and postnatal Pb isotope injection in reconstructed time points along rat enamel transect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderknecht, A.L.; Kleinman, M.T.; Ericson, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) as well as other heavy metals in the environment is still a matter of public health concern. The development of the enamel biomarker for heavy metal exposure assessment is designed to improve studies of dose-effect relationships to developmental anomalies, particularly embryonic dysfunctions, and to provide a time-specific recount of past exposures. The work presented in this paper demonstrates maternal transfer across the placental barrier of the enriched isotope 206 Pb tracer to the enamel of the rat pup. Likewise, injections of 204 Pb-enriched tracer in the neonate rat resulted in deposition of the tracer in the enamel histology as measured by secondary ion microprobe spectrometry. Through enamel, we were able to observe biological removal and assimilation of prenatal and postnatal tracers, respectively. This research demonstrates that enamel can be used as a biomarker of exposure to Pb and may illustrate the toxicokinetics of incorporating Pb into fetal and neonatal steady-state system processes. The biomarker technique, when completely developed, may be applied to cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological research

  20. Multiple memory systems, multiple time points: how science can inform treatment to control the expression of unwanted emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Renée M; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Henson, Richard N; Holmes, Emily A

    2018-03-19

    Memories that have strong emotions associated with them are particularly resilient to forgetting. This is not necessarily problematic, however some aspects of memory can be. In particular, the involuntary expression of those memories, e.g. intrusive memories after trauma, are core to certain psychological disorders. Since the beginning of this century, research using animal models shows that it is possible to change the underlying memory, for example by interfering with its consolidation or reconsolidation. While the idea of targeting maladaptive memories is promising for the treatment of stress and anxiety disorders, a direct application of the procedures used in non-human animals to humans in clinical settings is not straightforward. In translational research, more attention needs to be paid to specifying what aspect of memory (i) can be modified and (ii) should be modified. This requires a clear conceptualization of what aspect of memory is being targeted, and how different memory expressions may map onto clinical symptoms. Furthermore, memory processes are dynamic, so procedural details concerning timing are crucial when implementing a treatment and when assessing its effectiveness. To target emotional memory in its full complexity, including its malleability, science cannot rely on a single method, species or paradigm. Rather, a constructive dialogue is needed between multiple levels of research, all the way 'from mice to mental health'.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Of mice and mental health: facilitating dialogue between basic and clinical neuroscientists'. © 2018 The Authors.

  1. Extended Fitts' model of pointing time in eye-gaze input system - Incorporating effects of target shape and movement direction into modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Atsuo; Fukunaga, Daichi

    2018-04-01

    This study attempted to investigate the effects of the target shape and the movement direction on the pointing time using an eye-gaze input system and extend Fitts' model so that these factors are incorporated into the model and the predictive power of Fitts' model is enhanced. The target shape, the target size, the movement distance, and the direction of target presentation were set as within-subject experimental variables. The target shape included: a circle, and rectangles with an aspect ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4. The movement direction included eight directions: upper, lower, left, right, upper left, upper right, lower left, and lower right. On the basis of the data for identifying the effects of the target shape and the movement direction on the pointing time, an attempt was made to develop a generalized and extended Fitts' model that took into account the movement direction and the target shape. As a result, the generalized and extended model was found to fit better to the experimental data, and be more effective for predicting the pointing time for a variety of human-computer interaction (HCI) task using an eye-gaze input system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Property Analysis of the Real-Time Uncalibrated Phase Delay Product Generated by Regional Reference Stations and Its Influence on Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The real-time estimation of the wide-lane and narrow-lane Uncalibrated Phase Delay (UPD of satellites is realized by real-time data received from regional reference station networks; The properties of the real-time UPD product and its influence on real-time precise point positioning ambiguity resolution (RTPPP-AR are experimentally analyzed according to real-time data obtained from the regional Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS network located in Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, etc. The results show that the real-time wide-lane and narrow-lane UPD products differ significantly from each other in time-domain characteristics; the wide-lane UPDs have daily stability, with a change rate of less than 0.1 cycle/day, while the narrow-lane UPDs have short-term stability, with significant change in one day. The UPD products generated by different regional networks have obvious spatial characteristics, thus significantly influencing RTPPP-AR: the adoption of real-time UPD products employing the sparse stations in the regional network for estimation is favorable for improving the regional RTPPP-AR up to 99%; the real-time UPD products of different regional networks slightly influence PPP-AR positioning accuracy. After ambiguities are successfully fixed, the real-time dynamic RTPPP-AR positioning accuracy is better than 3 cm in the plane and 8 cm in the upward direction.

  3. Defining Quantum Control Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable difference between quantum and classical programs is that the control flow of the former can be either classical or quantum. One of the key issues in the theory of quantum programming languages is defining and understanding quantum control flow. A functional language with quantum control flow was defined by Altenkirch and Grattage [\\textit{Proc. LICS'05}, pp. 249-258]. This paper extends their work, and we introduce a general quantum control structure by defining three new quantu...

  4. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  5. Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding across three time points in Bangladesh: an examination of the 2007, 2011 and 2014 Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Sarah R; Sanghvi, Tina

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore predictors of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Bangladesh using data from 2007, 2011 and 2014, specifically focusing on potential reasons why rates of EBF changed over those time periods. Data on mother/infant pairs with infants <6 months of age were examined at the three time points using the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. The EBF prevalence, changes in EBF since the previous survey and determinants of EBF at each time period were examined using t-tests, χ2 and multilevel logistic regression. The prevalence of EBF was 42.5, 65 and 59.4% in 2007, 2011 and 2014, respectively. The age of the child was significantly associated with EBF across all time points. The largest changes in EBF occurred in the 3- to 5-month age group. Predictors of EBF in this specific age group were similar to overall predictors (e.g. age of the child and region). Participation of the mother in household decisions was a significant predictor in 2014. EBF prevalence in Bangladesh increased between 2007 and 2011 and then decreased between 2011 and 2014. The increase in 2011 may have been the result of widespread initiatives to promote EBF in that time frame. Due to the unexplained decrease in EBF between 2011 and 2014, there is still a need for interventions such as peer counselling, antenatal education and community awareness to promote EBF.

  6. Acquisition Cycle Time: Defining the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    development cost and unit procurement cost, relative to the legacy systems that we replace or upgrade. This is not simply inflation or price hikes ; the new...costs, investigation of apparent inequities in Veterans’ Disability Benefit adjudications, and modeling and optimization of resource- constrained

  7. Sodium borocaptate (BSH) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: boron biodistribution at 9 post administration time-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, M.A.; Heber, E.M.; Monti, Hughes A.; Molinari, A.J.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Trivillin, V.A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) depends centrally on boron concentration in tumor and healthy tissue. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as boron carriers for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Given the clinical relevance of sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) as a boron carrier, the aim of the present study was to expand the ongoing BSH biodistribution studies in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. In particular, we studied 3 additional post-administration time-points and increased the sample size corresponding to the time-points evaluated previously, to select more accurately the post-administration time at which neutron irradiation would potentially confer the greatest therapeutic advantage. BSH was dissolved in saline solution in anaerobic conditions to avoid the formation of the dimer BSSB and its oxides which are toxic. The solution was injected intravenously at a dose of 50 mg 10 B/kg (88 mg BSH / kg). Different groups of animals were killed humanely at 7, 8, and 10 h after administration of BSH. The sample size corresponding to the time-points 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 h was increased. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous tissue, normal pouch tissue, cheek mucosa, parotid gland, palate, skin, tongue, spinal cord marrow, brain, liver, kidney, spleen and lung were processed for boron measurement by Optic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron concentration in tumor peaked to 24-34 ppm, 3-10 h post-administration of BSH, with a spread in values that resembled that previously reported in other experimental models and human subjects. The boron concentration ratios tumor/normal pouch tissue and tumor/blood ranged from 1.3 to 1.8. No selective tumor uptake was observed at any of the time points evaluated. The times post-administration of BSH that would be therapeutically most useful would be 5, 7 and 9 h. The

  8. The effect of the vertical part of the path on the real time Feynman rules in finite temperature field theory 2-point functions and vacuum diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelis, F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the contribution of the vertical part of the real time path is studied completely in the case of two points functions and vacuum diagrams. Indeed, this vertical part generally contributes in the calculation of a given graph. Moreover, this contribution is essential in order to have a consistent equilibrium theory: thanks to this contribution, the Green functions are effectively invariant by time translation, as they should be. As a by product, it is shown that the perturbative calculations give a result which does not depend on the initial time t I and final time t F of the path. The property of independence with respect to t I is closely related to the KMS conditions, i.e. to the fact the system is in thermal equilibrium. In the case of two point functions and vacuum diagrams, the contribution of the vertical part can be taken into account by the n(vertical stroke k 0 vertical stroke) prescription in the usual RTF Feynman rules. The extra Feynman rule needed for vacuum diagrams is shown not to be related directly to the contribution of the vertical part of the path. (orig.). With 4 figs

  9. Diagnostic value of ST-segment deviations during cardiac exercise stress testing: Systematic comparison of different ECG leads and time-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelacher, Christian; Wagener, Max; Abächerli, Roger; Honegger, Ursina; Lhasam, Nundsin; Schaerli, Nicolas; Prêtre, Gil; Strebel, Ivo; Twerenbold, Raphael; Boeddinghaus, Jasper; Nestelberger, Thomas; Rubini Giménez, Maria; Hillinger, Petra; Wildi, Karin; Sabti, Zaid; Badertscher, Patrick; Cupa, Janosch; Kozhuharov, Nikola; du Fay de Lavallaz, Jeanne; Freese, Michael; Roux, Isabelle; Lohrmann, Jens; Leber, Remo; Osswald, Stefan; Wild, Damian; Zellweger, Michael J; Mueller, Christian; Reichlin, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    Exercise ECG stress testing is the most widely available method for evaluation of patients with suspected myocardial ischemia. Its major limitation is the relatively poor accuracy of ST-segment changes regarding ischemia detection. Little is known about the optimal method to assess ST-deviations. A total of 1558 consecutive patients undergoing bicycle exercise stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) were enrolled. Presence of inducible myocardial ischemia was adjudicated using MPI results. The diagnostic value of ST-deviations for detection of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was systematically analyzed 1) for each individual lead, 2) at three different intervals after the J-point (J+40ms, J+60ms, J+80ms), and 3) at different time points during the test (baseline, maximal workload, 2min into recovery). Exercise-induced ischemia was detected in 481 (31%) patients. The diagnostic accuracy of ST-deviations was highest at +80ms after the J-point, and at 2min into recovery. At this point, ST-amplitude showed an AUC of 0.63 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) for the best-performing lead I. The combination of ST-amplitude and ST-slope in lead I did not increase the AUC. Lead I reached a sensitivity of 37% and a specificity of 83%, with similar sensitivity to manual ECG analysis (34%, p=0.31) but lower specificity (90%, pST-deviations is highest when evaluated at +80ms after the J-point, and at 2min into recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Terrestrial laser scanning point clouds time series for the monitoring of slope movements: displacement measurement using image correlation and 3D feature tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, Pierrick; Jean-Philippe, Malet; André, Stumpf; Anne, Puissant; Julien, Travelletti

    2016-04-01

    Dense multi-temporal point clouds acquired with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) have proved useful for the study of structure and kinematics of slope movements. Most of the existing deformation analysis methods rely on the use of interpolated data. Approaches that use multiscale image correlation provide a precise and robust estimation of the observed movements; however, for non-rigid motion patterns, these methods tend to underestimate all the components of the movement. Further, for rugged surface topography, interpolated data introduce a bias and a loss of information in some local places where the point cloud information is not sufficiently dense. Those limits can be overcome by using deformation analysis exploiting directly the original 3D point clouds assuming some hypotheses on the deformation (e.g. the classic ICP algorithm requires an initial guess by the user of the expected displacement patterns). The objective of this work is therefore to propose a deformation analysis method applied to a series of 20 3D point clouds covering the period October 2007 - October 2015 at the Super-Sauze landslide (South East French Alps). The dense point clouds have been acquired with a terrestrial long-range Optech ILRIS-3D laser scanning device from the same base station. The time series are analyzed using two approaches: 1) a method of correlation of gradient images, and 2) a method of feature tracking in the raw 3D point clouds. The estimated surface displacements are then compared with GNSS surveys on reference targets. Preliminary results tend to show that the image correlation method provides a good estimation of the displacement fields at first order, but shows limitations such as the inability to track some deformation patterns, and the use of a perspective projection that does not maintain original angles and distances in the correlated images. Results obtained with 3D point clouds comparison algorithms (C2C, ICP, M3C2) bring additional information on the

  11. Limited Sampling Strategy for the Prediction of Area Under the Curve (AUC) of Statins: Reliability of a Single Time Point for AUC Prediction for Pravastatin and Simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, N R

    2016-02-01

    Statins are widely prescribed medicines and are also available in fixed dose combinations with other drugs to treat several chronic ailments. Given the safety issues associated with statins it may be important to assess feasibility of a single time concentration strategy for prediction of exposure (area under the curve; AUC). The peak concentration (Cmax) was used to establish relationship with AUC separately for pravastatin and simvastatin using published pharmacokinetic data. The regression equations generated for statins were used to predict the AUC values from various literature references. The fold difference of the observed divided by predicted values along with correlation coefficient (r) were used to judge the feasibility of the single time point approach. Both pravastatin and simvastatin showed excellent correlation of Cmax vs. AUC values with r value ≥ 0.9638 (pAUC predictions and >81% of the predicted values were in a narrower range of >0.75-fold but AUC values showed excellent correlation for pravastatin (r=0.9708, n=115; pAUC predictions. On the basis of the present work, it is feasible to develop a single concentration time point strategy that coincides with Cmax occurrence for both pravastatin and simvastatin from a therapeutic drug monitoring perspective. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  13. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... weight for a given height is described as overweight or obese. Body Mass Index, or BMI, is ...

  14. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): For women, low-risk drinking is defined ...

  15. The Clinical Role of Dual-Time-Point {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in Differential Diagnosis of the Thyroid Incidentaloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sinae; Park, Taegyu; Park, Soyeon; Pahk, Kisoo; Rhee, Seunghong; Cho, Jaehyuk; Jeong, Eugene; Kim, Sungeun; Choe, Jae Gol [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Thyroid incidentalomas are common findings during imaging studies including {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for cancer evaluation. Although the overall incidence of incidental thyroid uptake detected on PET imaging is low, clinical attention should be warranted owing to the high incidence of harboring primary thyroid malignancy.We retrospectively reviewed 2,368 dual-time-point {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT cases that were undertaken for cancer evaluation from November 2007 to February 2009, to determine the clinical impact of dual-time-point imaging in the differential diagnosis of thyroid incidentalomas. Focal thyroid uptake was identified in 64 PET cases and final diagnosis was clarified with cytology/histology in a total of 27 patients with {sup 18}F-FDG-avid incidental thyroid lesion. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the initial image (SUV1) and SUVmax of the delayed image (SUV2) were determined, and the retention index (RI) was calculated by dividing the difference between SUV2 and SUV1 by SUV1 (i. e., RI=[SUV2-SUV1]/SUV1Χ100). These indices were compared between patient groups that were proven to have pathologically benign or malignant thyroid lesions. There was no statistically significant difference in SUV1 between benign and malignant lesions. SUV2 and RI of the malignant lesions were significantly higher than the benign lesions. The areas under the ROC curves showed that SUV2 and RI have the ability to discriminate between benign and malignant thyroid lesions. The predictability of dual-time-point PET parameters for thyroid malignancy was assessed by ROC curve analyses. When SUV2 of 3.9 was used as cut-off threshold, malignancy on the pathology could be predicted with a sensitivity of 87.5 % and specificity of 75 %. A thyroid lesion that shows RI greater than 12.5 % could be expected to be malignant (sensitivity 88.9 %, specificity 66.3 %). All malignant lesions showed an

  16. Study of thermal behavior of vitamin D3 by pyrolysis-GC-MS in combination with boiling point-retention time correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu'an; Liu, Baoxia; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Rongjie; Xie, Bing

    2005-01-01

    The thermal behavior of vitamin D3 was studied based on pyrolysis-GC-MS technique. It was pyrolyzed at 600 degrees C, 750 degrees C, 900 degrees C, respectively. The pyrolysis product were separated With an HP-5 column and identified by the NIST mass spectral search program in combination with the correlation of boiling point and retention time (BP-RT). There are totally 50 components, including mono aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were determined. It is shown that the contents of the PAHs are increasing with the increasing of the pyrolysis temperature. The contents of the determined components vary from 0.04% to 37.08%.

