WorldWideScience

Sample records for defined contribution plans

  1. DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLANS, DEFINED BENEFIT PLANS, AND THE ACCUMULATION OF RETIREMENT WEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poterba, James; Rauh, Joshua; Venti, Steven; Wise, David

    2010-01-01

    The private pension structure in the United States, once dominated by defined benefit (DB) plans, is currently divided between defined contribution (DC) and DB plans. Wealth accumulation in DC plans depends on the participant's contribution behavior and on financial market returns, while accumulation in DB plans is sensitive to a participant's labor market experience and to plan parameters. This paper simulates the distribution of retirement wealth under representative DB and DC plans. It uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to explore how asset returns, earnings histories, and retirement plan characteristics contribute to the variation in retirement wealth outcomes. We simulate DC plan accumulation by randomly assigning individuals a share of wages that they and their employer contribute to the plan. We consider several possible asset allocation strategies, with asset returns drawn from the historical return distribution. Our DB plan simulations draw earnings histories from the HRS, and randomly assign each individual a pension plan drawn from a sample of large private and public defined benefit plans. The simulations yield distributions of both DC and DB wealth at retirement. Average retirement wealth accruals under current DC plans exceed average accruals under private sector DB plans, although DC plans are also more likely to generate very low retirement wealth outcomes. The comparison of current DC plans with more generous public sector DB plans is less definitive, because public sector DB plans are more generous on average than their private sector counterparts. PMID:21057597

  2. Defined Contribution Pension Plans: Mutual Fund Asset Allocation Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Sialm; Laura Starks; Hanjiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compare changes in asset allocations between mutual funds held in defined contribution pension plans and funds held by other investors. We investigate how flows into equity and fixed income mutual funds depend on macroeconomic conditions. We find that defined contribution plans react more sensitively to these conditions, suggesting effects on mutual fund managers and other investors.

  3. 75 FR 27927 - Diversification Requirements for Certain Defined Contribution Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... section 414(l) with respect to any other defined benefit plan or defined contribution plan maintained by... disclosure of the fund's portfolio holdings (for example, Form N-CSR, ``Certified Shareholder Report of... securities, as well as a direct or indirect benefit that is conditioned on investment in employer securities...

  4. Optimization of the Actuarial Model of Defined Contribution Pension Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the actuarial models of defined contribution pension plan. Through assumptions and calculations, the expected replacement ratios of three different defined contribution pension plans are compared. Specially, more significant considerable factors are put forward in the further cost and risk analyses. In order to get an assessment of current status, the paper finds a relationship between the replacement ratio and the pension investment rate using econometrics method. Based on an appropriate investment rate of 6%, an expected replacement ratio of 20% is reached.

  5. Moving from payg pensions to defined-contribution plan in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnautova Yulia Valerievna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the moving from PAYG Pensions to Defined-Contribution Plan. The special aspects of this reorganization are analyzed. Pen-sion models of OECD countries are compared. Inability of the Defined-Contribution Plan in Russia is being proved. The present paper provides modern ways to improve the Defined-Contribution pension schemes.

  6. Optimal savings management for individuals with defined contribution pension plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Mulvey, John M.

    2015-01-01

    (or time left to retirement), nor should they solely depend on the risk preferences, but should also capture: (1) economical characteristics—such as current value on the pension savings account, expected pension contributions (mandatory and voluntary), and expected income after retirement (e...... characterizing the individual. The problem is solved via a model that combines two optimization approaches: stochastic optimal control and multi-stage stochastic programming. The first method is common in financial and actuarial literature, but produces theoretical results. However, the latter, which...

  7. Which Teachers Choose a Defined Contribution Pension Plan? Evidence from the Florida Retirement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingos, Matthew M.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2002, public school teachers in Florida have been permitted to choose between a defined benefit (DB) and a defined contribution (DC) retirement plan. We exploit this unique policy environment to study new teachers' revealed preferences over pension plan structures. Roughly 30 percent of teachers hired between 2003 and 2008 selected the DC…

  8. Defined contribution health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health

  9. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-2 - Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) for the plan year. Example 2. Employer Y maintains a money purchase pension plan with the calendar... money purchase pension plan with a plan year beginning July 1 and ending June 30. The taxable wage base...

  10. The golden goose in the crosshairs: the transition to defined contribution pension plans in the public sector: unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    State, county, and local governments are currently facing a myriad of economic issues, based on shrinking tax revenues combined with increased expenditures. Of these, the costs related to defined benefit pension plans are one of the most serious issues facing many public employers. Through a comprehensive review of the existing literature, this article examines how the shift from the defined benefit (DB) to defined contribution (DC) pension plan has the potential to enhance levels of labor unrest due to changes in union militancy, bargaining skills deficits, intra-organizational conflict, and issues related to economic trade-offs. Besides the capacity for immediate and deleterious ramifications in the collective bargaining process, the transition to the DC pension also presents some potentially negative consequences related to human resource management, including changes in the psychological contract, recruitment strategies, employee turnover, and changes in retirement patterns. Recommendations to improve labor relations and human resource management practices in the DC pension environment are also explored.

  11. Stochastic Funding of a Defined Contribution Pension Plan with Proportional Administrative Costs and Taxation under Mean-Variance Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles I Nkeki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aim at studying a mean-variance portfolio selection problem with stochastic salary, proportional administrative costs and taxation in the accumulation phase of a defined contribution (DC pension scheme. The fund process is subjected to taxation while the contribution of the pension plan member (PPM is tax exempt. It is assumed that the flow of contributions of a PPM are invested into a market that is characterized by a cash account and a stock. The optimal portfolio processes and expected wealth for the PPM are established. The efficient and parabolic frontiers of a PPM portfolios in mean-variance are obtained. It was found that capital market line can be attained when initial fund and the contribution rate are zero. It was also found that the optimal portfolio process involved an inter-temporal hedging term that will offset any shocks to the stochastic salary of the PPM.

  12. The Role of Inflation-Indexed Bond in Optimal Management of Defined Contribution Pension Plan During the Decumulation Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the optimal investment strategy for a defined contribution (DC pension plan during the decumulation phase which is risk-averse and pays close attention to inflation risk. The plan aims to maximize the expected constant relative risk aversion (CRRA utility from the terminal real wealth by investing the fund in a financial market consisting of an inflation-indexed bond, an ordinary zero coupon bond and a risk-free asset. We derive the optimal investment strategy in closed-form using the dynamic programming approach by solving the related Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equation. The results reveal that, with any level of the parameters, an inflation-indexed bond has significant advantage to hedge inflation risk.

  13. Defined Contribution Model: Definition, Theory and an Application for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Ercen; Deniz Gokce

    1998-01-01

    Based on a numerical application that employs social and economic parameters of the Turkish economy, this study attempts to demonstrate that the current collapse in the Turkish social security system is not unavoidable. The present social security system in Turkey is based on the defined benefit model of pension provision. On the other hand, recent proposals for reform in the social security system are based on a multipillar system, where one of the alternatives is a defined contribution pens...

  14. A model to compare a defined benefit pension fund with a defined contribution provident fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Nevin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1994 universities and certain other institutions were given the option of setting up private retirement funds as an alternative to the AIPF. Because of the underfundedness of the AIPF only a substantially reduced Actuarial Reserve Value could be transferred to the new fund on behalf of each member. Employees at these institutions had to make the difficult decision of whether to remain a member of the AIPF or to join a new fund. Several institutions created defined contribution funds as an alternative to the AIPF. In such funds the member carries the investment risk and most institutions felt the need to provide some form of top-up of the Transfer Value. A simple mathematical model is formulated to aid in the comparison of expected retirement benefits under the AIPF and a private fund and to investigate the management problem of distributing additional top-up funds in a fair manner amongst the various age groups within the fund.

  15. 75 FR 70625 - Annual Funding Notice for Defined Benefit Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... model funding notices. Much of the guidance in FAB 2009-01 has been incorporated into the proposed... Annual Funding Notice for Defined Benefit Plans AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor... implement the annual funding notice requirement in the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974...

  16. Software Defined Radio Architecture Contributions to Next Generation Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacpura, Thomas J.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John

    2015-01-01

    systems, as well as those communications and navigation systems operated by international space agencies and civilian and government agencies. In this paper, we review the philosophies, technologies, architectural attributes, mission services, and communications capabilities that form the structure of candidate next-generation integrated communication architectures for space communications and navigation. A key area that this paper explores is from the development and operation of the software defined radio for the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed currently on the International Space Station (ISS). Evaluating the lessons learned from development and operation feed back into the communications architecture. Leveraging the reconfigurability provides a change in the way that operations are done and must be considered. Quantifying the impact on the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) software defined radio architecture provides feedback to keep the standard useful and up to date. NASA is not the only customer of these radios. Software defined radios are developed for other applications, and taking advantage of these developments promotes an architecture that is cost effective and sustainable. Developments in the following areas such as an updated operating environment, higher data rates, networking and security can be leveraged. The ability to sustain an architecture that uses radios for multiple markets can lower costs and keep new technology infused.

  17. Defining Motivational Intensity of Need for Family Planning in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Keywords: Unmet need, contraceptive use, intention to use family planning. Résumé ... not using family planning because of health concerns or ..... insurance plans cover contraception as an employee right and/or as a means of reducing.

  18. 77 FR 37349 - Amendment of Prohibited Payment Option Under Single-Employer Defined Benefit Plan of Plan Sponsor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... or after the date on which the enrolled actuary of the plan certifies that the adjusted funding... on which the enrolled actuary of the plan certifies that the plan's adjusted funding target... defined in Sec. 1.411(d)-3(g)(4)). First, the enrolled actuary of the plan has certified that the plan's...

  19. 77 FR 66915 - Amendment of Prohibited Payment Option Under Single-Employer Defined Benefit Plan of Plan Sponsor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... limitation does not apply in a plan year on or after the date on which the enrolled actuary of the plan... after the date within the plan year on which the enrolled actuary of the plan certifies that the plan's... (the applicable amendment date, as defined in Sec. 1.411(d)-3(g)(4)). First, the enrolled actuary of...

  20. Colombia defines innovative plans for refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    Ecopetrol plans to increase capacity at its Cartagena refinery to 140,000 barrels per day until 2002. The new production will be for basic streams to supply and stimulate new industries in the petrochemical sector. Investment has concentrated on exploration and production and far less on the rest of the oil sector, but now Ecopetrol will be new financing plans to develop refining in keeping with government guidelines. The Ecopetrol Board approved the development plan for the Cartagena Refinery, this consist of increasing capacity

  1. Skybeams and 'light art' defined as 'advertising' for planning purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Taylor, M.

    2008-02-01

    Skybeams and light projections have been a long standing problem, not just because of possible light pollution, ecological and public safety issues, but also because there was confusion as to when planning permission was required. Under some circumstances a light beam could be used for 28 days without needing permission, whilst other users such as circuses would always need planning permission. The celebrated Guildford case saw a skybeam classified as an advert, and so needing planning permission (after lobbying by the Campaign for Dark Skies with local support), but this was not binding on later cases. So there was a lack of firm national guidance, or a court judgment clarifying the issue. However, the situation is now much clearer due to the new Town and Country Planning (Control of Advertisements) (England) Regulations 2007.

  2. The text plan concept: contributions to the writing planning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Tinoco Cabral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Students - at different levels, ranging from early grades up to PhD - face problems both on comprehension and text production. This paper focuses on the text plan concept according to the DTA (Discourse Text Analysis approach, i.e., a principle of organization that allows students to put into practice the production intention as well as to arrange text information while producing; being responsible for the text compositional structure (Adam, 2008. The study analyzes the relation between text plan and the writing planning process, in which the first one provides the second with theoretical support. In order to develop such research, the study covers some issues related to the reading skill, analyzes an argumentative text as per its textual plan, and presents some reflections on the writing process, focusing on the relation between textual plan and the writing planning process.

  3. Health contribution to local government planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    When local government considers future land-use plans, the local health authorities are not always included as a key partner. In Cambridgeshire, England, the former Cambridgeshire Health Authority formed a partnership with local government to address this issue. The relationship that developed and the subsequent health impact review provided an opportunity to influence strategic policy and ensure that health objectives are taken into account. Through partnership working, lessons were learned about how to incorporate health issues into a strategic land-use planning document to the overall benefit of the community

  4. Processing DOD Thrift Savings Plan Contributions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1996-01-01

    .... This part of our audit focused on the processing of individual contributions to the TSP at two DFAS payroll offices at the DFAS Columbus Center, Columbus, Ohio, and Bolling Air Force Base (AFB), Washington, D.C...

  5. The Evolution of Gene Regulatory Networks that Define Arthropod Body Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auman, Tzach; Chipman, Ariel D

    2017-09-01

    Our understanding of the genetics of arthropod body plan development originally stems from work on Drosophila melanogaster from the late 1970s and onward. In Drosophila, there is a relatively detailed model for the network of gene interactions that proceeds in a sequential-hierarchical fashion to define the main features of the body plan. Over the years, we have a growing understanding of the networks involved in defining the body plan in an increasing number of arthropod species. It is now becoming possible to tease out the conserved aspects of these networks and to try to reconstruct their evolution. In this contribution, we focus on several key nodes of these networks, starting from early patterning in which the main axes are determined and the broad morphological domains of the embryo are defined, and on to later stage wherein the growth zone network is active in sequential addition of posterior segments. The pattern of conservation of networks is very patchy, with some key aspects being highly conserved in all arthropods and others being very labile. Many aspects of early axis patterning are highly conserved, as are some aspects of sequential segment generation. In contrast, regional patterning varies among different taxa, and some networks, such as the terminal patterning network, are only found in a limited range of taxa. The growth zone segmentation network is ancient and is probably plesiomorphic to all arthropods. In some insects, it has undergone significant modification to give rise to a more hardwired network that generates individual segments separately. In other insects and in most arthropods, the sequential segmentation network has undergone a significant amount of systems drift, wherein many of the genes have changed. However, it maintains a conserved underlying logic and function. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please

  6. Urban Green Network Design: Defining green network from an urban planning perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tulisi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available From the theoretical context of Smart City various studies have emerged that adopt an analytical approach and description of urban phenomena based on the principles of “network design”; this line of research uses the network systems theory to define the principles that regulate the relationships among the various elements of urban sub-systems in order to optimize their functionality. From the same theoretical basis, urban greenspaces have also been studied as networks, by means of the creation of models capable of measuring the performance of the system in its entirety, posing the basis of a new multy-disciplinary research field called green network. This paper presents the results of research aimed at clarifying the meaning of green network from an urban planning perspective through a lexical analysis applied to a textual corpus of more than 300 abstracts of research papers that have dealt with this topic over the last twenty years. The results show that the concept of green network appears still fuzzy and unclear, due to the different meaning given to the term “green” and to an incorrect use of the term “network”, often referred to as a generic set of natural areas present in a city, without any reference to the network system theory or to the basic rules linking these elements together. For this reason, the paper proposes a unique definition of green network from an urban planning perspective that takes into account the contribution of other research areas to effective green infrastructure planning. This is the concept of “urban green network design” defined as “an urban planning practice, supported by decision support tools able to model green infrastructure as network, composed by natural and semi-natural areas, whose connections are modelled according to specific variables, in order to deliver an equal distribution of public services for enhancing the quality of life as well as a wide range of ecosystem services”.

  7. 29 CFR 2520.101-4 - Annual funding notice for multiemployer defined benefit pension plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pension plans. 2520.101-4 Section 2520.101-4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE... pension plans. (a) In general. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, pursuant to section 101(f) of the Act, the administrator of a defined benefit, multiemployer pension plan shall...

  8. Mean-variance portfolio selection for defined-contribution pension funds with stochastic salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chubing

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on a continuous-time dynamic mean-variance portfolio selection problem of defined-contribution pension funds with stochastic salary, whose risk comes from both financial market and nonfinancial market. By constructing a special Riccati equation as a continuous (actually a viscosity) solution to the HJB equation, we obtain an explicit closed form solution for the optimal investment portfolio as well as the efficient frontier.

  9. Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection for Defined-Contribution Pension Funds with Stochastic Salary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chubing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a continuous-time dynamic mean-variance portfolio selection problem of defined-contribution pension funds with stochastic salary, whose risk comes from both financial market and nonfinancial market. By constructing a special Riccati equation as a continuous (actually a viscosity solution to the HJB equation, we obtain an explicit closed form solution for the optimal investment portfolio as well as the efficient frontier.

  10. Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection for Defined-Contribution Pension Funds with Stochastic Salary

    OpenAIRE

    Chubing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on a continuous-time dynamic mean-variance portfolio selection problem of defined-contribution pension funds with stochastic salary, whose risk comes from both financial market and nonfinancial market. By constructing a special Riccati equation as a continuous (actually a viscosity) solution to the HJB equation, we obtain an explicit closed form solution for the optimal investment portfolio as well as the efficient frontier.

  11. Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection for Defined-Contribution Pension Funds with Stochastic Salary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chubing

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on a continuous-time dynamic mean-variance portfolio selection problem of defined-contribution pension funds with stochastic salary, whose risk comes from both financial market and nonfinancial market. By constructing a special Riccati equation as a continuous (actually a viscosity) solution to the HJB equation, we obtain an explicit closed form solution for the optimal investment portfolio as well as the efficient frontier. PMID:24782667

  12. Teaching the Interrelationships among Costs, Expense, and Liability of a Defined Benefit Pension Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Godwin, Norman H.

