WorldWideScience

Sample records for defined geographic area

  1. Urban Growth Areas, Priority Funding Area (PFA) - Vector Database. PFAs are geographic growth areas defined under State law and designated by local jurisdictions to provide a map for targeting State investment in infrastructure., Published in 1998, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Department of Planning.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Urban Growth Areas dataset current as of 1998. Priority Funding Area (PFA) - Vector Database. PFAs are geographic growth areas defined under State law and designated...

  2. Defining geographic coal markets using price data and shipments data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waarell, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Given the importance of coal in world energy supply an analysis of the relevant geographic market is essential for consumers, producers, as well as for competition policy. The purpose of this paper is to define the relevant economic market for steam and coking coal, and to test the hypothesis of single world markets for these coal products. Methodologically the paper relies on two different tests for defining markets, using both shipments data and price data. The results from both methods point in the same direction. In the case of coking coal the results indicate that the market is essentially global in scope, and also that the market has become more integrated over time. The results for steam coal show that the market is more regional in scope, and there exist no clear tendencies of increased integration over time. One policy implication of the finding that the steam coal market is more regional in scope, and thus that the market boundary is smaller than if the market would have been international, is that a merger and acquisition in this market likely would have been of a more concern for antitrust authorities than the same activity on the coking coal market

  3. 47 CFR 22.911 - Cellular geographic service area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cellular Geographic Service Area (CGSA) of a cellular system is the geographic area considered by the FCC... application for modification of the CGSA using FCC Form 601, a depiction of what the carrier believes the CGSA... location and the locus of points where the predicted or measured median field strength finally drops to 32...

  4. Spatial variation of vulnerability in geographic areas of North Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the spatial variation in vulnerability between different geographical areas of the northern coastal region of Lebanon within the context of armed conflict. The study is based on the ‘vulnerability of space’ approach and will be positioned in the academic debate on vulnerability

  5. Burn Pre-Approval Area, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [burn_preapproval_area_LOSCO_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a region dataset delineating the areas of offshore Louisiana having Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ burning, according...

  6. Evaluating the ecotourism potentials of Naharkhoran area in Gorgan using remote sensing and geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladi, Jafar; Bozorgnia, Delavar

    2010-10-01

    Ecotourism may be defined as voluntary travels to intact natural areas in order to enjoy the natural attractions as well as to get familiar with the culture of local communities. The main factor contributing to inappropriate land uses and natural resource destruction is overaggregation of ecotourists in some specific natural areas such as forests and rangelands; while other parts remain unvisited due to the lack of a proper propagation about those areas. Evaluating the ecotourism potentials of each area would lead to a wider participation of local people in natural resource conservation activities. In order to properly introduce the ecotourism potential areas, at first, we carried out land preparation practices using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques; then, the maps of height, slope and orientation were produced using the digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area. Afterwards, we overlaid these maps and the ecotourism potential areas were identified on the map. These specified areas were classified into two land uses of mass and alternative ecotourism, with three subclasses (including class1, class2 and an inappropriate class) considered for each land use. To classify the image, the training areas determined on the ground using a GPS device (Ground Positioning System) were transferred on the RS image. Subsequently, the ecotourism potential areas were determined using a hybrid method. At the final phase, these areas were compared with the areas determined on the ecotourism potential map; as a result of this comparison, the overlaid ecotourism potential areas were distinguished on the Geographic information System.

  7. Defining Primary Care Shortage Areas: Do GIS-based Measures Yield Different Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael R; Mellor, Jennifer M; Millones, Marco

    2018-02-12

    To examine whether geographic information systems (GIS)-based physician-to-population ratios (PPRs) yield determinations of geographic primary care shortage areas that differ from those based on bounded-area PPRs like those used in the Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) designation process. We used geocoded data on primary care physician (PCP) locations and census block population counts from 1 US state to construct 2 shortage area indicators. The first is a bounded-area shortage indicator defined without GIS methods; the second is a GIS-based measure that measures the populations' spatial proximity to PCP locations. We examined agreement and disagreement between bounded shortage areas and GIS-based shortage areas. Bounded shortage area indicators and GIS-based shortage area indicators agree for the census blocks where the vast majority of our study populations reside. Specifically, 95% and 98% of the populations in our full and urban samples, respectively, reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree. Although agreement is generally high in rural areas (ie, 87% of the rural population reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree), agreement is significantly lower compared to urban areas. One source of disagreement suggests that bounded-area measures may "overlook" some shortages in rural areas; however, other aspects of the HPSA designation process likely mitigate this concern. Another source of disagreement arises from the border-crossing problem, and it is more prevalent. The GIS-based PPRs we employed would yield shortage area determinations that are similar to those based on bounded-area PPRs defined for Primary Care Service Areas. Disagreement rates were lower than previous studies have found. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Violent crime exposure classification and adverse birth outcomes: a geographically-defined cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring Amy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the reproductive and public health literature. When crime has been used in research, it has been variably defined, resulting in non-comparable associations across studies. Methods Using geocoded linked birth record, crime and census data in multilevel models, this paper explored the relevance of four spatial violent crime exposures: two proximal violent crime categorizations (count of violent crime within a one-half mile radius of maternal residence and distance from maternal residence to nearest violent crime and two area-level crime categorizations (count of violent crimes within a block group and block group rate of violent crimes for adverse birth events among women in living in the city of Raleigh NC crime report area in 1999–2001. Models were adjusted for maternal age and education and area-level deprivation. Results In black and white non-Hispanic race-stratified models, crime characterized as a proximal exposure was not able to distinguish between women experiencing adverse and women experiencing normal birth outcomes. Violent crime characterized as a neighborhood attribute was positively associated with preterm birth and low birth weight among non-Hispanic white and black women. No statistically significant interaction between area-deprivation and violent crime category was observed. Conclusion Crime is variably categorized in the literature, with little rationale provided for crime type or categorization employed. This research represents the first time multiple crime categorizations have been directly compared in association with health outcomes. Finding an effect of area-level violent crime suggests crime may best be characterized as a neighborhood attribute with important implication for adverse birth outcomes.

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Torrance Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Otero Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  11. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Eddy Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  12. INDICATORS FOR DEFINING THE EMITTING AREAS IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Nakovski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk estimation or volatility estimation at financial markets, particularly stock exchange markets, is complex Tourism will continue to grow at a faster pace in the future, and it will be one of the leading businesses in the development of global prosperity and welfare but it will be heavily influenced by contemporary trends, such as; demographic trends expressed by the demographic characteristics of the population; economic trends expressed by a decline in poverty and a growth of the middle class; technological revolution and evolution; digitalization of society and tourism; modern and healthy lifestyle; political tensions; security; the threat of terror etc. When we talk about tourism the first signs can be found from the statistic indicators, which show the movement of the tourism markets and the movement of the tourists. Every area of the globe, more or less has a certain attractions that can attract tourist. The authors believe that the most important thing in the development of tourism is how to define the target groups and in which direction to move the tourist offers and destinations so they can be attractive to a certain population. The purpose of this paper will be the analysis of tourist flows in several countries from which we will define the indicators in finding emitting areas in tourism.

  13. Defining urban and rural areas: a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Blanca; Roca, Josep

    2017-10-01

    The separation between the countryside and the city, from rural and urban areas, has been one of the central themes of the literature on urban and territorial studies. The seminal work of Kingsley Davis [10] in the 1950s introduced a wide and fruitful debate which, however, has not yet concluded in a rigorous definition that allows for comparative studies at the national and subnational levels of a scientific nature. In particular, the United Nations (UN) definition of urban and rural population is overly linked to political and administrative factors that make it difficult to use data adequately to understand the human settlement structure of different countries. The present paper seeks to define a more rigorous methodology for the identification of rural and urban areas. For this purpose it uses the night lights supplied by the SNPP satellite, and more specifically by the VIIRS sensor for the determination of the urbanization gradient, and by means of the same construct a more realistic indicator than the statistics provided by the UN. The arrival of electrification to nearly every corner of the planet is certainly the first and most meaningful indicator of artificialization of land. In this sense, this paper proposes a new methodology designed to identify highly impacted (urbanized) landscapes worldwide based on the analysis of satellite imagery of night-time lights. The application of this methodology on a global scale identifies the land highly impacted by light, the urbanization process, and allows an index to be drawn up of Land Impacted by Light per capita (LILpc) as an indicator of the level of urbanization. The methodology used in this paper can be summarized in the following steps: a) a logistic regression between US Urban Areas (UA), as a dependent variable, and night-time light intensity, as an explanatory variable, allows us to establish a nightlight intensity level for the determination of Areas Highly Impacted by Light (AHIL); b) the delimitation of

  14. 40 CFR 51.25 - What geographic area must my state's inventory cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions Reporting Requirements Specific Reporting Requirements § 51.25 What geographic area must my state... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What geographic area must my state's inventory cover? 51.25 Section 51.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  15. Software-defined optical network for metro-scale geographically distributed data centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Payman; Wen, Ke; Xu, Junjie; Bergman, Keren

    2016-05-30

    The emergence of cloud computing and big data has rapidly increased the deployment of small and mid-sized data centers. Enterprises and cloud providers require an agile network among these data centers to empower application reliability and flexible scalability. We present a software-defined inter data center network to enable on-demand scale out of data centers on a metro-scale optical network. The architecture consists of a combined space/wavelength switching platform and a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) control plane equipped with a wavelength and routing assignment module. It enables establishing transparent and bandwidth-selective connections from L2/L3 switches, on-demand. The architecture is evaluated in a testbed consisting of 3 data centers, 5-25 km apart. We successfully demonstrated end-to-end bulk data transfer and Virtual Machine (VM) migrations across data centers with less than 100 ms connection setup time and close to full link capacity utilization.

  16. Dispersant Pre-Approval Area, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) d[ispersant_preapproval_area_LOSCO_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a region dataset delineating the areas of offshore Louisiana having Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of dispersants to break up an...

  17. Burn Exclusion Areas from USCG source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [burn_exclusion_areas_USCG_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset delineating areas in the Gulf of Mexico that are excluded from Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ...

  18. Geographic name "zagora" and its reference to areas in the Dalmatian hinterland in the selected newspaper medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Vukosav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Croatian language, the word "zagora" or "zagorje" refers to an area "on the other side of a mountain or a hill". Throughout history, this term has been widely used to describe places physically detached from some other, economically or politically more prominent areas; and has thus been adopted as a geographic name (toponym for places which were "in contrast" to such areas and separated from them by an element of terrain. The term zagora is therefore a geographic name which denotes an area observed from an outside point of view, and which is later on accepted by the domicile population, becoming an endonym. In the context of the Croatian national territory, the most prominent usage of this toponym has been present in specific traditional regions in northern and southern Croatia; namely, Hrvatsko zagorje in northern Croatia, and a rather undefined area in the Dalmatian hinterland in southern Croatia. The extent and the degree of identification of the areas in southern Croatia bearing that particular geographic name have not been precisely defined, although there are many obvious indications of the existence of such a region in many contemporary sources. The aim of this paper is to research the perceptual character of an area in the Dalmatian hinterland in relation to geographic names Zagora and Dalmatinska zagora by means of content analysis. The final conclusions are drawn on the basis of informal geographic data retrieval from a chosen contemporary medium source (Slobodna Dalmacija newspaper. The observed extent of perception provides provisional maps which serve as approximations of collective cognitive maps and represents a starting point for a more extensive research on vernacular aspects of the Dalmatian hinterland.

  19. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients by Geographic Area, Sex and Eligibility, December 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients by Geographic Area, Sex and Eligibility (December 2010) is produced using the data found in Table 10 from the SSI...

  20. Nonattainment Areas in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, EPA (2006) [Nonattainment_LA_EPA_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — EPA Region 6 NonAttainment Areas in Louisiana, current as of May 2006. This shapefile contains parish boundaries and attributes that determine whether the parishes...

  1. Demographic monitoring of wild muriqui populations: Criteria for defining priority areas and monitoring intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, Karen B; Possamai, Carla B; Tabacow, Fernanda P; Pissinatti, Alcides; Lanna, Andre M; Rodrigues de Melo, Fabiano; Moreira, Leandro; Talebi, Maurício; Breves, Paula; Mendes, Sérgio L; Jerusalinsky, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    Demographic data are essential to assessments of the status of endangered species. However, establishing an integrated monitoring program to obtain useful data on contemporary and future population trends requires both the identification of priority areas and populations and realistic evaluations of the kinds of data that can be obtained under different monitoring regimes. We analyzed all known populations of a critically endangered primate, the muriqui (genus: Brachyteles) using population size, genetic uniqueness, geographic importance (including potential importance in corridor programs) and implementability scores to define monitoring priorities. Our analyses revealed nine priority populations for the northern muriqui (B. hypoxanthus) and nine for the southern muriqui (B. arachnoides). In addition, we employed knowledge of muriqui developmental and life history characteristics to define the minimum monitoring intensity needed to evaluate demographic trends along a continuum ranging from simple descriptive changes in population size to predictions of population changes derived from individual based life histories. Our study, stimulated by the Brazilian government's National Action Plan for the Conservation of Muriquis, is fundamental to meeting the conservation goals for this genus, and also provides a model for defining priorities and methods for the implementation of integrated demographic monitoring programs for other endangered and critically endangered species of primates.

  2. Demographic monitoring of wild muriqui populations: Criteria for defining priority areas and monitoring intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen B Strier

    Full Text Available Demographic data are essential to assessments of the status of endangered species. However, establishing an integrated monitoring program to obtain useful data on contemporary and future population trends requires both the identification of priority areas and populations and realistic evaluations of the kinds of data that can be obtained under different monitoring regimes. We analyzed all known populations of a critically endangered primate, the muriqui (genus: Brachyteles using population size, genetic uniqueness, geographic importance (including potential importance in corridor programs and implementability scores to define monitoring priorities. Our analyses revealed nine priority populations for the northern muriqui (B. hypoxanthus and nine for the southern muriqui (B. arachnoides. In addition, we employed knowledge of muriqui developmental and life history characteristics to define the minimum monitoring intensity needed to evaluate demographic trends along a continuum ranging from simple descriptive changes in population size to predictions of population changes derived from individual based life histories. Our study, stimulated by the Brazilian government's National Action Plan for the Conservation of Muriquis, is fundamental to meeting the conservation goals for this genus, and also provides a model for defining priorities and methods for the implementation of integrated demographic monitoring programs for other endangered and critically endangered species of primates.

  3. Identifying areas of need relative to liver disease: geographic clustering within a health service district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Atem, Nathan; Irvine, Katharine M; Valery, Patricia C; Wojcik, Kyle; Horsfall, Leigh; Johnson, Tracey; Janda, Monika; McPhail, Steven M; Powell, Elizabeth E

    2017-08-01

    Background Many people with chronic liver disease (CLD) are not detected until they present to hospital with advanced disease, when opportunities for intervention are reduced and morbidity is high. In order to build capacity and liver expertise in the community, it is important to focus liver healthcare resources in high-prevalence disease areas and specific populations with an identified need. The aim of the present study was to examine the geographic location of people seen in a tertiary hospital hepatology clinic, as well as ethnic and sociodemographic characteristics of these geographic areas. Methods The geographic locations of hepatology out-patients were identified via the out-patient scheduling database and grouped into statistical area (SA) regions for demographic analysis using data compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Results During the 3-month study period, 943 individuals from 71 SA Level 3 regions attended clinic. Nine SA Level 3 regions accounted for 55% of the entire patient cohort. Geographic clustering was seen especially for people living with chronic hepatitis B virus. There was a wide spectrum of socioeconomic advantage and disadvantage in areas with high liver disease prevalence. Conclusions The geographic area from which people living with CLD travel to access liver health care is extensive. However, the greatest demand for tertiary liver disease speciality care is clustered within specific geographic areas. Outreach programs targeted to these areas may enhance liver disease-specific health service resourcing. What is known about the topic? The demand for tertiary hospital clinical services in CLD is rising. However, there is limited knowledge about the geographic areas from which people living with CLD travel to access liver services, or the ethnic, socioeconomic and education characteristics of these areas. What does this paper add? The present study demonstrates that a substantial proportion of people living with CLD and

  4. Security Analysis of a Software Defined Wide Area Network Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Enterprise wide area network (WAN) is a private network that connects the computers and other devices across an organisation's branch locations and the data centers. It forms the backbone of enterprise communication. Currently, multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) is commonly used to provide this service. As a recent alternative to MPLS, software-dened wide area networking (SD-WAN) solutions are being introduced as an IP based cloud-networking service for enterprises. SD-WAN virtualizes the n...

  5. Geographically varying associations between personality and life satisfaction in the London metropolitan area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokela, M.; Bleidorn, W.; Lamb, M.E.; Gosling, S.D.; Rentfrow, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Residential location is thought to influence people’s well-being, but different individuals may value residential areas differently. We examined how life satisfaction and personality traits are geographically distributed within the UK London metropolitan area, and how the strength of associations

  6. The economic-geographical and environmental polarization as a factor of new functional relations between areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinčić Miroljub A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical clustering, in the way of economic-geographical polarization represents regular and positive process of development of human society. These processes are characterized by stressed intensity, together with relatively short time dimension at the territory of Serbia. Extreme recent ecological polarization is the main consequence of this type of recomposition of economic-geographical elements in the territory of Serbia. At the one hand, anthropogenic or socio-economic areas (locations, axis and crossroads of development are formed, together with the numerous ecological problems as developing barriers, while at the other hand are territories of economic-geographical stagnation also with satisfying quality of basic natural resources and environmental condition. These differences generates and permanently increases their spatial, resource and ecological interdependence.

  7. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schootman Mario

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Methods Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variation and the effect of area-level poverty rate on CRC screening use among persons age 50 or older. Individuals were nested within ZIP codes (ZIP5 areas, which in turn, were nested within aggregations of ZIP codes (ZIP3 areas. Six groups of individual-level covariates were considered as potential mediators. Results An estimated 51.8% of Missourians aged 50 or older adhered to CRC screening recommendations. Nearly 15% of the total variation in CRC screening lay between ZIP5 areas. Persons residing in ZIP5 areas with ≥ 10% of poverty rate had lower odds of CRC screening use than those residing in ZIP5 areas with Conclusion Large geographic variation of CRC screening exists in Missouri. Area-level poverty rate, independent of individual-level characteristics, is a significant predictor of CRC screening, but it only explains a small portion of the geographic heterogeneity of CRC screening. Individual-level factors we examined do not mediate the effect of the area-level poverty rate on CRC screening. Future studies should identify other area- and individual-level characteristics associated with CRC screening in Missouri.

  8. Identifying Geographic Areas at Risk of Soil-transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems: Boaco, Nicaragua as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Podest, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Several types of intestinal nematodes, that can infect humans and specially school-age children living in poverty, develop part of their life cycle in soil. Presence and survival of these parasites in the soil depend on given environmental characteristics like temperature and moisture that can be inferred with remote sensing (RS) technology. Prevalence of diseases caused by these parasitic worms can be controlled and even eradicated with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Reliable and updated identification of geographic areas at risk is required to implement effective public health programs; to calculate amount of drug required and to distribute funding for sanitation projects. RS technology and geographical information systems (GIS) will be used to analyze for associations between in situ prevalence and remotely sensed data in order to establish RS proxies of environmental parameters that indicate the presence of these parasits. In situ data on helminthisasis will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define clusters and areas at risk. Such information will help to the implementation of time and cost efficient control programs and sanitation efforts.

  9. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Min; Schootman, Mario; Yun, Shumei

    2008-10-16

    With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variation and the effect of area-level poverty rate on CRC screening use among persons age 50 or older. Individuals were nested within ZIP codes (ZIP5 areas), which in turn, were nested within aggregations of ZIP codes (ZIP3 areas). Six groups of individual-level covariates were considered as potential mediators. An estimated 51.8% of Missourians aged 50 or older adhered to CRC screening recommendations. Nearly 15% of the total variation in CRC screening lay between ZIP5 areas. Persons residing in ZIP5 areas with > or = 10% of poverty rate had lower odds of CRC screening use than those residing in ZIP5 areas with poverty rate (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.58-0.81; adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98). Persons who resided in ZIP3 areas with > or = 20% poverty rate also had lower odds of following CRC screening guidelines than those residing in ZIP3 areas with poverty rate (unadjusted OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.83; adjusted OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.83). Obesity, history of depression/anxiety and access to care were associated with CRC screening, but did not mediate the effect of area-level poverty on CRC screening. Large geographic variation of CRC screening exists in Missouri. Area-level poverty rate, independent of individual-level characteristics, is a significant predictor of CRC screening, but it only explains a small portion of the geographic heterogeneity of CRC screening. Individual-level factors we examined do not mediate the effect of the area-level poverty rate on

  10. 41 CFR 101-39.208 - Vehicles removed from defined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Services... operated outside the geographical area served by the issuing GSA IFMS fleet management center. However... shall notify the issuing GSA IFMS fleet management center of the following: (1) The location at which...

  11. Use of geographical information systems for delimiting health service areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechen Xiong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of choosing a practical and valid method to delimit health service areas of regional health service centres to build a regional basic health service network, we first drew lessons from traditional geographic methods of delimiting trade areas and then applied two methods to delimit health service areas, i.e. the proximal method and the gravity method. We verified the effectiveness of these methods by an index of similarity with the aid of real in-patient data. Calculation of the similarity indices shows that health service areas delimited by the proximal method has an 87.3% similarity to the real health service area, while the gravity method gives 88.6%. Our conclusion is that both methods are suitable for delimiting health service areas at regional health service centres, but find that the proximal method is more practicable in operational terms for delimiting health service areas in region health planning.

  12. The effect of geographical centralization of education for outmigration from fringe areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    During the last 25 years population in fringe areas in Denmark has declined. The main reason has been that young people leave these areas and seldom come back. In this study is examined the connection between young people’s outmigration, their choice of education and the location of educational...... institutions. It is shown that geographical centralization of education since 1990 and the tendency for more young people to choose higher education has resulted in an increase in the outmigration of young people from fringe areas...

  13. 15 CFR 930.98 - Federally assisted activities outside of the coastal zone or the described geographic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the coastal zone or the described geographic area. 930.98 Section 930.98 Commerce and Foreign... Federally assisted activities outside of the coastal zone or the described geographic area. State agencies should monitor proposed federal assistance activities outside of the coastal zone or the described...

  14. 75 FR 27286 - McKelvie Geographic Area Range Allotment Management Planning on the Samuel R. McKelvie National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... range allotment management planning on the McKelvie Geographic Area, Samuel R. McKelvie National Forest... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service McKelvie Geographic Area Range Allotment Management Planning on the Samuel R. McKelvie National Forest, Bessey Ranger District in Nebraska AGENCY: Forest...

  15. Geographic miss of lung tumours due to respiratory motion: a comparison of 3D vs 4D PET/CT defined target volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, Jason; Kron, Tomas; Siva, Shankar; Simoens, Nathalie; Edgar, Amanda; Everitt, Sarah; Schneider, Michal E; Hicks, Rodney J

    2014-01-01

    PET/CT scans acquired in the radiotherapy treatment position are typically performed without compensating for respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to investigate geographic miss of lung tumours due to respiratory motion for target volumes defined on a standard 3D-PET/CT. 29 patients staged for pulmonary malignancy who completed both a 3D-PET/CT and 4D-PET/CT were included. A 3D-Gross Tumour Volume (GTV) was defined on the standard whole body PET/CT scan. Subsequently a 4D-GTV was defined on a 4D-PET/CT MIP. A 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm symmetrical and 15×10 mm asymmetrical Planning Target Volume (PTV) was created by expanding the 3D-GTV and 4D-GTV’s. A 3D conformal plan was generated and calculated to cover the 3D-PTV. The 3D plan was transferred to the 4D-PTV and analysed for geographic miss. Three types of miss were measured. Type 1: any part of the 4D-GTV outside the 3D-PTV. Type 2: any part of the 4D-PTV outside the 3D-PTV. Type 3: any part of the 4D-PTV receiving less than 95% of the prescribed dose. The lesion motion was measured to look at the association between lesion motion and geographic miss. When a standard 15 mm or asymmetrical PTV margin was used there were 1/29 (3%) Type 1 misses. This increased 7/29 (24%) for the 10 mm margin and 23/29 (79%) for a 5 mm margin. All patients for all margins had a Type 2 geographic miss. There was a Type 3 miss in 25 out of 29 cases in the 5, 10, and 15 mm PTV margin groups. The asymmetrical margin had one additional Type 3 miss. Pearson analysis showed a correlation (p < 0.01) between lesion motion and the severity of the different types of geographic miss. Without any form of motion suppression, the current standard of a 3D- PET/CT and 15 mm PTV margin employed for lung lesions has an increasing risk of significant geographic miss when tumour motion increases. Use of smaller asymmetric margins in the cranio-caudal direction does not comprise tumour coverage. Reducing PTV margins for volumes defined on 3D

  16. A method for managing re-identification risk from small geographic areas in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neisa Angelica

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common disclosure control practice for health datasets is to identify small geographic areas and either suppress records from these small areas or aggregate them into larger ones. A recent study provided a method for deciding when an area is too small based on the uniqueness criterion. The uniqueness criterion stipulates that an the area is no longer too small when the proportion of unique individuals on the relevant variables (the quasi-identifiers approaches zero. However, using a uniqueness value of zero is quite a stringent threshold, and is only suitable when the risks from data disclosure are quite high. Other uniqueness thresholds that have been proposed for health data are 5% and 20%. Methods We estimated uniqueness for urban Forward Sortation Areas (FSAs by using the 2001 long form Canadian census data representing 20% of the population. We then constructed two logistic regression models to predict when the uniqueness is greater than the 5% and 20% thresholds, and validated their predictive accuracy using 10-fold cross-validation. Predictor variables included the population size of the FSA and the maximum number of possible values on the quasi-identifiers (the number of equivalence classes. Results All model parameters were significant and the models had very high prediction accuracy, with specificity above 0.9, and sensitivity at 0.87 and 0.74 for the 5% and 20% threshold models respectively. The application of the models was illustrated with an analysis of the Ontario newborn registry and an emergency department dataset. At the higher thresholds considerably fewer records compared to the 0% threshold would be considered to be in small areas and therefore undergo disclosure control actions. We have also included concrete guidance for data custodians in deciding which one of the three uniqueness thresholds to use (0%, 5%, 20%, depending on the mitigating controls that the data recipients have in place, the

  17. Epidemiology of hypertension in Yemen: effects of urbanization and geographical area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Rapi, Stefano; Massetti, Luciano; Al-Hidabi, Dawood; Al Goshae, Husni

    2013-01-01

    Although globalization can contribute to increased blood pressure by spreading unhealthy behaviors, it also provides powerful means to tackle hypertension. The dissemination of information about and advice on cardiovascular prevention and facilitated contact with health services are valuable resources. To investigate the effects of urbanization, geographical area, and air temperature on hypertension burden and kidney damage, a survey was performed in 2008 with a door-to-door approach among urban and rural adult dwellers of three geographic areas (capital, inland, coast) of Yemen. Subjects (n=10 242) received two visits several days apart to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension. Proteinuria (dipstick test ⩾+1) was used as a marker of kidney damage. Prevalence rates were weighted to represent the Yemen population aged 15–69 years in 2008. Rates of hypertension and proteinuria progressively increased from the capital (6.4% 95% confidence level (CI) 5.8–7.0 and 5.1% 4.4–5.9, respectively), to inland areas (7.9% 7.0–8.7 and 6.1% 5.1–7.1), to the coastal area (10.1% 8.9–11.4 and 8.9% 7.3–10.4). When compared with urban dwellers, rural dwellers had similar hypertension prevalence (adjusted odds ratios (ORs) 1.03; 95% CI 0.91–1.17) but higher proteinuria rates (adjusted ORs 1.55; 1.31–1.85). Overall, home temperature was associated with a lower hypertension rate (adjusted OR 0.98; 0.96–0.99). This large population study reveals that the highest burden of hypertension and kidney damage is detectable in remote areas of the country. PMID:23486167

  18. Geographic patterns of vertebrate diversity and identification of relevant areas for conservation in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunção–Albuquerque, M. J. T.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ‘EU Council conclusions on biodiversity post–2010′ re–enforced Europe’s commitment to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. Identifying areas of high–value for biodiversity conservation is an important issue to meet this target. We investigated the geographic pattern of terrestrial vertebrate diversity status in Europe by assessing the species richness, rarity, vulnerability (according to IUCN criteria, and a combined index of the three former for the amphibians, reptiles, bird and mammals of this region. We also correlated the value of all indices with climate and human influence variables. Overall, clear geographic gradients of species diversity were found. The combined biodiversity index indicated that high–value biodiversity areas were mostly located in the Mediterranean basin and the highest vulnerability was found in the Iberian peninsula for most taxa. Across all indexes, the proportion of variance explained by climate and human influence factors was moderate to low. The results obtained in this study have the potential to provide valuable support for nature conservation policies in Europe and, consequently, might contribute to mitigate biodiversity decline in this region.

  19. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Tominaga, Kazumichi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Nabika, Toru

    2015-06-26

    Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant's address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271) were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (≤313 m) in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  20. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271 were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (≤313 m in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  1. Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico. PMID:22049037

  2. COMPARISON OF MULTI-SCALE DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS FOR DEFINING WATERWAYS AND CATCHMENTS OVER LARGE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Harris

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs allow for the efficient and consistent creation of waterways and catchment boundaries over large areas. Studies of waterway delineation from DEMs are usually undertaken over small or single catchment areas due to the nature of the problems being investigated. Improvements in Geographic Information Systems (GIS techniques, software, hardware and data allow for analysis of larger data sets and also facilitate a consistent tool for the creation and analysis of waterways over extensive areas. However, rarely are they developed over large regional areas because of the lack of available raw data sets and the amount of work required to create the underlying DEMs. This paper examines definition of waterways and catchments over an area of approximately 25,000 km2 to establish the optimal DEM scale required for waterway delineation over large regional projects. The comparative study analysed multi-scale DEMs over two test areas (Wivenhoe catchment, 543 km2 and a detailed 13 km2 within the Wivenhoe catchment including various data types, scales, quality, and variable catchment input parameters. Historic and available DEM data was compared to high resolution Lidar based DEMs to assess variations in the formation of stream networks. The results identified that, particularly in areas of high elevation change, DEMs at 20 m cell size created from broad scale 1:25,000 data (combined with more detailed data or manual delineation in flat areas are adequate for the creation of waterways and catchments at a regional scale.

  3. Comparison of Multi-Scale Digital Elevation Models for Defining Waterways and Catchments Over Large Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, B.; McDougall, K.; Barry, M.

    2012-07-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) allow for the efficient and consistent creation of waterways and catchment boundaries over large areas. Studies of waterway delineation from DEMs are usually undertaken over small or single catchment areas due to the nature of the problems being investigated. Improvements in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques, software, hardware and data allow for analysis of larger data sets and also facilitate a consistent tool for the creation and analysis of waterways over extensive areas. However, rarely are they developed over large regional areas because of the lack of available raw data sets and the amount of work required to create the underlying DEMs. This paper examines definition of waterways and catchments over an area of approximately 25,000 km2 to establish the optimal DEM scale required for waterway delineation over large regional projects. The comparative study analysed multi-scale DEMs over two test areas (Wivenhoe catchment, 543 km2 and a detailed 13 km2 within the Wivenhoe catchment) including various data types, scales, quality, and variable catchment input parameters. Historic and available DEM data was compared to high resolution Lidar based DEMs to assess variations in the formation of stream networks. The results identified that, particularly in areas of high elevation change, DEMs at 20 m cell size created from broad scale 1:25,000 data (combined with more detailed data or manual delineation in flat areas) are adequate for the creation of waterways and catchments at a regional scale.

  4. Geographic profiling to assess the risk of rare plant poaching in natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.A.; Van Manen, F.T.; Thatcher, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of an expert-assisted spatial model to examine geographic factors influencing the poaching risk of a rare plant (American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius L.) in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA. Following principles of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), we identified a hierarchy of 11 geographic factors deemed important to poaching risk and requested law enforcement personnel of the National Park Service to rank those factors in a series of pair-wise comparisons. We used those comparisons to determine statistical weightings of each factor and combined them into a spatial model predicting poaching risk. We tested the model using 69 locations of previous poaching incidents recorded by law enforcement personnel. These locations occurred more frequently in areas predicted by the model to have a higher risk of poaching than random locations. The results of our study can be used to evaluate resource protection strategies and to target law enforcement activities. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2011.

  5. A GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL SIGNAGE LOCATION SELECTION IN SCENIC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  6. a Geographic Analysis of Optimal Signage Location Selection in Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ling; Long, Ying; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Xiao Ling

    2016-06-01

    As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  7. Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis in a non-endemic area: Inference of the probable geographic area of an infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ramón; Arenas, Roberto; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Frías-De León, María Guadalupe; Vega Memige, María Elisa; Acosta Altamirano, Gustavo; Reyes-Montes, María Del Rocío

    Coccidioidomycosis is one of the most important endemic mycoses in Northern Mexico. However, diagnosing this disease can be challenging, particularly in patients who do not reside in endemic areas. The case of a Mexican HIV+ patient who developed fever, general malaise, a severe cough, and dyspnea during a stay in Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, is presented. Since various diseases are endemic to the state of Guerrero, the doctors originally suspected that the patient had contracted influenza A (H1N1), Q fever, or tuberculosis. All the diagnostic tests for those diseases were negative. The patient had received numerous mosquito bites while staying in Acapulco, and a nodule had appeared on his right cheek. Therefore, malaria, cryptococcosis, and histoplasmosis were also suspected, but those infections were also ruled out through diagnostic tests. A direct microscopic examination was performed using KOH on a sample taken from the cheek nodule. The observation of spherules suggested the presence of a species of Coccidioides. The fungus was isolated, and its identity was confirmed by phenotypic and molecular methods. The geographic area in which the infection was likely acquired was identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The results suggested a probable endogenous reactivation. This clinical case illustrates the difficulties associated with diagnosing coccidioidomycosis in non-endemic areas. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. Using geographic information systems to identify prospective marketing areas for a special library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughy, Rozalynd P; Wilson, Steven P

    2006-05-04

    The Center for Disability Resources (CDR) Library is the largest collection of its kind in the Southeastern United States, consisting of over 5,200 books, videos/DVDs, brochures, and audiotapes covering a variety of disability-related topics, from autism to transition resources. The purpose of the library is to support the information needs of families, faculty, students, staff, and other professionals in South Carolina working with individuals with disabilities. The CDR Library is funded on a yearly basis; therefore, maintaining high usage is crucial. A variety of promotional efforts have been used to attract new patrons to the library. Anyone in South Carolina can check out materials from the library, and most of the patrons use the library remotely by requesting materials, which are then mailed to them. The goal of this project was to identify areas of low geographic usage as a means of identifying locations for future library marketing efforts. Nearly four years worth of library statistics were compiled in a spreadsheet that provided information per county on the number of checkouts, the number of renewals, and the population. Five maps were created using ArcView GIS software to create visual representations of patron checkout and renewal behavior per county. Out of the 46 counties in South Carolina, eight counties never checked out materials from the library. As expected urban areas and counties near the library's physical location have high usage totals. The visual representation of the data made identification of low usage regions easier than using a standalone database with no visual-spatial component. The low usage counties will be the focus of future Center for Disability Resources Library marketing efforts. Due to the impressive visual-spatial representations created with Geographic Information Systems, which more efficiently communicate information than stand-alone database information can, librarians may benefit from the software's use as a

  9. Quantum dot resonant tunneling diode single photon detector with aluminum oxide aperture defined tunneling area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.W.; Kardynal, Beata; Ellis, D.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dot resonant tunneling diode single photon detector with independently defined absorption and sensing areas is demonstrated. The device, in which the tunneling is constricted to an aperture in an insulating layer in the emitter, shows electrical characteristics typical of high quality res...

  10. The loss of species: mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Polidoro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is known about the effects of mangrove area loss on individual mangrove species and local or regional populations. To address this gap, species-specific information on global distribution, population status, life history traits, and major threats were compiled for each of the 70 known species of mangroves. Each species' probability of extinction was assessed under the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Eleven of the 70 mangrove species (16% are at elevated threat of extinction. Particular areas of geographical concern include the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Central America, where as many as 40% of mangroves species present are threatened with extinction. Across the globe, mangrove species found primarily in the high intertidal and upstream estuarine zones, which often have specific freshwater requirements and patchy distributions, are the most threatened because they are often the first cleared for development of aquaculture and agriculture. The loss of mangrove species will have devastating economic and environmental consequences for coastal communities, especially in those areas with low mangrove diversity and high mangrove area or species loss. Several species at high risk of extinction may disappear well before the next decade if existing protective measures are not enforced.

  11. The loss of species: mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidoro, Beth A; Carpenter, Kent E; Collins, Lorna; Duke, Norman C; Ellison, Aaron M; Ellison, Joanna C; Farnsworth, Elizabeth J; Fernando, Edwino S; Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Koedam, Nico E; Livingstone, Suzanne R; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Moore, Gregg E; Ngoc Nam, Vien; Ong, Jin Eong; Primavera, Jurgenne H; Salmo, Severino G; Sanciangco, Jonnell C; Sukardjo, Sukristijono; Wang, Yamin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong

    2010-04-08

    Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is known about the effects of mangrove area loss on individual mangrove species and local or regional populations. To address this gap, species-specific information on global distribution, population status, life history traits, and major threats were compiled for each of the 70 known species of mangroves. Each species' probability of extinction was assessed under the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Eleven of the 70 mangrove species (16%) are at elevated threat of extinction. Particular areas of geographical concern include the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Central America, where as many as 40% of mangroves species present are threatened with extinction. Across the globe, mangrove species found primarily in the high intertidal and upstream estuarine zones, which often have specific freshwater requirements and patchy distributions, are the most threatened because they are often the first cleared for development of aquaculture and agriculture. The loss of mangrove species will have devastating economic and environmental consequences for coastal communities, especially in those areas with low mangrove diversity and high mangrove area or species loss. Several species at high risk of extinction may disappear well before the next decade if existing protective measures are not enforced.

  12. Rates of First Episode of Psychosis in a Defined Catchment Area in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Peritogiannis, Vaios; Mantas, Christos; Tatsioni, Athina; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2013-01-01

    This is the first Greek study presenting epidemiologic data on first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients in a defined catchment area. Data for first episode psychotic patients during a two-year period (2008 and 2009) were obtained by all the mental health providers in the area, public or private. A total of 132 FEP patients were examined in the 2-year period in the catchment area. Most of the patients (61.4%) were diagnosed and treated by private practicing psychiatrists. Statistical analysis sh...

  13. The problem of defining the limits of protected areas in Ukraine regarding to the sustainable land management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б. В. Даниленко

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays all over the world new protected areas are being created. In Ukraine this process is developed within European programs. During the years of independence many new protected areas were created. Large amount of them were included in so called Ukrainian ecological network that ought to be built in 2015. This network is connected with the European ecological network. The governmental reports show high level of the execution of the programs of developing of the protected areas. But in reality we can see that many of new protected areas do not have the determined limits. This results in dangerous human occupation of such lands. Businessmen understand that occupation will be impossible soon. And they think that such protected areas are proclaimed but yet not really exist. And most of Ukrainian courts agree with this. Recent research and publications analyses. Research of management of protected areas through legal means in Ukraine was made by many Ukrainian scientists (V.I. Andreytsev, A.P. Hetman, M.V. Shulga, P.F. Kulynich, A.M. Myroshnychenko and others. At the same time the scientists have not paid enough attention to the problem of defining the limits of protected areas which is now really a great legal problem in Ukraine. Paper objective is the legal problem of defining the limits of protected areas in Ukraine regarding to the sustainable land management. Paper main body. Generally, protected areas are understood to be those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. The definition that has been widely accepted across regional and global frameworks has been provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN in its categorization guidelines for protected areas. The definition is as follows: "A clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services

  14. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildes Solange da Costa Barcelos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF, Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG and São Paulo (SP regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total. Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p < 0.05, while discrimination between active and inactive NC was seen only in extracts from the MG and SP regions (p < 0.05. Using RAPD, the sample from the DF region presented a greater increase compared to the other regions. A relationship between genetic polymorphisms among T. solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

  15. HIV pretreatment drug resistance trends in three geographic areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Claudia; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Quiroz-Morales, Verónica S; Navarro-Álvarez, Samuel; Barrera-Arellano, Carlos A; Casillas-Rodríguez, Jesús; Romero-Mora, Karla A; Gómez-Palacio-Schjetnan, María; Murakami-Ogasawara, Akio; Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2017-11-01

    Pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) levels to NNRTI approaching 10% have recently been reported in Mexico. However, subnational differences may exist in PDR prevalence and transmission dynamics. We longitudinally assessed HIV PDR in three geographic areas of Mexico. HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive individuals were recruited from 2008 to 2016, from the Central Metropolitan Zone (CMZ), Cancun and Tijuana (1194, 773 and 668 respectively). PDR was estimated using the Stanford HIVdb tool from plasma HIV pol sequences. A higher proportion of females, lower education and lower employment rate were observed in Tijuana, while a higher proportion of MSM was observed in the CMZ (P Mexico. Even when increasing trends in efavirenz resistance were observed in the three areas, our observations support that, in a large country such as Mexico, subnational surveillance and locally tailored interventions to address drug resistance may be a reasonable option. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Implementing a geographical information system to assess endemic fluoride areas in Lamphun, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerawasttanasiri, Nonthaphat; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Pingchai, Wichain; Nimchareon, Yuwaree; Sriwichai, Sangworn

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have shown that fluoride can cross the placenta and that exposure to high fluoride during pregnancy may result in premature birth and/or a low birth weight. Lamphun is one of six provinces in Thailand where natural water fluoride (WF) concentrations >10.0 mg/L were found, and it was also found that >50% of households used water with high fluoride levels. Nevertheless, geographical information system (GIS) and maps of endemic fluoride areas are lacking. We aimed to measure the fluoride level of village water supplies to assess endemic fluoride areas and present GIS with maps in Google Maps. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 2016 to January 2017. Purpose sampling was used to identify villages of districts with WF >10.0 mg/L in the Mueang Lamphun, Pasang, and Ban Thi districts. Water samples were collected with the geolocation measured by Smart System Info. Fluoride was analyzed with an ion-selective electrode instrument using a total ionic strength adjustment buffer. WF >0.70 mg/L was used to identify unsafe drinking water and areas with high endemic fluoride levels. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the findings, and MS Excel was used to create the GIS database. Maps were created in Google Earth and presented in Google Maps. We found that WF concentrations ranged between 0.10-13.60 mg/L. Forty-four percent (n=439) of samples were at unsafe levels (>0.70 mg/L), and. 54% (n=303) of villages and 46% (n=79,807) of households used the unsafe drinking water. Fifty percent (n=26) of subdistricts were classified as being endemic fluoride areas. Five subdistricts were endemic fluoride areas, and in those, there were two subdistricts in which every household used unsafe drinking water. These findings show the distribution of endemic fluoride areas and unsafe drinking water in Lamphun. This is useful for health policy authorities, local governments, and villagers and enables collaboration to resolve these issues. The GIS data are

  17. Parametric Method to Define Area of Allowable Configurations while Changing Position of Restricted Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritykin, F. N.; Nefedov, D. I.; Rogoza, Yu A.; Zinchenko, Yu V.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the findings related to the development of the module for automatic collision detection of the manipulator with restricted zones for virtual motion modeling. It proposes the parametric method for specifying the area of allowable joint configurations. The authors study the cases when restricted zones are specified using the horizontal plane or front-projection planes. The joint coordinate space is specified by rectangular axes in the direction of which the angles defining the displacements in turning pairs are laid off. The authors present the results of modeling which enabled to develop a parametric method for specifying a set of cross-sections defining the shape and position of allowable configurations in different positions of a restricted zone. All joint points that define allowable configurations refer to the indicated sections. The area of allowable configurations is specified analytically by using several kinematic surfaces that limit it. A geometric analysis is developed based on the use of the area of allowable configurations characterizing the position of the manipulator and reported restricted zones. The paper presents numerical calculations related to virtual simulation of the manipulator path performed by the mobile robot Varan when using the developed algorithm and restricted zones. The obtained analytical dependencies allow us to define the area of allowable configurations, which is a knowledge pool to ensure the intelligent control of the manipulator path in a predefined environment. The use of the obtained region to synthesize a joint trajectory makes it possible to correct the manipulator path to foresee and eliminate deadlocks when synthesizing motions along the velocity vector.

  18. AREA EFFICIENT FRACTIONAL SAMPLE RATE CONVERSION ARCHITECTURE FOR SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Sahukar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern software defined radios (SDRs use complex signal processing algorithms to realize efficient wireless communication schemes. Several such algorithms require a specific symbol to sample ratio to be maintained. In this context the fractional rate converter (FRC becomes a crucial block in the receiver part of SDR. The paper presents an area optimized dynamic FRC block, for low power SDR applications. The limitations of conventional cascaded interpolator and decimator architecture for FRC are also presented. Extending the SINC function interpolation based architecture; towards high area optimization and providing run time configuration with time register are presented. The area and speed analysis are carried with Xilinx FPGA synthesis tools. Only 15% area occupancy with maximum clock speed of 133 MHz are reported on Spartan-6 Lx45 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA.

  19. A criterion for flatness in minimal area metrics that define string diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, K.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that the string diagrams of closed string field theory be defined by a minimal area problem that requires that all nontrivial homotopy curves have length greater than or equal to 2π. Consistency requires that the minimal area metric be flat in a neighbourhood of the punctures. The theorem proven in this paper, yields a criterion which if satisfied, will ensure this requirement. The theorem states roughly that the metric is flat in an open set, U if there is a unique closed curve of length 2π through every point in U and all of these closed curves are in the same free homotopy class. (orig.)

  20. Geographic remoteness, area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and inequalities in colorectal cancer survival in Queensland: a multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To explore the impact of geographical remoteness and area-level socioeconomic disadvantage on colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Methods Multilevel logistic regression and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations were used to analyze geographical variations in five-year all-cause and CRC-specific survival across 478 regions in Queensland Australia for 22,727 CRC cases aged 20–84 years diagnosed from 1997–2007. Results Area-level disadvantage and geographic remoteness were independently associated with CRC survival. After full multivariate adjustment (both levels), patients from remote (odds Ratio [OR]: 1.24, 95%CrI: 1.07-1.42) and more disadvantaged quintiles (OR = 1.12, 1.15, 1.20, 1.23 for Quintiles 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively) had lower CRC-specific survival than major cities and least disadvantaged areas. Similar associations were found for all-cause survival. Area disadvantage accounted for a substantial amount of the all-cause variation between areas. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the area-level inequalities in survival of colorectal cancer patients cannot be explained by the measured individual-level characteristics of the patients or their cancer and remain after adjusting for cancer stage. Further research is urgently needed to clarify the factors that underlie the survival differences, including the importance of geographical differences in clinical management of CRC. PMID:24152961

  1. EnerGis: A geographical information based system for the evaluation of integrated energy conversion systems in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardin, Luc; Marechal, Francois; Dubuis, Matthias; Calame-Darbellay, Nicole; Favrat, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A geographical information system has been developed to model the energy requirements of an urban area. The purpose of the platform is to model with sufficient detail the energy services requirements of a given geographical area in order to allow the evaluation of the integration of advanced integrated energy conversion systems. This tool is used to study the emergence of more efficient cities that realize energy efficiency measures, integrate energy efficient conversion technologies and promote the use of endogenous renewable energy. The model is illustrated with case studies for the energetic planning of the Geneva district (Switzerland).

  2. Improved method for calculation of population doses from nuclear complexes over large geographical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, J.P.; Baker, D.A.; Hill, E.R.; Wendell, L.L.

    1977-09-01

    To simplify the calculation of potential long-distance environmental impacts, an overall average population exposure coefficient (P.E.C.) for the entire contiguous United States was calculated for releases to the atmosphere from Hanford facilities. The method, requiring machine computation, combines Bureau of Census population data by census enumeration district and an annual average atmospheric dilution factor (anti chi/Q') derived from 12-hourly gridded wind analyses provided by the NOAA's National Meteorological Center. A variable-trajectory puff-advection model was used to calculate an hourly anti chi/Q' for each grid square, assuming uniform hourly releases; seasonal and annual averages were then calculated. For Hanford, using 1970 census data, a P.E.C. of 2 x 10 -3 man-seconds per cubic meter was calculated. The P.E.C. is useful for both radioactive and nonradioactive releases. To calculate population doses for the entire contiguous United States, the P.E.C. is multiplied by the annual average release rate and then by the dose factor (rem/yr per Ci/m 3 ) for each radionuclide, and the dose contribution in man-rem is summed for all radionuclides. For multiple pathways, the P.E.C. is still useful, provided that doses from a unit release can be obtained from a set of atmospheric dose factors. The methodology is applicable to any point source, any set of population data by map grid coordinates, and any geographical area covered by equivalent meteorological data

  3. Investigating flood susceptible areas in inaccessible regions using remote sensing and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joongbin; Lee, Kyoo-Seock

    2017-03-01

    Every summer, North Korea (NK) suffers from floods, resulting in decreased agricultural production and huge economic loss. Besides meteorological reasons, several factors can accelerate flood damage. Environmental studies about NK are difficult because NK is inaccessible due to the division of Korea. Remote sensing (RS) can be used to delineate flood inundated areas in inaccessible regions such as NK. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial characteristics of flood susceptible areas (FSAs) using multi-temporal RS data and digital elevation model data. Such study will provide basic information to restore FSAs after reunification. Defining FSAs at the study site revealed that rice paddies with low elevation and low slope were the most susceptible areas to flood in NK. Numerous sediments from upper streams, especially streams through crop field areas on steeply sloped hills, might have been transported and deposited into stream channels, thus disturbing water flow. In conclusion, NK floods may have occurred not only due to meteorological factors but also due to inappropriate land use for flood management. In order to mitigate NK flood damage, reforestation is needed for terraced crop fields. In addition, drainage capacity for middle stream channel near rice paddies should be improved.