  17. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  18. Digital Investigations of AN Archaeological Smart Point Cloud: a Real Time Web-Based Platform to Manage the Visualisation of Semantical Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Neuville, R.; Hallot, P.; Van Wersch, L.; Luczfalvy Jancsó, A.; Billen, R.

    2017-05-01

    While virtual copies of the real world tend to be created faster than ever through point clouds and derivatives, their working proficiency by all professionals' demands adapted tools to facilitate knowledge dissemination. Digital investigations are changing the way cultural heritage researchers, archaeologists, and curators work and collaborate to progressively aggregate expertise through one common platform. In this paper, we present a web application in a WebGL framework accessible on any HTML5-compatible browser. It allows real time point cloud exploration of the mosaics in the Oratory of Germigny-des-Prés, and emphasises the ease of use as well as performances. Our reasoning engine is constructed over a semantically rich point cloud data structure, where metadata has been injected a priori. We developed a tool that directly allows semantic extraction and visualisation of pertinent information for the end users. It leads to efficient communication between actors by proposing optimal 3D viewpoints as a basis on which interactions can grow.

  19. A physical model study of the travel times and reflection points of SH-waves reflected from transversely isotropic media with tilted symmetry axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Chung; Chang, Young-Fo; Chang, Chih-Hsiung; Chung, Chia-Lung

    2012-05-01

    In reflection seismology, detailed knowledge of how seismic waves propagate in anisotropic media is important for locating reservoirs accurately. The SH-wave possesses a pure mode polarization which does not convert to P- and SV-waves when reflecting from a horizontal interface, and vice versa. The simplicity of the SH-wave thus provides an easy way to view the details of SH-wave propagation in anisotropic media. In this study, we attempt to inspect the theoretical reflection moveouts of SH-waves reflected from transversely isotropic (TI) layers with tilted symmetry axes and to verify the reflection point, which could be shifted away from the common midpoint (CMP), by numerical calculations and physical modelling. In travel time-offset analyses, the moveout curves of SH-waves reflected from horizontal TI media (TIM) with different tilted angles of symmetry axes are computed by the TI modified hyperbolic equation and Fermat's principle, respectively. It turns out that both the computed moveout curves are similar and fit well to the observed physical data. The reflection points of SH-waves for a CMP gather computed by Fermat's principle show that they are close to the CMP for TIM with the vertical and horizontal symmetry axes, but they shift away from the CMP for the other tilted angles of symmetry axes. The shifts of the reflection points of the SH-waves from the CMP were verified by physical modelling.

  20. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  1. A physical model study of the travel times and conversion point locations of P-SV converted waves in vertical transversely isotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C.

    2013-12-01

    In exploration seismology, subsurface medium commonly exhibits anisotropy, characterized by a vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) model. Due to the need of exploring small reservoirs in complex structures, the seismic exploration is extended to deal with anisotropic media. The P-S converted wave seismic exploration is a relatively inexpensive, broadly applicable, and effective way to obtain the S-wave information of the medium. In anisotropic traveltime analysis, the moveout curve of horizontal P-SV event can help to determine the ratio of the P- and SV-wave vertical velocities, the normal moveout (NMO) velocity of SV-waves, and the anisotropy parameters. The P-SV conversion point (CP) location is of great importance to P-SV data binning, NMO corrections and common conversion point (CCP) stacking, and the anisotropy has a more significant effect on the conversion point location than on the moveout. In this study, we attempt to inspect the theoretical non-hyperbolic moveout and CP equations for the P-SV waves reflected from a VTI layer by numerical calculations and physical modeling. We are also interested in visualizing the variations of the conversion point locations from a designed VTI medium. In traveltime analysis, the theoretical moveout curve is accurate up to offsets about one and a half times the reflector depth (x/z=1.5). However, the moveout curve computed by Fermat's principle fits well to the physical data. The CP locations of P-SV waves are similar to those calculated by Fermat's principle and theoretical CP equation, which are verified by the physical modeling.

  2. Dual-time-point {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging for diagnosis of disease type and disease activity in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Yukihiro; Demura, Yoshiki; Ishizaki, Takeshi; Ameshima, Shingo [University of Fukui, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yoshida-gun, Fukui (Japan); Miyamori, Isamu [University of Fukui, Third Department of Internal Medicine, Yoshida-gun, Fukui (Japan); Saito, Yuji [Fujita Health University, Division of Respirology and Allergology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi (Japan); Tsuchida, Tatsuro [University of Fukui, Department of Radiology, Yoshida-gun, Fukui (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Okazawa, Hidehiko [University of Fukui, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Yoshida-gun, Fukui (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Individual clinical courses of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) are variable and difficult to predict because the pathology and disease activity are contingent, and chest computed tomography (CT) provides little information about disease activity. In this study, we applied dual-time-point [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), commonly used for diagnosis of malignant tumours, to the differential diagnosis and prediction of disease progression in IIP patients. Fifty patients with IIP, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, n = 21), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, n = 18) and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP, n = 11), underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET examinations at two time points: scan 1 at 60 min (early imaging) and scan 2 at 180 min (delayed imaging) after {sup 18}F-FDG injection. The standardized uptake values (SUV) at the two points and the retention index (RI-SUV) calculated from them were evaluated and compared with chest CT findings, disease progression and disease types. To evaluate short-term disease progression, all patients were examined by pulmonary function test every 3 months for 1 year after {sup 18}F-FDG PET scanning. The early SUV for COP (2.47 {+-} 0.74) was significantly higher than that for IPF (0.99 {+-} 0.29, p = 0.0002) or NSIP (1.22 {+-} 0.44, p= 0.0025). When an early SUV cut-off value of 1.5 and greater was used to distinguish COP from IPF and NSIP, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 90.9, 94.3 and 93.5%, respectively. The RI-SUV for IPF and NSIP lesions was significantly greater in patients with deteriorated pulmonary function after 1 year of follow-up (progressive group, 13.0 {+-} 8.9%) than in cases without deterioration during the 1-year observation period (stable group, -16.8 {+-} 5.9%, p < 0.0001). However, the early SUV for all IIP types provided no additional information of disease progression. When an RI-SUV cut-off value of 0% and greater was

  3. Real-time simulation of response to load variation for a ship reactor based on point-reactor double regions and lumped parameter model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qiao; Zhang De [Department of Nuclear Energy Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China); Chen Wenzhen, E-mail: Cwz2@21cn.com [Department of Nuclear Energy Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China); Chen Zhiyun [Department of Nuclear Energy Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > We calculate the variation of main parameters of the reactor core by the Simulink. > The Simulink calculation software (SCS) can deal well with the stiff problem. > The high calculation precision is reached with less time, and the results can be easily displayed. > The quick calculation of ship reactor transient can be achieved by this method. - Abstract: Based on the point-reactor double regions and lumped parameter model, while the nuclear power plant second loop load is increased or decreased quickly, the Simulink calculation software (SCS) is adopted to calculate the variation of main physical and thermal-hydraulic parameters of the reactor core. The calculation results are compared with those of three-dimensional simulation program. It is indicated that the SCS can deal well with the stiff problem of the point-reactor kinetics equations and the coupled problem of neutronics and thermal-hydraulics. The high calculation precision can be reached with less time, and the quick calculation of parameters of response to load disturbance for the ship reactor can be achieved. The clear image of the calculation results can also be displayed quickly by the SCS, which is very significant and important to guarantee the reactor safety operation.

  4. A systematic review of near real-time and point-of-care clinical decision support in anesthesia information management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpao, Allan F; Tan, Jonathan M; Lingappan, Arul M; Gálvez, Jorge A; Morgan, Sherry E; Krall, Michael A

    2017-10-01

    Anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) are sophisticated hardware and software technology solutions that can provide electronic feedback to anesthesia providers. This feedback can be tailored to provide clinical decision support (CDS) to aid clinicians with patient care processes, documentation compliance, and resource utilization. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles on near real-time and point-of-care CDS within AIMS using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols. Studies were identified by searches of the electronic databases Medline and EMBASE. Two reviewers screened studies based on title, abstract, and full text. Studies that were similar in intervention and desired outcome were grouped into CDS categories. Three reviewers graded the evidence within each category. The final analysis included 25 articles on CDS as implemented within AIMS. CDS categories included perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, post-operative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis, vital sign monitors and alarms, glucose management, blood pressure management, ventilator management, clinical documentation, and resource utilization. Of these categories, the reviewers graded perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis and clinical documentation as having strong evidence per the peer reviewed literature. There is strong evidence for the inclusion of near real-time and point-of-care CDS in AIMS to enhance compliance with perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis and clinical documentation. Additional research is needed in many other areas of AIMS-based CDS.

  5. Dual time point 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET/CT: nodal staging in locally advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vicente, A M; Soriano Castrejón, A; Cruz Mora, M Á; Ortega Ruiperez, C; Espinosa Aunión, R; León Martín, A; González Ageitos, A; Van Gómez López, O

    2014-01-01

    To assess dual time point 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (18)(F)FDG PET-CT accuracy in nodal staging and in detection of extra-axillary involvement. Dual time point [(18)F] FDG PET/CT scan was performed in 75 patients. Visual and semiquantitative assessment of lymph nodes was performed. Semiquantitative measurement of SUV and ROC-analysis were carried out to calculate SUV(max) cut-off value with the best diagnostic performance. Axillary and extra-axillary lymph node chains were evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity of visual assessment was 87.3% and 75%, respectively. SUV(max) values with the best sensitivity were 0.90 and 0.95 for early and delayed PET, respectively. SUV(max) values with the best specificity were 1.95 and 2.75, respectively. Extra-axillary lymph node involvement was detected in 26.7%. FDG PET/CT detected extra-axillary lymph node involvement in one-fourth of the patients. Semiquantitative lymph node analysis did not show any advantage over the visual evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. Analytical representation for solution of the neutron point kinetics equation with time-dependent reactivity and free of the stiffness character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Milena Wollmann da

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report a genuine analytical representation for the solution of the neutron point kinetics equation free of the stiffness character, assuming that the reactivity is a continuous and sectionally continuous function of time. To this end, we initially cast the point kinetics equation in a first order linear differential equation. Next, we split the corresponding matrix as a sum of a diagonal matrix with a matrix, whose components contain the off-diagonal elements. Next, expanding the neutron density and the delayed neutron precursors concentrations in a truncated series, and replacing these expansions in the matrix equation, we come out with an equation, which allows to construct a recursive system, a first order matrix differential equation with source. The fundamental characteristic of this system relies on the fact that the corresponding matrix is diagonal, meanwhile the source term is written in terms of the matrix with the off-diagonal components. Further, the first equation of the recursive system has no source and satisfies the initial conditions. On the other hand, the remaining equations satisfy the null initial condition. Due to the diagonal feature of the matrix, we attain analytical solutions for these recursive equations. We also mention that we evaluate the results for any time value, without the analytical continuity because the purposed solution is free on the stiffness character. Finally, we present numerical simulations and comparisons against literature results, considering specific the applications for the following reactivity functions: constant, step, ramp, and sine. (author)

  7. A Calibrated Test-Set for Measurement of Access-Point Time Specifications in Hybrid Wired/Wireless Industrial Communication †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Tramarin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In factory automation and process control systems, hybrid wired/wireless networks are often deployed to connect devices of difficult reachability such as those mounted on mobile equipment. A widespread implementation of these networks makes use of Access Points (APs to implement wireless extensions of Real-Time Ethernet (RTE networks via the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN. Unfortunately, APs may introduce random delays in frame forwarding, mainly related to their internal behavior (e.g., queue management, processing times, that clearly impact the overall worst case execution time of real-time tasks involved in industrial process control systems. As a consequence, the knowledge of such delays becomes a crucial design parameter, and their estimation is definitely of utter importance. In this scenario, the paper presents an original and effective method to measure the aforementioned delays introduced by APs, exploiting a hybrid loop-back link and a simple, yet accurate set-up with moderate instrumentation requirements. The proposed method, which requires an initial calibration phase by means of a reference AP, has been successfully tested on some commercial APs to prove its effectiveness. The proposed measurement procedure is proven to be general and, as such, can be profitably adopted in even different scenarios.

  8. Cardiac EASE (Ensuring Access and Speedy Evaluation) – the impact of a single-point-of-entry multidisciplinary outpatient cardiology consultation program on wait times in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungard, Tammy J; Smigorowsky, Marcie J; Lalonde, Lucille D; Hogan, Terry; Doliszny, Katharine M; Gebreyesus, Ghirmay; Garg, Sipi; Archer, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Universal access to health care is valued in Canada but increasing wait times for services (eg, cardiology consultation) raise safety questions. Observations suggest that deficiencies in the process of care contribute to wait times. Consequently, an outpatient clinic was designed for Ensuring Access and Speedy Evaluation (Cardiac EASE) in a university group practice, providing cardiac consultative services for northern Alberta. Cardiac EASE has two components: a single-point-of-entry intake service (prospective testing using physician-approved algorithms and previsit triage) and a multidisciplinary clinic (staffed by cardiologists, nurse practitioners and doctoral-trained pharmacists). OBJECTIVES: It was hypothesized that Cardiac EASE would reduce the time to initial consultation and a definitive diagnosis, and also increase the referral capacity. METHODS: The primary and secondary outcomes were time from referral to initial consultation, and time to achieve a definitive diagnosis and management plan, respectively. A conventionally managed historical control group (three-month pre-EASE period in 2003) was compared with the EASE group (2004 to 2006). The conventional referral mechanism continued concurrently with EASE. RESULTS: A comparison between pre-EASE (n=311) and EASE (n=3096) revealed no difference in the mean (± SD) age (60±16 years), sex (55% and 52% men, respectively) or reason for referral, including chest pain (31% and 40%, respectively) and arrhythmia (27% and 29%, respectively). Cardiac EASE reduced the time to initial cardiac consultation (from 71±45 days to 33±19 days) and time to a definitive diagnosis (from 120±86 days to 51±58 days) (P<0.0001). The annual number of new referrals increased from 1512 in 2002 to 2574 in 2006 due to growth in the Cardiac EASE clinic. The number of patients seen through the conventional referral mechanism and their wait times remained constant during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac EASE reduced

  9. The dynamics of smoking-related disturbed methylation: a two time-point study of methylation change in smokers, non-smokers and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rory; Wahl, Simone; Pfeiffer, Liliane; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K; Kunze, Sonja; Kretschmer, Anja; Reischl, Eva; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2017-10-18

    The evidence for epigenome-wide associations between smoking and DNA methylation continues to grow through cross-sectional studies. However, few large-scale investigations have explored the associations using observations for individuals at multiple time-points. Here, through the use of the Illumina 450K BeadChip and data collected at two time-points separated by approximately 7 years, we investigate changes in methylation over time associated with quitting smoking or remaining a former smoker, and those associated with continued smoking. Our results indicate that after quitting smoking the most rapid reversion of altered methylation occurs within the first two decades, with reversion rates related to the initial differences in methylation. For 52 CpG sites, the change in methylation from baseline to follow-up is significantly different for former smokers relative to the change for never smokers (lowest p-value 3.61 x 10 -39 for cg26703534, gene AHRR). Most of these sites' respective regions have been previously implicated in smoking-associated diseases. Despite the early rapid change, dynamism of methylation appears greater in former smokers vs never smokers even four decades after cessation. Furthermore, our study reveals the heterogeneous effect of continued smoking: the methylation levels of some loci further diverge between smokers and non-smokers, while others re-approach. Though intensity of smoking habit appears more significant than duration, results remain inconclusive. This study improves the understanding of the dynamic link between cigarette smoking and methylation, revealing the continued fluctuation of methylation levels decades after smoking cessation and demonstrating that continuing smoking can have an array of effects. The results can facilitate insights into the molecular mechanisms behind smoking-induced disturbed methylation, improving the possibility for development of biomarkers of past smoking behavior and increasing the understanding of

  10. Time-Lapse Analysis of Methane Quantity in the Mary Lee Group of Coal Seams Using Filter-Based Multiple-Point Geostatistical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A

    2013-08-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area. The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition

  11. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  12. Modal Logics and Definability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusisto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research into the mathematical foundations of modal logic has become increasingly popular. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that modal logic seems to adapt well to the requirements of a wide range of different fields of application. This paper is a summary of some of the author’s contributions to the understanding of modal definability theory.