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 158 "Employers' Accounting for Defined Benefit Pension and Other Postretirement Plans" (SFAS #158). Their intent is to comprehensively reconsider the accounting for postretirement benefit plans in phases. The first phase was to provide…

  13. Defining robustness protocols: a method to include and evaluate robustness in clinical plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, S E; Albertini, F; Lomax, A J; Thomas, S J

    2015-01-01

    We aim to define a site-specific robustness protocol to be used during the clinical plan evaluation process. Plan robustness of 16 skull base IMPT plans to systematic range and random set-up errors have been retrospectively and systematically analysed. This was determined by calculating the error-bar dose distribution (ebDD) for all the plans and by defining some metrics used to define protocols aiding the plan assessment. Additionally, an example of how to clinically use the defined robustness database is given whereby a plan with sub-optimal brainstem robustness was identified. The advantage of using different beam arrangements to improve the plan robustness was analysed. Using the ebDD it was found range errors had a smaller effect on dose distribution than the corresponding set-up error in a single fraction, and that organs at risk were most robust to the range errors, whereas the target was more robust to set-up errors. A database was created to aid planners in terms of plan robustness aims in these volumes. This resulted in the definition of site-specific robustness protocols. The use of robustness constraints allowed for the identification of a specific patient that may have benefited from a treatment of greater individuality. A new beam arrangement showed to be preferential when balancing conformality and robustness for this case. The ebDD and error-bar volume histogram proved effective in analysing plan robustness. The process of retrospective analysis could be used to establish site-specific robustness planning protocols in proton therapy. These protocols allow the planner to determine plans that, although delivering a dosimetrically adequate dose distribution, have resulted in sub-optimal robustness to these uncertainties. For these cases the use of different beam start conditions may improve the plan robustness to set-up and range uncertainties. (paper)

  14. Defining robustness protocols: a method to include and evaluate robustness in clinical plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, S. E.; Albertini, F.; Thomas, S. J.; Lomax, A. J.

    2015-04-01

    We aim to define a site-specific robustness protocol to be used during the clinical plan evaluation process. Plan robustness of 16 skull base IMPT plans to systematic range and random set-up errors have been retrospectively and systematically analysed. This was determined by calculating the error-bar dose distribution (ebDD) for all the plans and by defining some metrics used to define protocols aiding the plan assessment. Additionally, an example of how to clinically use the defined robustness database is given whereby a plan with sub-optimal brainstem robustness was identified. The advantage of using different beam arrangements to improve the plan robustness was analysed. Using the ebDD it was found range errors had a smaller effect on dose distribution than the corresponding set-up error in a single fraction, and that organs at risk were most robust to the range errors, whereas the target was more robust to set-up errors. A database was created to aid planners in terms of plan robustness aims in these volumes. This resulted in the definition of site-specific robustness protocols. The use of robustness constraints allowed for the identification of a specific patient that may have benefited from a treatment of greater individuality. A new beam arrangement showed to be preferential when balancing conformality and robustness for this case. The ebDD and error-bar volume histogram proved effective in analysing plan robustness. The process of retrospective analysis could be used to establish site-specific robustness planning protocols in proton therapy. These protocols allow the planner to determine plans that, although delivering a dosimetrically adequate dose distribution, have resulted in sub-optimal robustness to these uncertainties. For these cases the use of different beam start conditions may improve the plan robustness to set-up and range uncertainties.

  15. Contribution of past and future self-defining event networks to personal identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demblon, Julie; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2017-05-01

    Personal identity is nourished by memories of significant past experiences and by the imagination of meaningful events that one anticipates to happen in the future. The organisation of such self-defining memories and prospective thoughts in the cognitive system has received little empirical attention, however. In the present study, our aims were to investigate to what extent self-defining memories and future projections are organised in networks of related events, and to determine the nature of the connections linking these events. Our results reveal the existence of self-defining event networks, composed of both memories and future events of similar centrality for identity and characterised by similar identity motives. These self-defining networks expressed a strong internal coherence and frequently organised events in meaningful themes and sequences (i.e., event clusters). Finally, we found that the satisfaction of identity motives in represented events and the presence of clustering across events both contributed to increase in the perceived centrality of events for the sense of identity. Overall, these findings suggest that personal identity is not only nourished by representations of significant past and future events, but also depends on the formation of coherent networks of related events that provide an overarching meaning to specific life experiences.

  16. Mean-variance portfolio selection and efficient frontier for defined contribution pension schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoejgaard, B.; Vigna, E.

    2007-01-01

    We solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem in the accumulation phase of a defined contribution pension scheme. The efficient frontier, which is found for the 2 asset case as well as the n + 1 asset case, gives the member the possibility to decide his own risk/reward profile. The mean-variance approach is then compared to other investment strategies adopted in DC pension schemes, namely the target-based approach and the lifestyle strategy. The comparison is done both in a theoretical...

  17. What contributes to action plan enactment? Examining characteristics of physical activity plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Gardner, Benjamin; Keller, Jan; Lippke, Sonia; Pomp, Sarah; Wiedemann, Amelie U

    2017-11-01

    Individuals with chronic conditions can benefit from formulating action plans to engage in regular physical activity. However, the content and the successful translation of plans into action, so-called plan enactment, are rarely adequately evaluated. The aim of this study was to describe the content of user-specified plans and to examine whether participants were more likely to enact their plans if these plans were highly specific, viable, and instrumental. The study presents secondary analyses from a larger behavioural intervention in cardiac and orthopaedic rehabilitation. The content of 619 action plans from 229 participants was evaluated by two independent raters (i.e., qualitative analyses and ratings of specificity) and by participants themselves (i.e., instrumentality and viability). Plan enactment was also measured via self-reports. Multilevel analyses examined the relationship between these plan characteristics and subsequent plan enactment, and between plan enactment and aggregated physical activity. Participants preferred to plan leisure-time physical activities anchored around time-based cues. Specificity of occasion cues (i.e., when to act) and highly instrumental plans were positively associated with plan enactment. Interestingly, individuals who planned less specific behavioural responses (i.e., what to do) were more likely to enact their plans. Plan enactment was positively associated with aggregated behaviour. Interventions should not only emphasize the importance of planning, but also the benefits of formulating specific contextual cues. Planning of the behavioural response seems to require less precision. Allowing for some flexibility in executing the anticipated target behaviour seems to aid successful plan enactment. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Action planning interventions are efficacious in promoting health behaviour. Characteristics of plan content (i.e., specificity) matter for unconditional behaviour

  18. Contribution of volatiles to the antifungal effect of Lactobacillus paracasei in defined medium and yogurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing; Honoré, Anders Hans; Marcussen, J.

    2015-01-01

    produced by L. paracasei DGCC 2132 in CDIM. When the strain was added to a yogurt medium diacetyl as well as other volatiles also increased but the metabolome was more complex. Removal of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 cells from CDIM fermentate resulted in loss of both volatiles, including diacetyl......Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties can be used to control spoilage of food and feed. Previously, most of the identified metabolites have been isolated from cell-free fermentate of lactic acid bacteria with methods suboptimal for detecting possible contribution from volatiles...... to the antifungal activity. The role of volatile compounds in the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei DGCC 2132 in a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) and yogurt was therefore investigated with a sampling technique minimizing volatile loss. Diacetyl was identified as the major volatile...

  19. "Prince Charming Syndrome?" Gender gap in preferences for defined contribution pensions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi P

    2017-01-01

    Using survey data collected by the Japan Institute of Life Insurance in 2002, this study finds that a significant gender gap existed in defined contribution (DC) pension knowledge among workers employed at small- to medium-sized private firms in Japan. Even with similar DC knowledge, however, men and women reveal different preferences for DC pensions, indicating that their perceptional responses may widely differ from actual behaviors. Apart from the knowledge gap, the result shows evidence of the Prince Charming Syndrome among female employees as a significant source of the gender gap in DC participation rates. Among corporate pension-covered employees, the gender difference in the efficacy of DC portability is a more significant gap-generating factor. DC tax advantage is particularly favored by pension-covered female employees over male counterparts, reducing the DC preference gap. No similar evidence is found for employees with no corporate pension coverage.

  20. Mean-variance portfolio selection and efficient frontier for defined contribution pension schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Bjarne; Vigna, Elena

    We solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem in the accumulation phase of a defined contribution pension scheme. The efficient frontier, which is found for the 2 asset case as well as the n + 1 asset case, gives the member the possibility to decide his own risk/reward profile. The mean...... as a mean-variance optimization problem. It is shown that the corresponding mean and variance of the final fund belong to the efficient frontier and also the opposite, that each point on the efficient frontier corresponds to a target-based optimization problem. Furthermore, numerical results indicate...... that the largely adopted lifestyle strategy seems to be very far from being efficient in the mean-variance setting....

  1. Annuity choices and income drawdown: evidence from the decumulation phase of defined contribution pensions in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James; Crawford, Rowena; Tetlow, Gemma

    2015-10-01

    We provide new empirical evidence on the importance of defined contribution pension wealth in England, and the nature of annuitization decisions taken by older adults who retire with such sources of wealth. Other things equal, financial literacy, and numeracy in particular, are important factors governing individuals' choices over whether to shop around for an annuity as opposed to taking the 'path of least resistance' option and purchasing from their original pension fund provider. This has important policy and welfare implications given that buying an annuity on the open market has significant financial benefits for most people. In the context of the increasing reliance on private provision for retirement, the importance of individuals having the financial literacy to successfully navigate complex financial decisions late in life should not be underestimated.

  2. Did pension plan accounting contribute to a stock market bubble?

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Lynn Coronado; Steven A. Sharpe

    2003-01-01

    During the 1990s, the asset portfolios of defined-benefit (DB) pension plans ballooned with the booming stock market. Due to current accounting guidelines, the robust growth in pension assets resulted in a stealthy but substantial boost to the profits of sponsoring corporations. This study assesses the extent to which equity investors were fooled by pension accounting. First, we test whether stock prices reflected the fair market value of sponsoring firms' net pension assets reported in footn...

  3. Contribution of volatiles to the antifungal effect of Lactobacillus paracasei in defined medium and yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunsbjerg, S D; Honoré, A H; Marcussen, J; Ebrahimi, P; Vogensen, F K; Benfeldt, C; Skov, T; Knøchel, S

    2015-02-02

    Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties can be used to control spoilage of food and feed. Previously, most of the identified metabolites have been isolated from cell-free fermentate of lactic acid bacteria with methods suboptimal for detecting possible contribution from volatiles to the antifungal activity. The role of volatile compounds in the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei DGCC 2132 in a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) and yogurt was therefore investigated with a sampling technique minimizing volatile loss. Diacetyl was identified as the major volatile produced by L. paracasei DGCC 2132 in CDIM. When the strain was added to a yogurt medium diacetyl as well as other volatiles also increased but the metabolome was more complex. Removal of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 cells from CDIM fermentate resulted in loss of both volatiles, including diacetyl, and the antifungal activity towards two strains of Penicillium spp. When adding diacetyl to CDIM or yogurt without L. paracasei DGCC 2132, marked inhibition was observed. Besides diacetyl, the antifungal properties of acetoin were examined, but no antifungal activity was observed. Overall, the results demonstrate the contribution of diacetyl in the antifungal effect of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 and indicate that the importance of volatiles may have been previously underestimated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Promise of Defined-Ambition Plans : Lessons for the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Mehlkopf, R.J.; Nijman, T.E.

    This paper explores proposals for defined-ambition plans in Dutch occupational pensions. Firms no longer act as external risk sponsors but continue to provide a distributional platform for pensions, thereby addressing behavioral and agency issues as well as imperfections of insurance and financial

  5. The promise of defined-ambition plans : Lessons for the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Mehlkopf, R.J.; Nijman, T.E.; Mitchell, O.S.; Shea, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores proposals for defined-ambition plans in Dutch occupational pensions. Firms no longer act as external risk sponsors but continue to provide a distributional platform for pensions, thereby addressing behavioral and agency issues as well as imperfections of insurance and financial

  6. Mega Thinking and Planning: An Introduction to Defining and Delivering Individual and Organizational Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Roger

    2009-01-01

    All organizations are means to societal ends, and thus Mega thinking and planning starts with a primary focus on adding value for all stakeholders, including our shared society. It is pragmatic, realistic, practical, and ethical. Defining and achieving continual organizational success is possible. It relies on three basic elements: (1) a societal…

  7. Participatory Challenges in Urban-Environmental Planning: The Anthropological Contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Gravano, Ariel; Universidad de Buenos Aires

    2007-01-01

    This essay offers reflections on the anthropological contribution to institutional processes of “community participation” in urban-environmental planning in a metropolitan setting. The case presented is of a participation imposed by law, its difficulties and opportunities, from the different and asymmetrical rationalities in the game. Faced with a concrete demand from the State, we analyze methodological possibilities for adopting a process of effective transformation, through the facilitatio...

  8. Participatory Challenges in Urban-Environmental Planning: The Anthropological Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Gravano

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay offers reflections on the anthropological contribution to institutional processes of “community participation” in urban-environmental planning in a metropolitan setting. The case presented is of a participation imposed by law, its difficulties and opportunities, from the different and asymmetrical rationalities in the game. Faced with a concrete demand from the State, we analyze methodological possibilities for adopting a process of effective transformation, through the facilitation of organizational culture issues.

  9. A new way of looking at the risk in defined benefit pension plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, D

    2000-01-01

    The portability feature of a defined contribution (DC) pension greatly reduces the risk to the accumulation of pension wealth. Conversely, defined benefit (DB) pensions have a variety of default risks that decrease the expected value of DB pension wealth. This paper examines those risks. Accrual of DB pension wealth is characterized in terms of purchases of risky bonds. Changing jobs triggers default on these bonds. Simulations are presented to show the potential loss in pension wealth from default. In addition, a methodology used to price corporate bonds is applied to generate estimates of the implied risk premiums of DB pension bonds over comparable riskless bonds.

  10. Policy Reflection: Letter of Credit Usage by Defined Benefit Pension Plans in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma L. Nielson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an argument to be made for letting corporations hold off on contributing to their employees’ defined benefit pension plans, as long as there is a guarantee the cash will come eventually. That is the reason that provincial governments began allowing creditworthy companies to instead provide a letter of credit, backed by a Canadian bank, guaranteeing the cash deposit, and secured by the company’s line of credit or some similar facility. Sometimes circumstances are such that a company needs all the cash it can get to grow, or perhaps to manage through tough economic times. Given the sluggish recovery from last decade’s financial crisis and the difficulty for pension funds to grow amid persistent low interest rates, it perhaps is understandable that more companies are using standby letters of credit as IOUs for their employee pensions. The letters provide the companies more flexibility with their capital, and diminish the risk that, should returns to pension funds rise again to more normal rates, there could be “trapped surplus.” It is, however, harder to make a case for why public sector companies and Crown corporations have begun using letters of credit in place of cash deposits to pensions. They certainly do not face the same pressure for capital flexibility, given their revenue is frequently assured, and they face no competition that would pressure them to redirect capital for strategic purposes. And yet, research shows that this is happening, at least to some degree. That should give policymakers pause. Unfortunately, there is a troubling lack of data available as to which organizations have been using letters of credit in place of cash contributions to pension funds. Clearly they are proving useful for some companies, and that the exact reasons vary widely. We observe some companies using the letter of credit option that would appear to have plenty of capital flexibility, so the rationale for their use might not be what the

  11. Optimal investment decisions with a liability: the case of defined benefit pension plans

    OpenAIRE

    Josa-Fombellida, Ricardo; Rincón-Zapatero, Juan Pablo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the optimal management of an aggregated dynamic pension fund is studied. To cover the promised liabilities to workers at the age of retirement, the plan sponsor continuously manages time-varying funds. He or she can choose the rate of contribution to the fund, the investment in a given number of risky assets, and a security with constant rate of return. The problem of maximizing the probability that the fund assets achieve some prescribed goal before some undesirable lower value...

  12. Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection Problem with Stochastic Salary for a Defined Contribution Pension Scheme: A Stochastic Linear-Quadratic-Exponential Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nkeki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a mean-variance portfolio selection problem with stochastic salary and inflation protection strategy in the accumulation phase of a defined contribution (DC pension plan. The utility function is assumed to be quadratic. It was assumed that the flow of contributions made by the PPM are invested into a market that is characterized by a cash account, an inflation-linked bond and a stock. In this paper, inflationlinked bond is traded and used to hedge inflation risks associated with the investment. The aim of this paper is to maximize the expected final wealth and minimize its variance. Efficient frontier for the three classes of assets (under quadratic utility function that will enable pension plan members (PPMs to decide their own wealth and risk in their investment profile at retirement was obtained.

  13. Defining the Physiological Factors that Contribute to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N.; Buxton, R.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I.; Lawrence, E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objective of the FTT is to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to performance of functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks. This study will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on each functional test. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest role in decrement in functional performance. Using this information we can then design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor

  14. Drought response strategies define the relative contributions of hydraulic dysfunction and carbohydrate depletion during tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick J; O'Grady, Anthony P; Tissue, David T; White, Donald A; Ottenschlaeger, Maria L; Pinkard, Elizabeth A

    2013-02-01

    Plant survival during drought requires adequate hydration in living tissues and carbohydrate reserves for maintenance and recovery. We hypothesized that tree growth and hydraulic strategy determines the intensity and duration of the 'physiological drought', thereby affecting the relative contributions of loss of hydraulic function and carbohydrate depletion during mortality. We compared patterns in growth rate, water relations, gas exchange and carbohydrate dynamics in three tree species subjected to prolonged drought. Two Eucalyptus species (E. globulus, E. smithii) exhibited high growth rates and water-use resulting in rapid declines in water status and hydraulic conductance. In contrast, conservative growth and water relations in Pinus radiata resulted in longer periods of negative carbon balance and significant depletion of stored carbohydrates in all organs. The ongoing demand for carbohydrates from sustained respiration highlighted the role that duration of drought plays in facilitating carbohydrate consumption. Two drought strategies were revealed, differentiated by plant regulation of water status: plants maximized gas exchange, but were exposed to low water potentials and rapid hydraulic dysfunction; and tight regulation of gas exchange at the cost of carbohydrate depletion. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between hydraulic regulation of water status and carbohydrate depletion during terminal drought. © 2012 CSIRO. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Novel animal model defines genetic contributions for neuron-to-neuron transfer of α-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Trevor; Senchuk, Megan; Cooper, Jason F; George, Sonia; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M; Brundin, Patrik

    2017-08-08

    Cell-to-cell spreading of misfolded α-synuclein (α-syn) is suggested to contribute to the progression of neuropathology in Parkinson's disease (PD). Compelling evidence supports the hypothesis that misfolded α-syn transmits from neuron-to-neuron and seeds aggregation of the protein in the recipient cells. Furthermore, α-syn frequently appears to propagate in the brains of PD patients following a stereotypic pattern consistent with progressive spreading along anatomical pathways. We have generated a C. elegans model that mirrors this progression and allows us to monitor α-syn neuron-to-neuron transmission in a live animal over its lifespan. We found that modulation of autophagy or exo/endocytosis, affects α-syn transfer. Furthermore, we demonstrate that silencing C. elegans orthologs of PD-related genes also increases the accumulation of α-syn. This novel worm model is ideal for screening molecules and genes to identify those that modulate prion-like spreading of α-syn in order to target novel strategies for disease modification in PD and other synucleinopathies.