  4. Geographical Area and Life History Traits Influence Diet in an Arctic Marine Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Tartu

    Full Text Available Global changes are thought to affect most Arctic species, yet some populations are more at risk. Today, the Barents Sea ecoregion is suffering the strongest sea ice retreat ever measured; and these changes are suspected to modify food access and thus diet of several species. Biochemical diet tracers enable investigation of diet in species such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus. We examined individual diet variation of female polar bears in Svalbard, Norway, and related it to year, season (spring and autumn, sampling area and breeding status (solitary, with cubs of the year or yearlings. Sampling areas were split according to their ice cover: North-West (less sea ice cover, South-East (larger amplitude in sea ice extent and North-East/South-West (NESW as bears from that zone are more mobile among all regions of Svalbard. We measured fatty acid (FA composition in adipose tissue and carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N stable isotopes in plasma and red blood cells. Females feeding in the North-West area had lower δ15N values than those from the NESW. In South-East females, δ13C values were lower in autumn compared to spring and females seemed less selective in their diet as depicted by large variances in stable isotope values. Considering the differences in FA composition and stable isotope values, we suggest that females from the North-West and South-East could ingest a higher proportion of avian prey. With regard to breeding status, solitary females had higher δ15N values and smaller variance in their stable isotopic values than females with cubs, suggesting that solitary females were more selective and prey on higher trophic level species (i.e. seals. Overall, our results indicate that prey availability for Svalbard polar bears varies according to geographical area and prey selectivity differs according to breeding status. Our findings suggest that complex changes in sea ice and prey availability will interact to affect Svalbard polar bear feeding

  5. Geographical Area and Life History Traits Influence Diet in an Arctic Marine Predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartu, Sabrina; Bourgeon, Sophie; Aars, Jon; Andersen, Magnus; Ehrich, Dorothee; Thiemann, Gregory W; Welker, Jeffrey M; Routti, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Global changes are thought to affect most Arctic species, yet some populations are more at risk. Today, the Barents Sea ecoregion is suffering the strongest sea ice retreat ever measured; and these changes are suspected to modify food access and thus diet of several species. Biochemical diet tracers enable investigation of diet in species such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). We examined individual diet variation of female polar bears in Svalbard, Norway, and related it to year, season (spring and autumn), sampling area and breeding status (solitary, with cubs of the year or yearlings). Sampling areas were split according to their ice cover: North-West (less sea ice cover), South-East (larger amplitude in sea ice extent) and North-East/South-West (NESW) as bears from that zone are more mobile among all regions of Svalbard. We measured fatty acid (FA) composition in adipose tissue and carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopes in plasma and red blood cells. Females feeding in the North-West area had lower δ15N values than those from the NESW. In South-East females, δ13C values were lower in autumn compared to spring and females seemed less selective in their diet as depicted by large variances in stable isotope values. Considering the differences in FA composition and stable isotope values, we suggest that females from the North-West and South-East could ingest a higher proportion of avian prey. With regard to breeding status, solitary females had higher δ15N values and smaller variance in their stable isotopic values than females with cubs, suggesting that solitary females were more selective and prey on higher trophic level species (i.e. seals). Overall, our results indicate that prey availability for Svalbard polar bears varies according to geographical area and prey selectivity differs according to breeding status. Our findings suggest that complex changes in sea ice and prey availability will interact to affect Svalbard polar bear feeding patterns

  6. Rates of first episode of psychosis in a defined catchment area in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peritogiannis, Vaios; Mantas, Christos; Tatsioni, Athina; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2013-01-01

    This is the first Greek study presenting epidemiologic data on first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients in a defined catchment area. Data for first episode psychotic patients during a two-year period (2008 and 2009) were obtained by all the mental health providers in the area, public or private. A total of 132 FEP patients were examined in the 2-year period in the catchment area. Most of the patients (61.4%) were diagnosed and treated by private practicing psychiatrists. Statistical analysis showed no differences between the two sectors in terms of patients' age, gender, family and social status, profession and duration of untreated psychosis (median duration 6 months). Patients who were abusing substances and had no family psychiatric history were less likely been treated in the public sector. Immigrants comprised only a small proportion of the patients, probably because they have difficulties in accessing the mental health system.

  7. Examining geographic patterns of mortality: the atlas of mortality in small areas in Spain (1987-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Yasui, Yutaka; Borrell, Carme; Rosa, Elisabeth; Pasarín, M Isabel; Benach, Núria; Español, Esther; Martínez, José Miguel; Daponte, Antonio

    2003-06-01

    Small-area mortality atlases have been demonstrated to be a useful tool for both showing general geographical patterns in mortality data and identifying specific high-risk locations. In Spain no study has so far systematically examined geographic patterns of small-area mortality for the main causes of death. This paper presents the main features, contents and potential uses of the Spanish Atlas of Mortality in small areas (1987-1995). Population data for 2,218 small areas were drawn from the 1991 Census. Aggregated mortality data for 14 specific causes of death for the period 1987-1995 were obtained for each small area. Empirical Bayes-model-based estimates of age-adjusted relative risk were displayed in small-area maps for each cause/gender/age group (0-64 or 65 and over) combination using the same range of values (i.e. septiles) and colour schemes. The 'Spanish Atlas of Mortality' includes multiple choropleth (area-shaded) small-area maps and graphs to answer different questions about the data. The atlas is divided into three main sections. Section 1 includes the methods and comments on the main maps. Section 2 presents a two-page layout for each leading cause of death by gender including 1) a large map with relative risk estimates, 2) a map that indicates high- and low-risk small areas, 3) a graph with median and interquartile range of relative risk estimates for 17 large regions of Spain, and 4) relative-risk maps for two age groups. Section 3 provides specific information on the geographical units of analysis, statistical methods and other supplemental maps. The 'Spanish Atlas of Mortality' is a useful tool for examining geographical patterns of mortality risk and identifying specific high-risk areas. Mortality patterns displayed in the atlas may have important implications for research and social/health policy planning purposes.

  8. Implementing a geographical information system to assess endemic fluoride areas in Lamphun, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerawasttanasiri N

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonthaphat Theerawasttanasiri,1,2 Surasak Taneepanichskul,1 Wichain Pingchai,3 Yuwaree Nimchareon,4 Sangworn Sriwichai5 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Health, Health Promotion Center Region 1, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Mueang Lamphun District Public Health Office, 4Pasang District Public Health Office, 5Ban Thi District Public Health Office, Lamphun, Thailand Introduction: Many studies have shown that fluoride can cross the placenta and that exposure to high fluoride during pregnancy may result in premature birth and/or a low birth weight. Lamphun is one of six provinces in Thailand where natural water fluoride (WF concentrations >10.0 mg/L were found, and it was also found that >50% of households used water with high fluoride levels. Nevertheless, geographical information system (GIS and maps of endemic fluoride areas are lacking. We aimed to measure the fluoride level of village water supplies to assess endemic fluoride areas and present GIS with maps in Google Maps.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 2016 to January 2017. Purpose sampling was used to identify villages of districts with WF >10.0 mg/L in the Mueang Lamphun, Pasang, and Ban Thi districts. Water samples were collected with the geolocation measured by Smart System Info. Fluoride was analyzed with an ion-selective electrode instrument using a total ionic strength adjustment buffer. WF >0.70 mg/L was used to identify unsafe drinking water and areas with high endemic fluoride levels. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the findings, and MS Excel was used to create the GIS database. Maps were created in Google Earth and presented in Google Maps.Results: We found that WF concentrations ranged between 0.10–13.60 mg/L. Forty-four percent (n=439 of samples were at unsafe levels (>0.70 mg/L, and. 54% (n=303 of villages and 46% (n=79,807 of households used the unsafe drinking water. Fifty percent

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Mora County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Mescalero-Apache Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  11. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Lincoln County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  12. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Cabezon Area, New Mexico (Sandoval County, New Mexico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  13. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for San Miguel County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  14. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Sierra County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  15. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Santa Fe County, Area New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  16. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Socorro County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  17. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Tucumcari Area, Northern Quay County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  18. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for McKinley County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  19. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Dona Ana County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  20. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for De Baca County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  1. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Ute Mountain Area, Colorado and New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  2. Use of oral cholera vaccine as a vaccine probe to define the geographical dimensions of person-to-person transmission of cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Kim, Deok Ryun; Kanungo, Suman; Sur, Dipika; Manna, Byomkesh; Digilio, Laura; Dutta, Shanta; Marks, Florian; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Clemens, John

    2018-01-01

    Cholera is known to be transmitted from person to person, and inactivated oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been shown to confer herd protection via interruption of this transmission. However, the geographic dimensions of chains of person-to-person transmission of cholera are uncertain. The ability of OCVs to confer herd protection was used to define these dimensions in two cholera-endemic settings, one in rural Bangladesh and the other in urban India. Two large randomized, placebo-controlled trials of inactivated OCVs, one in rural Matlab, Bangladesh and the other in urban Kolkata, India, were reanalyzed. Vaccine herd protection was evaluated by relating the risk of cholera in placebo recipients to vaccine coverage of surrounding residents residing within concentric rings. In Matlab, concentric rings in 100-m increments up to 700m were evaluated; in Kolkata, 50-m increments up to 350m were evaluated. One hundred and eight cholera cases among 24667 placebo recipients were detected during 1year of post-vaccination follow-up at Matlab; 128 cholera cases among 34968 placebo recipients were detected during 3 years of follow-up in Kolkata. Consistent inverse relationships were observed between vaccine coverage of the ring and the risk of cholera in the central placebo recipient for rings with radii up to 500m in Matlab and up to 150m in Kolkata. These results suggest that the dimensions of chains of person-to-person transmission in endemic settings can be quite large and may differ substantially from setting to setting. Using OCVs as 'probes' to define these dimensions can inform geographical targeting strategies for the deployment of these vaccines in endemic settings. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Crossing physical simulations of snow conditions and a geographic model of ski area to assess ski resorts vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Hugues; Spandre, Pierre; Morin, Samuel; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Lejeune, Yves

    2016-04-01

    In order to face climate change, meteorological variability and the recurrent lack of natural snow on the ground, ski resorts adaptation often rely on technical responses. Indeed, since the occurrence of episodes with insufficient snowfalls in the early 1990's, snowmaking has become an ordinary practice of snow management, comparable to grooming, and contributes to optimise the operation of ski resorts. It also participates to the growth of investments and is associated with significant operating costs, and thus represents a new source of vulnerability. The assessment of the actual effects of snowmaking and of snow management practices in general is a real concern for the future of the ski industry. The principal model use to simulate snow conditions in resorts, Ski Sim, has also been moving this way. Its developers introduced an artificial input of snow on ski area to complete natural snowfalls and considered different organisations of ski lifts (lower and upper zones). However the use of a degree-day model prevents them to consider the specific properties of artificial snow and the impact of grooming on the snowpack. A first proof of concept in the French Alps has shown the feasibility and the interest to cross the geographic model of ski areas and the output of the physically-based reanalysis of snow conditions SAFRAN - Crocus (François et al., CRST 2014). Since these initial developments, several ways have been explored to refine our model. A new model of ski areas has been developed. Our representation is now based on gravity derived from a DEM and ski lift localisation. A survey about snow management practices also allowed us to define criteria in order to model snowmaking areas given ski areas properties and tourism infrastructures localisation. We also suggest to revisit the assessment of ski resort viability based on the "one hundred days rule" based on natural snow depth only. Indeed, the impact of snow management must be considered so as to propose

  5. Variability of nutrients intake, lipid profile and cardiovascular mortality among geographical areas in Spain: The DRECE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; De Andrés Esteban, Eva; Urrútia Cuchí, Gerard; Calderón Sandubete, Enrique; Rubio Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Menéndez Orenga, Miguel; Lora Pablos, David

    2017-11-07

    It has often been suggested that cardiovascular mortality and their geographical heterogeneity are associated with nutrients intake patterns and also lipid profile. The large Spanish study Dieta y Riesgo de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares en España (DRECE) investigated this theory from 1991 to 2010. Out of the 4,783 Spanish individuals making up the DRECE cohort, 220 subjects (148 men and 72 women) died (4.62%) during the course of the study. The mean age of patients who died from cardiovascular causes (32 in all) was 61.08 years 95% CI (57.47-64.69) and 70.91% of them were males. The consumption of nutrients and the lipid profile by geographical area, studied by geospatial models, showed that the east and southern area of the country had the highest fat intake coupled to a high rate of unhealthy lipid profile. It was concluded that the spatial geographical analysis showed a relationship between high fat intake, unhealthy lipid profile and cardiovascular mortality in the different geographical areas, with a high variability within the country.

  6. Where can pixel counting area estimates meet user-defined accuracy requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, François; Defourny, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Pixel counting is probably the most popular way to estimate class areas from satellite-derived maps. It involves determining the number of pixels allocated to a specific thematic class and multiplying it by the pixel area. In the presence of asymmetric classification errors, the pixel counting estimator is biased. The overarching objective of this article is to define the applicability conditions of pixel counting so that the estimates are below a user-defined accuracy target. By reasoning in terms of landscape fragmentation and spatial resolution, the proposed framework decouples the resolution bias and the classifier bias from the overall classification bias. The consequence is that prior to any classification, part of the tolerated bias is already committed due to the choice of the spatial resolution of the imagery. How much classification bias is affordable depends on the joint interaction of spatial resolution and fragmentation. The method was implemented over South Africa for cropland mapping, demonstrating its operational applicability. Particular attention was paid to modeling a realistic sensor's spatial response by explicitly accounting for the effect of its point spread function. The diagnostic capabilities offered by this framework have multiple potential domains of application such as guiding users in their choice of imagery and providing guidelines for space agencies to elaborate the design specifications of future instruments.

  7. Re-Defining Traditional Bazaar Areas and Shade Structures Via Parametric Design Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Emre Dinçer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For the continuation of life, people created various equipment and goods. To create mutual benefits, they’ve exchanged the overpruduced items with different products. This has begun the shopping act. By the increased amount of transactions, a need of defined area for shopping have arisen.  For a temporary time, trading areas have been developed at different locations at a certain period. In the course of time, beside trading, these areas served as socio-cultural spaces where the human relations were established. Moreover, demand of being able to immediately access to needed goods have emerged. This situation made having a permanent trading area essential. Therefore, enclosed and permanent trade areas from bazaar, inn, bedesten, arasta to shopping malls have emerged. Next to all these trading areas, traditional bazaar areas keep being established. Nowadays, there is a need of providing some determined comfort conditions to the users for these street alley bazaars. Decreasing the effect of unfavorable weather conditions and providing supportive certain services and units (like WCs, security, cleanliness, etc. are some of them. As a fundamental solution, without disengaging the user relations with the outside, shade structures are generally provided. Shade structures can support cleaning and similar jobs by gathering and using rainwater besides its purpose of protecting the user from bad weather conditions. Application examples of these systems are gradually increasing. However, it is necessary to develop new approaches, in order to stop these proposed shade structures, become prototypes and to adapt the proposal to its environment and to increase diversity. In this study, a convenient shade structure and its alternatives, which are adapted to environmental conditions, were designed to create a sample model for other bazaar areas. In models, basically, folding design approaches were pursued. For production of these shade structure models

  8. 75 FR 33239 - Rangeland Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River West and Oglala Geographic Areas, Fall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...The USDA, Forest Service, will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) analyzing the management of rangeland vegetation resources, which includes livestock grazing, on the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the Oglala Geographic Area (OGA) of the Oglala National Grassland on the Pine Ridge Ranger District and the West Geographic Area (WGA) of the Buffalo Gap National Grassland on the Fall River Ranger District of the Nebraska National Forest (Analysis Area) areas as mapped by the 2001 Nebraska National Forest Revised Land and Resource Management Plan (Forest Plan). A Notice of Intent (NOI) for this project was published February 22, 2008 (73 No. 36 FR 9760- 9762). More than six months have elapsed since the projected draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) date in that original NOI. This revised NOI is being issued to update the project schedule. There will be a record of decision (ROD) for each geographic area. Proposed management actions would be implemented beginning in the year 2012. The agency gives notice of the full environmental analysis and decision-making process that will occur on the proposal so interested and affected people may become aware of how they may participate in the process and contribute to the final decision.

  9. [Using sequential indicator simulation method to define risk areas of soil heavy metals in farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Song, Ying Qiang; Hu, Yue Ming; Chen, Fei Xiang; Zhang, Rui

    2018-05-01

    The heavy metals in soil have serious impacts on safety, ecological environment and human health due to their toxicity and accumulation. It is necessary to efficiently identify the risk area of heavy metals in farmland soil, which is of important significance for environment protection, pollution warning and farmland risk control. We collected 204 samples and analyzed the contents of seven kinds of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg) in Zengcheng District of Guangzhou, China. In order to overcame the problems of the data, including the limitation of abnormal values and skewness distribution and the smooth effect with the traditional kriging methods, we used sequential indicator simulation method (SISIM) to define the spatial distribution of heavy metals, and combined Hakanson index method to identify potential ecological risk area of heavy metals in farmland. The results showed that: (1) Based on the similar accuracy of spatial prediction of soil heavy metals, the SISIM had a better expression of detail rebuild than ordinary kriging in small scale area. Compared to indicator kriging, the SISIM had less error rate (4.9%-17.1%) in uncertainty evaluation of heavy-metal risk identification. The SISIM had less smooth effect and was more applicable to simulate the spatial uncertainty assessment of soil heavy metals and risk identification. (2) There was no pollution in Zengcheng's farmland. Moderate potential ecological risk was found in the southern part of study area due to enterprise production, human activities, and river sediments. This study combined the sequential indicator simulation with Hakanson risk index method, and effectively overcame the outlier information loss and smooth effect of traditional kriging method. It provided a new way to identify the soil heavy metal risk area of farmland in uneven sampling.

  10. Habitat area and climate stability determine geographical variation in plant species range sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Enquist, Brian J.; McGill, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a fundamental aspect of biodiversity, little is known about what controls species range sizes. This is especially the case for hyperdiverse organisms such as plants. We use the largest botanical data set assembled to date to quantify geographical variation in range size for ~85,000 ...

  11. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  12. Impact of geographic area level on measuring socioeconomic disparities in cancer survival in New South Wales, Australia: A period analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbury, Julia F; Baade, Peter D; Yu, Yan; Yu, Xue Qin

    2016-08-01

    Area-based socioeconomic measures are widely used in health research. In theory, the larger the area used the more individual misclassification is introduced, thus biasing the association between such area level measures and health outcomes. In this study, we examined the socioeconomic disparities in cancer survival using two geographic area-based measures to see if the size of the area matters. We used population-based cancer registry data for patients diagnosed with one of 10 major cancers in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2004-2008. Patients were assigned index measures of socioeconomic status (SES) based on two area-level units, census Collection District (CD) and Local Government Area (LGA) of their address at diagnosis. Five-year relative survival was estimated using the period approach for patients alive during 2004-2008, for each socioeconomic quintile at each area-level for each cancer. Poisson-regression modelling was used to adjust for socioeconomic quintile, sex, age-group at diagnosis and disease stage at diagnosis. The relative excess risk of death (RER) by socioeconomic quintile derived from this modelling was compared between area-units. We found extensive disagreement in SES classification between CD and LGA levels across all socioeconomic quintiles, particularly for more disadvantaged groups. In general, more disadvantaged patients had significantly lower survival than the least disadvantaged group for both CD and LGA classifications. The socioeconomic survival disparities detected by CD classification were larger than those detected by LGA. Adjusted RER estimates by SES were similar for most cancers when measured at both area levels. We found that classifying patient SES by the widely used Australian geographic unit LGA results in underestimation of survival disparities for several cancers compared to when SES is classified at the geographically smaller CD level. Despite this, our RER of death estimates derived from these survival

  13. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  14. Large-area laser nano-texturing with user-defined patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L; Guo, W; Wang, Z B; Whitehead, D; Liu, Z; Luk'yanchuk, B

    2009-01-01

    Writing nano-sized features less than the diffraction limit of the lasers efficiently over a large area requires special technology development. This paper reports the use of a self-assembled particle lens array with near-field enhancement effect to write millions of nano-sized user-defined features, e.g. English letters, lines, curves, simultaneously by angular beam scanning. About a 5 mm × 5 mm area can be written with a single shot of a laser beam or few scans for up to 100 million identical features of nano or sub-micro scales. With the help of certain environmental conditions, such as the use of a suitable chemical solution in conjunction with the particle lens array, the characteristic of the features produced can be further controlled, including the generation of reversed (e.g. pits become hills and grooves become walls) features of laser-written patterns. The technical challenges, experimental findings and theoretical analysis/simulation are presented

  15. Designing and implementing a geographical information system: A guide for managers of area-wide pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    Over the past two decades, the use of computer software and mapping methods known as geographical information systems (GIS) has been adopted by an ever growing variety of professionals. Every activity that deals with location dependent information can use GIS, and agriculture is no exception. The potential of GIS and remote sensing (RS) to facilitate the planning and implementation of areawide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes is enormous but unfortunately, these methods are still much underused. AW-IPM programmes, especially those that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) with other surveillance and control methods, would benefit considerably by drawing on GIS/RS. These programmes are often implemented over large areas of even tens of thousands of square kilometres, where surveillance methods are deployed and large data sets are systematically generated on a daily basis. The acquisition of geo-referenced data sets on pest presence/absence, relative abundance, disease prevalence, crop damage, etc., that will allow accurate spatial and temporal analysis is important for proper and timely decision making to efficiently plan and implement any operational pest management programme. Animal health and plant protection officials and pest control programme managers might be intuitively aware of the importance of employing GIS as an analytical tool. However, they often lack a deeper understanding of its capabilities. Since GIS is a desk exercise using computers, data analysis is often left to the computer staff without proper directives from the programme managers on programmatic needs. This is unfortunate as it will usually NOT bring the desired GIS-processed information to the decision makers. This manual targets area-wide pest control programme administrators and managers of FAO and IAEA Member States in an attempt to demonstrate the type of data processing and spatial analysis that can be expected of GIS. The manual does not aim to provide

  16. Ecological study and risk mapping of leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil based on a geographical information systems approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Valéria Machado da Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by eco-epidemiological factors. Geographical information systems (GIS have proved to be a suitable approach for the analysis of environmental components that affect the spatial distribution of diseases. Exploiting this methodology, a model was developed for the mapping of the distribution and incidence of canine leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. Local variations were observed with respect to infection incidence and distribution of serological titers, i.e. high titers were noted close to areas with preserved vegetation, while low titers were more frequent in areas where people kept chickens. Based on these results, we conclude that the environment plays an important role in generating relatively protected areas within larger endemic regions, but that it can also contribute to the creation of hotspots with clusters of comparatively high serological titers indicating a high level of transmission compared with neighbouring areas.

  17. Real-time Geographic Information System (GIS) for Monitoring the Area of Potential Water Level Using Rule Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugrah, Wirdah; Suryono; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro

    2018-02-01

    Management of water resources based on Geographic Information System can provide substantial benefits to water availability settings. Monitoring the potential water level is needed in the development sector, agriculture, energy and others. In this research is developed water resource information system using real-time Geographic Information System concept for monitoring the potential water level of web based area by applying rule based system method. GIS consists of hardware, software, and database. Based on the web-based GIS architecture, this study uses a set of computer that are connected to the network, run on the Apache web server and PHP programming language using MySQL database. The Ultrasound Wireless Sensor System is used as a water level data input. It also includes time and geographic location information. This GIS maps the five sensor locations. GIS is processed through a rule based system to determine the level of potential water level of the area. Water level monitoring information result can be displayed on thematic maps by overlaying more than one layer, and also generating information in the form of tables from the database, as well as graphs are based on the timing of events and the water level values.

  18. The association between geographical factors and dental caries in a rural area in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupome, Gerardo; Martínez-Mier, E Angeles; Holt, Alanna; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Mantilla-Rodríguez, Andrés; Carlton, Brittany

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between markers of oral disease and geographical factors influencing access to dental care (DMFT score) among school children in Central Mexico. Retrospective data were collected during an international service-learning program between 2002 and 2009. A sample of 1,143 children (55% females; mean age 12.7±13.1years) was analyzed. The mean DMFT score, represented largely by untreated tooth decay, was 4.02 (4.76). The variables that had the most significant effect on the DMFT score were proportion of paved roads between the community and dental services, and the availability of piped potable water. The DMFT score increased in proportion to the percentage of paved roads. In contrast, the DMFT score decreased with the availability of piped potable water. Similar results were found for untreated tooth decay. The main variable associated with a significant increase in dental fillings was proportion of paved roads. Together with Brazilian reports, this is one of the first investigations of the association between geographical factors and oral health in an underdeveloped setting.

  19. The association between geographical factors and dental caries in a rural area in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Maupome

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between markers of oral disease and geographical factors influencing access to dental care (DMFT score among school children in Central Mexico. Retrospective data were collected during an international service-learning program between 2002 and 2009. A sample of 1,143 children (55% females; mean age 12.7±13.1years was analyzed. The mean DMFT score, represented largely by untreated tooth decay, was 4.02 (4.76. The variables that had the most significant effect on the DMFT score were proportion of paved roads between the community and dental services, and the availability of piped potable water. The DMFT score increased in proportion to the percentage of paved roads. In contrast, the DMFT score decreased with the availability of piped potable water. Similar results were found for untreated tooth decay. The main variable associated with a significant increase in dental fillings was proportion of paved roads. Together with Brazilian reports, this is one of the first investigations of the association between geographical factors and oral health in an underdeveloped setting.

  20. Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short- Term Variability of Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-08-23

    Worldwide interest in the deployment of photovoltaic generation (PV) is rapidly increasing. Operating experience with large PV plants, however, demonstrates that large, rapid changes in the output of PV plants are possible. Early studies of PV grid impacts suggested that short-term variability could be a potential limiting factor in deploying PV. Many of these early studies, however, lacked high-quality data from multiple sites to assess the costs and impacts of increasing PV penetration. As is well known for wind, accounting for the potential for geographic diversity can significantly reduce the magnitude of extreme changes in aggregated PV output, the resources required to accommodate that variability, and the potential costs of managing variability. We use measured 1-min solar insolation for 23 time-synchronized sites in the Southern Great Plains network of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and wind speed data from 10 sites in the same network to characterize the variability of PV with different degrees of geographic diversity and to compare the variability of PV to the variability of similarly sited wind. The relative aggregate variability of PV plants sited in a dense 10 x 10 array with 20 km spacing is six times less than the variability of a single site for variability on time scales less than 15-min. We find in our analysis of wind and PV plants similarly sited in a 5 x 5 grid with 50 km spacing that the variability of PV is only slightly more than the variability of wind on time scales of 5-15 min. Over shorter and longer time scales the level of variability is nearly identical. Finally, we use a simple approximation method to estimate the cost of carrying additional reserves to manage sub-hourly variability. We conclude that the costs of managing the short-term variability of PV are dramatically reduced by geographic diversity and are not substantially different from the costs for managing the short-term variability of similarly sited wind in

  1. Childhood leukemia near nuclear plants in the United Kingdom: The evolution of a systematic approach to studying rare disease in small geographic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beral, V.

    1990-01-01

    A cluster of childhood leukemia in a village near a nuclear plant in northern England prompted further studies of cancer in the vicinity of other nuclear plants in the United Kingdom. These studies demonstrated that the risk of childhood leukemia was increased near certain other nuclear plants. Although the reasons for the increase are still unclear, the scientific debate stimulated by these findings has clarified some of the special methodological problems encountered when studying rare diseases in small areas. Firstly, unless a specific hypothesis is defined in advance, the relevance of a single geographic cluster of disease can rarely be interpreted. Even when a prior hypothesis exists, the small number of cases which generally occur in a small area make the findings highly sensitive to reporting, diagnostic, or classification errors. The statistical power of such investigations is also usually low and only marked increases in risk can be detected. Furthermore, conventional statistical tests may be inappropriate if the underlying spatial distribution of the disease is not random; and little is known about the background distribution of disease in small areas. Investigations of specific hypotheses about defined sources of environmental contamination, especially if they can be replicated, are more likely to result in conclusive findings that are in-depth studies of individual clusters

  2. Geographic distribution of the tortoises and freshwater turtles of Colombia and their representation in the protected area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero Medina, German; Yusti Munoz, Ana Paola; Castano Mora, Olga V

    2014-01-01

    Colombia has a remarkable diversity of tortoises and freshwater turtles. However, a considerable portion of these species is threatened, and for others there is not enough information to make an adequate evaluation of their conservation status. This study is a first approximation to the quantitative evaluation of the geographic distribution of Colombia's non-marine chelonians. Based on records of occurrence for each species, we evaluated the geographic distribution using statistical models (maxent), hydrological basins, and the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy. Based on the presence data and the models, we studied the representation of each species in national natural parks (NNP), which correspond to the most rigorous conservation category of IUCN classification in Colombia, and other types of protected areas such as private reserves. We generated distribution models and estimated the area (km"2) for 25 out of 27 species in the country. This information will be valuable for updating and evaluating the threat categories at the national level. The areas with the highest species richness correspond to the riverine ecosystems of the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins and the Caribbean Region, particularly the Western Caribbean. This region is a top priority not only because of its richness but also because of the presence of endemics and its high level of threat. Only 56 % of the species have confirmed records within national parks. A greater portion could be present in these areas according to the statistical models, but only ten of those species would have more than 10 % of their ranges within a park's boundary. Although the resulting models have certain limitations due to the nature of the data and analyses, they can be a starting point for research on the occurrence of turtles in NNP. Endemic species are poorly represented in protected areas, both in NNP and in other categories. Thus, protected areas that can assure the persistence of their populations are

  3. Study of Social and Cultural Characteristics of Drug Offenders in Ahwaz Municipal Areas Using Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Fathtabar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines the social and cultural structure of drug offenses in Ahwaz municipal areas using GIS. Method: The population of the study consisted of drug offenders in Correction and Rehabilitation Center of Ahwaz in 2013. Statistical tests and graphs, including Mean Center test, Standard Deviation Ellipse, Kernel Density Estimation were used in this study. Results: The most important centers of drug crime are in the same border with informal settlement areas, such as Kut Abdullah, Lashkar Abad, and Khashayar (urban areas 5 and 6 of Ahwaz city. In addition, there is a direct relationship between illiteracy rate & population density and crime rate. Discussion and Conclusion: Spatial analysis of geographic crime and punishment can act as a means for security and safety policy making in the fight against drugs.

  4. An improved geographically weighted regression model for PM2.5 concentration estimation in large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Liang; Li, Shuang; Zou, Bin; Sang, Huiyong; Fang, Xin; Xu, Shan

    2018-05-01

    Considering the spatial non-stationary contributions of environment variables to PM2.5 variations, the geographically weighted regression (GWR) modeling method has been using to estimate PM2.5 concentrations widely. However, most of the GWR models in reported studies so far were established based on the screened predictors through pretreatment correlation analysis, and this process might cause the omissions of factors really driving PM2.5 variations. This study therefore developed a best subsets regression (BSR) enhanced principal component analysis-GWR (PCA-GWR) modeling approach to estimate PM2.5 concentration by fully considering all the potential variables' contributions simultaneously. The performance comparison experiment between PCA-GWR and regular GWR was conducted in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region over a one-year-period. Results indicated that the PCA-GWR modeling outperforms the regular GWR modeling with obvious higher model fitting- and cross-validation based adjusted R2 and lower RMSE. Meanwhile, the distribution map of PM2.5 concentration from PCA-GWR modeling also clearly depicts more spatial variation details in contrast to the one from regular GWR modeling. It can be concluded that the BSR enhanced PCA-GWR modeling could be a reliable way for effective air pollution concentration estimation in the coming future by involving all the potential predictor variables' contributions to PM2.5 variations.

  5. Population Structure in the Model Grass Brachypodium distachyon Is Highly Correlated with Flowering Differences across Broad Geographic Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Tyler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The small, annual grass (L. Beauv., a close relative of wheat ( L. and barley ( L., is a powerful model system for cereals and bioenergy grasses. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS of natural variation can elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits but have been so far limited in by the lack of large numbers of well-characterized and sufficiently diverse accessions. Here, we report on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS of 84 , seven , and three accessions with diverse geographic origins including Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Italy, Spain, and Turkey. Over 90,000 high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs distributed across the Bd21 reference genome were identified. Our results confirm the hybrid nature of the genome, which appears as a mosaic of -like and -like sequences. Analysis of more than 50,000 SNPs for the accessions revealed three distinct, genetically defined populations. Surprisingly, these genomic profiles are associated with differences in flowering time rather than with broad geographic origin. High levels of differentiation in loci associated with floral development support the differences in flowering phenology between populations. Genome-wide association studies combining genotypic and phenotypic data also suggest the presence of one or more photoperiodism, circadian clock, and vernalization genes in loci associated with flowering time variation within populations. Our characterization elucidates genes underlying population differences, expands the germplasm resources available for , and illustrates the feasibility and limitations of GWAS in this model grass.

  6. Geographic variation in species richness, rarity, and the selection of areas for conservation: An integrative approach with Brazilian estuarine fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Ciro C.; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Spach, Henry L.

    2017-09-01

    While the number of species is a key indicator of ecological assemblages, spatial conservation priorities solely identified from species richness are not necessarily efficient to protect other important biological assets. Hence, the results of spatial prioritization analysis would be greatly enhanced if richness were used in association to complementary biodiversity measures. In this study, geographic patterns in estuarine fish species rarity (i.e. the average range size in the study area), endemism and richness, were mapped and integrated to identify regions important for biodiversity conservation along the Brazilian coast. Furthermore, we analyzed the effectiveness of the national system of protected areas to represent these regions. Analyses were performed on presence/absence data of 412 fish species in 0.25° latitudinal bands covering the entire Brazilian biogeographical province. Species richness, rarity and endemism patterns differed and strongly reflected biogeographical limits and regions. However, among the existing 154 latitudinal bands, 48 were recognized as conservation priorities by concomitantly harboring high estuarine fish species richness and assemblages of geographically rare species. Priority areas identified for all estuarine fish species largely differed from those identified for Brazilian endemics. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between the different aspects of the fish assemblages considered (i.e. species richness, endemism or rarity), suggesting that designating reserves based on a single variable may lead to large gaps in the overall protection of biodiversity. Our results further revealed that the existing system of protected areas is insufficient for representing the priority bands we identified. This highlights the urgent need for expanding the national network of protected areas to maintain estuarine ecosystems with high conservation value.

  7. Dose-response functions and corrosion mapping for a small geographical area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haagenrud, S.E.; Henriksen, J.F.; Gram, F.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed corrosion and environmental measurements have been used to develop dose response (D/R) functions for carbon steel, zinc, copper, and aluminum for a 26 x 31 km urban/rural area with approximately homogeneous climate. The D/R functions, expressed in terms of SO 2 and time of wetness, were of the same type for all four metals. The SO 2 contribution to the total corrosion dominates in the centers of towns and around an industrial plant. Corrosion maps for the whole area were established

  8. A GIS-based methodology to quantitatively define an Adjacent Protected Area in a shallow karst cavity: the case of Altamira cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elez, J; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Garcia-Anton, E; Benavente, D; Cañaveras, J C; Sanchez-Moral, S

    2013-03-30

    Different types of land use are usually present in the areas adjacent to many shallow karst cavities. Over time, the increasing amount of potentially harmful matter and energy, of mainly anthropic origin or influence, that reaches the interior of a shallow karst cavity can modify the hypogeal ecosystem and increase the risk of damage to the Palaeolithic rock art often preserved within the cavity. This study proposes a new Protected Area status based on the geological processes that control these matter and energy fluxes into the Altamira cave karst system. Analysis of the geological characteristics of the shallow karst system shows that direct and lateral infiltration, internal water circulation, ventilation, gas exchange and transmission of vibrations are the processes that control these matter and energy fluxes into the cave. This study applies a comprehensive methodological approach based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to establish the area of influence of each transfer process. The stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the interior of the cave were determined using 3D Laser Scanning topography combined with classical field work, data gathering, cartography and a porosity-permeability analysis of host rock samples. As a result, it was possible to determine the hydrogeological behavior of the cave. In addition, by mapping and modeling the surface parameters it was possible to identify the main features restricting hydrological behavior and hence direct and lateral infiltration into the cave. These surface parameters included the shape of the drainage network and a geomorphological and structural characterization via digital terrain models. Geological and geomorphological maps and models integrated into the GIS environment defined the areas involved in gas exchange and ventilation processes. Likewise, areas that could potentially transmit vibrations directly into the cave were identified. This study shows that it is possible to define a

  9. Educating Geographers in Spain: Geography Teaching Renewal by Implementing the European Higher Education Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel González, Rafael; de Lázaro y Torres, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the current state of the geography discipline in Spanish Universities after putting into action the European Higher Education Area. After decades of geography teaching, following theoretical and expository discourse models, the so-called "Bologna Process" has been a great opportunity to reflect what geography…

  10. Lineament analysis of South Jenein Area (Southern Tunisia using remote sensing data and geographic information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochdi Chaabouni

    2012-12-01

    The results will be compared with the surface data in the Mesozoic series of the Tataouine basin and the subsurface data of the northern border of the Palaeozoic Ghadames basin. The fracture measurements and their distribution provided a good opportunity to characterize the petroleum reservoir in this area.

  11. Ethnic minority suicide : a small area geographical study in south London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S

    Background. The relationship between ethnicity and suicide risk is ill-understood. It is unclear whether, and if so, how, the ethnic mix of local areas affects risk in local individuals. Methods. Coroners' records of 329 suicides were used to obtain ethnic (White, Afro-Caribbean, Asian) suicide

  12. Formation of the City of Belém (PA: Central Area and its Paper Historical and Geographical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Ribeiro Araújo Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 17th Century the urban life of Belém spread out from a promontorylocated at the meeting point of Guajará Bay and Guamá River. These "natural obstacles" (waterways, floodplains and flooded forest presented momentary setbacks to urban expansion. Overcoming these obstacles the city of Belém developed a central area characerized by change and continuity. By identifying and analyzing historical and geographical changes in the central area of Belém a better understanding can be obtained of new functions and features of urban space in Belém today.

  13. Sex-specific differences of craniofacial traits in Croatia: the impact of environment in a small geographic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buretic-Tomljanovic, Alena; Giacometti, Jasminka; Ostojic, Sasa; Kapovic, Miljenko

    2007-01-01

    Craniometric variation in humans reflects different genetic and environmental influences. Long-term climatic adaptation is less likely to show an impact on size and shape variation in a small local area than at the global level. The aim of this work was to assess the contribution of the particular environmental factors to body height and craniofacial variability in a small geographic area of Croatia. A total of 632 subjects, aged 18-21, participated in the survey. Body height, head length, head breadth, head height, head circumference, cephalic index, morphological face height, face breadth, and facial index were analysed regarding geographic, climatic and dietary conditions in different regions of the country, and correlated with the specific climatic variables (cumulative multiyear sunshine duration, cumulative multiyear average precipitation, multiyear average air temperatures) and calcium concentrations in drinking water. Significant differences between groups classified according to geographic, climatic or dietary affiliation, and the impact of the environmental predictors on the variation in the investigated traits were assessed using multiple forward stepwise regression analyses. Higher body height measures in both sexes were significantly correlated with Mediterranean diet type. Mediterranean diet type also contributed to higher head length and head circumference measures in females. Cephalic index values correlated to geographic regions in both sexes, showing an increase from southern to eastern Croatia. In the same direction, head length significantly decreased in males and head breadth increased in females. Mediterranean climate was associated with higher and narrower faces in females. The analysis of the particular climatic variables did not reveal a significant influence on body height in either sex. Concurrently, climatic features influenced all craniofacial traits in females and only head length and facial index in males. Mediterranean climate

  14. Explicit area-based accuracy assessment for mangrove tree crown delineation using Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Muhammad; Johansen, Kasper

    2017-10-01

    Effective mangrove management requires spatially explicit information of mangrove tree crown map as a basis for ecosystem diversity study and health assessment. Accuracy assessment is an integral part of any mapping activities to measure the effectiveness of the classification approach. In geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) the assessment of the geometric accuracy (shape, symmetry and location) of the created image objects from image segmentation is required. In this study we used an explicit area-based accuracy assessment to measure the degree of similarity between the results of the classification and reference data from different aspects, including overall quality (OQ), user's accuracy (UA), producer's accuracy (PA) and overall accuracy (OA). We developed a rule set to delineate the mangrove tree crown using WorldView-2 pan-sharpened image. The reference map was obtained by visual delineation of the mangrove tree crowns boundaries form a very high-spatial resolution aerial photograph (7.5cm pixel size). Ten random points with a 10 m radius circular buffer were created to calculate the area-based accuracy assessment. The resulting circular polygons were used to clip both the classified image objects and reference map for area comparisons. In this case, the area-based accuracy assessment resulted 64% and 68% for the OQ and OA, respectively. The overall quality of the calculation results shows the class-related area accuracy; which is the area of correctly classified as tree crowns was 64% out of the total area of tree crowns. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of 68% was calculated as the percentage of all correctly classified classes (tree crowns and canopy gaps) in comparison to the total class area (an entire image). Overall, the area-based accuracy assessment was simple to implement and easy to interpret. It also shows explicitly the omission and commission error variations of object boundary delineation with colour coded polygons.

  15. Retail tobacco exposure: using geographic analysis to identify areas with excessively high retail density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Carlos, Heather A; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Berke, Ethan M; Sargent, James

    2014-02-01

    There is great disparity in tobacco outlet density (TOD), with density highest in low-income areas and areas with greater proportions of minority residents, and this disparity may affect cancer incidence. We sought to better understand the nature of this disparity by assessing how these socio-demographic factors relate to TOD at the national level. Using mixture regression analysis and all of the nearly 65,000 census tracts in the contiguous United States, we aimed to determine the number of latent disparity classes by modeling the relations of proportions of Blacks, Hispanics, and families living in poverty with TOD, controlling for urban/rural status. We identified six disparity classes. There was considerable heterogeneity in relation to TOD for Hispanics in rural settings. For Blacks, there was no relation to TOD in an urban moderate disparity class, and for rural census tracts, the relation was highest in a moderate disparity class. We demonstrated the utility of classifying census tracts on heterogeneity of tobacco risk exposure. This approach provides a better understanding of the complexity of socio-demographic influences of tobacco retailing and creates opportunities for policy makers to more efficiently target areas in greatest need.

  16. Ecological and Geographical Analysis of the Distribution of the Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Ecuador: Importance of Protected Areas in Future Scenarios of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio; Prieto-Torres, David A.; Gómez-Lora, Ignacio; Lizcano, Diego J.

    2015-01-01

    In Ecuador, Tapirus pinchaque is considered to be critically endangered. Although the species has been registered in several localities, its geographic distribution remains unclear, and the effects of climate change and current land uses on this species are largely unknown. We modeled the ecological niche of T. pinchaque using MaxEnt, in order to assess its potential adaptation to present and future climate change scenarios. We evaluated the effects of habitat loss due by current land use, the ecosystem availability and importance of Ecuadorian System of Protected Areas into the models. The model of environmental suitability estimated an extent of occurrence for species of 21,729 km2 in all of Ecuador, mainly occurring along the corridor of the eastern Ecuadorian Andes. A total of 10 Andean ecosystems encompassed ~98% of the area defined by the model, with herbaceous paramo, northeastern Andean montane evergreen forest and northeastern Andes upper montane evergreen forest being the most representative. When considering the effect of habitat loss, a significant reduction in model area (~17%) occurred, and the effect of climate change represented a net reduction up to 37.86%. However, the synergistic effect of both climate change and habitat loss, given current land use practices, could represent a greater risk in the short-term, leading to a net reduction of 19.90 to 44.65% in T. pinchaque’s potential distribution. Even under such a scenarios, several Protected Areas harbor a portion (~36 to 48%) of the potential distribution defined by the models. However, the central and southern populations are highly threatened by habitat loss and climate change. Based on these results and due to the restricted home range of T. pinchaque, its preference for upland forests and paramos, and its small estimated population size in the Andes, we suggest to maintaining its current status as Critically Endangered in Ecuador. PMID:25798851

  17. Ecological and geographical analysis of the distribution of the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque in Ecuador: importance of protected areas in future scenarios of global warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mauricio Ortega-Andrade

    Full Text Available In Ecuador, Tapirus pinchaque is considered to be critically endangered. Although the species has been registered in several localities, its geographic distribution remains unclear, and the effects of climate change and current land uses on this species are largely unknown. We modeled the ecological niche of T. pinchaque using MaxEnt, in order to assess its potential adaptation to present and future climate change scenarios. We evaluated the effects of habitat loss due by current land use, the ecosystem availability and importance of Ecuadorian System of Protected Areas into the models. The model of environmental suitability estimated an extent of occurrence for species of 21,729 km2 in all of Ecuador, mainly occurring along the corridor of the eastern Ecuadorian Andes. A total of 10 Andean ecosystems encompassed ~98% of the area defined by the model, with herbaceous paramo, northeastern Andean montane evergreen forest and northeastern Andes upper montane evergreen forest being the most representative. When considering the effect of habitat loss, a significant reduction in model area (~17% occurred, and the effect of climate change represented a net reduction up to 37.86%. However, the synergistic effect of both climate change and habitat loss, given current land use practices, could represent a greater risk in the short-term, leading to a net reduction of 19.90 to 44.65% in T. pinchaque's potential distribution. Even under such a scenarios, several Protected Areas harbor a portion (~36 to 48% of the potential distribution defined by the models. However, the central and southern populations are highly threatened by habitat loss and climate change. Based on these results and due to the restricted home range of T. pinchaque, its preference for upland forests and paramos, and its small estimated population size in the Andes, we suggest to maintaining its current status as Critically Endangered in Ecuador.

  18. Ecological and geographical analysis of the distribution of the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Ecuador: importance of protected areas in future scenarios of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Prieto-Torres, David A; Gómez-Lora, Ignacio; Lizcano, Diego J

    2015-01-01

    In Ecuador, Tapirus pinchaque is considered to be critically endangered. Although the species has been registered in several localities, its geographic distribution remains unclear, and the effects of climate change and current land uses on this species are largely unknown. We modeled the ecological niche of T. pinchaque using MaxEnt, in order to assess its potential adaptation to present and future climate change scenarios. We evaluated the effects of habitat loss due by current land use, the ecosystem availability and importance of Ecuadorian System of Protected Areas into the models. The model of environmental suitability estimated an extent of occurrence for species of 21,729 km2 in all of Ecuador, mainly occurring along the corridor of the eastern Ecuadorian Andes. A total of 10 Andean ecosystems encompassed ~98% of the area defined by the model, with herbaceous paramo, northeastern Andean montane evergreen forest and northeastern Andes upper montane evergreen forest being the most representative. When considering the effect of habitat loss, a significant reduction in model area (~17%) occurred, and the effect of climate change represented a net reduction up to 37.86%. However, the synergistic effect of both climate change and habitat loss, given current land use practices, could represent a greater risk in the short-term, leading to a net reduction of 19.90 to 44.65% in T. pinchaque's potential distribution. Even under such a scenarios, several Protected Areas harbor a portion (~36 to 48%) of the potential distribution defined by the models. However, the central and southern populations are highly threatened by habitat loss and climate change. Based on these results and due to the restricted home range of T. pinchaque, its preference for upland forests and paramos, and its small estimated population size in the Andes, we suggest to maintaining its current status as Critically Endangered in Ecuador.

  19. Ecosystem Services Modeling as a Tool for Defining Priority Areas for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Teixeira Duarte

    Full Text Available Conservationists often have difficulty obtaining financial and social support for protected areas that do not demonstrate their benefits for society. Therefore, ecosystem services have gained importance in conservation science in the last decade, as these services provide further justification for appropriate management and conservation of natural systems. We used InVEST software and a set of GIS procedures to quantify, spatialize and evaluated the overlap between ecosystem services-carbon stock and sediment retention-and a biodiversity proxy-habitat quality. In addition, we proposed a method that serves as an initial approach of a priority areas selection process. The method considers the synergism between ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. Our study region is the Iron Quadrangle, an important Brazilian mining province and a conservation priority area located in the interface of two biodiversity hotspots, the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes. The resultant priority area for the maintenance of the highest values of ecosystem services and habitat quality was about 13% of the study area. Among those priority areas, 30% are already within established strictly protected areas, and 12% are in sustainable use protected areas. Following the transparent and highly replicable method we proposed in this study, conservation planners can better determine which areas fulfill multiple goals and can locate the trade-offs in the landscape. We also gave a step towards the improvement of the habitat quality model with a topography parameter. In areas of very rugged topography, we have to consider geomorfometric barriers for anthropogenic impacts and for species movement and we must think beyond the linear distances. Moreover, we used a model that considers the tree mortality caused by edge effects in the estimation of carbon stock. We found low spatial congruence among the modeled services, mostly because of the pattern of sediment retention

  20. Ecosystem Services Modeling as a Tool for Defining Priority Areas for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Gabriela Teixeira; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Paglia, Adriano Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Conservationists often have difficulty obtaining financial and social support for protected areas that do not demonstrate their benefits for society. Therefore, ecosystem services have gained importance in conservation science in the last decade, as these services provide further justification for appropriate management and conservation of natural systems. We used InVEST software and a set of GIS procedures to quantify, spatialize and evaluated the overlap between ecosystem services-carbon stock and sediment retention-and a biodiversity proxy-habitat quality. In addition, we proposed a method that serves as an initial approach of a priority areas selection process. The method considers the synergism between ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. Our study region is the Iron Quadrangle, an important Brazilian mining province and a conservation priority area located in the interface of two biodiversity hotspots, the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes. The resultant priority area for the maintenance of the highest values of ecosystem services and habitat quality was about 13% of the study area. Among those priority areas, 30% are already within established strictly protected areas, and 12% are in sustainable use protected areas. Following the transparent and highly replicable method we proposed in this study, conservation planners can better determine which areas fulfill multiple goals and can locate the trade-offs in the landscape. We also gave a step towards the improvement of the habitat quality model with a topography parameter. In areas of very rugged topography, we have to consider geomorfometric barriers for anthropogenic impacts and for species movement and we must think beyond the linear distances. Moreover, we used a model that considers the tree mortality caused by edge effects in the estimation of carbon stock. We found low spatial congruence among the modeled services, mostly because of the pattern of sediment retention distribution.

  1. A Geographical Information System to Manage the Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, K. L.; Hillier, M. C. J.; Thornborough, K. J.; Jenkyns, R.; Juniper, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area (EHVMPA) is located approximately 250 km offshore of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Since its discovery in 1982, there have been hundreds of dives, samples collected, measurements made, and debris left behind at the EHVMPA. In 2003, the Canadian government declared the region as a Marine Protected Area (MPA) under Canada's Oceans Act, to be managed by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO). Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) operates a cabled observatory in the EHVMPA, and streams data in near real-time via the Internet to science communities worldwide. ONC's observatory data, combined with observations made during maintenance expeditions provides insight assisting the management and preservation of the MPA. In 2014, DFO partnered with ONC to build a geodatabase to enhance and inform the knowledge base of the EHVMPA Management Plan. The geodatabase, built in ArcGIS, contains data integrated from ONC's Oceans 2.0 database, third parties, and relevant publications. Layers include annual observatory infrastructure deployments, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dive tracks, sampling activity, anthropogenic debris, high-resolution bathymetry, observations of species of interest, and locations of hydrothermal vents. The combined data show both efforts to better understand the environment and the resulting stressors that impact the MPA. The tool also links observed features such as debris and biological observations to the time-correlated ROV dive video using ONC's SeaTube video viewing tool allowing for further analysis. Through 2017, the geodatabase will be maintained by ONC and enriched with expedition data from organizations such as Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, and the University of Washington. The end result is a tool that can integrate many types of data obtained from the MPA, and encourages systematic management of a remote, dynamic and fragile environment.