  13. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  14. Software Defined Coded Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Carla; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Palazzo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    the quality of each link and even across neighbouring links and using simulations to show that an additional reduction of packet transmission in the order of 40% is possible. Second, to advocate for the use of network coding (NC) jointly with software defined networking (SDN) providing an implementation...

  15. Defining depth of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S L; Stanski, D R

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, drawn largely from the synthesis of material that we first presented in the sixth edition of Miller's Anesthesia, Chap 31 (Stanski and Shafer 2005; used by permission of the publisher), we have defined anesthetic depth as the probability of non-response to stimulation, calibrated against the strength of the stimulus, the difficulty of suppressing the response, and the drug-induced probability of non-responsiveness at defined effect site concentrations. This definition requires measurement of multiple different stimuli and responses at well-defined drug concentrations. There is no one stimulus and response measurement that will capture depth of anesthesia in a clinically or scientifically meaningful manner. The "clinical art" of anesthesia requires calibration of these observations of stimuli and responses (verbal responses, movement, tachycardia) against the dose and concentration of anesthetic drugs used to reduce the probability of response, constantly adjusting the administered dose to achieve the desired anesthetic depth. In our definition of "depth of anesthesia" we define the need for two components to create the anesthetic state: hypnosis created with drugs such as propofol or the inhalational anesthetics and analgesia created with the opioids or nitrous oxide. We demonstrate the scientific evidence that profound degrees of hypnosis in the absence of analgesia will not prevent the hemodynamic responses to profoundly noxious stimuli. Also, profound degrees of analgesia do not guarantee unconsciousness. However, the combination of hypnosis and analgesia suppresses hemodynamic response to noxious stimuli and guarantees unconsciousness.

  16. Defining and classifying syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Roland D.; Wieling, Wouter; Kaufmann, Horacio; van Dijk, Gert

    2004-01-01

    There is no widely adopted definition or classification of syncope and related disorders. This lack of uniformity harms patient care, research, and medical education. In this article, syncope is defined as a form of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Differences

  17. A Walnut-Enriched Diet Reduces Lipids in Healthy Caucasian Subjects, Independent of Recommended Macronutrient Replacement and Time Point of Consumption: a Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Charlotte; Rossmeier, Andreas; Lechner, Katharina; Wu, Liya; Waldmann, Elisa; Stark, Renée G; Altenhofer, Julia; Henze, Kerstin; Parhofer, Klaus G

    2017-10-06

    Studies indicate a positive association between walnut intake and improvements in plasma lipids. We evaluated the effect of an isocaloric replacement of macronutrients with walnuts and the time point of consumption on plasma lipids. We included 194 healthy subjects (134 females, age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 25.1 ± 4.0 kg/m²) in a randomized, controlled, prospective, cross-over study. Following a nut-free run-in period, subjects were randomized to two diet phases (8 weeks each). Ninety-six subjects first followed a walnut-enriched diet (43 g walnuts/day) and then switched to a nut-free diet. Ninety-eight subjects followed the diets in reverse order. Subjects were also randomized to either reduce carbohydrates ( n = 62), fat ( n = 65), or both ( n = 67) during the walnut diet, and instructed to consume walnuts either as a meal or as a snack. The walnut diet resulted in a significant reduction in fasting cholesterol (walnut vs. -8.5 ± 37.2 vs. -1.1 ± 35.4 mg/dL; p = 0.002), non-HDL cholesterol (-10.3 ± 35.5 vs. -1.4 ± 33.1 mg/dL; p ≤ 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (-7.4 ± 32.4 vs. -1.7 ± 29.7 mg/dL; p = 0.029), triglycerides (-5.0 ± 47.5 vs. 3.7 ± 48.5 mg/dL; p = 0.015) and apoB (-6.7 ± 22.4 vs. -0.5 ± 37.7; p ≤ 0.001), while HDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) did not change significantly. Neither macronutrient replacement nor time point of consumption significantly affected the effect of walnuts on lipids. Thus, 43 g walnuts/d improved the lipid profile independent of the recommended macronutrient replacement and the time point of consumption.

  18. An Estimation of the Likelihood of Significant Eruptions During 2000-2009 Using Poisson Statistics on Two-Point Moving Averages of the Volcanic Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1750, the number of cataclysmic volcanic eruptions (volcanic explosivity index (VEI)>=4) per decade spans 2-11, with 96 percent located in the tropics and extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere. A two-point moving average of the volcanic time series has higher values since the 1860's than before, being 8.00 in the 1910's (the highest value) and 6.50 in the 1980's, the highest since the 1910's peak. Because of the usual behavior of the first difference of the two-point moving averages, one infers that its value for the 1990's will measure approximately 6.50 +/- 1, implying that approximately 7 +/- 4 cataclysmic volcanic eruptions should be expected during the present decade (2000-2009). Because cataclysmic volcanic eruptions (especially those having VEI>=5) nearly always have been associated with short-term episodes of global cooling, the occurrence of even one might confuse our ability to assess the effects of global warming. Poisson probability distributions reveal that the probability of one or more events with a VEI>=4 within the next ten years is >99 percent. It is approximately 49 percent for an event with a VEI>=5, and 18 percent for an event with a VEI>=6. Hence, the likelihood that a climatically significant volcanic eruption will occur within the next ten years appears reasonably high.

  19. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  1. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  2. Are self-report measures able to define individuals as physically active or inactive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steene-Johannessen, J.; Anderssen, S.A.; Ploeg, H.P. van der; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Donnelly, A.E.; Brage, S.; Ekelund, U.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Methods: Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in

  3. Assessing the Influence of Land Use and Land Cover Datasets with Different Points in Time and Levels of Detail on Watershed Modeling in the North River Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC information is an important component influencing watershed modeling with regards to hydrology and water quality in the river basin. In this study, the sensitivity of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model to LULC datasets with three points in time and three levels of detail was assessed in a coastal subtropical watershed located in Southeast China. The results showed good agreement between observed and simulated values for both monthly and daily streamflow and monthly NH4+-N and TP loads. Three LULC datasets in 2002, 2007 and 2010 had relatively little influence on simulated monthly and daily streamflow, whereas they exhibited greater effects on simulated monthly NH4+-N and TP loads. When using the two LULC datasets in 2007 and 2010 compared with that in 2002, the relative differences in predicted monthly NH4+-N and TP loads were −11.0 to −7.8% and −4.8 to −9.0%, respectively. There were no significant differences in simulated monthly and daily streamflow when using the three LULC datasets with ten, five and three categories. When using LULC datasets from ten categories compared to five and three categories, the relative differences in predicted monthly NH4+-N and TP loads were −6.6 to −6.5% and −13.3 to −7.3%, respectively. Overall, the sensitivity of the SWAT model to LULC datasets with different points in time and levels of detail was lower in monthly and daily streamflow simulation than in monthly NH4+-N and TP loads prediction. This research provided helpful insights into the influence of LULC datasets on watershed modeling.

  4. Keratocyte apoptosis and not myofibroblast differentiation mark the graft/host interface at early time-points post-DSAEK in a cat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Weis

    Full Text Available To evaluate myofibroblast differentiation as an etiology of haze at the graft-host interface in a cat model of Descemet's Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK.DSAEK was performed on 10 eyes of 5 adult domestic short-hair cats. In vivo corneal imaging with slit lamp, confocal, and optical coherence tomography (OCT were performed twice weekly. Cats were sacrificed and corneas harvested 4 hours, and 2, 4, 6, and 9 days post-DSAEK. Corneal sections were stained with the TUNEL method and immunohistochemistry was performed for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and fibronectin with DAPI counterstain.At all in vivo imaging time-points, corneal OCT revealed an increase in backscatter of light and confocal imaging revealed an acellular zone at the graft-host interface. At all post-mortem time-points, immunohistochemistry revealed a complete absence of α-SMA staining at the graft-host interface. At 4 hours, extracellular fibronectin staining was identified along the graft-host interface and both fibronectin and TUNEL assay were positive within adjacent cells extending into the host stroma. By day 2, fibronectin and TUNEL staining diminished and a distinct acellular zone was present in the region of previously TUNEL-positive cells.OCT imaging consistently showed increased reflectivity at the graft-host interface in cat corneas in the days post-DSAEK. This was not associated with myofibroblast differentiation at the graft-host interface, but rather with apoptosis and the development of a subsequent acellular zone. The roles of extracellular matrix changes and keratocyte cell death and repopulation should be investigated further as potential contributors to the interface optical changes.

  5. Relationships between Endogenous Plasma Biomarkers of Constitutive Cytochrome P450 3A Activity and Single-Time-Point Oral Midazolam Microdose Phenotype in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Sarah J; Beaton, Melanie D; Choi, Yun-Hee; Dresser, George K; Gryn, Steven E; Kim, Richard B; Tirona, Rommel G

    2016-04-01

    Due to high basal interindividual variation in cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity and susceptibility to drug interactions, there has been interest in the application of efficient probe drug phenotyping strategies, as well as endogenous biomarkers for assessment of in vivo CYP3A activity. The biomarkers 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4βHC) and 6β-hydroxycortisol (6βHCL) are sensitive to CYP3A induction and inhibition. However, their utility for the assessment of constitutive CYP3A activity remains uncertain. We investigated whether endogenous plasma biomarkers (4βHC and 6βHCL) are associated with basal CYP3A metabolic activity in healthy subjects assessed by a convenient single-time-point oral midazolam (MDZ) phenotyping strategy. Plasma 4βHC and 6βHCL metabolic ratios (MRs) were analysed in 51 healthy adult participants. CYP3A activity was determined after administration of an oral MDZ microdose (100 μg). Simple linear and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess relationships between MDZ oral clearance, biomarkers and subject covariates. Among study subjects, basal MDZ oral clearance, 4βHC and 6βHCL MRs ranged 6.5-, 10- and 13-fold, respectively. Participant age and alcohol consumption were negatively associated with MDZ oral clearance (p = 0.03 and p = 0.045, respectively), while weight and female sex were associated with lower plasma 4βHC MR (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.032, respectively). Neither 4βHC nor 6βHCL MRs were associated with MDZ oral clearance. Plasma 4βHC and 6βHCL MRs do not relate to MDZ single-time-point metabolic phenotype in the assessment of constitutive CYP3A activity among healthy individuals. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  6. The time point of β-catenin knockout in hepatocytes determines their response to xenobiotic activation of the constitutive androstane receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzenberg, Katrin; Singh, Yasmin; Braeuning, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) controls the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and regulates hepatocyte proliferation. Studies with transgenic mice with an early postnatal conditional hepatocyte-specific knockout of the β-catenin gene Ctnnb1 revealed that β-catenin deficiency decreases the magnitude of induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes by CAR activators, abrogates zonal differences in the hepatocytes’ susceptibility to these compounds, and impacts on hepatocyte proliferation. These data, however, do not allow distinguishing between effects caused by β-catenin deficiency during postnatal liver development and acute effects of β-catenin deficiency in the adult animal at the time point of CAR activation. Therefore, CAR activation was now studied in a different mouse model allowing for the hepatocyte-specific knockout of β-catenin in adult mice. Treatment of these mice with 3 mg/kg body weight of the model CAR activator 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) confirmed previous findings related to the coordinate regulation of drug metabolism by β-catenin and CAR. More importantly, the present study clarified that the impact of β-catenin signaling on CAR-mediated enzyme induction in the liver is not merely due to developmental defects caused by a postnatal lack of β-catenin, but depends on the presence of β-catenin at the time point of xenobiotic treatment. The study also revealed interesting differences between the two mouse models: hepatic zonation of TCPOBOP-dependent induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes was restored in mice with late knockout of β-catenin, and the strong proliferative response of female mice was exclusively abolished when using animals with a late β-catenin knockout. This suggests a β-catenin-dependent postnatal priming of hepatocytes during postnatal liver development, later affecting the proliferative response of adult animals to CAR-activating xenobiotics

  7. Optimal time-point for 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT imaging in assessment of prostate cancer: feasibility of sterile cold-kit tracer preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Mohsen; Paymani, Zeinab; Brilhante, Joana; Geinitz, Hans; Gehring, Daniela; Leopoldseder, Thomas; Wouters, Ludovic; Pirich, Christian; Loidl, Wolfgang; Langsteger, Werner

    2018-07-01

    In this prospective study, we evaluated the optimal time-point for 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT acquisition in the assessment of prostate cancer. We also examined, for the first time the feasibility of tracer production using a PSMA-11 sterile cold-kit in the clinical workflow of PET/CT centres. Fifty prostate cancer patients (25 staging, 25 biochemical recurrence) were enrolled in this study. All patients received an intravenous dose of 2.0 MBq/kg body weight 68 Ga-PSMA-11 prepared using a sterile cold kit (ANMI SA, Liege, Belgium), followed by an early (20 min after injection) semi-whole-body PET/CT scan and a standard-delay (100 min after injection) abdominopelvic PET/CT scan. The detection rates with 68 Ga-PSMA-11 were compared between the two acquisitions. The pattern of physiological background activity and tumour to background ratio were also analysed. The total preparation time was reduced to 5 min using the PSMA-11 sterile cold kit, which improved the final radionuclide activity by about 30% per single 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator elution. Overall, 158 pathological lesions were analysed in 45 patients (90%) suggestive of malignancy on both (early and standard-delay) 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT images. There was a significant (p PET/CT imaging seems to provide a detection rate comparable with that of standard-delay imaging. Furthermore, the shorter preparation time using the 68 Ga-PSMA-11 sterile cold kit and promising value of early PET/CT scanning could allow tailoring of imaging protocols which may reduce the costs and improve the time efficiency in PET/CT centres.

  8. Real-Time Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Float-Point Imaging System Using Optimized Mapping Methodology and a Multi-Node Parallel Accelerating Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingyi; Chen, Liang; Yu, Wenyue; Xie, Yizhuang; Bian, Mingming; Zhang, Qingjun; Pang, Long

    2018-01-01

    With the development of satellite load technology and very large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit technology, on-board real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging systems have facilitated rapid response to disasters. A key goal of the on-board SAR imaging system design is to achieve high real-time processing performance under severe size, weight, and power consumption constraints. This paper presents a multi-node prototype system for real-time SAR imaging processing. We decompose the commonly used chirp scaling (CS) SAR imaging algorithm into two parts according to the computing features. The linearization and logic-memory optimum allocation methods are adopted to realize the nonlinear part in a reconfigurable structure, and the two-part bandwidth balance method is used to realize the linear part. Thus, float-point SAR imaging processing can be integrated into a single Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip instead of relying on distributed technologies. A single-processing node requires 10.6 s and consumes 17 W to focus on 25-km swath width, 5-m resolution stripmap SAR raw data with a granularity of 16,384 × 16,384. The design methodology of the multi-FPGA parallel accelerating system under the real-time principle is introduced. As a proof of concept, a prototype with four processing nodes and one master node is implemented using a Xilinx xc6vlx315t FPGA. The weight and volume of one single machine are 10 kg and 32 cm × 24 cm × 20 cm, respectively, and the power consumption is under 100 W. The real-time performance of the proposed design is demonstrated on Chinese Gaofen-3 stripmap continuous imaging. PMID:29495637

  9. Habitat use by mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni determined using stem bite diameters at point of browse, bite rates, and time budgets in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon A. TADESSE, Burt P. KOTLER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the habitat use of mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the northern edge of the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. The aims of this study were to: (1 measure and quantify habitat-specific stem bite diameters of mountain nyala foraging on common natural plant species in two major habitat types (i.e. grasslands versus woodlands, and (2 quantify the bite rates (number of bites per minute and the activity time budgets of mountain nyala as functions of habitat type and sex-age category. We randomly laid out three transects in each habitat type. Following each transect, through focal animal observations, we assessed and quantified stem diameters at point of browse (dpb, bite rates, and time budgets of mountain nyala in grasslands versus woodlands. Stem dpb provide a measure of natural giving-up densities (GUDs and can be used to assess foraging costs and efficiencies, with greater stem dpb corresponding to lower costs and greater efficiencies. The results showed that stem dpb, bite rates, induced vigilance, and proportion of time spent in feeding differed between habitats. In particular, mountain nyala had greater stem dpb, higher bite rates, and spent a greater proportion of their time in feeding and less in induced vigilance in the grasslands. In addition, adult females had the highest bite rates, and the browse species Solanum marginatum had the greatest stem dpb. Generally, grasslands provide the mountain nyala with several advantages over the woodlands, including offering lower foraging costs, greater safety, and more time for foraging. The study advocates how behavioural indicators and natural GUDs are used to examine the habitat use of the endangered mountain nyala through applying non-invasive techniques. We conclude that the resulting measures are helpful for guiding conservation and management efforts and could be applicable to a number of endangered wildlife species including the mountain nyala [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 707

  10. Laboratory Tests Turnaround Time in Outpatient and Emergency Patients in Nigeria: Results of A Physician Survey on Point of Care Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolodeoku J

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory analytical turnaround time is a well-recognised indicator of how well a laboratory is performing and is sometimes regarded as the benchmark for laboratory performance. Methods: Total 104 doctors in public and private health institutions in Nigeria, spread across all six geo-political zones participated in survey requesting information on their experience with laboratory turnaround times in emergency situations (emergency room, special care baby unit, intensive care unit, dialysis unit and outpatient situations (general medicine and diabetes. Results: The average turnaround time in hours was 5.12, 8.35, 7.32 and 8.33 for the emergency room, special care baby unit, intensive care unit and dialysis unit, respectively. For the outpatient situations, the average turnaround time in hours was 10.74 and 15.70 hours for the diabetes and general medical outpatients. The median range (hours and modal range (hours for: the emergency room was 2-4 and <2; the special care baby unit was 4-8 and 4-8; the intensive care unit was 2-4 and 2-4; the dialysis unit was 4-8 and 4-8. The median range (hours and modal range (hours for: the general outpatient clinic was 12-24 and 12-24; the diabetic clinic was 4-8 and 12-24 hours. Conclusion: These turnaround time results are quite consistent with published data from other countries. However, there is some measure of improvement that is required in some areas to reduce the laboratory turnaround in the emergency situations. This could be overcome with the introduction of more point of care testing devices into emergency units.