  16. A contribution to the sessile oak site and beech site defining in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in sessile oak forests and beech forests in the region central Serbia. The stands are classified as pure stands with the percentage of other species up to 10% per tree number, mixed forests of sessile oak with other species, and mixed forests of beech with other species, whose percentage does not exceed 50%. Altogether 257 stands were monitored - 202 beech stands and 55 sessile oak stands. By the applied method of defining the local heat potential (Lujić, 1960, modified by Ratknić et al. (2001 and Krstić (2004, 2008, which represents possibility of soil heating without vegetation, were determined. In this way, a scale of 162 possible combinations of local heat potential was obtained, which explains more precisely the dependence of beech stands and sessile oak stands on the topographic conditions. By applying the weighted values of the thermal co-ordinates of aspect and slope (E for each altitudinal belt of 100 m, it was concluded that pure stands have the widest ecological range. Pure beech stands occur at the sites with 34 combinations of thermal co-ordinates E.V=4.6 to 8.12. Pure sessile oak stands occur at the sites with 12 combinations of thermal co-ordinates E.V=5.10 to 8.11. The percentage of mixed beech stands with other broadleaf species is the highest at the sites with the co-ordinate V=10-11 (at the altitudes between 700 and 900 m is about 60 %. Mixed stands of sessile oak and beech are located on the terrains with combinations of thermal co-ordinates E.V=7.9 to 8.12. By using the local heat potential of a region, it can be identified which sites, i.e. which combinations of exposure, slope and altitude belong to the particular tree species. Consequently, a more reliable selection of tree species can be done for the bio-reclamation of barrens and other deforested terrains.

  17. 34 CFR 636.5 - What are the matching contribution and planning consortium requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the matching contribution and planning... PROGRAM General § 636.5 What are the matching contribution and planning consortium requirements? (a) The... agreed to by the members of a planning consortium. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1136b, 1136e) ...

  18. The Defined Benefit Pension Plan System: Financial Problems and Policy Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lang, Joel

    2004-01-01

    .... This thesis examines the challenges facing the DB pension plan system, beginning with an overview of the DB plan system, a review of the different plan types, the benefits received, and funding rules...

  19. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(11)-1 - Contributions to pension plan, employees' annuity plans, and stock bonus and profit-sharing plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contributions to pension plan, employees... TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(11)-1 Contributions to pension plan, employees' annuity... or transferor corporation in respect of any pension, annuity, stock bonus, or profit-sharing plan. (b...

  20. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-5 - Required minimum distributions from defined contribution plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus... by the purchase of an annuity contract from an insurance company in accordance with A-4 of § 1.401(a... invested only in productive assets. A named a testamentary trust (Trust P) established under A's will as...

  1. Inventory and surveillance of natural resources as a contribution to land utilization planning in the Sahel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzer, K F

    1980-09-01

    The destructive land-use practices observed in large parts of the Sahel of West-Africa as a consequence of increasing population pressure must be replaced by sustained-yield management, e.g., by agro-sylvo-pastoral land-use systems. Information and planning aids required can only be obtained through the inventory and subsequent monitoring of the natural, renewable resources, i.e. water, range- and wood lands. Because of the extent and inaccessibility of the Sahel, an inventory design combining clustered fieldplots and large-scale aerial photography is being considered as most efficient in statistical and economical terms. Evidently, an inventory cannot solve the serious problems in the Sahel, but its results can contribute essentially towards defining better land-use policies and towards more effective management of the natural resource base.

  2. 75 FR 2068 - Definition of “Plan Assets”-Participant Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... permitted to pre-fund contributions. The commenter indicated that an employer may wish to deposit the... would allow most employers with small plans to take advantage of the safe harbor and, thereby, benefit... should be balanced against any additional income and security the plan and plan participants would...

  3. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-3 - Permitted disparity for defined benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... plan provides no benefits with respect to average annual compensation up to the integration level. The...)(17)(ii) (the definition of final average compensation), the plan could specify that an employee's... of service and an excess benefit percentage of 1.85 percent of average annual compensation in excess...

  4. Contribution to Quebec's economic development: Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The activities of Hydro-Quebec are analyzed from the standpoint of their contribution to economic development and their support of regional development. The structuring effects of Hydro-Quebec's electricity supply activities are described, specifically the utility's role as an employer and an important agent of economic development by virtue of its purchasing power. The role played by research and development activities in the technological development of Quebec is discussed along with the contribution of those activities to new industrial developments. Finally, the impacts of electricity use on industrial development are considered. An analysis is presented of Hydro-Quebec's marketing activities and the options they afford. These marketing activities are aimed mainly at supporting economic development. The availability of reasonably priced electricity enhances the competitiveness of all industrial sectors, especially those for which electricity is a factor in siting. Furthermore, Hydro-Quebec can use its marketing activities to reinforce this comparative advantage. Hydro-Quebec can also support regional development by decentralizing operations, standardizing rates, and extending its marketing activities to the regions. 2 tabs

  5. 26 CFR 1.436-1 - Limits on benefits and benefit accruals under single employer defined benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contributions under paragraph (f)(2) of this section or pursuant to the enrolled actuary's certification of the... section or pursuant to the enrolled actuary's certification of the adjusted funding target attainment..., 2011, the enrolled actuary for the Plan certifies that the AFTAP for 2011 is 80%. Accordingly...

  6. Planning the nuclear contribution to the Brazilian power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalho, A. Rodrigues; Alves, R. Nazare; Pinto, C. Syllus M.; Souza Santos, T.D. de; Abrao, A.

    1977-01-01

    The thermo-electric power in Brazil accounts for less than 20% of the total generating capacity. Brazil's power is essentially generated hydraulically, which grants the growing development. The electric energy consumption keeps growing, with the annual average rate of 13%/year in the last five years. The present installed capacity is 20 000 MWe and the projections are: 35 000MWe, in 1980; 50 000 MWe in 1985; 75 000 MWe, in 1990 and 150 000 MWe, in 2 000. Most of the hydraulic resources are located in remote areas of the country, very far from the consumption centers. Under the agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and Brazil (signed in June 1975), besides the nuclear power station, American made, under construction in Agra dos Reis, with a power capacity of 626 MWe, two more units, each one with 1 300 MWe capacity are to be erected at the same site, and planned to be in operation in 1982 and 1983. Several joint German-Brazilian companies will be established for reactor and fuel manufacture, in the country. The Brazilian state holding nuclear company, Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S/A., NUCLEBRAS, will participate in the formation of all joint companies with at least 51% of capital investments. The Brazilian Government will spend 10 billion dollars (U.S.), during the agreement's duration, to make its industry stronger, to develop its technology and to reduce its dependence on energy imports. Brazil's target: full independence in nuclear technology (including reactor manufacture and complete fuel cycle) in about 15 years [es

  7. The use of mixed-integer programming for inverse treatment planning with pre-defined field segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarz, Greg; Michalski, Darek; Houser, Chris; Huq, M. Saiful; Xiao Ying; Rani, Pramila Anne; Galvin, James M.

    2002-01-01

    Complex intensity patterns generated by traditional beamlet-based inverse treatment plans are often very difficult to deliver. In the approach presented in this work the intensity maps are controlled by pre-defining field segments to be used for dose optimization. A set of simple rules was used to define a pool of allowable delivery segments and the mixed-integer programming (MIP) method was used to optimize segment weights. The optimization problem was formulated by combining real variables describing segment weights with a set of binary variables, used to enumerate voxels in targets and critical structures. The MIP method was compared to the previously used Cimmino projection algorithm. The field segmentation approach was compared to an inverse planning system with a traditional beamlet-based beam intensity optimization. In four complex cases of oropharyngeal cancer the segmental inverse planning produced treatment plans, which competed with traditional beamlet-based IMRT plans. The mixed-integer programming provided mechanism for imposition of dose-volume constraints and allowed for identification of the optimal solution for feasible problems. Additional advantages of the segmental technique presented here are: simplified dosimetry, quality assurance and treatment delivery. (author)

  8. Urban Green Network Design: Defining green network from an urban planning perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Tulisi

    2017-01-01

    From the theoretical context of Smart City various studies have emerged that adopt an analytical approach and description of urban phenomena based on the principles of “network design”; this line of research uses the network systems theory to define the principles that regulate the relationships among the various elements of urban sub-systems in order to optimize their functionality. From the same theoretical basis, urban greenspaces have also been studied as networks, by means of the creatio...

  9. How Innovation Theory Can Contribute to the Military Operations Planning Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltberg, Anna Therese; Dahl, Kåre

    The research study considers how the application of innovation theory might contribute to military staff work planning processes and bring new perspectives to operational models of analysis such as NATO’s Comprehensive Operations Planning Directive (COPD) and the Danish Field Manual III....

  10. Work plan for defining a standard inventory estimate for wastes stored in Hanford Site underground tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    This work plan addresses the Standard Inventory task scope, deliverables, budget, and schedule for fiscal year 1997. The goal of the Standard Inventory task is to resolve differences among the many reported Hanford Site tank waste inventory values and to provide inventory estimates that will serve as Standard Inventory values for all waste management and disposal activities. These best-basis estimates of chemicals and radionuclides will be reported on both a global and tank-specific basis and will be published in the Tank Characterization Database

  11. Big biology meets microclimatology: defining thermal niches of ectotherms at landscape scales for conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, Daniel J; Wenger, Seth J; Young, Michael K

    2017-04-01

    Temperature profoundly affects ecology, a fact ever more evident as the ability to measure thermal environments increases and global changes alter these environments. The spatial structure of thermalscapes is especially relevant to the distribution and abundance of ectothermic organisms, but the ability to describe biothermal relationships at extents and grains relevant to conservation planning has been limited by small or sparse data sets. Here, we combine a large occurrence database of >23 000 aquatic species surveys with stream microclimate scenarios supported by an equally large temperature database for a 149 000-km mountain stream network to describe thermal relationships for 14 fish and amphibian species. Species occurrence probabilities peaked across a wide range of temperatures (7.0-18.8°C) but distinct warm- or cold-edge distribution boundaries were apparent for all species and represented environments where populations may be most sensitive to thermal changes. Warm-edge boundary temperatures for a native species of conservation concern were used with geospatial data sets and a habitat occupancy model to highlight subsets of the network where conservation measures could benefit local populations by maintaining cool temperatures. Linking that strategic approach to local estimates of habitat impairment remains a key challenge but is also an opportunity to build relationships and develop synergies between the research, management, and regulatory communities. As with any data mining or species distribution modeling exercise, care is required in analysis and interpretation of results, but the use of large biological data sets with accurate microclimate scenarios can provide valuable information about the thermal ecology of many ectotherms and a spatially explicit way of guiding conservation investments. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Effects of Gainsharing Provisions on the Selection of a Discount Rate for a Defined Benefit Pension Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Rietz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of gainsharing provisions on the selection of a discount rate for a defined benefit pension plan. The paper uses a traditional actuarial approach of discounting liabilities using the expected return of the associated pension fund. A stochastic Excel model was developed to simulate the effect of varying investment returns on a pension fund with four asset classes. Lognormal distributions were fitted to historical returns of two of the asset classes; large company stocks and long-term government bonds. A third lognormal distribution was designed to represent the investment returns of alternative investments, such as real estate and private equity. The fourth asset class represented short term cash investments and that return was held constant. The following variables were analyzed to determine their relative impact of gainsharing on the selection of a discount rate: hurdle rate, percentage of gainsharing, actuarial asset method smoothing period, and variations in asset allocation. A 50% gainsharing feature can reduce the discount rate for a defined benefit pension plan from 0.5% to more than 2.5%, depending on the gainsharing design and asset allocation.

  13. 26 CFR 1.405-2 - Deduction of contributions to qualified bond purchase plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), (9), and (10) and 404(e) shall also apply. (c) Accrual method taxpayers. In the case of a taxpayer using the accrual method of accounting, a contribution to a qualified bond purchase plan will be deemed paid on the last day of the year of accrual if— (1) During the taxable year of accrual the taxpayer...

  14. Relative Contributions of Planned Behaviour and Social Capital on Educational Continuation Decisions of Disadvantaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edannur, Sreekala

    2018-01-01

    The present study is conducted to understand the relative contributions of planned behavior and social capital on educational continuation decisions of VIII standard students belonging to backward class in India. Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST), and Other Backward Classes (OBC) are the three social groups dealt as backward classes in…

  15. HIV prevention policy and programme planning: What can mathematical modelling contribute?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankins, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the potential contribution of mathematical modelling to informed decision-making on policy and programme planning for novel HIV prevention tools. Its hypothesis is that, under certain conditions, modelling results can be a useful addition to the evidence and other factors that

  16. Character-Defining Features of Contributing Buildings and Structures in the Fort Gordon, Georgia, Signal School Campus Historic District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    aluminum and plate- glass doors, sidelights, and transoms [right] (ERDC-CERL, 2015). .................. 178 Figure 243. Ceiling -mounted light fixture...Light pattern” effect on wall The typical Signal School building is of cast-in-place concrete columns with a waffle floor/ ceiling structure. The...would have a significant effect on the character-defining feature of the classroom hall- ways as would installing a dropped ceiling to cover the

  17. Defining the contributions of permanent electrostatics, Pauli repulsion, and dispersion in density functional theory calculations of intermolecular interaction energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Paul R., E-mail: prhorn@berkeley.edu; Mao, Yuezhi; Head-Gordon, Martin, E-mail: mhg@cchem.berkeley.edu [Kenneth S. Pitzer Center for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Chemical Sciences Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    In energy decomposition analysis of Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations, the so-called frozen (or pre-polarization) interaction energy contains contributions from permanent electrostatics, dispersion, and Pauli repulsion. The standard classical approach to separate them suffers from several well-known limitations. We introduce an alternative scheme that employs valid antisymmetric electronic wavefunctions throughout and is based on the identification of individual fragment contributions to the initial supersystem wavefunction as determined by an energetic optimality criterion. The density deformations identified with individual fragments upon formation of the initial supersystem wavefunction are analyzed along with the distance dependence of the new and classical terms for test cases that include the neon dimer, ammonia borane, water-Na{sup +}, water-Cl{sup −}, and the naphthalene dimer.

  18. Krox20 defines a subpopulation of cardiac neural crest cells contributing to arterial valves and bicuspid aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odelin, Gaëlle; Faure, Emilie; Coulpier, Fanny; Di Bonito, Maria; Bajolle, Fanny; Studer, Michèle; Avierinos, Jean-François; Charnay, Patrick; Topilko, Piotr; Zaffran, Stéphane

    2018-01-03

    Although cardiac neural crest cells are required at early stages of arterial valve development, their contribution during valvular leaflet maturation remains poorly understood. Here, we show in mouse that neural crest cells from pre-otic and post-otic regions make distinct contributions to the arterial valve leaflets. Genetic fate-mapping analysis of Krox20-expressing neural crest cells shows a large contribution to the borders and the interleaflet triangles of the arterial valves. Loss of Krox20 function results in hyperplastic aortic valve and partially penetrant bicuspid aortic valve formation. Similar defects are observed in neural crest Krox20 -deficient embryos. Genetic lineage tracing in Krox20 -/- mutant mice shows that endothelial-derived cells are normal, whereas neural crest-derived cells are abnormally increased in number and misplaced in the valve leaflets. In contrast, genetic ablation of Krox20 -expressing cells is not sufficient to cause an aortic valve defect, suggesting that adjacent cells can compensate this depletion. Our findings demonstrate a crucial role for Krox20 in arterial valve development and reveal that an excess of neural crest cells may be associated with bicuspid aortic valve. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Homo faber or homo credente? What defines humans, and what could Homo naledi contribute to this debate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlev L. Tönsing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The transition from pre-human to human has, for a long time, been associated with tool use and construction. The implicit self-definition of humans in this is that of planned control over life world. This is reflected on in the work of Hanna Arendt on the homo faber and the novel by Max Frisch of that name. However, this definition has become problematic in a number of ways: Planned tool use has been seen to occur outside the human species, and the focus on control of the environment has become suspect because of the environmental crisis. The burial practices of Homo naledi indicate high-level self-awareness and social communication, with little tool use being evident. This article asks whether this might be an occasion to redefine our conception of what it means to be human away from the focus on mastery and control and towards including trust, also religious trust, as the true mark of humanity.