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in feces of black beef cattle reared in three geographically distant areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Muramatsu, Masatake; Takashima, Ikuo; Hirai, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of black beef cattle reared in geographically distant areas in Japan. We surveyed 130 farms in the following three areas: northern (Hokkaido prefecture), central (Gifu and Mie prefectures), and southern (Oita, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima prefectures) areas and collected 1738 fecal samples. Our data showed the following isolation rate for each area: northern, 11.4% of 651; central, 2.8% of 572; and southern, 2.9% of 515, indicating that the isolation rate in the northern area was significantly higher than that in the central or southern areas (pprevalent serotype (40.5%), followed by 1/2a (36.9%), 4b (21.6%), and 4ab (1.0%). In the northern area, multiple serotypes were isolated from 60% of L. monocytogenes-positive farms. In addition, multiple serotypes were isolated from individual fecal samples from 18 cattle. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 239 isolates detected 48 different PFGE types. We found that isolates from northern farms were genetically diverse compared to those from central and southern farms. Five isolates from human clinical cases and three isolates from animal clinical cases were identical to isolates from black beef cattle. Furthermore, the isolates from northern and central farms were characterized to possess epidemic clone II or III markers. We next showed that the isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Taken together, our survey provides crucial data regarding the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in black beef cattle farms throughout Japan.

  3. Adaptive Changes in Basal Metabolic Rate in Humans in Different Eco-Geographical Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximov, Arkady L; Belkin, Victor Sh; Kalichman, Leonid; Kobyliansky, Eugene D

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to establish whether the human basal metabolic rate (BMR) shifts towards the reduction of vital functions as an adaptation response to extreme environmental conditions. Data was collected in arid and Extreme North zones. The arid zone samples included Bedouins living in the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt, Turkmen students, the Pedagogical University of Chardzhou, Turkmenistan born Russians and Russian soldiers. Soldiers were divided into 3 groups according to the length of their tour of duty in the area: 1st group: up to six months, 2nd group: up to 2 years and the 3rd group: 3-5 years. The Extreme North samples comprised Chukchi natives, 1st generation Russian immigrants born in the area and 3 groups of soldiers comparable to the soldiers from Turkmenistan. BMR values of the new recruits had the highest values of total and relative BMR (1769 ± 16 and 28.3 ± 0.6, correspondingly). The total and relative BMR tended to decrease within a longer adaptation period. The BMR values of officers who served >3 years in Turkmenistan were very similar to the Turkmenistan born Russians (1730 ± 14 vs. 1726 ± 18 and 26.5 ± 0.6 vs. 27.3 ± 0.7, correspondingly). Similarly, in Chukotka, the highest relative BMR was found in the new recruits, serving up to 6 months (28.1 ± 0.7) and was significantly (p BMR was virtually similar in Russian officers serving > 3 years, compared to the middle-aged Chukchi or Chukotka-born Russians (25.8 ± 0.5 vs. 25.6 ± 0.5 and 25.5 ± 0.6, correspondingly). The BMR parameters demonstrated a stronger association with body weight than with age. In extreme environmental conditions, migrant populations showed a decrease in BMR, thus reducing its vital functions. The BMR reduction effect with the adequate adaptive transformation is likely to be the key strategy for developing programs to facilitate human and animal adaptation to extreme factors. This process is aimed at preserving the optimum energy balance and homeostasis while minimizing

  4. Geographic epidemiology in a small area: cancer incidence in Baakline, Lebanon, 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, S M; Tabbal, N; Hamadeh, R; Ammar, W

    2013-04-01

    Aggregate data of the National Clr cac gi s in Lebanon cannot discriminate cance r incidence i n small areas. Trained community members surveyed the permanent population of the Baakline municipality using the verbal autopsy approach. We surveyed 1042 households with at least 1 member living permanently in Baakline during 2000-2008. Data covered 4330 persons yielding 34,143 years of observation and 56 new cases of cancer were reported. Median age at diagnosis varied significantly between men (77 years) and women (56 years). The most common types were lung cancer (20%) followed by colorectal (12.5%) and breast (9%). Estimated crude cancer incidence rate was 164 cases/100,000 persons/year, significantly higher in men (194) than women (130), and much lower overall than the national figure (218). The permanent Baakline population is older than that of Lebanon itself, yet the cancer incidence rate is markedly lower than the national figure. This finding pleads for serious efforts to preserve the low environmental contamination and the healthy lifestyles in food and tobacco abstinence that have protected the population so far.

  5. USGS compilation of geographic information system (GIS) data of coal mines and coal-bearing areas in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2015-09-10

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled GIS data representing coal mines, deposits (including those with and without coal mines), occurrences, areas, basins, and provinces of Mongolia as of 2009. These data are now available for download, and may be used in a GIS for a variety of energy resource and environmental studies of Mongolia. Chemical data for 37 coal samples from a previous USGS study of Mongolia (Tewalt and others, 2010) are included in a downloadable GIS point shapefile and shown on the map of Mongolia. A brief report summarizes the methodology used for creation of the shapefiles and the chemical analyses run on the samples.

  6. Characterization of class 1 integrons associated with R-plasmids in clinical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates from various geographical areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Larsen, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Class 1 integrons were found in 26 of 40 antibiotic-resistant isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from Northern Europe and North America. Three different dhfr genes, conferring trimethoprim resistance, and one ant(3 " )1a aminoglycoside resistance gene were identified as gene...... inserts. The gene cassettes tended to be conserved among isolates from a particular geographical area. Nineteen isolates transferred R- plasmids carrying different tet determinants to Escherichia coli in filter mating assays, and in 15 cases, the class 1 integrons were co-transferred. Transferable...... sulphadiazine, trimethoprim and streptomycin resistances were invariably encoded by integrons. It thus appears that integron-encoded antibiotic resistance genes contribute substantially to the horizontal spread of antimicrobial resistance within this species, being associated with conjugative plasmids....

  7. Simulasi Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN Berbasis Software Defined Network (SDN Menggunakan POX Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmat Tulloh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available VLAN (Virtual LAN merupakan sebuah teknologi yang dapat mengkonfigurasi jaringan logis independen dari struktur jaringan fisik. Hasil dari penelitian sebelumnya sudah diprediksi bahwa dibutuhkan Virtual Network yang akhirnya terciptalah VLAN. Namun paradigma jaringan saat ini tidak flexible, ketergantungan terhadap vendor sangat besar karena fungsi data plane dan control plane berada dalam satu paket device. SDN (Software defined network yang merupakan salahsatu evolusi teknologi jaringan sesuai dengan tuntutan yang berkembang dimana memisahkan fungsi data plane dan control plane pada suatu perangkat. POX Controller digunakan untuk men-simulasikan dan menguji Platform SDN (Software defined network. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan Openflow versi 1.0 untuk memasang header VLAN sehingga penelitian ini difokuskan untuk mengevaluasi performa forwarding VLAN yang memanfaatkan Openflow sebagai control plane dapat berfungsi dengan baik. Hasil penelitian ini mengusulkan penerapan karakteristik teknologi VLAN pada SDN karena telah berjalan dengan benar sesuai hasil pengujian konektifitas, verifikasi dan keamanan. Kemudian hasil pengujian lanjutan untuk melihat pengaruh SDN dengan skenario penambahan jumlah VLAN ID didapatkan bahwa set-up time akan bertambah seiring meningkatnya jumlah host dan dengan menggunakan protokol OpenFlow, latency yang terjadi di jaringan dapat dipantau dengan parameter round trip time (RTT yang stabil direntang 0,2 sampai 6 second walaupun jumlah vlan_id dan background traffic bertambah.

  8. Determination of the geographic origin of onions between three main production areas in Japan and other countries by mineral composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyama, Kaoru; Aoyama, Yoshinori; Mochizuki, Akashi; Homura, Yuji; Kadokura, Masashi; Yasui, Akemi

    2007-01-24

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are produced in many countries and are one of the most popular vegetables in the world, thus leading to an enormous amount of international trade. It is currently important that a scientific technique be developed for determining geographic origin as a means to detect fraudulent labeling. We have therefore developed a technique based on mineral analysis and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The onion samples used in this study were from Hokkaido, Hyogo, and Saga, which are the primary onion-growing areas in Japan, and those from countries that export onions to Japan (China, the United States, New Zealand, Thailand, Australia, and Chile). Of 309 samples, 108 were from Hokkaido, 52 were from Saga, 77 were from Hyogo, and 72 were from abroad. Fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Cs, and Ba) in the samples were determined by frame atomic adsorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The models established by LDA were used to discriminate the geographic origin between Hokkaido and abroad, Hyogo and abroad, and Saga and abroad. Ten-fold cross-validations were conducted using these models. The discrimination accuracies obtained by cross-validation between Hokkaido and abroad were 100 and 86%, respectively. Those between Hyogo and abroad were 100 and 90%, respectively. Those between Saga and abroad were 98 and 90%, respectively. In addition, it was demonstrated that the fingerprint of an element pattern from a specific production area, which a crop receives, did not easily change by the variations of fertilization, crop year, variety, soil type, and production year if appropriate elements were chosen.

  9. Using NDVI-based measures to derive geographic information on drought-prone areas for developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kumari Vadivel

    Remotely sensed NDVI imagery was used to detect drought in developing countries in three continents. The study shows that in spite of the various limitations the NDVI data provide valuable information on drought probabilities due to their significant correlation with rainfall time series (0.4 - 0.7). NDVI data are also accessible at different resolutions (1 degree, 8 km and 1 km) at a global scale in spatiotemporally continuous form for up to 19 years enabling this study to contribute a uniform and simultaneous analysis of drought in poor developing countries. The current study is also done with due consideration to the ecosystem underlying the pixel. Special consideration for the ecosystem is achieved by holding the temporal and spatial identity intact throughout the analysis. The study uses NDVI data from 19 years for a vigorous and quick estimate, using a new method called the 'percent carrying capacity index' method which is shown to perform better than the 'vegetation condition index' method. For a few selected geographic areas, the computed image analysis results were verified against actual occurrence of drought. The image analysis results were found to be consistent with reality in those cases, validating the analysis results for areas for which drought observations have not been recorded. The final continental scale drought maps show the frequently drought-prone areas derived from uniform spatial (8km * 8km) and temporal (decadal) resolution data across three continents.

  10. Defining Indicators and Standards for Tourism Impacts in Protected Areas: Cape Range National Park, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan A.; Polley, Amanda

    2007-03-01

    Visitors’ perceptions of impacts and acceptable standards for environmental conditions can provide essential information for the sustainable management of tourist destinations, especially protected areas. To this end, visitor surveys were administered during the peak visitor season in Cape Range National Park, on the northwest coast of Western Australia and adjacent to the iconic Ningaloo Reef. The central focus was visitors’ perceptions regarding environmental conditions and standards for potential indicators. Conditions considered of greatest importance in determining visitors’ quality of experience included litter, inadequate disposal of human waste, presence of wildlife, levels of noise, and access to beach and ocean. Standards were determined, based on visitors’ perceptions, for a range of site-specific and non-site-specific indicators, with standards for facilities (e.g., acceptable number of parking bays, signs) and for negative environmental impacts (e.g., levels of littering, erosion) sought. The proposed standards varied significantly between sites for the facilities indicators; however, there was no significant difference between sites for environmental impacts. For the facilities, the standards proposed by visitors were closely related to the existing situation, suggesting that they were satisfied with the status quo. These results are considered in the context of current research interest in the efficacy of visitor-derived standards as a basis for protected area management.

  11. Use of probabilistic risk assessments to define areas of possible exemption from regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.A.; Carlson, D.; Kolaczkowski, A.; LaChance, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Risk-Based Licensing Program (RBLP) was sponsored by the Department of Energy for the purpose of establishing and demonstrating an approach for identifying potential areas for exemption from current regulatory requirements in the licensing of nuclear power plants. Such an approach could assist in the improvement of the regulatory process for both current and future nuclear plant designs. Use of the methodology could result in streamlining the regulatory process by eliminating unnecessarily detailed reviews of portions of a plant design not important to risk. The RBLP methodology utilizes probabilistic risk assessments, (PRAs), which are required of all future applicants for nuclear power plant licenses. PRA results are used as a screening tool to determine the risk significance of various plant features which are correlated to the risk importance of regulations to identify potential areas for regulatory exemption. Additional consideration is then given to non-risk factors in the final determination of exemption candidates. The RBLP methodology was demonstrated using an existing PRA. The results of the demonstration are highlighted. 10 refs

  12. Defining indicators and standards for tourism impacts in protected areas: Cape Range National Park, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan A; Polley, Amanda

    2007-03-01

    Visitors' perceptions of impacts and acceptable standards for environmental conditions can provide essential information for the sustainable management of tourist destinations, especially protected areas. To this end, visitor surveys were administered during the peak visitor season in Cape Range National Park, on the northwest coast of Western Australia and adjacent to the iconic Ningaloo Reef. The central focus was visitors' perceptions regarding environmental conditions and standards for potential indicators. Conditions considered of greatest importance in determining visitors' quality of experience included litter, inadequate disposal of human waste, presence of wildlife, levels of noise, and access to beach and ocean. Standards were determined, based on visitors' perceptions, for a range of site-specific and non-site-specific indicators, with standards for facilities (e.g., acceptable number of parking bays, signs) and for negative environmental impacts (e.g., levels of littering, erosion) sought. The proposed standards varied significantly between sites for the facilities indicators; however, there was no significant difference between sites for environmental impacts. For the facilities, the standards proposed by visitors were closely related to the existing situation, suggesting that they were satisfied with the status quo. These results are considered in the context of current research interest in the efficacy of visitor-derived standards as a basis for protected area management.

  13. Investigation of factors influencing the formation of the middle class on the territory of regions of Capital socio-geographical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Pereguda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article stated that to determine the specifics of a middle class it is necessary to apply economic and mathematical methods allowing one to display a certain proportion and sometimes qualitative patterns of distribution of different forms and types of settlement and problems that are investigated. The key components of each factor can be determined based on the analysis of factor analysis and the indicators playing a major role in shaping sets of factors can be shown based on a factor variance. The spatial organization of society in this research study has been noted to have a multi-level character, because it is going to cover the territory within the regions and the accommodation of diverse population on it will include spatial distribution of various types of economic activity and economic indicators. In this study, the special attention has been paid to economic poverty to determine the boundaries of the middle class, and conduction of more accurate inequality of economic indicators in the regions. The regional specifics of the Capital socio-geographical area has been conducted through socio-geographical approach aimed at disclosing the middle class. Based on statistical data systematization, the analysis has been conducted due to the matrix factorization of selected indicators intercorrelation. It has been noted that the study of the middle class from the standpoint of social geography as spatially conditioned phenomenon requires the formulation of methodological regulations, it defines procedures for research highlighting the main stages, and it studies the techniques and methods of forming the system of scientific research to further disclosure issues.

  14. Physiological intracellular crowdedness is defined by perimeter to area ratio of subcellular compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko eHiroi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular environment is known to be a crowded and inhomogeneous space. Such an in vivo environment differs from a well-diluted, homogeneous environment for biochemical reactions. However, the effects of both crowdedness and the inhomogeneity of environment on the behavior of a mobile particle have not yet been investigated sufficiently. As described in this paper, we constructed artificial reaction spaces with fractal models, which are assumed to be non-reactive solid obstacles in a reaction space with crevices that function as operating ranges for mobile particles threading the space. Because of the homogeneity of the structures of artificial reaction spaces, the models succeeded in reproducing the physiological fractal dimension of solid structures with a smaller number of non-reactive obstacles than in the physiological condition. This incomplete compatibility was mitigated when we chose a suitable condition of a perimeter-to-area ratio of the operating range to our model. Our results also show that a simulation space is partitioned into convenient reaction compartments as an in vivo environment with the exact amount of solid structures estimated from TEM images. The characteristics of these compartments engender larger mean square displacement of a mobile particle than that of particles in smaller compartments. Subsequently, the particles start to show confined particle-like behavior. These results are compatible with our previously presented results, which predicted that a physiological environment would produce quick-response and slow-exhaustion reactions.

  15. Potential distribution of the endangered endemic lizard Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 (Liolaemidae: are there other suitable areas for a geographically restricted species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR. Winck

    Full Text Available In this study we attempted to access further information on the geographical distribution of the endangered lizard Liolaemus lutzae, estimating its potential distribution through the maximum entropy algorithm. For this purpose, we related its points of occurrence with matrices of environmental variables. After examining the correlation between environmental matrices, we selected 10 for model construction. The main variables influencing the current geographic distribution of L. lutzae were the diurnal temperature range and altitude. The species endemism seemed to be a consequence of a reduction of the original distribution area. Alternatively, the resulting model may reflect the geographic distribution of an ancestral lineage, since the model selected areas of occurrence of the two other species of Liolaemus from Brazil (L. arambarensis and L. occipitalis, all living in sand dune habitats and having psamophilic habits. Due to the high loss rate of habitat occupied by the species, the conservation and recovery of the remaining areas affected by human actions is essential.

  16. Prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems in Johor Bahru District school children--comparing three geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Y C; Kadir, A B; Jeyarajah, S

    1997-06-01

    This is a cross sectional community study in Johor Bahru District. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall prevalence of emotional and behavioural deviance among the school children in three different geographical areas, and to identify their correlates. This paper presents the findings of phase one of a two-stage procedure involving a total of 589 children aged 10-12 years. Using the cut-off point validated locally, the prevalence of deviance on the parental scale was 40% in the rural school, 30.2% in the agricultural resettlement (Felda) school and 32.3% in the urban school. On the teachers' assessment, the prevalence of deviance was 40.8% in the rural school, 10.8% in the Felda School and 8.9% in the urban school. There was significantly higher prevalence of deviance in the rural school on the teachers' scale. In the rural school, significantly higher prevalence of deviance was found among boys.

  17. Fatty acid composition and antibacterial potential of Cassia tora (leaves and stem collected from different geographic areas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Shukla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the fatty acid composition of Cassia tora (leaves and stem was determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Twenty-seven fatty acids were identified in C. tora (leaves and stem which was collected from three different geographical areas of India: Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh, Nainital (Uttarakhand, and Bhavnagar (Gujarat, coded as CT-1, CT-2, and CT-3, respectively. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids found were palmitic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, margaric acid, melissic acid, and behenic acid. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids were found in leaves of C. tora collected from Bhavnagar (Gujarat (60.7% ± 0.5%. Thus, the study reveals that C. tora has a major amount of nutritionally important fatty acids, along with significant antimicrobial potential. Fatty acids play a significant role in the development of fat products with enhanced nutritional value and clinical application. Remarkable differences were found in the present study between fatty acid profiles of C. tora collected from different locations in India. To the best of our knowledge there is no previously reported comparative study of the fatty acids of C. tora.

  18. Residents in a high radon potential geographic area: Their risk perception and attitude toward testing and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferng, S.F.; Lawson, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Boone County, Indiana was identified by the EPA as one of the high radon potential geographic areas. Health education campaigns are needed to prevent resident's unnecessary radon exposure. In order to design suitable programs, a questionnaire mail survey was conducted to measure socio-demographic characteristics of County resident's knowledge about radon, attitude toward radon testing and mitigation, support of education campaigns, and the best media to deliver radon education campaigns. A stratified random sampling method was applied for a total of 400 samples. The number of samples from each township/city was a proportion of their taxable parcels. The survey return rate was 39.8%. The data were analyzed by Epi Info and SPSS. The statistical significant level was set at α = 0.05. The results showed that resident's knowledge about radon was at a relatively superficial level. There was no association identified between the knowledge of radon and gender, age, family income, or education, except that females more frequently believed in false effects caused by radon. A significant correlation between radon knowledge and home radon tests was observed. Also found in this study was that respondents with better knowledge about diseases caused by radon had more confidence in radon mitigation actions. Newspaper was chosen by respondents as the most favorite media to deliver radon health education campaigns. Health education campaigns for the residents of Boone County might be conducted by local governments and/or other organizations

  19. Semiautomatic Segmentation of Rim Area Focal Hyperautofluorescence Predicts Progression of Geographic Atrophy Due to Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allingham, Michael J; Nie, Qing; Lad, Eleonora M; Izatt, Daniel J; Mettu, Priyatham S; Cousins, Scott W; Farsiu, Sina

    2016-04-01

    To develop image analysis software usable by nonexpert graders to segment geographic atrophy (GA) from dry AMD and to quantify rim area focal hyperautofluorescence (RAFH) surrounding GA on fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images. To compare the GA progression predictions based on RAFH with those of a validated qualitative classification system. Retrospective analysis of serial FAF images from 49 eyes of 30 subjects with GA was performed using MATLAB-based software (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). Correlation between RAFH and progression of GA was analyzed using Spearman correlation. Comparisons of lesion growth rate between RAFH tertiles used generalized estimating equations and Kruskal-Wallis testing. Interobserver variability in lesion size, growth rate and RAFH were compared between two expert and one nonexpert grader using Bland-Altman statistics. Rim area focal hyperautofluorescence was positively correlated with GA progression rate (ρ = 0.49, P < 0.001). Subjects in the middle or highest RAFH tertile were at greater risk of progression (P = 0.005 and P = 0.001, respectively). Mean difference in RAFH was 0.012 between expert and -0.005 to 0.017 between expert and nonexperts. Mean difference in lesion size (mm2) was 0.11 between expert and -0.29 to 0.41 between expert and nonexperts. Mean difference in lesion growth rate (mm2/mo) was 0.0098 between expert and -0.027 to 0.037 between expert and nonexperts. Risk stratification based on RAFH tertile was 96% identical across all graders. Our semiautomated image analysis software facilitates stratification of progression risk based on RAFH and enabled a nonexpert grader with minimal training to obtain results comparable to expert graders. Predictions based on RAFH were similar to those of a validated qualitative classification system.

  20. Terrestrial service environments for selected geographic locations. Final report. [1965--1974 data; to define solar array environment to aid in encapsulation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.E.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1976-06-24

    This report contains results obtained from analyses of climatic, precipitation, air pollution, and other environmental data for the years 1965 to 1974 at nine widely different geographic locations in the United States (Albuquerque, N.M.; Bismarck, N.D.; Boston, Mass.; Brownsville, TX.; Cleveland, OH; Fairbanks, AK; Los Angeles, CA; Miami, FL; and Phoenix, AZ). In addition to descriptive and diurnal statistics for 24 individual climatic variables, ''environmental cell'' statistics were computed to obtain the frequencies, durations, and transitions for the simultaneous occurrence of various combinations of environmental variables. Results are presented for the simultaneous occurrence of specific levels of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and insolation, in addition to representative results obtained for other combinations of variables. The results characterize the environmental conditions to which terrestrial solar arrays would be exposed over a 20-year lifetime, and serve to identify environmental factors and levels that can be used in testing candidate encapsulation materials and systems for such terrestrial exposures. An innovative methodology was applied to obtain these results for combinations of environmental variables. Because of its generality and demonstrated feasibility, it is concluded that the methodology also has broad applications to other testing programs.

  1. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Shiprock Area, Parts of San Juan County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  2. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Cibola Area, New Mexico, Parts of Cibola, McKinley, and Valencia Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  3. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Rio Arriba Area, New Mexico, Parts of Rio Arriba and Sandoval Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Lincoln National Forest Area, New Mexico, Parts of Lincoln and Otero Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  5. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Sandoval County Area, New Mexico (Parts of Los Alamos, Sandoval and Rio Arriba Counties)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  6. Using geographic distribution of well-screen depths and hydrogeologic conditions to identify areas of concern for contaminant migration through inactive supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailey, Robert M.

    2018-02-01

    Contaminant migration through inactive supply wells can negatively affect groundwater quality and the combined effects from groups of such wells may cause greater impacts. Because the number of wells in many basins is often large and the geographic areas involved can be vast, approaches are needed to estimate potential impacts and focus limited resources for investigation and corrective measures on the most important areas. One possibility is to evaluate the geographic distribution of well-screen depths relative to hydrogeologic conditions and assess where contaminant migration through wells may be impacting groundwater quality. This approach is demonstrated for a geographically extensive area in the southern Central Valley of California, USA. The conditions that lead to wells acting as conduits for contaminant migration are evaluated and areas where the problem likely occurs are identified. Although only a small fraction of all wells appear to act as conduits, potential impacts may be significant considering needs to control nonpoint-source pollution and improve drinking water quality for rural residents. Addressing a limited number of areas where contaminant migration rates are expected to be high may cost-effectively accomplish the most beneficial groundwater quality protection and improvement. While this work focuses on a specific region, the results indicate that impacts from groups of wells may occur in other areas with similar conditions. Analyses similar to that demonstrated here may guide efficient investigation and corrective action in such areas with benefits occurring for groundwater quality. Potential benefits may justify expenditures to develop the necessary data for performing the analyses.

  7. Louisiana Coastal Zone Boundary, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (1998)[coastal_zone_boundary_LDNR_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset representing the extent of the LDNR regulatory area defined as the Louisiana Coastal Zone. This area comprises a band across the southern...

  8. The Moderating Effect of Geographic Area on the Relationship Between Age, Gender, and Information and Communication Technology Literacy and Problematic Internet Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Recker, Mimi; Chen, Shijian; Zhao, Nan; Yang, Qiuyan

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between adolescents' problematic Internet use (PIU) and demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and the moderating effect of geographic area on this relationship using a cross-sectional research design. The study sample comprised 2160 adolescents from the Chongqing area of China and consisted of 47.3 percent boys (N = 1022) and 52.7 percent girls (N = 1138). Participants anonymously completed a 38-item questionnaire that examined their Internet use, behaviors, and attitudes, ICT literacy, parents' education level, and other demographic information. The results showed that the geographic area in which respondents lived (urban vs. rural), gender, age, father's education, mother's education, and ICT literacy had significant relationships with PIU. Moreover, hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that geographic area was found to be a significant moderator for both age and gender in their relationship with PIU. These findings suggest that it is essential to address differences between urban and rural areas when seeking to mitigate PIU among adolescents.

  9. Variability in chemical composition of Vitis vinifera cv Mencía from different geographic areas and vintages in Ribeira Sacra (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, M; Rodríguez, I; Canosa, P; Otero, I; Gamero, E; Moreno, D; Talaverano, I; Valdés, E

    2015-02-15

    A chemical study was conducted from 2009 to 2012 to examine spatial and seasonal variability of red Vitis vinifera Mencía located in different geographic areas (Amandi, Chantada, Quiroga-Bibei, Ribeiras do Sil and Ribeiras do Miño) from NW Spain. Mencía samples were analysed for phenolic, (flavan-3-ols, flavonols, anthocyanins, acids and resveratrol), nitrogen (TAC, TAN, YAN and TAS) and volatiles compounds (alcohols, C6 compounds, ethyl esters, terpenes, aldehydes, acids, lactones, volatile phenols and carbonyl compounds) by GC-MS and HPLC. Results showed that the composition of Mencía cultivar was more affected by the vintage than the geographic area. The amino acid composition was less affected by both geographic origin and vintage, showing more varietal stability. Application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to experimental data showed a good separation of Mencía grape according to geographical origin and vintages. PCA also showed high correlations between the ripening ratio and C6 compounds, resveratrol and carbonyl compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cloud-Centric and Logically Isolated Virtual Network Environment Based on Software-Defined Wide Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyun Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent development of distributed cloud environments requires advanced network infrastructure in order to facilitate network automation, virtualization, high performance data transfer, and secured access of end-to-end resources across regional boundaries. In order to meet these innovative cloud networking requirements, software-defined wide area network (SD-WAN is primarily demanded to converge distributed cloud resources (e.g., virtual machines (VMs in a programmable and intelligent manner over distant networks. Therefore, this paper proposes a logically isolated networking scheme designed to integrate distributed cloud resources to dynamic and on-demand virtual networking over SD-WAN. The performance evaluation and experimental results of the proposed scheme indicate that virtual network convergence time is minimized in two different network models such as: (1 an operating OpenFlow-oriented SD-WAN infrastructure (KREONET-S which is deployed on the advanced national research network in Korea, and (2 Mininet-based experimental and emulated networks.

  11. Size and shape variability in the skull of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae from two geographic areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bornholdt

    Full Text Available We present a quantitative analysis of sexual dimorphism and geographic variation in the skull of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 assessed by geometric morphometrics. Differences in size and shape of skulls were investigated using 30 landmarks plotted on two-dimensional images of lateral and ventral views. Results of geometric morphometrics revealed sexual dimorphism in the centroid size of the skull in both views. Females were larger than males. Nevertheless, there was no sexual dimorphism in skull shape of M. nigricans. Geographic variation was detected in size and shape of the skull. South Brazilian specimens were significantly larger than Ceará specimens only in the lateral view. Differences in skull shape were statistically significant in both views: specimens from South Brazil were brevirostri and presented a more expanded skull in the posterior region while Ceará specimens were longirostri and do not present any expansion in the brain case. Ecological factors for these phenomena are discussed in the text.

  12. The relationship between genus richness and geographic area in Late Cretaceous marine biotas: epicontinental sea versus open-ocean-facing settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J Lagomarcino

    Full Text Available For present-day biotas, close relationships have been documented between the number of species in a given region and the area of the region. To date, however, there have been only limited studies of these relationships in the geologic record, particularly for ancient marine biotas. The recent development of large-scale marine paleontological databases, in conjunction with enhanced geographical mapping tools, now allow for their investigation. At the same time, there has been renewed interest in comparing the environmental and paleobiological properties of two broad-scale marine settings: epicontinental seas, broad expanses of shallow water covering continental areas, and open-ocean-facing settings, shallow shelves and coastlines that rim ocean basins. Recent studies indicate that spatial distributions of taxa and the kinetics of taxon origination and extinction may have differed in these two settings. Against this backdrop, we analyze regional Genus-Area Relationships (GARs of Late Cretaceous marine invertebrates in epicontinental sea and open-ocean settings using data from the Paleobiology Database. We present a new method for assessing GARs that is particularly appropriate for fossil data when the geographic distribution of these data is patchy and uneven. Results demonstrate clear relationships between genus richness and area for regions worldwide, but indicate that as area increases, genus richness increases more per unit area in epicontinental seas than in open-ocean settings. This difference implies a greater degree of compositional heterogeneity as a function of geographic area in epicontinental sea settings, a finding that is consistent with the emerging understanding of physical differences in the nature of water masses between the two marine settings.

  13. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  14. A comparison of complementary and alternative medicine users and use across geographical areas: A national survey of 1,427 women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that people who reside in non-urban areas have a higher use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) than people who reside in urban areas. However, there is sparse research on the reasons for such differences. This paper investigates the reasons for geographical differences in CAM use by comparing CAM users from four geographical areas (major cities, inner regional, outer region, rural/remote) across a range of health status, healthcare satisfaction, neighbourhood and community factors. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1,427 participants from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) conducted in 2009. Results The average total cost of consultations with CAM practitioners was $416 per annum and was highest for women in the major cities, declining with increasing distance from capital cities/remoteness (p < 0.001). The average total cost of self-prescribed CAM was $349 per annum, but this did not significantly differ across geographical areas. The increased use of CAM in rural and remote areas appears to be influenced by poorer access to conventional medical care (p < 0.05) and a greater sense of community (p < 0.05) amongst these rural and remote residents. In contrast to the findings of previous research this study found that health status was not associated with the differences in CAM use between urban and non-urban areas. Conclusion It appears that a number of factors influence the different levels of CAM use across the urban/non-urban divide. Further research is needed to help tease out and understand these factors. Such research will help support health care policy and practice with regards to this topic. PMID:21981986

  15. The combination of analytical and statistical method to define polygonal ship domain and reflect human experiences in estimating dangerous area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia Huy Dinh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests a new method of collision avoidance stemming from the concept of the polygonal target ship domain. Since the last century, we have witnessed the current typical ship domains classified and described. In this proposition, firstly, the domain is a geometrical manner which is used in both analytical and statistical method, resulting in the signification of practical application and simulation. Secondly, such domain will be applied to target ship under the combination of two separated parts: “Blocking area” and “Action area” in order to define the area where the ship must keep outside and how the actions to avoid collision can be generated. Thirdly, the concept has suggested the number of mathematical models for different approaching encounters, including head-on, overtaking and crossing situation. Finally, the parameters of turning circle of the ship can be proposed in determining the size of the domain. Statistical evidences indicate that this method reflects a crew's real habit and psychological in maneuvering. As the result, simple domain is shaped like imagination of sailors, but more accurate in calculating boundary. It promises an effective solution for automatic collision avoidance method. The next researches of this paper have achieved positive results in finding shortest route for avoiding collision. Moreover, while using statistical methods, classical researches face a serious problem in a wide application with different areas, this concept can make up a beneficial solution for the popular application. The numerous ship domains which are in previous researches will be carried out to compare and point out the simplification and effectiveness of the new method in practice.

  16. Using geographic information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsor, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A true Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer mapping system with spatial analysis ability and cartographic accuracy that will offer many different projections. GIS has evolved to become an everyday tool for a wide range of users including oil companies, worldwide. Other systems are designed to allow oil and gas companies to keep their upstream data in the same format. Among these are the Public Petroleum Data Model developed by Gulf Canada, Digitech and Applied Terravision Systems of Calgary, the system developed and marketed by the Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation in the United States, and the Mercury projects by IBM. These have been developed in an effort to define an industry standard. The advantages and disadvantages of open and closed systems were discussed. Factors to consider when choosing a GIS system such as overall performance, area of use and query complexity, were reviewed. 3 figs

  17. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts, Municipal Service Area - area defined by Ordinance that provides for the City jurisdiction related to development and future growth, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, City of Topeka Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts dataset current as of 2009. Municipal Service Area - area defined by Ordinance that provides for the City jurisdiction...

  18. EMULACIÓN DE ESCENARIOS VIRTUALES, EN UNA SDWLAN (SOFTWARE DEFINED WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK, DE UN CAMPUS UNIVERSITARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlyn Duarte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Las redes definidas por software (SDN = Software Defined Network es una arquitectura de red emergente que se destaca como una tecnología capaz de ofrecer un control más flexible y dinámico a la hora de gestionar el diseño y funciones de la red, donde se separan los planos de control y enrutamiento. Esto permite la centralización de los controles de la red basada en software. Se puede decir que es posible tener flexibilidad y rapidez al momento de configurar, implementar y administrar diferentes protocolos personalizados para los requerimientos de distintas redes. Actualmente, en una red convencional, cada conmutador y/o enrutador tienen software propietario que le dice qué hacer. SDN se centra principalmente en la parte cableada de la red de datos. Sin embargo, todas las ventajas de las SDN sólo se obtienen si se logra abarcar la totalidad de la infraestructura, desde el centro de datos al extremo de la red, permitiendo extender todos los beneficios de SDN hasta la red inalámbrica, para conseguir a su vez una red inalámbrica de área local definida por software (SDWLAN = Software Define Wireless Local Area Network. Es por ello que en el presente trabajo, se emuló parte de una SDWLAN de un campus universitario para observar la factibilidad de implementar SDN en la misma. Para la emulación se utilizó una variante del emulador Mininet que permite trabajar con redes inalámbricas. De igual forma, se efectuaron mediciones del ancho de banda de las SDWLAN emuladas, así como la interconectividad entre ellas. Se evidenció la facilidad y el rendimiento de trabajar con las herramientas de emulación de SDWLAN empleadas, permitiendo de igual forma la estructuración de distintas topologías de SDWLAN. Se comprobó que el emulador, el cual está aún en la fase beta, permite interactuar y ejecutar cualquier proceso como si se ejecutara directamente en un equipo con GNU/Linux de forma eficaz.

  19. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Byung Mann [Department of Preventive Medicine and Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Cho, Hyeon Seo, E-mail: hscho@jnu.ac.kr [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Toxicity and persistence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in human have raised considerable concern and several biomonitoring studies throughout the world reported the widespread occurrence of these compounds in human tissues. However, information regarding influence of geographic, lifestyle and demographic factor on PFAS levels in human blood tissues is limited. In this study, whole blood samples collected in 2006–2007 from 319 donors from suburban Seoul (Suwon and Yongin), Busan and Yeosu in Korea were analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Blood donors classified into seven age groups with ages ranging from 8 to 82 years, and different lifestyles and socio-economic status. PFOS (median = 4.15 ng/mL) was found at the highest concentration with a maximum concentration of 59.1 ng/mL. The concentrations of other PFASs were in the decreasing order of; PFOA (median = 1.30 ng/mL) > PFNA (median = 0.85 ng/mL) > PFHxS (median = 0.47 ng/mL) > PFOSA (median = 0.12 ng/mL). Geographical differences in the concentrations of five target PFASs were found. Significant positive relationships between PFAS concentrations and the age of the donors were found. Gender-related differences were found in the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. No association was found between PFAS levels and several lifestyle factors and socio-economic status which included drinking habit, furniture/carpet in an indoor environment and monthly income. Occupation was an important determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations in the whole blood. Except for PFOSA, significant associations were noted between PFASs concentrations and smoking habit. The results of this study provide information for further public health monitoring and safety management for PFASs in Korea. - Highlights: • Significant geographical differences in PFAS levels in whole

  20. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang; Cho, Byung Mann; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Cho, Hyeon Seo

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity and persistence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in human have raised considerable concern and several biomonitoring studies throughout the world reported the widespread occurrence of these compounds in human tissues. However, information regarding influence of geographic, lifestyle and demographic factor on PFAS levels in human blood tissues is limited. In this study, whole blood samples collected in 2006–2007 from 319 donors from suburban Seoul (Suwon and Yongin), Busan and Yeosu in Korea were analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Blood donors classified into seven age groups with ages ranging from 8 to 82 years, and different lifestyles and socio-economic status. PFOS (median = 4.15 ng/mL) was found at the highest concentration with a maximum concentration of 59.1 ng/mL. The concentrations of other PFASs were in the decreasing order of; PFOA (median = 1.30 ng/mL) > PFNA (median = 0.85 ng/mL) > PFHxS (median = 0.47 ng/mL) > PFOSA (median = 0.12 ng/mL). Geographical differences in the concentrations of five target PFASs were found. Significant positive relationships between PFAS concentrations and the age of the donors were found. Gender-related differences were found in the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. No association was found between PFAS levels and several lifestyle factors and socio-economic status which included drinking habit, furniture/carpet in an indoor environment and monthly income. Occupation was an important determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations in the whole blood. Except for PFOSA, significant associations were noted between PFASs concentrations and smoking habit. The results of this study provide information for further public health monitoring and safety management for PFASs in Korea. - Highlights: • Significant geographical differences in PFAS levels in whole

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS IN THE ECONOMIC AND GEOGRAPHIC AREAS OF THE AZERBAIJAN PART OF THE GREATER CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Jafarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to study the political, economic and environmental aspects of food security, which is an important component of national security; to study the issues of the use of environmentally friendly agricultural products, as well as the environmental safety of livestock products.Methods. Determination of the dynamics of livestock production on the basis of the comparative statistical analysis, the study of animal breeding territorial organization through a systematic approach.Results. The region has favorable conditions for the production of ecologically clean agricultural products, using environmentally friendly feed. We should develop manufacturing industries to meet international standards and provide the population with healthy food.Conclusion. We revealed the ecological safety of livestock products in the economic and geographic regions of the Azerbaijan part of the Greater Caucasus.

  2. Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here…

  3. Use of geographic information systems and spatial analysis in area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.St.H.; Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2005-01-01

    The advantages that geographic information systems (GIS) and associated technologies can offer, in terms of the design and implementation of area-wide programmes of insect and/or disease suppression, are becoming increasingly recognised, even if the realization of this potential has not been fully exploited and for some area-wide programmes adoption appears to be progressing slowly. This chapter provides a basic introduction to the science of GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS), and satellite remote sensing (RS), and reviews the principal ways in which these technologies can be used to assist various stages of development of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes - from the selection of project sites, and feasibility assessments and planning of pre-intervention surveys, to the monitoring and analysis of insect suppression programmes, and the release of sterile insects. Potential barriers to the successful deployment of GIS tools are also discussed. (author)

  4. ISSR-PCR: tool for discrimination and genetic structure analysis of Plutella xylostella populations native to different geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, O; Gevrey, M; Arvanitakis, L; Gers, C; Bordat, D; Legal, L

    2007-04-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) is considered as the most destructive pest of Brassicaceae crops world-wide. Its migratory capacities and development of insecticide resistance in many populations leads to more difficulties for population management. To control movement of populations and apparitions of resistance carried by resistant migrant individuals, populations must be identified using genetic markers. Here, seven different ISSR markers have been tested as a tool for population discrimination and genetic variations among 19 DBM populations from Canada, USA, Brazil, Martinique Island, France, Romania, Austria, Uzbekistan, Egypt, Benin, South Africa, Réunion Island, Hong Kong, Laos, Japan and four localities in Australia were assessed. Two classification methods were tested and compared: a common method of genetic distance analyses and a novel method based on an advanced statistical method of the Artificial Neural Networks' family, the Self-Organizing Map (SOM). The 188 loci selected revealed a very high variability between populations with a total polymorphism of 100% and a global coefficient of gene differentiation estimated by the Nei's index (Gst) of 0.238. Nevertheless, the largest part of variability was expressed among individuals within populations (AMOVA: 73.71% and mean polymorphism of 94% within populations). Genetic differentiation among the DBM populations did not reflect geographical distances between them. The two classification methods have given excellent results with less than 1.3% of misclassified individuals. The origin of the high genetic differentiation and efficiency of the two classification methods are discussed.

  5. Culture supernatants from V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated from different geographic areas induce cell vacuolation and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jorge E; Enríquez-Rincón, Fernando; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Ribas-Aparicio, Rosa María; Figueroa-Arredondo, Paula

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether the HlyA-induced vacuolating effect is produced by V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains isolated from different geographic origins, including Mexico. Supernatant-induced haemolysis, vacuolating activity and cytotoxicity in Vero cells were recorded. PCR, RFLP analysis and molecular cloning were performed. All ElTor strains analyzed induced cellular vacuolation. Ribotype 2 strains isolates from the U.S. gulf coast yielded the highest titer of vacuolating activity. Eight of nine strains were haemolytic, while all strains were PCR positive for the hlyA gene. We cloned the hlyA gene from two ElTor strains, a toxigenic (2514-88, ctxAB+) and a non-toxigenic Mexican strain (CM 91-3, ctxAB-). Supernatant from those recombinant E. coli strains induced haemolysis, cell vacuolation and cytotoxicity. RFLP-PCR analysis revealed similarities in the hlyA gene from all strains tested. The HlyA-induced vacuolating effect is a widespread phenotype of epidemic V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains.

  6. Development and implementation of a geographical area categorisation method with targeted performance indicators for nationwide EMS in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappinen, Jukka; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Kurola, Jouni

    2018-05-15

    In Finland, hospital districts (HD) are required by law to determine the level and availability of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for each 1-km 2 sized area (cell) within their administrative area. The cells are currently categorised into five risk categories based on the predicted number of missions. Methodological defects and insufficient instructions have led to incomparability between EMS services. The aim of this study was to describe a new, nationwide method for categorising the cells, analyse EMS response time data and describe possible differences in mission profiles between the new risk category areas. National databases of EMS missions, population and buildings were combined with an existing nationwide 1-km 2 hexagon-shaped cell grid. The cells were categorised into four groups, based on the Finnish Environment Institute's (FEI) national definition of urban and rural areas, population and historical EMS mission density within each cell. The EMS mission profiles of the cell categories were compared using risk ratios with confidence intervals in 12 mission groups. In total, 87.3% of the population lives and 87.5% of missions took place in core or other urban areas, which covered only 4.7% of the HDs' surface area. Trauma mission incidence per 1000 inhabitants was higher in core urban areas (42.2) than in other urban (24.2) or dispersed settlement areas (24.6). The results were similar for non-trauma missions (134.8, 93.2 and 92.2, respectively). Each cell category had a characteristic mission profile. High-energy trauma missions and cardiac problems were more common in rural and uninhabited cells, while violence, intoxication and non-specific problems dominated in urban areas. The proposed area categories and grid-based data collection appear to be a useful method for evaluating EMS demand and availability in different parts of the country for statistical purposes. Due to a similar rural/urban area definition, the method might also be usable for

  7. Cancer: scenario and relationship of different geographical areas of the globe with special reference to North East-India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Kalit, Manoj; Nirmolia, Tulika; Saikia, Sidhartha Protim; Sharma, Arpita; Barman, Debanjana

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is becoming the most important public health burden around the globe. As per the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2008. The burden of cancer cases for India in the year 2020 is calculated to be 1,148,757 (male 534,353; female 614,404) compared to 979,786 in 2010. The pattern of cancer incidence is varying among geographical regions, esophageal cancer for example being high in China, lung cancer in USA, and gallbladder cancer in Chile. The question remains why? Is it due to the diversity in genome pool, food habits, risk factor association and role of genetic susceptibility or some other factors associated with it? In India, the North East (NE)-India region is seeing a marked increase in cancer incidence and deaths, with a very different cancer incidence pattern compared to mainland India. The genome pool of the region is also quite distinct from the rest of India. Northeastern tribes are quite distinct from other groups; they are more closely related to East Asians than to other Indians. In this paper an attempt was made to see whether there is any similarity among the pattern of cancer incidence cases for different sites of NE-India region to South or East-Asia. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Pearson Correlation coefficient test was assessed to evaluate the linkage of North-East India region to other regions. A p value NE-India with South and East-Asian regions, which may lead to the conclusion that there might be a genetic linkage between these regions.

  8. Comparison of average global exposure of population induced by a macro 3G network in different geographical areas in France and Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Varsier, Nadège; Niksic, Stevan; Kocan, Enis; Pejanovic-Djurisic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Koprivica, Mladen; Neskovic, Aleksandar; Milinkovic, Jelena; Gati, Azeddine; Person, Christian; Wiart, Joe

    2016-09-01

    This article is the first thorough study of average population exposure to third generation network (3G)-induced electromagnetic fields (EMFs), from both uplink and downlink radio emissions in different countries, geographical areas, and for different wireless device usages. Indeed, previous publications in the framework of exposure to EMFs generally focused on individual exposure coming from either personal devices or base stations. Results, derived from device usage statistics collected in France and Serbia, show a strong heterogeneity of exposure, both in time, that is, the traffic distribution over 24 h was found highly variable, and space, that is, the exposure to 3G networks in France was found to be roughly two times higher than in Serbia. Such heterogeneity is further explained based on real data and network architecture. Among those results, authors show that, contrary to popular belief, exposure to 3G EMFs is dominated by uplink radio emissions, resulting from voice and data traffic, and average population EMF exposure differs from one geographical area to another, as well as from one country to another, due to the different cellular network architectures and variability of mobile usage. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:382-390, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Be-safe travel, a web-based geographic application to explore safe-route in an area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utamima, Amalia; Djunaidy, Arif

    2017-08-01

    In large cities in developing countries, the various forms of criminality are often found. For instance, the most prominent crimes in Surabaya, Indonesia is 3C, that is theft with violence (curas), theft by weighting (curat), and motor vehicle theft (curanmor). 3C case most often occurs on the highway and residential areas. Therefore, new entrants in an area should be aware of these kind of crimes. Route Planners System or route planning system such as Google Maps only consider the shortest distance in the calculation of the optimal route. The selection of the optimal path in this study not only consider the shortest distance, but also involves other factors, namely the security level. This research considers at the need for an application to recommend the safest road to be passed by the vehicle passengers while drive an area. This research propose Be-Safe Travel, a web-based application using Google API that can be accessed by people who like to drive in an area, but still lack of knowledge of the pathways which are safe from crime. Be-Safe Travel is not only useful for the new entrants, but also useful for delivery courier of valuables goods to go through the safest streets.

  10. Development of a Geographical Information System for the monitoring of the health infrastructure in rural areas in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Schweikart

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Setting up Geographical Information Systems (GIS on the existing health infrastructure and ongoing and planned interventions in public health in Tanzania is still in its infancy. While there are several activities on gathering information and attempts of documentation there does not exist an overall systematic approach of generally capturing all health related facts and bringing them together into a unique information system yet. In order to strengthen the information system in the health sector in general, and to assist Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW in better receiving an overview of health related infrastructure and intervention data for management purpose, a first-pilot GIS was built up in the Mbeya Region in cooperation with Tanzanian German Programme to Support Health (TGPSH/Gesellschaft für technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ.

    Methods: The Health-GIS contains information on all health facilities (HF in the region and their infrastructure. Therefore, personal interviews were conducted in selected HF based on a comprehensive questionnaire. The spatial coordinates of the HF were taken with a Global Positioning System (GPS. In a relational database, the newly coded HF are linked to the gathered information pertaining to them and in a second step are analysed and visualised with help of GIS. Results: First results show newly collected geometry and attribute data for a considerable number of HFs in Mbeya Region, which are then supplemented by information on the street network lately surveyed during the fieldtrip. With the help of a database management system (DBMS all information are stored and maintained within one health database. By their spatial relation, data may be analysed and mapped with a Health-GIS. Because of the targeted cooperation with people and institutions from the local health sector, the way for integrating the Health-GIS into the health

  11. Fire and EMS Districts, These layers show the geographic area of each Fire and EMS responder contained in the County of Polk, Wisconsin., Published in 2006, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Fire and EMS Districts dataset current as of 2006. These layers show the geographic area of each Fire and EMS responder contained in the County of Polk, Wisconsin..

  12. Park Land and Nature Preserves, This layer shows the geographic area of public lands along with their amenties in the County of Polk, Wisconsin., Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Park Land and Nature Preserves dataset current as of 2007. This layer shows the geographic area of public lands along with their amenties in the County of Polk,...

  13. Geographical information systems as a tool in limnological studies An applied case study in a shallow .lake of a plain area, Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz, Orlando; Romanelli, Asuncion; Martinez, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of the hydrological functioning and the interaction among the different water bodies in an area is essential when a sustainable use of the hydric resources is considered. The aim of the present paper is to assess both hydrological-limnological methods and GIS as an integrated methodology applied to the study of shallow lakes, and the hydrological behavior of shallow wetlands in plain areas. La Salada is an areic permanent shallow lake with an area of 5,78 km 2 located near La Dulce town (SE of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). In this paper we applied methods and tools of the Geographical information Systems in order to assess both, the evolution and state of the wetland. Topographic profiles, showing the relationship among the lake and the other aquatic systems, and also a multi temporal assessment of the morphometric parameters were performed by using a Digital Terrain Model of the area. A sample grid was designed to obtain bathymetric, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data. The chemical water composition is homogeneous in area and depth. changes in the conductivity values along depth, the isotopic contents and the Gibbs diagram showed that the evaporation is the main process controlling the water chemistry. Physical-chemical parameters established water quality and uses of the lake.