  11. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  12. Dual-time-point 18F-FDG PET imaging for diagnosis of disease type and disease activity in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Yukihiro; Demura, Yoshiki; Ishizaki, Takeshi; Ameshima, Shingo; Miyamori, Isamu; Saito, Yuji; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Okazawa, Hidehiko

    2009-01-01

    Individual clinical courses of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) are variable and difficult to predict because the pathology and disease activity are contingent, and chest computed tomography (CT) provides little information about disease activity. In this study, we applied dual-time-point [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), commonly used for diagnosis of malignant tumours, to the differential diagnosis and prediction of disease progression in IIP patients. Fifty patients with IIP, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, n = 21), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, n = 18) and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP, n = 11), underwent 18 F-FDG PET examinations at two time points: scan 1 at 60 min (early imaging) and scan 2 at 180 min (delayed imaging) after 18 F-FDG injection. The standardized uptake values (SUV) at the two points and the retention index (RI-SUV) calculated from them were evaluated and compared with chest CT findings, disease progression and disease types. To evaluate short-term disease progression, all patients were examined by pulmonary function test every 3 months for 1 year after 18 F-FDG PET scanning. The early SUV for COP (2.47 ± 0.74) was significantly higher than that for IPF (0.99 ± 0.29, p = 0.0002) or NSIP (1.22 ± 0.44, p= 0.0025). When an early SUV cut-off value of 1.5 and greater was used to distinguish COP from IPF and NSIP, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 90.9, 94.3 and 93.5%, respectively. The RI-SUV for IPF and NSIP lesions was significantly greater in patients with deteriorated pulmonary function after 1 year of follow-up (progressive group, 13.0 ± 8.9%) than in cases without deterioration during the 1-year observation period (stable group, -16.8 ± 5.9%, p 18 F-FDG PET are useful parameters for the differential diagnosis and prediction of disease progression in patients with IIP. (orig.)

  13. The drug efficacy and adverse reactions in a mouse model of oral squamous cell carcinoma treated with oxaliplatin at different time points during a day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kai Yang,1,2 Ningbo Zhao,1 Dan Zhao,1,2 Dan Chen,1 Yadong Li1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 2Chongqing Key Laboratory for Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: Recent studies have shown that the growth and proliferation of cancer cells in vivo exhibit circadian rhythm, and the efficacy and adverse reactions of platinum-based anticancer drugs administered at different times of the day vary significantly on colon cancer. However, since the circadian rhythms of growth and proliferation of various cancer cells often differ, the question of whether the administration of platinum anticancer drugs at different times of the day exerts significantly different efficacy and adverse effects on oral cancers remains to be elucidated. This study has compared the efficacy and adverse effects of oxaliplatin (L-OHP administration at different times during a day on oral squamous cell carcinoma in mice and has analyzed cellular circadian rhythms. Methods: The mouse model for oral squamous cell carcinoma was established in 75 nude mice, housed in a 12 hour light/12 hour dark cycle environment. The mice were randomly divided into five groups; four experimental groups were intravenously injected with L-OHP at four time points within a 24-hour period (4, 10, 16, and 22 hours after lights on [HALO]. The control group was intravenously injected with the same volume of saline. Treatment efficacy and adverse reactions were compared on the seventh day after the injection, at 22 HALO. The existence of circadian rhythms was determined by cosine analysis. Results: Only injections of L-OHP at 16 and 22 HALO significantly prolonged animal survival time. The adverse reactions in mice injected with L-OHP at 16 and 22 HALO were significantly less than those observed in mice administered L-OHP at 4 and 10 HALO

  14. Real-time estimation of prostate tumor rotation and translation with a kV imaging system based on an iterative closest point algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; O’Brien, Ricky T; Keall, Paul; Poulsen, Per Rugaard

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that during cancer radiotherapy a small translation or rotation of the tumor can lead to errors in dose delivery. Current best practice in radiotherapy accounts for tumor translations, but is unable to address rotation due to a lack of a reliable real-time estimate. We have developed a method based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm that can compute rotation from kilovoltage x-ray images acquired during radiation treatment delivery. A total of 11 748 kilovoltage (kV) images acquired from ten patients (one fraction for each patient) were used to evaluate our tumor rotation algorithm. For each kV image, the three dimensional coordinates of three fiducial markers inside the prostate were calculated. The three dimensional coordinates were used as input to the ICP algorithm to calculate the real-time tumor rotation and translation around three axes. The results show that the root mean square error was improved for real-time calculation of tumor displacement from a mean of 0.97 mm with the stand alone translation to a mean of 0.16 mm by adding real-time rotation and translation displacement with the ICP algorithm. The standard deviation (SD) of rotation for the ten patients was 2.3°, 0.89° and 0.72° for rotation around the right–left (RL), anterior–posterior (AP) and superior–inferior (SI) directions respectively. The correlation between all six degrees of freedom showed that the highest correlation belonged to the AP and SI translation with a correlation of 0.67. The second highest correlation in our study was between the rotation around RL and rotation around AP, with a correlation of −0.33. Our real-time algorithm for calculation of rotation also confirms previous studies that have shown the maximum SD belongs to AP translation and rotation around RL. ICP is a reliable and fast algorithm for estimating real-time tumor rotation which could create a pathway to investigational clinical treatment studies requiring

  15. Dew Point

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Shelly

    1999-01-01

    Dew Point was a solo exhibition originating at PriceWaterhouseCoopers Headquarters Gallery, London, UK and toured to the Centre de Documentacio i Museu Textil, Terrassa, Spain and Gallery Aoyama, Tokyo, Japan.

  16. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  17. Tipping Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  18. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  19. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  20. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ... about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The force of a ...

  1. Vernal Point and Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Campos, Teodosio; Chavez S, Nadia; Chavez-Sumarriva, Israel

    2014-05-01

    The time scale was based on the internationally recognized formal chronostratigraphical /geochronological subdivisions of time: The Phanerozoic Eonathem/Eon; the Cenozoic Erathem/Era; the Quaternary System/Period; the Pleistocene and Holocene Series/Epoch. The Quaternary was divided into: (1) The Pleistocene that was characterized by cycles of glaciations (intervals between 40,000 and 100,000 years). (2) The Holocene that was an interglacial period that began about 12,000 years ago. It was believed that the Milankovitch cycles (eccentricity, axial tilt and the precession of the equinoxes) were responsible for the glacial and interglacial Holocene periods. The magnetostratigraphic units have been widely used for global correlations valid for Quaternary. The gravitational influence of the sun and moon on the equatorial bulges of the mantle of the rotating earth causes the precession of the earth. The retrograde motion of the vernal point through the zodiacal band is 26,000 years. The Vernal point passes through each constellation in an average of 2000 years and this period of time was correlated to Bond events that were North Atlantic climate fluctuations occurring every ≡1,470 ± 500 years throughout the Holocene. The vernal point retrogrades one precessional degree approximately in 72 years (Gleissberg-cycle) and approximately enters into the Aquarius constellation on March 20, 1940. On earth this entry was verify through: a) stability of the magnetic equator in the south central zone of Peru and in the north zone of Bolivia, b) the greater intensity of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in Peru and Bolivia since 1940. With the completion of the Holocene and the beginning of the Anthropocene (widely popularized by Paul Crutzen) it was proposed the date of March 20, 1940 as the beginning of the Anthropocene. The date proposed was correlated to the work presented in IUGG (Italy 2007) with the title "Cusco base meridian for the study of geophysical data"; Cusco was

  2. A Seamless Handoff Scheme with Access Point Load Balance for Real-Time Services Support in 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manodham, Thavisak; Loyola, Luis; Miki, Tetsuya

    IEEE 802.11 wirelesses LANs (WLANs) have been rapidly deployed in enterprises, public areas, and households. Voice-over-IP (VoIP) and similar applications are now commonly used in mobile devices over wireless networks. Recent works have improved the quality of service (QoS) offering higher data rates to support various kinds of real-time applications. However, besides the need for higher data rates, seamless handoff and load balancing among APs are key issues that must be addressed in order to continue supporting real-time services across wireless LANs and providing fair services to all users. In this paper, we introduce a novel access point (AP) with two transceivers that improves network efficiency by supporting seamless handoff and traffic load balancing in a wireless network. In our proposed scheme, the novel AP uses the second transceiver to scan and find neighboring STAs in the transmission range and then sends the results to neighboring APs, which compare and analyze whether or not the STA should perform a handoff. The initial results from our simulations show that the novel AP module is more effective than the conventional scheme and a related work in terms of providing a handoff process with low latency and sharing traffic load with neighbor APs.

  3. Parity-Time Symmetry and the Toy Models of Gain-Loss Dynamics near the Real Kato’s Exceptional Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Znojil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For a given operator D ( t of an observable in theoretical parity-time symmetric quantum physics (or for its evolution-generator analogues in the experimental gain-loss classical optics, etc. the instant t c r i t i c a l of a spontaneous breakdown of the parity-time alias gain-loss symmetry should be given, in the rigorous language of mathematics, the Kato’s name of an “exceptional point”, t c r i t i c a l = t ( E P . In the majority of conventional applications the exceptional point (EP values are not real. In our paper, we pay attention to several exactly tractable toy-model evolutions for which at least some of the values of t ( E P become real. These values are interpreted as “instants of a catastrophe”, be it classical or quantum. In the classical optical setting the discrete nature of our toy models might make them amenable to simulations. In the latter context the instant of Big Bang is mentioned as an illustrative sample of possible physical meaning of such an EP catastrophe in quantum cosmology.

  4. Model-based testing for space-time interaction using point processes: An application to psychiatric hospital admissions in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sebastian; Warnke, Ingeborg; Rössler, Wulf; Held, Leonhard

    2016-05-01

    Spatio-temporal interaction is inherent to cases of infectious diseases and occurrences of earthquakes, whereas the spread of other events, such as cancer or crime, is less evident. Statistical significance tests of space-time clustering usually assess the correlation between the spatial and temporal (transformed) distances of the events. Although appealing through simplicity, these classical tests do not adjust for the underlying population nor can they account for a distance decay of interaction. We propose to use the framework of an endemic-epidemic point process model to jointly estimate a background event rate explained by seasonal and areal characteristics, as well as a superposed epidemic component representing the hypothesis of interest. We illustrate this new model-based test for space-time interaction by analysing psychiatric inpatient admissions in Zurich, Switzerland (2007-2012). Several socio-economic factors were found to be associated with the admission rate, but there was no evidence of general clustering of the cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical evaluation of whole-body oncologic PET with time-of-flight and point-spread function for the hybrid PET/MR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Kun; Cui, Bixiao; Ma, Jie; Shuai, Dongmei; Liang, Zhigang; Jansen, Floris; Zhou, Yun; Lu, Jie; Zhao, Guoguang

    2017-08-01

    Hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging is a new multimodality imaging technology that can provide structural and functional information simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the time-of-flight (TOF) and point-spread function (PSF) on small lesions observed in PET/MR images from clinical patient image sets. This study evaluated 54 small lesions in 14 patients who had undergone 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/MR. Lesions up to 30mm in diameter were included. The PET data were reconstructed with a baseline ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM) algorithm, OSEM+PSF, OSEM+TOF and OSEM+TOF+PSF. PET image quality and small lesions were visually evaluated and scored by a 3-point scale. A quantitative analysis was then performed using the mean and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the small lesions (SUV mean and SUV max ). The lesions were divided into two groups according to the long-axis diameter and the location respectively and evaluated with each reconstruction algorithm. We also evaluated the background signal by analyzing the SUV liver . OSEM+TOF+PSF provided the highest value and OSEM+TOF or PSF showed a higher value than OSEM for the visual assessment and quantitative analysis. The combination of TOF and PSF increased the SUV mean by 26.6% and the SUV max by 30.0%. The SUV liver was not influenced by PSF or TOF. For the OSEM+TOF+PSF model, the change in SUV mean and SUV max for lesions PET/MR images, potentially improving small lesion detectability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Which is the ideal point of time to perform intraoperative 3D imaging in dorsal stabilisation of thoracolumbar spine fractures? A matched pair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M; Mittlmeier, T; Gierer, P; Rotter, R; Harms, C; Gradl, G

    2010-10-01

    After dorsal stabilisation of vertebral fractures by an internal fixateur the postoperative computed tomography is a standard procedure to control the positions of the pedicle screws, the success of the reposition, the clearance of the spinal canal and to plane an additive secondary ventral stabilisation. An intraoperative scan with a 3D image intensifier may clarify these questions directly after the implantation with the possibility of an immediate correction of the implants. The aim of this study was to find out the optimal point of time to perform an intraoperative 3D scan and if a postoperative computed tomography is dispensable. Intraoperative 3D scans were carried out on 33 patients with thoracolumbar spine fractures (T11-L5) after bi-segmental fixateur interne montage (Group 1). A matched pair group of 33 patients (Group 2) with a 3D scan after implantation of pedicle screws was built. A postoperative computed tomography of the instrumented spinal section was done in all patients. The following measurements were done in sagittal and axial reconstruction planes and were compared: classification of screw positions, maximal axial diameter of pedicles, cortical perforation of the screws. Additionally in Group 1 the distance between the upper and lower end plates of the injured section, the height of posterior vertebral body wall, the dislocation of the posterior wall and the minimal diameter of the spinal canal were measured. The intraoperative scoring of pedicle screws positions and the measurement of pedicle width showed in both groups a significant accordance with the computed tomography determinations. The measurements "posterior wall dislocation" and "diameter of spinal canal" were only possible in 24 3D scans and showed a significant difference compared with the CT data. The picture quality in Group 2 was scored significantly better than for Group 1 with the complete assembly of the fixateur. The ideal point of time for an intraoperative 3D imaging with

  7. Defining political community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladeček Michal M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.

  8. Defined contribution health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health

  9. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  10. Defining the mobilome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Janet L

    2009-01-01

    This chapter defines the agents that provide for the movement of genetic material which fuels the adaptive potential of life on our planet. The chapter has been structured to be broadly comprehensive, arbitrarily categorizing the mobilome into four classes: (1) transposons, (2) plasmids, (3) bacteriophage, and (4) self-splicing molecular parasites.Our increasing understanding of the mobilome is as dynamic as the mobilome itself. With continuing discovery, it is clear that nature has not confined these genomic agents of change to neat categories, but rather the classification categories overlap and intertwine. Massive sequencing efforts and their published analyses are continuing to refine our understanding of the extent of the mobilome. This chapter provides a framework to describe our current understanding of the mobilome and a foundation on which appreciation of its impact on genome evolution can be understood.