  20. Assessment of China's renewable energy contribution during the 12th Five Year Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lixuan; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Raczkowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China has been ambitious in investing and developing renewable energy technologies, aiming to enhance its energy security, mitigate its energy-related CO 2 emissions and develop renewable energy industry. The 12th Five Year Plan (2011–2015) has set clear targets on installed capacities of different renewable energy technologies. This study aimed to assess the possible contribution of 12th Five Year Plan for China's future energy system and identify factors that might influence its impacts. First, current status of renewable energy development in China has been reviewed. Then several energy scenarios have been developed in an hourly simulation using an energy system analysis tool EnergyPLAN. It was identified that existing grid bottleneck would greatly reduce the potential contribution of renewable installations in terms of share of renewable electricity generation, share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy and system CO 2 emissions. In contrast, improving technical performance of renewable energy technologies and sectoral energy efficiency plays an important role in increasing the share of renewables and promoting China’s energy system transition. Finally, some policy suggestions were drawn to facilitate a better implementation of the renewable energy plan. - Highlights: • China's renewable energy contribution during the 12th Five Year Plan was assessed. • Non-fossil fuel targets in primary energy for 2015 and 2020 could be easily achieved. • Grid bottlenecks severely decrease the share of RES-E in electricity generation through the 12th Five Year Period. • Improved technical performance of renewable technologies and sectoral energy efficiency are extremely important for achieving higher RES-E share. • Several policy suggestions were drawn

  1. The Transuranic Waste Program's integration and planning activities and the contributions of the TRU partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, T.C.; O'Neal, W.; Petersen, C.A.; McDonald, C.E.

    1994-02-01

    The Technical Support Division, EM-351 manages the integration and planning activities of the Transuranic Waste Program. The Transuranic Waste Program manager provides transuranic waste policy, guidance, and issue resolution to Headquarters and the Operations Offices. In addition, the program manager is responsible for developing and implementing an integrated, long-range waste management plan for the transuranic waste system. A steering committee, a core group of support contractors, and numerous interface working groups support the efforts of the program manager. This paper provides an overview of the US Department of Energy's transuranic waste integration activities and a long-range planning process that includes internal and external stakeholder participation. It discusses the contributions and benefits provided by the Transuranic Partnership, most significantly, the integration activities and the body of data collected and assembled by the Partnership

  2. Goal clarity and financial planning activities as determinants of retirement savings contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S; Hershey, Douglas A; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M

    2007-01-01

    Retirement counselors, financial service professionals, and retirement intervention specialists routinely emphasize the importance of developing clear goals for the future; however, few empirical studies have focused on the benefits of retirement goal setting. In the present study, the extent to which goal clarity and financial planning activities predict retirement savings practices was examined among 100 working adults. Path analysis techniques were used to test two competing models, both of which were designed to predict savings contributions. Findings provide support for the model in which retirement goal clarity is a significant predictor of planning practices, and planning, in turn, predicts savings tendencies. Two demographic variables-income and age-were also revealed to be important elements of the model, with income accounting for roughly half of the explained variance in savings contributions. The results of this study have implications for the development of age-based models of planning, as well as implications for retirement counselors and financial planners who advise workers on long-term saving strategies.

  3. Defining the value of community benefits. Analyzing the kinds of goods society produces clarifies hospitals' charity care contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, S M

    1992-01-01

    Community benefits occur when a hospital bears all or part of the relatively unquantifiable costs of promoting, sponsoring, or engaging in religious, educational, scientific, or health-related activities designed to improve community health. By the very nature of their health-related activities, not-for-profit hospitals make extensive and varied contributions to community benefit. When a hospital free clinic inoculates a child for measles, the community as a whole benefits because the inoculation reduces the chance that measles will spread. Not-for-profit hospitals also provide many goods that are "undersupplied" by the for-profit private sector or the public sector, such as research, trauma centers used disproportionately by self-pay patients, and advocacy to rid the community of health hazards. Moreover, a number of factors impose a legal and normative obligation on not-for-profit hospitals to engage in activities that benefit the community. These include Internal Revenue Service rules governing tax exemption, hospitals' fiduciary responsibilities to philanthropic donors, their obligations as "institutional actors" in their communities, and their mission to reach out to the poor and underserved.

  4. Using Combined Marine Spatial Planning Tools and Observing System Experiments to define Gaps in the Emerging European Ocean Observing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, G.; Pinardi, N.; Vukicevic, T.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Fernandez, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean observations are critical to providing accurate ocean forecasts that support operational decision making in European open and coastal seas. Observations are available in many forms from Fixed platforms e.g. Moored Buoys and tide gauges, underway measurements from Ferrybox systems, High Frequency radars and more recently from underwater Gliders and profiling floats. Observing System Simulation Experiments have been conducted to examine the relative contribution of each type of platform to an improvement in our ability to accurately forecast the future state of the ocean with HF radar and Gliders showing particular promise in improving model skill. There is considerable demand for ecosystem products and services from today's ocean observing system and biogeochemical observations are still relatively sparse particularly in coastal and shelf seas. There is a need to widen the techniques used to assess the fitness for purpose and gaps in the ocean observing system. As well as Observing System Simulation Experiments that quantify the effect of observations on the overall model skill we present a gap analysis based on (1) Examining where high model skill is required based on a marine spatial planning analysis of European seas i.e where does activity take place that requires more accurate forecasts? and (2) assessing gaps based on the capacity of the observing system to answer key societal challenges e.g. site suitability for aquaculture and ocean energy, oil spill response and contextual oceanographic products for fisheries and ecosystems. The broad based analysis will inform the development of the proposed European Ocean Observing System as a contribution to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS).

  5. Multi-criteria planning of nuclear contribution to the goals of clean electricity in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-del-Campo, C., E-mail: cecilia.martin.del.campo@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Three scenarios of electricity expansion planning were developed to analyze nuclear technology's contributions to the socioeconomic development, mitigation of global climate change and energy security. The scenarios were developed based on minimal cost optimization satisfying the energy demand and the non-fossil electricity targets established by the Mexican National Energy Strategy (MexNES) of no more than 65% of annual electricity production using fossil fuels by 2024 and drop down to 60% by 2035. Special attention was paid to wind and nuclear as clean energy options to produce electricity. An analysis decision based on the Position Vector of Minimum Regret was applied to rank the different plans in terms of the criteria. Results showed that nuclear power must definitely participate in the Mexican electricity expansion in order to meet the goals of clean energy set by the MexNES. (author)

  6. 29 CFR 2510.3-102 - Definition of “plan assets”-participant contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in cash. (c) Maximum time period for welfare benefit plans. With respect to an employee welfare...) of this section shall apply to such plan as if such plan were an employee welfare benefit plan. (i...) of this section shall apply to such plan as if such plan were an employee welfare benefit plan. [61...

  7. What's at Stake in the Lives of People with Intellectual Disability? Part I: The Power of Naming, Defining, Diagnosing, Classifying, and Planning Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Robert L.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the power of naming, defining, diagnosing, classifying, and planning supports for people with intellectual disability. The article summarizes current thinking regarding these five functions, states the essential question addressed by the respective function, and provides an overview of the high stakes involved for people…

  8. 29 CFR 2509.94-3 - Interpretive bulletin relating to in-kind contributions to employee benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee benefit plans. 2509.94-3 Section 2509.94-3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL INTERPRETIVE BULLETINS RELATING TO...-kind contributions to employee benefit plans. (a) General. This bulletin sets forth the views of the...

  9. Retirement Planning the Easy Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl D.

    1996-01-01

    Options available to college faculty for planning their retirement benefits are described, including defined benefit plans, defined contribution plans, and methods for customizing a pension plan. Data for 1993 on American households owning interest-earning assets (passbook savings, money market deposit accounts, certificates of deposit, checking…

  10. Nurse care manager contribution to quality of care in a dual-eligible special needs plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Carol P; Ganz, David A; Nickles, Lorraine; Martin, David; Beckman, Robin; Wenger, Neil S

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the quality of care provided to older patients with complex needs in a dual-eligible, community-based Medicare Special Needs Plan that used a nurse care manager model. Care provided by physicians was substantially supplemented by nurse care managers, as measured by Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders quality indicators. We describe selected nurse care manager activities for six geriatric conditions (falls, dementia, depression, nutrition, urinary incontinence, and end-of-life care) during provision of patient care coordination and management for patients in the highest decile of clinical complexity. We identify areas of high nurse performance (i.e., falls screening, functional assessment, behavioral interventions for dementia problems, advance care planning) and areas of potential missed opportunities (i.e., follow up for new memory problems, targeted dementia counseling, nutrition, and behavioral approaches to urinary incontinence). Increasing the collaborative interaction between nurses providing care in this model and physicians has the potential to enhance nurses' contributions to primary care for vulnerable older adults.

  11. The contribution of family planning towards the prevention of vertical HIV transmission in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hladik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uganda has one of the highest total fertility rates (TFR worldwide. We compared the effects of antiretroviral (ARV prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT to that of existing family planning (FP use and estimated the burden of pediatric HIV disease due to unwanted fertility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the demographic software Spectrum, a baseline mathematical projection to estimate the current pediatric HIV burden in Uganda was compared to three hypothetical projections: 1 without ARV-PMTCT (to estimate the effect of ARV-PMTCT, 2 without contraception (effect of existing FP use, 3 without unwanted fertility (effect of unmet FP needs. Key input parameters included HIV prevalence, ARV-PMTCT uptake, MTCT probabilities, and TFR. We estimate that in 2007, an estimated 25,000 vertical infections and 17,000 pediatric AIDS deaths occurred (baseline projection. Existing ARV-PMTCT likely averted 8.1% of infections and 8.5% of deaths. FP use likely averted 19.7% of infections and 13.1% of deaths. Unwanted fertility accounted for 21.3% of infections and 13.4% of deaths. During 2008-2012, an estimated 131,000 vertical infections and 71,000 pediatric AIDS deaths will occur. The projected scale up of ARV-PMTCT (from 39%-57% may avert 18.1% of infections and 24.5% of deaths. Projected FP use may avert 21.6% of infections and 18.5% of deaths. Unwanted fertility will account for 24.5% of infections and 19.8% of deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Existing FP use contributes as much or more than ARV-PMTCT in mitigating pediatric HIV in Uganda. Expanding FP services can substantially contribute towards PMTCT.

  12. UK experience of planning the nuclear contribution to the UK power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catchpole, S.; Jenkin, F.P.

    1977-01-01

    The paper outlines U.K. experience in planning nuclear programmes. It examines the factors which have determined the size of such programmes together with those factors which have influenced their implementation. The paper also discusses the role which the utility has played in the deployment of nuclear power in the U.K. At present, nuclear energy can only be utilised on a large scale via the electricity route and the forecasting of electricity demand is therefore a key element in determining the size of the nuclear programme. Other important issues which affect the nuclear contribution are: national fuel policies, discontinuities in price and availability of imported fossil fuels, plant capital costs, fuel price relativities, plant siting, rate of introduction of new nuclear systems, manufacturer's capability, public attitudes towards nuclear power and financing. These issues are dealt with in some detail including their relative importance in the U.K. The paper also discusses the contribution of the various nuclear bodies in the U.K. in securing the implementation of the nuclear programmes. From the inception of nuclear power in the U.K., it has been recognised that a major utility has a central role to play not only in commercial operation but also in the procurement of plant and materials. As explained in the paper this ''informed buyer'' approach, which is being increasingly adopted by other major utilities, calls for an organisation and technical infrastructure far more complex than is the case for fossil plants. The requirements of safety, which is unambiguously the responsibility of the utility, and of high availability of plant operation demand a rigorous approach to design, quality assurance, project management, construction and operation. To this must be added sound research and development and staff training facilities. The paper explains how experience in these vital areas has been built up

  13. Analysis of Stakeholder-Defined Needs in Northeast U.S. Coastal Communities to Determine Gaps in Research Informing Coastal Resilience Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, G. D.; Kenney, M. A.; Sutton-Grier, A.; Penn, K.

    2017-12-01

    The impacts of climate change on our coastlines are increasing pressure on communities, ecosystems, infrastructure, and state-to-local economies in the northeastern United States (U.S.). As a result of current or imminent risk of acute and chronic hazards, local, state and regional entities have taken steps to identify and address vulnerabilities to climate change. Decisions to increase coastal infrastructure resilience and grey, green, and cultural infrastructure solutions requires physical, natural, and social science that is useful for decision-making and effective science translation mechanisms. Despite the desire to conduct or fund science that meets the needs of communities, there has been no comprehensive analysis to determine stakeholder-defined research needs. To address this gap, this study conducts a stakeholder needs analysis in northeast U.S. coastal communities to determine gaps in information and translation processes supporting coastal resilience planning. Documents were sourced from local, state, and regional organizations in both the public and private sectors, using the northeast region defined by the third National Climate Assessment. Modeled after Dilling et al. (2015), a deductive coding schema was developed that categorized documents using specific search terms such as "Location and condition of infrastructure" and "Proactive planning". A qualitative document analysis was then executed using NVivo to formally identify patterns and themes present in stakeholder surveys, workshop proceedings, and reports. Initial stakeholder priorities centered around incorporation of climate science into planning and decision making regarding vulnerabilities of infrastructure, enhanced emergency planning and response, and communication of key information.

  14. 26 CFR 1.404(a)-7 - Pension and annuity plans; contributions in excess of limitations under section 404(a)(1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pension and annuity plans; contributions in... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(a)-7 Pension and annuity...)(D). When contributions paid by an employer in a taxable year to or under a pension or annuity plan...

  15. Methodological proposal for defining mining vocation in Venezuelan land-use planning; Propuesta metodologica para definir la vocacion minera en el contexto del ordenamiento territorial venezolano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladares Salinas, R. Y.; Dall Pozzo, F.; Castillo Padron, A. J.

    2015-07-01

    Mining is an economic activity which is necessary to provide raw materials for the different socio-productive networks of the country. Its application depends on the mineralogical occurrence offered by the geological conditions of an area and requires planning due to the fact that it needs to be located in a geographical space and the environment fragility of this space and the socio-economic and political-institutional legislation at a given moment all have to be taken into account. Therefore, the objective of this research consists of a proposal for a methodological model to define areas with mining adapted to the Venezuelan context of land-use planning, in order to assign mining uses to the most appropriate areas for that goal, considering the selection, assessment and integration of a series of variables and indicators adjusted to the thematic information available. (Author)

  16. Children's high-level writing skills: development of planning and revising and their contribution to writing quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpo, Teresa; Alves, Rui A; Fidalgo, Raquel

    2014-06-01

    It is well established that the activity of producing a text is a complex one involving three main cognitive processes: Planning, translating, and revising. Although these processes are crucial in skilled writing, beginning and developing writers seem to struggle with them, mainly with planning and revising. To trace the development of the high-level writing processes of planning and revising, from Grades 4 to 9, and to examine whether these skills predict writing quality in younger and older students (Grades 4-6 vs. 7-9), after controlling for gender, school achievement, age, handwriting fluency, spelling, and text structure. Participants were 381 students from Grades 4 to 9 (age 9-15). Students were asked to plan and write a story and to revise another story by detecting and correcting mechanical and substantive errors. From Grades 4 to 9, we found a growing trend in students' ability to plan and revise despite the observed decreases and stationary periods from Grades 4 to 5 and 6 to 7. Moreover, whereas younger students' planning and revising skills made no contribution to the quality of their writing, in older students, these high-level skills contributed to writing quality above and beyond control predictors. The findings of this study seem to indicate that besides the increase in planning and revising, these skills are not fully operational in school-age children. Indeed, given the contribution of these high-level skills to older students' writing, supplementary instruction and practice should be provided from early on. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  17. 77 FR 33895 - Universal Service Contribution Methodology; a National Broadband Plan for Our Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... contribution system in an effort to promote efficiency, fairness, and sustainability. The Commission seeks... improved; and recovery of universal service contributions from consumers. DATES: Comments are due on or... print, electronic files, audio format), send an email to [email protected] or call the Consumer...

  18. Contributing to environmental protection and regional balance - Asia. Action Plan 2013-2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    social cohesion and regional balance. AFD has also financed many projects carried out by French NGOs. Given the scale of the environmental, social and regional challenges facing Asian countries, AFD has defined two major goals for the 2013-2016 period: - Limiting the environmental impact of Asia's rapid development, particularly in emerging countries and in urban areas. The challenge is to promote greener, less polluting and more resource-efficient development models and solutions that help populations facing global threats such as biodiversity loss and climate change. - Contributing to regional balance by supporting the catch-up process for least developed and fragile countries, by promoting more inclusive growth, and also by encouraging geopolitical stability. With these goals in mind, AFD will continue to offer its diverse financial tools to political decision makers and project operators, both public and private. AFD is also actively developing synergies with French partners and stakeholders in order to capitalise on their expertise. AFD wishes to strengthen its relationships and co-funding arrangements with other donors present in Asia (ADB, JICA, EU, etc.) in order to consolidate its position in the region

  19. Contributions of imaging to radiation therapy planning for uterine cervix carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, L.

    2000-01-01

    External irradiation and brachytherapy are curative in the treatment of carcinoma of the cervix. The aim of radiotherapy is to optimize the irradiation of the target volume and to optimize the irradiation of the target volume and to reduce the dose to critical organs. The use of imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging added to clinical findings and standard guidelines) are studied in the treatment planning of external irradiation and brachytherapy in carcinoma of the cervix. Imaging allows an individualized and conformal treatment planning. (author)

  20. How does the employer contribution for the federal employees health benefits program influence plan selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Curtis S; Thorpe, Kenneth E

    2003-01-01

    Market reform of health insurance is proposed to increase coverage and reduce growth in spending by providing an incentive to choose low-cost plans. However, having a choice of plans could result in risk segmentation. Risk-adjusted payments have been proposed to address risk segmentation but are criticized as ineffective. An alternative to risk adjustment is to subsidize premiums, as in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP). Subsidizing premiums may also increase total premium spending. We find that there is little risk segmentation in the FEHBP and that reducing the premium subsidy would lower government premium spending and slightly increase risk segmentation.