  14. The upper Sava valley at the three border area of Austria, Italy ans Yugoslavia - a geographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klemenčič

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis on the alpine spatial factors was carried out in the area of Kranjska gora and the Upper Sava valley, in the NW corner of Slovenia (Yugoslavia. As a part of a similar study Austrians and Italians, at their side of the border, ther research focused on future regional development. The so called "Three Border Area", in the above-mentioned countries, candidates for the winter olympics in 1998 and in general seek cross-border cooperation. The mountainous region of the Julian Alps here is separated from another mountainous and border strech of the Karawanks by the deep glacial river valley of the river Sava. The central place within the valley is Kranjska Gora — a famous winter šport center. World cup alpine skiing races and ski-jumping competitions (Planica take place here every year. The past post-war period were not very much in favour of developing tourism in general. That is why many inhabitants of the Upper Sava Valley decided to abandon agriculture and look for jobs in the governmentaly supported steel mills of the communal center of Jesenice. Daily migration accures today in both directions: man from the area migrate to the industry, woman from the above-mentioned town travel daily the same distance to work in hotels. Lately a couple of hundred inhabitants found jobs also in the nearby employment centers of Carinthia and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Future complex regional development in the area of the bordering countries of Italy, Austria and Yugoslavia can be supported in the part of Slovenia with the tradition of mountaineering and ski jumping as well as vvith an international tradition in hosting guests from distantplaces and vvith the tradition of organizing sporting events. The relatively "underdeveloped alpine landscape" here. mostly within the borders of the Triglav National Park could attract visitors too. Among other developments Mountaineering — and Ski-jumping Schools and Courses of

  15. A role for habitat area in the geographic mosaic of coevolution between red crossbills and lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepielski, A M; Benkman, C W

    2005-07-01

    Understanding how resource abundance limits adaptive evolution and influences species interactions is an important step towards developing insight into the role of microevolutionary processes in establishing macroevolutionary patterns. We examined how variation in resource abundance (forest area of lodgepole pine Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia) influenced patterns of co-adaptation and coevolution between red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra complex) and lodgepole pine populations. First, we found that crossbill abundance increased logarithmically as forest area increased in mountain ranges lacking a preemptive competitor (pine squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Second, seed defences against predation by crossbills increased with increases in crossbill density, suggesting that seed defences have likely evolved in proportion to the intensity of selection that crossbills exert. Third, the average bill size of crossbill populations increased with increasing seed defences, which implies that crossbill offenses increased with increases in seed defences. The large bill size on the largest range is the result of coevolution with lodgepole pine with this crossbill population perhaps speciating. Local adaptation of crossbill populations on smaller ranges, however, is more likely the result of resident crossbills representing a subset of the potential colonists (phenotypic sorting) than of local evolution. In the smallest range, migration and possibly more frequent extinction likely impede local adaptation and may result in maladaptation.

  16. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Fernandez Judith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55 and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age, and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men ( Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and obesity prevention.

  17. Depression and physical function: results from the aging and longevity study in the Sirente geographic area (ilSIRENTE Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea; Cesari, Matteo; Onder, Graziano; Zamboni, Valentina; Barillaro, Christian; Pahor, Marco; Bernabei, Roberto; Landi, Francesco

    2007-09-01

    Depression in older persons represents a major issue because of its relevant prevalence and the associated higher risk of adverse health-related events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of depressive symptoms with measures of physical performance, muscle strength, and functional status. Data are from baseline evaluation of the ilSIRENTE Study (n = 364). Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery and the 4-meter walking test. Muscle strength was measured by hand-grip strength. Functional performance was assessed using Basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. Depression was defined by analyzing the different depressive manifestations included in the Minimum Data Set for Home Care Form: verbal expression of sad and/or anxious mood and demonstrated signs of mental distress. Analyses of covariance and linear regressions were performed to evaluate the relationship between depression and physical function. Participants with depression showed significantly worse results in all of the physical function tests. Subjects with depression presented significantly lower adjusted mean results for the 4-meter walking test (0.41 m/s; SE, 0.03) and the Short Physical Performance Battery score (5.68; SE, 0.38) compared with those without depression (0.50 m/s; SE, 0.01 and 6.93; SE, 0.21; all P activities of daily living (3.69; SE, 0.25) compared with participants with less than 3 depressive symptoms (2.85; SE, 0.14; P = .005). No significant difference was reported for the hand-grip strength and the Basic Activities of Daily Living scale. In conclusion, physical performance and functional status measures are significantly and negatively influenced by the presence of depression in community-dwelling older persons aged 80 years and older.

  18. Short communication: Conservation of Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule and the sua gene in strains of Streptococcus uberis isolated from geographically diverse areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Dego, Oudessa Kerro; Chen, Xueyan; Abadin, Eurife; Chan, Shangfeng; Jory, Lauren; Kovacevic, Steven; Almeida, Raul A; Oliver, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to identify and sequence the sua gene (GenBank no. DQ232760; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) and detect Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM) expression by Western blot using serum from naturally S. uberis-infected cows in strains of S. uberis isolated in milk from cows with mastitis from geographically diverse areas of the world. All strains evaluated yielded a 4.4-kb sua-containing PCR fragment that was subsequently sequenced. Deduced SUAM AA sequences from those S. uberis strains evaluated shared >97% identity. The pepSUAM sequence located at the N terminus of SUAM was >99% identical among strains of S. uberis. Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule expression was detected in all strains of S. uberis tested. These results suggest that sua is ubiquitous among strains of S. uberis isolated from diverse geographic locations and that SUAM is immunogenic. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. GeoNetGIS: a Geodetic Network Geographical Information System to manage GPS networks in seismic and volcanic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofoletti, P.; Esposito, A.; Anzidei, M.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents the methodologies and issues involved in the use of GIS techniques to manage geodetic information derived from networks in seismic and volcanic areas. Organization and manipulation of different geodetical, geological and seismic database, give us a new challenge in interpretation of information that has several dimensions, including spatial and temporal variations, also the flexibility and brand range of tools available in GeoNetGIS, make it an attractive platform for earthquake risk assessment. During the last decade the use of geodetic networks based on the Global Positioning System, devoted to geophysical applications, especially for crustal deformation monitoring in seismic and volcanic areas, increased dramatically. The large amount of data provided by these networks, combined with different and independent observations, such as epicentre distribution of recent and historical earthquakes, geological and structural data, photo interpretation of aerial and satellite images, can aid for the detection and parameterization of seismogenic sources. In particular we applied our geodetic oriented GIS to a new GPS network recently set up and surveyed in the Central Apennine region: the CA-GeoNet. GeoNetGIS is designed to analyze in three and four dimensions GPS sources and to improve crustal deformation analysis and interpretation related with tectonic structures and seismicity. It manages many database (DBMS) consisting of different classes, such as Geodesy, Topography, Seismicity, Geology, Geography and Raster Images, administrated according to Thematic Layers. GeoNetGIS represents a powerful research tool allowing to join the analysis of all data layers to integrate the different data base which aid for the identification of the activity of known faults or structures and suggesting the new evidences of active tectonics. A new approach to data integration given by GeoNetGIS capabilities, allow us to create and deliver a wide range of maps, digital

  20. Using fluorescence lymphangiography to define the ileocolic mesentery: proof of concept for the watershed area using real-time imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, D S; Joshi, H M; Rodriguez-Justo, M; Walsh, D; Coffey, J C; Chand, M

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in mesenteric science have demonstrated that the mesentery is a continuous structure with a 'watershed' area at the mesenteric apex between the right colon and terminal ileum, where lymphatic flow can proceed either proximally or distally. With this new understanding of the anatomy, functional features are emerging, which can have an impact on surgical management. Fluorescence lymphangiography or lymphoscintigraphy with indocyanine green allows real-time visualization of lymphatic channels, which highlights sentinel lymph nodes and may facilitate identification of the ideal margins for mesenteric lymphadenectomy during bowel resection for colon cancer. By using this novel technology, it is possible to demonstrate a watershed area in the ileocolic region and may facilitate more precise mesenteric dissection. In the present study, we provide proof of concept for the ileocolic watershed area using fluorescence lymphangiography.

  1. Determination of coefficient defining leaf area development in different genotypes, plant types and planting densities in peanut (Arachis hypogeae L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halilou, Oumarou; Hissene, Halime Mahamat; Clavijo Michelangeli, José A; Hamidou, Falalou; Sinclair, Thomas R; Soltani, Afshin; Mahamane, Saadou; Vadez, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    Rapid leaf area development may be attractive under a number of cropping conditions to enhance the vigor of crop establishment and allow rapid canopy closure for maximizing light interception and shading of weed competitors. This study was undertaken to determine (1) if parameters describing leaf area development varied among ten peanut ( Arachis hypogeae L.) genotypes grown in field and pot experiments, (2) if these parameters were affected by the planting density, and (3) if these parameters varied between Spanish and Virginia genotypes. Leaf area development was described by two steps: prediction of main stem number of nodes based on phyllochron development and plant leaf area dependent based on main stem node number. There was no genetic variation in the phyllochron measured in the field. However, the phyllochron was much longer for plants grown in pots as compared to the field-grown plants. These results indicated a negative aspect of growing peanut plants in the pots used in this experiment. In contrast to phyllochron, there was no difference in the relationship between plant leaf area and main stem node number between the pot and field experiments. However, there was genetic variation in both the pot and field experiments in the exponential coefficient (PLAPOW) of the power function used to describe leaf area development from node number. This genetic variation was confirmed in another experiment with a larger number of genotypes, although possible G × E interaction for the PLAPOW was found. Sowing density did not affect the power function relating leaf area to main stem node number. There was also no difference in the power function coefficient between Spanish and Virginia genotypes. SSM (Simple Simulation model) reliably predicted leaf canopy development in groundnut. Indeed the leaf area showed a close agreement between predicted and observed values up to 60000 cm 2  m -2 . The slightly higher prediction in India and slightly lower prediction in

  2. Antimicrobial Effect of 15 Medicinal Plant Species and their Dependency on Climatic Conditions of Growth in Different Geographical and Ecological Areas of Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abdollahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of medicinal plants are variable in different conditions. Here, the antimicrobial effect of 15 medicinal plant species and their dependency on the climatic condition of growth in different geographical and ecological areas of Fars Province were studied. Materials and Methods: In This empirical study, the antimicrobial effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of 15 medicinal plant species was examined against standard bacterial strains comparing to conventional therapeutic antibiotics using disk diffusion assay and serial broth dilution. Results: All Extracts were effective against S.aureus ATCC 25923 growth; also Peganum harmala, Myrtus communis, Mentha pulegium, Mentha spp, and Zataria multiflora extracts were observed to have antimicrobial activity against E.coli ATCC 25922. This antimicrobial activity had partially similar results, comparing to conventional antibioticsConclusion: Medicinal plants produce various amounts of antimicrobial substances under the climatic and ecological conditions of each zone, which must be considered in manufacturing herbal medicines.

  3. Central and peripheral components of writing critically depend on a defined area of the dominant superior parietal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrassi, Lorenzo; Bongetta, Daniele; Bianchini, Simonetta; Berardesca, Marta; Arienta, Cesare

    2010-07-30

    Classical neuropsychological models of writing separate central (linguistic) processes common to oral spelling, writing and typing from peripheral (motor) processes that are modality specific. Damage to the left superior parietal gyrus, an area of the cortex involved in peripheral processes specific to handwriting, should generate distorted graphemes but not misspelled words, while damage to other areas of the cortex like the frontal lobe should produce alterations in written and oral spelling without distorted graphemes. We describe the clinical and neuropsychological features of a patient with combined agraphia for handwriting and typewriting bearing a small glioblastoma in the left parietal lobe. His agraphia resolved after antiedema therapy and we tested by bipolar cortical stimulation his handwriting abilities during an awake neurosurgical procedure. We found that we could reversibly re-induce the same defects of writing by stimulating during surgery a limited area of the superior parietal gyrus in the same patient and in an independent patient that was never agraphic before the operation. In those patients stimulation caused spelling errors, poorly formed letters and in some cases a complete cessation of writing with minimal or no effects on oral spelling. Our results suggest that stimulating a specific area in the superior parietal gyrus we can generate different patterns of agraphia. Moreover, our findings also suggest that some of the central processes specific for typing and handwriting converge with motor processes at least in the limited portion of the superior parietal gyrus we mapped in our patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fault Control on Copper Depositsin the Sar Cheshmeh Area Indicated by Remote Sensing & Geographic Information Systems (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Ollah Safari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Sar Cheshmeh copper deposit and indications of other deposits are located in the Dehaj-Sarduieh belt in the Kerman region (Khadem and Nedimovic, 1973. This belt is one of the most important provinces of Cu mineralization in Iran, with approximately 300 Cu deposits and prospects, includingtwenty of the porphyry copper type (Ghorbani, 2013. This belt, 300 km in length and 30–45 km width, is situated in the southern part of the Uramia-Dokhtar volcanic belt in central Iran (Shafiei, 2010. Zarasvandi (2004 has proposed that faulting has played a role in the location of copper deposition in this area. Methods of Investigation In order to check Zarasvandi’s hypothesis, the spatial relationship between faults and Cu deposits was investigated using remote sensing and GIS techniques together with field investigations in the Sar Cheshmeh area. The the following steps were used in this research: 1. Review of available data 2. Surface geology field studies 3. Preparation of digital overlay of Copper occurrences 4. Analysis of the relationshipof faulting to Copper occurrences Using remote sensing techniques, a geometrically corrected satellite image was filtered with high pass and Sharpen Edge filters to detect possible lineaments (Lillesand and Keifer, 2008; Sabins, 1996. Directional filters (45º, 90º, 135º and 180º were then applied to the processed image to enhance the linear structures. Subsequently,the major lineaments were documented in the field as major and minor faults (Safari et al., 2011. Four main faults, designated as the Rafsanjan, Mani, Gaud-e-Ahmar and Sar Cheshmeh faultswere determined to be major. These faults were digitized and overlaid on other data layers in GIS environment. The strikes, dips, striae and directions of movementof the faultswere measured at 20 locations in the field. Structural analyses were done with Rose diagrams, calculation of P-axes and preparation of a structural map. Copper occurrences on the

  5. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. Methods We applied Pearson’s product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. Results In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively

  6. New indices for home nursing care resource disparities in rural and urban areas, based on geocoding and geographic distance barriers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyang-Woei; Yen, Chia-Feng; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-10-08

    Aging in place is the crucial object of long-term care policy worldwide. Approximately 15.6-19.4% of people aged 15 or above live with a disability, and 15.3% of them have moderate or severe disabilities. The allocation of home nursing care services is therefore an important issue. Service providers in Taiwan vary substantially across regions, and between rural and urban areas. There are no appropriate indices for describing the capacity of providers that it is due to the distances from care recipients. This study therefore aimed to describe and compare distance barriers for home nursing care providers using indices of the "profit willing distance" and the "tolerance limited distance". This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012 and 2013 using geocoding and a geographic information system to identify the distance from the providers' locations to participants' homes in urban (Taipei City) and rural (Hualien County) areas in Taiwan. Data were collected in-person by professionals in Taiwanese hospitals using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. The indices were calculated using regression curves, and the first inflection points were determined as the points on the curves where the first and second derivatives equaled 0. There were 5627 participants from urban areas and 956 from rural areas. In urban areas, the profit willing distance was 550-600 m, and we were unable to identify them in rural areas. This demonstrates that providers may need to supply services even when there is little profit. The tolerance limited distance were 1600-1650 m in urban areas and 1950-2000 m in rural areas. In rural areas, 33.3% of those living inside the tolerance limited distance and there was no provider within this distance, but this figure fell to just 13.9% in urban areas. There were strong disparities between urban and rural areas in home nursing care resource allocation. Our new "profit willing distance" and the "tolerance limited distance" are

  7. Defining the value of injection current and effective electrical contact area for EGaIn-based molecular tunneling junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Felice C; Yoon, Hyo Jae; Thuo, Martin M; Barber, Jabulani R; Smith, Barbara; Whitesides, George M

    2013-12-04

    Analysis of rates of tunneling across self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of n-alkanethiolates SCn (with n = number of carbon atoms) incorporated in junctions having structure Ag(TS)-SAM//Ga2O3/EGaIn leads to a value for the injection tunnel current density J0 (i.e., the current flowing through an ideal junction with n = 0) of 10(3.6±0.3) A·cm(-2) (V = +0.5 V). This estimation of J0 does not involve an extrapolation in length, because it was possible to measure current densities across SAMs over the range of lengths n = 1-18. This value of J0 is estimated under the assumption that values of the geometrical contact area equal the values of the effective electrical contact area. Detailed experimental analysis, however, indicates that the roughness of the Ga2O3 layer, and that of the Ag(TS)-SAM, determine values of the effective electrical contact area that are ~10(-4) the corresponding values of the geometrical contact area. Conversion of the values of geometrical contact area into the corresponding values of effective electrical contact area results in J0(+0.5 V) = 10(7.6±0.8) A·cm(-2), which is compatible with values reported for junctions using top-electrodes of evaporated Au, and graphene, and also comparable with values of J0 estimated from tunneling through single molecules. For these EGaIn-based junctions, the value of the tunneling decay factor β (β = 0.75 ± 0.02 Å(-1); β = 0.92 ± 0.02 nC(-1)) falls within the consensus range across different types of junctions (β = 0.73-0.89 Å(-1); β = 0.9-1.1 nC(-1)). A comparison of the characteristics of conical Ga2O3/EGaIn tips with the characteristics of other top-electrodes suggests that the EGaIn-based electrodes provide a particularly attractive technology for physical-organic studies of charge transport across SAMs.

  8. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyu Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%–19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides.

  9. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%-19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides.

  10. Development of a Geographical Information System (GIS for the Integration of Solar Energy in the Energy Planning of a Wide Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelamaria Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy planning has become one of the most powerful tools for urban planning even if several constraints, (i.e., aesthetic, archaeological, landscape and technological (low diffusion of Renewable Energy Sources, RES reduce its spreading. An efficient and sustainable urban planning process should be based on detailed energy issues, such as: (i the effective energetic characteristics and needs of the area like urban density and energy consumption, (ii the integration of different RES and (iii the diffusion of high efficiency technologies for energy production like cogeneration and district heating. The above-mentioned energetic issues and constraints must be constantly updated, in order to evaluate the consequences on environment and landscape due to new distributed generation technologies. Moreover, energy strategies and policies must be adapted to the actual evolution of the area. In this paper the authors present a Geographical Information Database System (GIS DB based on: (i the availability of land use (Land Capability Classification, LCC to evaluate the productive potential; (ii the estimation of residential energy consumptions (e.g., electricity, (iii the integration of RES. The GIS DB model has been experimented in a wide area of Central Italy, considering exclusively the solar energy source for energy generation.

  11. Geostatistics and Geographic Information System to Analyze the Spatial Distribution of the Diversity of Anastrepha Species (Diptera: Tephritidae): the Effect of Forest Fragments in an Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A G; Araujo, M R; Uramoto, K; Walder, J M M; Zucchi, R A

    2017-12-08

    Fruit flies are among the most damaging insect pests of commercial fruit in Brazil. It is important to understand the landscape elements that may favor these flies. In the present study, spatial data from surveys of species of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) in an urban area with forest fragments were analyzed, using geostatistics and Geographic Information System (GIS) to map the diversity of insects and evaluate how the forest fragments drive the spatial patterns. The results indicated a high diversity of species associated with large fragments, and a trend toward lower diversity in the more urbanized area, as the fragment sizes decreased. We concluded that the diversity of Anastrepha species is directly and positively related to large and continuous forest fragments in urbanized areas, and that combining geostatistics and GIS is a promising method for use in insect-pest management and sampling involving fruit flies. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A Newly Defined Area of the Mouse Anterior Hypothalamus Involved in Septohypothalamic Circuit: Perifornical Area of the Anterior Hypothalamus, PeFAH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Nishi, Mayumi

    2018-02-27

    Although the hypothalamus is classified into more than 10 compartments, it still contains uncharacterized areas. In this study, we identified a new triangular-shaped area between the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) and the fornix area in the mouse anterior hypothalamus, which is enriched in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). We designated this region as the perifornical area of the anterior hypothalamus (PeFAH) based on its anatomical location. As evidenced by Nissl staining, the PeFAH was distinguishable as an area of relatively low density. Immunohistochemical and DNA microarray analyses indicated that PeFAH contains sparsely distributed calretinin-positive neurons and densely clustered enkephalin-positive neurons. Furthermore, the PeFAH was shown to have bidirectional neural connections with the lateral septum. Indeed, we confirmed enkephalinergic projections from PeFAH neurons to the lateral septum, and inversely, calbindin-positive lateral septum neurons as afferents to the PeFAH. Finally, c-Fos expression analysis revealed that the activity of certain PeFAH neuronal populations tended to be increased by psychological stressors, but not that of enkephalinergic neurons. We proposed PeFAH as a new region in the AH.

  13. Geographical Analysis for Detecting High-Risk Areas for Bovine/Human Rabies Transmitted by the Common Hematophagous Bat in the Amazon Region, Brazil.

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    Fernanda A G de Andrade

    Full Text Available The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon.We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP technique.The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations.The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention measures and controls.

  14. Defining the urban area for cross national comparison of health indicators: the EURO-URHIS 2 boundary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgerson, James; Birt, Christopher A; van Ameijden, Erik; Verma, Arpana

    2017-05-01

    Despite much research focusing on the impact of the city condition upon health, there still remains a lack of consensus over what constitutes an urban area (UA). This study was conducted to establish comparable boundaries for the UAs participating in EURO-URHIS 2, and to test whether the sample reflected the heterogeneity of urban living. Key UA contacts ( n = 28) completed a cross-sectional questionnaire, which included where available comparison between Urban Audit city and larger urban zone (LUZ) boundaries and public health administration areas (PHAAs). Additionally, broad health and demographic indicators were sought to test for heterogeneity of the EURO-URHIS 2 sample. Urban Audit city boundaries were found to be suitable for data collection in 100% ( n = 21) of UAs where Urban Audit data were available. The remainder ( n = 7) identified PHAA boundaries akin to the 'city' level. Heterogeneity was observed in the sample for population size and infant mortality rate. Heterogeneity could not be established for male and female life expectancy. This study was able to establish comparable boundaries for EURO-URHIS 2 data collection, with the 'city' area being selected for data collection. The homogeneity of life expectancy indicators was reflective of sub-regional similarities in life expectancy, whilst population estimates and rates of infant mortality indicated the presence of heterogeneity within the sample. Future work would trial these methods with a larger number of indicators and for a larger number of UAs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. The prevalence of ALK rearrangement in pulmonary adenocarcinomas in an unselected Caucasian population from a defined catchment area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Birgit G; Clementsen, Paul; Larsen, Klaus R

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients diagnosed in the population of the greater Copenhagen area were included, irrespective of gender, age, smoking habits, stage or type of available diagnostic material. Tumours were stained with immunohistochemistry (clone 5A4). Immunohistochemistry-positive tumours were......AIMS: To assess the prevalence of EML4-ALK rearrangement gene measured by immunohistochemistry in an unselected population-based consecutive cohort of patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung (ACL), and the correlation with smoking history, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), gender and age...

  16. Presynaptic Regulation of Leptin in a Defined Lateral Hypothalamus-Ventral Tegmental Area Neurocircuitry Depends on Energy State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Bello, Nicholas T; Pang, Zhiping P

    2017-12-06

    Synaptic transmission controls brain activity and behaviors, including food intake. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, acts on neurons located in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to maintain energy homeostasis and regulate food intake behavior. The specific synaptic mechanisms, cell types, and neural projections mediating this effect remain unclear. In male mice, using pathway-specific retrograde tracing, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and post hoc cell type identification, we found that leptin reduces excitatory synaptic strength onto both melanin-concentrating hormone- and orexin-expressing neurons projecting from the LHA to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which may affect dopamine signaling and motivation for feeding. A presynaptic mechanism mediated by distinct intracellular signaling mechanisms may account for this regulation by leptin. The regulatory effects of leptin depend on intact leptin receptor signaling. Interestingly, the synaptic regulatory function of leptin in the LHA-to-VTA neuronal pathway is highly sensitive to energy states: both energy deficiency (acute fasting) and excessive energy storage (high-fat diet-induced obesity) blunt the effect of leptin. These data revealed that leptin may regulate synaptic transmission in the LHA-to-VTA neurocircuitry in an inverted "U-shape" fashion dependent on plasma glucose levels and related to metabolic states. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to ventral tegmental area (VTA) projection is an important neural pathway involved in balancing whole-body energy states and reward. We found that the excitatory synaptic inputs to both orexin- and melanin-concentrating hormone expressing LHA neurons projecting to the VTA were suppressed by leptin, a peptide hormone derived from adipocytes that signals peripheral energy status to the brain. Interestingly, energy states seem to affect how leptin regulates synaptic transmission since both the depletion of energy induced by acute food

  17. Using geographical semi-variogram method to quantify the difference between NO2 and PM2.5 spatial distribution characteristics in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weize; Jia, Haifeng; Li, Zhilin; Tang, Deliang

    2018-08-01

    Urban air pollutant distribution is a concern in environmental and health studies. Particularly, the spatial distribution of NO 2 and PM 2.5 , which represent photochemical smog and haze pollution in urban areas, is of concern. This paper presents a study quantifying the seasonal differences between urban NO 2 and PM 2.5 distributions in Foshan, China. A geographical semi-variogram analysis was conducted to delineate the spatial variation in daily NO 2 and PM 2.5 concentrations. The data were collected from 38 sites in the government-operated monitoring network. The results showed that the total spatial variance of NO 2 is 38.5% higher than that of PM 2.5 . The random spatial variance of NO 2 was 1.6 times than that of PM 2.5 . The nugget effect (i.e., random to total spatial variance ratio) values of NO 2 and PM 2.5 were 29.7 and 20.9%, respectively. This indicates that urban NO 2 distribution was affected by both local and regional influencing factors, while urban PM 2.5 distribution was dominated by regional influencing factors. NO 2 had a larger seasonally averaged spatial autocorrelation distance (48km) than that of PM 2.5 (33km). The spatial range of NO 2 autocorrelation was larger in winter than the other seasons, and PM 2.5 has a smaller range of spatial autocorrelation in winter than the other seasons. Overall, the geographical semi-variogram analysis is a very effective method to enrich the understanding of NO 2 and PM 2.5 distributions. It can provide scientific evidences for the buffering radius selection of spatial predictors for land use regression models. It will also be beneficial for developing the targeted policies and measures to reduce NO 2 and PM 2.5 pollution levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determining Earthquake Susceptible Areas Southeast of Yogyakarta, Indonesia—Outcrop Analysis from Structure from Motion (SfM and Geographic Information System (GIS

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    Aditya Saputra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Located approximately a hundred kilometres north of Java Subduction Zone, Java Island has a complicated geology and geomorphology. The north zone is dominated by the folded area, the centre is dominated by the active volcanic arc and the south of Java including the study area (Southeast part of Yogyakarta City, is dominated by the uplifted southern mountain. In general, the study area is part of the Bantul’s Graben. In the middle part of study area flows the Opak River, which is often associated with normal faults of Opak Fault. The Opak Fault is such a complex fault system which has a complex local fault which can cause worst local site effect when earthquakes occur. However, the geology map of Yogyakarta is the only data that gives the characteristics of Opak Fault roughly. Thus, the effort to identify unchartered fault system needs to be done. The aims of this study are to conduct the outcrop study, to identify the micro faults and to improve the understanding of faults system to support the earthquake hazard and risk assessment. The integrated method of remote sensing, structure from motion (SfM, geographic information system (GIS and direct outcrop observation was conducted in the study area. Remote sensing was applied to recognize the outcrop location and to extract the nature lineament feature which can be used as fault indicator. The structure from motion was used to support characterising the outcrop in the field, to identify the fault evidence, and to measure the fault displacement on the outcrops. The direct outcrop observation is very useful to reveal the lithofacies characteristics and to reconstruct the lithostratigraphic correlation among the outcrops. Meanwhile, GIS was used to analyse all the data from remote sensing, SfM, and direct outcrop observation. The main findings of this study were as follows: the middle part of study area has the most complicated geologic structure. At least 56 faults evidence with the maximum

  19. Variola minor in coalfield areas of England and Wales, 1921-34: Geographical determinants of a national smallpox epidemic that spread out of effective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman-Raynor, Matthew R; Rafferty, Sarah; Cliff, Andrew D

    2017-05-01

    This paper uses techniques of binary logistic regression to identify the spatial determinants of the last national epidemic of smallpox to spread in England and Wales, the variola minor epidemic of 1921-34. Adjusting for age and county-level variations in vaccination coverage in infancy, the analysis identifies a dose-response gradient with increasing odds of elevated smallpox rates in local government areas with (i) medium (odds ratio [OR] = 5.32, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.96-14.41) and high (OR = 11.32, 95% CI 4.20-31.59) coal mining occupation rates and (ii) medium (OR = 16.74, 95% CI 2.24-125.21) and high (OR = 63.43, 95% CI 7.82-497.21) levels of residential density. The results imply that the spatial transmission of variola virus was facilitated by the close spatial packing of individuals, with a heightened transmission risk in coal mining areas of the country. A syndemic interaction between common respiratory conditions arising from exposure to coal dust and smallpox virus transmission is postulated to have contributed to the findings. We suggest that further studies of the geographical intersection of coal mining and acute infections that are transmitted via respiratory secretions are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Crowdsourcing sensor tasks to a socio-geographic network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasnia, Damian; Broering, Arne; Jirka, Simon; Remke, Albert; Pianho, M.; Santos, M.Y.; Pundt, H.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes an approach of a socio-geographic network for crowdsourcing sensor tasks to a human sensor web. Users can register as human sensors at the system by defining their skills and impact area. Based on that information, submitted sensor tasks are forwarded to the most suitable human

  1. LAND SUITABILITY AND DYNAMIC SYSTEM MODELLING TO DEFINE PRIORITY AREAS OF SOYBEAN PLANTATION IN PADDY FIELDS IN KARAWANG, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiatmaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the agricultural public commodities in Indonesia which still cannot fulfill its domestic consumption needs is soybean. The objectives of the research, which was conducted in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia, were to: (i identify the suitable area for soybean plantations in paddy fields, (ii assess the development of soybeans in land use and socio-economic context, and (iii plan the spatially soybean plantation. A soil survey and land evaluation for soybean was completed. IKONOS imagery was applied to delineate paddy fields while a dynamic system modelling was developed using Powersim 8.0 software. The results of the research showed that the suitability class for soybean plantation in the paddy fields of Karawang Regency ranges from unsuitable (N to suitable (S2, with limiting factors being temperature, fertility, nutrients retention, slope, erosion, rooting media and toxicity. Very limited arable land has been used so far for soybeans plantations due to low economic returns. The model predicts that, should the development of soybean continues in its business as usual path, a deficit of soybean will occur in 2030. The model provides alternative scenarios to reduce the deficit. Prioritization was done spatially using the suitable land gradually, corresponding to the government budget availability.

  2. Pathogen-Specific Epitopes as Epidemiological Tools for Defining the Magnitude of Mycobacterium leprae Transmission in Areas Endemic for Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John S.; Hacker, Mariana A. V. B.; Costa, Luciana S.; Carvalho, Fernanda M.; Geluk, Annemieke; van der Ploeg-van Schip, Jolien J.; Pontes, Maria A. A.; Gonçalves, Heitor S.; de Morais, Janvier P.; Bandeira, Tereza J. P. G.; Pessolani, Maria C. V.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Pereira, Geraldo M. B.

    2012-01-01

    During recent years, comparative genomic analysis has allowed the identification of Mycobacterium leprae-specific genes with potential application for the diagnosis of leprosy. In a previous study, 58 synthetic peptides derived from these sequences were tested for their ability to induce production of IFN-γ in PBMC from endemic controls (EC) with unknown exposure to M. leprae, household contacts of leprosy patients and patients, indicating the potential of these synthetic peptides for the diagnosis of sub- or preclinical forms of leprosy. In the present study, the patterns of IFN-γ release of the individuals exposed or non-exposed to M. leprae were compared using an Artificial Neural Network algorithm, and the most promising M. leprae peptides for the identification of exposed people were selected. This subset of M. leprae-specific peptides allowed the differentiation of groups of individuals from sites hyperendemic for leprosy versus those from areas with lower level detection rates. A progressive reduction in the IFN-γ levels in response to the peptides was seen when contacts of multibacillary (MB) patients were compared to other less exposed groups, suggesting a down modulation of IFN-γ production with an increase in bacillary load or exposure to M. leprae. The data generated indicate that an IFN-γ assay based on these peptides applied individually or as a pool can be used as a new tool for predicting the magnitude of M. leprae transmission in a given population. PMID:22545169

  3. Defining the most probable location of the parahippocampal place area using cortex-based alignment and cross-validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kevin S; Barnett, Michael A; Witthoft, Nathan; Golarai, Golijeh; Stigliani, Anthony; Kay, Kendrick N; Gomez, Jesse; Natu, Vaidehi S; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2018-04-15

    The parahippocampal place area (PPA) is a widely studied high-level visual region in the human brain involved in place and scene processing. The goal of the present study was to identify the most probable location of place-selective voxels in medial ventral temporal cortex. To achieve this goal, we first used cortex-based alignment (CBA) to create a probabilistic place-selective region of interest (ROI) from one group of 12 participants. We then tested how well this ROI could predict place selectivity in each hemisphere within a new group of 12 participants. Our results reveal that a probabilistic ROI (pROI) generated from one group of 12 participants accurately predicts the location and functional selectivity in individual brains from a new group of 12 participants, despite between subject variability in the exact location of place-selective voxels relative to the folding of parahippocampal cortex. Additionally, the prediction accuracy of our pROI is significantly higher than that achieved by volume-based Talairach alignment. Comparing the location of the pROI of the PPA relative to published data from over 500 participants, including data from the Human Connectome Project, shows a striking convergence of the predicted location of the PPA and the cortical location of voxels exhibiting the highest place selectivity across studies using various methods and stimuli. Specifically, the most predictive anatomical location of voxels exhibiting the highest place selectivity in medial ventral temporal cortex is the junction of the collateral and anterior lingual sulci. Methodologically, we make this pROI freely available (vpnl.stanford.edu/PlaceSelectivity), which provides a means to accurately identify a functional region from anatomical MRI data when fMRI data are not available (for example, in patient populations). Theoretically, we consider different anatomical and functional factors that may contribute to the consistent anatomical location of place selectivity

  4. Estimating the incidence of connective tissue diseases and vasculitides in a defined population in Northern Savo area in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving, P; Marjoniemi, O; Niinisalo, H; Kononoff, A; Arstila, L; Savolainen, E; Rutanen, J; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2016-07-01

    Objective of the study was to evaluate the annual incidence and distribution of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vasculitides during 2010. All units practicing rheumatology in the Northern Savo area, Finland, participated in the study by collecting data on newly diagnosed adult patients with autoimmune connective tissue disease or vasculitis over 1-year period. Seventy-two cases with autoimmune connective tissue disease were identified. The annual incidence rates were as follows: systemic lupus erythematosus 3.4/100,000 (95 % CI 1.4-7.0), idiopathic inflammatory myopathies 1.9 (0.5-5.0), systemic sclerosis 4.4 (2.0-8.3), mixed connective tissue disease 1.0 (0.1-3.5), Sjögren's syndrome 10.7 (6.7-16.1) and undifferentiated connective tissue disease 13.6 (9.0-19.6). The annual incidence rates among vasculitis category were as follows: antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis 1.5/100,000 (95 % CI 0.3-4.3), central nervous system vasculitis 0.5 (0-2.7) and Henoch-Schönlein purpura 1.5 (0.3-4.3). The annual incidence of giant cell arteritis in the age group of 50 years or older was 7.5/100,000 (95 % CI 3.2-14.8). The longest delay from symptom onset to diagnosis occurred in systemic sclerosis. The incidences of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vasculitides were comparable with those in published literature. The present study showed female predominance in all connective tissue diseases, excluding idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases and mean age at onset of disease around 50 years of age. Despite improved diagnostic tools, diagnostic delay is long especially among patients with systemic sclerosis.

  5. Use of geoprocessing to define malaria risk areas and evaluation of the vectorial importance of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguzzi, Viviane Coutinho; Santos, Claudiney Biral dos; Pinto, Israel de Souza; Feitoza, Leandro Roberto; Feitoza, Hideko Nagatani; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, introduced malaria occurs from the flat to the sloping hot areas, predominantly outside the Amazon Region, where endemic malaria has occurred in the past. This is a consequence of human migrations to other Brazilian states, including the state of Espírito Santo (ES). The objective of this study was to use geoprocessing to define the areas at risk of introduced malaria transmission and evaluate the vectorial importance of species of anophelines in ES. Anophelines were sampled from 1997-2005 in 297 rural localities identified or not identified as foci of malaria during the last 20 years. The geoclimatic variables temperature, relief and marine influence were obtained from a database of the ES Natural Units. The 14,663 anophelines captured belonged to 22 species. A significant association was found between the occurrence of malaria foci and the presence of hot, low-lying areas or gently undulating to undulating relief. The occurrence of the disease was associated with the presence of Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles aquasalis. Geoprocessing was determined to be a useful tool for defining areas at risk for malaria and vectors in ES.

  6. ABO and Rhesus blood groups and risk of endometriosis in a French Caucasian population of 633 patients living in the same geographic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Bruno; Chartier, Mélanie; Souza, Carlos; Santulli, Pietro; Lafay-Pillet, Marie-Christine; de Ziegler, Dominique; Chapron, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The identification of epidemiological factors increasing the risk of endometriosis could shorten the time to diagnosis. Specific blood groups may be more common in patients with endometriosis. We designed a cross-sectional study of 633 Caucasian women living in the same geographic area. Study group included 311 patients with histologically proven endometriosis. Control group included 322 patients without endometriosis as checked during surgery. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. We observed a higher proportion of Rh-negative women in the study group, as compared to healthy controls. Multivariate analysis showed that Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis (aOR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.20-2.90). There was no significant difference in ABO group distribution between patients and controls. There was no difference when taking into account either the clinical forms (superficial endometriosis, endometrioma, and deep infiltration endometriosis) or the rAFS stages. Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis. Chromosome 1p, which contains the genes coding for the Rhesus, could also harbor endometriosis susceptibility genes.

  7. A MODEL OF PARTNERSHIP PROJECT FOR HEALTH AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN UNIVERSITY OF PITESTI AND A RURAL POPULATION, FROM A DISADVANTAGED GEOGRAPHICAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Ciucurel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project aimed to apply a sanogenetic intervention on a rural population, from a disadvantaged geographical area. 50 students in Physical Therapy and 4 teachers were involved in assessment and intervention activities for optimization of the individual and collective health status of inhabitants of a village located in the Caras-Severin district, in the Cerna Mountains. The project results consisted in: a database regarding the health of the subjects; a model of therapeutic education and promoting of a healthy lifestyle among inhabitants; creating a network of social interaction among project participants; professional and transversal skills development of students; developing research skills of teachers. The activities referred to: subjects health assessment (medical diagnostic, anthropometric and physiometric measurements; recommending and implementing of programs of kinetic prophylaxis and rehabilitation; conducting activities to provide opportunities for social interaction and support. The project offered also the possibility of optimizing the students training by developing their professional skills of assessment and physiotherapeutic intervention, their transversal skills of teamwork, respect for the principles for professional ethics and self-assessment of needs for professional training and also for developing good inter-institutional relations, designed to facilitate the development of specific research activities, in benefit of both parts.

  8. HDL-cholesterol and physical performance: results from the ageing and longevity study in the sirente geographic area (ilSIRENTE Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Russo, Andrea; Cesari, Matteo; Pahor, Marco; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

    2007-09-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol has been hypothesised to be a reliable marker of frailty and poor prognosis among the oldest elderly. We evaluate the relationship of HDL-cholesterol with measures of physical performance, muscle strength, and functional status in older persons aged 80years or older. Data are from baseline evaluation of the ageing and longevity study in the Sirente geographic area (ilSIRENTE study) (n = 364). Physical performance was assessed using the physical performance battery score [short physical performance battery (SPPB)], which is based on three-timed tests: 4-m walking-speed, balance, and chair-stand tests. Muscle strength was measured by hand-grip strength. Analyses of covariance were performed to evaluate the relationship of different HDL-cholesterol levels with physical function. In the unadjusted analyses, physical function (as measured by the 4-m walking-speed, theSPPB score, the basic and instrumental activities of daily living scales scores), but not hand-grip strength, improved significantly as HDL-cholesterol tertiles increased. After adjustment for potential confounders, which included age, gender, living alone, alcohol abuse, physical activity, congestive heart failure, diabetes, cerebrovascular diseases, osteoarthritis, albumin, urea, C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol, the association of HDL-cholesterol tertiles with the 4-m walking-speed and the SPPB score was still consistent. The present study suggests that among very old subjects living in the community the higher levels of HDL-cholesterol are associated with better functional performance.

  9. Coastal Barrier Resource Areas, Barrier Islands and Spits; s44gbb89; Barrier Beaches as defined by RI CRMC were barrier beaches as defined by RI CRMC were identified on quad maps and manually digitized from tablets, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Coastal Barrier Resource Areas dataset current as of 1989. Barrier Islands and Spits; s44gbb89; Barrier Beaches as defined by RI CRMC were barrier beaches as defined...

  10. Defining Persistent Hotspots: Areas That Fail to Decrease Meaningfully in Prevalence after Multiple Years of Mass Drug Administration with Praziquantel for Control of Schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittur, Nupur; Binder, Sue; Campbell, Carl H; King, Charles H; Kinung'hi, Safari; Olsen, Annette; Magnussen, Pascal; Colley, Daniel G

    2017-12-01

    Preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel for schistosomiasis morbidity control is commonly done by mass drug administration (MDA). MDA regimen is usually based on prevalence in a given area, and effectiveness is evaluated by decreases in prevalence and/or intensity of infection after several years of implementation. Multiple studies and programs now find that even within well-implemented, multiyear, annual MDA programs there often remain locations that do not decline in prevalence and/or intensity to expected levels. We term such locations "persistent hotspots." To study and address persistent hotspots, investigators and neglected tropical disease (NTD) program managers need to define them based on changes in prevalence and/or intensity. But how should the data be analyzed to define a persistent hotspot? We have analyzed a dataset from an operational research study in western Tanzania after three annual MDAs using four different approaches to define persistent hotspots. The four approaches are 1) absolute percent change in prevalence; 2) percent change in prevalence; 3) change in World Health Organization guideline categories; 4) change (absolute or percent) in both prevalence and intensity. We compare and contrast the outcomes of these analyses. Our intent is to show how the same dataset yields different numbers of persistent hotspots depending on the approach used to define them. We suggest that investigators and NTD program managers use the approach most suited for their study or program, but whichever approach is used, it should be clearly stated so that comparisons can be made within and between studies and programs.

  11. Integrating Spatial Multi Criteria Decision Making (SMCDM) with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for delineation of the most suitable areas for aquifer storage and recovery (ASR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahani Amineh, Zainab Banoo; Hashemian, Seyyed Jamal Al-Din; Magholi, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    Hamoon-Jazmoorian plain is located in southeast of Iran. Overexploitation of groundwater in this plain has led to water level decline and caused serious problems such as land subsidence, aquifer destruction and water quality degradation. The increasing population and agricultural development along with drought and climate change, have further increased the pressure on water resources in this region over the last years. In order to overcome such crisis, introduction of surface water into an aquifer at particular locations can be a suitable solution. A wide variety of methods have been developed to recharge groundwater, one of which is aquifer storage and recovery (ASR). One of the fundamental principles of making such systems is delineation of suitable areas based on scientific and natural facts in order to achieve relevant objectives. To that end, the Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was applied in this study. More specifically, nine main parameters including depth of runoff as the considered source of water, morphology of the earth surface features such as geology, geomorphology, land use and land cover, drainage and aquifer characteristics along with quality of water in the aquifer were considered as the main layers in GIS. The runoff water available for artificial recharge in the basin was estimated through Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number method. The weighted curve number for each watershed was derived through spatial intersection of land use and hydrological soil group layers. Other thematic layers were extracted from satellite images, topographical map, and other collateral data sources, then weighed according to their influence in locating process. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was then used to calculate weights of individual parameters. The normalized weighted layers were then overlaid to build up the recharge potential map. The results revealed that 34% of the

  12. [Bibliometric study of original articles in the Revista Española de Salud Pública (1991-2000). Part II: authors' productivity, their institutions and geographical areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Lorenzo, José Manuel; Villar Alvarez, Fernando; Pérez Andrés, Cristina; Rebollo Rodríguez, M José

    2003-01-01

    When characterizing a scientific journal from the bibliometric standpoint, it is of importance to know how many authors were involved in the studies published as well as the geographical areas where these authors are located and the type of institutions by which they are employed. The aim of this article is that of analyzing the geographical spread of these authors and the institutions by which they are employed, as well as its evolution as regards the original articles published in the Revista Española de Salud Pública throughout the 1991-2000 period. Of the original articles published in the Revista Española de Salud Pública throughout the studied ten-year period, a calculation has been made as to the total number of authors, the number of occasional authors (authors having published solely one article), transitivity index, the ratio between the number of male and female authors, the productivity of the authors and their institutions and the spread of authors and the institutions by which they are employed by Autonomous Communities. Of the original articles published in the Revista Española de Salud Pública throughout the 1991-2000 period, a total of 1,052 different authors were involved, 1,000 of whom were Spanish and 52 foreigners. The ratio of male authors to female authors for the period in question was 1.29. The Autonomous Communities from which the largest number of authors came were Community of Madrid (16.3%), Andalusia (13.4%) and the Community of Valencia (12.5%). The institutions by which the authors are employed are located most often in Community of Madrid (16.5%), in Community of Valencia (11.3%) and Andalusia and Catalonia (10.5%). A total of 37.6% of the authors work at centers devoted to health care, followed by authors who work at Universities (26.3%). On calculating the spread of the type of institution by Autonomous Communities, in the Community of Madrid and in the Community of Valencia and Andalusia, the most frequent institution is

  13. Geographical Tatoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cazetta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with maps tattooed on bodies. My interest in studying the corporeality is inserted in a broader project entitled Geographies and (in Bodies. There is several published research on tattoos, but none in particular about tattooed maps. However some of these works interested me because they present important discussions in contemporary about body modification that helped me locate the body modifications most within the culture than on the nature. At this time, I looked at pictures of geographical tattoos available in several sites of the internet.

  14. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  15. Nanoimprint-defined, large-area meta-surfaces for unidirectional optical transmission with superior extinction in the visible-to-infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuhan; Liu, He; Wang, Yifei; Li, Yuanrui; Song, Boxiang; Wang, Richard P; Povinelli, Michelle L; Wu, Wei

    2016-07-11

    Optical devices with asymmetric transmission have important applications in optical systems, but optical isolators with the modal asymmetry can only be built using magneto-optical or nonlinear materials, as dictated by the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. However, optical devices with the power asymmetry can be achieved by linear materials such as metals and dielectrics. In this paper, we report a large-area, nanoimprint-defined meta-surface (stacked subwavelength gratings) with high-contrast asymmetric transmittance in the visible-to-infrared wavelength range for TM-polarized light. The physical origin of asymmetric transmission through the meta-surface is studied by analyzing the scattering matrix.

  16. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Cibola National Forest Area, New Mexico, Parts of Catron, Cibola, McKinley, Sandoval, Sierra and Socorro Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  17. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Chinle Area, Parts of Apache and Navajo Counties, Arizona and San Juan County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  18. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Fort Defiance Area, Parts of Apache and Navajo Counties, Arizona, and McKinley and San Juan Counties, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  19. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Santa Fe National Forest Area, New Mexico, Parts of Mora, Rio Arriba, Sandoval and San Miguel Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  20. Determinants of Dentists' Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A model for explaining the geographic distribution of dentists' practice locations is presented and applied to particular market areas in Connecticut. Results show geographic distribution is significantly related to a few key variables, including demography, disposable income, and housing prices. Implications for helping students make practice…

  1. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  2. Seasonal patterns in nutrients, carbon, and algal responses in wadeable streams within three geographically distinct areas of the United States, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Lorenz, David L.; Petersen, James C.; Greene, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey determined seasonal variability in nutrients, carbon, and algal biomass in 22 wadeable streams over a 1-year period during 2007 or 2008 within three geographically distinct areas in the United States. The three areas are the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMIS) in Minnesota, the Ozark Plateaus (ORZK) in southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, and the Upper Snake River Basin (USNK) in southern Idaho. Seasonal patterns in some constituent concentrations and algal responses were distinct. Nitrate concentrations were greatest during the winter in all study areas potentially because of a reduction in denitrification rates and algal uptake during the winter, along with reduced surface runoff. Decreases in nitrate concentrations during the spring and summer at most stream sites coincided with increased streamflow during the snowmelt runoff or spring storms indicating dilution. The continued decrease in nitrate concentrations during summer potentially is because of a reduction in nitrate inputs (from decreased surface runoff) or increases in biological uptake. In contrast to nitrate concentrations, ammonia concentrations varied among study areas. Ammonia concentration trends were similar at UMIS and USNK sampling sites with winter peak concentrations and rapid decreases in ammonia concentrations by spring or early summer. In contrast, ammonia concentrations at OZRK sampling sites were more variable with peak concentrations later in the year. Ammonia may accumulate in stream water in the winter under ice and snow cover at the UMIS and USNK sites because of limited algal metabolism and increased mineralization of decaying organic matter under reducing conditions within stream bottom sediments. Phosphorus concentration patterns and the type of phosphorus present changes with changing hydrologic conditions and seasons and varied among study areas. Orthophosphate concentrations tended to be greater in the summer at UMIS sites, whereas total

  3. What type of rural? Assessing the variations in life expectancy at birth at small area-level for a small population province using classes of locally defined settlement types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Mikiko; Read Guernsey, Judith; Andreou, Pantelis

    2014-02-13

    Although efforts have been made to articulate rural-urban health inequalities in recent years, results have been inconsistent due to different geographical scales used in these studies. Small-area level investigations of health inequalities will likely show more detailed pictures of health inequalities among diverse rural communities, but they are difficult to conduct, particularly in a small population region. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare life expectancy at birth for females and males across small-areas classified by locally defined settlement types for a small province in Canada; 2) to assess whether any of the settlement types explains variations in life expectancy over and above the extent of socioeconomic disadvantage and social isolation; and 3) to examine variations in life expectancies within a (larger) area unit used as the basis of health inequality investigations in previous studies. Seven settlement types were determined for the 'community' units based on population per-kilometre-road density and settlement forms. Mean life expectancies at birth for both genders were compared by settlement type, both for the entire province and within the Halifax Regional Municipality--the province's only census designated metropolitan area, but also contains rural settlements. Linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the statistical associations between life expectancy and the settlement types, adjusting for indicators of community-level deprivation. While types of communities considered as 'rural' generally had lower life expectancy for both genders, the effects of living in any settlement type were attenuated once adjusted for socioeconomic deprivation and social isolation. An exception was the village and settlement cluster type, which had additionally negative effects on health for females. There were some variations observed within the Halifax Regional Municipality, suggesting the importance of further investigating a variety of

  4. Urban Growth Areas, This Layer represents the current Urbanized Area for Atlanta as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. An Urbanized Area is a concept used by the U.S. Census Bureau to measure the population, land area and population density of a built-up or continuously deve, Published in 2000, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Atlanta Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Urban Growth Areas dataset current as of 2000. This Layer represents the current Urbanized Area for Atlanta as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. An Urbanized Area...