  11. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    Network Service Providers (NSP) often choose to overprovision their networks instead of deploying proper Quality of Services (QoS) mechanisms that allow for traffic differentiation and predictable quality. This tendency of overprovisioning is not sustainable for the simple reason that network...... resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...... generic perspective (e.g. service provisioning speed, resources availability). As a result, new mechanisms for providing QoS are proposed, solutions for SDN-specific QoS challenges are designed and tested, and new network management concepts are prototyped, all aiming to improve QoS for network services...

  12. Comparative evaluation of SUV, tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR), and dual time point measurements for assessment of the metabolic uptake rate in FDG PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, Frank; Hoff, Jörg van den; Steffen, Ingo G; Lougovski, Alexandr; Ego, Kilian; Amthauer, Holger; Apostolova, Ivayla

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated recently that the tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) is superior to tumor standardized uptake value (SUV) as a surrogate of the metabolic uptake rate K m of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), overcoming several of the known shortcomings of the SUV approach: excellent linear correlation of SUR and K m from Patlak analysis was found using dynamic imaging of liver metastases. However, due to the perfectly standardized uptake period used for SUR determination and the comparatively short uptake period, these results are not automatically valid and applicable for clinical whole-body examinations in which the uptake periods (T) are distinctly longer and can vary considerably. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the correlation between SUR derived from clinical static whole-body scans and K m-surrogate derived from dual time point (DTP) measurements. DTP (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 90 consecutive patients with histologically proven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the PET images, the primary tumor was delineated with an adaptive threshold method. For determination of the blood SUV, an aorta region of interest (ROI) was delineated manually in the attenuation CT and transferred to the PET image. Blood SUV was computed as the mean value of the aorta ROI. SUR values were computed as ratio of tumor SUV and blood SUV. SUR values from the early time point of each DTP measurement were scan time corrected to 75 min postinjection (SURtc). As surrogate of K m, we used the SUR(T) slope, K slope, derived from DTP measurements since it is proportional to the latter under the given circumstances. The correlation of SUV and SURtc with K slope was investigated. The prognostic value of SUV, SURtc, and K slope for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was investigated with univariate Cox regression in a homogeneous subgroup (N=31) treated with primary chemoradiation. Correlation analysis revealed for both, SUV and SURtc, a

  13. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR – effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žel Jana

    2006-08-01

    chosen as the primary criterion by which to evaluate the quality and performance on different matrixes and extraction techniques. The effect of PCR efficiency on the resulting GMO content is demonstrated. Conclusion The crucial influence of extraction technique and sample matrix properties on the results of GMO quantification is demonstrated. Appropriate extraction techniques for each matrix need to be determined to achieve accurate DNA quantification. Nevertheless, as it is shown that in the area of food and feed testing matrix with certain specificities is impossible to define strict quality controls need to be introduced to monitor PCR. The results of our study are also applicable to other fields of quantitative testing by real-time PCR.

  14. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR--effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Stebih, Dejan; Dreo, Tanja; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2006-08-14

    evaluate the quality and performance on different matrixes and extraction techniques. The effect of PCR efficiency on the resulting GMO content is demonstrated. The crucial influence of extraction technique and sample matrix properties on the results of GMO quantification is demonstrated. Appropriate extraction techniques for each matrix need to be determined to achieve accurate DNA quantification. Nevertheless, as it is shown that in the area of food and feed testing matrix with certain specificities is impossible to define strict quality controls need to be introduced to monitor PCR. The results of our study are also applicable to other fields of quantitative testing by real-time PCR.

  15. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR – effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Štebih, Dejan; Dreo, Tanja; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    criterion by which to evaluate the quality and performance on different matrixes and extraction techniques. The effect of PCR efficiency on the resulting GMO content is demonstrated. Conclusion The crucial influence of extraction technique and sample matrix properties on the results of GMO quantification is demonstrated. Appropriate extraction techniques for each matrix need to be determined to achieve accurate DNA quantification. Nevertheless, as it is shown that in the area of food and feed testing matrix with certain specificities is impossible to define strict quality controls need to be introduced to monitor PCR. The results of our study are also applicable to other fields of quantitative testing by real-time PCR. PMID:16907967

  16. Conventional CD11chigh Dendritic Cells Are Important for T Cell Priming during the Initial Phase of Plasmodium yoelii Infection, but Are Dispensable at Later Time Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueffing, Kristina; Abberger, Hanna; Westendorf, Astrid M; Matuschewski, Kai; Buer, Jan; Hansen, Wiebke

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells that orchestrate adaptive immune responses to pathogens. During malaria infection pro- and anti-inflammatory T cell responses have to be tightly balanced to ensure parasite clearance without induction of severe immune pathologies. However, the precise role of CD11c high DCs in this process is still discussed controversially. Here, we demonstrate that long-term depletion of conventional CD11c high DCs in Plasmodium yoelii ( P. yoelii )-infected diphtheria toxin (DT)-treated RosaiDTR/CD11c-cre mice interferes with the activation of CD8 + and CD4 + T cells as well as CD4 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells at early time points during infection. Moreover, systemic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α were decreased in P. yoelii -infected mice deficient for CD11c high DCs compared to infected RosaiDTR controls. To further elucidate the importance of CD11c high DCs during the later phase of infection, we treated RosaiDTR/CD11c-cre and control mice with DT only from day 4 of P. yoelii infection onward. Strikingly, this approach had no impact on the activation and IFN-γ production of CD4 + and CD8 + effector T cells. These results indicate that CD11c high DCs play a crucial role in eliciting effector T cell responses during the initial phase, but are dispensable during ongoing infection with P. yoelii .

  17. Sequence polymorphism in an insect RNA virus field population: A snapshot from a single point in space and time reveals stochastic differences among and within individual hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenger, Drake C., E-mail: drake.stenger@ars.usda.gov [USDA, Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 South Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93648-9757 (United States); Krugner, Rodrigo [USDA, Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 South Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93648-9757 (United States); Nouri, Shahideh; Ferriol, Inmaculada; Falk, Bryce W. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Sisterson, Mark S. [USDA, Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 South Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93648-9757 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Population structure of Homalodisca coagulata Virus-1 (HoCV-1) among and within field-collected insects sampled from a single point in space and time was examined. Polymorphism in complete consensus sequences among single-insect isolates was dominated by synonymous substitutions. The mutant spectrum of the C2 helicase region within each single-insect isolate was unique and dominated by nonsynonymous singletons. Bootstrapping was used to correct the within-isolate nonsynonymous:synonymous arithmetic ratio (N:S) for RT-PCR error, yielding an N:S value ~one log-unit greater than that of consensus sequences. Probability of all possible single-base substitutions for the C2 region predicted N:S values within 95% confidence limits of the corrected within-isolate N:S when the only constraint imposed was viral polymerase error bias for transitions over transversions. These results indicate that bottlenecks coupled with strong negative/purifying selection drive consensus sequences toward neutral sequence space, and that most polymorphism within single-insect isolates is composed of newly-minted mutations sampled prior to selection. -- Highlights: •Sampling protocol minimized differential selection/history among isolates. •Polymorphism among consensus sequences dominated by negative/purifying selection. •Within-isolate N:S ratio corrected for RT-PCR error by bootstrapping. •Within-isolate mutant spectrum dominated by new mutations yet to undergo selection.

  18. Arrests for child pornography production: data at two time points from a national sample of U.S. law enforcement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Jones, Lisa M

    2011-08-01

    This study collected information on arrests for child pornography (CP) production at two points (2000-2001 and 2006) from a national sample of more than 2,500 law enforcement agencies. In addition to providing descriptive data about an understudied crime, the authors examined whether trends in arrests suggested increasing CP production, shifts in victim populations, and challenges to law enforcement. Arrests for CP production more than doubled from an estimated 402 in 2000-2001 to an estimated 859 in 2006. Findings suggest the increase was related to increased law enforcement activity rather than to growth in the population of CP producers. Adolescent victims increased, but there was no increase in the proportion of arrest cases involving very young victims or violent images. Producers distributed images in 23% of arrest cases, a proportion that did not change over time. This suggests that much CP production may be primarily for private use. Proactive law enforcement operations increased, as did other features consistent with a robust law enforcement response.

  19. Conventional CD11chigh Dendritic Cells Are Important for T Cell Priming during the Initial Phase of Plasmodium yoelii Infection, but Are Dispensable at Later Time Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ueffing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells that orchestrate adaptive immune responses to pathogens. During malaria infection pro- and anti-inflammatory T cell responses have to be tightly balanced to ensure parasite clearance without induction of severe immune pathologies. However, the precise role of CD11chigh DCs in this process is still discussed controversially. Here, we demonstrate that long-term depletion of conventional CD11chigh DCs in Plasmodium yoelii (P. yoelii-infected diphtheria toxin (DT-treated RosaiDTR/CD11c-cre mice interferes with the activation of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells as well as CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells at early time points during infection. Moreover, systemic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α were decreased in P. yoelii-infected mice deficient for CD11chigh DCs compared to infected RosaiDTR controls. To further elucidate the importance of CD11chigh DCs during the later phase of infection, we treated RosaiDTR/CD11c-cre and control mice with DT only from day 4 of P. yoelii infection onward. Strikingly, this approach had no impact on the activation and IFN-γ production of CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells. These results indicate that CD11chigh DCs play a crucial role in eliciting effector T cell responses during the initial phase, but are dispensable during ongoing infection with P. yoelii.

  20. Point-of-care detection and real-time monitoring of intravenously delivered drugs via tubing with an integrated SERS sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Yu; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-05-21

    We demonstrate an approach for detection, identification, and kinetic monitoring of drugs flowing within tubing, through the use of a plasmonic nanodome array (PNA) surface. The PNA structures are fabricated using a low-cost nanoreplica molding process upon a flexible plastic substrate that is subsequently integrated with a flow cell that connects in series with ordinary intravenous (IV) drug delivery tubing. To investigate the potential clinical applications for point-of-care detection and real-time monitoring, we perform SERS detection of ten pharmaceutical compounds (hydrocodone, levorphanol, morphine, oxycodone, methadone, phenobarbital, dopamine, diltiazem, promethazine, and mitoxantrone). We demonstrate dose-dependent SERS signal magnitude, resulting in detection limits (ng ml(-1)) well below typical administered dosages (mg ml(-1)). Further, we show that the detected drugs are not permanently attached to the PNA surface, and thus our approach is capable of performing continuous monitoring of drug delivery as materials flow through IV tubing that is connected in series with the sensor. Finally, we demonstrate the potential co-detection of multiple drugs when they are mixed together, and show excellent reproducibility and stability of SERS measurements for periods extending at least five days. The capabilities reported here demonstrate the potential to use PNA SERS surfaces for enhancing the safety of IV drug delivery.

  1. Defining Information Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Björn; Möller, Niklas

    2017-11-15

    This article proposes a new definition of information security, the 'Appropriate Access' definition. Apart from providing the basic criteria for a definition-correct demarcation and meaning concerning the state of security-it also aims at being a definition suitable for any information security perspective. As such, it bridges the conceptual divide between so-called 'soft issues' of information security (those including, e.g., humans, organizations, culture, ethics, policies, and law) and more technical issues. Because of this it is also suitable for various analytical purposes, such as analysing possible security breaches, or for studying conflicting attitudes on security in an organization. The need for a new definition is demonstrated by pointing to a number of problems for the standard definition type of information security-the so-called CIA definition. Besides being too broad as well as too narrow, it cannot properly handle the soft issues of information security, nor recognize the contextual and normative nature of security.

  2. Fixed-Point Configurable Hardware Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocher Romuald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the gap between the VLSI technology capability and the designer productivity, design reuse based on IP (intellectual properties is commonly used. In terms of arithmetic accuracy, the generated architecture can generally only be configured through the input and output word lengths. In this paper, a new kind of method to optimize fixed-point arithmetic IP has been proposed. The architecture cost is minimized under accuracy constraints defined by the user. Our approach allows exploring the fixed-point search space and the algorithm-level search space to select the optimized structure and fixed-point specification. To significantly reduce the optimization and design times, analytical models are used for the fixed-point optimization process.

  3. Calcareous Fens - Source Feature Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Pursuant to the provisions of Minnesota Statutes, section 103G.223, this database contains points that represent calcareous fens as defined in Minnesota Rules, part...

  4. (Re)Defining Salesperson Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Rushana; de Jong, Ad; Lee, Nick

    2018-01-01

    The construct of motivation is one of the central themes in selling and sales management research. Yet, to-date no review article exists that surveys the construct (both from an extrinsic and intrinsic motivation context), critically evaluates its current status, examines various key challenges...... apparent from the extant research, and suggests new research opportunities based on a thorough review of past work. The authors explore how motivation is defined, major theories underpinning motivation, how motivation has historically been measured, and key methodologies used over time. In addition......, attention is given to principal drivers and outcomes of salesperson motivation. A summarizing appendix of key articles in salesperson motivation is provided....

  5. Teleology and Defining Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Nathan K; Pruski, Michal

    2018-07-01

    Disorders of sexual differentiation lead to what is often referred to as an intersex state. This state has medical, as well as some legal, recognition. Nevertheless, the question remains whether intersex persons occupy a state in between maleness and femaleness or whether they are truly men or women. To answer this question, another important conundrum needs to be first solved: what defines sex? The answer seems rather simple to most people, yet when morphology does not coincide with haplotypes, and genetics might not correlate with physiology the issue becomes more complex. This paper tackles both issues by establishing where the essence of sex is located and by superimposing that framework onto the issue of the intersex. This is achieved through giving due consideration to the biology of sexual development, as well as through the use of a teleological framework of the meaning of sex. Using a range of examples, the paper establishes that sex cannot be pinpointed to one biological variable but is rather determined by how the totality of one's biology is oriented towards biological reproduction. A brief consideration is also given to the way this situation could be comprehended from a Christian understanding of sex and suffering.

  6. Differential Diagnosis of Malaria on Truelab Uno®, a Portable, Real-Time, MicroPCR Device for Point-Of-Care Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar Bhaskaran Nair

    Full Text Available Sensitive and specific detection of malarial parasites is crucial in controlling the significant malaria burden in the developing world. Also important is being able to identify life threatening Plasmodium falciparum malaria quickly and accurately to reduce malaria related mortality. Existing methods such as microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have major shortcomings. Here, we describe a new real-time PCR-based diagnostic test device at point-of-care service for resource-limited settings.Truenat® Malaria, a chip-based microPCR test, was developed by bigtec Labs, Bangalore, India, for differential identification of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites. The Truenat Malaria tests runs on bigtec's Truelab Uno® microPCR device, a handheld, battery operated, and easy-to-use real-time microPCR device. The performance of Truenat® Malaria was evaluated versus the WHO nested PCR protocol. The Truenat® Malaria was further evaluated in a triple-blinded study design using a sample panel of 281 specimens created from the clinical samples characterized by expert microscopy and a rapid diagnostic test kit by the National Institute of Malaria Research (NIMR. A comparative evaluation was done on the Truelab Uno® and a commercial real-time PCR system.The limit of detection of the Truenat Malaria assay was found to be <5 parasites/μl for both P. falciparum and P. vivax. The Truenat® Malaria test was found to have sensitivity and specificity of 100% each, compared to the WHO nested PCR protocol based on the evaluation of 100 samples. The sensitivity using expert microscopy as the reference standard was determined to be around 99.3% (95% CI: 95.5-99.9 at the species level. Mixed infections were identified more accurately by Truenat Malaria (32 samples identified as mixed versus expert microscopy and RDTs which detected 4 and 5 mixed samples, respectively.The Truenat® Malaria microPCR test is a valuable diagnostic tool and

  7. Determination of n-octanol/water partition coefficient for DDT-related compounds by RP-HPLC with a novel dual-point retention time correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-ying; Qiao, Jun-qin; Zhang, Yun-yang; Yang, Li-li; Lian, Hong-zhen; Ge, Xin; Chen, Hong-yuan