  1. Defining Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) as a contribution to Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs): A Core Task of the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) to Accelerate Integration of Biological Observations in the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, J.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Sousa Pinto, I.; Costello, M. J.; Duffy, J. E.; Appeltans, W.; Fischer, A. S.; Canonico, G.; Klein, E.; Obura, D.; Montes, E.; Miloslavich, P.; Howard, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) is a networking effort under the umbrella of the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON). The objective of the MBON is to link existing groups engaged in ocean observation and help define practical indices to deploy in an operational manner to track changes in the number of marine species, the abundance and biomass of marine organisms, the diverse interactions between organisms and the environment, and the variability and change of specific habitats of interest. MBON serves as the biodiversity arm of Blue Planet, the initiative of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) for the benefit of society. The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) was established under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) in 1991 to organize international ocean observing efforts. The mission of the GOOS is to support monitoring to improve the management of marine and coastal ecosystems and resources, and to enable scientific research. GOOS is engaged in a continuing, rigorous process of identifying Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs). MBON is working with GOOS and the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS, also under the IOC) to define Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) as those Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) that have explicit taxonomic records associated with them. For practical purposes, EBVs are a subset of the EOVs. The focus is to promote the integration of biological EOVs including EBVs into the existing and planned national and international ocean observing systems. The definition avoids a proliferation of 'essential' variables across multiple organizations. MBON will continue to advance practical and wide use of EBVs and related EOV. This is an effective way to contribute to several UN assessments (e.g., from IPBES, IPCC, and the World Ocean Assessment under the UN Regular Process), UN Sustainable Development Goals, and to address targets and goals defined under

  2. Goal Clarity and Financial Planning Activities as Determinants of Retirement Savings Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S.; Hershey, Douglas A.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M.

    2007-01-01

    Retirement counselors, financial service professionals, and retirement intervention specialists routinely emphasize the importance of developing clear goals for the future; however, few empirical studies have focused on the benefits of retirement goal setting. In the present study, the extent to which goal clarity and financial planning activities…

  3. The Potential of Strava Data to Contribute in Non-Motorised Transport (nmt) Planning in Johannesburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selala, M. K.; Musakwa, W.

    2016-06-01

    Transportation is one of the most fundamental challenges of urban development in the modern world. Cities are currently moving towards sustainable transportation, which includes non-motorised transportation (NMT). The city of Johannesburg has a goal of becoming a smart city, with sustainable development and smart mobility. Encouraging the use of non-motorised transportation and public transport has the potential of reducing the use of private motorised transport and therefor its negative consequences within the city of Johannesburg. There is limited research on cycling and how cyclists interact with cycling infrastructure within the city. The lack of such knowledge hinders proper planning for NMT. This research studies the ability of geolocation based services to provide such information which can be useful in planning for NMT. Strava Metro application is the example of such geolocation based services. The potential of this app to influence planning is investigated. According to the information acquired by Strava Metro, there are more cyclists in suburbs at the centre of Johannesburg and towards the north and to the east, and in Kibler Park at the south western part of the city. There are indications that the numbers of cycling activities recorded by Strava Metro are affected by the availability of gated communities, income levels, crime levels and the provision of infrastructure.

  4. Contribution of PET–CT in radiotherapy planning of oesophageal carcinoma: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Gabriel Sai Man

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to systematically review published data on the efficacy of positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET–CT) in the radiotherapy planning process of patients with oesophageal carcinoma. Methods: A systematic search of the PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and ScienceDirect databases was performed. The quality of the included studies was appraised using validated assessment tool. Data of the studies were synthesized, compared and evaluated by constructing evidentiary tables. Results: The 37 included studies, comprising a total sample size of 1921 patients, had moderate methodological quality. Overall primary tumour detection rate was 92.7%, and pooling estimate of specificity was 88% (95%CI: 83–91%) for local lymph node metastasis. The pooled studies presented heterogeneity for sensitivity (p < 0.01). The introduction of PET–CT to the radiotherapy planning process has facilitated target volume delineation. A standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5 could be used in supplementation to visual assessment by a qualified practitioner. Conclusions: PET–CT has a high specificity but due to its variable sensitivity, information from other clinical investigations should still be sought. Discretion and sound clinical judgment must also be exercised before using the biologic information for radiotherapy planning

  5. A Planning Study for the Enhancement of National Nuclear Transparency through the Voluntary Contribution to IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M. (and others)

    2006-12-15

    This study investigated the experts' opinions and a case study of typical country in order to enhance international transparency and confidence for national nuclear policy and its activities. And direction and strategies for strengthening cooperation with IAEA through various voluntary contribution into IAEA activities, was also investigated as well as long term strategic road map. It is important to strengthen the nuclear diplomacy in order to increase transparency of Korean nuclear activities through the establishment of nation-wide collaborative systems as well as systematic and long term based implementation of positive measures and actions. At the same time, it is also required to strengthen cooperation with IAEA through voluntary contribution program into relevant IAEA activities as well as establishing national long term strategies and road map.

  6. A Planning Study for the Enhancement of National Nuclear Transparency through the Voluntary Contribution to IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M.

    2006-12-01

    This study investigated the experts' opinions and a case study of typical country in order to enhance international transparency and confidence for national nuclear policy and its activities. And direction and strategies for strengthening cooperation with IAEA through various voluntary contribution into IAEA activities, was also investigated as well as long term strategic road map. It is important to strengthen the nuclear diplomacy in order to increase transparency of Korean nuclear activities through the establishment of nation-wide collaborative systems as well as systematic and long term based implementation of positive measures and actions. At the same time, it is also required to strengthen cooperation with IAEA through voluntary contribution program into relevant IAEA activities as well as establishing national long term strategies and road map

  7. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatic tumors: simulation, planning, and contribution of virtual reality and haptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, Caroline; Soler, Luc; Gangi, Afshin

    2005-08-01

    For radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver tumors, evaluation of vascular architecture, post-RFA necrosis prediction, and the choice of a suitable needle placement strategy using conventional radiological techniques remain difficult. In an attempt to enhance the safety of RFA, a 3D simulator, treatment planning, and training tool, that simulates the insertion of the needle, the necrosis of the treated area, and proposes an optimal needle placement, has been developed. The 3D scenes are automatically reconstructed from enhanced spiral CT scans. The simulator takes into account the cooling effect of local vessels greater than 3 mm in diameter, making necrosis shapes more realistic. Optimal needle positioning can be automatically generated by the software to produce complete destruction of the tumor, with maximum respect of the healthy liver and of all major structures to avoid. We also studied how the use of virtual reality and haptic devices are valuable to make simulation and training realistic and effective.

  8. Big Data in Healthcare - Defining the Digital Persona through User Contexts from the Micro to the Macro. Contribution of the IMIA Organizational and Social Issues WG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemsky, C E; Monkman, H; Petersen, C; Weber, J; Borycki, E M; Adams, S; Collins, S

    2014-08-15

    While big data offers enormous potential for improving healthcare delivery, many of the existing claims concerning big data in healthcare are based on anecdotal reports and theoretical vision papers, rather than scientific evidence based on empirical research. Historically, the implementation of health information technology has resulted in unintended consequences at the individual, organizational and social levels, but these unintended consequences of collecting data have remained unaddressed in the literature on big data. The objective of this paper is to provide insights into big data from the perspective of people, social and organizational considerations. We draw upon the concept of persona to define the digital persona as the intersection of data, tasks and context for different user groups. We then describe how the digital persona can serve as a framework to understanding sociotechnical considerations of big data implementation. We then discuss the digital persona in the context of micro, meso and macro user groups across the 3 Vs of big data. We provide insights into the potential benefits and challenges of applying big data approaches to healthcare as well as how to position these approaches to achieve health system objectives such as patient safety or patient-engaged care delivery. We also provide a framework for defining the digital persona at a micro, meso and macro level to help understand the user contexts of big data solutions. While big data provides great potential for improving healthcare delivery, it is essential that we consider the individual, social and organizational contexts of data use when implementing big data solutions.

  9. Ongoing and planned fuel safety research in NEA member states - Compiled from SEGFSM Members' Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This report is in response to an action placed on SEGFSM members to compile ongoing and planned fuel safety research in NEA member states with the aim of providing CSNI an overview on related R and D international programmes and projects, along with the identification of current and future needs and priorities. A questionnaire was distributed to SEGFSM members on 18 October 2000, requesting them to identify fuel safety research programmes and to provide information on achievements and future plans. The questionnaire required respondents to provide information on the ongoing R and D programmes under the following headings: Title; Research Laboratory/Sponsor(s); Objectives/Goals; Status of Work; Brief description/presentation of the main results achieved; Future plans; References. Replies were received from organizations in the following countries: Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Norway (Halden Reactor Project), Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USA. The report is based on the information provided in the replies received, as a consequence it cannot be viewed as comprehensive; programmes may well be in progress in addition to those detailed here. It is also possible that the detailed results of some programmes may remain proprietary and therefore not available in the short term. The report is organized in topic sections relating to: fuel and clad studies, integral fuel rod tests and PIE, LOCA and RIA studies including whole rods and bundles as well as single effects studies of fuel and cladding, code development for both steady state and transient fuel behaviour, thermal hydraulics, reactor physics codes and finally severe accident studies. The main issues for the current generation of reactors are those of high burn-up performance in normal operations, LOCA and RIA conditions and the main goal for the industry is to consolidate the safety issues to bring all countries up to a licensed discharge burn-up of ∼60 MWd/kg in

  10. Methodology to define biological reference values in the environmental and occupational fields: the contribution of the Italian Society for Reference Values (SIVR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Maria Cristina; Scapellato, Maria Luisa; Valsania, Maria Carmen; Perico, Andrea; Perbellini, Luigi; Ricossa, Maria Cristina; Pradella, Marco; Negri, Sara; Iavicoli, Ivo; Lovreglio, Piero; Salamon, Fabiola; Bettinelli, Maurizio; Apostoli, Pietro

    2017-04-21

    Biological reference values (RVs) explore the relationships between humans and their environment and habits. RVs are fundamental in the environmental field for assessing illnesses possibly associated with environmental pollution, and also in the occupational field, especially in the absence of established biological or environmental limits. The Italian Society for Reference Values (SIVR) determined to test criteria and procedures for the definition of RVs to be used in the environmental and occupational fields. The paper describes the SIVR methodology for defining RVs of xenobiotics and their metabolites. Aspects regarding the choice of population sample, the quality of analytical data, statistical analysis and control of variability factors are considered. The simultaneous interlaboratory circuits involved can be expected to increasingly improve the quality of the analytical data. Examples of RVs produced by SIVR are presented. In particular, levels of chromium, mercury, ethylenethiourea, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 2,5-hexanedione, 1-hydroxypyrene and t,t-muconic acid measured in urine and expressed in micrograms/g creatinine (μg/g creat) or micrograms/L (μg/L) are reported. With the proposed procedure, SIVR intends to make its activities known to the scientific community in order to increase the number of laboratories involved in the definition of RVs for the Italian population. More research is needed to obtain further RVs in different biological matrices, such as hair, nails and exhaled breath. It is also necessary to update and improve the present reference values and broaden the portfolio of chemicals for which RVs are available. In the near future, SIVR intends to expand its scientific activity by using a multivariate approach for xenobiotics that may have a common origin, and to define RVs separately for children who may be exposed more than adults and be more vulnerable.

  11. The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 - Part 1: Overview and over-arching analysis plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masa; Braconnot, Pascale; Harrison, Sandy P.; Haywood, Alan M.; Jungclaus, Johann H.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Peterschmitt, Jean-Yves; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Albani, Samuel; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Brierley, Chris; Crucifix, Michel; Dolan, Aisling; Fernandez-Donado, Laura; Fischer, Hubertus; Hopcroft, Peter O.; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Lambert, Fabrice; Lunt, Daniel J.; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Peltier, W. Richard; Phipps, Steven J.; Roche, Didier M.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Tarasov, Lev; Valdes, Paul J.; Zhang, Qiong; Zhou, Tianjun

    2018-03-01

    relevant for the study and projection of future climate changes. This paper describes the motivation for the choice of these periods and the design of the numerical experiments and database requests, with a focus on their novel features compared to the experiments performed in previous phases of PMIP and CMIP. It also outlines the analysis plan that takes advantage of the comparisons of the results across periods and across CMIP6 in collaboration with other MIPs.

  12. Contribution to the planning and dosimetry of photon beams applied to radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Walter Menezes

    2003-08-01

    performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters in order to verify the degree of compliance between the doses calculated through the Radionics TM Planning System and the actual treatment dose. This was accomplished by using a Rando(R) anthropomorphic phantom. The results showed that the two doses agree within ± 2%. The influence of the presence of inhomogeneities within the irradiated volume, due to the presence of air or bone in the radiation path was assessed. The results showed that these inhomogeneities significantly affect both the dose distribution pattern and the beam profiles in the treatment volume. The results of this study show that the dosimetry of small diameter radiation beams is still challenging, due mainly to the limited resolution of available detectors and to the lack of lateral equilibrium in small diameter radiation beams. (author)

  13. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  14. "Dermatitis" defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne M; Nedorost, Susan T

    2010-01-01

    The term "dermatitis" can be defined narrowly or broadly, clinically or histologically. A common and costly condition, dermatitis is underresourced compared to other chronic skin conditions. The lack of a collectively understood definition of dermatitis and its subcategories could be the primary barrier. To investigate how dermatologists define the term "dermatitis" and determine if a consensus on the definition of this term and other related terms exists. A seven-question survey of dermatologists nationwide was conducted. Of respondents (n  =  122), half consider dermatitis to be any inflammation of the skin. Nearly half (47.5%) use the term interchangeably with "eczema." Virtually all (> 96%) endorse the subcategory "atopic" under the terms "dermatitis" and "eczema," but the subcategories "contact," "drug hypersensitivity," and "occupational" are more highly endorsed under the term "dermatitis" than under the term "eczema." Over half (55.7%) personally consider "dermatitis" to have a broad meaning, and even more (62.3%) believe that dermatologists as a whole define the term broadly. There is a lack of consensus among experts in defining dermatitis, eczema, and their related subcategories.

  15. Health service planning contributes to policy dialogue around strengthening district health systems: an example from DR Congo 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Dheepa; Kalambay, Hyppolite; Mossoko, Mathias; Kwete, Dieudonné; Bulakali, Joseph; Lokonga, Jean-Pierre; Porignon, Denis; Schmets, Gerard

    2014-10-31

    This case study from DR Congo demonstrates how rational operational planning based on a health systems strengthening strategy (HSSS) can contribute to policy dialogue over several years. It explores the operationalization of a national strategy at district level by elucidating a normative model district resource plan which details the resources and costs of providing an essential health services package at district level. This paper then points to concrete examples of how the results of this exercise were used for Ministry of Health (MoH) decision-making over a time period of 5 years. DR Congo's HSSS and its accompanying essential health services package were taken as a base to construct a normative model health district comprising of 10 Health Centres (HC) and 1 District Hospital (DH). The normative model health district represents a standard set by the Ministry of Health for providing essential primary health care services. The minimum operating budget necessary to run a normative model health district is $17.91 per inhabitant per year, of which $11.86 is for the district hospital and $6.05 for the health centre. The Ministry of Health has employed the results of this exercise in 4 principal ways: 1.Advocacy and negotiation instrument; 2. Instrument to align donors; 3. Field planning; 4. Costing database to extract data from when necessary. The above results have been key in the policy dialogue on affordability of the essential health services package in DR Congo. It has allowed the MoH to provide transparent information on financing needs around the HSSS; it continues to help the MoH negotiate with the Ministry of Finance and bring partner support behind the HSSS.

  16. Defining chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian R; Ott, Edward

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose, discuss, and illustrate a computationally feasible definition of chaos which can be applied very generally to situations that are commonly encountered, including attractors, repellers, and non-periodically forced systems. This definition is based on an entropy-like quantity, which we call "expansion entropy," and we define chaos as occurring when this quantity is positive. We relate and compare expansion entropy to the well-known concept of topological entropy to which it is equivalent under appropriate conditions. We also present example illustrations, discuss computational implementations, and point out issues arising from attempts at giving definitions of chaos that are not entropy-based.

  17. Defining Cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Elizabeth; Donnerstein, Edward; Kowalski, Robin; Lin, Carolyn A; Parti, Katalin

    2017-11-01

    Is cyberbullying essentially the same as bullying, or is it a qualitatively different activity? The lack of a consensual, nuanced definition has limited the field's ability to examine these issues. Evidence suggests that being a perpetrator of one is related to being a perpetrator of the other; furthermore, strong relationships can also be noted between being a victim of either type of attack. It also seems that both types of social cruelty have a psychological impact, although the effects of being cyberbullied may be worse than those of being bullied in a traditional sense (evidence here is by no means definitive). A complicating factor is that the 3 characteristics that define bullying (intent, repetition, and power imbalance) do not always translate well into digital behaviors. Qualities specific to digital environments often render cyberbullying and bullying different in circumstances, motivations, and outcomes. To make significant progress in addressing cyberbullying, certain key research questions need to be addressed. These are as follows: How can we define, distinguish between, and understand the nature of cyberbullying and other forms of digital conflict and cruelty, including online harassment and sexual harassment? Once we have a functional taxonomy of the different types of digital cruelty, what are the short- and long-term effects of exposure to or participation in these social behaviors? What are the idiosyncratic characteristics of digital communication that users can be taught? Finally, how can we apply this information to develop and evaluate effective prevention programs? Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-3 - Nondiscrimination in amount of employer-provided benefits under a defined benefit plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Division S receive their benefit in the form of a straight life annuity and that employees of... accrual rate less than or equal to the employee's most valuable accrual rate. (2) Satisfaction of section... plan, and for determining whether the employee-provided benefits under such a plan are...