  5. Do rivers really obey power-laws? Using continuous high resolution measurements to define bankfull channel and evaluate downstream hydraulic-scaling over large changes in drainage area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, C.; Tennant, C.; Larsen, L.; Bellugi, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in remote-sensing technology allow for cost-effective, accurate, high-resolution mapping of river-channel topography and shallow aquatic bathymetry over large spatial scales. A combination of near-infrared and green spectra airborne laser swath mapping was used to map river channel bathymetry and watershed geometry over 90+ river-kilometers (75-1175 km2) of the Greys River in Wyoming. The day of flight wetted channel was identified from green LiDAR returns, and more than 1800 valley-bottom cross-sections were extracted at regular 50-m intervals. The bankfull channel geometry was identified using a "watershed-based" algorithm that incrementally filled local minima to a "spill" point, thereby constraining areas of local convergence and delineating all the potential channels along the cross-section for each distinct "spill stage." Multiple potential channels in alluvial floodplains and lack of clearly defined channel banks in bedrock reaches challenge identification of the bankfull channel based on topology alone. Here we combine a variety of topological measures, geometrical considerations, and stage levels to define a stage-dependent bankfull channel geometry, and compare the results with day of flight wetted channel data. Initial results suggest that channel hydraulic geometry and basin hydrology power-law scaling may not accurately capture downstream channel adjustments for rivers draining complex mountain topography.

  6. A BAYESIAN SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL MODELING APPROACH TO MAPPING GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN MORTALITY RATES FOR SUBNATIONAL AREAS WITH R-INLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khana, Diba; Rossen, Lauren M; Hedegaard, Holly; Warner, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchical Bayes models have been used in disease mapping to examine small scale geographic variation. State level geographic variation for less common causes of mortality outcomes have been reported however county level variation is rarely examined. Due to concerns about statistical reliability and confidentiality, county-level mortality rates based on fewer than 20 deaths are suppressed based on Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) statistical reliability criteria, precluding an examination of spatio-temporal variation in less common causes of mortality outcomes such as suicide rates (SRs) at the county level using direct estimates. Existing Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling strategies can be applied via Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) in R to a large number of rare causes of mortality outcomes to enable examination of spatio-temporal variations on smaller geographic scales such as counties. This method allows examination of spatiotemporal variation across the entire U.S., even where the data are sparse. We used mortality data from 2005-2015 to explore spatiotemporal variation in SRs, as one particular application of the Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling strategy in R-INLA to predict year and county-specific SRs. Specifically, hierarchical Bayesian spatio-temporal models were implemented with spatially structured and unstructured random effects, correlated time effects, time varying confounders and space-time interaction terms in the software R-INLA, borrowing strength across both counties and years to produce smoothed county level SRs. Model-based estimates of SRs were mapped to explore geographic variation.

  7. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  8. "Dermatitis" defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne M; Nedorost, Susan T

    2010-01-01

    The term "dermatitis" can be defined narrowly or broadly, clinically or histologically. A common and costly condition, dermatitis is underresourced compared to other chronic skin conditions. The lack of a collectively understood definition of dermatitis and its subcategories could be the primary barrier. To investigate how dermatologists define the term "dermatitis" and determine if a consensus on the definition of this term and other related terms exists. A seven-question survey of dermatologists nationwide was conducted. Of respondents (n  =  122), half consider dermatitis to be any inflammation of the skin. Nearly half (47.5%) use the term interchangeably with "eczema." Virtually all (> 96%) endorse the subcategory "atopic" under the terms "dermatitis" and "eczema," but the subcategories "contact," "drug hypersensitivity," and "occupational" are more highly endorsed under the term "dermatitis" than under the term "eczema." Over half (55.7%) personally consider "dermatitis" to have a broad meaning, and even more (62.3%) believe that dermatologists as a whole define the term broadly. There is a lack of consensus among experts in defining dermatitis, eczema, and their related subcategories.

  9. Air pollution knows no boundaries: defining air catchment areas and making sense of physical and political boundaries in air quality management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, G

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Topics under discussion: Scales of transport and turbulence in the atmosphere; Examples of global, regional and local scale transports – concepts of an “air catchment”; Defining air quality management zones - international practice; Defining air...

  10. Identifying areas suitable for wine tourism through the use of multi-criteria and geographic information system: the method and its application in the countryside around Mount Etna (Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Riguccio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vineyards are among the crops that shape quality landscapes. Many places in the world are famous for their unique wine landscapes which play an important role in the development of tourism in the rural areas. Among these, the wine landscape surrounding mount Etna (Sicily emerges due to its undisputed value, as it is an important component of the territory recognised as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. This work was conducted with that in mind, in order to identify the most suitable areas for wine tourism on the slopes of our volcano. The method used assigns a great importance to the quality of the landscape, an indispensable resource for encouraging wine tourism, and considers it to be of equal importance with the production of the wines themselves. The present work uses multi-criteria analysis in combination with geographic information system (GIS. Numerous indicators describing local resources were weighed and spatialized. The GIS analysis allowed for the development of various intermediate maps, which allowed to draw up the final suitability map for wine tourism, identifying areas larger than those of the actual vineyards. The value of these areas and the quality of their landscapes are closely connected to the production of the wines in the zone. It could be the target for specific plans and projects aimed at using the available resources, to develop wine tourism in rural areas. Although the study only covers a limited geographical area, the methodology used has general validity and could be used in other contexts.

  11. Vegetation Changes in the Permafrost Regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1982-2012: Different Responses Related to Geographical Locations and Vegetation Types in High-Altitude Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    Full Text Available The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition. In this study, using the latest Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI product based on turning points (TPs, which were calculated using a piecewise linear model, 9 areas within the permafrost region of the QTP were selected to investigate the effect of geographical location and vegetation type on vegetation growth from 1982 to 2012. The following 4 vegetation types were observed in the 9 selected study areas: alpine swamp meadow, alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert. The research results show that, in these study areas, TPs mainly appeared in 2000 and 2001, and almost 55.1% and 35.0% of the TPs were located in 2000 and 2001. The global standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI and 7 meteorological variables were selected to analyze their correlations with NDVI. We found that the main correlative variables to vegetation productivity in study areas from 1982 to 2012 were precipitation, surface downward long-wave radiation and temperature. Furthermore, NDVI changes exhibited by different vegetation types within the same study area followed similar trends. The results show that regional effects rather than vegetation type had a larger impact on changes in vegetation growth in the permafrost regions of the QTP, indicating that climatic factors had a larger impact in the permafrost

  12. Clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected children with leprosy: A population based study in a defined rural and urban area of Maharashtra, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanaja P Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy has been a major public-health problem in many developing countries for centuries. According to the National Leprosy Elimination Programme report of March 2012, there were a total of about 0.13 million cases of leprosy in India, 9.7% of which were children. Numerous studies have investigated child leprosy amongst reported cases however, studies pertaining to proportion and characteristics of undetected childhood cases in the community are very few. Aim: To examine the clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected child leprosy cases in the community. Methods: The population survey conducted from June to September 2007 and the defined rural areas, which included five primary health centers of Panvel Taluka, in Raigad district and urban areas, which included M-east ward of the municipal corporation of greater Mumbai of western Maharashtra, India. Results: House-to-house survey yielded 32 and 37 so far, undetected child cases of leprosy in the rural and urban region, and the prevalence rate was 10.5 and 1.5 per 10,000, respectively. The age of child leprosy cases detected, ranged from 3 to 14 years with a mean of 10.06 ± 3.35 years in the rural and 9.97 ± 3.12 years in the urban area. Most of the cases were paucibacillary (62%. A large proportion of children (49% had single skin lesion (SSL. Of the 19 SSL cases examined histopathologically, 15 (99% showed features of borderline tuberculoid, 1 (5% borderline lepromatous and 3 (16% had indeterminate type of leprosy. Tuberculoid leprosy was not seen in any, indicating less likelihood of self-healing. Overall, three cases had deformity (grade 1 = 1 and grade 2 = 2 and 31% of multibacillary cases were smear positive. Conclusion: The clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected child cases in the community evidently indicate the grave nature of the problem of undetected child leprosy, recent active

  13. Defining chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian R; Ott, Edward

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose, discuss, and illustrate a computationally feasible definition of chaos which can be applied very generally to situations that are commonly encountered, including attractors, repellers, and non-periodically forced systems. This definition is based on an entropy-like quantity, which we call "expansion entropy," and we define chaos as occurring when this quantity is positive. We relate and compare expansion entropy to the well-known concept of topological entropy to which it is equivalent under appropriate conditions. We also present example illustrations, discuss computational implementations, and point out issues arising from attempts at giving definitions of chaos that are not entropy-based.

  14. Defining Cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Elizabeth; Donnerstein, Edward; Kowalski, Robin; Lin, Carolyn A; Parti, Katalin

    2017-11-01

    Is cyberbullying essentially the same as bullying, or is it a qualitatively different activity? The lack of a consensual, nuanced definition has limited the field's ability to examine these issues. Evidence suggests that being a perpetrator of one is related to being a perpetrator of the other; furthermore, strong relationships can also be noted between being a victim of either type of attack. It also seems that both types of social cruelty have a psychological impact, although the effects of being cyberbullied may be worse than those of being bullied in a traditional sense (evidence here is by no means definitive). A complicating factor is that the 3 characteristics that define bullying (intent, repetition, and power imbalance) do not always translate well into digital behaviors. Qualities specific to digital environments often render cyberbullying and bullying different in circumstances, motivations, and outcomes. To make significant progress in addressing cyberbullying, certain key research questions need to be addressed. These are as follows: How can we define, distinguish between, and understand the nature of cyberbullying and other forms of digital conflict and cruelty, including online harassment and sexual harassment? Once we have a functional taxonomy of the different types of digital cruelty, what are the short- and long-term effects of exposure to or participation in these social behaviors? What are the idiosyncratic characteristics of digital communication that users can be taught? Finally, how can we apply this information to develop and evaluate effective prevention programs? Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. How the Government Defines "Rural" Has Implications for Education Policies and Practices. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael L.; Biscoe, Belinda; Farmer, Thomas W.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2007-01-01

    Clearly defining what rural means has tangible implications for public policies and practices in education, from establishing resource needs to achieving the goals of No Child Left Behind in rural areas. The word "rural" has many meanings. It has been defined in reference to population density, geographic features, and level of economic…

  16. Is ITS-2 rDNA suitable marker for genetic characterization of Sarcoptes mites from different wild animals in different geographic areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasaad, S; Soglia, D; Spalenza, V; Maione, S; Soriguer, R C; Pérez, J M; Rasero, R; Degiorgis, M P Ryser; Nimmervoll, H; Zhu, X Q; Rossi, L

    2009-02-05

    The present study examined the relationship among individual Sarcoptes scabiei mites from 13 wild mammalian populations belonging to nine species in four European countries using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) as genetic marker. The ITS-2 plus primer flanking 5.8S and 28S rDNA (ITS-2+) was amplified from individual mites by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the amplicons were sequenced directly. A total of 148 ITS-2+ sequences of 404bp in length were obtained and 67 variable sites were identified (16.59%). UPGMA analyses did not show any geographical or host-specific clustering, and a similar outcome was obtained using population pairwise Fst statistics. These results demonstrated that ITS-2 rDNA does not appear to be suitable for examining genetic diversity among mite populations.

  17. Different pattern of contamination by legacy POPs in two populations from the same geographical area but with completely different lifestyles: Canary Islands (Spain) vs. Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Luzardo, Octavio P; Arellano, José Luis Pérez; Carranza, Cristina; Sánchez, Nieves Jaén; Almeida-González, Maira; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2016-01-15

    The archipelago of the Canary Islands is one of the so-called ultra-peripheral territories of the European Union due to its geographical location away from the continent. Although the level of socioeconomic development and lifestyle of this region is comparable to that of any other of the European Union, it is just 100 km off the coast of Morocco, in the African continent. The population of the Canaries has been extensively studied with respect to their levels of POPs, and it has been described that their levels are relatively high compared to other European regions. It has been speculated with that the proximity to Africa may be associated with this level of contamination, but so far this theory has not been verified. This paper describes for the first time the levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a sample of the population of Morocco (n = 131), which were compared with those of a similar sample of the population of permanent residents in the Canary Islands (n = 100) in order to check this hypothesis. Our results showed that Moroccans have higher median values of OCPs than the residents in the Canaries (∑ OCP = 150.2 ng/g lw vs. 83.4 ng/g lw, p = 0.0001). Regarding the PCBs, although recent studies have reported that new environmental sources of PCBs exist in several African countries (including Morocco), the plasma levels of most congeners were significantly higher in Canarians than in Moroccans, especially for the dioxin-like PCBs (median = 7.3 ng/g lw vs. 0.0 ng/g lw, p = 0.0001). The detailed analysis of our results suggests that the levels of these pollutants in the Canarian people are more influenced by their lifestyle and the previous use of these chemicals in the archipelago than by its geographical vicinity with Morocco.

  18. Geographical and Geodemographic Connections between Different Types of Small Area as the Origins and Destinations of Migrants to Mid-Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    Exchanges of population between supposedly "urban" and "rural" spaces have occurred throughout history as people migrate between areas with relatively, densely and sparsely settled populations. However, comparatively little is known about whether the same small areas persistently contribute to the flow and what types of…

  19. Citrullinemia type I, classical variant. Identification of ASS-p~G390R (c.1168G>A) mutation in families of a limited geographic area of Argentina: a possible population cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laróvere, Laura E; Angaroni, Celia J; Antonozzi, Sandra L; Bezard, Miriam B; Shimohama, Mariko; de Kremer, Raquel Dodelson

    2009-07-01

    Citrullinemia type I (CTLN1) is an urea cycle defect caused by mutations in the argininosuccinate synthetase gene. We report the first identification in Argentina of patients with CTLN1 in a limited geographic area. Molecular analysis in patient/relatives included PCR, sequencing and restriction enzyme assay. The studied families showed the same mutation: ASS~p.G390R, associated with the early-onset/severe phenotype. We postulate a possible population cluster. A program to know the carrier frequency in that population is in progress.

  20. The contribution of area-level walkability to geographic variation in physical activity: a spatial analysis of 95,837 participants from the 45 and Up Study living in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Darren J; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Bauman, Adrian E

    2017-10-03

    Individual-level studies support a positive relation between walkable built environments and participation in moderate-intensity walking. However, the utility of this evidence for population-level planning is less clear as it is derived at much finer spatial scales than those used for regional programming. The aims of this study were to: evaluate if individual-level relations between walkability and walking to improve health manifest at population-level spatial scales; assess the specificity of area-level walkability for walking relative to other moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA); describe geographic variation in walking and other MVPA; and quantify the contribution of walkability to this variation. Data on sufficient walking, sufficient MVPA, and high MVPA to improve health were analyzed for 95,837 Sydney respondents to the baseline survey of the 45 and Up Study between January 2006 and April 2010. We used conditional autoregressive models to create smoothed MVPA "disease maps" and assess relations between sufficient MVPA to improve health and area-level walkability adjusted for individual-level demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors, and area-level relative socioeconomic disadvantage. Within-cohort prevalence of meeting recommendations for sufficient walking, sufficient MVPA, and high MVPA were 31.7 (95% CI 31.4-32.0), 69.4 (95% CI 69.1-69.7), and 56.1 (95% CI 55.8-56.4) percent. Prevalence of sufficient walking was increased by 1.20 (95% CrI 1.12-1.29) and 1.07 (95% CrI 1.01-1.13) for high and medium-high versus low walkability postal areas, and for sufficient MVPA by 1.05 (95% CrI 1.01-1.08) for high versus low walkability postal areas. Walkability was not related to high MVPA. Postal area walkability explained 65.8 and 47.4 percent of residual geographic variation in sufficient walking and sufficient MVPA not attributable to individual-level factors. Walkability is associated with area-level prevalence and geographic variation in

  1. Use of a geographic information system to identify differences in automated external defibrillator installation in urban areas with similar incidence of public out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a retrospective registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, David; Haas, Jan; Ban, Yifang; Jonsson, Martin; Svensson, Leif; Djarv, Therese; Hollenberg, Jacob; Nordberg, Per; Ringh, Mattias; Claesson, Andreas

    2017-06-02

    Early defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is of importance to improve survival. In many countries the number of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is increasing, but the use is low. Guidelines suggest that AEDs should be installed in densely populated areas and in locations with many visitors. Attempts have been made to identify optimal AED locations based on the incidence of OHCA using geographical information systems (GIS), but often on small datasets and the studies are seldom reproduced. The aim of this paper is to investigate if the distribution of public AEDs follows the incident locations of public OHCAs in urban areas of Stockholm County, Sweden. OHCA data were obtained from the Swedish Register for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and AED data were obtained from the Swedish AED Register. Urban areas in Stockholm County were objectively classified according to the pan-European digital mapping tool, Urban Atlas (UA). Furthermore, we reclassified and divided the UA land cover data into three classes (residential, non-residential and other areas). GIS software was used to spatially join and relate public AED and OHCA data and perform computations on relations and distance. Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014 a total of 804 OHCAs occurred in public locations in Stockholm County and by December 2013 there were 1828 AEDs available. The incidence of public OHCAs was similar in residential (47.3%) and non-residential areas (43.4%). Fewer AEDs were present in residential areas than in non-residential areas (29.4% vs 68.8%). In residential areas the median distance between OHCAs and AEDs was significantly greater than in non-residential areas (288 m vs 188 m, p<0.001). The majority of public OHCAs occurred in areas classified in UA as 'residential areas' with limited AED accessibility. These areas need to be targeted for AED installation and international guidelines need to take geographical location into account when suggesting

  2. Assessment of Sustainable Livelihood and Geographic Detection of Settlement Sites in Ethnically Contiguous Poverty-Stricken Areas in the Aba Prefecture, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanguo Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government aims to deal with poverty by 2020 for people living in ethnic and rural regions, including mountainous ethnic regions with the highest concentration of poverty and chronic poverty. Based on a sustainable livelihood Framework, five capitals and 33 evaluation indices of livelihood were built, and 13 counties’ resources of the Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture were compared in order to calculate the degree of poverty. Topographic factors index of settlement sites (TFIS were constructed by eight topographic factors, and diagnoses of the dominant factors of differentiation of 2699 settlements were calculated by using the geographical detector model to establish the poverty alleviation policies and models for different regions. The results showed that the livelihood capital evaluation indices were different (0.56–1.88, and natural capitals (mean value 1.56 had obvious advantages, but physical (mean value 0.56, financial (mean value 0.78, and human capital were lower (mean value 0.93, limiting the rate of transforming the ecological resources advantage into the economy. In the TFIS, the settlement points indicate topographic factors of natural breakpoint classification superposition, including elevation, slope, relief amplitude, surface incision, variance coefficient in elevation, surface roughness, distance to roads, and distance to rivers. These are within the 8–34 range, and their power determinant value to TFIS are 0.02, 0.70, 0.77, 0.76, 0.51, 0.66, 0.06, and 0.09. Livelihood capital evaluation indices and TFIS classification one (8–14 are positively correlated, and negative correlation (22–26 and 27–34 is at the 0.05 level. The county's poverty alleviation measures and development under different livelihood indices and TFIS indicate that the ecotourism industry has become the inevitable choice for promoting rapid and coordinated development of economy, society, and the environment in ethnic regions.

  3. Operation and design of gas pipeline with cross geographical areas with big altitude changes: importance of the dynamic analysis; Diseno y operacion de gasoductos en zonas de elevadas diferencias altimetricas: importancia del analisis dinamico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Oscar [Transportadora de Gas del Norte S.A. (Argentina)

    2003-07-01

    The Natural Gas Demand has increased constantly in the last decades. It was mainly due to the discovery of enormous gas reserves, the opening of the energetic markets and its utilization as fuel for power generation The supply of new markets in Latin America has meant the development of several interconnection projects among countries. The development of projects crossing the Andes Mountains, with big altitude differences, impose new requirements for the design and pipeline operation The purpose of this paper is to continue the analysis of the gas pipeline modeling methods which cross geographical areas with big altitude changes, specifically under the dynamic point of view In these cases, the operating parameters are strongly linked to the analysis and comprehension of transient phenomenon and consequently an efficient line pack management. The demand suing is fundamental when systems crossing this kind of geographical areas are designed and operated The design should consider the response time, having capacity to support a demand variation. Finally the impact in the commercial operation of this phenomenon is analyzed, due to the possibility to detect idle capacity or optimize solutions, reducing investment and assurance an operation without risks. Thus in the design period , the capability of bringing a reliability service at a reduced cost is emphasized in benefit of the customers. (author)

  4. Use of Geographic Information Systems to sole the inadequacy of cartographic boundaries of the Environmental Preservation Area of Sana – Macaé, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Luz Jeronymo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Preservation Area (EPA of Sana is a Municipal Conservation Unit with private and public lands in the rural area of Macaé. This region has been densely occupied, due to the increase of tourism and urban rowth. This EPA has a Management Plan and Environmental Zoning to regulate nature conservation with sustainable use of local natural resources. As the Environmental Zoning is the most important tool to support decisions made by EPA, an evaluation of the cartographic adequacy of its limits was conducted in this study

  5. Quantitative Characteristics of Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Corresponding Areas of Increased Autofluorescence at the Margin of Geographic Atrophy in Patients With Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Amir H; Nittala, Muneeswar G; Sadda, SriniVas R

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) characteristics of the junctional zone corresponding to areas of increased autofluorescence (IAF) at the margin of geographic atrophy (GA) in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). SD-OCT and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images from untreated eyes with GA available from archived studies at Doheny Image Reading Center were evaluated. Areas of definite decreased autofluorescence (DDAF) corresponding to GA, and areas of IAF at the margins of the GA were manually segmented. Eyes with evidence of IAF were selected. Following manual registration of FAF and OCT data, areas of IAF and normal fluorescence were correlated with OCT features at these locations. Thirty eyes were included. The mean retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) thickness in areas of IAF was 40.6 µm ± 7.69 µm, compared to 28.8 µm ± 7.09 µm in normal adjacent areas (P Retina. 2016;47:523-527.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  7. Dietary fat intake and red blood cell fatty acid composition of children and women from three different geographical areas in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Rosalyn; Faber, Mieke; Kunneke, Ernesta; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2016-06-01

    Dietary fat intake, particularly the type of fat, is reflected in the red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid (FA) profile and is vital in growth, development and health maintenance. The FA profile (%wt/wt) of RBC membrane phospholipids (as determined by gas chromatography) and dietary intake (as determined by 24h recall) was assessed in 2-6y old South African children and their caregivers randomly selected from three communities, i.e. an urban Northern Cape community (urban-NC; n=104), an urban coastal Western Cape community (urban-WC; n=93) and a rural Limpopo Province community (rural-LP; n=102). Mean RBC FA values across groups were compared using ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test while controlling for age and gender (children); median dietary intake values were compared using a Kruskal-Wallis test. Dietary intakes for total fat, saturated FAs and polyunsaturated FAs were higher in the two urban areas compared to the rural area. Total fat intake in rural-LP, and omega-3 FA dietary intake in all three areas were lower than the South African adopted guidelines. Dietary SFA intake in both urban areas was higher than recommended by South African guidelines; this was reflected in the RBC membrane FA profile. Rural-LP children had the lowest intake of omega-3 and omega-6 FAs yet presented with the highest RBC docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) profile and highest arachidonic acid percentage. Although differences observed in dietary fat intake between the two urban and the rural area were reflected in the RBC membrane total phospholipid FA profile, the lowest total fat and α-linolenic acid (ALA) intake by rural children that presented with the highest RBC DHA profile warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  9. Infection levels and species diversity of ascaridoid nematodes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, are correlated with geographic area and fish size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gay, M.; Bao, M.; MacKenzie, K.

    2018-01-01

    2012-2014.Prevalences for Anisakis in whole fish and in fillets in the different fishing areas varied from 16 to 100% and from 12 to 90% respectively. Abundance was also greatly influenced by the sampling area. Generalized additive model results indicate higher numbers of Anisakis in the North Sea......, C. osculatum and H. aduncum. In addition to high prevalence and abundance values, the cod sampled in this study presented a diversity of ascaridoid nematodes with a majority of fish displaying a co-infection. Out of 295 whole infected fish, 269 were co-infected by at least 2 genera.......Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is among the most important commercial fish species on the world market. Its infection by ascaridoid nematodes has long been known, Pseudoterranova even being named cod worm. In the present study, 755 individuals were sampled in the Barents, Baltic and North Seas during...

  10. Discussion on age and paleo geographical environment of ore bearing strata for sandstone-type uranium deposits in Bayanwula area, Erlian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiujun; Nie Fengjun; Chen Yiping; Wang Wei

    2008-01-01

    The sandstone-type uranium ore-bearing strata of Erlian basin is a suit of coarse crumb rocks that are mainly of river and marsh sedimentary faces, age of ore-bearing strata in this area is in dispute. By studying the palynology of ore-bearing strata in Bayanwula area, particularly the distribution of the spore and the pollen in the stratum and the comparison of domestic and the international palynology as- semblage, its age of the strata was identified belong to aptian-albian stages of the Later Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) under substropic warm humid climate with the tendency to semihumid and semi-dryhot. The paleo geography was of the low-fiat and undulating topography, a few middling and high mountains distributing around the basin. (authors)

  11. [A Study on the Number of Offices for Home-Visit/Outpatient Day Long-Term Care in Noto Area, Based on Estimated Population - Analysis Using the Geographic Information System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itatani, Tomoya; Horiike, Ryo; Nakai, Hisao; Kyota, Kaoru; Tsukasaki, Keiko

    2018-03-01

    There has been a noticeable population decline in the Noto area. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism has determined the population size necessary for the establishment of daily living-related service businesses and, if the population falls below this, there is a possibility of businesses withdrawing from the area. In this research, we examine the number of home visit and daycare businesses established in the Noto area in 2025, using the geographic information system (GIS). The number of sites of businesses established was calculated using data published by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. Next, I depicted a buffer with a radius of 15 km from the establishment and confirmed the blank area of the service. Under the condition that the placement of sites is 80%, almost all the municipalities have exceeded the number of home visit care facilities and the number of daycare facilities. In the buffer analysis, blank areas were found in the north. To maintain these services, efforts by groups other than profit-oriented organizations are necessary, especially in the north of Noto. Route analysis by GIS and the consideration of population distribution and location of business establishment will be needed.

  12. Geographical differences in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartra, Joan; García-Moral, Alba; Enrique, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Food allergy represents a health problem worldwide and leads to life-threatening reactions and even impairs quality of life. Epidemiological data during the past decades is very heterogeneous because of the use of different diagnostic procedures, and most studies have only been performed in specific geographical areas. The aim of this article is to review the available data on the geographical distribution of food allergies at the food source and molecular level and to link food allergy patterns to the aeroallergen influence in each area. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, studies performed within the EuroPrevall Project and EAACI position papers regarding food allergy were analysed. The prevalence of food allergy sensitization differs between geographical areas, probably as a consequence of differences among populations, their habits and the influence of the cross-reactivity of aeroallergens and other sources of allergens. Geographical differences in food allergy are clearly evident at the allergenic molecular level, which seems to be directly influenced by the aeroallergens of each region and associated with specific clinical patterns.

  13. Analysis of neural mechanisms underlying verbal fluency in cytoarchitectonically defined stereotaxic space--the roles of Brodmann areas 44 and 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amunts, Katrin; Weiss, Peter H; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Pieperhoff, Peter; Eickhoff, Simon; Gurd, Jennifer M; Marshall, John C; Shah, Nadim J; Fink, Gereon R; Zilles, Karl

    2004-05-01

    We investigated neural activations underlying a verbal fluency task and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of Broca's speech region (Brodmann's areas 44 and 45). To do so, we reanalyzed data from a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [Brain 125 (2002) 1024] and from a cytoarchitectonic study [J. Comp. Neurol. 412 (1999) 319] and developed a method to combine both data sets. In the fMRI experiment, verbal fluency was investigated in 11 healthy volunteers, who covertly produced words from predefined categories. A factorial design was used with factors verbal class (semantic vs. overlearned fluency) and switching between categories (no vs. yes). fMRI data analysis employed SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping). Cytoarchitectonic maps of areas 44 and 45 were derived from histologic sections of 10 postmortem brains. Both the in vivo fMRI and postmortem MR data were warped to a common reference brain using a new elastic warping tool. Cytoarchitectonic probability maps with stereotaxic information about intersubject variability were calculated for both areas and superimposed on the functional data, which showed the involvement of left hemisphere areas with verbal fluency relative to the baseline. Semantic relative to overlearned fluency showed greater involvement of left area 45 than of 44. Thus, although both areas participate in verbal fluency, they do so differentially. Left area 45 is more involved in semantic aspects of language processing, while area 44 is probably involved in high-level aspects of programming speech production per se. The combination of functional data analysis with a new elastic warping tool and cytoarchitectonic maps opens new perspectives for analyzing the cortical networks involved in language.

  14. Spatial landuse planning using land evaluation and dynamic system to define sustainable area of paddy field: Case study in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiatmaka, Widiatmaka; Ambarwulan, Wiwin; Firmansyah, Irman; Munibah, Khursatul; Santoso, Paulus B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is the country with the 4th largest population in the worlds; the population reached more than 237 million people. With rice as the staple food for more than 95 percent of the population, there is an important role of paddy field in Indonesian food security. Actually, paddy field in Java has produced 52,6% of the total rice production in Indonesia, showing the very high dependence of Indonesia on food production from paddy fields in Java island. Karawang Regency is one of the regions in West Java Province that contribute to the national food supply, due to its high soil fertility and its high extent of paddy field. Dynamics of land use change in this region are high because of its proximity to urban area; this dynamics has led to paddy field conversion to industry and residential landuse, which in turn change the regional rice production capacity. Decreasing paddy field landuse in this region could be serve as an example case of the general phenomena which occurred in Javanese rice production region. The objective of this study were: (i) to identify the suitable area for paddy field, (ii) to modelize the decreasing of paddy field in socio-economic context of the region, and (iii) to plan the spatial priority area of paddy field protection according to model prediction. A land evaluation for paddy was completed after a soil survey, while IKONOS imagery was analyzed to delineate paddy fields. Dynamic system model of paddy field land use is built, and then based on the model built, the land area of paddy field untill 2040 in some scenarios was developped. The research results showed that the land suitability class for paddy fields in Karawang Regency ranged from very suitable (S1) to marginally suitable (S3), with various land characteristics as limiting factors. The model predicts that if the situation of paddy field land use change continues in its business as usual path, paddy field area that would exist in the region in 2040 will stay half of the recent

  15. Spatial distribution of trachoma cases in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, detected in 2006: defining key areas for improvement of health resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Macharelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial behavior of the occurrence of trachoma cases detected in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 in order to use the information collected to set priority areas for optimization of health resources. Methods the trachoma cases identified in 2006 were georeferenced. The data evaluated were: schools where the trachoma cases studied, data from the 2000 Census, census tract, type of housing, water supply conditions, distribution of income and levels of education of household heads. In the Google Earth® software and TerraView® were made descriptive spatial analysis and estimates of the Kernel. Each area was studied by interpolation of the density surfaces exposing events to facilitate to recognize the clusters. Results Of the 66 cases detected, only one (1.5% was not a resident of the city's outskirts. A positive association was detected of trachoma cases and the percentage of heads of household with income below three minimum wages and schooling under eight years of education. Conclusions The recognition of the spatial distribution of trachoma cases coincided with the areas of greatest social inequality in Bauru City. The micro-areas identified are those that should be prioritized in the rationalization of health resources. There is the possibility of using the trachoma cases detected as an indicator of performance of micro priority health programs.

  16. Spatial distribution of trachoma cases in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, detected in 2006: defining key areas for improvement of health resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Macharelli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial behavior of the occurrence of trachoma cases detected in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 in order to use the information collected to set priority areas for optimization of health resources. Methods the trachoma cases identified in 2006 were georeferenced. The data evaluated were: schools where the trachoma cases studied, data from the 2000 Census, census tract, type of housing, water supply conditions, distribution of income and levels of education of household heads. In the Google Earth® software and TerraView® were made descriptive spatial analysis and estimates of the Kernel. Each area was studied by interpolation of the density surfaces exposing events to facilitate to recognize the clusters. Results Of the 66 cases detected, only one (1.5% was not a resident of the city's outskirts. A positive association was detected of trachoma cases and the percentage of heads of household with income below three minimum wages and schooling under eight years of education. Conclusions The recognition of the spatial distribution of trachoma cases coincided with the areas of greatest social inequality in Bauru City. The micro-areas identified are those that should be prioritized in the rationalization of health resources. There is the possibility of using the trachoma cases detected as an indicator of performance of micro priority health programs.

  17. Geographic overlaps between priority areas for forest carbon-storage efforts and those for delivering peacebuilding programs: implications for policy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Nunez, Augusto; Mertz, Ole; Sosa, Chrystian C.

    2017-05-01

    Of the countries considering national-level policies for incentivizing reductions in forest-based greenhouse gas emissions (REDD+), some 25 are experiencing (or are emerging from) armed-conflicts. It has been hypothesized that the outcomes of the interactions between carbon-storage and peacebuilding efforts could result in either improved or worsened forest conservation and likewise increased or decreased conflict. Hence, for this study we explore potential interactions between forest carbon-storage and peacebuilding efforts, with Colombia as a case study. Spatial associations between biomass carbon and three conflict-related variables suggest that such interactions may exist. Nonetheless, while priority areas for carbon-focused conservation are presumably those at highest risks of deforestation, our research indicates that forests with lower risk of deforestation are typically those affected by armed-conflict. Our findings moreover highlight three possible roles played by Colombian forested municipalities in armed groups’ military strategies: venues for battle, hideouts, and sources of natural resources to finance war.

  18. Soil gas (222Rn, CO2, 4He) behaviour over a natural CO2 accumulation, Montmiral area (Drome, France): geographical, geological and temporal relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, Frederick; Joublin, Franck; Haas, Hubert; Jean-prost, Veronique; Ruffier, Veronique

    2011-01-01

    The south east basin of France shelters deep CO 2 reservoirs often studied with the aim of better constraining geological CO 2 storage operations. Here we present new soil gas data, completing an existing dataset (CO 2 , 222 Rn, 4 He), together with mineralogical and physical characterisations of soil columns, in an attempt to better understand the spatial distribution of gas concentrations in the soils and to rule on the sealed character of the CO 2 reservoir at present time. Anomalous gas concentrations were found but did not appear to be clearly related to geological structures that may drain deep gases up to the surface, implying a dominant influence of near surface processes as indicated by carbon isotope ratios. Coarse grained, quartz-rich soils favoured the existence of high CO 2 concentrations. Fine grained clayey soils preferentially favoured the existence of 222 Rn but not CO 2 . Soil formations did not act as barriers preventing gas migrations in soils, either due to water content or due to mineralogical composition. No abundant leakage from the Montmiral reservoir can be highlighted by the measurements, even near the exploitation well. As good correlation between CO 2 and 222 Rn concentrations still exist, it is suggested that 222 Rn migration is also CO 2 dependent in non-leaking areas - diffusion dominated systems.

  19. Grapes from the geographical areas of the Black Sea: Agroclimatic growing conditions and evaluation of stable isotopes compositions in scientific study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnov Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The report considers the agroclimatic conditions in the Black Sea districts of cultivation and processing of grapes - the Black Sea Lowland, the Crimean Peninsula and the South-west coastal areas of the Greater Caucasus. The IRMS/SIRA techniques - Flash combustion (FC-IRMS/SIRA & Isotopic equilibration (EQ-IRMS/SIRA - were first applied for the evaluation of carbon and oxygen isotopes ratios in the components of grapes from the Crimean Peninsula. The 13C/12C ratios were studied by the FC-IRMS/SIRA in carbohydrates and organic acids in authentic samples of 8 grape varieties from the 2015 harvest. The EQ-IRMS/SIRA was applied to measure the 18O/16O ratios in intracellular water of grapes. The measured δ13CVPDB value ranges from − 25.01 to − 21.01‰ (for carbohydrates, and from − 25.09 to − 21.30‰ (for organic acids. To evaluate the extent of biological isotope fractionation the 18O/16O ratios were measured in ground water and water of atmospheric precipitates from the Crimean Peninsula. Compared to ground (δ18OVSMOW from − 10.85 to − 8.14‰ and atmospheric (average δ18OVSMOW− 2.85‰ waters, the intracellular water of Crimean grape varieties is found to be enriched with 18O isotope. The δ18OVSMOW value of the grape intracellular water varies from 2.34 to 5.29‰ according to agroclimatic conditions of the season in 2015.

  20. Detection and quantification of classic and emerging viruses by skimmed-milk flocculation and PCR in river water from two geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgua, Byron; Fumian, Tulio; Rusiñol, Marta; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Mbayed, Viviana A; Bofill-Mas, Silvia; Miagostovich, Marize; Girones, Rosina

    2013-05-15

    Molecular techniques and virus concentration methods have shown that previously unknown viruses are shed by humans and animals, and may be transmitted by sewage-contaminated water. In the present study, 10-L river-water samples from urban areas in Barcelona, Spain and Rio Janeiro, Brazil, have been analyzed to evaluate the viral dissemination of human viruses, validating also a low-cost concentration method for virus quantification in fresh water. Three viral groups were analyzed: (i) recently reported viruses, klassevirus (KV), asfarvirus-like virus (ASFLV), and the polyomaviruses Merkel cell (MCPyV), KI (KIPyV) and WU (WUPyV); (ii) the gastroenteritis agents noroviruses (NoV) and rotaviruses (RV); and (iii) the human fecal viral indicators in water, human adenoviruses (HAdV) and JC polyomaviruses (JCPyV). Virus detection was based on nested and quantitative PCR assays. For KV and ASFLV, nested PCR assays were developed for the present study. The method applied for virus concentration in fresh water samples is a one-step procedure based on a skimmed-milk flocculation procedure described previously for seawater. Using spiked river water samples, inter- and intra-laboratory assays showed a viral recovery rate of about 50% (20-95%) for HAdV, JCPyV, NoV and RV with a coefficient of variation ≤ 50%. HAdV and JCPyV were detected in 100% (12/12) of the river samples from Barcelona and Rio de Janeiro. Moreover, NoV GGII was detected in 83% (5/6) and MCPyV in 50% (3/6) of the samples from Barcelona, whereas none of the other viruses tested were detected. NoV GGII was detected in 33% (2/6), KV in 33% (2/6), ASFLV in 17% (1/6) and MCPyV in 50% (3/6) of the samples from Rio de Janeiro, whereas KIPyV and WUPyV were not detected. RV were only analyzed in Rio de Janeiro and resulted positive in 67% (4/6) of the samples. The procedure applied here to river water represents a useful, straightforward and cost-effective method that could be applied in routine water quality testing

  1. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  2. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts, Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas defined by the Department of Economic Development (LDED) for the purpose of encouraging economic growth by offering tax credits and incentives to businesses locating or expanding in designated enterprise zone areas., Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts dataset current as of 2005. Enterprise Zones (EZ) are areas defined by the Department of Economic Development (LDED) for...

  3. A regulatory hydrophobic area in the flexible joint region of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, defined with fluorescent activity-neutralizing ligands. Ligand-induced serpin polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, R; Einholm, A P; Pedersen, K E

    2001-01-01

    by all tested nonfluorescent neutralizers, indicating that all neutralizers bind to a common hydrophobic area preferentially accessible in active PAI-1. Activity neutralization proceeded through two consecutive steps as follows: first step is conversion to forms displaying substrate behavior toward u......PA, and second step is to forms inert to uPA. With some neutralizers, the second step was associated with PAI-1 polymerization. Vitronectin reduced the susceptibility to the neutralizers. Changes in sensitivity to activity neutralization by point mutations were compatible with the various neutralizers having...

  4. ["Knowing about AIDS" and sexual precautions among low-income women from the southern area of Buenos Aires. Notes for defining prevention policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, M

    2001-01-01

    This study is part of a line of research on gender and prevention in a research program on the social construction of HIV/AIDS. We present the results of an ethnographic study among low-income women 15-35 years old in the southern area of Buenos Aires. The area has the highest number of HIV/AIDS cases and high poverty levels, extensive social degradation, and urban violence. According to our results, in the interface between "knowing about" and "behaving" there are complex processes involving stigmatized and gender-biased representations of HIV/AIDS as "other people's problem" and social and sexual relations permeated by gender stereotypes and roles. We believe that planning of prevention should be based on the consideration of overall social practices and specifically the characteristics of gender relations, prioritizing relational strategies between women and men and promoting critical reflection on the main nodes organizing daily life and active participation in the production of social relations and practices of reciprocity and equity. The increasingly precarious conditions in social life intensifies poor women's vulnerability and social interaction contexts that relate to the socioeconomic and symbolic role played by women.

  5. Malaria hotspots defined by clinical malaria, asymptomatic carriage, PCR and vector numbers in a low transmission area on the Kenyan Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangoye, David Tiga; Noor, Abdisalan; Midega, Janet; Mwongeli, Joyce; Mkabili, Dora; Mogeni, Polycarp; Kerubo, Christine; Akoo, Pauline; Mwangangi, Joseph; Drakeley, Chris; Marsh, Kevin; Bejon, Philip; Njuguna, Patricia

    2016-04-14

    Targeted malaria control interventions are expected to be cost-effective. Clinical, parasitological and serological markers of malaria transmission have been used to detect malaria transmission hotspots, but few studies have examined the relationship between the different potential markers in low transmission areas. The present study reports on the relationships between clinical, parasitological, serological and entomological markers of malaria transmission in an area of low transmission intensity in Coastal Kenya. Longitudinal data collected from 831 children aged 5-17 months, cross-sectional survey data from 800 older children and adults, and entomological survey data collected in Ganze on the Kenyan Coast were used in the present study. The spatial scan statistic test used to detect malaria transmission hotspots was based on incidence of clinical malaria episodes, prevalence of asymptomatic asexual parasites carriage detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), seroprevalence of antibodies to two Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens (AMA1 and MSP1-19) and densities of Anopheles mosquitoes in CDC light-trap catches. There was considerable overlapping of hotspots by these different markers, but only weak to moderate correlation between parasitological and serological markers. PCR prevalence and seroprevalence of antibodies to AMA1 or MSP1-19 appeared to be more sensitive markers of hotspots at very low transmission intensity. These findings may support the choice of either serology or PCR as markers in the detection of malaria transmission hotspots for targeted interventions.

  6. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  7. Polygons of global undersea features for geographic searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Stephen R.; Wingfield, Dana K.; Allwardt, Alan O.; Lightsom, Frances L.; Wong, Florence L.

    2018-01-01

    A shapefile of 311 undersea features from all major oceans and seas has been created as an aid for retrieving georeferenced information resources. Geospatial information systems with the capability to search user-defined, polygonal geographic areas will be able to utilize this shapefile or secondary products derived from it, such as linked data based on well-known text representations of the individual polygons within the shapefile. Version 1.1 of this report also includes a linked data representation of 299 of these features and their spatial extents.

  8. Geographical National Condition and Complex System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of studying the complex system of geographical national conditions lies in rationally expressing the complex relationships of the “resources-environment-ecology-economy-society” system. Aiming to the problems faced by the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions, including the disunity of research contents, the inconsistency of range, the uncertainty of goals, etc.the present paper conducted a range of discussions from the perspectives of concept, theory and method, and designed some solutions based on the complex system theory and coordination degree analysis methods.By analyzing the concepts of geographical national conditions, geographical national conditions survey and geographical national conditions statistical analysis, as well as investigating the relationships between theirs, the statistical contents and the analytical range of geographical national conditions are clarified and defined. This investigation also clarifies the goals of the statistical analysis by analyzing the basic characteristics of the geographical national conditions and the complex system, and the consistency between the analysis of the degree of coordination and statistical analyses. It outlines their goals, proposes a concept for the complex system of geographical national conditions, and it describes the concept. The complex system theory provides new theoretical guidance for the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions. The degree of coordination offers new approaches on how to undertake the analysis based on the measurement method and decision-making analysis scheme upon which the complex system of geographical national conditions is based. It analyzes the overall trend via the degree of coordination of the complex system on a macro level, and it determines the direction of remediation on a micro level based on the degree of coordination among various subsystems and of single systems. These results establish

  9. Conceptual Model of Dynamic Geographic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Rosales Miguel Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In geographic environments, there are many and different types of geographic entities such as automobiles, trees, persons, buildings, storms, hurricanes, etc. These entities can be classified into two groups: geographic objects and geographic phenomena. By its nature, a geographic environment is dynamic, thus, it’s static modeling is not sufficient. Considering the dynamics of geographic environment, a new type of geographic entity called event is introduced. The primary target is a modeling of geographic environment as an event sequence, because in this case the semantic relations are much richer than in the case of static modeling. In this work, the conceptualization of this model is proposed. It is based on the idea to process each entity apart instead of processing the environment as a whole. After that, the so called history of each entity and its spatial relations to other entities are defined to describe the whole environment. The main goal is to model systems at a conceptual level that make use of spatial and temporal information, so that later it can serve as the semantic engine for such systems.

  10. 13 CFR 123.4 - What is a disaster area and why is it important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... declaration defines the geographical areas affected by the disaster. Only those victims located in the... disaster, the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines the disaster area. In major disasters, economic injury disaster loans may be made for victims in contiguous counties or other political subdivisions...

  11. The Technical Integration of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System to Predict the Peak Discharge Which Uses the Characteristic of Physical Environment of Catchments Area In Elo Sub Catchments Area in Central java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Budi Santoso

    2004-01-01

    The results of the research show that: (1 the aerial photo of black and white panchromatic on the scale 1:50. 000 is obtained to interpret the slope area and it is not good to interpret the accuracy of the covered arm is about 87% and 77,4 %, (2 the current coeflicient which is accounted hased on the table of Cook method is about 40,36% - deviates 39,94% from the field data; (3 the peak discharge in Elo sub catchments area with rational formula is about 3022,03 m/second, while the peak discharge as the observation result is about 112,675 m/second. Its large of research area causs the time to peak takes a long time, which causes raining intensity increases. The increasing value of raining intensity and the flow coeficient makes the value of peak discharge increases that larger than measured peak discharge.

  12. Are conventional statistical techniques exhaustive for defining metal background concentrations in harbour sediments? A case study: The Coastal Area of Bari (Southeast Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Matilda; Dell'Anna, Maria Michela; Mastrorilli, Piero; Damiani, Leonardo; Ungaro, Nicola; Belviso, Claudia; Fiore, Saverio

    2015-11-01

    Sediment contamination by metals poses significant risks to coastal ecosystems and is considered to be problematic for dredging operations. The determination of the background values of metal and metalloid distribution based on site-specific variability is fundamental in assessing pollution levels in harbour sediments. The novelty of the present work consists of addressing the scope and limitation of analysing port sediments through the use of conventional statistical techniques (such as: linear regression analysis, construction of cumulative frequency curves and the iterative 2σ technique), that are commonly employed for assessing Regional Geochemical Background (RGB) values in coastal sediments. This study ascertained that although the tout court use of such techniques in determining the RGB values in harbour sediments seems appropriate (the chemical-physical parameters of port sediments fit well with statistical equations), it should nevertheless be avoided because it may be misleading and can mask key aspects of the study area that can only be revealed by further investigations, such as mineralogical and multivariate statistical analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lagrangian modeling of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides and geographical information systems as tools to support emergency planning in area of influence of nuclear complex of Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Corbiniano

    2013-01-01

    Industrial accidents generally endanger structures and the set of environmental influence area where the enterprises are located, especially when affected by atmospheric dispersion of their pollutants, whose concern with the evacuation of the population is the main goal in emergency situations. Considering the nuclear complex Angra dos Reis - RJ, based on computer modeling analysis of the mechanisms of pollutant dispersion in conjunction with geographic information systems were developed. Thus, information about the dispersion of radionuclides - from simulations performed on the HYSPLIT; meteorological data (direction, intensity and calm on the wind regime and analysis of the wind field in the region using WRF), occurrence of landslides and data on the environmental study area were integrated into a GIS database using ArcGIS platform. Aiming at the identification and definition of escape routes in case of evacuation from accidental events in CNAAA, the results point solutions for long-term planning, based on weather and landslides, and short-term, supported by simulations of the dispersion radionuclides, in order to support actions that assist local emergency planning. (author)

  14. Cohort profile: 'Centenari a Trieste' (CaT), a study of the health status of centenarians in a small defined area of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettamanti, Mauro; Marcon, Gabriella

    2018-02-08

    Centenarians, a segment of the population which some 50 years ago comprised only a few individuals, now count thousands in many countries, and demographic projections forecast that this growth will continue. The study of this new population will give us new information on extreme longevity and help prepare for their health and social needs. The aim of the Centenari a Trieste study is to describe the health and health service use by centenarians, with specific focus on cognitive status. This is a population-based study of centenarians living in the province of Trieste (Italy), a small area with a high prevalence of centenarians and a close network of health and social services, which makes it possible to conduct a study. Consenting individuals were visited by a clinician, tested by neuropsychologists and also gave a sample of their blood. Administrative data were retrieved as well. Of the 163 centenarians, 70 could be contacted and participated in the study. The main reasons for non-participation were impossibility to contact the subject (70) and death (20). Centenarians were mostly women (90%), tended to live in a nursing home (60%) and were generally severely functionally impaired (Barthel Index <50: 61%). Data from the administrative database showed that about one out of five needed hospitalisation in the preceding year and more than three out of four had at least one drug prescription. In 2017, we started a new wave of the study enrolling people who had just become centenarian and reassessing subjects already seen; we hope to extend this recruitment in the next years. Subjects are now examined also by cardiologists and dental specialists. We are collecting further different biological specimens to investigate new hypotheses on the cognitive function of the centenarians. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Geographic information systems: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistri, Paolo; Conte, Annamaria; Freier, Jerome E; Ward, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    The recent exponential growth of the science and technology of geographic information systems (GIS) has made a tremendous contribution to epidemiological analysis and has led to the development of new powerful tools for the surveillance of animal diseases. GIS, spatial analysis and remote sensing provide valuable methods to collect and manage information for epidemiological surveys. Spatial patterns and trends of disease can be correlated with climatic and environmental information, thus contributing to a better understanding of the links between disease processes and explanatory spatial variables. Until recently, these tools were underexploited in the field of veterinary public health, due to the prohibitive cost of hardware and the complexity of GIS software that required a high level of expertise. The revolutionary developments in computer performance of the last decade have not only reduced the costs of equipment but have made available easy-to-use Web-based software which in turn have meant that GIS are more widely accessible by veterinary services at all levels. At the same time, the increased awareness of the possibilities offered by these tools has created new opportunities for decision-makers to enhance their planning, analysis and monitoring capabilities. These technologies offer a new way of sharing and accessing spatial and non-spatial data across groups and institutions. The series of papers included in this compilation aim to: - define the state of the art in the use of GIS in veterinary activities - identify priority needs in the development of new GIS tools at the international level for the surveillance of animal diseases and zoonoses - define practical proposals for their implementation. The topics addressed are presented in the following order in this book: - importance of GIS for the monitoring of animal diseases and zoonoses - GIS application in surveillance activities - spatial analysis in veterinary epidemiology - data collection and remote

  16. Defined contribution health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health

  17. Establishing length-at-age references in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus L. 1758 (Pisces, Mullidae, a case study for growth assessments in the Mediterranean Geographical Sub-Areas (GSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. BIANCHINI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Length at age data are a fundamental tool for the assessment of exploited fish populations, their use requiring the identification of the ‘unit stock’. At the present, however, the spatial reference for stock assessment in the Mediterranean Sea is based on a grid of 30 arbitrary Geographical Sub Areas (GSA. Since older data rarely respect the GSA borders, the authors propose to reconstruct the historical data within a common frame and to assess a single reference length at age, together with the corresponding von Bertalanffy growth parameters, to be used as a broad benchmark for analyses inter and intra GSAs. This approach was tested using, as a case study, the red mullet (Mullus barbatus L. 1758, one of the most investigated fish of the whole Mediterranean basin. Published and grey literature was browsed, to get direct and/or indirect length at age estimations. To establish a common baseline and maximize the use of partial information, a vBGF (L∞, total length in mm, and Ky-1 was fitted to length at age data whenever possible. 56 Mediterranean sets were utilized; an overall reference growth line was estimated by sex, discussing its adequacy to the life traits of the species.