    2011-03-01

    n-Octanol/water partition coefficients (P) for DDTs and dicofol were determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on a C(18) column using methanol-water mixture as mobile phase. A dual-point retention time correction (DP-RTC) was proposed to rectify chromatographic retention time (t(R)) shift resulted from stationary phase aging. Based on this correction, the relationship between logP and logk(w), the logarithm of the retention factor extrapolated to pure water, was investigated for a set of 12 benzene homologues and DDT-related compounds with reliable experimental P as model compounds. A linear regression logP=(1.10±0.04) logk(w) - (0.60±0.17) was established with correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.988, cross-validated correlation coefficient R(cv)(2) of 0.983 and standard deviation (SD) of 0.156. This model was further validated using four verification compounds, naphthalene, biphenyl, 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (p,p'-DDD) and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE) with similar structure to DDT. The RP-HPLC-determined P values showed good consistency with shake-flask (SFM) or slow-stirring (SSM) results, especially for highly hydrophobic compounds with logP in the range of 4-7. Then, the P values for five DDT-related compounds, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (o,p'-DDT), 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (o,p'-DDD), 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (o,p'-DDE), and 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol) and its main degradation product 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (p,p'-DBP) were evaluated by the improved RP-HPLC method for the first time. The excellent precision with SD less than 0.03 proved that the novel DP-RTC protocol can significantly increases the determination accuracy and reliability of P by RP-HPLC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a versatile tool for the simultaneous differential detection of Pseudomonas savastanoi pathovars by End Point and Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegli, Stefania; Cerboneschi, Matteo; Libelli, Ilaria Marsili; Santilli, Elena

    2010-05-28

    Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi is the causal agent of olive knot disease. The strains isolated from oleander and ash belong to the pathovars nerii and fraxini, respectively. When artificially inoculated, pv. savastanoi causes disease also on ash, and pv. nerii attacks also olive and ash. Surprisingly nothing is known yet about their distribution in nature on these hosts and if spontaneous cross-infections occur. On the other hand sanitary certification programs for olive plants, also including P. savastanoi, were launched in many countries. The aim of this work was to develop several PCR-based tools for the rapid, simultaneous, differential and quantitative detection of these P. savastanoi pathovars, in multiplex and in planta. Specific PCR primers and probes for the pathovars savastanoi, nerii and fraxini of P. savastanoi were designed to be used in End Point and Real-Time PCR, both with SYBR Green or TaqMan chemistries. The specificity of all these assays was 100%, as assessed by testing forty-four P. savastanoi strains, belonging to the three pathovars and having different geographical origins. For comparison strains from the pathovars phaseolicola and glycinea of P. savastanoi and bacterial epiphytes from P. savastanoi host plants were also assayed, and all of them tested always negative. The analytical detection limits were about 5 - 0.5 pg of pure genomic DNA and about 102 genome equivalents per reaction. Similar analytical thresholds were achieved in Multiplex Real-Time PCR experiments, even on artificially inoculated olive plants. Here for the first time a complex of PCR-based assays were developed for the simultaneous discrimination and detection of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi, pv. nerii and pv. fraxini. These tests were shown to be highly reliable, pathovar-specific, sensitive, rapid and able to quantify these pathogens, both in multiplex reactions and in vivo. Compared with the other methods already available for P. savastanoi, the identification

  9. Differential Diagnosis of Malaria on Truelab Uno®, a Portable, Real-Time, MicroPCR Device for Point-Of-Care Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Chandrasekhar Bhaskaran; Manjula, Jagannath; Subramani, Pradeep Annamalai; Nagendrappa, Prakash B; Manoj, Mulakkapurath Narayanan; Malpani, Sukriti; Pullela, Phani Kumar; Subbarao, Pillarisetti Venkata; Ramamoorthy, Siva; Ghosh, Susanta K

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive and specific detection of malarial parasites is crucial in controlling the significant malaria burden in the developing world. Also important is being able to identify life threatening Plasmodium falciparum malaria quickly and accurately to reduce malaria related mortality. Existing methods such as microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have major shortcomings. Here, we describe a new real-time PCR-based diagnostic test device at point-of-care service for resource-limited settings. Truenat® Malaria, a chip-based microPCR test, was developed by bigtec Labs, Bangalore, India, for differential identification of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites. The Truenat Malaria tests runs on bigtec's Truelab Uno® microPCR device, a handheld, battery operated, and easy-to-use real-time microPCR device. The performance of Truenat® Malaria was evaluated versus the WHO nested PCR protocol. The Truenat® Malaria was further evaluated in a triple-blinded study design using a sample panel of 281 specimens created from the clinical samples characterized by expert microscopy and a rapid diagnostic test kit by the National Institute of Malaria Research (NIMR). A comparative evaluation was done on the Truelab Uno® and a commercial real-time PCR system. The limit of detection of the Truenat Malaria assay was found to be <5 parasites/μl for both P. falciparum and P. vivax. The Truenat® Malaria test was found to have sensitivity and specificity of 100% each, compared to the WHO nested PCR protocol based on the evaluation of 100 samples. The sensitivity using expert microscopy as the reference standard was determined to be around 99.3% (95% CI: 95.5-99.9) at the species level. Mixed infections were identified more accurately by Truenat Malaria (32 samples identified as mixed) versus expert microscopy and RDTs which detected 4 and 5 mixed samples, respectively. The Truenat® Malaria microPCR test is a valuable diagnostic tool and implementation should be

  10. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  11. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  12. The role of socioeconomic factors in Black-White health inequities across the life course: Point-in-time measures, long-term exposures, and differential health returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boen, Courtney

    2016-12-01

    Research links Black-White health disparities to racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES), but understanding of the role of SES in racial health gaps has been restricted by reliance on static measures of health and socioeconomic well-being that mask the dynamic quality of these processes and ignore the racialized nature of the SES-health connection. Utilizing twenty-three years of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1984-2007), this study uses multilevel growth curve models to examine how multiple dimensions of socioeconomic well-being-including long-term economic history and differential returns to SES-contribute to the life course patterning of Black-White health disparities across two critical markers of well-being: body mass index (N = 9057) and self-rated health (N = 11,329). Findings indicate that long-term SES exerts a significant influence on both body mass index and self-rated health, net of point-in-time measures, and that Black-White health gaps are smallest in models that adjust for both long-term and current SES. I also find that Blacks and Whites receive differential health returns to increases in SES, which suggests that other factors-such as neighborhood segregation and exposure racial discrimination-may restrict Blacks from converting increases in SES into health improvements in the same way as Whites. Together, these processes contribute to the life course patterning of Black-White health gaps and raise concerns about previous misestimation of the role of SES in racial health disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pain, activities of daily living and sport function at different time points after hip arthroscopy in patients with femoroacetabular impingement: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Signe; Langeskov-Christensen, Martin; Lund, Bent; Naal, Florian D; Mechlenburg, Inger; Dalgas, Ulrik; Casartelli, Nicola C

    2017-04-01

    To investigate pain, activities of daily living (ADL) function, sport function, quality of life and satisfaction at different time points after hip arthroscopy in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Systematic review with meta-analysis. Weighted mean differences between preoperative and postoperative outcomes were calculated and used for meta-analysis. EMBASE, MEDLINE, SportsDiscus, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PEDro. Studies that evaluated hip pain, ADL function, sport function and quality of life before and after hip arthroscopy and postoperative satisfaction in patients with symptomatic FAI. Twenty-six studies (22 case series, 3 cohort studies, 1 randomised controlled trial (RCT)) were included in the systematic review and 19 in the meta-analysis. Clinically relevant pain and ADL function improvements were first reported between 3 and 6 months, and sport function improvements between 6 months and 1 year after surgery. It is not clear when quality of life improvements were first achieved. On average, residual mild pain and ADL and sport function scores lower than their healthy counterparts were reported by patients following surgery. Postoperative patient satisfaction ranged from 68% to 100%. On average, patients reported earlier pain and ADL function improvements, and slower sport function improvements after hip arthroscopy for FAI. However, average scores from patients indicate residual mild hip pain and/or hip function lower than their healthy counterparts after surgery. Owing to the current low level of evidence, future RCTs and cohort studies should investigate the effectiveness of hip arthroscopy in patients with FAI. CRD42015019649. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Dual time point FDG PET/CT:Is it useful for lymph node staging in patients with non small cell lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Chang Guhn [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Dual time point (DTP)FDG PET/CT has been shown to be useful for lymph node (LN)staging in patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the LN staging ability of DTP FDG PET/CT in the predominant area of pulmonary tuberculosis. Sixty nine NSCLC patients underwent DTP PET/CT. Regions of interest were placed on each LN of each station, and the maximum SUVs were measured. Three variables were obtained: (1)the SUV on the early scan (SUV{sup early}), (2)the SUV on the delayed scan (SUV{sup delayed}), and (3)the retention index of the SUV (RI). Each patient had one final LN stage and three other LN stages according to the cutoff values of SUV{sup early}, SUV{sup delayed}, and RI. In the LN based analysis, the area under the ROC curve of SUV{sup delayed} (0.884)was significantly larger (p<0.01)than those of SUV{sup early} (0.868)and RI (0.717). Among the three variables, SUV{sup delayed} was more accurate (P<0.01)for detecting the mediastinal LN metastasis than SUV{sup early} and RI. In the patient based analysis, SUV{sup delayed} had correctly determined LN stages in 55 of 69 patients (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy=88.7%, 50.0%, and 79.7%), whereas SUV{sup early} and RI correctly determined LN stages in 53 and 52 patients, respectively. In this study, comparing the diagnostic efficacy of SUV{sup early}, SUV{sup delayed}, and RI for LN staging in patients with NSCLC, SUV{sup delayed} was the most accurate variable for LN staging. DTP PET/CT could provide improved diagnostic accuracy for the LN staging of NSCLC.

  15. Defining human death: an intersection of bioethics and metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    For many years now, bioethicists, physicians, and others in the medical field have disagreed concerning how to best define human death. Different theories range from the Harvard Criteria of Brain Death, which defines death as the cessation of all brain activity, to the Cognitive Criteria, which is based on the loss of almost all core mental properties, e.g., memory, self-consciousness, moral agency, and the capacity for reason. A middle ground is the Irreversibility Standard, which defines death as occurring when the capacity for consciousness is forever lost. Given all these different theories, how can we begin to approach solving the issue of how to define death? I propose that a necessary starting point is discussing an even more fundamental question that properly belongs in the philosophical field of metaphysics: we must first address the issue of diachronic identity over time, and the persistence conditions of personal identity. In this paper, I illustrate the interdependent relationship between this metaphysical question and questions concerning the definition of death. I also illustrate how it is necessary to antecedently attend to the metaphysical issue of defining death before addressing certain issues in medical ethics, e.g., whether it is morally permissible to euthanize patients in persistent vegetative states or procure organs from anencephalic infants.

  16. Measuring Business Cycle Time.

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, James H

    1987-01-01

    The business cycle analysis of Arthur F. Burns and Wesley C. Mitchell and the National Bureau of Economic Research presumed that aggregate economic variables evolve on a time scale defined by business cycle turning points rather than by months or quarters. Do macroeconomic variables appear to evolve on an economic rather than a calendar time scale? Evidence presented here suggests that they do. However, the estimated economic time scales are only weakly related to business cycle time scales, ...

  17. Defining a Forensic Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson G. Smith

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Disclosures about new financial frauds and scandals are continually appearing in the press.  As a consequence, the accounting profession's traditional methods of monitoring corporate financial activities are under intense scrutiny.  At the same time, there is recognition that principles-based GAAP from the International Accounting Standards Board will become the recognized standard in the U.S.  The authors argue that these two factors will change the practices used to fight corporate malfeasance as investigators adapt the techniques of accounting into a forensic audit engagement model.

  18. Mathematical points as didactical ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne

    Mathematics teaching in Denmark was recently recommended better organized in sequences with clear mathematical pedagogical goals and a focus on mathematical points. In this paper I define a mathematical point and inform on coding of transcripts in a video based Danish research study on grade 8 te...

  19. Model plant Key Measurement Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For IAEA safeguards a Key Measurement Point is defined as the location where nuclear material appears in such a form that it may be measured to determine material flow or inventory. This presentation describes in an introductory manner the key measurement points and associated measurements for the model plant used in this training course

  20. Defining Political Extremism in the Balkans. The Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Marko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Political extremism (and particularly right wing political extremism remains relatively insufficiently explored due to the fact that the phenomenon is controversial and hard to define. Its ambiguity and variability depending on time and spatial point of view further complicates its definition. Its structure is amorphous and eclectic as it often includes elements from different ideologies and connects incompatible ideas. A multidimensional conceptualization and an interdisciplinary approach - sociological, social, psychological and historical, are the Author’s tools in explaining the phenomenon of political extremism in Serbia, hopefully contributing to its clarification and laying a foundation for its further explanatory theoretical studies.

  1. A study on development of modern photography and visual expressions based on technology and theory: Report on a laboratory exhibition “point in time 2014: Angle”

    OpenAIRE

    甲野, 善一郎

    2015-01-01

    2013年10月より始まった、甲野研究室所属の3・4年生の学生による展覧会 point in time 2014。今回のテーマは、「Angle アングル」です。アングルとは一般的にカメラのアングルなど、角度の事を指しますが、物事の考え方など広い思考という捉え方も存在します。今回の展覧会は、多種多様な広い日常の一部を細かに分析し、写真、映像、アニメーション、コンピュータグラフィックス、プロジェクションマッピング、3D プリントを駆使し、視覚的に見えにくい部分を様々なアングルでアプローチした作品を展示いたしました。アングルを変えることにより、新しいひらめきが生まれ、新しい未来を切り開くことができるかもしれません。これらの作品を通して、よりクリエイティブな世界の見方や考え方が生まれるきっかけになることを願っています。...

  2. Evaluation of the Effect of Tumor Position on Standardized Uptake Value Using Time-of-Flight Reconstruction and Point Spread Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Wakabayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The present study was conducted to examine whether the standardized uptake value (SUV may be affected by the spatial position of a lesion in the radial direction on positron emission tomography (PET images, obtained via two methods based on time-of-flight (TOF reconstruction and point spread function (PSF. Methods: A cylinder phantom with the sphere (30mm diameter, located in the center was used in this study. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG concentrations of 5.3 kBq/ml and 21.2 kBq/ml were used for the background in the cylinder phantom and the central sphere respectively. By the use of TOF and PSF, SUVmax and SUVmean were determined while moving the phantom in a horizontal direction (X direction from the center of field of view (FOV: 0 mm at 50, 100, 150 and 200 mm positions, respectively. Furthermore, we examined 41 patients (23 male, 18 female, mean age: 68±11.2 years with lymph node tumors , who had undergone 18F-FDG PET examinations. The distance of each lymph node from FOV center was measured, based on the clinical images. Results: As the distance of a lesion from the FOV center exceeded 100 mm, the value of SUVmax, which was obtained with the cylinder phantom, was overestimated, while SUVmean by TOF and/or PSF was underestimated. Based on the clinical examinations, the average volume of interest was 8.5 cm3. Concomitant use of PSF increased SUVmax and SUVmean by 27.9% and 2.8%, respectively. However, size of VOI and distance from the FOV center did not affect SUVmax or SUVmean in clinical examinations. Conclusion: The reliability of SUV quantification by TOF and/or PSF decreased, when the tumor was located at a 100 mm distance (or farther from the center of FOV. In clinical examinations, if the lymph node was located within 100 mm distance from the center of FOV, SUV remained stable within a constantly increasing range by use of both TOF and PSF. We conclude that, use of both TOF and PSF may be helpful.

  3. Real-Time Tele-Mentored Low Cost "Point-of-Care US" in the Hands of Paediatricians in the Emergency Department: Diagnostic Accuracy Compared to Expert Radiologists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Zennaro

    Full Text Available The use of point-of-care ultrasonography (POC US in paediatrics is increasing. This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of POC US in children accessing the emergency department (ED when performed by paediatricians under the remote guidance of radiologists (TELE POC.Children aged 0 to 18 years accessing the ED of a third level research hospital with eight possible clinical scenarios and without emergency/severity signs at the triage underwent three subsequent US tests: by a paediatrician guided remotely by a radiologist (TELE POC; by the same radiologist (UNBLIND RAD; by an independent blinded radiologist (BLIND RAD. Tele-radiology was implemented using low cost "commercial off-the-shelf" (COTS equipment and open-source software. Data were prospectively collected on predefined templates.Fifty-two children were enrolled, for a total of 170 ultrasound findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of TELE POC were: 93.8, 99.7, 96.8, 99.4 when compared to UNBLIND RAD and 88.2, 99.7, 96.8, 98.7 when compared to BLIND RAD. The inter-observers agreement between the paediatricians and either the unblind or blind radiologist was excellent (k = 0.93. The mean duration of TELE POC was 6.3 minutes (95% CI 4.1 to 8.5. Technical difficulties occurred in two (3.8% cases. Quality of the transmission was rated as fair, good, very good and excellent in 7.7%, 15.4%, 42.3% and 34.6% of cases respectively, while in no case was it rated as poor.POC US performed by paediatricians in ED guided via tele-radiology by an expert radiologist (TELE POC produced reliable and timely diagnoses. Findings of this study, especially for the rarer conditions under evaluation, need further confirmation. Future research should investigate the overall benefits and the cost savings of using tele-ultrasound to perform US "at children's bedsides", under remote guidance of expert radiologists.