  19. Spatial landuse planning using land evaluation and dynamic system to define sustainable area of paddy field: Case study in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiatmaka, Widiatmaka; Ambarwulan, Wiwin; Firmansyah, Irman; Munibah, Khursatul; Santoso, Paulus B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is the country with the 4th largest population in the worlds; the population reached more than 237 million people. With rice as the staple food for more than 95 percent of the population, there is an important role of paddy field in Indonesian food security. Actually, paddy field in Java has produced 52,6% of the total rice production in Indonesia, showing the very high dependence of Indonesia on food production from paddy fields in Java island. Karawang Regency is one of the regions in West Java Province that contribute to the national food supply, due to its high soil fertility and its high extent of paddy field. Dynamics of land use change in this region are high because of its proximity to urban area; this dynamics has led to paddy field conversion to industry and residential landuse, which in turn change the regional rice production capacity. Decreasing paddy field landuse in this region could be serve as an example case of the general phenomena which occurred in Javanese rice production region. The objective of this study were: (i) to identify the suitable area for paddy field, (ii) to modelize the decreasing of paddy field in socio-economic context of the region, and (iii) to plan the spatial priority area of paddy field protection according to model prediction. A land evaluation for paddy was completed after a soil survey, while IKONOS imagery was analyzed to delineate paddy fields. Dynamic system model of paddy field land use is built, and then based on the model built, the land area of paddy field untill 2040 in some scenarios was developped. The research results showed that the land suitability class for paddy fields in Karawang Regency ranged from very suitable (S1) to marginally suitable (S3), with various land characteristics as limiting factors. The model predicts that if the situation of paddy field land use change continues in its business as usual path, paddy field area that would exist in the region in 2040 will stay half of the recent

  20. Modal Logics and Definability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusisto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research into the mathematical foundations of modal logic has become increasingly popular. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that modal logic seems to adapt well to the requirements of a wide range of different fields of application. This paper is a summary of some of the author’s contributions to the understanding of modal definability theory.

  1. Incorporating Employee Heterogeneity into Default Rules for Retirement Plan Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of incorporating heterogeneity into default rules by examining the choice between retirement plans at a firm that transitioned from a defined benefit (DB) to a defined contribution (DC) plan. The default plan for existing employees varied discontinuously depending on their age. Employing regression discontinuity techniques,…

  2. Special report on taxation and reimbursement. Recovering excess funds from a defined-benefit pension plan: don't forget the hidden costs!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renas, D A; Hoffman, S F

    1989-10-01

    In light of the pitfalls and hidden costs associated with recovering excess pension plan funds, providers may consider examining more conventional sources of raising capital before proceeding. In any event, the process should always be initiated by a careful cost-benefit analysis conducted by the employer, with the help of pension consultants and counsel.

  3. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  4. 20 CFR 1002.262 - When is the employer required to make the plan contribution that is attributable to the employee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is the employer required to make the plan contribution that is attributable to the employee's period of uniformed service? 1002.262 Section 1002.262 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS UNDER...

  5. Implementing the global plan to stop TB, 2011-2015 - optimizing allocations and the global fund's contribution: A scenario projections study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Korenromp (Eline); P. Glaziou (Philippe); C. Fitzpatrick (Christopher); K. Floyd (Katherine); M. Hosseini (Mehran); M.C. Raviglione (Mario); R. Atun (Rifat); B. Williams (Brian)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Global Plan to Stop TB estimates funding required in low- and middle-income countries to achieve TB control targets set by the Stop TB Partnership within the context of the Millennium Development Goals. We estimate the contribution and impact of Global Fund investments

  6. 29 CFR 778.215 - Conditions for exclusion of benefit-plan contributions under section 7(e)(4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contribution of 10 percent of profits and giving the employer discretion to add to that amount up to 20 percent of profits, or for a minimum contribution of 5 percent of compensation and discretion to increase up... event will the employer be able to recapture any of the contributions paid in nor in any way divert the...

  7. Can Strategic Spatial Planning Contribute to Land Degradation Reduction in Urban Regions? State of the Art and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Oliveira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is becoming a serious environmental issue threatening fertile agricultural soils and other natural resources. There are many driving forces behind land degradation. The expansion of artificial surfaces due to various economic activities, such as housing, industry, and transport infrastructure, known as soil sealing, constitutes one of the most intensive forms of land degradation in urban regions. Measures to halt and reverse land degradation require both strong land-use management policies, as well as effective spatial planning mechanisms. In this regard, strategic spatial planning has been increasingly practised in many urban regions worldwide, as a means to achieve sustainable land-use patterns and to guide the location of development and physical infrastructures. It is reasonable, therefore, to expect that strategic spatial planning can counteract the outlined undesired land degradation effects, specifically those resulting from soil sealing. In this paper, we review strategic spatial planning literature published between 1992 and 2017. The focus is on the phenomena causing land degradation that are addressed by strategic spatial planning literature, as well as on the mechanisms describing the role of strategic spatial planning in land degradation reduction. Results show that sustainable development and environmental concerns have become core objectives of strategic planning in recent years, yet references to the drivers of land degradation are rare. The mechanisms that exist are mainly intended to address environmental issues in general, and are not aimed at reducing particular forms of land degradation. The paper concludes by sketching future research directions, intended to support strategic spatial planning and land-use policymaking related to coping with the global phenomenon of land degradation.

  8. How Will Rhode Island's New Hybrid Pension Plan Affect Teachers? A Report of the Public Pension Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard W.; Butrica, Barbara A.; Haaga, Owen; Southgate, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 Rhode Island replaced the stand-alone defined benefit pension plan it provided to state employees with a hybrid plan that reduced the defined benefit component and added a 401(k)-type, defined contribution component. Although controversial, the new hybrid plan will boost retirement incomes for most of the states public school teachers. Our…

  9. Relationship among tourism, ownership of land and heritage: a contribution to the planning of sustainable tourism in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael Reis Bomfim

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the relationship among land appropriation by tourism and its impacts in culture and environment, claiming for sustainable tourism planning in Cacau Seashore in Bahia. Discourses of several authors of planning issues who write on sustainable tourism and regional development in an inter-disciplinary base were analyzed. To value those communities held in the periphery of the economic system, who many times get into drug dealing or prostitution (and sex tourism in which Brazil is a world leader for survival is evidenced.

  10. Contribution of partner support in self-management of rheumatoid arthritis patients : An application of the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strating, Mathilde M.H.; van Schuur, Wijbrandt H.; Suurmeijer, Theo P.B.M.

    The aim of this exploratory study was to test the applicability of a model derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior on self-management. In this model social support from the partner, attitude and self-efficacy are determinants of intention, and intention and self-efficacy are determinants of

  11. 26 CFR 1.415(a)-1 - General rules with respect to limitations on benefits and contributions under qualified plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and disability benefits); (vii) Section 1.415(b)-1(g)(3) (regarding adjustments to applicable... survivor and disability benefits under governmental plans); (viii) Section 1.415(c)-1(b)(2)(ii) and (3)(iii...)(5) (providing an alternative rule for inclusion of compensation after a severance from employment...

  12. Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

  13. Contribution of Reactive and Proactive Control to Children's Working Memory Performance: Insight from Item Recall Durations in Response Sequence Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicolas; James, Tiffany D.; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    The present study addressed whether developmental improvement in working memory span task performance relies upon a growing ability to proactively plan response sequences during childhood. Two hundred thirteen children completed a working memory span task in which they used a touchscreen to reproduce orally presented sequences of animal names.…

  14. Utilizing 18F-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) positron emission tomography (PET) to define suspected nonenhancing tumor for radiation therapy planning of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Aimee R; Jayamanne, Dasantha; Hsiao, Edward; Schembri, Geoffrey P; Bailey, Dale L; Roach, Paul J; Khasraw, Mustafa; Newey, Allison; Wheeler, Helen R; Back, Michael

    2018-01-31

    The authors sought to evaluate the impact of 18F-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) positron emission tomography (PET) on radiation therapy planning for patients diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM) and the presence of suspected nonenhancing tumors compared with standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with GBM and contrast-enhanced MRI scans showing regions suspicious of nonenhancing tumor underwent postoperative FET-PET before commencing radiation therapy. Two clinical target volumes (CTVs) were created using pre- and postoperative MRI: MRI fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences (CTV FLAIR ) and MRI contrast sequences with an expansion on the surgical cavity (CTV Sx ). FET-PET was used to create biological tumor volumes (BTVs) by encompassing FET-avid regions, forming BTV FLAIR and BTV Sx . Volumetric analyses were conducted between CTVs and respective BTVs using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. The volume increase with addition of FET was analyzed with respect to BTV FLAIR and BTV Sx . Presence of focal gadolinium contrast enhancement within previously nonenhancing tumor or within the FET-avid region was noted on MRI scans at 1 and 3 months after radiation therapy. Twenty-six patients were identified retrospectively from our database, of whom 24 had demonstrable FET uptake. The median CTV FLAIR , CTV Sx , BTV FLAIR , and BTV Sx were 57.1 mL (range, 1.1-217.4), 83.6 mL (range, 27.2-275.8), 62.8 mL (range, 1.1-307.3), and 94.7 mL (range, 27.2-285.5), respectively. When FET-PET was used, there was a mean increase in volume of 26.8% from CTV FLAIR to BTV FLAIR and 20.6% from CTV Sx to BTV Sx . A statistically significant difference was noted on Wilcoxon signed-rank test when assessing volumetric change between CTV FLAIR and BTV FLAIR (P Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. FET-PET may help improve delineation of GBM in cases with a suspected nonenhancing component and reduce the risk of potential geographical miss. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Radiation

  15. Increased planned delivery contributes to declining rates of pregnancy hypertension in Australia: a population-based record linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christine L; Algert, Charles S; Morris, Jonathan M; Ford, Jane B

    2015-10-05

    Since the 1990s, pregnancy hypertension rates have declined in some countries, but not all. Increasing rates of early planned delivery (before the due date) have been hypothesised as the reason for the decline. The aim of this study was to explore whether early planned delivery can partly explain the declining pregnancy hypertension rates in Australia. Population-based record linkage study utilising linked birth and hospital records. A cohort of 1,076,122 deliveries in New South Wales, Australia, 2001-2012. Pregnancy hypertension (including gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia) was the main outcome; pre-eclampsia was a secondary outcome. From 2001 to 2012, pregnancy hypertension rates declined by 22%, from 9.9% to 7.7%, and pre-eclampsia by 27%, from 3.3% to 2.4% (trend prate was predicted to increase to 10.5%. Examination of annual gestational age distributions showed that pregnancy hypertension rates actually declined from 38 weeks gestation and were steepest from 41 weeks; at least 36% of the decrease could be attributed to planned deliveries. The risk factors for pregnancy hypertension were also risk factors for planned delivery. It appears that an unanticipated consequence of increasing early planned deliveries is a decline in the incidence of pregnancy hypertension. Women with risk factors for hypertension were relatively more likely to be selected for early delivery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Study of the proper contribution of independent power producing business in the long-range power supply and demand plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, S.B. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The independent power producing business has expanded its size and process through the Long-range Power Supply and Demand Plan of 1993, 1995, and it is high time that full-scale competition in the power generation market began to emerge. This report assesses the marginal costs of independent and general power producing businesses on a theoretical basis on the proper size of independent power producing business, and presents the methods to compare these. But, since there follows several problems in applying this theoretical model, a practical standard to decide the proper level of independent power production amount is presented. That is, while not much burdening the existing industrial structure, I search for ways to present the amount of independent power production and the methods of power generation to make sure that the competition effect is maximized when full-scale competition started. However, in the long-term, the allotment of independent power production itself could be a violation to the basic spirit of competition. A more desirable way is to allow independent power producers and the Korea Power Corp. to freely compete on all types of power generation and facilities. The supply plan should be also operated smoothly and flexibly since the types of power generation and the amounts reflect the result of competition not the predetermined ones. Therefore, a long-range power supply and demand plan should be converted from a planning-oriented concept to a market-oriented base with the structural overhaul of the power generation industry for the effective resources distribution of power supply facilities. 18 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Restandardisation defined as democratising language planning1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dignity. Furthermore, globalisation gave rise to a worldwide ethnic renaissance with a focus on ... Given this democratisation of the world, the relevance of standard ...... extinction. The harmonisation and standardisation of African languages. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press. pp. 157-164. Mantho, E. 2009.

  18. Contribution of PET and PET/CT in CTV/PTV-modulation for planning of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehler, W.; Baum, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    PET and PET/CT enlarge the possibilities of purely anatomic imaging by opening up new horizons in determining the metabolic and molecular properties of tumors. This enables to determine the spread of tumors with higher accuracy, especially concerning the primary staging and the diagnosis of recurrences. Patients with locoregional disease which are curable by surgery or local radiotherapy (eventually in combination with chemotherapy) can be differentiated from those patients, where only palliative treatment is indicated. Novel nuclear medicine procedures, which use specific tracers, open the door for the molecular treatment of tumors. This will be especially important for radiation oncology. In future it will be possible to define specific tumor areas within a morphologically homogeneous tumor (e.g. areas of tumor hypoxia, increased local tumor stem cell concentration, tumor parts with higher proliferative activity etc.). With IMRT (intensity modulated radiotherapy) we have already now the opportunity, to concentrate the dose to these specific tumor areas, without overloading normal tissues and organs at risk. (orig.)

  19. A Discussion of a Risk-Sharing Pension Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Donnelly

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available I show that risk-sharing pension plans can reduce some of the shortcomings of defined benefit and defined contributions plans. The risk-sharing pension plan presented aims to improve the stability of benefits paid to generations of members, while allowing them to enjoy the expected advantages of a risky investment strategy. The plan does this by adjusting the investment strategy and benefits in response to a changing funding level, motivated by the with-profits contract proposed by Goecke (2013. He suggests a mean-reverting log reserve (or funding ratio, where mean reversion occurs through adjustments to the investment strategy and declared bonuses. To measure the robustness of the plan to human factors, I introduce a measurement of disappointment, where disappointment is high when there are many consecutive years over which benefit payments are declining. Another measure introduced is devastation, where devastation occurs when benefit payments are zero. The motivation is that members of a pension plan who are easily disappointed or likely to get no benefit, are more likely to exit the plan. I find that the risk-sharing plan offers more disappointment than a defined contribution plan, but it eliminates the devastation possible in a plan that tries to accumulate contributions at a steadily increasing rate. The proposed risk-sharing plan can give a narrower range of benefits than in a defined contribution plan. Thus it can offer a stable benefit to members without the risk of running out of money.

  20. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  1. The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 1: Overview and over-arching analysis plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kageyama

    2018-03-01

    environmental changes relevant for the study and projection of future climate changes. This paper describes the motivation for the choice of these periods and the design of the numerical experiments and database requests, with a focus on their novel features compared to the experiments performed in previous phases of PMIP and CMIP. It also outlines the analysis plan that takes advantage of the comparisons of the results across periods and across CMIP6 in collaboration with other MIPs.

  2. The influence of the summer sea breeze on thermal comfort in Funchal (Madeira). A contribution to tourism and urban planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Antonio; Lopes, Sergio; Joao Alcoforado, Maria [Univ. de Lisboa (Portugal). Centro der Estudos Geograficos; Matzarakis, Andreas [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.

    2011-10-15

    Tourism plays a crucial role for the development of coastal areas. Despite the mildness of Madeira's climate, very hot days can occur during summer, a situation to which most tourists from northern Europe (the majority of foreign tourists) are poorly adapted. As sea breezes strongly contribute to moderate heat stress in urban environments, their influence on the thermal comfort on the island has been studied. Sea breezes occurred on 84 % of the days during the period under study (May to October 2006). They usually start around 09:30 h and end after 22:00 h, with an average duration of about 12:50 hours and a mean velocity of 2.9 m/s. Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) was used to evaluate the thermal comfort of a sample of days during the summer of 2006. It was concluded that most of the sites in the city are ''slightly comfortable'' during normal days with sea breeze, but only shore sites and the highest green areas offer some comfort during hot days. Inside the city, the thermal perception is generally ''hot'' and strong heat stress can occur. As sea breezes are important to mitigate heat stress, some basic guidelines were presented: urban planners should take advantage of this wind system avoiding dense construction near the shoreline that would act as a barrier to the renewal of the air inside the city. In terms of tourism, planners and local authorities should provide solutions to mitigate the negative effects during hot periods, creating a system to warn and relocate more vulnerable tourists to places near the shore line, to the mountains, to gardens and air-conditioned buildings. In combination with other components (beauty of the island, gastronomy, cultural values and safety), climate information can be a factor of attractiveness to tourists. (orig.)

  3. Una propuesta de reforma del sistema de pensiones español basada en un modelo de contribución definida nocional || A Proposal for Reforming the Spanish Pension System Based on a Notional Defined Contribution Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Jaime

    2011-06-01

    pension fund reached by applying a notional defined contribution model (NDC; and thirdly, an occupational system based on an auto-enrollment system, which we have called the National Saving System (NSS. Projections have been done up to the year 2039 with conclusive results with regard to retirement pensions (indicating the suitability of the model as well as the GDP relative cost (indicating viability. We analyze how the Spanish Social Security system is an unbalanced one. Our work reveals its lack of sustainability in financial terms, both in the medium and long term. We demonstrate how the new model we are proposing is financially sustainable, and along with a transition period in which the current resources from the Reserve Fund would be used, it would be suitable for the needs of the population.