  18. Using Educational Tourism in Geographical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapiene, Dalia; Olberkyte, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses and defines the concept of educational tourism, presents the structure of the concept and looks into the opportunities for using educational tourism in geographical education. In order to reveal such opportunities a research was carried out in the Lithuanian national and regional parks using the qualitative method of content…

  19. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  20. Development of mathematical models to elaborate strategies, select alternatives and development of plans for adaptation of communities to climate change in different geographical areas including costs to implement it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence that the climate changes and that now, the change is influenced and accelerated by the CO2 augmentation in atmosphere due to combustion by humans. Such "Climate change" is on the policy agenda at the global level, with the aim of understanding and reducing its causes and to mitigate its consequences. In most countries and international organisms UNO (e.g. Rio de Janeiro 1992), OECD, EC, etc … the efforts and debates have been directed to know the possible causes, to predict the future evolution of some variable conditioners, and trying to make studies to fight against the effects or to delay the negative evolution of such. The Protocol of Kyoto 1997 set international efforts about CO2 emissions, but it was partial and not followed e.g. by USA and China …, and in Durban 2011 the ineffectiveness of humanity on such global real challenges was set as evident. Among all that, the elaboration of a global model was not boarded that can help to choose the best alternative between the feasible ones, to elaborate the strategies and to evaluate the costs, and the authors propose to enter in that frame for study. As in all natural, technological and social changes, the best-prepared countries will have the best bear and the more rapid recover. In all the geographic areas the alternative will not be the same one, but the model must help us to make the appropriated decision. It is essential to know those areas that are more sensitive to the negative effects of climate change, the parameters to take into account for its evaluation, and comprehensive plans to deal with it. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a mathematical model support of decisions, which will allow to develop and to evaluate alternatives of adaptation to the climatic change of different communities in Europe and Latin-America, mainly in especially vulnerable areas to the climatic change, considering in them all the intervening factors. The models will consider criteria of physical

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment, Brownfield Areas. Brownfields are defined by the Florida DEP as abandoned, idled, or underused industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination., Published in 2001, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Environmental Impact Assessment dataset current as of 2001. Brownfield Areas. Brownfields are defined by the Florida DEP as abandoned, idled, or underused industrial...

  2. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  3. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement surrounding the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is associated with discovering the mechanism responsible for the masses of the elementary particles. This paper will first briefly examine the leading definitions, pointing out their shortcomings. Then, utilizing relativity theory, it will propose—for consideration by the community of physicists—a conceptual definition of mass predicated on the more fundamental concept of energy, more fundamental in that everything that has mass has energy, yet not everything that has energy has mass.

  4. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  5. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  6. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  7. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  8. Calculation of cut-off values based on the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) pemphigus scoring systems for defining moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, C; Duvert Lehembre, S; Picard-Dahan, C; Kern, J S; Zambruno, G; Feliciani, C; Marinovic, B; Vabres, P; Borradori, L; Prost-Squarcioni, C; Labeille, B; Richard, M A; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Houivet, E; Werth, V P; Murrell, D F; Hertl, M; Benichou, J; Joly, P

    2016-07-01

    Two pemphigus severity scores, Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI), have been proposed to provide an objective measure of disease activity. However, the use of these scores in clinical practice is limited by the absence of cut-off values that allow differentiation between moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus. To calculate cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus based on the ABSIS and PDAI scores. In 31 dermatology departments in six countries, consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus were assessed for pemphigus severity, using ABSIS, PDAI, Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were calculated based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the ABSIS and PDAI scores. The median ABSIS, PDAI, PGA and DLQI scores of the three severity subgroups were compared in order to validate these subgroups. Ninety-six patients with pemphigus vulgaris (n = 77) or pemphigus foliaceus (n = 19) were included. The median PDAI activity and ABSIS total scores were 27·5 (range 3-84) and 34·8 points (range 0·5-90·5), respectively. The respective cut-off values corresponding to the first and third quartiles of the scores were 15 and 45 for the PDAI, and 17 and 53 for ABSIS. The moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were thus defined, and had distinguishing median ABSIS (P cut-off values of 15 and 45 for PDAI and 17 and 53 for ABSIS, to distinguish moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus forms. Identifying these pemphigus activity subgroups should help physicians to classify and manage patients with pemphigus. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  10. Geometric algorithms for delineating geographic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinbacher, I.

    2006-01-01

    Everyone of us is used to geographical regions like the south of Utrecht, the dutch Randstad, or the mountainous areas of Austria. Some of these regions have crisp, fixed boundaries like Utrecht or Austria. Others, like the dutch Randstad and the Austrian mountains, have no such boundaries and are

  11. Groundwater quality mapping using geographic information system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the corporation area of Gulbarga City located in the northern part of Karnataka State, India, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) technique. GIS, a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground ...

  12. Using Educational Tourism in Geographical Education

    OpenAIRE

    PRAKAPIENĖ, Dalia; OLBERKYTĖ, Loreta

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses and defines the concept of educational tourism, presents the structure of the concept and looks into the opportunities for using educational tourism in geographical education. In order to reveal such opportunities a research was carried out in the Lithuanian national and regional parks using the qualitative method of content analysis and the quantitative method of questionnaire survey. The authors of the research identified the educational excursion activities conducted i...

  13. Louisiana Marinas and Boat Launches, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [marinas_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The dataset defines the location and supplemental information for marinas and boat launches in southern Louisiana. The boat launch database includes public and...

  14. Lagrangian modeling of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides and geographical information systems as tools to support emergency planning in area of influence of nuclear complex of Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil; Modelagem Lagrangeana da dispersao atmoferica de radionuclideos e sistemas de informacao geografica como ferramentas de suporte ao planejamento de emergencia na area de influencia do complexo nuclear de Angra dos Reis, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Corbiniano

    2013-07-01

    Industrial accidents generally endanger structures and the set of environmental influence area where the enterprises are located, especially when affected by atmospheric dispersion of their pollutants, whose concern with the evacuation of the population is the main goal in emergency situations. Considering the nuclear complex Angra dos Reis - RJ, based on computer modeling analysis of the mechanisms of pollutant dispersion in conjunction with geographic information systems were developed. Thus, information about the dispersion of radionuclides - from simulations performed on the HYSPLIT; meteorological data (direction, intensity and calm on the wind regime and analysis of the wind field in the region using WRF), occurrence of landslides and data on the environmental study area were integrated into a GIS database using ArcGIS platform. Aiming at the identification and definition of escape routes in case of evacuation from accidental events in CNAAA, the results point solutions for long-term planning, based on weather and landslides, and short-term, supported by simulations of the dispersion radionuclides, in order to support actions that assist local emergency planning. (author)

  15. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  16. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  17. Geographic Information Systems for Assessing Existing and Potential Bio-energy Resources: Their Use in Determining Land Use and Management Options which Minimize Ecological and Landscape Impacts in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, A. E.; Fabos, J. G.; Carlozzi, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    A management construct is described which forms part of an overall landscape ecological planning model which has as a principal objective the extension of the traditional descriptive land use mapping capabilities of geographic information systems into land management realms. It is noted that geographic information systems appear to be moving to more comprehensive methods of data handling and storage, such as relational and hierarchical data management systems, and a clear need has simultaneously arisen therefore for planning assessment techniques and methodologies which can actually use such complex levels of data in a systematic, yet flexible and scenario dependent way. The descriptive of mapping method proposed broaches such issues and utilizes a current New England bioenergy scenario, stimulated by the use of hardwoods for household heating purposes established in the post oil crisis era and the increased awareness of the possible landscape and ecological ramifications of the continued increasing use of the resource.

  18. Tanzanian food origins and protected geographical indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Innocensia Festo; Egelyng, Henrik; Lokina, Azack

    2016-01-01

    As the world's population is constantly growing, food security will remain on the policy Agenda, particularly in Africa. At the same time, global food systems experience a new wave focusing on local foods and food sovereignty featuring high quality food products of verifiable geographical origin...... of food origin products in Tanzania that have potential for GI certification. The hypothesis was that there are origin products in Tanzania whose unique characteristics are linked to the area of production. Geographical indications can be useful policy instruments contributing to food security...... the diversity of supply of natural and unique quality products and so contribute to enhanced food security....

  19. Evolução de homicídios por área geográfica em Pernambuco entre 1980 e 1998 Homicide progression per geographical area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, 1980-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza C de Lima

    2002-08-01

    and growth of homicides among male population according to the geopolitical areas. METHODS: An ecological study including a time series analysis was carried out among 15 to 49 year-old males living in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Mortality data was collected from the Ministry of Health's Mortality Information System. Data on population was from the 1980 and 1991 censuses and the 1996 Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics' census. For inter-census years, the population size was estimated by interpolation, and for the period 1997-1998 it was estimated by projection, using the geometric method. Statistical analysis was performed using mobile mean and regression analysis techniques. RESULTS: In the 1980s, the greatest increase in homicide rates was in the state capital (390%. In the 1990s, the greatest increase occurred in the metropolitan region (68.5% suggesting violence spread from the capital to other municipalities of greater Recife. Homicide rates tended to grow linearly in the interior, whilst there was an exponential growth in the capital and metropolitan region. A striking feature is the high rates of homicides with firearms in the three areas. CONCLUSIONS: The progression of homicides in the three areas of study shows a characteristic increase. It should be stressed that even though it is the same phenomenon - male homicides -, the generating dynamic of this process has geographical particularities between more urban and interior areas and they should be taken into account while developing local policies for supporting victims and preventing these events.

  20. Use of fundus autofluorescence images to predict geographic atrophy progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearelly, Srilaxmi; Khanifar, Aziz A; Lederer, David E; Lee, Jane J; Ghodasra, Jason H; Stinnett, Sandra S; Cousins, Scott W

    2011-01-01

    Fundus autofluorescence imaging has been shown to be helpful in predicting progression of geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration. We assess the ability of fundus autofluorescence imaging to predict rate of GA progression using a simple categorical scheme. Subjects with GA secondary to age-related macular degeneration with fundus autofluorescence imaging acquired at least 12 months apart were included. Rim area focal hyperautofluorescence was defined as percentage of the 500-μm-wide margin bordering the GA that contained increased autofluorescence. Rim area focal hyperautofluorescence on baseline fundus autofluorescence images was assessed and categorized depending on the extent of rim area focal hyperautofluorescence (Category 1: ≤33%; Category 2: between 33 and 67%; Category 3: ≥67%). Total GA areas at baseline and follow-up were measured to calculate change in GA progression. Forty-five eyes of 45 subjects were included; average duration of follow-up was 18.5 months. Median growth rates differed among categories of baseline rim area focal hyperautofluorescence (P = 0.01 among Categories 1, 2, and 3; P = 0.008 for Category 1 compared with Category 3, Jonckheere-Terpstra test). A simple categorical scheme that stratifies the amount of increased autofluorescence in the 500-μm margin bordering GA may be used to differentiate faster and slower progressors.

  1. Blood trace metals in a sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis geographical cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedetti, Stefano; Lucchini, Giorgio; Del Bò, Cristian; Deon, Valeria; Marocchi, Alessandro; Penco, Silvana; Lunetta, Christian; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania

    2017-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disorder with unknown etiology, in which genetic and environmental factors interplay to determine the onset and the course of the disease. Exposure to toxic metals has been proposed to be involved in the etiology of the disease either through a direct damage or by promoting oxidative stress. In this study we evaluated the concentration of a panel of metals in serum and whole blood of a small group of sporadic patients, all living in a defined geographical area, for which acid mine drainage has been reported. ALS prevalence in this area is higher than in the rest of Italy. Results were analyzed with software based on artificial neural networks. High concentrations of metals (in particular Se, Mn and Al) were associated with the disease group. Arsenic serum concentration resulted lower in ALS patients, but it positively correlated with disease duration. Comet assay was performed to evaluate endogenous DNA damage that resulted not different between patients and controls. Up to now only few studies considered geographically well-defined clusters of ALS patients. Common geographical origin among patients and controls gave us the chance to perform metallomic investigations under comparable conditions of environmental exposure. Elaboration of these data with software based on machine learning processes has the potential to be extremely useful to gain a comprehensive view of the complex interactions eventually leading to disease, even in a small number of subjects.

  2. Geographic Ontologies, Gazetteers and Multilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Laurini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different languages imply different visions of space, so that terminologies are different in geographic ontologies. In addition to their geometric shapes, geographic features have names, sometimes different in diverse languages. In addition, the role of gazetteers, as dictionaries of place names (toponyms, is to maintain relations between place names and location. The scope of geographic information retrieval is to search for geographic information not against a database, but against the whole Internet: but the Internet stores information in different languages, and it is of paramount importance not to remain stuck to a unique language. In this paper, our first step is to clarify the links between geographic objects as computer representations of geographic features, ontologies and gazetteers designed in various languages. Then, we propose some inference rules for matching not only types, but also relations in geographic ontologies with the assistance of gazetteers.

  3. Land use changes in Pak Phanang Basin using satellite images and geographic information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchalermchai, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study defined major changes in land use in Pak Phanang Basin, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province by using remote sensing and geographic information system techniques. The land use map conducted by Department of Land Development in 1988 was compared with the land use map interpreted from satelliteimages of Landsat-5 TM acquired in 1995 and 1999. The results revealed that between 1988 to 1999, forest area in the basin decreased by a total of 98.08 km2, a drastic decline of 60% that was changed to rubber plantation area. The rubber area increased about 181.7 km2 or 41%. Shrimp farm area increased by 184.87 km2, equivalent to a high increase of 886% while paddy field area decreased by 248.7 km2, or 16% that was converted to shrimp farm and rubber land. A decline in forest area caused soil erosion. The severe expansion of shrimp farm area caused the salinity and affected nearby paddy field and water source areas, that resulted in degradation of the environment. Application of remote sensing and geographic information system was utilized as a tool for monitoring the land use change and planning proper resource utilization for sustainable development in Pak Phanang Basin.

  4. ROMANIA: GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOPOLITICAL POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Beniamin Benea

    2016-12-01

    Romania is identified in population reduction’s number, in missing trust in her successful evolution, falling agriculture and deforestation. All these negative aspects have pushed back Romania from geopolitical point of view. As solution for regaining its geopolitical role, Romanian must have an educated population, which would be conscious about the important connection between geography and education, and between Romania’s geographical position and the needed tools for promoting it from geopolitical point of view. Cough between East and West, Romania belongs to both areas; much more, in the context of climate change, Romania’s land, fresh water, and cheap water transport possibilities on Danube and Black Sea (and well beyond it must be used at their real capacities. Only in that moment Romania’s special geographical position will made Romania an active geopolitical actor, helping Romanians to determine its fate in a sustainable manner.

  5. Human-geographical concept of the regional geodemographic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Sehida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergetic analysis of geodemographic researches indicates that they can be solved with use of modern technologies of management. according to the theory of a sotsioaktogenez, for this purpose it is necessary to define and formulate accurately the purpose of future phase transition, to construct consistent system of the purposes taking into account own and provided resources, to create executive system, effective from the point of view of optimum use of the available methods (technologies and means of activity, and to control and analyze obtaining result. The analysis of results of social management demands the quantitative description and comparison of real result with his expected model (purpose. The offered concept of geodemographic system of the region on the basis of dissipative structures which treats people, groups of people, society is aimed at the development and functioning of the studied system where the special role belongs to implementation of administrative decisions. In article it is covered the generalized structure of the concept, it is revealed her the purpose, an object subject area. It is defined public and spatial localization of a research, in particular within regional, region and local communities. It is identified geodemographic process as composite human and geographical process as sotsioaktogenez (with determination of stages of motivation, system of the purposes, executive system and result from a line item of society and a family as self-development and self-organization (with determination of the internal and external factors supporting and evolutionary resources, mechanisms as process (information exchange, external and internal adaptation. Methodological approaches (geographical, system, synergy, information, historical, research techniques (the analysis of system indices, simulation of a path of development, the component analysis and evaluation and prognostic simulation are opened. Technological procedures

  6. Defining Quantum Control Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable difference between quantum and classical programs is that the control flow of the former can be either classical or quantum. One of the key issues in the theory of quantum programming languages is defining and understanding quantum control flow. A functional language with quantum control flow was defined by Altenkirch and Grattage [\\textit{Proc. LICS'05}, pp. 249-258]. This paper extends their work, and we introduce a general quantum control structure by defining three new quantu...

  7. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  8. 9 CFR 592.2 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., respectively: Act means the applicable provisions of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 1087; 7 U... geographical area. Eggs of Current Production means shell eggs that have moved through the usual marketing channels since the date of lay and are not in excess of 60 days old. Holiday or Legal holiday means the...

  9. Formal Ontologies and Uncertainty. In Geographical Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Caglioni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Formal ontologies have proved to be a very useful tool to manage interoperability among data, systems and knowledge. In this paper we will show how formal ontologies can evolve from a crisp, deterministic framework (ontologies of hard knowledge to new probabilistic, fuzzy or possibilistic frameworks (ontologies of soft knowledge. This can considerably enlarge the application potential of formal ontologies in geographic analysis and planning, where soft knowledge is intrinsically linked to the complexity of the phenomena under study.  The paper briefly presents these new uncertainty-based formal ontologies. It then highlights how ontologies are formal tools to define both concepts and relations among concepts. An example from the domain of urban geography finally shows how the cause-to-effect relation between household preferences and urban sprawl can be encoded within a crisp, a probabilistic and a possibilistic ontology, respectively. The ontology formalism will also determine the kind of reasoning that can be developed from available knowledge. Uncertain ontologies can be seen as the preliminary phase of more complex uncertainty-based models. The advantages of moving to uncertainty-based models is evident: whether it is in the analysis of geographic space or in decision support for planning, reasoning on geographic space is almost always reasoning with uncertain knowledge of geographic phenomena.

  10. Geographical patterns of cholera in Mexico, 1991-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto, R J; Martinez-Piedra, R

    2000-08-01

    The seventh cholera pandemic has been ongoing in Mexico since 1991 and threatens to become endemic. This paper aims to determine the geographical pattern of cholera in Mexico to define areas at high risk of endemic cholera. Ecologic research was conducted based upon the cartography of disease incidence. The 32 Mexican states were grouped into five strata according to the value of the 1991-1996 cumulative incidence rate of cholera. Rate ratios were computed for strata of states classified by geographical situation, urbanization, and poverty level. Cholera incidence was 2.47 times higher in coastal states than in the interior (95% CI : 2.42-2.52). The disease was negatively associated with urbanization. Incidence in the least urbanized stratum was four times as high as in the most urban stratum (95% CI : 3.9-4.12). The poorest stratum showed the most remarkable incidence, i.e. 5.9 times higher than the rate in the least poor stratum (95% CI : 5.73-6.04). This ecologic research suggests that high poverty level, low urbanization, and southern location are the most important predictors of endemic cholera in Mexican states. It is hypothesized that the natural environment of the coastal plains in southern states may also play a significant role in cholera incidence. Poor communities residing in the southern, predominantly rural, coastal states should be prioritized when it comes to investing in safe water supply facilities, adequate excreta disposal systems and cholera surveillance.

  11. Geographic Analysis of Neurosurgery Workforce in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Ran; Park, Sukh Que; Kim, Jae Hyun; Hwang, Jae Chan; Lee, Gwang Soo; Chang, Jae-Chil

    2018-01-01

    In respect of the health and safety of the public, universal access to health care is an issue of the greatest importance. The geographic distribution of doctors is one of the important factors contributing to access to health care. The aim of this study is to assess the imbalances in the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons across Korea. Population data was obtained from the National Statistical Office. We classified geographic groups into 7 metropolitan cities, 78 non-metropolitan cities, and 77 rural areas. The number of doctors and neurosurgeons per 100000 populations in each county unit was calculated using the total number of doctors and neurosurgeons at the country level from 2009 to 2015. The density levels of neurosurgeon and doctor were calculated and depicted in maps. Between 2009 and 2015, the number of neurosurgeons increased from 2002 to 2557, and the ratio of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations increased from 4.02 to 4.96. The number of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations was highest in metropolitan cities and lowest in rural areas from 2009 to 2015. A comparison of the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons in 2009 and 2015 showed an increase in the regional gap. The neurosurgeon density was affected by country unit characteristics ( p =0.000). Distribution of neurosurgeons throughout Korea is uneven. Neurosurgeons are being increasingly concentrated in a limited number of metropolitan cities. This phenomenon will need to be accounted when planning for a supply of neurosurgeons, allocation of resources and manpower, and the provision of regional neurosurgical services.

  12. An efficient and reliable multi-hop geographical broadcast protocol in vehicular ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajendran, R.; Jongh, J. de

    2013-01-01

    In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), disseminating warning messages in a timely and efficient way through wireless short-range communications can save many lives and reduce traffic congestion. A geographical broadcast protocol provides data delivery to specified geographical areas, using

  13. La mortalidad evitable y no evitable: distribución geográfica en áreas pequeñas de España (1990-2001 Avoidable and nonavoidable mortality: geographical distribution in small areas in Spain (1990-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montse Vergara Duarte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La comparación de la mortalidad que puede ser evitada por intervención médica (mortalidad evitable en áreas geográficas pequeñas proporciona una herramienta útil para analizar con detalle la calidad de los servicios sanitarios. No hay estudios que analicen para toda España la distribución geográfica de la mortalidad evitable en áreas pequeñas. El objetivo de este estudio es describir la distribución geográfica de la mortalidad evitable y no evitable en áreas pequeñas según el sexo para el período 1990-2001. Métodos: Se consideraron 2.218 áreas pequeñas formadas por municipios o municipios agregados de todo el territorio español. Se analizaron las muertes evitables producidas en 1990-2001. Se estimó el riesgo relativo de muerte ajustado por edad utilizando un modelo bayesiano empírico. Los riesgos relativos se representaron en mapas para cada grupo de causas de muerte según el sexo. Resultados: La distribución geográfica de la mortalidad evitable en ambos sexos es heterogénea. Se observan áreas de mayor riesgo de mortalidad en el sur y el noroeste de España. Esta distribución se presenta claramente diferenciada, principalmente en hombres, para las causas de hipertensión, enfermedades y enfermedad isquémica del corazón. La distribución geográfica de la mortalidad no evitable, en ambos sexos, es similar a la de las tres causas mencionadas. Conclusiones La descripción de la mortalidad evitable en áreas pequeñas de toda España ha permitido identificar zonas geográficas con una elevada mortalidad. Para determinar los factores asociados a la distribución cerebrales vasculares de la mortalidad evitable se deberían realizar estudios más detallados.Objective: Comparison of mortality amenable to medical intervention (avoidable mortality in small geographical areas provides a useful tool to analyse quality of health care services. Currently there are no studies that analyse avoidable mortality by

  14. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  15. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  16. Geographic Information Systems In Strategic Decision Making In Logistics Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Filiz Gürder

    2013-07-01

    Geographic information systems can make important contributions to logistic companies in the following areas: Routing, Optimization and Scheduling, Asset Tracking, Dispatching/Mobile, Territory Optimization and Planning, Site Selection and Optimization, Supply Chain Management, and Selecting the Supplier.

  17. Geographic information system for pigweed distribution in the US Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southeastern United States, pigweeds have become troublesome weeds in agricultural systems. To implement management strategies to control them, agriculturalists need information on areas affected by pigweeds. Geographic information systems (GIS) afford users the ability to evaluate agricult...

  18. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... weight for a given height is described as overweight or obese. Body Mass Index, or BMI, is ...

  19. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): For women, low-risk drinking is defined ...

  20. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  1. Geographic assistance of decontamination strategy elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydchuk, V.; Arapis, G.

    1996-01-01

    Those who elaborates the strategy of decontamination of vast territories is to take into consideration the heterogeneity of such elements of landscape as relief, lithology, humidity and types of soils and, vegetation, both on local and regional level. Geographic assistance includes evaluation of efficacy of decontamination technologies in different natural conditions, identification of areas of their effective application and definition of ecological damage, estimation of balances of the radionuclides in the landscapes to create background of the decontamination strategy

  2. Vermont Designated Natural Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Under Natural Areas Law (10 Vermont Statutes Annotated, Chapter 83 � 2607) the FPR commissioner, with the approval of the governor, may designate and set aside areas...

  3. Geographic data: Zip Codes (Shape File)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains all zip codes in Montgomery County. Zip codes are the postal delivery areas defined by USPS. Zip codes with mailboxes only are not included. As...

  4. The geosystems of complex geographical atlases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex geographical atlases represent geosystems of different hierarchical rank, complexity and diversity, scale and connection. They represent a set of large number of different pieces of information about geospace. Also, they contain systematized, correlative and in the apparent form represented pieces of information about space. The degree of information revealed in the atlas is precisely explained by its content structure and the form of presentation. The quality of atlas depends on the method of visualization of data and the quality of geodata. Cartographic visualization represents cognitive process. The analysis converts geospatial data into knowledge. A complex geographical atlas represents information complex of spatial - temporal coordinated database on geosystems of different complexity and territorial scope. Each geographical atlas defines a concrete geosystem. Systemic organization (structural and contextual determines its complexity and concreteness. In complex atlases, the attributes of geosystems are modeled and pieces of information are given in systematized, graphically unique form. The atlas can be considered as a database. In composing a database, semantic analysis of data is important. The result of semantic modeling is expressed in structuring of data information, in emphasizing logic connections between phenomena and processes and in defining their classes according to the degree of similarity. Accordingly, the efficiency of research of needed pieces of information in the process of the database use is enabled. An atlas map has a special power to integrate sets of geodata and present information contents in user - friendly and understandable visual and tactile way using its visual ability. Composing an atlas by systemic cartography requires the pieces of information on concrete - defined geosystems of different hierarchical level, the application of scientific methods and making of adequate number of analytical, synthetic

  5. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  6. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields. I

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We study definably compact definably connected groups definable in a sufficiently saturated real closed field $R$. We introduce the notion of group-generic point for $\\bigvee$-definable groups and show the existence of group-generic points for definably compact groups definable in a sufficiently saturated o-minimal expansion of a real closed field. We use this notion along with some properties of generic sets to prove that for every definably compact definably connected group $G$ definable in...

  7. Department of Geograph

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-11-18

    Nov 18, 2016 ... which were obtained from Forestry Management Evaluation and Coordination Unit and were entered and use to develop a flood risk information system. ... end of the study, maps of flood vulnerable areas in the river basin ... from storing and managing hydrological ... at one time an arm of the Atlantic Ocean.

  8. A Geographical and Historical Overview of the Transylvanian Cuisine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paucean

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to describe the Transylvanian cuisine, based on its historical and geographical characteristics, but also, deeply connected to all the other elements that have a thing to say in its definition. Therefore, we will be able to better understand the gastronomic culture in this area and its potential. Geographically speaking, the region in the Carpathian garden is characterized by mountains, meadows and especially hills. The variety of nature’s forms, the moderate climate and the rich hydrographic network are defining elements to the vegetation and fauna of this place. The Transylvanian villages are filled with people who are deeply connected to the nature around them. Any visitor that connects with the daily life here can observe the big number of inland products obtained in personal farms or yards. A prosperous land reveals its numerous types of vegetable and fruit. A Christian nation for as long as it has existed, the Romanians use a variety of dishes at every Christian festal occasion. Therefore, the Orthodox Church has also influenced the culinary tradition in this area. Transylvania’s specific cuisine has its special traits, but it is also influenced by other cultures, whose route somehow intersected with ours, such as: Hungarians, Saxons, Jewish people, Ukrainians or Slovaks. Another trait that needs to be mentioned is the fact that our alimentary tradition is deeply connected to the season we are in. After the body gets a lot of meat and fats during winter, it gets purified during spring and summer when more fruits and vegetables are consumed. The most common gastronomic techniques in the Transylvanian cuisine are: marinating, maturation, fumigation, salting- procedures that use the natural potential and eliminate the use of the chemical additives. In conclusion, we can consider the Transylvanian cuisine one of the most important parts of the multicultural heritage.

  9. 47 CFR 76.984 - Geographically uniform rate structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... throughout each franchise area in which cable service is provided. (b) This section does not prohibit the... and conditions of service, within a franchise area. (c) This section does not apply to: (1) A cable operator with respect to the provision of cable service over its cable system in any geographic area in...

  10. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  11. Geographical assemblages of European raptors and owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Benavent-Corai, José; García-Ripollés, Clara

    2008-09-01

    In this work we look for geographical structure patterns in European raptors (Order: Falconiformes) and owls (Order: Strigiformes). For this purpose we have conducted our research using freely available tools such as statistical software and databases. To perform the study, presence-absence data for the European raptors and owl species (Class Aves) were downloaded from the BirdLife International website. Using the freely available "pvclust" R-package, we applied similarity Jaccard index and cluster analysis in order to delineate biogeographical relationships for European countries. According to the cluster of similarity, we found that Europe is structured into two main geographical assemblages. The larger length branch separated two main groups: one containing Iceland, Greenland and the countries of central, northern and northwestern Europe, and the other group including the countries of eastern, southern and southwestern Europe. Both groups are divided into two main subgroups. According to our results, the European raptors and owls could be considered structured into four meta-communities well delimited by suture zones defined by Remington (1968) [Remington, C.L., 1968. Suture-zones of hybrid interaction between recently joined biotas. Evol. Biol. 2, 321-428]. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Ages could explain at least in part the modern geographical distribution of the group.

  12. Geographical Index of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-11-29

    Thanonthongchai Range. This mountain range passes through the following adminis- trative areas in Chiang Mai Province: 1. It passes through the townships...down to the Ping River until it reaches the Daenlaw Range which is the boundary between Maehongson Province and Chiang Mai Province (eight...trict, Chiang Mai Province for 5M- kilometers. 10. It passes through Omkoi Township, Omkoi District; Boluang Township, Hot District; Thapha Township

  13. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  14. Modal Logics and Definability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusisto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research into the mathematical foundations of modal logic has become increasingly popular. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that modal logic seems to adapt well to the requirements of a wide range of different fields of application. This paper is a summary of some of the author’s contributions to the understanding of modal definability theory.

  15. Software Defined Cyberinfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian; Blaiszik, Ben; Chard, Kyle; Chard, Ryan

    2017-07-17

    Within and across thousands of science labs, researchers and students struggle to manage data produced in experiments, simulations, and analyses. Largely manual research data lifecycle management processes mean that much time is wasted, research results are often irreproducible, and data sharing and reuse remain rare. In response, we propose a new approach to data lifecycle management in which researchers are empowered to define the actions to be performed at individual storage systems when data are created or modified: actions such as analysis, transformation, copying, and publication. We term this approach software-defined cyberinfrastructure because users can implement powerful data management policies by deploying rules to local storage systems, much as software-defined networking allows users to configure networks by deploying rules to switches.We argue that this approach can enable a new class of responsive distributed storage infrastructure that will accelerate research innovation by allowing any researcher to associate data workflows with data sources, whether local or remote, for such purposes as data ingest, characterization, indexing, and sharing. We report on early experiments with this approach in the context of experimental science, in which a simple if-trigger-then-action (IFTA) notation is used to define rules.

  16. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  17. Software Defined Coded Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Carla; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Palazzo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    the quality of each link and even across neighbouring links and using simulations to show that an additional reduction of packet transmission in the order of 40% is possible. Second, to advocate for the use of network coding (NC) jointly with software defined networking (SDN) providing an implementation...

  18. Defining depth of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S L; Stanski, D R

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, drawn largely from the synthesis of material that we first presented in the sixth edition of Miller's Anesthesia, Chap 31 (Stanski and Shafer 2005; used by permission of the publisher), we have defined anesthetic depth as the probability of non-response to stimulation, calibrated against the strength of the stimulus, the difficulty of suppressing the response, and the drug-induced probability of non-responsiveness at defined effect site concentrations. This definition requires measurement of multiple different stimuli and responses at well-defined drug concentrations. There is no one stimulus and response measurement that will capture depth of anesthesia in a clinically or scientifically meaningful manner. The "clinical art" of anesthesia requires calibration of these observations of stimuli and responses (verbal responses, movement, tachycardia) against the dose and concentration of anesthetic drugs used to reduce the probability of response, constantly adjusting the administered dose to achieve the desired anesthetic depth. In our definition of "depth of anesthesia" we define the need for two components to create the anesthetic state: hypnosis created with drugs such as propofol or the inhalational anesthetics and analgesia created with the opioids or nitrous oxide. We demonstrate the scientific evidence that profound degrees of hypnosis in the absence of analgesia will not prevent the hemodynamic responses to profoundly noxious stimuli. Also, profound degrees of analgesia do not guarantee unconsciousness. However, the combination of hypnosis and analgesia suppresses hemodynamic response to noxious stimuli and guarantees unconsciousness.

  19. Defining and classifying syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Roland D.; Wieling, Wouter; Kaufmann, Horacio; van Dijk, Gert

    2004-01-01

    There is no widely adopted definition or classification of syncope and related disorders. This lack of uniformity harms patient care, research, and medical education. In this article, syncope is defined as a form of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Differences

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the New York-New Jersey Metropolitan Area - Volume 1, Geographic Information Systems data and Volume 2, Maps in Portable Document Format (NODC Accession 0014792)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the New York - New Jersey Metropolitan Area from 1999 to...

  1. Geographical Information Systems and the Integration of Renewable Energies in the Electrification of Rural Communities. Case Study: Electrification of the Cuban Municipality of Guama; Aplicacion de los Sistemas de Informacion Geografica a la Integracion de las Energias Renovables en la Produccion de Electricidad en las Comunidades Rurales. Caso de Estudio: Electrificacion del Municipio Cubano de Guama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo Pascua, I

    2007-09-27

    The rural electrification analysis of Guama municipality is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) to define the best way of electrification using level electric cost (LEG) criterion to meet a particular demand. Applying SOLARGIS methodology, conventional and renewable energy technologies are compared in every non-electrified community. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the area and shows a very high potential of remote sites to be electrified by means of photovoltaic systems. (Author) 43 refs.

  2. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  3. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  4. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  5. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  6. LEGAL INSTRUMENT FOR PROTECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION PRODUCT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almusawir Nansa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As an archipelago country, Indonesia comprises of a large territory where every region is capable of producing distinctive and characterized products due to its geographical, social, and cultural factors, in addition to its higher quality compared to imported products. In the market, goods with distinct characterization as a result of various geographical locations of production regions is known as Geographical Indication Products. Geographical Indication defines as a characterization that indicates the origin of a product, which includes several influencing factors such as geographical factor, natural factor, human factor or the combination of both factors which eventually contribute to establish a certain distinction and quality upon a product. Several geographical indicated products in Indonesia are widely known to have excellent reputation on the market, namely Delinese tobacco, Temanggung tobacco, Ciancur rice, Muntok white pepper, Lampung black pepper, Kerinci cinnamon, Cilembu cassava, Bandanese nutmeg, Proboliggo sweet mango, Balinese Kintamani coffee, Kalosi coffee, Papuan matoa, etc. Those are several richness of goods from certain regions in Indonesia widely known for their characterization. Characterization of goods are resulted by variation of geographic locations of producing regions in Indonesia. These goods possess high quality and high economic value. Consequently, certain instruments are required to provide protection upon the regions producing those goods against the act of counterfeiting.

  7. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  8. Geographic Analysis of Neurosurgery Workforce in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Ran; Park, Sukh Que; Kim, Jae Hyun; Hwang, Jae Chan; Lee, Gwang Soo; Chang, Jae-Chil

    2018-01-01

    Objective In respect of the health and safety of the public, universal access to health care is an issue of the greatest importance. The geographic distribution of doctors is one of the important factors contributing to access to health care. The aim of this study is to assess the imbalances in the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons across Korea. Methods Population data was obtained from the National Statistical Office. We classified geographic groups into 7 metropolitan cities, 78 non-metropolitan cities, and 77 rural areas. The number of doctors and neurosurgeons per 100000 populations in each county unit was calculated using the total number of doctors and neurosurgeons at the country level from 2009 to 2015. The density levels of neurosurgeon and doctor were calculated and depicted in maps. Results Between 2009 and 2015, the number of neurosurgeons increased from 2002 to 2557, and the ratio of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations increased from 4.02 to 4.96. The number of neurosurgeons per 100000 populations was highest in metropolitan cities and lowest in rural areas from 2009 to 2015. A comparison of the geographic distribution of neurosurgeons in 2009 and 2015 showed an increase in the regional gap. The neurosurgeon density was affected by country unit characteristics (p=0.000). Conclusion Distribution of neurosurgeons throughout Korea is uneven. Neurosurgeons are being increasingly concentrated in a limited number of metropolitan cities. This phenomenon will need to be accounted when planning for a supply of neurosurgeons, allocation of resources and manpower, and the provision of regional neurosurgical services. PMID:29354242

  9. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneja, Sanjay; Smith, Benjamin D.; Gross, Cary P.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Roberts, Kenneth; Yu, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  10. U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, L.D.; Leary, K.D.; Lackey, M.B.; Robertson, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup items') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) [1] was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  11. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneja, Sanjay [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of General Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Roberts, Kenneth [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  12. Effects of highly conserved major histocompatibility complex (MHC extended haplotypes on iron and low CD8+ T lymphocyte phenotypes in HFE C282Y homozygous hemochromatosis patients from three geographically distant areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Costa

    Full Text Available Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH is a recessively inherited disorder of iron overload occurring commonly in subjects homozygous for the C282Y mutation in HFE gene localized on chromosome 6p21.3 in linkage disequilibrium with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A locus. Although its genetic homogeneity, the phenotypic expression is variable suggesting the presence of modifying factors. One such genetic factor, a SNP microhaplotype named A-A-T, was recently found to be associated with a more severe phenotype and also with low CD8(+T-lymphocyte numbers. The present study aimed to test whether the predictive value of the A-A-T microhaplotype remained in other population settings. In this study of 304 HH patients from 3 geographically distant populations (Porto, Portugal 65; Alabama, USA 57; Nord-Trøndelag, Norway 182, the extended haplotypes involving A-A-T were studied in 608 chromosomes and the CD8(+ T-lymphocyte numbers were determined in all subjects. Patients from Porto had a more severe phenotype than those from other settings. Patients with A-A-T seemed on average to have greater iron stores (p = 0.021, but significant differences were not confirmed in the 3 separate populations. Low CD8(+ T-lymphocytes were associated with HLA-A*03-A-A-T in Porto and Alabama patients but not in the greater series from Nord-Trøndelag. Although A-A-T may signal a more severe iron phenotype, this study was unable to prove such an association in all population settings, precluding its use as a universal predictive marker of iron overload in HH. Interestingly, the association between A-A-T and CD8(+ T-lymphocytes, which was confirmed in Porto and Alabama patients, was not observed in Nord-Trøndelag patients, showing that common HLA haplotypes like A*01-B*08 or A*03-B*07 segregating with HFE/C282Y in the three populations may carry different messages. These findings further strengthen the relevance of HH as a good disease model to search for novel candidate loci

  13. Plants and geographical names in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargonja, Hrvoje; Daković, Branko; Alegro, Antun

    2008-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present some general observations, regularities and insights into a complex relationship between plants and people through symbolic systems like geographical names on the territory of Croatia. The basic sources of data for this research were maps from atlas of Croatia of the scale 1:100000. Five groups of maps or areas were selected in order to represent main Croatian phytogeographic regions. A selection of toponyms from each of the map was made in which the name for a plant in Croatian language was recognized (phytotoponyms). Results showed that of all plant names recognized in geographical names the most represented are trees, and among them birch and oak the most. Furthermore, an attempt was made to explain the presence of the most represented plant species in the phytotoponyms in the light of general phytogeographical and sociocultural differences and similarities of comparing areas. The findings confirm an expectation that the genera of climazonal vegetation of particular area are the most represented among the phytotoponyms. Nevertheless, there are ample examples where representation of a plant name in the names of human environment can only be ascribed to ethno-linguistic and socio-cultural motives. Despite the reductionist character of applied methodology, this research also points out some advantages of this approach for ethnobotanic and ethnolinguistic studies of greater areas of human environment.

  14. Ecoregions for Louisiana from EPA source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [ecoregions_EPA_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. By recognizing the spatial differences...

  15. 08471 Report -- Geographic Privacy-Aware Knowledge Discovery and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijpers, Bart; Pedreschi, Dino; Saygin, Yucel; Spaccapietra, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The Dagstuhl-Seminar on Geographic Privacy-Aware Knowledge Discovery and Delivery was held during 16 - 21 November, 2008, with 37 participants registered from various countries from Europe, as well as other parts of the world such as United States, Canada, Argentina, and Brazil. Issues in the newly emerging area of geographic knowledge discovery with a privacy perspective were discussed in a week to consolidate some of the research questions. The Dagstuhl program included...

  16. Different Factors of Llap as a Geographic Region

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Isufi; , S. Halimi; , F. Humolli

    2011-01-01

    In this work attempts were made to express in the best possible manner the factors which differentiate the Llap as geographic region. The Llap Region is located in the north-east of Kosovo. Within the ethnic geography, the Llap area is having peripheric position, but within the Balkan Penninsula it is having a central position, while along Llap goes the Highway which connects Kosovo and Serbia. The Llap region has important natural conditions; such as very good geographic position, running an...

  17. Maternal-child overweight/obesity and undernutrition in Kenya: a geographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Lisa R; Curtin, Kevin M; Gewa, Constance; Attaway, David

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine geographic relationships of nutritional status (BMI), including underweight, overweight and obesity, among Kenyan mothers and children. Spatial relationships were examined concerning BMI of the mothers and BMI-for-age percentiles of their children. These included spatial statistical measures of the clustering of segments of the population, in addition to inspection of co-location of significant clusters. Rural and urban areas of Kenya, including the cities of Nairobi and Mombasa, and the Kisumu region. Mother-child pairs from Demographic and Health Survey data including 1541 observations in 2003 and 1592 observations in 2009. These mother-child pairs were organized into 399 locational clusters. There is extremely strong evidence that high BMI values exhibit strong spatial clustering. There were co-locations of overweight mothers and overweight children only in the Nairobi region, while both underweight mothers and children tended to cluster in rural areas. In Mombasa clusters of overweight mothers were associated with normal-weight children, while in the Kisumu region clusters of overweight children were associated with normal-weight mothers. These findings show there is geographic variability as well as some defined patterns concerning the distribution of malnutrition among mothers and children in Kenya, and suggest the need for further geographic analyses concerning the potential factors which influence nutritional status in this population. In addition, the methods used in this research may be easily applied to other Demographic and Health Survey data in order to begin to understand the geographic determinants of health in low-income countries.

  18. Defining persistent hotspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kittur, Nupur; Binder, Sue; Campbell, Carl H.

    2017-01-01

    Preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel for schistosomiasis morbidity control is commonly done by mass drug administration (MDA). MDA regimen is usually based on prevalence in a given area, and effectiveness is evaluated by decreases in prevalence and/or intensity of infection after several yea...

  19. Defining competitiveness through the theories of new economic geography and regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of work is defining competitiveness through a multidisciplinary approach of the theories of new economic geography and regional economy. The paper describes in detail the theory of competitiveness, defined by numerous authors in this area, with special emphasis on the opposing views of Michael Porter and Paul Krugman. A regional competitiveness that is colsely related to economic geography and regional economy, the development of regional economy and typology of regions have been defined in the work. One of the first authors that stressed the importance of geographical location was Michael Porter. In his model called “diamond“, the author emphasizes that geographical concentration of a business enhances the productivity, innovativity and sector export. After this theory, many authors have foccussed on the location problem research, which resulted in better interconnection of economy and geography. As the result of such activities, new directions have been developed, such as the new theory of economic geography and regional economy. New economic geography has been mentioned mostly in connection with the Nobel Prize winner, Paul Krugman, whose theories are often opposed to Porter's ones. Krugman had the most credit for the development of New Economic Geography. At the end of the work, the differences between comparative and competitive adventages were explained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007, br. 47009 i br. 179015

  20. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  1. Defining the mobilome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Janet L

    2009-01-01

    This chapter defines the agents that provide for the movement of genetic material which fuels the adaptive potential of life on our planet. The chapter has been structured to be broadly comprehensive, arbitrarily categorizing the mobilome into four classes: (1) transposons, (2) plasmids, (3) bacteriophage, and (4) self-splicing molecular parasites.Our increasing understanding of the mobilome is as dynamic as the mobilome itself. With continuing discovery, it is clear that nature has not confined these genomic agents of change to neat categories, but rather the classification categories overlap and intertwine. Massive sequencing efforts and their published analyses are continuing to refine our understanding of the extent of the mobilome. This chapter provides a framework to describe our current understanding of the mobilome and a foundation on which appreciation of its impact on genome evolution can be understood.

  2. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    Network Service Providers (NSP) often choose to overprovision their networks instead of deploying proper Quality of Services (QoS) mechanisms that allow for traffic differentiation and predictable quality. This tendency of overprovisioning is not sustainable for the simple reason that network...... resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...... generic perspective (e.g. service provisioning speed, resources availability). As a result, new mechanisms for providing QoS are proposed, solutions for SDN-specific QoS challenges are designed and tested, and new network management concepts are prototyped, all aiming to improve QoS for network services...

  3. Estimating the accuracy of geographical imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoe Francis P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the number of non-geocoded cases researchers and organizations sometimes include cases geocoded to postal code centroids along with cases geocoded with the greater precision of a full street address. Some analysts then use the postal code to assign information to the cases from finer-level geographies such as a census tract. Assignment is commonly completed using either a postal centroid or by a geographical imputation method which assigns a location by using both the demographic characteristics of the case and the population characteristics of the postal delivery area. To date no systematic evaluation of geographical imputation methods ("geo-imputation" has been completed. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of census tract assignment using geo-imputation. Methods Using a large dataset of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer cases reported to the New Jersey Cancer Registry, we determined how often cases were assigned to the correct census tract using alternate strategies of demographic based geo-imputation, and using assignments obtained from postal code centroids. Assignment accuracy was measured by comparing the tract assigned with the tract originally identified from the full street address. Results Assigning cases to census tracts using the race/ethnicity population distribution within a postal code resulted in more correctly assigned cases than when using postal code centroids. The addition of age characteristics increased the match rates even further. Match rates were highly dependent on both the geographic distribution of race/ethnicity groups and population density. Conclusion Geo-imputation appears to offer some advantages and no serious drawbacks as compared with the alternative of assigning cases to census tracts based on postal code centroids. For a specific analysis, researchers will still need to consider the potential impact of geocoding quality on their results and evaluate

  4. Using rare earth elements for the identification of the geographic origin of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, T.; Bandoniene, D.; Joebstl, D.

    2009-04-01

    The European Union defined regimes within the Protected Geographical Status (PGS) framework to protect names of regional food specialities. Thus only food produced in a specific geographical area with a specific way of production or quality can be protected by a protected geographical indication (PGI) label. As such Styrian Pumpkin Seed Oil has been approved with this label, but as with many other high priced regional specialities, fraud cannot be excluded or nor identified. Thus the aim of this work is, to develop an analytical method for the control of the geographic origin of pumpkin seed oil and also to test the method for other protected products. The development of such a method is not only of interest for scientists, but also of importance for the consumer wanting to know the origin of the food products and the assurance of the purity and quality. The group of rare earth elements (REE) in plants also have a characteristic distribution pattern similar to upper crustal REE distributions. Since the REE concentrations are extremely low in pumpkin seed oil (ppt to low ppb), ICP-MS was the only sensitive tool able to produce validated results. The carrier of the REE are most likely small particles distributed within the pumpkin seed oil. Unlike, e.g., olive oil, pumpkin seed oil is bottled and sold unfiltered, which makes this Styrian speciality an interesting sampling target. As pumpkin seed oils from different geographic origin show variable trace element and rare earth distribution patterns, is should possible to trace the origin of these oils. In the current project pumpkin seeds from different regions in Austria and from abroad were sampled. The trace element patterns in the extracted oil of these seeds were determined and a preliminary classification with discriminate analysis was successfully done on a statistical basis. In addition to the study of the geographic origin it was demonstrated that REE distribution patterns can also be used for the

  5. Profil Protein Trypanosoma evansi dari Daerah Geografis Berbeda di Indonesia Tahun 2012-2014 dengan Sodium Dodecil Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (TRYPANOSOMA EVANSI PROTEIN PROFILE OF DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS ORIGIN IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrine Ekawasti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surra outbreak in 2012 has led to more than 1,700 animals have died in the province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT Indonesia. Surra case sporadically continues throughout the year in various areas, especially Kalimantan, Banten as well as other areas. Some reports reveal differences in protein profiles among multiple isolates of T. evansi. Therefore the purpose of this research were to find out the protein profile of each isolate T. evansi in Indonesia and the possible biological differences among them. Eleven isolates originating from the province of East Nusa Tenggara, South Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan, Banten, Lampung and Bengkulu has been isolated and purified Using DEAE. Trypanosoma isolate were frezeethawing repeatedly to obtain soluble protein. Furthermore, soluble protein is treated with heating or without heating and then each was run on SDS PAGE with Coomassie Blue staining. The protein profiles of all isolates were compared each other. The results showed that eleven isolates of T. evansi in Indonesia has a very diverse protein profile. Then for the purposes of development of diagnostic kit can be used whole lysate cell (WCL as stock antigen in serological test process.

  6. Geographic variation in the prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and risk factors for transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanjose, Silvia; Mbisa, Georgina; Perez-Alvarez, Susana; Benavente, Yolanda; Sukvirach, Sukhon; Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Shin, Hai-Rim; Anh, Pham Thi Hoang; Thomas, Jaiyeola; Lazcano, Eduardo; Matos, Elena; Herrero, Rolando; Muñoz, Nubia; Molano, Monica; Franceschi, Silvia; Whitby, Denise

    2009-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in the female general population, to define geographic variation in and heterosexual transmission of the virus. The study included 10,963 women from 9 countries for whom information on sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive, sexual, and smoking behaviors were available. Antibodies against KSHV that encoded lytic antigen K8.1 and latent antigen ORF73 were determined. The range of prevalence of KSHV (defined as detection of any antigen) was 3.81%-46.02%, with significant geographic variation noted. In Nigeria, the prevalence was 46.02%; in Colombia, 13.32%; in Costa Rica, 9.81%; in Argentina, 6.40%; in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 15.50%; in Hanoi, Vietnam, 11.26%; in Songkla, Thailand, 10%; in Lampang, Thailand, 8.63%; in Korea, 4.93%; and in Spain, 3.65%. The prevalence of KSHV slightly increased with increasing age among subjects in geographic areas where the prevalence of KSHV was high, such as Nigeria and Colombia, and it significantly decreased with increases in the educational level attained by subjects in those areas. KSHV was not statistically associated with age at first sexual intercourse, number of sex partners, number of children, patterns of oral contraceptive use, presence of cervical human papillomavirus DNA, or smoking status. The study provides comparable estimates of KSHV prevalence in diverse cultural settings across 4 continents and provides evidence that sexual transmission of KSHV is not a major source of infection in the general population.