  4. Measurement of the Four-Point Susceptibility of an Out-of-Equilibrium Colloidal Solution of Nanoparticles Using Time-Resolved Light Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Claudio; Di Leonardo, Ricardo; ruocco, giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    The spatial fluctuations of the dynamics of a colloidal system composed of nanoparticles are probed by a novel experimental setup, which combines homodyne and heterodyne dynamic light scattering focused onto a micron-sized volume via a microscope objective. The technique is used to measure the four-point...

  5. The Change of the Family Life Affected by the Shorter Working Time : From the Point of View of the Home Management

    OpenAIRE

    平田, 道憲

    1994-01-01

    In Japan, the working time has been decreasing. However, Japanese working people spend more hours per year to work than those in Western countries. The policy of the shorter working time is conducted by the Japanese Government in order that the working people get more free time. This paper examines whether the shorter working time of working members in the family enrich the time use of the other members of the family. Especially, the effect of the shorter working time of husbands to wives...

  6. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  7. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  8. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  9. Asymptotic Comparison of the Solutions of Linear Time-Delay Systems with Point and Distributed Lags with Those of Their Limiting Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relations between the particular eigensolutions of a limiting functional differential equation of any order, which is the nominal (unperturbed linear autonomous differential equations, and the associate ones of the corresponding perturbed functional differential equation. Both differential equations involve point and distributed delayed dynamics including Volterra class dynamics. The proofs are based on a Perron-type theorem for functional equations so that the comparison is governed by the real part of a dominant zero of the characteristic equation of the nominal differential equation. The obtained results are also applied to investigate the global stability of the perturbed equation based on that of its corresponding limiting equation.

  10. Role of Erosion in Shaping Point Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J.; Meade, R.

    2012-04-01

    A powerful metaphor in fluvial geomorphology has been that depositional features such as point bars (and other floodplain features) constitute the river's historical memory in the form of uniformly thick sedimentary deposits waiting for the geomorphologist to dissect and interpret the past. For the past three decades, along the channel of Powder River (Montana USA) we have documented (with annual cross-sectional surveys and pit trenches) the evolution of the shape of three point bars that were created when an extreme flood in 1978 cut new channels across the necks of two former meander bends and radically shifted the location of a third bend. Subsequent erosion has substantially reshaped, at different time scales, the relic sediment deposits of varying age. At the weekly to monthly time scale (i.e., floods from snowmelt or floods from convective or cyclonic storms), the maximum scour depth was computed (by using a numerical model) at locations spaced 1 m apart across the entire point bar for a couple of the largest floods. The maximum predicted scour is about 0.22 m. At the annual time scale, repeated cross-section topographic surveys (25 during 32 years) indicate that net annual erosion at a single location can be as great as 0.5 m, and that the net erosion is greater than net deposition during 8, 16, and 32% of the years for the three point bars. On average, the median annual net erosion was 21, 36, and 51% of the net deposition. At the decadal time scale, an index of point bar preservation often referred to as completeness was defined for each cross section as the percentage of the initial deposit (older than 10 years) that was still remaining in 2011; computations indicate that 19, 41, and 36% of the initial deposits of sediment were eroded. Initial deposits were not uniform in thickness and often represented thicker pods of sediment connected by thin layers of sediment or even isolated pods at different elevations across the point bar in response to multiple

  11. Multiple positive solutions of nonlinear singular m-point boundary value problem for second-order dynamic equations with sign changing coefficients on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyi Xu

    2010-04-01

    \\end{array}\\right.$$ where $1\\leq k\\leq s\\leq m-2, a_i, b_i\\in(0,+\\infty$ with $0<\\sum_{i=1}^{k}b_{i}-\\sum_{i=k+1}^{s}b_{i}<1, 0<\\sum_{i=1}^{m-2}a_{i}<1, 0<\\xi_1<\\xi_2<\\cdots<\\xi_{m-2}<\\rho(T$, $f\\in C( [0,+\\infty,[0,+\\infty$, $a(t$ may be singular at $t=0$. We show that there exist two positive solutions by using two different fixed point theorems respectively. As an application, some examples are included to illustrate the main results. In particular, our criteria extend and improve some known results.

  12. Real-time ed end-point Polymerase Chain Reaction per la quantizzazione del DNA di Citomegalovirus: confronto tra metodi e con il test per l’antigene pp65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Allice

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitave Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR for Cytomegalovirus (CMV DNA provides highly sensitive and specific data for detecting CMV as well as monitoring the infection and determining the appropriate antiviral strategy.To determine the clinical application of a recently introduced real-time (RT PCR assay for CMV DNA quantitation in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs and defining its correlation with the commercial quantitative end-point (EP PCR method COBAS AMPLICOR CMV Monitor and pp65 antigen test. Sequential PBL samples (n=158 from 32 liver transplanted patients with CMV asymptomatic infection and positive for CMV DNA by EP-PCR were retrospectively analysed with RT-PCR and studied according to pp65 antigen levels. A good correlation was found between RT-PCR and pp65 antigen test (r=0.691 and between the two PCR assays (r=0.761. RT-PCR data were significantly higher in pre-emptive treated patients (those with >20 pp65+positive cells, median value: 3.8 log10 copies/500,000 PBLs than in not-treated ones (2.9 logs.According to pp65 levels of 0, 1-10, 11-20, 21-50, 51-100 and >100 positive cells/200,000 PBLs, median CMV DNA load by RT-PCR was 2.6, 3.0, 3.6, 4.0. 4.2 and 4.8, log10 copies/ 500,000 PBLs, respectively (EP-PCR CMV DNA levels: 2. 8, 2.9, 3.8, 3.7, 3.9 and 4.0 logs. For samples with >20 pp65+cells, that is above the level at which pre-emptive therapy was started, RT-PCR values were significantly higher than in groups with less than 20 pp65+cells, whereas EP-PCR values did not significantly differ and showed a slower progression rate. Dilutions of DNA from CMV AD169 strain were used to probe RT-PCR reproducibility (between and intra-assay variability < 2% and sensitivity (100% detection rate at 10 copies/reaction, 28.5% with EP-PCR. A significant improvement is coming from the introduction of RT-PCR to the study of CMV DNA dynamics in differently CMV infected patients due to a more reliable quantitation of CMV DNA for moderate and high

  13. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  14. Application-Defined Decentralized Access Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Dunn, Alan M.; Hofmann, Owen S.; Lee, Michael Z.; Mehdi, Syed Akbar; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    DCAC is a practical OS-level access control system that supports application-defined principals. It allows normal users to perform administrative operations within their privilege, enabling isolation and privilege separation for applications. It does not require centralized policy specification or management, giving applications freedom to manage their principals while the policies are still enforced by the OS. DCAC uses hierarchically-named attributes as a generic framework for user-defined policies such as groups defined by normal users. For both local and networked file systems, its execution time overhead is between 0%–9% on file system microbenchmarks, and under 1% on applications. This paper shows the design and implementation of DCAC, as well as several real-world use cases, including sandboxing applications, enforcing server applications’ security policies, supporting NFS, and authenticating user-defined sub-principals in SSH, all with minimal code changes. PMID:25426493

  15. Modelling point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2009-01-01

    processes whose realizations contain such linear structures. Such a point process is constructed sequentially by placing one point at a time. The points are placed in such a way that new points are often placed close to previously placed points, and the points form roughly line shaped structures. We...... consider simulations of this model and compare with real data....

  16. Modelling point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    processes whose realizations contain such linear structures. Such a point process is constructed sequentially by placing one point at a time. The points are placed in such a way that new points are often placed close to previously placed points, and the points form roughly line shaped structures. We...... consider simulations of this model and compare with real data....

  17. Point of care technology or standard laboratory service in an emergency department: is there a difference in time to action? A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer Mogensen, Christian; Borch, Anders; Brandslund, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    services. However, the question is if the time to clinical action is also reduced if a decisive laboratory answer is available during the first contact between the patient and doctor. The present study addresses this question: Does a laboratory answer, provided by POCT to the doctor who first attends...

  18. Time-Dependent Searches for Point Sources of Neutrinos with the 4O-String and 22-String Configurations of IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents four searches for flaring sources of neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope. For the first time, a search is performed over the entire parameter space of energy, direction, and time with sensitivity to neutrino flares lasting between 20 micro-s and a year duration from astrophysical sources. Searches that integrate over time are less sensitive to flares because they are affected by a larger background of atmospheric neutrinos and muons that can be reduced by the use of additional timing information. Flaring sources considered here, such as active galactic nuclei, soft gamma-ray repeaters, and gamma-ray bursts, are promising candidate neutrino emitters. Two searches are "untriggered" in the sense that they look for any possible flare in the entire sky and from a predefined catalog of sources from which photon flares have been recorded. The other two searches are triggered by multi-wavelength information on flares from blazars and from a soft gamma-ray repeater. One triggered search uses lightcurves from Fermi-LAT which provides continuous monitoring. A second triggered search uses information where the flux states have been measured only for short periods of time near the flares. The untriggered searches use data taken by 40 strings of IceCube between 2008 April 5 and 2009 May 20. The triggered searches also use data taken by the 22-string configuration of IceCube operating between 2007 May 31 and 2008 April 5. The results from all four searches are compatible with a fluctuation of the background.

  19. Time-Dependent Searches for Point Sources of Neutrinos with the 40-String and 22-String Configurations of IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatikos, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents four searches for flaring sources of neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope. For the first time, a search is performed over the entire parameter space of energy, direction and time with sensitivity to neutrino flares lasting between 20 microseconds and a year duration from astrophysical sources. Searches which integrate over time are less sensitive to flares because they are affected by a larger background of atmospheric neutrinos and muons that can be reduced by the use of additional timing information. Flaring sources considered here, such as active galactic nuclei, soft gamma ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts, are promising candidate neutrino emitters. Two searches are untriggered in the sense that they look for any possible flare in the entire sky and from a predefined catalog of sources from which photon flares have been recorded. The other two searches are triggered by multi-wavelength information on flares from blazars and from a soft gamma-ray repeater. One triggered search uses lightcurves from Fermi-LAT which provides continuous monitoring. A second triggered search uses information where the flux states have been measured only for short periods of time near the flares. The untriggered searches use data taken by 40 strings of IceCube between Apr 5, 2008 and May 20, 2009. The triggered searches also use data taken by the 22-string configuration of IceCube operating between May 31, 2007 and Apr 5, 2008. The results from all four searches are compatible with a fluctuation of the background.

  20. Exploratory space-time analysis of dengue incidence in Trinidad: a retrospective study using travel hubs as dispersal points, 1998-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Karmesh D; Mahabir, Ron S; Curtin, Kevin M; Sutherland, Joan M; Agard, John B; Chadee, Dave D

    2014-07-22

    Dengue is an acute arboviral disease responsible for most of the illness and death in tropical and subtropical regions. Over the last 25 years there has been increase epidemic activity of the disease in the Caribbean, with the co-circulation of multiple serotypes. An understanding of the space and time dynamics of dengue could provide health agencies with important clues for reducing its impact. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) cases observed for the period 1998-2004 were georeferenced using Geographic Information System software. Spatial clustering was calculated for individual years and for the entire study period using the Nearest Neighbor Index. Space and time interaction between DHF cases was determined using the Knox Test while the Nearest Neighbor Hierarchical method was used to extract DHF hot spots. All space and time distances calculated were validated using the Pearson r significance test. Results shows that (1) a decrease in mean distance between DHF cases correlates with activity leading up to an outbreak, (2) a decrease in temporal distance between DHF cases leads to increased geographic spread of the disease, with an outbreak occurrence about every 2 years, and (3) a general pattern in the movement of dengue incidents from more rural to urban settings leading up to an outbreak with hotspot areas associated with transportation hubs in Trinidad. Considering only the spatial dimension of the disease, results suggest that DHF cases become more concentrated leading up to an outbreak. However, with the additional consideration of time, results suggest that when an outbreak occurs incidents occur more rapidly in time leading to a parallel increase in the rate of distribution of the disease across space. The results of this study can be used by public health officers to help visualize and understand the spatial and temporal patterns of dengue, and to prepare warnings for the public. Dengue space-time patterns and hotspot detection will provide useful

  1. Point shear wave ultrasound elastography with Esaote compared to real-time 2D shear wave elastography with supersonic imagine for the quantification of liver stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulazzani, L; Salvatore, V; Ravaioli, F; Allegretti, G; Matassoni, F; Granata, R; Ferrarini, A; Stefanescu, H; Piscaglia, Fabio

    2017-09-01

    Different shear wave elastography (SWE) machines able to quantify liver stiffness (LS) have been recently introduced by various companies. The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement between point SWE with Esaote MyLab Twice (pSWE.ESA) and 2D SWE with Aixplorer SuperSonic (2D SWE.SSI). Moreover, we assessed the correlation of these machines with Fibroscan in a subgroup of patients. A total of 81 liver disease patients and 27 subjects without liver disease accessing the ultrasound lab were considered. Exclusion criteria were liver nodules, BMI >35, and severe comorbidities. LS was sampled from the same intercostal space with both pSWE.ESA and 2D SWE.SSI and values were tested with Lin's analysis and Bland-Altman analysis (B&A). Agreement between each SWE machine and Fibroscan was assessed in 26 liver disease patients with Spearman correlation. Precision and accuracy between pSWE.ESA and 2D SWE.SSI were, respectively, 0.839 and 0.999. B&A showed a mean of only -0.2 kPa, with no systematic deviation between the techniques and limits of agreement at -11.6 and 11.3 kPa. Spearman's rho correlation versus Fibroscan was 0.849 for pSWE.ESA and 0.878 for 2D SWE.SSI. The relationship became less strict in the higher range of LS (≥15.2 kPa), corresponding to cirrhosis. The overall degree of concordance of pSWE.ESA and 2D SWE.SSI in measuring LS resulted remarkable, also when compared with Fibroscan. The less strict correlation for patients with LS in the higher range would not affect the staging of disease as such patients are anyhow classified as cirrhotic.

  2. The reliability of point-of-care prothrombin time testing. A comparison of CoaguChek S and XS INR measurements with hospital laboratory monitoring.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, F

    2010-02-01

    The development of point-of-care (POC) testing devices enables patients to test their own international normalized ratio (INR) at home. However, previous studies have shown that when compared with clinical laboratory values, statistically significant differences may occur between the two methods of INR measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the CoaguChek S and XS POC meters relative to clinical laboratory measurements. As part of a randomized, crossover patient self-testing (PST) study at Cork University Hospital, patients were randomized to 6 months PST or 6 months routine care by the anticoagulation management service. During the PST arm of the study, patients measured their INR at home using the CoaguChek S or XS POC meter. External quality control was performed at enrollment, 2 months and 4 months by comparing the POC measured INR with the laboratory determined value. One hundred and fifty-one patients provided 673 paired samples. Good correlation was shown between the two methods of determination (r = 0.91), however, statistically significant differences did occur. A Bland-Altman plot illustrated good agreement of INR values between 2.0 and 3.5 INR units but there was increasing disagreement as the INR rose above 3.5. Eighty-seven per cent of all dual measurements were within the recommended 0.5 INR units of each other. This study adds to the growing evidence that POC testing is a reliable and safe alternative to hospital laboratory monitoring but highlights the importance of external quality control when these devices are used for monitoring oral anticoagulation.

  3. Accuracy Constraint Determination in Fixed-Point System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serizel R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of digital signal processing applications are specified and designed with floatingpoint arithmetic but are finally implemented using fixed-point architectures. Thus, the design flow requires a floating-point to fixed-point conversion stage which optimizes the implementation cost under execution time and accuracy constraints. This accuracy constraint is linked to the application performances and the determination of this constraint is one of the key issues of the conversion process. In this paper, a method is proposed to determine the accuracy constraint from the application performance. The fixed-point system is modeled with an infinite precision version of the system and a single noise source located at the system output. Then, an iterative approach for optimizing the fixed-point specification under the application performance constraint is defined and detailed. Finally the efficiency of our approach is demonstrated by experiments on an MP3 encoder.