  4. How Will Teachers Fare in Rhode Island's New Hybrid Pension Plan? Public Pension Project Brief 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard W.; Butrica, Barbara A.; Haaga, Owen; Southgate, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid retirement plans that combine defined benefit pensions with 401(k) type, defined contribution accounts can play important roles in the reform of public-sector pensions. Summarizing results from our longer report ["How Will Rhode Island's New Hybrid Pension Plan Affect Teachers? A Report of the Public Pension Project" (2014)], this…

  5. Implementing the global plan to stop TB, 2011-2015--optimizing allocations and the Global Fund's contribution: a scenario projections study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline L Korenromp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Global Plan to Stop TB estimates funding required in low- and middle-income countries to achieve TB control targets set by the Stop TB Partnership within the context of the Millennium Development Goals. We estimate the contribution and impact of Global Fund investments under various scenarios of allocations across interventions and regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Global Plan assumptions on expected cases and mortality, we estimate treatment costs and mortality impact for diagnosis and treatment for drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB, including antiretroviral treatment (ART during DOTS for HIV-co-infected patients, for four country groups, overall and for the Global Fund investments. In 2015, China and India account for 24% of funding need, Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA for 33%, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA for 20%, and other low- and middle-income countries for 24%. Scale-up of MDR-TB treatment, especially in EECA, drives an increasing global TB funding need--an essential investment to contain the mortality burden associated with MDR-TB and future disease costs. Funding needs rise fastest in SSA, reflecting increasing coverage need of improved TB/HIV management, which saves most lives per dollar spent in the short term. The Global Fund is expected to finance 8-12% of Global Plan implementation costs annually. Lives saved through Global Fund TB support within the available funding envelope could increase 37% if allocations shifted from current regional demand patterns to a prioritized scale-up of improved TB/HIV treatment and secondly DOTS, both mainly in Africa--with EECA region, which has disproportionately high per-patient costs, funded from alternative resources. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings, alongside country funding gaps, domestic funding and implementation capacity and equity considerations, should inform strategies and policies for international donors, national governments and

  6. Defining Quantum Control Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable difference between quantum and classical programs is that the control flow of the former can be either classical or quantum. One of the key issues in the theory of quantum programming languages is defining and understanding quantum control flow. A functional language with quantum control flow was defined by Altenkirch and Grattage [\\textit{Proc. LICS'05}, pp. 249-258]. This paper extends their work, and we introduce a general quantum control structure by defining three new quantu...

  7. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  8. Landscape planning as a contribution to the assessment and finding of sites for energy facilities from an ecological and creative point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchwald, K.

    1977-01-01

    The environmental agreeability examination through landscape planning in connection with the finding of sites for power stations and their integration into area planning is explained. The procedure of landscape planning for the assessment of power station sites is also presented. (RW) [de

  9. Defining Usability of PN Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Ahola, Titta; Fleury, Alexandre

    In this deliverable usability and user experience are defined in relation to MAGNET Beyond technologies, and it is described how the main MAGNET Beyond concepts can be evaluated through the involvement of users. The concepts include the new "Activity based communication approach" for interacting...... with the MAGNET Beyond system, as well as the core concepts: Personal Network, Personal Network-Federation, Service Discovery, User Profile Management, Personal Network Management, Privacy and Security and Context Awareness. The overall plans for the final usability evaluation are documented based on the present...

  10. Impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on computed tomography defined target volumes in radiation treatment planning of esophageal cancer : reduction in geographic misses with equal inter-observer variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, Liesbeth; Busz, D. M.; Paardekooper, G. M. R. M.; Beukema, J. C.; Jager, P. L.; Van der Jagt, E. J.; van Dam, G. M.; Groen, H.; Plukker, J. Th. M.; Langendijk, J. A.

    P>Target volume definition in modern radiotherapy is based on planning computed tomography (CT). So far, 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has not been included in planning modality in volume definition of esophageal cancer. This study evaluates fusion of FDG-PET and CT in

  11. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... weight for a given height is described as overweight or obese. Body Mass Index, or BMI, is ...

  12. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): For women, low-risk drinking is defined ...

  13. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  14. Endoscopic clipping for gastrointestinal tumors. A method to define the target volume more precisely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riepl, M.; Klautke, G.; Fehr, R.; Fietkau, R.; Pietsch, A.

    2000-01-01

    Background: In many cases it is not possible to exactly define the extension of carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract with the help of computertomography scans made for 3-D-radiation treatment planning. Consequently, the planning of external beam radiotherapy is made more difficult for the gross tumor volume as well as, in some cases, also for the clinical target volume. Patients and Methods: Eleven patients with macrosocpic tumors (rectal cancer n = 5, cardiac cancer n = 6) were included. Just before 3-D planning, the oral and aboral border of the tumor was marked endoscopically with hemoclips. Subsequently, CT scans for radiotherapy planning were made and the clinical target volume was defined. Five to 6 weeks thereafter, new CT scans were done to define the gross tumor volume for boost planning. Two investigators independently assessed the influence of the hemoclips on the different planning volumes, and whether the number of clips was sufficient to define the gross tumor volume. Results: In all patients, the implantation of the clips was done without complications. Start of radiotherapy was not delayed. With the help of the clips it was possible to exactly define the position and the extension of the primary tumor. The clinical target volume was modified according to the position of the clips in 5/11 patients; the gross tumor volume was modified in 7/11 patients. The use of the clips made the documentation and verification of the treatment portals by the simulator easier. Moreover, the clips helped the surgeon to define the primary tumor region following marked regression after neoadjuvant therapy in 3 patients. Conclusions: Endoscopic clipping of gastrointestinal tumors helps to define the tumor volumes more precisely in radiation therapy. The clips are easily recognized on the portal films and, thus, contribute to quality control. (orig.) [de

  15. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields. I

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We study definably compact definably connected groups definable in a sufficiently saturated real closed field $R$. We introduce the notion of group-generic point for $\\bigvee$-definable groups and show the existence of group-generic points for definably compact groups definable in a sufficiently saturated o-minimal expansion of a real closed field. We use this notion along with some properties of generic sets to prove that for every definably compact definably connected group $G$ definable in...

  16. Inquiry notice concerning the modalities of putting into place of the administration contribution of small hydroelectric generation in the resource plans of Hydro-Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumais, A.; Frayne, A.; Tanguay, F.

    1999-01-01

    On June 11, 1998 the Minister of State for Natural Resources in Quebec submitted to the Management of Energy in virtue of article 42 of the Law on the Management of Energy an inquiry notice concerning the modalities of putting into place the administration contribution of private hydroelectricity in the resource plan of Hydro-Quebec. The Minister of State requested of the Management to specify the size of a quoted part of reserving commoadministration, to indicate the period of time needed to space it out, and to give him notice of the buying price which would be socially acceptable for this form of energy. For the Minister, such a quoted part must be sufficiently important in order to release and support suppliers of goods and services. Also, the buying price offered by the Management must take into consideration the fiscal shares drawn from the exploitation of these installations which when set up in the public domain can be recovered without costs by the government at the end of the lease. Conforming to article 25 of the law, the Management held a public hearing consisting of three phases. In the first phase, all parties interested in succeeding in submitting their demands in conformity with chapters III and VII of the Proceedural Regulations were invited to make their demands and submit their observations according to the suggested time table, likewise making suggestions on debated questions. The management received twenty demands and four statements of intentions on the part of interested parties in relation to the sense of article 11 of the Proceedural Regulations. In the second phase, the interested parties submited according to the established time table their bills, their demands for information and particulars, and their responses to demands. This phase ended in May 1999. For the rest, arguments were entertained in a public forum in Montreal from June 1 to 22, 1999. The final arguments took place on July 12, 1999. The report contents include: introduction

  17. White plan and crisis management. Help guide for the elaboration of extended white plans and of white plans for health establishments. Issue 2006, appendix to circular nr DHOS/CGR/2006/401 of 2006 September 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    White plans are specific emergency plans to be implemented in public and private health establishments. While introducing necessary modifications and taking public health policy effects into account, this document first defines crises and their management (levels of intervention from the local to the national level, typology of emergency plans, emergency medical chain, extended white plans). The second part proposes a set of sheets which aim to be a support in the elaboration of the extended white plan and of the white plan. The third part, based on professional contributions and lessons learned, addresses two important issues: firstly, the crisis management exercise, and secondly the hospital under tension and white plan triggering thresholds

  18. Management of key pension plan risks from the user aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pension system is an important form of protection of individuals, i.e. of their ensuring for a period of living after retirement, when they are no longer able for working engagement. On the other hand, as a form of long-term insurance, this system presents a strong investment incentive for each economy. Pension plans are an important element of the pension system. There are defined benefit plans, defined contribution plans and hybrid plans, which represent a combination of the two previously mentioned plans. The aim of the work is to define the key risks for each of these types of pension plans in order to determine their advantages and disadvantages, from the aspect of their potential users, on the basis of their comparative analysis.

  19. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  20. Software Defined Cyberinfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian; Blaiszik, Ben; Chard, Kyle; Chard, Ryan

    2017-07-17

    Within and across thousands of science labs, researchers and students struggle to manage data produced in experiments, simulations, and analyses. Largely manual research data lifecycle management processes mean that much time is wasted, research results are often irreproducible, and data sharing and reuse remain rare. In response, we propose a new approach to data lifecycle management in which researchers are empowered to define the actions to be performed at individual storage systems when data are created or modified: actions such as analysis, transformation, copying, and publication. We term this approach software-defined cyberinfrastructure because users can implement powerful data management policies by deploying rules to local storage systems, much as software-defined networking allows users to configure networks by deploying rules to switches.We argue that this approach can enable a new class of responsive distributed storage infrastructure that will accelerate research innovation by allowing any researcher to associate data workflows with data sources, whether local or remote, for such purposes as data ingest, characterization, indexing, and sharing. We report on early experiments with this approach in the context of experimental science, in which a simple if-trigger-then-action (IFTA) notation is used to define rules.

  1. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  2. Software Defined Coded Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Carla; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Palazzo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    the quality of each link and even across neighbouring links and using simulations to show that an additional reduction of packet transmission in the order of 40% is possible. Second, to advocate for the use of network coding (NC) jointly with software defined networking (SDN) providing an implementation...

  3. Defining depth of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S L; Stanski, D R

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, drawn largely from the synthesis of material that we first presented in the sixth edition of Miller's Anesthesia, Chap 31 (Stanski and Shafer 2005; used by permission of the publisher), we have defined anesthetic depth as the probability of non-response to stimulation, calibrated against the strength of the stimulus, the difficulty of suppressing the response, and the drug-induced probability of non-responsiveness at defined effect site concentrations. This definition requires measurement of multiple different stimuli and responses at well-defined drug concentrations. There is no one stimulus and response measurement that will capture depth of anesthesia in a clinically or scientifically meaningful manner. The "clinical art" of anesthesia requires calibration of these observations of stimuli and responses (verbal responses, movement, tachycardia) against the dose and concentration of anesthetic drugs used to reduce the probability of response, constantly adjusting the administered dose to achieve the desired anesthetic depth. In our definition of "depth of anesthesia" we define the need for two components to create the anesthetic state: hypnosis created with drugs such as propofol or the inhalational anesthetics and analgesia created with the opioids or nitrous oxide. We demonstrate the scientific evidence that profound degrees of hypnosis in the absence of analgesia will not prevent the hemodynamic responses to profoundly noxious stimuli. Also, profound degrees of analgesia do not guarantee unconsciousness. However, the combination of hypnosis and analgesia suppresses hemodynamic response to noxious stimuli and guarantees unconsciousness.

  4. Defining and classifying syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Roland D.; Wieling, Wouter; Kaufmann, Horacio; van Dijk, Gert

    2004-01-01

    There is no widely adopted definition or classification of syncope and related disorders. This lack of uniformity harms patient care, research, and medical education. In this article, syncope is defined as a form of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Differences

  5. Contribution to the operating energy planning of hydrothermal power systems; Contribuicao ao planejamento da operacao energetica de sistemas hidrotermicos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Adriano Alber de Franca Mendes

    1991-08-01

    This work treats of the problem of the planning of the energy operation of hydrothermal power systems, gone back to those with predominance of hydraulic generation, as it is the case of the Brazilian system. The work makes an analysis of the problem of the planning of the energy operation of systems hydrothermal leaving of the concepts and nature of this problem. Their inherent difficulties are shown and they come the main approaches in operation in countries with predominance of hydroelectric generation. It still introduces the methodology in energy planning in Brazil being pointed their main limitations. Finally an alternative model for the planning of the energy operation of the system brazilian hydrothermal, based on the made studies is also presented.

  6. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  7. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  8. The contribution of ineffective urban planning practices to disaster and disaster risks accumulation in urban areas: the case of former Kunduchi quarry site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict F. Malele

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the link between urban planning practices and disaster risks. The study used the former Kunduchi Quarry Site within the City of Dar es Salaam to demonstrate how laxity in enforcing the laid down planning rules, regulations and procedures facilitates the accumulation and occurrence of disaster risks and disasters in urban areas. This undermines one of the central roles of urban planning, which is to protect the lives of people from disaster risks and disasters. In exploring this, the study specifically focused on understanding the rules, regulations and procedures of planning in Tanzania; the extent to which they are followed and, where they are not followed, their implications for disaster risks and disasters; the coping initiatives adopted by local communities to reduce risks and their level of success or failure; and finally the drawing of lessons and recommendations for disaster risk reduction in urban areas. Strongly emerging from this study is the finding that although planning rules and regulations do exist, they are not enforced. As a result urban communities suffer from disaster risks and disasters caused by unregulated activities. The study analyzed the coping initiatives that urban communities apply to reduce disaster risks in their areas. It noted that, while a range of “coping” responses could be observed, these are not lasting solutions to the disaster risks being faced. Sustainable solutions seem to be known by the local community but they are not adopted for fear of compromising or undermining their existing livelihood strategies.

  9. [Consumer satisfaction study in philanthropic hospital health plans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschman, Silvia; Veiga, Luciana; Guimarães, César; Ugá, Maria Alicia Dominguez; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Vasconcellos, Miguel Murat; Barbosa, Pedro Ribeiro; Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of research aimed at identifying and analyzing the argumentation and rationale that justify the satisfaction of consumers with their health plans. The qualitative method applied used the focus group technique, for which the following aspects were defined: the criteria for choosing the health plans which were considered, the composition of the group and its distribution, recruitment strategy, and infrastructure and dynamics of the meetings. The health plan beneficiaries were classified into groups according to their social class, the place where they lived, mainly, the relationship that they established with the health plan operators which enabled us to develop a typology for the plan beneficiaries. Initially, we indicated how the health plan beneficiaries assess and use the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), and, then, considering the types of plans defined, we evaluated their degree of satisfaction with the different aspects of health care, and identified which aspects mostly contributed explain their satisfaction.

  10. The Trade-Off between Planning Objectives and Planning Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laval Valerian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper it to analyse, why companies face difficulties in implementing modern planning concepts. For this the paper will discuss and define the terminology and goals of modern planning. Based on this, the article analyses how strategy orientation influences the willingness of companies to move from traditional budgeting to modern budgeting concepts. It will be outlined, why especially companies pursuing a cost leadership strategy are still reluctant to open themselves for modern budgeting concepts. The contribution of this paper is to analyse the influence of the strategy orientation on the readiness of organizations. Also it will be illustrated, how the overall value added of the corporate planning can be improved by prioritizing the most appropriate planning objectives.

  11. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  12. Behavioral economics perspectives on public sector pension plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C

    2011-04-01

    We describe the pension plan features of the states and the largest cities and counties in the U.S. Unlike in the private sector, defined benefit (DB) pensions are still the norm in the public sector. However, a few jurisdictions have shifted toward defined contribution (DC) plans as their primary savings plan, and fiscal pressures are likely to generate more movement in this direction. Holding fixed a public employee's work and salary history, we show that DB retirement income replacement ratios vary greatly across jurisdictions. This creates large variation in workers' need to save for retirement in other accounts. There is also substantial heterogeneity across jurisdictions in the savings generated in primary DC plans because of differences in the level of mandatory employer and employee contributions. One notable difference between public and private sector DC plans is that public sector primary DC plans are characterized by required employee or employer contributions (or both), whereas private sector plans largely feature voluntary employee contributions that are supplemented by an employer match. We conclude by applying lessons from savings behavior in private sector savings plans to the design of public sector plans.

  13. Deficient motion-defined and texture-defined figure-ground segregation in amblyopic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jane; Ho, Cindy S; Giaschi, Deborah E

    2007-01-01

    Motion-defined form deficits in the fellow eye and the amblyopic eye of children with amblyopia implicate possible direction-selective motion processing or static figure-ground segregation deficits. Deficient motion-defined form perception in the fellow eye of amblyopic children may not be fully accounted for by a general motion processing deficit. This study investigates the contribution of figure-ground segregation deficits to the motion-defined form perception deficits in amblyopia. Performances of 6 amblyopic children (5 anisometropic, 1 anisostrabismic) and 32 control children with normal vision were assessed on motion-defined form, texture-defined form, and global motion tasks. Performance on motion-defined and texture-defined form tasks was significantly worse in amblyopic children than in control children. Performance on global motion tasks was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Faulty figure-ground segregation mechanisms are likely responsible for the observed motion-defined form perception deficits in amblyopia.

  14. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior in Physical Activity: Predictive Validity and the Contribution of Additional Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S.; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations between behavior, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, and past behaviors using the Theories of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Planned Behavior (TPB) in physical activity. This quantitative integration of the physical activity literature supported the major relationships of the…

  15. 26 CFR 1.404(a)-3 - Contributions of an employer to or under an employees' pension trust or annuity plan that meets...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus... foreign situs pension trust which could qualify for exemption under section 501(a) except that it is not... and methods which are reasonable in view of the provisions and coverage of the plan, the funding...

  16. Hanford defined waste model limitations and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan, Milestone 5,6.3.1.i requires issuance of this report which addresses ''updates to the tank contents model''. This report summarizes the review of the Hanford Defined Waste, Revision 4, model limitations and provides conclusions and recommendations for potential updates to the model

  17. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement surrounding the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is associated with discovering the mechanism responsible for the masses of the elementary particles. This paper will first briefly examine the leading definitions, pointing out their shortcomings. Then, utilizing relativity theory, it will propose—for consideration by the community of physicists—a conceptual definition of mass predicated on the more fundamental concept of energy, more fundamental in that everything that has mass has energy, yet not everything that has energy has mass.