  7. House Prices, Geographical Mobility, and Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingholt, Marcus Mølbak

    2017-01-01

    Geographical mobility correlates positively with house prices and negatively with unemployment over the U.S. business cycle. I present a DSGE model in which declining house prices and tight credit conditions impede the mobility of indebted workers. This reduces the workers’ cross-area competition...... for jobs, causing wages and unemployment to rise. A Bayesian estimation shows that this channel more than quadruples the response of unemployment to adverse housing market shocks. The estimation also shows that adverse housing market shocks caused the decline in mobility during the Great Recession. Absent...

  8. Geographic Knowledge Extraction and Semantic Similarity in OpenStreetMap

    OpenAIRE

    Ballatore, Andrea; Bertolotto, Michela; Wilson, David C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a web phenomenon known as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) has produced large crowdsourced geographic data sets. OpenStreetMap (OSM), the leading VGI project, aims at building an open-content world map through user contributions. OSM semantics consists of a set of properties (called 'tags') describing geographic classes, whose usage is defined by project contributors on a dedicated Wiki website. Because of its simple and open semantic structure, the OSM approach often...

  9. SCHOOL LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA BLÎNDĂ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and observation of the natural environment and of the social and economic one, observing phenomena, objects, beings, and geographical events are at the basis of producing geographical scientific texts. The symbols of iconotexts and cartotexts are another source of inspiration for linguistic interpretation. The linguistic creations that we selected for our study are the scientific analysis, the commentary, the characterization, the parallel, the synthesis, epitomizing and abstracting, the scientific communication, the essay, and the scientific description. The representations on maps, photos, graphics and profiles are translated into verbal or written expression in order to render geographical scientific information from diagrams and images through diverse discursive procedures. Through school linguistic creations, teachers develop their students’ observation spirit, in a written and oral form, their geographical thinking through metaphors, they develop and stimulate their students’ imagination and fantasy, their cognitive, reflexive and affective sensitivity, their abilities to express themselves, to present and argument in a scientific way according to different criteria (sufficiency, demonstrative reasoning, lineal reasoning, pros and cons, giving examples, inferential deduction through using truth tables, etc.. Trough description, students give names and define geographical objects and beings (plants, animals, and people according to their form and aspect, they explain toponyms and appellatives, they classify and make hierarchies, they define their identity through processes of differentiation, emblematizing, personification, location in time and space.

  10. Evaluating fuel poverty policy in Northern Ireland using a geographic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Ryan; Liddell, Christine; McKenzie, Paul; Morris, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Recent audits have shown that anti-fuel poverty policies in the UK depend on loosely defined targeting and cannot accurately identify fuel poor households. New methods of targeting are necessary to improve fuel poverty policy. This paper uses Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques to evaluate the targeting of a home energy efficiency scheme small area level in Northern Ireland, based on the level of need. The concept of need is modelled using an area-based, multi-dimensional fuel poverty risk index. The characteristics and spatial distribution of household retrofits are explored. Policy activity and expenditure are compared with the level of need in an area. Results indicate that policy activity is only weakly associated with the level of need in an area, although policy appears to be well targeted in a few areas. Contrary to existing evidence, rural areas appear to be well served by policy, receiving above average numbers of retrofits and expenditure. There are typically two types of retrofit (major and minor). Most retrofits are minor and may not reduce fuel poverty. These results evidence the limitations of the current targeting system and suggest that there may be scope for improved policy implemented via a more proactive, area-based approach. - Highlights: • We analyse the spatial distribution of home energy efficiency installations. • Significant geographic disparity exists in the rate and cost of home retrofits. • Targeting is only weakly associated with the level of need. • Many interventions are small-scale and are unlikely to reduce fuel poverty. • Results suggest scope for more proactive policy delivered from area-based platforms

  11. Multiple sclerosis: a geographical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, I P

    1997-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis remains a rare neurological disease of unknown aetiology, with a unique distribution, both geographically and historically. Rare in equatorial regions, it becomes increasingly common in higher latitudes; historically, it was first clinically recognized in the early nineteenth century. A hypothesis, based on geographical reasoning, is here proposed: that the disease is the result of a specific vitamin deficiency. Different individuals suffer the deficiency in separate and often unique ways. Evidence to support the hypothesis exists in cultural considerations, in the global distribution of the disease, and in its historical prevalence.

  12. Using satellite telemetry to define spatial population structure in polar bears in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritzen, Mette; Derocher, Andrew E.; Wiig, Øystein; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Garner, Gerald W.

    2002-01-01

    1. Animal populations, defined by geographical areas within a species’ distribution where population dynamics are largely regulated by births and deaths rather than by migration from surrounding areas, may be the correct unit for wildlife management. However, in heterogeneous landscapes varying habitat quality may yield subpopulations with distinct patterns in resource use and demography significant to the dynamics of populations.2. To define the spatial population structure of polar bears Ursus maritimus in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic, and to assess the existence of a shared population between the two countries, we analysed satellite telemetry data obtained from 105 female polar bears over 12 years.3. Using both cluster analyses and home-range estimation methods, we identified five population units inhabiting areas with different sea-ice characteristics and prey availability.4. The continuous distribution of polar bear positions indicated that the different subpopulations formed one continuous polar bear population in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic. Hence, Norway and Russia have a shared management responsibility.5. The spatial population structure identified will provide a guide for evaluating geographical patterns in polar bear ecology, the dynamics of polar bear–seal relationships and the effects of habitat alteration due to climate change. The work illustrates the importance of defining population borders and subpopulation structure in understanding the dynamics and management of larger animals.

  13. a Conceptual Framework for Virtual Geographic Environments Knowledge Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lan; Lin, Hui

    2016-06-01

    VGE geographic knowledge refers to the abstract and repeatable geo-information which is related to the geo-science problem, geographical phenomena and geographical laws supported by VGE. That includes expert experiences, evolution rule, simulation processes and prediction results in VGE. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for VGE knowledge engineering in order to effectively manage and use geographic knowledge in VGE. Our approach relies on previous well established theories on knowledge engineering and VGE. The main contribution of this report is following: (1) The concepts of VGE knowledge and VGE knowledge engineering which are defined clearly; (2) features about VGE knowledge different with common knowledge; (3) geographic knowledge evolution process that help users rapidly acquire knowledge in VGE; and (4) a conceptual framework for VGE knowledge engineering providing the supporting methodologies system for building an intelligent VGE. This conceptual framework systematically describes the related VGE knowledge theories and key technologies. That will promote the rapid transformation from geodata to geographic knowledge, and furtherly reduce the gap between the data explosion and knowledge absence.

  14. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  15. Teleology and Defining Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Nathan K; Pruski, Michal

    2018-07-01

    Disorders of sexual differentiation lead to what is often referred to as an intersex state. This state has medical, as well as some legal, recognition. Nevertheless, the question remains whether intersex persons occupy a state in between maleness and femaleness or whether they are truly men or women. To answer this question, another important conundrum needs to be first solved: what defines sex? The answer seems rather simple to most people, yet when morphology does not coincide with haplotypes, and genetics might not correlate with physiology the issue becomes more complex. This paper tackles both issues by establishing where the essence of sex is located and by superimposing that framework onto the issue of the intersex. This is achieved through giving due consideration to the biology of sexual development, as well as through the use of a teleological framework of the meaning of sex. Using a range of examples, the paper establishes that sex cannot be pinpointed to one biological variable but is rather determined by how the totality of one's biology is oriented towards biological reproduction. A brief consideration is also given to the way this situation could be comprehended from a Christian understanding of sex and suffering.

  16. Land-use planning of Volyn region (Ukraine) using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strielko, Irina; Pereira, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Land-use development planning is carried out in order to create a favourable environment for human life, sustainable socioeconomic and spatial development. Landscape planning is an important part of land-use development that aims to meet the fundamental principles of sustainable development. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a fundamental tool to make a better landscape planning at different territorial levels, providing data and maps to support decision making. The objective of this work is to create spatio-temporal, territorial and ecological model of development of Volyn region (Ukraine). It is based on existing spatial raster and vector data and includes the analysis of territory dynamics as the aspects responsible for it. A spatial analyst tool was used to zone the areas according to their environmental components and economic activity. This analysis is fundamental to define the basic parameters of sustainability of Volyn region. To carry out this analysis, we determined the demographic capacity of districts and the analysis of spatial parameters of land use. On the basis of the existing natural resources, we observed that there is a need of landscape protection and integration of more are natural areas in the Pan-European Ecological Network. Using GIS technologies to landscape planning in Volyn region, allowed us to identify, natural areas of interest, contribute to a better resource management and conflict resolution. Geographic Information Systems will help to formulate and implement landscape policies, reform the existing administrative system of Volyn region and contribute to a better sustainable development.

  17. Geographical Gradients in Argentinean Terrestrial Mammal Species Richness and Their Environmental Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Ana L.; Real, Raimundo; Kin, Marta S.; Guerrero, José Carlos; Galván, Betina; Barbosa, A. Márcia; Olivero, Jesús; Palomo, L. Javier; Vargas, J. Mario; Justo, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the main geographical trends of terrestrial mammal species richness (SR) in Argentina, assessing how broad-scale environmental variation (defined by climatic and topographic variables) and the spatial form of the country (defined by spatial filters based on spatial eigenvector mapping (SEVM)) influence the kinds and the numbers of mammal species along these geographical trends. We also evaluated if there are pure geographical trends not accounted for by the environmental or spatial factors. The environmental variables and spatial filters that simultaneously correlated with the geographical variables and SR were considered potential causes of the geographic trends. We performed partial correlations between SR and the geographical variables, maintaining the selected explanatory variables statistically constant, to determine if SR was fully explained by them or if a significant residual geographic pattern remained. All groups and subgroups presented a latitudinal gradient not attributable to the spatial form of the country. Most of these trends were not explained by climate. We used a variation partitioning procedure to quantify the pure geographic trend (PGT) that remained unaccounted for. The PGT was larger for latitudinal than for longitudinal gradients. This suggests that historical or purely geographical causes may also be relevant drivers of these geographical gradients in mammal diversity. PMID:23028254

  18. Geographical Gradients in Argentinean Terrestrial Mammal Species Richness and Their Environmental Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Márquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the main geographical trends of terrestrial mammal species richness (SR in Argentina, assessing how broad-scale environmental variation (defined by climatic and topographic variables and the spatial form of the country (defined by spatial filters based on spatial eigenvector mapping (SEVM influence the kinds and the numbers of mammal species along these geographical trends. We also evaluated if there are pure geographical trends not accounted for by the environmental or spatial factors. The environmental variables and spatial filters that simultaneously correlated with the geographical variables and SR were considered potential causes of the geographic trends. We performed partial correlations between SR and the geographical variables, maintaining the selected explanatory variables statistically constant, to determine if SR was fully explained by them or if a significant residual geographic pattern remained. All groups and subgroups presented a latitudinal gradient not attributable to the spatial form of the country. Most of these trends were not explained by climate. We used a variation partitioning procedure to quantify the pure geographic trend (PGT that remained unaccounted for. The PGT was larger for latitudinal than for longitudinal gradients. This suggests that historical or purely geographical causes may also be relevant drivers of these geographical gradients in mammal diversity.

  19. Soil gas (²²²Rn, CO₂, ⁴He) behaviour over a natural CO₂ accumulation, Montmiral area (Drôme, France): geographical, geological and temporal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Frédérick; Joublin, Franck; Haas, Hubert; Jean-Prost, Véronique; Ruffier, Véronique

    2011-02-01

    The south east basin of France shelters deep CO₂ reservoirs often studied with the aim of better constraining geological CO₂ storage operations. Here we present new soil gas data, completing an existing dataset (CO₂, ²²²Rn, ⁴He), together with mineralogical and physical characterisations of soil columns, in an attempt to better understand the spatial distribution of gas concentrations in the soils and to rule on the sealed character of the CO₂ reservoir at present time. Anomalous gas concentrations were found but did not appear to be clearly related to geological structures that may drain deep gases up to the surface, implying a dominant influence of near surface processes as indicated by carbon isotope ratios. Coarse grained, quartz-rich soils favoured the existence of high CO₂ concentrations. Fine grained clayey soils preferentially favoured the existence of ²²²Rn but not CO₂. Soil formations did not act as barriers preventing gas migrations in soils, either due to water content or due to mineralogical composition. No abundant leakage from the Montmiral reservoir can be highlighted by the measurements, even near the exploitation well. As good correlation between CO₂ and ²²²Rn concentrations still exist, it is suggested that ²²²Rn migration is also CO₂ dependent in non-leaking areas--diffusion dominated systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Soil gas ({sup 222}Rn, CO{sub 2}, {sup 4}He) behaviour over a natural CO{sub 2} accumulation, Montmiral area (Drome, France): geographical, geological and temporal relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, Frederick, E-mail: f.gal@brgm.f [BRGM, Metrology Monitoring Analysis Department, 3 Avenue Claude-Guillemin, B.P. 36009, 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Joublin, Franck, E-mail: f.joublin@brgm.f [BRGM, Regional Geological Survey, 6 ter, Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 59260 Lezennes (France); Haas, Hubert, E-mail: h.haas@brgm.f [BRGM, Metrology Monitoring Analysis Department, 3 Avenue Claude-Guillemin, B.P. 36009, 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Jean-prost, Veronique, E-mail: v.jean-prost@brgm.f [BRGM, Metrology Monitoring Analysis Department, 3 Avenue Claude-Guillemin, B.P. 36009, 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Ruffier, Veronique, E-mail: v.ruffier@brgm.f [BRGM, Metrology Monitoring Analysis Department, 3 Avenue Claude-Guillemin, B.P. 36009, 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2011-02-15

    The south east basin of France shelters deep CO{sub 2} reservoirs often studied with the aim of better constraining geological CO{sub 2} storage operations. Here we present new soil gas data, completing an existing dataset (CO{sub 2}, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 4}He), together with mineralogical and physical characterisations of soil columns, in an attempt to better understand the spatial distribution of gas concentrations in the soils and to rule on the sealed character of the CO{sub 2} reservoir at present time. Anomalous gas concentrations were found but did not appear to be clearly related to geological structures that may drain deep gases up to the surface, implying a dominant influence of near surface processes as indicated by carbon isotope ratios. Coarse grained, quartz-rich soils favoured the existence of high CO{sub 2} concentrations. Fine grained clayey soils preferentially favoured the existence of {sup 222}Rn but not CO{sub 2}. Soil formations did not act as barriers preventing gas migrations in soils, either due to water content or due to mineralogical composition. No abundant leakage from the Montmiral reservoir can be highlighted by the measurements, even near the exploitation well. As good correlation between CO{sub 2} and {sup 222}Rn concentrations still exist, it is suggested that {sup 222}Rn migration is also CO{sub 2} dependent in non-leaking areas - diffusion dominated systems.

  1. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  2. The National Geographic Names Data Base: Phase II instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.; Payne, Roger L.

    1987-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System is a computer-based information system developed to meet major national needs by providing information for named entities in the United States, its territories, and outlying areas. The National Geographic Names Data Base, a component of the Geographic Names Information System, currently contains most names and associated information recorded on the 1:24,000-scale (or largest scale available) topographic maps of the U.S. Geological Survey. The work involved in this initial compilation of names shown on the topographic-map series, and the development and editing of the National Geographic Names Data Base, is referred to as Phase I. Optimal use and effectiveness of an automated names system require that the names of features

  3. Educational Geographers and Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the development of applied geography programs and restructuring of curricula with an emphasis on new technique and methodology courses, though retaining the liberal arts role. Educational geographers can help the programs to succeed through curriculum analysis, auditing, advising students, and liaison with other geography sources. (CK)

  4. Biofouling community composition across a range of environmental conditions and geographical locations suitable for floating marine renewable energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Adrian K; Stanley, Michele S; Day, John G; Cook, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of biofouling typical of marine structures is essential for engineers to define appropriate loading criteria in addition to informing other stakeholders about the ecological implications of creating novel artificial environments. There is a lack of information regarding biofouling community composition (including weight and density characteristics) on floating structures associated with future marine renewable energy generation technologies. A network of navigation buoys were identified across a range of geographical areas, environmental conditions (tidal flow speed, temperature and salinity), and deployment durations suitable for future developments. Despite the perceived importance of environmental and temporal factors, geographical location explained the greatest proportion of the observed variation in community composition, emphasising the importance of considering geography when assessing the impact of biofouling on device functioning and associated ecology. The principal taxa associated with variation in biofouling community composition were mussels (Mytilus edulis), which were also important when determining loading criteria.

  5. Nutritional Aspects of Six Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Ecotypes from three Geographical Areas of Chile Aspectos Nutricionales de Seis Ecotipos de Quínoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Tres Zonas Geográficas de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cáhuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P La diversidad en el cultivo de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Chile fue explorada desde una perspectiva nutricional. En este contexto las propiedades nutricionales como también los contenidos de minerales, vitaminas y saponina fueron evaluados en las semillas de seis ecotipos chilenos de quínoa, cultivados en las tres principales zonas de producción con condiciones edafoclimáticas distintas: Ancovinto y Cancosa del altiplano del norte, Cáhuil y Faro de la zona costera central y, Regalona y Villarrica en el sur del país. Hubo diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en todas las propiedades nutricionales de las semillas de todas las zonas. El ecotipo Villarrica tenia el mayor contenido de proteína (16.10 g 100 g-1 MS y de vitamina E y C (4.644 ± 0.240 y 23.065 ± 1.119 mg 100 g-1 MS, respectivamente. El mayor contenido de vitamina B1 (0.648 ± 0.006 mg 100 g-1 MS y B3 (1.569 ± 0.026 mg 100 g-1 MS fue encontrado en el ecotipo Regalona, y el mayor contenido de vitamina B2 (0.081 ± 0.002 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Ancovinto. El K fue el mineral más abundante con un valor de 2325.56 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cancosa. El contenido de saponina fluctuó entre 0.84 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Villarrica y 3.91 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cáhuil. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los ecotipos chilenos de quínoa cultivados bajo diferentes condiciones climáticas. No obstante, las semillas de quinoa de cualquier

  6. Importance of individual analysis of environmental and climatic factors affecting the density of Leishmania vectors living in the same geographical area: the example of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus in northeast Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ballart

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the role of specific environmental and climatic factors affecting the distribution and density of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus, the proven vectors for Leishmania infantum in Spain. An entomological study was carried out in July 2006 in the province of Lleida with sticky traps set in their diurnal resting places at altitudes ranging from 86 to 1,755 m above the mean sea level (339 sites were sampled. Bivariate analysis revealed that factors such as altitude, bioclimatic zone, temperature, precipitation, sampling site (site relative to settlement, site situation, site category, wall vegetation, particular environment (in this case a natural park, general environment, adjacent natural vegetation and land cover were significantly associated with sand fly densities. The multivariate model for P. perniciosus revealed that its density was affected by site and land cover. Specifically, paved driveways correlated negatively with vector density (Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR: 0.41 and arable land cover correlated positively (IRR: 4.59. In the case of P. ariasi, a significant correlation was observed with the altitude and bioclimatic zone, with density increasing at >800 m above the mean sea level (IRR: 3.40 and decreasing in the meso-Mediterranean bioclimatic zone (IRR: 0.08. Both species were mostly found in agricultural and forest areas far from domestic environments. However, the two species correlated differently with altitude, bio-climate, vegetation, temperature and precipitation, which emphasises the importance of their individual analysis in studies regarding risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  7. Louisiana Territorial Boundary, Geographic NAD83, LDOTD (1999) [state_boundary_la_LDOTD_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The dataset defines the state 'territorial' boundary of Louisiana. The state boundary extends 3 miles out into the Gulf of Mexico from the coastline. This data set...

  8. Development of a geographical data base and its utilization in elaboration of maps of environmental sensitivity to the oil spill in the coastal area between Galinhos and Sao Bento do Norte, RN (Brazil); Desenvolvimento de um banco de dados geograficos e sua utilizacao na elaboracao de mapas de sensibilidade ambiental ao derramamento de oleo na area costeira entre Galinhos e Sao Bento do Norte - RN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Angelica Felix de; Amaro, Venerando Eustaquio; Vital, Helenice; Aloise, Dario Jose [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para o Setor Petroleo e Gas, PRH-22. Formacao em Geologia, Geofisica e Informatica

    2003-07-01

    The coastal areas located in the northern coast of the Rio Grande do Norte State, specifically between the districts of Galinhos e Sao Bento do Norte, characterized by constant processes of coastal and eolic transport, causing erosion, alterations in the sediments and modifications in the coast line. Beyond of those natural factors, there is the proximity to Polo Petrolifero of Guamare, the largest terrestrial producer of petroleum of Brazil. The first part of that work consisted of to elaborate and to develop a Geographical Database (BDG), to store all the existent data of the study area, such as geological and geophysical data, hydrodynamic data, products of remote sensing, thematic maps, among others. The second stage of this work aimed to develop starting from the data previously stored in BDG, Oil-Spill Environmental Sensitivity Maps (Maps SAO). Those maps evaluate the reaction of the certain place if to happen an oil spill in her, supplying necessary information to the decision in cleaning and removal of the spilled oil. In that way, Maps SAO of the study area were elaborated in different teams to evaluate if there would be change of the behavior of the coast in the presence of the oil. (author)

  9. Geographical information systems (GIS), a great tool for urban silviculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaya Burbano, Leodan Andres; Sanchez Zapata, Robinson de Jesus; Morales Soto, Leon; Botero Fernandez, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    As a pilot phase, to acquire experience, define methodologies and determine the advantages of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for applying to urban silviculture and inventory, diagnosis, management plan and economic appraisal were made for the urban forest in the Magnolia neighborhood of the Envigado municipality, department of Antioquia, Colombia. for the management and analysis of the data collected in field, a database was designed using the software microsoft Access. The species inventoried were mapped digitally and the conditions there were analyzed using some tools and extensions of technological architecture ArcGIS 8.3 such as: characteristics, silviculture practices required, and environmental conflicts. It was determined that the GIS analysis of the urban forest conducted for a specific neighborhood can be a tool that permits environmental authorities and interested researchers to have agile and easy access to the information stored in it; it permits programming of required silviculture activities; it also permits having a general vision of the urban forest according to the infrastructure of the neighborhood, complemented by photographs of the area for improved illustration; it permits the inclusion or elimination of information in a rapid and simple manner, thus facilitating decision making with relation to management of the urban woodland and for comparison with other similar studies

  10. A review of geographic variation and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications in prescription drug use research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangia, Victoria; Shireman, Theresa I

    2013-01-01

    While understanding geography's role in healthcare has been an area of research for over 40 years, the application of geography-based analyses to prescription medication use is limited. The body of literature was reviewed to assess the current state of such studies to demonstrate the scale and scope of projects in order to highlight potential research opportunities. To review systematically how researchers have applied geography-based analyses to medication use data. Empiric, English language research articles were identified through PubMed and bibliographies. Original research articles were independently reviewed as to the medications or classes studied, data sources, measures of medication exposure, geographic units of analysis, geospatial measures, and statistical approaches. From 145 publications matching key search terms, forty publications met the inclusion criteria. Cardiovascular and psychotropic classes accounted for the largest proportion of studies. Prescription drug claims were the primary source, and medication exposure was frequently captured as period prevalence. Medication exposure was documented across a variety of geopolitical units such as countries, provinces, regions, states, and postal codes. Most results were descriptive and formal statistical modeling capitalizing on geospatial techniques was rare. Despite the extensive research on small area variation analysis in healthcare, there are a limited number of studies that have examined geographic variation in medication use. Clearly, there is opportunity to collaborate with geographers and GIS professionals to harness the power of GIS technologies and to strengthen future medication studies by applying more robust geospatial statistical methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Geographic Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence: Correlation with the Incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yit-Sheung Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD exist and are associated with incidence rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC, or lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC. Methods. Prevalence rates of late-stage CKD for 366 townships (n>30 in Taiwan were calculated for 1,518,241 and 1,645,151 subjects aged 40 years or older in years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Late-stage CKD prevalence in year 2010 was used as a training set and its age-adjusted standardized morbidity rates (ASMR were divided into three groups as defined <1.76%, 1.76% ≤ ASMR < 2.64%, and ≥2.64%, respectively. Year 2009, defined as the validation set, was used to validate the results. Results. The ASMR of late-stage CKD in years 2010 and 2009 were 1.76%, and 2.09%, respectively. Geographic variations were observed, with notably higher rates of disease in areas of the central, southwestern mountainside, and southeastern seaboard. There were no significant differences among different combined risk groups of RCC, UTUC, and LTUC incidence. Conclusion. The substantial geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage CKD exist, but are not correlated with RCC, UTUC, or LTUC incidence.

  12. Geographic Variation in Cancer Incidence among Children and Adolescents in Taiwan (1995–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Lee, Chih-Ying; Lee, Yu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence from our recent study suggested that the overall trend for cancer incidence in children and adolescents has been increasing in Taiwan. Methods To analyze geographic variations in this trend, cancer frequencies and incidence rates of disease groups were quantified according to geographic areas among 12,633 patients aged Taiwan Cancer Registry. Three geographic levels were defined, namely county or city, region (Northern, Central, Southern, and Eastern Taiwan), and local administrative area (special municipality, provincial city, county-administered city, township, and aboriginal area). Results Of the regions, Northern Taiwan had the highest incidence rate at 139.6 per million person-years, followed by Central (132.8), Southern (131.8), and Eastern (128.4) Taiwan. Significantly higher standardized rate ratios (SRRs) were observed in Northern Taiwan (SRR = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02–1.10) and at the township level (SRR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.03–1.11). Of the cities or counties, New Taipei City yielded the highest SRR (1.08), followed by Taipei City (SRR = 1.07). A comparison of the rates in the four regions and the remainder of Taiwan according to cancer type revealed that only the rate of neuroblastomas in Eastern Taiwan was significantly low. Trend analysis showed that the most significant increase in incidence rate was observed at the township level, with an annual percent change of 1.8% during the 15-year study period. Conclusions The high rate of childhood cancer in Northern Taiwan and at the township level deserves further attention. The potential impacts of environmental factors on the upward trend of childhood cancer incidence rate in townships warrant further investigation. PMID:26192415

  13. Prevalence and geographic variations in asthma symptoms in children and adolescents in Galicia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Silvarrey-Varela, Angel; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia; Rueda-Esteban, Santiago; Sánchez-Lastres, Juan Manuel; San-José-González, Miguel Angel; Sampedro-Campos, Manuel; Pérez-Castro, Teresa; Garnelo-Suárez, Luciano; Bamonde-Rodríguez, Luis; López-Silvarrey-Varela, Javier; González-Barcala, Javier

    2011-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and geographic variations of the symptoms associated with asthma in Galician children and adolescents. A cross-sectional epidemiological study following ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) methodology, and using a written questionnaire distributed in schools. The study sample included 10,371 6-7 year-old children and 10,372 13-14 year-old adolescents, all of them from Galician Health Areas. A logistic regression model was used to analyse geographic variations. In the 6-7 year-old group, wheezing in the last 12 months varied from 11.4% (Santiago) to 15.7% (Vigo) and in the adolescents varied from 8.8% (Ourense) to 18.8% (Vigo). The distribution by gender showed a predominant significance in 6-7 year-old males (Pchildren and 2.39 (95% CI, 1.82-3.13) for adolescents. The estimated prevalence of asthma in the Autonomous Community of Galicia was 13.6% in younger children and 12.2% in adolescents. The prevalence of wheezing in the last 12 months in the different areas of Galicia is considerably higher than the rest of Spanish ISAAC cities in the 6-7 years group and very similar in the 13-14 years group, except in Vigo where it is considerably higher. We found a clearly defined geographic pattern in the adolescent group, with higher prevalences in coastal areas than in the interior. Copyright © 2010 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields.II

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We continue the analysis of definably compact groups definable in a real closed field $\\mathcal{R}$. In [3], we proved that for every definably compact definably connected semialgebraic group $G$ over $\\mathcal{R}$ there are a connected $R$-algebraic group $H$, a definable injective map $\\phi$ from a generic definable neighborhood of the identity of $G$ into the group $H\\left(R\\right)$ of $R$-points of $H$ such that $\\phi$ acts as a group homomorphism inside its domain. The above result and o...

  15. A national analysis of dental waiting lists and point-in-time geographic access to subsidised dental care: can geographic access be improved by offering public dental care through private dental clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudko, Yevgeni; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Australia is one of the least densely populated countries in the world, with a population concentrated on or around coastal areas. Up to 33% of the Australian population are likely to have untreated dental decay, while people with inadequate dentition (fewer than 21 teeth) account for up to 34% of Australian adults. Historically, inadequate access to public dental care has resulted in long waiting lists, received much media coverage and been the subject of a new federal and state initiative. The objective of this research was to gauge the potential for reducing the national dental waiting list through geographical advantage, which could arise from subcontracting the delivery of subsidised dental care to the existing network of private dental clinics across Australia. Eligible population data were collected from the Australian Bureau of Statistics website. Waiting list data from across Australia were collected from publicly available sources and confirmed through direct communication with each individual state or territory dental health body. Quantum geographic information system software was used to map distribution of the eligible population across Australia by statistical area, and to plot locations of government and private dental clinics. Catchment areas of 5 km for metropolitan clinics and 5 km and 50 km for rural clinics were defined. The number of people on the waiting list and those eligible for subsidised dental care covered by each of the catchment areas was calculated. Percentage of the eligible population and those on the waiting list that could benefit from the potential improvement in geographic access was ascertained for metropolitan and rural residents. Fifty three percent of people on the waiting list resided within metropolitan areas. Rural and remote residents made up 47% of the population waiting to receive care. The utilisation of both government and private dental clinics for the delivery of subsidised dental care to the eligible population

  16. Factors affecting the performance of family planning workers: importance of geographical information systems in empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; De Francisco, A; Khan, M M; Chakraborty, J; Myaux, J

    1999-01-01

    Substantial variation in contraceptive prevalence rates (CPRs) and fertility rates (FRs) between community health workers (CHWs) has been documented since the inception of the Matlab family planning program in rural Bangladesh. The coefficients of variation of these indicators for Matlab CHWs were 7% and 26%, respectively, in 1995. To identify the reasons for these performance variations, geographical information system (GIS) approaches were applied to longitudinal and cross-sectional data on 80 CHWs for the period 1980-95. Each observation in the data-set included catchment area-specific characteristics, measures of CHW efficiency in service delivery, and CHW-specific characteristics for one specific year. A one-unit increase in the average age of target women in the catchment area increases the CPR by 9.2%. The CPR increases by 0.2% for each 1% increase in women's literacy and decreases by 0.1% for each 1% increase in the number of Muslim households in the catchment area. An increase of 1 sq. km in the size of the catchment area reduces the CPR by 3%. CHW performance increases with age up to 45 years and then decreases. Similarly, a 1-year increase in the average age of target women reduces the FR by 2%. A 10% increase in the size of the catchment area reduces program performance by increasing the FR by 1.4%. A single geographic barrier to movement increases the FR by 1%. This analysis indicates that CHW performance can be improved significantly by defining catchment areas through use of GIS techniques. Without knowledge of the spatial distribution of population and the physical barriers to movement, allocating a fixed number of clients per CHW may not be the most efficient approach.

  17. IL FENOMENO VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Lupia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution addresses the phenomenon of Voluntereed Geographic Informationexplaining these new and burgeoning sources of information offers multidisciplinary scientists an unprecedented opportunity to conduct research on a variety of topics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular the contribution refers to two COST Actions which have been recently activated on the subject which areparticularly relevant for the growing of the European scientific community.

  18. Clinical and subclinical deficits at 8 years in a geographically defined cohort of low birthweight infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Pharoah, P O; Stevenson, C J; Cooke, R W; Stevenson, R C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of subclinical deficits in cognitive and motor function in low birthweight infants. DESIGN--Children of birth weight < or = 2000 g born to mothers resident in Merseyside in 1980-1 assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), the Neale analysis of reading ability, and the Stott-Moyes-Henderson test of motor impairment (TOMI). Children attending normal schools assessed with controls matched for age, sex, and class in school. Children...

  19. Sirenomelia in Argentina: Prevalence, geographic clusters and temporal trends analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Boris; Liascovich, Rosa; Gili, Juan Antonio; Barbero, Pablo; Bidondo, María Paz

    2016-07-01

    Sirenomelia is a severe malformation of the lower body characterized by a single medial lower limb and a variable combination of visceral abnormalities. Given that Sirenomelia is a very rare birth defect, epidemiological studies are scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate prevalence, geographic clusters and time trends of sirenomelia in Argentina, using data from the National Network of Congenital Anomalies of Argentina (RENAC) from November 2009 until December 2014. This is a descriptive study using data from the RENAC, a hospital-based surveillance system for newborns affected with major morphological congenital anomalies. We calculated sirenomelia prevalence throughout the period, searched for geographical clusters, and evaluated time trends. The prevalence of confirmed cases of sirenomelia throughout the period was 2.35 per 100,000 births. Cluster analysis showed no statistically significant geographical aggregates. Time-trends analysis showed that the prevalence was higher in years 2009 to 2010. The observed prevalence was higher than the observed in previous epidemiological studies in other geographic regions. We observed a likely real increase in the initial period of our study. We used strict diagnostic criteria, excluding cases that only had clinical diagnosis of sirenomelia. Therefore, real prevalence could be even higher. This study did not show any geographic clusters. Because etiology of sirenomelia has not yet been established, studies of epidemiological features of this defect may contribute to define its causes. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:604-611, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Avian surveys of large geographical areas: A systematic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J.M.; Jacobi, J.D.; Ramsey, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team approach was used to simultaneously map the distribution of birds, selected food items, and major vegetation types in 34,000- to 140,000-ha tracts in native Hawaiian forests. By using a team approach, large savings in time can be realized over attempts to conduct similar surveys of smaller scope, and a systems approach to management problems is made easier. The methods used in survey design, training observers, and documenting bird numbersand habitat descriptions are discussed in detail.

  1. 13 CFR 108.130 - Identified Low Income Geographic Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.130... intends to make Developmental Venture Capital investments and provide Operational Assistance under the...

  2. Defining the landscape of adaptive genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Andrew J; Dyer, Rodney J

    2012-06-01

    Whether they are used to describe fitness, genome architecture or the spatial distribution of environmental variables, the concept of a landscape has figured prominently in our collective reasoning. The tradition of landscapes in evolutionary biology is one of fitness mapped onto axes defined by phenotypes or molecular sequence states. The characteristics of these landscapes depend on natural selection, which is structured across both genomic and environmental landscapes, and thus, the bridge among differing uses of the landscape concept (i.e. metaphorically or literally) is that of an adaptive phenotype and its distribution across geographical landscapes in relation to selective pressures. One of the ultimate goals of evolutionary biology should thus be to construct fitness landscapes in geographical space. Natural plant populations are ideal systems with which to explore the feasibility of attaining this goal, because much is known about the quantitative genetic architecture of complex traits for many different plant species. What is less known are the molecular components of this architecture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Parchman et al. (2012) pioneer one of the first truly genome-wide association studies in a tree that moves us closer to this form of mechanistic understanding for an adaptive phenotype in natural populations of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. A geographic information system and multi criteria analysis method for site selection of spent nuclear fuel disposal; Metodologia baseada em sistemas de informacao geografica e analise multicriterio para a selecao de areas para a construcao de um repositorio para o combustivel nuclear usado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Vivian Borges

    2009-07-01

    This thesis aims to develop a site selection methodology for the construction of final repository for the spent nuclear fuel disposal, by using geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria decision analysis. Decision making processes of this kind are often complex, given the great number of space parameters to consider and also the typically conflicting opinions of the diverse stake holders. By using GIS, data from different space parameters can be quickly and reliably stored, treated and analyzed. Multi-criteria techniques allow for the incorporation of different stake holders' opinions. These tools, when jointly used, allow for the decision process to be more transparent, quick and reliable. The method developed was applied to the particular case of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Weights obtained from an expert panel and also by using the Hierarchical Analysis Method and cartographic data were combined in the GIS. The application showed that it is possible not only to select and classify areas as to their aptness for the proposed objective, but also to exclude those clearly inadequate areas, thus optimizing the selection process by reducing the search space and consequently minimizing costs and the time spent in the search. (author)

  4. Community structure informs species geographic distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia

    2018-05-23

    Understanding what determines species\\' geographic distributions is crucial for assessing global change threats to biodiversity. Measuring limits on distributions is usually, and necessarily, done with data at large geographic extents and coarse spatial resolution. However, survival of individuals is determined by processes that happen at small spatial scales. The relative abundance of coexisting species (i.e. \\'community structure\\') reflects assembly processes occurring at small scales, and are often available for relatively extensive areas, so could be useful for explaining species distributions. We demonstrate that Bayesian Network Inference (BNI) can overcome several challenges to including community structure into studies of species distributions, despite having been little used to date. We hypothesized that the relative abundance of coexisting species can improve predictions of species distributions. In 1570 assemblages of 68 Mediterranean woody plant species we used BNI to incorporate community structure into Species Distribution Models (SDMs), alongside environmental information. Information on species associations improved SDM predictions of community structure and species distributions moderately, though for some habitat specialists the deviance explained increased by up to 15%. We demonstrate that most species associations (95%) were positive and occurred between species with ecologically similar traits. This suggests that SDM improvement could be because species co-occurrences are a proxy for local ecological processes. Our study shows that Bayesian Networks, when interpreted carefully, can be used to include local conditions into measurements of species\\' large-scale distributions, and this information can improve the predictions of species distributions.

  5. Experimental effects of climate messages vary geographically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baobao; van der Linden, Sander; Mildenberger, Matto; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Howe, Peter D.; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    Social science scholars routinely evaluate the efficacy of diverse climate frames using local convenience or nationally representative samples1-5. For example, previous research has focused on communicating the scientific consensus on climate change, which has been identified as a `gateway' cognition to other key beliefs about the issue6-9. Importantly, although these efforts reveal average public responsiveness to particular climate frames, they do not describe variation in message effectiveness at the spatial and political scales relevant for climate policymaking. Here we use a small-area estimation method to map geographical variation in public responsiveness to information about the scientific consensus as part of a large-scale randomized national experiment (n = 6,301). Our survey experiment finds that, on average, public perception of the consensus increases by 16 percentage points after message exposure. However, substantial spatial variation exists across the United States at state and local scales. Crucially, responsiveness is highest in more conservative parts of the country, leading to national convergence in perceptions of the climate science consensus across diverse political geographies. These findings not only advance a geographical understanding of how the public engages with information about scientific agreement, but will also prove useful for policymakers, practitioners and scientists engaged in climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  6. An application of Geographic Information System in mapping flood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roland

    1Department of Geography, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. 2National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), Central Area, Abuja, Nigeria. Accepted 20 May, 2013. This study deals with the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in mapping flood risk zones in Makurdi Town. This study ...

  7. Geographical influence of heat stress on milk production of Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To model the influence of heat stress on milk production of Holstein dairy herds on pasture in South Africa, the maximum entropy (Maxent) modelling technique was used in a novel approach to model and map optimal milk-producing areas. Geographical locations of farms with top milk-producing Holstein herds on pasture ...

  8. Geographical structure and differential natural selection among North European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Brian P; Montgomery, Grant W; McRae, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    polymorphism, in 2099 individuals from populations of Northern European origin (Ireland, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Australia, and HapMap European-American). The major trends (PC1 and PC2) demonstrate an ability to detect geographic substructure, even over a small area like...

  9. Evolution of research in health geographics through the International Journal of Health Geographics (2002-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sandra; Laperrière, Vincent; Borderon, Marion; Padilla, Cindy; Maignant, Gilles; Oliveau, Sébastien

    2016-01-20

    Health geographics is a fast-developing research area. Subjects broached in scientific literature are most varied, ranging from vectorial diseases to access to healthcare, with a recent revival of themes such as the implication of health in the Smart City, or a predominantly individual-centered approach. Far beyond standard meta-analyses, the present study deliberately adopts the standpoint of questioning space in its foundations, through various authors of the International Journal of Health Geographics, a highly influential journal in that field. The idea is to find space as the common denominator in this specialized literature, as well as its relation to spatial analysis, without for all that trying to tend towards exhaustive approaches. 660 articles have being published in the journal since launch, but 359 articles were selected based on the presence of the word "Space" in either the title, or the abstract or the text over 13 years of the journal's existence. From that database, a lexical analysis (tag cloud) reveals the perception of space in literature, and shows how approaches are evolving, thus underlining that the scope of health geographics is far from narrowing.

  10. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  11. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  12. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  13. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  14. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  15. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  16. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  17. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Community Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  18. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  19. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Antarctica Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  20. Geographical Simulation and Optimization System (GeoSOS and Its Application in the Analysis of Geographic National Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the Chinese first survey on geographic national conditions has completed, an urgent need is to analyze these geographical data, such as mining of spatial distribution patterns, land use transition rules, development trends. The analysis is crucial for extracting the knowledge from these big data about geographic national conditions. The remote sensing interpretation data and land use/cover data generated by these geographic national conditions monitoring projects are the basic data sources for a variety of research and applications in terms of land use change detection, urban dynamic analysis, and urban/land use planning. The information can be used for assisting in the coordination of land resource use and decision making for urban and rural development, ecological environment protection and other issues that depends on spatial intelligent decisions. We proposed the theoretical framework of geographical simulation and optimization system (GeoSOS, which coupled geographic process simulation/prediction and spatial optimization, provides powerful theoretical support and practical tools for above researches. This paper develops the extension of GeoSOS software-GeoSOS for ArcGIS, which is an ArcGIS Add-In runs on ArcGIS platform for facilitating the above analyses. We take the urban expansion and ecological protection research in rapid urbanization area as an example, use the software to tackle a series of urbanization issues in the study area. The simulation results show that the predicted land development intensity of Guangdong Province will exceed the constraint index in 2020 according to the national development plan. However, the urbanization expansion based on the constraints of land development intensity and ecological protection can satisfy these constraints, and obtain a more compact landscape pattern. The analysis has shown that GeoSOS can be a useful tool for assisting in the analysis of geographic national conditions information

  1. Geographical Clusters of Rape in the United States: 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raid; Nabors, Nicole S.; Nelson, Arlene M.; Saqlain, Murshid; Kulldorff, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background While rape is a very serious crime and public health problem, no spatial mapping has been attempted for rape on the national scale. This paper addresses the three research questions: (1) Are reported rape cases randomly distributed across the USA, after being adjusted for population density and age, or are there geographical clusters of reported rape cases? (2) Are the geographical clusters of reported rapes still present after adjusting for differences in poverty levels? (3) Are there geographical clusters where the proportion of reported rape cases that lead to an arrest is exceptionally low or exceptionally high? Methods We studied the geographical variation of reported rape events (2003-2012) and rape arrests (2000-2012) in the 48 contiguous states of the USA. The disease Surveillance software SaTScan™ with its spatial scan statistic is used to evaluate the spatial variation in rapes. The spatial scan statistic has been widely used as a geographical surveillance tool for diseases, and we used it to identify geographical areas with clusters of reported rape and clusters of arrest rates for rape. Results The spatial scan statistic was used to identify geographical areas with exceptionally high rates of reported rape. The analyses were adjusted for age, and in secondary analyses, for both age and poverty level. We also identified geographical areas with either a low or a high proportion of reported rapes leading to an arrest. Conclusions We have identified geographical areas with exceptionally high (low) rates of reported rape. The geographical problem areas identified are prime candidates for more intensive preventive counseling and criminal prosecution efforts by public health, social service, and law enforcement agencies Geographical clusters of high rates of reported rape are prime areas in need of expanded implementation of preventive measures, such as changing attitudes in our society toward rape crimes, in addition to having the criminal

  2. Big data and software defined networks

    CERN Document Server

    Taheri, Javid

    2018-01-01

    Big Data Analytics and Software Defined Networking (SDN) are helping to drive the management of data usage of the extraordinary increase of computer processing power provided by Cloud Data Centres (CDCs). This new book investigates areas where Big-Data and SDN can help each other in delivering more efficient services.

  3. 5 CFR 536.303 - Geographic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... after geographic conversion is the employee's existing payable rate of basic pay in effect immediately before the action. (b) Geographic conversion when a retained rate employee's official worksite is changed... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic conversion. 536.303 Section...

  4. Geographic analysis of shigellosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Park, Jin-Kyung; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Clemens, John

    2008-12-01

    Geographic and ecological analysis may provide investigators useful ecological information for the control of shigellosis. This paper provides distribution of individual Shigella species in space, and ecological covariates for shigellosis in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Data on shigellosis in neighborhoods were used to identify ecological covariates. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to obtain joint posterior distribution of model parameters and to construct smoothed risk maps for shigellosis. Neighborhoods with a high proportion of worshippers of traditional religion, close proximity to hospital, or close proximity to the river had increased risk for shigellosis. The ecological covariates associated with Shigella flexneri differed from the covariates for Shigella sonnei. In contrast the spatial distribution of the two species was similar. The disease maps can help identify high-risk areas of shigellosis that can be targeted for interventions. This approach may be useful for the selection of populations and the analysis of vaccine trials.

  5. The geographic accessibility of pharmacies in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Michael R; Heard, Deborah; Fisher, Judith; Douillard, Jay; Muzika, Greg; Sketris, Ingrid S

    2013-01-01

    Geographic proximity is an important component of access to primary care and the pharmaceutical services of community pharmacies. Variations in access to primary care have been found between rural and urban areas in Canadian and international jurisdictions. We studied access to community pharmacies in the province of Nova Scotia. We used information on the locations of 297 community pharmacies operating in Nova Scotia in June 2011. Population estimates at the census block level and network analysis were used to study the number of Nova Scotia residents living within 800 m (walking) and 2 km and 5 km (driving) distances of a pharmacy. We then simulated the impact of pharmacy closures on geographic access in urban and rural areas. We found that 40.3% of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking distance of a pharmacy; 62.6% and 78.8% lived within 2 km and 5 km, respectively. Differences between urban and rural areas were pronounced: 99.2% of urban residents lived within 5 km of a pharmacy compared with 53.3% of rural residents. Simulated pharmacy closures had a greater impact on geographic access to community pharmacies in rural areas than urban areas. The majority of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking or short driving distance of at least 1 community pharmacy. While overall geographic access appears to be lower than in the province of Ontario, the difference appears to be largely driven by the higher proportion of rural dwellers in Nova Scotia. Further studies should examine how geographic proximity to pharmacies influences patients' access to traditional and specialized pharmacy services, as well as health outcomes and adherence to therapy. Can Pharm J 2013;146:39-46.

  6. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  7. "Flooding Risk Analysis and the Understanding of Hydrological Disturbance due to the Rapid Urbanization in a Low-Scale Subwatershed in Houston Area". ( The project develops a relavant Model of flooding risk assessment to define the connection between increased streamflow/flooding and the rapid urban land development).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldiyev, P.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid urban development and changing climate influences the frequency and magnitude of flooding in Houston area. This proposed project aims to evaluate the flooding risks with the current and future land use changes by 2040 for one subbasin of the San Jacinto Brazos/Neches-Trinity Coastal basin. Surface environments and streamflow data of the Clear Creek are analyzed and stimulated to discuss the possible impact of urbanization on the occurrence of floods. The streamflow data is analyzed and simulated with the application of the Geographic Information Systems and its extensions. Both hydrologic and hydraulic models of the Clear Creek are created with the use of HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS software. Both models are duplicated for the year 2040, based on projected 2040 Landcover Maps developed by Houston and Galveston Area Council. This project examines a type of contemporary hydrologic disturbance and the interaction between land cover and changes in hydrological processes. Expected results will be very significant for urban development and flooding management.

  8. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Shorebird Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_shorebird_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebird species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent concentration areas and "hotspots"...

  9. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Crawfish Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_crawfish_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data representing major concentration areas for harvested or potentially harvested crawfish and river shrimp in...

  10. Development of the OCRWM transportation geographic information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, M. III; McGuinn, E.J.; Osborne, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for disposing of the nation's high-level radioactive waste. Current plans call for OCRWM to ship commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 77 individual reactor sites to a central facility for disposal. The Transportation Geographic Information System (TGIS) is a valuable tool in planning for the SNF shipments and communicating with the public regarding the shipments. The TGIS consists of a geographic information system (GIS) combined with a set of databases that provide data on specific geographic areas, transportation networks, and point locations. Planning activities may include analyzing possible routing options or criteria, highlighting route-specific attributes such as the location of culturally sensitive areas, providing route-specific data such as accident statistics, determining the affected population density along a route to support risk assessment activities, or providing emergency response information such as responder locations and hospitals along the proposed routes. The TGIS is a useful communication tool in helping to address the public's concern over how the shipments will be managed, particularly in the area of route selection by providing graphic portrayals of potential routes in their true geographic contexts

  11. Geographic Video 3d Data Model And Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z.; Cui, C.; Kong, Y.; Wu, H.

    2014-04-01

    Geographic video includes both spatial and temporal geographic features acquired through ground-based or non-ground-based cameras. With the popularity of video capture devices such as smartphones, the volume of user-generated geographic video clips has grown significantly and the trend of this growth is quickly accelerating. Such a massive and increasing volume poses a major challenge to efficient video management and query. Most of the today's video management and query techniques are based on signal level content extraction. They are not able to fully utilize the geographic information of the videos. This paper aimed to introduce a geographic video 3D data model based on spatial information. The main idea of the model is to utilize the location, trajectory and azimuth information acquired by sensors such as GPS receivers and 3D electronic compasses in conjunction with video contents. The raw spatial information is synthesized to point, line, polygon and solid according to the camcorder parameters such as focal length and angle of view. With the video segment and video frame, we defined the three categories geometry object using the geometry model of OGC Simple Features Specification for SQL. We can query video through computing the spatial relation between query objects and three categories geometry object such as VFLocation, VSTrajectory, VSFOView and VFFovCone etc. We designed the query methods using the structured query language (SQL) in detail. The experiment indicate that the model is a multiple objective, integration, loosely coupled, flexible and extensible data model for the management of geographic stereo video.

  12. Software-Defined Radio for Wireless Local-Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof

    2004-01-01

    New wireless communications standards do not replace old ones, instead the number of standards keeps on increasing and by now an abundance of standards exists. Moreover there is no reason to assume that this trend will ever stop. Therefore, the software-radio concept is emerging as a potential

  13. A Geographic Method for High Resolution Spatial Heat Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    more detailed modelling that takes the geographic placement of buildings and the differences among DH systems into account. In the present article, a method for assessing the costs of DH expansions has been developed. The method was applied in a geographic information system (GIS) model that consists...... are considering distribution costs based on the geographic properties of each area and assessing transmission costs based on an iterative process that examines expansion potentials gradually. The GIS model is only applicable to a Danish context, but the method itself can be applied to other countries....... of three parts and assesses the costs of heat production, distribution, and transmission. The model was also applied to an actual case in order to show how it can be used. The model shows many improvements in the method for the assessment of distribution costs and transmission costs. Most notable...