  4. Defining safety goals. 2. Basic Consideration on Defining Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakata, T.

    2001-01-01

    cancer and severe hereditary effects are 10 x 10 -2 /Sv and 1.3 x10 -2 /Sv, respectively. The basic safety goals can be expressed by the complementary accumulative distribution function (CCDF) of dose versus frequencies of events: Pc(C > Cp) 5 (Cp/Co) -α . The aversion factor a is here expressed by the following arbitrary equation, which gives a polynomial curve of the order of m on a logarithmic plane: α = a+b(log(Cp/Co)) m , where: Pc = CCDF frequency for Cp (/yr), Cp = dose (mSv), Co = Cp for Pc =1, a, b, m = constants. Figure 1 shows a typical tolerable risk profile (risk limit curve), which is drawn so that all the points obtained in the previous discussions are above the curve (Co=1, a=1, b=0.0772, and m = 2). Safety criteria by ANS (Ref. 2) and SHE (Ref. 3) are shown in Fig. 1 for comparison. An aversion of a factor of 2 is resulted between 1 mSv and 1 Sv. No ALARA is included, which must be considered in defining specific safety goals. The frequency of a single class of events must be lower than the CCDF profile, and a curve lower by a factor of 10 is drawn in Fig. 1. The doses referenced in the current Japanese safety guidelines and site criteria are shown in Fig. 1. The referenced doses seem reasonable, considering the conservatism in the analysis of design-basis accidents. Specific safety goals for each sort of facility can be defined based on the basic safety goals, reflecting the characteristics of the facilities and considering ALARA. The indexes of engineering terms, such as CMF and LERF, are preferable for nuclear power plants, although interpretation from dose to the engineering terms is needed. Other indexes may be used (such as frequency of criticality accidents, etc.) for facilities except for power plants. The applicability of safety goals will thus be improved. Figure 2 shows the relative risk factors (1, 1%, and 0.1%) versus the severity of radiation effects. This might indicate the adequacy of the risk factors. The absolute risk limits, which

  5. A comparison of monthly precipitation point estimates at 6 locations in Iran using integration of soft computing methods and GARCH time series model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Saeid; Behmanesh, Javad; Khalili, Keivan

    2017-11-01

    Precipitation plays an important role in determining the climate of a region. Precise estimation of precipitation is required to manage and plan water resources, as well as other related applications such as hydrology, climatology, meteorology and agriculture. Time series of hydrologic variables such as precipitation are composed of deterministic and stochastic parts. Despite this fact, the stochastic part of the precipitation data is not usually considered in modeling of precipitation process. As an innovation, the present study introduces three new hybrid models by integrating soft computing methods including multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), Bayesian networks (BN) and gene expression programming (GEP) with a time series model, namely generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) for modeling of the monthly precipitation. For this purpose, the deterministic (obtained by soft computing methods) and stochastic (obtained by GARCH time series model) parts are combined with each other. To carry out this research, monthly precipitation data of Babolsar, Bandar Anzali, Gorgan, Ramsar, Tehran and Urmia stations with different climates in Iran were used during the period of 1965-2014. Root mean square error (RMSE), relative root mean square error (RRMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and determination coefficient (R2) were employed to evaluate the performance of conventional/single MARS, BN and GEP, as well as the proposed MARS-GARCH, BN-GARCH and GEP-GARCH hybrid models. It was found that the proposed novel models are more precise than single MARS, BN and GEP models. Overall, MARS-GARCH and BN-GARCH models yielded better accuracy than GEP-GARCH. The results of the present study confirmed the suitability of proposed methodology for precise modeling of precipitation.

  6. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  7. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  8. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  9. History of Maltreatment in Childhood and Subsequent Parenting Stress in At-Risk, First-Time Mothers: Identifying Points of Intervention During Home Visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Ammerman, Robert T; Teeters, Angelique R; Bensman, Heather E; Allen, Elizabeth K; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B

    2017-04-01

    Home visiting is an effective preventive intervention that can improve parenting outcomes for at-risk, new mothers, thereby optimizing subsequent child development. A history of maltreatment in childhood is common in mothers participating in home visiting, yet the extent to which such a history is related to parenting outcomes during home visiting is unknown. The current study evaluated whether mothers with a history of maltreatment in childhood respond less favorably to home visiting by examining the direct and indirect pathways to subsequent parenting stress, a key parenting outcome affecting child development. First-time mothers (N = 220; age range = 16-42) participating in one of two home visiting programs, Healthy Families America or Nurse Family Partnership, were evaluated at enrollment and again at 9-and 18-month post-enrollment assessments. Researchers administered measures of maternal history of maltreatment in childhood, depressive symptoms, social support, and parenting stress. Maternal history of maltreatment in childhood predicted worsening parenting stress at the 18-month assessment. Mediation modeling identified two indirect pathways, one involving social support at enrollment and one involving persistent depressive symptoms during home visiting, that explained the relation between a history of maltreatment in childhood and parenting stress at the 18-month assessment. Ways to improve the preventive effects of home visiting for mothers with a history of maltreatment in childhood through the identification of relevant intervention targets and their ideal time of administration are discussed.

  10. A self-defining hierarchical data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Self-Defining Data System (SDS) is a system which allows the creation of self-defining hierarchical data structures in a form which allows the data to be moved between different machine architectures. Because the structures are self-defining they can be used for communication between independent modules in a distributed system. Unlike disk-based hierarchical data systems such as Starlink's HDS, SDS works entirely in memory and is very fast. Data structures are created and manipulated as internal dynamic structures in memory managed by SDS itself. A structure may then be exported into a caller supplied memory buffer in a defined external format. This structure can be written as a file or sent as a message to another machine. It remains static in structure until it is reimported into SDS. SDS is written in portable C and has been run on a number of different machine architectures. Structures are portable between machines with SDS looking after conversion of byte order, floating point format, and alignment. A Fortran callable version is also available for some machines.

  11. Innate immunity phenotypic features point toward simultaneous raise of activation and modulation events following 17DD live attenuated yellow fever first-time vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marina Angela; Silva, Maria Luiza; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Ribeiro, José Geraldo Leite; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Marciano, Ana Paula Vieira; Homma, Akira; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2008-02-26

    Detailed multiparametric phenotypic investigation aiming to characterize the kinetics of the innate immune response in the peripheral blood following 17DD yellow fever (17DD-YF) first-time vaccination was performed. Results showed increased frequency of monocytes and NK cell subpopulations besides unexpected up-regulation of granulocytes activation status (CD28+/CD23+ and CD28+/HLA-DR+, respectively). Up-regulation of Fcgamma-R and IL-10-R expression emerge as putative events underlying the mixed pattern of phenotypic features triggered by the 17DD yellow fever (17DD-YF) vaccination. Mixed pattern of chemokine receptors expression further support our hypothesis that a parallel establishment of activation/modulation microenvironment plays a pivotal role in the protective immunity triggered by the 17DD-YF vaccine.

  12. Defining Marriage: Classification, Interpretation, and Definitional Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Macagno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The classification of a state of affairs under a legal category can be considered as a kind of con- densed decision that can be made explicit, analyzed, and assessed us- ing argumentation schemes. In this paper, the controversial conflict of opinions concerning the nature of “marriage” in Obergefell v. Hodges is analyzed pointing out the dialecti- cal strategies used for addressing the interpretive doubts. The dispute about the same-sex couples’ right to marry hides a much deeper disa- greement not only about what mar- riage is, but more importantly about the dialectical rules for defining it.

  13. Fit of experimental points to the sum of two (or one) exponentials with background. Program for ODRA 1305 computer. Part 2: for time analysers with constant dead time after each registered pulse (AC-256 type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Krynicka-Drozdowicz, E.

    1979-01-01

    The LAMA program (in FORTRAN 1900 language), which fits the set of decaying experimental values to the sum of the two (or one) exponentials with background, is described. The method of calculation and its accuracy and the interpretation of the program results are given. The changes and the extensions of the calculation, referred to the dead time effect taken into account for time analysers having the constant dead time after each registered pulse, are described. (author)

  14. Visuomotor mental rotation: the reaction time advantage for anti-pointing is not influenced by perceptual experience with the cardinal axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Kristina A; Heath, Matthew

    2010-03-01

    In the visuomotor mental rotation (VMR) paradigm, participants execute a center-out reaching movement to a location that deviates from a visual cue by a predetermined instruction angle. Previous work has demonstrated a linear increase in reaction time (RT) as a function of the amplitude of the instruction angle (Georgopoulos and Massey in Exp Brain Res 65:361-370, 1987). In contrast, we recently reported a RT advantage for an instruction angle of 180 degrees relative to a 90 degrees angle (Neely and Heath in Neurosci Lett 463:194-198, 2009). It is possible, however, that perceptual expertise with the cardinal axes, which are perceptually familiar reference frames, influenced the results of our previous investigation. To address this issue, we employed a VMR paradigm identical to that of our previous work, with the exception that the stimulus array was shifted 45 degrees from the horizontal and vertical meridians. Our results demonstrated that RTs were fastest and least variable when the instruction angle was 0 degrees, followed by 180 degrees, which in turn, was faster than 90 degrees. Such findings establish that the RT advantage for the 180 degrees instruction angle is not influenced by perceptual expertise with the cardinal axes. Moreover, the present results provide convergent evidence that RT is not determined by the angle of rotation; instead, they indicate that response latencies reflect computational differences in the complexity of response remapping.

  15. Clearly Defining Pediatric Massive Transfusion: Cutting Through the Fog and Friction with Combat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    classically been defined as the administration of a large volume of whole blood (WB) or packed red blood cells (PRBCs) over a given time period (e.g...the first 24 hours after injury includingWB, PRBCs, fresh frozen plasma (FFP), platelets (Plt) or cryoprecipitate ( Cryo ). The primary end points were...cluded the demographics of age, weight, sex, and injury mech- anism. Measures of injury severity including Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), AIS for each body

  16. Methods of a large prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point study comparing morning versus evening dosing in hypertensive patients: the Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorie, David A; Rogers, Amy; Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Webb, David J; Willams, Bryan; Brown, Morris; Poulter, Neil; Findlay, Evelyn; Saywood, Wendy; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-02-09

    Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) appears to be a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than daytime BP. The BP lowering effects of most antihypertensive therapies are often greater in the first 12 h compared to the next 12 h. The Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study aims to establish whether evening dosing is more cardioprotective than morning dosing. The TIME study uses the prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point (PROBE) design. TIME recruits participants by advertising in the community, from primary and secondary care, and from databases of consented patients in the UK. Participants must be aged over 18 years, prescribed at least one antihypertensive drug taken once a day, and have a valid email address. After the participants have self-enrolled and consented on the secure TIME website (http://www.timestudy.co.uk) they are randomised to take their antihypertensive medication in the morning or the evening. Participant follow-ups are conducted after 1 month and then every 3 months by automated email. The trial is expected to run for 5 years, randomising 10,269 participants, with average participant follow-up being 4 years. The primary end point is hospitalisation for the composite end point of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke (cerebrovascular accident; CVA) or any vascular death determined by record-linkage. Secondary end points are: each component of the primary end point, hospitalisation for non-fatal stroke, hospitalisation for non-fatal MI, cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, hospitalisation or death from congestive heart failure. The primary outcome will be a comparison of time to first event comparing morning versus evening dosing using an intention-to-treat analysis. The sample size is calculated for a two-sided test to detect 20% superiority at 80% power. TIME has ethical approval in the UK, and results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. UKCRN17071; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ

  17. Defining Plagiarism: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism has repeatedly occurred in Indonesia, resulting in focusing on such academic misbehavior as a “central issue” in Indonesian higher education. One of the issues of addressing plagiarism in higher education is that there is a confusion of defining plagiarism. It seems that Indonesian academics had different perception when defining plagiarism. This article aims at exploring the issue of plagiarism by helping define plagiarism to address confusion among Indonesian academics. This article applies literature review by firs finding relevant articles after identifying databases for literature searching. After the collection of required articles for review, the articles were synthesized before presenting the findings. This study has explored the definition of plagiarism in the context of higher education. This research found that plagiarism is defined in the relation of criminal acts. The huge numbers of discursive features used position plagiaristic acts as an illegal deed. This study also found that cultural backgrounds and exposure to plagiarism were influential in defining plagiarism.

  18. Review of Real-Time 3-Dimensional Image Guided Radiation Therapy on Standard-Equipped Cancer Radiation Therapy Systems: Are We at the Tipping Point for the Era of Real-Time Radiation Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keall, Paul J; Nguyen, Doan Trang; O'Brien, Ricky; Zhang, Pengpeng; Happersett, Laura; Bertholet, Jenny; Poulsen, Per R

    2018-04-14

    To review real-time 3-dimensional (3D) image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) on standard-equipped cancer radiation therapy systems, focusing on clinically implemented solutions. Three groups in 3 continents have clinically implemented novel real-time 3D IGRT solutions on standard-equipped linear accelerators. These technologies encompass kilovoltage, combined megavoltage-kilovoltage, and combined kilovoltage-optical imaging. The cancer sites treated span pelvic and abdominal tumors for which respiratory motion is present. For each method the 3D-measured motion during treatment is reported. After treatment, dose reconstruction was used to assess the treatment quality in the presence of motion with and without real-time 3D IGRT. The geometric accuracy was quantified through phantom experiments. A literature search was conducted to identify additional real-time 3D IGRT methods that could be clinically implemented in the near future. The real-time 3D IGRT methods were successfully clinically implemented and have been used to treat more than 200 patients. Systematic target position shifts were observed using all 3 methods. Dose reconstruction demonstrated that the delivered dose is closer to the planned dose with real-time 3D IGRT than without real-time 3D IGRT. In addition, compromised target dose coverage and variable normal tissue doses were found without real-time 3D IGRT. The geometric accuracy results with real-time 3D IGRT had a mean error of real-time 3D IGRT methods using standard-equipped radiation therapy systems that could also be clinically implemented. Multiple clinical implementations of real-time 3D IGRT on standard-equipped cancer radiation therapy systems have been demonstrated. Many more approaches that could be implemented were identified. These solutions provide a pathway for the broader adoption of methods to make radiation therapy more accurate, impacting tumor and normal tissue dose, margins, and ultimately patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018

  19. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  20. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, C. L.; Dang, R. S.; Ando, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, G. H.

    2009-09-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  1. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, X H; Zhang, X Y; Liu, C L; Dang, R S; Ando, M; Sugiyama, H; Chen, H S; Ding, G H

    2009-01-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  2. Defining and Selecting Independent Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the Enlightened Shareholder Theory that the author first developed in 2011, this theoretical paper with practical and normative ambitions achieves a better definition of independent director, while improving the understanding of the roles he fulfils on boards of directors. The first part defines constructs like firms, Governance system and Corporate governance, offering a clear distinction between the latter two concepts before explaining the four main missions of a board. The second part defines the ideal independent director by outlining the objective qualities that are necessary and adding those subjective aspects that have turned this into a veritable profession. The third part defines the ideal process for selecting independent directors, based on nominating committees that should themselves be independent. It also includes ways of assessing directors who are currently in function, as well as modalities for renewing their mandates. The paper’s conclusion presents the Paradox of the Independent Director.

  3. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...... in the organizational attributes of specific interest group types. As expected, our comparison of coding schemes reveals a closer link between group attributes and group type in narrower classification schemes based on group organizational characteristics than those based on a behavioral definition of lobbying....

  4. Defining geographic coal markets using price data and shipments data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waarell, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Given the importance of coal in world energy supply an analysis of the relevant geographic market is essential for consumers, producers, as well as for competition policy. The purpose of this paper is to define the relevant economic market for steam and coking coal, and to test the hypothesis of single world markets for these coal products. Methodologically the paper relies on two different tests for defining markets, using both shipments data and price data. The results from both methods point in the same direction. In the case of coking coal the results indicate that the market is essentially global in scope, and also that the market has become more integrated over time. The results for steam coal show that the market is more regional in scope, and there exist no clear tendencies of increased integration over time. One policy implication of the finding that the steam coal market is more regional in scope, and thus that the market boundary is smaller than if the market would have been international, is that a merger and acquisition in this market likely would have been of a more concern for antitrust authorities than the same activity on the coking coal market

  5. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materi