  14. New England's travel and recreation markets: trends in the geographic target markets beyond 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to re-examine and update geographic travel and lifestyle activity market trends for those areas targeted by New England destinations beyond the year 2000. The central theme was to examine in detail the primary, secondary and tertiary geographic markets targeted by New England destinations through both travel behavior and lifestyle behavior...

  15. Embedding Local Places in Global Spaces: Geographical Indications as a Territorial Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Geographical indications (GIs) are place-based names that convey the geographical origin, as well as the cultural and historical identity, of agricultural products. GIs are unique, in that they provide a means of ensuring that control over production and sales of a product stays within a local area, but at the same time they make use of extralocal…

  16. Cultural and economic determinants of geographical mortality patterns in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W.

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The geographical pattern of mortality in The Netherlands is dominated by an area of relatively high mortality in the southern part of the country. The aim was to analyse the background of this geographical mortality pattern in the early 1980s, and its evolution over time since the

  17. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  18. Venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops erythromelas from five geographic populations within the Caatinga ecoregion of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Roberta Jeane B; Monteiro, Helena S A; Gonçalves-Machado, Larissa; Guarnieri, Míriam C; Ximenes, Rafael M; Borges-Nojosa, Diva M; Luna, Karla P de O; Zingali, Russolina B; Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Gutiérrez, José María; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-30

    The Caatinga lancehead, Bothrops erythromelas, is a medically relevant species, responsible for most of the snakebite accidents in most parts of its distribution range in northeastern Brazil. The spectrum and geographic variability of its venom toxins were investigated applying a venomics approach to venom pools from five geographic areas within the Caatinga ecoregion. Despite its wide habitat, populations of B. erythromelas from Ceará, Pernambuco, Juazeiro, Paraiba, and Ilha de Itaparica exhibit highly conserved venom proteomes. Mirroring their compositional conservation, the five geographic venom pools also showed qualitatively and quantitatively overlapping antivenomic profiles against antivenoms generated in Vital Brazil (BR) and Clodomiro Picado (CR) Institutes, using different venoms in the immunization mixtures. The paraspecificity exhibited by the Brazilian SAB and the Costa Rican BCL antivenoms against venom toxins from B. erythromelas indicates large immunoreactive epitope conservation across genus Bothrops during the last ~14 million years, thus offering promise for the possibility of generating a broad-spectrum bothropic antivenom. Biological Significance Accidental snakebite envenomings represent an important public health hazard in Brazil. Ninety per cent of the yearly estimated 20-30,000 snakebite accidents are caused by species of the Bothrops genus. Bothrops erythromelas, a small, moderately stocky terrestrial venomous snake, is responsible for most of the snakebite accidents in its broad distribution range in the Caatinga, a large ecoregion in northeastern Brazil. To gain a deeper insight into the spectrum of medically important toxins present in the venom of the Caatinga lancehead, we applied a venomics approach to define the proteome and geographic variability of adult B. erythromelas venoms from five geographic regions. Although intraspecific compositional variation between venoms among specimens from different geographic regions has long been

  19. Modelling the Kampungkota: A quantitative approach in defining Indonesian informal settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anindito, D. B.; Maula, F. K.; Akbar, R.

    2018-02-01

    Bandung City is home to 2.5 million inhabitants, some of which are living in slums and squatter. However, the terms conveying this type of housing is not adequate to describe that of Indonesian called as kampungkota. Several studies suggest various variables in constituting kampungkota qualitatively. This study delves to define kampungkota in a quantitative manner, using the characteristics of slums and squatter. The samples for this study are 151 villages (kelurahan) in Bandung City. Ordinary Least Squares, Geographically Weighted Regression, and Spatial Cluster and Outlier Analysis are employed. It is suggested that kampungkota may have distinguished variables regarding to its location. As kampungkota may be smaller than administrative area of kelurahan, it can develop beyond the jurisdiction of kelurahan, as indicated by the clustering pattern of kampungkota.

  20. Geographic Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence: Correlation with the Incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Yit-Sheung; Chuang, Kai-Wen; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) exist and are associated with incidence rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), or lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC). Prevalence rates of late-stage CKD for 366 townships (n > 30) in Taiwan were calculated for 1,518,241 and 1,645,151 subjects aged 40 years or older in years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Late-stage CKD prevalence in year 2010 was used as a training set and its age-adjusted standardized morbidity rates (ASMR) were divided into three groups as defined ASMR ASMR of late-stage CKD in years 2010 and 2009 were 1.76%, and 2.09%, respectively. Geographic variations were observed, with notably higher rates of disease in areas of the central, southwestern mountainside, and southeastern seaboard. There were no significant differences among different combined risk groups of RCC, UTUC, and LTUC incidence. The substantial geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage CKD exist, but are not correlated with RCC, UTUC, or LTUC incidence.

  1. Addressing geographic access barriers to emergency care services: a national ecologic study of hospitals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; Amaral, Pedro Vasconcelos; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Rocha, João Victor Muniz; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Thumé, Elaine; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; de Sousa Queiroz, Rejane Christine; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Lopes, Daniel Paulino; Staton, Catherine A; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-08-22

    Unequal distribution of emergency care services is a critical barrier to be overcome to assure access to emergency and surgical care. Considering this context it was objective of the present work analyze geographic access barriers to emergency care services in Brazil. A secondary aim of the study is to define possible roles to be assumed by small hospitals in the Brazilian healthcare network to overcome geographic access challenges. The present work can be classified as a cross-sectional ecological study. To carry out the present study, data of all 5843 Brazilian hospitals were categorized among high complexity centers and small hospitals. The geographical access barriers were identified through the use of two-step floating catchment area method. Once concluded the previous step an evaluation using the Getis-Ord-Gi method was performed to identify spatial clusters of municipalities with limited access to high complexity centers but well covered by well-equipped small hospitals. The analysis of accessibility index of high complexity centers highlighted large portions of the country with nearly zero hospital beds by inhabitant. In contrast, it was possible observe a group of 1595 municipalities with high accessibility to small hospitals, simultaneously with a low coverage of high complexity centers. Among the 1595 municipalities with good accessibility to small hospitals, 74% (1183) were covered by small hospitals with at least 60% of minimum emergency service requirements. The spatial clusters analysis aggregated 589 municipalities with high values related to minimum emergency service requirements. Small hospitals in these 589 cities could promote the equity in access to emergency services benefiting more than eight million people. There is a spatial disequilibrium within the country with prominent gaps in the health care network for emergency services. Taking this challenge into consideration, small hospitals could be a possible solution and foster equity in access

  2. The Spatial Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus Infections and Associated Determinants--An Application of a Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression for Evidence-Based Screening Interventions in Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhl, Boris; Heil, Jeanne; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Schweikart, Jürgen; Krafft, Thomas; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infections are a major cause for liver diseases. A large proportion of these infections remain hidden to care due to its mostly asymptomatic nature. Population-based screening and screening targeted on behavioural risk groups had not proven to be effective in revealing these hidden infections. Therefore, more practically applicable approaches to target screenings are necessary. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial epidemiological methods may provide a more feasible basis for screening interventions through the identification of hotspots as well as demographic and socio-economic determinants. Analysed data included all HCV tests (n = 23,800) performed in the southern area of the Netherlands between 2002-2008. HCV positivity was defined as a positive immunoblot or polymerase chain reaction test. Population data were matched to the geocoded HCV test data. The spatial scan statistic was applied to detect areas with elevated HCV risk. We applied global regression models to determine associations between population-based determinants and HCV risk. Geographically weighted Poisson regression models were then constructed to determine local differences of the association between HCV risk and population-based determinants. HCV prevalence varied geographically and clustered in urban areas. The main population at risk were middle-aged males, non-western immigrants and divorced persons. Socio-economic determinants consisted of one-person households, persons with low income and mean property value. However, the association between HCV risk and demographic as well as socio-economic determinants displayed strong regional and intra-urban differences. The detection of local hotspots in our study may serve as a basis for prioritization of areas for future targeted interventions. Demographic and socio-economic determinants associated with HCV risk show regional differences underlining that a one-size-fits-all approach even within small geographic

  3. Geographic Hotspots of Critical National Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Scott; Barr, Stuart; Pant, Raghav; Hall, Jim W; Alderson, David

    2017-12-01

    Failure of critical national infrastructures can result in major disruptions to society and the economy. Understanding the criticality of individual assets and the geographic areas in which they are located is essential for targeting investments to reduce risks and enhance system resilience. Within this study we provide new insights into the criticality of real-life critical infrastructure networks by integrating high-resolution data on infrastructure location, connectivity, interdependence, and usage. We propose a metric of infrastructure criticality in terms of the number of users who may be directly or indirectly disrupted by the failure of physically interdependent infrastructures. Kernel density estimation is used to integrate spatially discrete criticality values associated with individual infrastructure assets, producing a continuous surface from which statistically significant infrastructure criticality hotspots are identified. We develop a comprehensive and unique national-scale demonstration for England and Wales that utilizes previously unavailable data from the energy, transport, water, waste, and digital communications sectors. The testing of 200,000 failure scenarios identifies that hotspots are typically located around the periphery of urban areas where there are large facilities upon which many users depend or where several critical infrastructures are concentrated in one location. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. The Current State and Historico-geographical Background of Mt. Chirisan Region Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the historico-geographical background and current state of immigrants in the area designated as the “Mt. Chirisan Region,” their characteristics, and related integration issues. This article defines the Mt. Chirisan Region as the 7 cities/kuns of Namwŏn-si, Changsu-kun, Koksŏng-kun, Kurye-kun, Hadong-kun, Sanchŏng-kun, and Hamyang-kun. As the Mt. Chirisan Region mainly consists of mountainous and agricultural areas, the immigrant induction effect socio-economically was low relative to urban and industrial areas. It was also noted that, as the percentage of marriage immigration in Mt. Chirisan was high relative to urban or industrial areas, the female foreigner ratio was higher than that of male foreigners. In regard to the home countries of immigrants, women from South-East Asia and North-East Asia accounted for the majority. Also, this article examines the current situation of support programs of 7 local Multicultural Family Support Centers in the Mt. Chirisan Region, their problems, and probably solutions. Based on the historical development of the region and recent social changes, our society and government need to actively develop a higher level of social integration and employment education support programs, and carry out policies that will protect the diverse cultural identities of immigrants. In addition, differentiated multicultural family support programs appropriate for Mt. Chirisan, an inland mountain region, need to be developed.

  5. Geographic body size and shape variation in a mainland anolis (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from northwestern South America (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon Espinosa, Martha L; Barragan Contreras, Leidy Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Anolis auratus is a widely distributed species, from Costa Rica in Central America, through northern South America, including Colombia, Venezuela, northern Brazil, Surinam and the Guyanas. In Colombia, its widespread distribution across different life zones suggests that these lizards occupy different environments and exhibit different microhabitat use in different geographic areas. On the other hand, some observations suggest that this species prefers open areas, selecting grasslands over brushy areas, and thus, an alternative hypothesis is that microhabitat use is similar among different populations. In Anolis, body variables related to locomotion (body size and shape) defines structural microhabitat use, so two distinct patterns could be expected in this species: Conservative or highly variable body size and shape throughout the species distribution. To test these predictions, we characterized geographic variation in morphometric traits of this species in Colombia. Females and males were similar in body size, but exhibited differences in some variables related to body shape. These characteristics also varied among males and females from different regions, suggesting heterogeneous use of structural microhabitat, between sexes and among populations. As an alternative, phylogenetic divergence among populations could also account for the observed differences. Absence of ecological and phylogenetic data limits our ability to identify the underlying causes of this pattern. However, we provide a general framework to explore hypotheses about evolution of body size and shape in this species.

  6. Addressing geographic access barriers to emergency care services: a national ecologic study of hospitals in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, N?bia Cristina; Amaral, Pedro Vasconcelos; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Rocha, Jo?o Victor Muniz; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Thum?, Elaine; Thomaz, Erika B?rbara Abreu Fonseca; de Sousa Queiroz, Rejane Christine; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Lopes, Daniel Paulino; Staton, Catherine A.; Vissoci, Jo?o Ricardo Nickenig

    2017-01-01

    Background Unequal distribution of emergency care services is a critical barrier to be overcome to assure access to emergency and surgical care. Considering this context it was objective of the present work analyze geographic access barriers to emergency care services in Brazil. A secondary aim of the study is to define possible roles to be assumed by small hospitals in the Brazilian healthcare network to overcome geographic access challenges. Methods The present work can be classified as a c...

  7. Developing social standards for wilderness encounters in Mount Rainier National Park: Manager-defined versus visitor-defined standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristopher J. Lah

    2000-01-01

    This research compared the differences found between manager-defined and visitor-defined social standards for wilderness encounters in Mount Rainier National Park. Social standards in recreation areas of public land are defined by what is acceptable to the public, in addition to the area’s management. Social standards for the encounter indicator in Mount Rainier’s...

  8. INTRODUCTION A National park is an area set aside by a national government for the preservation of the natural environment. The World Conservation Union defines a National park as a natural area designated to protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations. In Pakistan, the earlier ecological studies were generally observational. The earlier studies, generally appeared in 1950’s, were confined to visual description of the vegetation, and no attempts were made to recognize community types and to correlate them with the relevant environmental factors. On the contrary, advanced multivariate techniques of ordination and cluster analysis had been routinely used in Europe and other parts of the world. There are numerous ordination methods accessible in plant bionetwork, some of which have been extensively used, e.g. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA (Hill & Gauch, 1980, whereas some others only sporadically used (Zhang, 2004. A series of studies using different ordination techniques were carried out in Pakistan by Ahmad et al., 2009; Ahmad, 2009; Jabeen & Ahmad, 2009; Pirzada et al., 2009; Ahmad et al., 2010a, b; Ahmad, 2011. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA the floristic statistics and the environmental variables can be assimilated within the ordination (Kashian et al., 2003. Within the Ayubia National Park, the study area was the moist temperate forest in Rawalpindi, NE-Pakistan (Fig. 1, showing a high diversity of susceptible plant and animal species. The geographical location of the park is 330° 52' N and 730° 90' E (Farooque, 2002. The aim of this research was to quantify the vegetation in Ayubia National Park using ordination techniques and to determine the soilvegetation relationship to provide basic awareness for preservation of nationally significant native flora. A list of plant species present in the study area is provided in Table 1. Apart from their

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurat Ul Ann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between species diversity and overall community assemblage was identified in two differentzones in Ayubia National Park (Rawalpindi, NE-Pakistan which is recognized as protected area. CanonicalCorrespondence Analysis (CCA was used to find correlation of environmental variables with speciesabundance/richness. Results showed that in Zone 1 species were rather scattered due to the less availability oforganic matter and soil moisture as they occupy the less dense forest cover. Whereas Zone 2 showed theopposite trends. Finally the overall zones showed that maximum number of quadrats included Zone 2 speciesdue to a great forest cover with excess amount of organic matter and soil moisture. The study highlighted theimportance of dynamic nature and composition of vegetation and stressed the need of conservation of nativeflora for future generations.

  9. Specifying Geographic Information - Ontology, Knowledge Representation, and Formal Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Vinther

    2007-01-01

    as in the private sector. The theoretical background is the establishment of a representational system, which ontologically comprises a representation of notions in the "real world" and notions which include the representation of these. Thus, the thesis leans towards a traditional division between modeling...... of domains and conceptualization of these. The thesis contributes a formalization of what is understood by domain models and conceptual models, when the focus is on geographic information. Moreover, it is shown how specifications for geographic information are related to this representational system...... of requirements and rules, building on terms from the domain and concept ontologies. In combination with the theoretical basis the analysis is used for developing an underlying model of notions, which defines the individual elements in a specification and the relations between them. In the chapters of the thesis...

  10. Representations built from a true geographic database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    the whole world in 3d and with a spatial reference given by geographic coordinates. Built on top of this is a customised viewer, based on the Xith(Java) scenegraph. The viewer reads the objects directly from the database and solves the question about Level-Of-Detail on buildings, orientation in relation...... a representation based on geographic and geospatial principles. The system GRIFINOR, developed at 3DGI, Aalborg University, DK, is capable of creating this object-orientation and furthermore does this on top of a true Geographic database. A true Geographic database can be characterized as a database that can cover...

  11. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  12. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  13. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  14. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  15. CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wasileva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geography includes rich, diverse and comprehensive themes that give us an understanding of our changing environment and interconnected world. It includes the study of the physical environment and resources; cultures, economies and societies; people and places; and global development and civic participation. As a subject, geography is particularly valuable because it provides information for exploring contemporary issues from a different perspective. This geographical information affects us all at work and in our daily lives and helps us make informed decisions that shape our future. All these facts result in a wide discussion on many topical issues in contemporary geography didactics. Subjects of research are the new geography and economics curriculum as well as construction of modern learning process. The paper presents briefly some of the current trends and key issues of geodidactics. As central notions we consider and analyze the training/educational goals, geography curriculum, target groups and environment of geography training, training methods as well as the information sources used in geography education. We adhere that all the above-mentioned finds its reflection in planning, analysis and assessment of education and thus in its quality and effectiveness.

  16. Accessibility of tertiary hospitals in Finland: A comparison of administrative and normative catchment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotari, Tiina; Antikainen, Harri; Keistinen, Timo; Rusanen, Jarmo

    2017-06-01

    The determination of an appropriate catchment area for a hospital providing highly specialized (i.e. tertiary) health care is typically a trade-off between ensuring adequate client volumes and maintaining reasonable accessibility for all potential clients. This may pose considerable challenges, especially in sparsely inhabited regions. In Finland, tertiary health care is concentrated in five university hospitals, which provide services in their dedicated catchment areas. This study utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS), together with grid-based population data and travel-time estimates, to assess the spatial accessibility of these hospitals. The current geographical configuration of the hospitals is compared to a normative assignment, with and without capacity constraints. The aim is to define optimal catchment areas for tertiary hospitals so that their spatial accessibility is as equal as possible. The results indicate that relatively modest improvements can be achieved in accessibility by using normative assignment to determine catchment areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. State Aquifer Recharge Atlas Plates, Geographic NAD83, LDEQ (1999) [aquifer_recharge_potential_LDEQ_1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset depicting the boundaries of aquifer systems in the state of Louisiana and adjacent areas of Texas, Arkansas and a portion of Mississippi....

  18. Oyster leases in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1997) [oyster_leases_USACE_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set indicates the locations of oyster leases in Louisiana. The lease areas should be polygons, however, the source data has very poor topology including...

  19. Geographic information system in marine biology: Way for sustainable utilization of living resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Sreepada, R.A.

    Sustainable utilization of aquatic living resources needs accurate assessment. This stress the need for use of Geographic Information System (GIS). In the recent past interest has been generated for use of GIS in various areas of biological...

  20. Public Land Survey System of Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USGS (2003) [plss_la_usgs_2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  1. US Army Corps of Engineers Ports, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [usace_port_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Contains physical information on commercial facilities at the principal U.S. Coastal, Great Lakes and Inland Ports. The data consists of listings of port area's...

  2. Validation of a case definition to define hypertension using administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hude; Khan, Nadia; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Tu, Karen; Chen, Guanmin; Campbell, Norm; Hill, Michael D; Ghali, William A; McAlister, Finlay A

    2009-12-01

    We validated the accuracy of case definitions for hypertension derived from administrative data across time periods (year 2001 versus 2004) and geographic regions using physician charts. Physician charts were randomly selected in rural and urban areas from Alberta and British Columbia, Canada, during years 2001 and 2004. Physician charts were linked with administrative data through unique personal health number. We reviewed charts of approximately 50 randomly selected patients >35 years of age from each clinic within 48 urban and 16 rural family physician clinics to identify physician diagnoses of hypertension during the years 2001 and 2004. The validity indices were estimated for diagnosed hypertension using 3 years of administrative data for the 8 case-definition combinations. Of the 3,362 patient charts reviewed, the prevalence of hypertension ranged from 18.8% to 33.3%, depending on the year and region studied. The administrative data hypertension definition of "2 claims within 2 years or 1 hospitalization" had the highest validity relative to the other definitions evaluated (sensitivity 75%, specificity 94%, positive predictive value 81%, negative predictive value 92%, and kappa 0.71). After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbid conditions, the sensitivities between regions, years, and provinces were not significantly different, but the positive predictive value varied slightly across geographic regions. These results provide evidence that administrative data can be used as a relatively valid source of data to define cases of hypertension for surveillance and research purposes.

  3. Probabilistic Flood Mapping using Volunteered Geographical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, S. J.; Girons Lopez, M.; Seibert, J.; Minsker, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    Flood extent maps are widely used by decision makers and first responders to provide critical information that prevents economic impacts and the loss of human lives. These maps are usually obtained from sensory data and/or hydrologic models, which often have limited coverage in space and time. Recent developments in social media and communication technology have created a wealth of near-real-time, user-generated content during flood events in many urban areas, such as flooded locations, pictures of flooding extent and height, etc. These data could improve decision-making and response operations as events unfold. However, the integration of these data sources has been limited due to the need for methods that can extract and translate the data into useful information for decision-making. This study presents an approach that uses volunteer geographic information (VGI) and non-traditional data sources (i.e., Twitter, Flicker, YouTube, and 911 and 311 calls) to generate/update the flood extent maps in areas where no models and/or gauge data are operational. The approach combines Web-crawling and computer vision techniques to gather information about the location, extent, and water height of the flood from unstructured textual data, images, and videos. These estimates are then used to provide an updated flood extent map for areas surrounding the geo-coordinate of the VGI through the application of a Hydro Growing Region Algorithm (HGRA). HGRA combines hydrologic and image segmentation concepts to estimate a probabilistic flooding extent along the corresponding creeks. Results obtained for a case study in Austin, TX (i.e., 2015 Memorial Day flood) were comparable to those obtained by a calibrated hydrologic model and had good spatial correlation with flooding extents estimated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

  4. O USO DE SISTEMAS DE INFORMAÇÕES GEOGRÁFICAS NA IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE ÁREAS PRIORITÁRIAS PARA RECUPERAÇÃO E APROVEITAMENTO MINERAL NO LITORAL NORTE DE SÃO PAULO - THE USE OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS TO IDENTIFY PRIORITY AREAS FOR RECOVERY AND MINERAL EXPLOITATION ON THE NORTH COAST OF SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tadeu de Carvalho Gamba

    2017-04-01

    for mineral resources exploitation. Geographic Information Systems (GIS were applied to generate a Digital Elevation Model (DEM from a Triangular Irregular Network (TIN, obtaining the volume of those areas. Subsequently, this information was integrated with the degradation and risk data to reach the potential use of areas for mining. The achieved results show that 33% of 226 mapped areas have high potential for exploitation of mineral resources, being capable of sustaining the demand for low unit value supplies used in construction. The use can also bring environmental benefits as it is able to minimize natural hazards left by the abandoned mining fronts and restrict the expansion of mining areas.

  5. 300 Area Disturbance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LL Hale; MK Wright; NA Cadoret

    1999-01-07

    The objective of this study was to define areas of previous disturbance in the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to eliminate these areas from the cultural resource review process, reduce cultural resource monitoring costs, and allow cultural resource specialists to focus on areas where subsurface disturbance is minimal or nonexistent. Research into available sources suggests that impacts from excavations have been significant wherever the following construction activities have occurred: building basements and pits, waste ponds, burial grounds, trenches, installation of subsurface pipelines, power poles, water hydrants, and well construction. Beyond the areas just mentioned, substrates in the' 300 Area consist of a complex, multidimen- sional mosaic composed of undisturbed stratigraphy, backfill, and disturbed sediments; Four Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were created to display known areas of disturbance in the 300 Area. These maps contain information gleaned from a variety of sources, but the primary sources include the Hanford GIS database system, engineer drawings, and historic maps. In addition to these maps, several assumptions can be made about areas of disturbance in the 300 Area as a result of this study: o o Buried pipelines are not always located where they are mapped. As a result, cultural resource monitors or specialists should not depend on maps depicting subsurface pipelines for accurate locations of previous disturbance. Temporary roads built in the early 1940s were placed on layers of sand and gravel 8 to 12 in. thick. Given this information, it is likely that substrates beneath these early roads are only minimally disturbed. Building foundations ranged from concrete slabs no more than 6 to 8 in. thick to deeply excavated pits and basements. Buildings constructed with slab foundations are more numerous than may be expected, and minimally disturbed substrates may be expected in these locations. Historic

  6. Defining Plagiarism: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism has repeatedly occurred in Indonesia, resulting in focusing on such academic misbehavior as a “central issue” in Indonesian higher education. One of the issues of addressing plagiarism in higher education is that there is a confusion of defining plagiarism. It seems that Indonesian academics had different perception when defining plagiarism. This article aims at exploring the issue of plagiarism by helping define plagiarism to address confusion among Indonesian academics. This article applies literature review by firs finding relevant articles after identifying databases for literature searching. After the collection of required articles for review, the articles were synthesized before presenting the findings. This study has explored the definition of plagiarism in the context of higher education. This research found that plagiarism is defined in the relation of criminal acts. The huge numbers of discursive features used position plagiaristic acts as an illegal deed. This study also found that cultural backgrounds and exposure to plagiarism were influential in defining plagiarism.

  7. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance of...

  8. The evolution of cooperation on geographical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixiao; Wang, Yi; Sheng, Jichuan

    2017-11-01

    We study evolutionary public goods game on geographical networks, i.e., complex networks which are located on a geographical plane. The geographical feature effects in two ways: In one way, the geographically-induced network structure influences the overall evolutionary dynamics, and, in the other way, the geographical length of an edge influences the cost when the two players at the two ends interact. For the latter effect, we design a new cost function of cooperators, which simply assumes that the longer the distance between two players, the higher cost the cooperator(s) of them have to pay. In this study, network substrates are generated by a previous spatial network model with a cost-benefit parameter controlling the network topology. Our simulations show that the greatest promotion of cooperation is achieved in the intermediate regime of the parameter, in which empirical estimates of various railway networks fall. Further, we investigate how the distribution of edges' geographical costs influences the evolutionary dynamics and consider three patterns of the distribution: an approximately-equal distribution, a diverse distribution, and a polarized distribution. For normal geographical networks which are generated using intermediate values of the cost-benefit parameter, a diverse distribution hinders the evolution of cooperation, whereas a polarized distribution lowers the threshold value of the amplification factor for cooperation in public goods game. These results are helpful for understanding the evolution of cooperation on real-world geographical networks.

  9. Hierarchical spatial organization of geographical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travencolo, Bruno A N; Costa, Luciano da F

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we propose a hierarchical extension of the polygonality index as the means to characterize geographical planar networks. By considering successive neighborhoods around each node, it is possible to obtain more complete information about the spatial order of the network at progressive spatial scales. The potential of the methodology is illustrated with respect to synthetic and real geographical networks

  10. Future Prospects for Geographical Education in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnic Planinc, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with future prospects for geographical education in Slovenia, with special emphasis on the development and aims of the didactics of geography. The author discusses the past development of geographical curricula and of competencies of geography teachers, and the education of future teachers of the subject in Slovenia. Her ideas are…

  11. Socioeconomic Development Inequalities among Geographic Units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic development inequality among geographic units is a phenomenon common in both the developed and developing countries. Regional inequality may result in dissension among geographic units of the same state due to the imbalance in socio-economic development. This study examines the inequality ...

  12. [Potential distribution and geographic characteristics of wild populations of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae) Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Ruiz, Jesús; Herrera-Cabrera, B Edgar; Delgado-Alvarado, Adriana; Salazar-Rojas, Víctor M; Bustamante-Gonzalez, Ángel; Campos-Contreras, Jorge E; Ramírez-Juarez, Javier

    2016-03-01

    natural conditions, distribution of the species is not limited to high evergreen forests, since it was also found in mountain mesophyll and tropical evergreen forests. The location of new specimens of V. planifolia in its wild condition reduces the potential distribution area by 66 %. This area is fragmented into three geographically separated areas. Habitat reduction was due to the increased number of located plants that define the environmental conditions into a more accurate level. Conservation actions can thus be designed and implemented, focusing on more specific areas within the state of Oaxaca, Mexico.

  13. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  14. Defining and Selecting Independent Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the Enlightened Shareholder Theory that the author first developed in 2011, this theoretical paper with practical and normative ambitions achieves a better definition of independent director, while improving the understanding of the roles he fulfils on boards of directors. The first part defines constructs like firms, Governance system and Corporate governance, offering a clear distinction between the latter two concepts before explaining the four main missions of a board. The second part defines the ideal independent director by outlining the objective qualities that are necessary and adding those subjective aspects that have turned this into a veritable profession. The third part defines the ideal process for selecting independent directors, based on nominating committees that should themselves be independent. It also includes ways of assessing directors who are currently in function, as well as modalities for renewing their mandates. The paper’s conclusion presents the Paradox of the Independent Director.

  15. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...... in the organizational attributes of specific interest group types. As expected, our comparison of coding schemes reveals a closer link between group attributes and group type in narrower classification schemes based on group organizational characteristics than those based on a behavioral definition of lobbying....

  16. Composing Models of Geographic Physical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Barbara; Frank, Andrew U.

    Processes are central for geographic information science; yet geographic information systems (GIS) lack capabilities to represent process related information. A prerequisite to including processes in GIS software is a general method to describe geographic processes independently of application disciplines. This paper presents such a method, namely a process description language. The vocabulary of the process description language is derived formally from mathematical models. Physical processes in geography can be described in two equivalent languages: partial differential equations or partial difference equations, where the latter can be shown graphically and used as a method for application specialists to enter their process models. The vocabulary of the process description language comprises components for describing the general behavior of prototypical geographic physical processes. These process components can be composed by basic models of geographic physical processes, which is shown by means of an example.

  17. International Voluntary Health Networks (IVHNs). A social-geographical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Benet; Laurie, Nina; Smith, Matt Baillie

    2018-03-01

    Trans-national medicine, historically associated with colonial politics, is now central to discourses of global health and development, thrust into mainstream media by catastrophic events (earthquakes, disease epidemics), and enshrined in the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Volunteer human-resource is an important contributor to international health-development work. International Voluntary Health Networks (IVHNs, that connect richer and poorer countries through healthcare) are situated at a meeting-point between geographies and sociologies of health. More fully developed social-geographic understandings will illuminate this area, currently dominated by instrumental health-professional perspectives. The challenge we address is to produce a geographically and sociologically-robust conceptual framework that appropriately recognises IVHNs' potentials for valuable impacts, while also unlocking spaces of constructive critique. We examine the importance of the social in health geography, and geographical potentials in health sociology (focusing on professional knowledge construction, inequality and capital, and power), to highlight the mutual interests of these two fields in relation to IVHNs. We propose some socio-geographical theories of IVHNs that do not naturalise inequality, that understand health as a form of capital, prioritise explorations of power and ethical practice, and acknowledge the more-than-human properties of place. This sets an agenda for theoretically-supported empirical work on IVHNs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Geographic Units of Analysis on Measuring Geographic Variation in Medical Services Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnus M. Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of geographic units of analysis on measuring geographic variation in medical services utilization. For this purpose, we compared geographic variations in the rates of eight major procedures in administrative units (districts and new areal units organized based on the actual health care use of the population in Korea. Methods: To compare geographic variation in geographic units of analysis, we calculated the age–sex standardized rates of eight major procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, surgery after hip fracture, knee-replacement surgery, caesarean section, hysterectomy, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging scan from the National Health Insurance database in Korea for the 2013 period. Using the coefficient of variation, the extremal quotient, and the systematic component of variation, we measured geographic variation for these eight procedures in districts and new areal units. Results: Compared with districts, new areal units showed a reduction in geographic variation. Extremal quotients and inter-decile ratios for the eight procedures were lower in new areal units. While the coefficient of variation was lower for most procedures in new areal units, the pattern of change of the systematic component of variation between districts and new areal units differed among procedures. Conclusions: Geographic variation in medical service utilization could vary according to the geographic unit of analysis. To determine how geographic characteristics such as population size and number of geographic units affect geographic variation, further studies are needed.

  19. ON DEFINING S-SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Strati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work is intended to be an introduction to the Superposition Theory of David Carfì. In particular I shall depict the meaning of his brand new theory, on the one hand in an informal fashion and on the other hand by giving a formal approach of the algebraic structure of the theory: the S-linear algebra. This kind of structure underpins the notion of S-spaces (or Carfì-spaces by defining both its properties and its nature. Thus I shall define the S-triple as the fundamental principle upon which the S-linear algebra is built up.

  20. Watersheds of the Oak Ridge Reservation in a geographic information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauxe, J.

    1998-05-01

    This work develops a comprehensive set of watershed definitions for the entire Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding area. A stream-ordering system is defined based upon the method proposed by Strahler (1952) and using 1:24,000 scale US Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps and the locally standard S-16A Map (USGS 1987) as sources for topographic contours and locations of streams as recommended by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS 1995). For each ordered stream, a contributing watershed or catchment area is delineated and digitized into a geographic information system (GIS), generating over 900 watershed polygons of various orders. This new dataset complements a growing database of georeferenced environmental and cultural data which exist for the Oak Ridge area and are routinely used for socioeconomic and environmental analyses. Because these watersheds are now available in a GIS format, they may be used in a variety of hydrologic analyses, including rainfall/runoff modeling, development of geomorphological parameters, and the modeling of contaminant transport in surface waters. An understanding of the relationships of watersheds to sources of contamination and to administrative and political boundaries is also essential in land use planning and the organization of environmental restoration and waste management activities

  1. Louisiana Coastal Wetlands Conservation Plan Boundary, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (1998) [conservation_plan_boundary_LDNR_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset depicting the areas of coastal wetlands in the state of Louisiana. This area encloses the tidally influenced coastal region three feet or...

  2. Ecoregions and ecoregionalization: geographical and ecological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Merchant, James W.

    2005-01-01

    Ecoregions, i.e., areas exhibiting relative homogeneity of ecosystems, are units of analysis that are increasingly important in environmental assessment and management. Ecoregions provide a holistic framework for flexible, comparative analysis of complex environmental problems. Ecoregions mapping has intellectual foundations in both geography and ecology. However, a hallmark of ecoregions mapping is that it is a truly interdisciplinary endeavor that demands the integration of knowledge from a multitude of sciences. Geographers emphasize the role of place, scale, and both natural and social elements when delineating and characterizing regions. Ecologists tend to focus on environmental processes with special attention given to energy flows and nutrient cycling. Integration of disparate knowledge from the many key sciences has been one of the great challenges of ecoregions mapping, and may lie at the heart of the lack of consensus on the “optimal” approach and methods to use in such work. Through a review of the principal existing US ecoregion maps, issues that should be addressed in order to advance the state of the art are identified. Research related to needs, methods, data sources, data delivery, and validation is needed. It is also important that the academic system foster education so that there is an infusion of new expertise in ecoregion mapping and use.

  3. The Geographical Aspect of Flexibility in Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    , the reason for this is that flexibility is a multidimensional commodity. It can be associated with a unit or a system, a time-frame and a time-horizon of measuring it, its power magnitude and ramp rate, its energy shifting capability, its location and several other features. In this paper, the locational...... aggregation taking into account the distribution grid's radial structure. By aggregating the flexibility in this manner, different geographical points for offering it are defined. Through an illustrative market scenario, it is demonstrated how utilities might profit from their local flexibility by assisting...

  4. Preliminary Study on Secure Intranet Geographical Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Tae; Park, Jee Won; Ko Han Suk

    2005-01-01

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) is usually defined as an information system for capturing, checking, storing, retrieving, manipulating, analyzing, and displaying spatial and relevant non-spatial data. Here 'spatial' means 'geo-referenced to the earth'. It is estimated that about 80% of the data used in business and government are of spatial type. The georeferenced information on sensitive location is usually protected as the highest level of confidentiality by the most information system. This paper discusses a commercial satellite imagery based secure Intranet GIS which runs the Microsoft .NET technology

  5. The uncertain geographic context problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Any study that examines the effects of area-based attributes on individual behaviors or outcomes faces another fundamental methodological problem besides the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). It is the problem that results about these effects can be affected by how contextual units or

  6. Integrated geographic information systems (IGIS) analysis and definition of the tectonic framework of northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Pina, Carlos Manuel

    Crustal rupture structures reactivated in the course of the tectonic history of northern Mexico are the surface expressions of planes of weakness, in the form of simple or composite rectilinear features or slightly curved, defined as lineaments. Unless otherwise defined as strike-slip faults, lineaments are part of parallel and sub-parallel oblique convergent or oblique divergent tectonic zones cross cutting the Sierra Madre Occidental and northern Mexico, in a NW trend. These shear zones are the response to the oblique subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Kinematic analysis of five selected sites in northern Mexico, three basins and two compressional shear zones, proved possible a combination of shear mechanism diagram and models from analogue materials, with satellite imagery and geographic information systems, as an aid to define strike-slip fault motion. This was done using a reverse engineering process by comparing geometries. One of the sites assessed, involving the Parras Basin, Coahuila Block (CB), San Marcos fault, a postulated PBF-1 fault, allowed for palinpastic reconstruction of the CB that corroborated the results of the vector motion defined, in addition to an extension of ˜25% in a northwest southeast direction. A GIS-based compilation and georeferenced regional structural studies by several researchers were used as ground control areas (GCA); their interpolation and interpretation, resulted in a tectonic framework map of northern Mexico. In addition, shaded relief models overlaid by the lineaments / fault layer allowed structural analyses of basins related to these major structures. Two important results were obtained from this study: the Tepehuanes-San Luis-fault (TSL) and the Guadalupe fault, named herein, displaces the Villa de Reyes graben, and the Aguascalientes graben, respectively, to the SE, confirming their left lateral vector motion; afterwards TSL was displaced south by the right lateral strike slip Taxco-San Miguel de

  7. VT Data - Voting Tabulation Areas per Decennial Redistricting 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This layer represents the smallest voting tabulation area. In some cases, the geographic extent is a municipality, in other cases it is a section...

  8. Defining and Differentiating the Makerspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousay, Tonia A.

    2017-01-01

    Many resources now punctuate the maker movement landscape. However, some schools and communities still struggle to understand this burgeoning movement. How do we define these spaces and differentiate them from previous labs and shops? Through a multidimensional framework, stakeholders should consider how the structure, access, staffing, and tools…

  9. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  10. Defining European Wholesale Electricity Markets. An 'And/Or' Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkgraaf, E.; Janssen, M.C.W.

    2009-09-01

    An important question in the dynamic European wholesale markets for electricity is whether to define the geographical market at the level of an individual member state or more broadly. We show that if we currently take the traditional approach by considering for each member state whether there is one single other country that provides a substitute for domestic production, the market in each separate member state has still to be considered a separate market. However, if we allow for the possibility that at different moments in time there is another country that provides a substitute for domestic production, then the conclusion should be that certain member states do not constitute a separate geographical market. This is in particular true for Belgium, but also for The Netherlands, France, and to some extent also for Germany and Austria. We call this alternative approach the 'and/or' approach.

  11. Automation technology using Geographic Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Cynthia L.

    1994-01-01

    Airport Surface Movement Area is but one of the actions taken to increase the capacity and safety of existing airport facilities. The System Integration Branch (SIB) has designed an integrated system consisting of an electronic moving display in the cockpit, and includes display of taxi routes which will warn controllers and pilots of the position of other traffic and warning information automatically. Although, this system has in test simulation proven to be accurate and helpful; the initial process of obtaining an airport layout of the taxi-routes and designing each of them is a very tedious and time-consuming process. Other methods of preparing the display maps are being researched. One such method is the use of the Geographical Information System (GIS). GIS is an integrated system of computer hardware and software linking topographical, demographic and other resource data that is being referenced. The software can support many areas of work with virtually unlimited information compatibility due to the system's open architecture. GIS will allow us to work faster with increased efficiency and accuracy while providing decision making capabilities. GIS is currently being used at the Langley Research Center with other applications and has been validated as an accurate system for that task. GIS usage for our task will involve digitizing aerial photographs of the topology for each taxi-runway and identifying each position according to its specific spatial coordinates. The information currently being used can be integrated with the GIS system, due to its ability to provide a wide variety of user interfaces. Much more research and data analysis will be needed before this technique will be used, however we are hopeful this will lead to better usage of man-power and technological capabilities for the future.

  12. Choroidal Round Hyporeflectivities in Geographic Atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Corbelli

    Full Text Available In geographic atrophy (GA, choroidal vessels typically appear on structural optical coherence tomography (OCT as hyperreflective round areas with highly reflective borders. We observed that some GA eyes show choroidal round hyporeflectivities with highly reflective borders beneath the atrophy, and futher investigated the charcteristcs by comparing structural OCT, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA and OCT angiography (OCT-A.Round hyporeflectivities were individuated from a pool of patients with GA secondary to non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration consecutively presenting between October 2015 and March 2016 at the Medical Retina & Imaging Unit of the University Vita-Salute San Raffaele. Patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including ICGA, structural OCT and OCT-A. The correspondence between choroidal round hyporeflectivities beneath GA on structural OCT and ICGA and OCT-A imaging were analyzed.Fifty eyes of 26 consecutive patients (17 females and 9 males; mean age 76.8±6.2 years with GA were included. Twenty-nine round hyporeflectivities have been found by OCT in choroidal layers in 21 eyes of 21 patients (42.0%; estimated prevalence of 57.7%. All 29 round hyporeflectivities showed constantly a hyperreflective border and a backscattering on structural OCT, and appeared as hypofluorescent in late phase ICGA and as dark foci with non detectable flow in the choroidal segmentation of OCT-A. Interestingly, the GA area was greater in eyes with compared to eyes without round hyporeflectivities (9.30±5.74 and 5.57±4.48mm2, respectively; p = 0.01.Our results suggest that most round hyporeflectivities beneath GA may represent non-perfused or hypo-perfused choroidal vessels with non-detectable flow.

  13. Choroidal Round Hyporeflectivities in Geographic Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbelli, Eleonora; Sacconi, Riccardo; De Vitis, Luigi Antonio; Carnevali, Adriano; Rabiolo, Alessandro; Querques, Lea; Bandello, Francesco; Querques, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    In geographic atrophy (GA), choroidal vessels typically appear on structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) as hyperreflective round areas with highly reflective borders. We observed that some GA eyes show choroidal round hyporeflectivities with highly reflective borders beneath the atrophy, and futher investigated the charcteristcs by comparing structural OCT, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and OCT angiography (OCT-A). Round hyporeflectivities were individuated from a pool of patients with GA secondary to non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration consecutively presenting between October 2015 and March 2016 at the Medical Retina & Imaging Unit of the University Vita-Salute San Raffaele. Patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including ICGA, structural OCT and OCT-A. The correspondence between choroidal round hyporeflectivities beneath GA on structural OCT and ICGA and OCT-A imaging were analyzed. Fifty eyes of 26 consecutive patients (17 females and 9 males; mean age 76.8±6.2 years) with GA were included. Twenty-nine round hyporeflectivities have been found by OCT in choroidal layers in 21 eyes of 21 patients (42.0%; estimated prevalence of 57.7%). All 29 round hyporeflectivities showed constantly a hyperreflective border and a backscattering on structural OCT, and appeared as hypofluorescent in late phase ICGA and as dark foci with non detectable flow in the choroidal segmentation of OCT-A. Interestingly, the GA area was greater in eyes with compared to eyes without round hyporeflectivities (9.30±5.74 and 5.57±4.48mm2, respectively; p = 0.01). Our results suggest that most round hyporeflectivities beneath GA may represent non-perfused or hypo-perfused choroidal vessels with non-detectable flow.

  14. Bayesian geostatistical modelling of malaria and lymphatic filariasis infections in Uganda: predictors of risk and geographical patterns of co-endemicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Erling M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uganda, malaria and lymphatic filariasis (causative agent Wuchereria bancrofti are transmitted by the same vector species of Anopheles mosquitoes, and thus are likely to share common environmental risk factors and overlap in geographical space. In a comprehensive nationwide survey in 2000-2003 the geographical distribution of W. bancrofti was assessed by screening school-aged children for circulating filarial antigens (CFA. Concurrently, blood smears were examined for malaria parasites. In this study, the resultant malariological data are analysed for the first time and the CFA data re-analysed in order to identify risk factors, produce age-stratified prevalence maps for each infection, and to define the geographical patterns of Plasmodium sp. and W. bancrofti co-endemicity. Methods Logistic regression models were fitted separately for Plasmodium sp. and W. bancrofti within a Bayesian framework. Models contained covariates representing individual-level demographic effects, school-level environmental effects and location-based random effects. Several models were fitted assuming different random effects to allow for spatial structuring and to capture potential non-linearity in the malaria- and filariasis-environment relation. Model-based risk predictions at unobserved locations were obtained via Bayesian predictive distributions for the best fitting models. Maps of predicted hyper-endemic malaria and filariasis were furthermore overlaid in order to define areas of co-endemicity. Results Plasmodium sp. parasitaemia was found to be highly endemic in most of Uganda, with an overall population adjusted parasitaemia risk of 47.2% in the highest risk age-sex group (boys 5-9 years. High W. bancrofti prevalence was predicted for a much more confined area in northern Uganda, with an overall population adjusted infection risk of 7.2% in the highest risk age-group (14-19 year olds. Observed overall prevalence of individual co

  15. Analysis of Association Between Remotely Sensed (RS) Data and Soil Transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS): Boaco, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    MorenoMadrinan, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Podest, Erika; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths are intestinal nematodes that can infect all members of a population but specially school-age children living in poverty. Infection can be significantly reversed with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Implementation of effective public health programs requires reliable and updated information to identify areas at higher risk and to calculate amount of drug required. Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Prevalence data and RS data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those variables from RS data that better correlate with prevalence will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define sampling clusters without the need for any ground-based survey. Such information is invaluable to identify areas of high risk and to geographically target control programs that maximize cost-effectiveness and sanitation efforts.

  16. Historical Delineation of Landscape Units Using Physical Geographic Characteristics and Land Use/Cover Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Campos, Oswaldo; Cruz-Cárdenas, Gustavo; Aquino, Roque Juan Carrasco; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo; Machuca, Martha Alicia Velázquez; Meléndez, Luis Arturo Ávila

    2018-03-01

    Landscape units are conceived as a part of the territory that share similar physical and geographic characteristics. Their delineation can contribute to identify the physical and social dynamics that emerge in the spatial environment and to propose strategies of planning and management of the territory. The main objective was to make a historical delineation of landscape units in the Duero river basin that demonstrate the dynamics of changes in the territory, the description of the actors involved, and the affectations in the natural and social environment. We analyzed the vegetation change and urban growth from 1983 to 2014, incorporating climatic, edaphic, and topographic variables. A Principal Component Analysis was performed with the information and results were used in Maximum Likelihood procedure to define different clusters based on environmental characteristics. We defined five categories from the Landsat images. Results showed landscape units with homogeneous environmental characteristics and some differences in the units' delineation were mainly influenced by political and socioeconomic factors. Temporally there was an increased tendency of landscape units, three in 1983, nine in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2011, and eight in 2014. This increase resulted from territory fragmentation because of berries and avocado cultivars expansion over wooded area.

  17. Automated segmentation of geographic atrophy in fundus autofluorescence images using supervised pixel classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhihong; Medioni, Gerard G; Hernandez, Matthias; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2015-01-01

    Geographic atrophy (GA) is a manifestation of the advanced or late stage of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 65 in the western world. The purpose of this study is to develop a fully automated supervised pixel classification approach for segmenting GA, including uni- and multifocal patches in fundus autofluorescene (FAF) images. The image features include region-wise intensity measures, gray-level co-occurrence matrix measures, and Gaussian filter banks. A [Formula: see text]-nearest-neighbor pixel classifier is applied to obtain a GA probability map, representing the likelihood that the image pixel belongs to GA. Sixteen randomly chosen FAF images were obtained from 16 subjects with GA. The algorithm-defined GA regions are compared with manual delineation performed by a certified image reading center grader. Eight-fold cross-validation is applied to evaluate the algorithm performance. The mean overlap ratio (OR), area correlation (Pearson's [Formula: see text]), accuracy (ACC), true positive rate (TPR), specificity (SPC), positive predictive value (PPV), and false discovery rate (FDR) between the algorithm- and manually defined GA regions are [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text], respectively.

  18. Historical Delineation of Landscape Units Using Physical Geographic Characteristics and Land Use/Cover Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Campos Oswaldo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape units are conceived as a part of the territory that share similar physical and geographic characteristics. Their delineation can contribute to identify the physical and social dynamics that emerge in the spatial environment and to propose strategies of planning and management of the territory. The main objective was to make a historical delineation of landscape units in the Duero river basin that demonstrate the dynamics of changes in the territory, the description of the actors involved, and the affectations in the natural and social environment. We analyzed the vegetation change and urban growth from 1983 to 2014, incorporating climatic, edaphic, and topographic variables. A Principal Component Analysis was performed with the information and results were used in Maximum Likelihood procedure to define different clusters based on environmental characteristics. We defined five categories from the Landsat images. Results showed landscape units with homogeneous environmental characteristics and some differences in the units’ delineation were mainly influenced by political and socioeconomic factors. Temporally there was an increased tendency of landscape units, three in 1983, nine in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2011, and eight in 2014. This increase resulted from territory fragmentation because of berries and avocado cultivars expansion over wooded area.

  19. Possibility of Preparing Thematic Maps Through Developing of the Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Husnjak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a well known fact that nowadays planning of sustainable development and land use requires a lot of reliable and good quality information, which serves as the basis for timely and adequate decision-making. One of the most important forms of information is presented in various maps. Until recently, preparing of such data was, no doubt, a rather complex and time-consuming task. However, at present, thanks to, first of all, the GIS technology it is possible to develop corresponding geographic information systems with databases which then allow comparatively simple and quick preparing of necessary thematic maps. The paper first presents the method of developing the Geographic and Land Information System (GLIS of the Karlovac County which, although developed for the purpose of agricultural development, may also be used in the development of forestry, environment protection, physical planning, water management and for soil conservation and regulation. Several examples illustrate the possibilities of preparing of specialised maps based on this GLIS. The basic data for developing of the geographic and land information system were the data of the Basic Soil Maps and topographic maps of the Republic of Croatia at the scale of 1:50 000 or 1:25 000, and the data from other studies made for the purpose of agricultural development in the area. These data, together with the results of processing and analysing of this data, by digitalisation, generalisation and interpolation, were incorporated into an integrated database of the geographic and land information system by using Microstation, AutoCad, ArcInfo, ArcWiew and Access software and the corresponding hardware. GLIS database consists of two parts. The first part includes the data referring to polygons - pedological contours, and the other part the data on pedological profiles. The base is organised in a way that enable the preparation of different thematic maps, but it can be also used in digital form

  20. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brescovit, Antonio D; Santos, Adalberto J

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE), based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.