  18. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  19. Defining the mobilome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Janet L

    2009-01-01

    This chapter defines the agents that provide for the movement of genetic material which fuels the adaptive potential of life on our planet. The chapter has been structured to be broadly comprehensive, arbitrarily categorizing the mobilome into four classes: (1) transposons, (2) plasmids, (3) bacteriophage, and (4) self-splicing molecular parasites.Our increasing understanding of the mobilome is as dynamic as the mobilome itself. With continuing discovery, it is clear that nature has not confined these genomic agents of change to neat categories, but rather the classification categories overlap and intertwine. Massive sequencing efforts and their published analyses are continuing to refine our understanding of the extent of the mobilome. This chapter provides a framework to describe our current understanding of the mobilome and a foundation on which appreciation of its impact on genome evolution can be understood.

  20. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    Network Service Providers (NSP) often choose to overprovision their networks instead of deploying proper Quality of Services (QoS) mechanisms that allow for traffic differentiation and predictable quality. This tendency of overprovisioning is not sustainable for the simple reason that network...... resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...... generic perspective (e.g. service provisioning speed, resources availability). As a result, new mechanisms for providing QoS are proposed, solutions for SDN-specific QoS challenges are designed and tested, and new network management concepts are prototyped, all aiming to improve QoS for network services...

  1. Defining Quality in Undergraduate Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. Bowers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research brief explores the literature addressing quality in undergraduate education to identify what previous research has said about quality and to offer future directions for research on quality in undergraduate education. Method: We conducted a scoping review to provide a broad overview of existing research. Using targeted search terms in academic databases, we identified and reviewed relevant academic literature to develop emergent themes and implications for future research. Results: The exploratory review of the literature revealed a range of thoughtful discussions and empirical studies attempting to define quality in undergraduate education. Many publications highlighted the importance of including different stakeholder perspectives and presented some of the varying perceptions of quality among different stakeholders. Conclusions: While a number of researchers have explored and written about how to define quality in undergraduate education, there is not a general consensus regarding a definition of quality in undergraduate education. Past research offers a range of insights, models, and data to inform future research. Implication for Theory and/or Practice: We provide four recommendations for future research to contribute to a high quality undergraduate educational experience. We suggest more comprehensive systematic reviews of the literature as a next step.

  2. Contribution of matrix converter in microgeneration for a sustainable energy planning; Contribuicao do conversor matricial na microgeracao para um planejamento energetico sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Javier Alexis Andrade; Romero, Jesus Franklin Andrade [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], emails: javier.romero@ufabc.edu.br, jesus.romero@ufabc.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    Once microturbine (MT) based generation systems present suitable and short term application conditions in distributed generation, a rigorous sustainability evaluation is necessary. In this work a Two Stage Matrix Converter (CM2E) that improves the energy efficiency performance is evaluated. In this sense, an analysis based on technological indicators regarding a sustainable energy planning is presented in technological, economic, social and environmental dimensions (author)

  3. Defining the role of University of Kentucky HealthCare in its medical market--how strategic planning creates the intersection of good public policy and good business practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Michael; Lofgren, Richard; Bricker, Timothy; Claypool, Joseph O; Zembrodt, Jim; Perman, Jay; Higdon, Courtney M

    2009-02-01

    In response both to national pressures to reduce costs and improve health care access and outcomes and to local pressures to become a top-20 public research university, the University of Kentucky moved toward an integrated clinical enterprise, UK HealthCare, to create a common vision, shared goals, and an effective decision-making process. The leadership formed the vision and then embarked on a comprehensive and coordinated planning process that addressed financial, clinical, academic, and operational issues. The authors describe in depth the strategic planning process and specifically the definition of UK HealthCare's role in its medical marketplace. They began a rigorous process to assess and develop goals for the clinical programs and followed the progress of these programs through meetings driven by data and attended by the organization's senior leadership. They describe their approach to working with rural and community hospitals throughout central, eastern, and southern Kentucky to support the health care infrastructure of the state. They review the early successes of their strategic approach and describe the lessons they learned. The clinical successes have led to academic gains. The experience of UK HealthCare suggests that good business practices and good public policy are synergistic.

  4. 26 CFR 1.404(a)-8 - Contributions of an employer under an employees' annuity plan which meets the requirements of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following conditions must be satisfied: (1) The contributions must be paid toward the purchase of retirement... taxable year toward the purchase of retirement annuities (or for disability, severance, insurance..., experience rating credits, or surrender or cancellation credits. The arrangement may be in the form of...

  5. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  6. Teleology and Defining Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Nathan K; Pruski, Michal

    2018-07-01

    Disorders of sexual differentiation lead to what is often referred to as an intersex state. This state has medical, as well as some legal, recognition. Nevertheless, the question remains whether intersex persons occupy a state in between maleness and femaleness or whether they are truly men or women. To answer this question, another important conundrum needs to be first solved: what defines sex? The answer seems rather simple to most people, yet when morphology does not coincide with haplotypes, and genetics might not correlate with physiology the issue becomes more complex. This paper tackles both issues by establishing where the essence of sex is located and by superimposing that framework onto the issue of the intersex. This is achieved through giving due consideration to the biology of sexual development, as well as through the use of a teleological framework of the meaning of sex. Using a range of examples, the paper establishes that sex cannot be pinpointed to one biological variable but is rather determined by how the totality of one's biology is oriented towards biological reproduction. A brief consideration is also given to the way this situation could be comprehended from a Christian understanding of sex and suffering.

  7. Opinion of the Commission of sustainable development and land planning on the bill project related to the application of the precautionary principle defined in the Charter for the Environment to risks resulting from electromagnetic waves (nr 531) - Nr 585

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallard, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    In a first part, this report outlines that electromagnetic waves are always more present in our environment (mobile phones, radio and television waves, electricity transport, and domestic devices), comments the concern about possible hazards related to these waves and recommendations made by different French and international organisations (WHO, ANSES, European Agency for the Environment), and outlines improvements to be brought to the bill project. The second part reports the Commission's general discussion and comments on the different articles. A first set of articles contain general measures (modifications in the environment code, in the urban planning code, and in the post and telecommunications code, advertising prohibition, information campaign on the use of mobile phone). A second set of articles address provisional and financial measures

  8. A linear programming approach for the optimal planning of a future energy system. Potential contribution of energy recovery from municipal solid wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George; Koroneos, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper the mismatch between the energy supply levels and the end use, in a broader sense, was studied for the Hellenic energy system. The ultimate objective was to optimize the way to meet the country's energy needs in every different administrative and geographical region using...... renewable energy sources (RES) and at the same time to define the remaining available space for energy recovery units from municipal solid waste (MSW) in each region to participate in the energy system. Based on the results of the different scenarios examined for meeting the electricity needs using linear...

  9. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  10. Coupling the biophysical and social dimensions of wildfire risk to improve wildfire mitigation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan A. Ager; Jeffrey D. Kline; A. Paige Fisher

    2015-01-01

    We describe recent advances in biophysical and social aspects of risk and their potential combined contribution to improve mitigation planning on fire-prone landscapes. The methods and tools provide an improved method for defining the spatial extent of wildfire risk to communities compared to current planning processes. They also propose an expanded role for social...

  11. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields.II

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We continue the analysis of definably compact groups definable in a real closed field $\\mathcal{R}$. In [3], we proved that for every definably compact definably connected semialgebraic group $G$ over $\\mathcal{R}$ there are a connected $R$-algebraic group $H$, a definable injective map $\\phi$ from a generic definable neighborhood of the identity of $G$ into the group $H\\left(R\\right)$ of $R$-points of $H$ such that $\\phi$ acts as a group homomorphism inside its domain. The above result and o...

  12. Final report of the study on heat networks in Ile-de-France, contributing to the elaboration of the climate-air-energy regional scheme + Judicial aspect + Economic aspect + Assessment of development potential of urban heating in Ile-de-France - Analysis document based on the study on heat networks contributing to the elaboration of the climate-air-energy regional plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    A first report is a contribution to the elaboration of a plan aiming at the substitution of fossil energies, at the development of heat deliveries, while maintaining network economic profitability. Such a plan is based on the connection of buildings, the renovation, extension and interconnection of existing networks, and the creation of new heat networks. The study addressed technical, urban, financial, judicial and cartographic aspects. Public statistical data have been used and interviews of actors (network funders, representatives of delegating authorities, social landlords, administrations, and technical professions) have been performed. A guide of good practices is proposed regarding contract reviewing conditions, possibilities of revision of subscribed power. Prospective issues are discussed: strategic stakes and deposits, actions paths and tools, strategy and action plan. Appendices address methodologies, organisation of the geographical information system, judicial aspect with the circular of 1982, financial data and aspects. Then, a set of reports more precisely presents various aspects addressed as a contribution for the study of heat networks in Ile-de-France: the judicial aspect (present status, guide of good judicial practices), the economic aspect (present status of sale prices and costs, analysis of financing, of revision formula), and an assessment of urban heating development (context, technical aspect, analysis of the geographical information system)

  13. Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartock, Michael; Hansen, Todd, editors

    2000-07-01

    The FY 2001-2005 Institutional Plan provides an overview of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab, the Laboratory) mission, strategic plan, initiatives, and the resources required to fulfill its role in support of national needs in fundamental science and technology, energy resources, and environmental quality. To advance the Department of Energy's ongoing efforts to define the Integrated Laboratory System, the Berkeley Lab Institutional Plan reflects the strategic elements of our planning efforts. The Institutional Plan is a management report that supports the Department of Energy's mission and programs and is an element of the Department of Energy's strategic management planning activities, developed through an annual planning process. The Plan supports the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 and complements the performance-based contract between the Department of Energy and the Regents of the University of California. It identifies technical and administrative directions in the context of the national energy policy and research needs and the Department of Energy's program planning initiatives. Preparation of the Plan is coordinated by the Office of Planning and Communications from information contributed by Berkeley Lab's scientific and support divisions.

  14. Resource planning of solid waste materials through process modelling as contribution to sustainable resource management; Ressourcenplanung fester Abfallstoffe mit Hilfe der Prozessmodellierung als Beitrag zum nachhaltigen Ressourcenmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehlken, Alexandra [Bremen Univ. (Germany). BIK, Institut fuer integrierte Produktentwicklung

    2010-10-15

    Raw materials are essential to satisfy our needs in energy and products. Many raw materials are restricted and far away from being endless available; therefore there is a strong intention of developing raw material- and energy-efficient production processes. Recycling processes provide a substantial contribution to sustainable resource management due to the supply of valuable secondary raw materials for new applications. Processing solid waste materials generate new secondary resources from residues as resources for new products. This saves primary resources and keeps up a long material life cycle. But material characterisation is an important issue to look at. Material properties ascertain the following application possibilities. It has to be noted that no processing technique can guarantee solely material flows with properties to substitute primary raw materials. There are always material flows that are of minor quality. This makes it difficult to assess the future potential of secondary raw materials to be available for following applications with specific quality demands. (orig.)

  15. Understanding surgery choices for breast cancer: how might the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Common Sense Model contribute to decision support interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivell, Stephanie; Edwards, Adrian; Elwyn, Glyn; Manstead, Antony S. R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To describe the evidence about factors influencing breast cancer patients’ surgery choices and the implications for designing decision support in reference to an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the Common Sense Model of Illness Representations (CSM). Background  A wide range of factors are known to influence the surgery choices of women diagnosed with early breast cancer facing the choice of mastectomy or breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy. However, research does not always reflect the complexities of decision making and is often atheoretical. A theoretical approach, as provided by the CSM and the TPB, could help to identify and tailor support by focusing on patients’ representations of their breast cancer and predicting surgery choices. Design  Literature search and narrative synthesis of data. Synthesis  Twenty‐six studies reported women’s surgery choices to be influenced by perceived clinical outcomes of surgery, appearance and body image, treatment concerns, involvement in decision making and preferences of clinicians. These factors can be mapped onto the key constructs of both the TPB and CSM and used to inform the design and development of decision support interventions to ensure accurate information is provided in areas most important to patients. Conclusions  The TPB and CSM have the potential to inform the design of decision support for breast cancer patients, with accurate and clear information that avoids leading patients to make decisions they may come to regret. Further research is needed examining how the components of the extended TPB and CSM account for patients’ surgery choices. PMID:20579123

  16. Planning documents: a business planning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehrle, P A

    2000-06-01

    Strategic planning and business plan development are essential nursing management skills in today's competitive, fast paced, continually changing health care environment. Even in times of great uncertainty, nurse managers need to plan and forecast for the future. A well-written business plan allows nurse managers to communicate their expertise and proactively contribute to the programmatic decisions and changes occurring within their patient population or service area. This article presents the use of planning documents as a practical, strategic business planning strategy. Although the model addresses orthopedic services specifically, nurse managers can gain an understanding and working knowledge of planning concepts that can be applied to all patient populations.

  17. Strategic and operational plan for energy transition for the Mulhouse Alsace agglomeration - housing, planning, mobilisation, energy mix, green growth, transport, awareness, consumption. The contribution of the Mulhouse agglomeration to the COP 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockel, Jean-Marie; Spiegel, Jo

    2016-02-01

    This document notably refers to 20 actual short-term projects implemented in the Mulhouse region for energy transition. After a recall of the meaning and interest of energy transition, a description of the international, European, national and regional context, and a brief introduction to the commitment of the agglomeration, it indicates and comments its evolutions and objectives regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and describes the implemented governance which involves several actors, bodies organisations and partnerships. The next part presents orientations of the strategic and operational plan for energy transition: mobilisation of the territory and inhabitants, optimisation of energy efficiency in public patrimony and for individuals, promotion of an energy mix and development of renewable energies, transports as a vector of energy transition, support to local communities, support to innovation and to green growth. For each of these themes, the report indicates assessment elements, the initiated dynamics, quantitative objectives to be reached, and actual implemented short-term projects

  18. On the contribution of motor planning to the retroactive cuing benefit in working memory: Evidence by mu and beta oscillatory activity in the EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Barth, Anna; Wascher, Edmund

    2017-11-15

    Attention can be allocated toward mental representations in working memory also after the initial encoding of information has been completed. It was shown that focusing on only one item within working memory transfers this representation into a protected state, reducing its susceptibility to interference by incoming signals. The present study investigated the nature of this retroactive cue (retro-cue) benefit by means of oscillatory activity in the EEG. In a working memory task with a retro-cue indicating one, two or three memory representations as relevant and a block-wise distractor display presented after the retro-cue, participants had to remember the orientation of a colored bar. On behavioral level, we found that the interfering effect of the distractor display on memory performance could be prevented when a retro-cue reduced the number of attended representations in working memory. However, only the one-item retro-cue led to an overall increase in task performance compared to a condition without a retro-cue. The neural basis of this special representational status was investigated by means of oscillatory parameters in the EEG and a clustering approach on level of the independent components (ICs) in the signal. The retroactive reduction of attended working memory representations was reflected in a suppression of alpha power over right parietal and parieto-occipital sites. In addition, we found that an IC cluster representing oscillatory activity in the mu/beta range (10-12 Hz and 20-24 Hz) with a source in sensorimotor cortex revealed a power suppression already prior to the memory probe following the one-item retro-cue. This suggests that the retro-cue benefit results in large parts from the possibility to focus attention on one particular item in working memory and initiate motor planning processes already ahead of the probe stimulus indicating the respective response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preoperative planning of calcium deposit removal in calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff - possible contribution of computed tomography, ultrasound and conventional X-Ray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadpanah, Kaywan; Jaeger, Martin; Maier, Dirk; Südkamp, Norbert P; Ogon, Peter

    2014-11-20

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of Ultrasound (US), conventional X-Ray (CX) and Computed Tomography (CT) to estimate the total count, localization, morphology and consistency of Calcium deposits (CDs) in the rotator cuff. US, CX and CT imaging was performed pre-operatively in 151 patients who underwent arthroscopic removal of CDs in the rotator cuff. In all procedures: (1) total CD counts were determined, (2) the CDs appearance in each image modality was correlated to the intraoperative consistency and (3) CDs were localized in their relation to the acromion using US, CX and CT. Using US158 CDs, using CT 188 CDs and using CX 164 CDs were identified. Reliable localization of the CDs was possible with all used diagnostic modalities. CT revealed 49% of the CDs to be septated, out of which 85% were uni- and 15% multiseptated. CX was not suitable for prediction of CDs consistency. US reliably predicted viscous-solid CDs consistency only when presenting with full sound extinction (PPV 84.6%) . CT had high positive and negative predictive values for detection of liquid-soft (PPV 92.9%) and viscous-solid (PPV 87.8%) CDs. US and CX are sufficient for preoperative planning of CD removal with regards to localization and prediction of consistency if the deposits present with full sound extinction. This is the case in the majority of the patients. However, in patients with missing sound extinction CT can be recommended if CDs consistency of the deposits should be determined. Satellite deposits or septations are regularly present, which is of importance if complete CD removal is aspired.

  20. Sensemaking in Enterprise Resource Planning Project Deescalation: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battleson, Douglas Aloys

    2013-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) projects, a type of complex information technology project, are very challenging and expensive to implement. Past research recognizes that escalation, defined as the commitment to a failing course of action, is common in such projects. While the factors that contribute to escalation (e.g., project conditions,…

  1. Introducing and modeling inefficiency contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Kronborg, Dorte; Matthews, Kent

    2016-01-01

    -called inefficiency contributions, which are defined as the relative contributions from specific variables to the overall levels of inefficiencies. A statistical model for distinguishing the inefficiency contributions between subgroups is proposed and the method is illustrated on a data set on Chinese banks....

  2. Portability, Salary and Asset Price Risk: A Continuous-Time Expected Utility Comparison of DB and DC Pension Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two different types of private retirement plans from the perspective of a representative beneficiary: a defined benefit (DB and a defined contribution (DC plan. While salary risk is the main common risk factor in DB and DC pension plans, one of the key differences is that DB plans carry portability risks, whereas DC plans bear asset price risk. We model these tradeoffs explicitly in this paper and compare these two plans in a utility-based framework. Our numerical analysis focuses on answering the question of when the beneficiary is indifferent between the DB and DC plan. Most of our results confirm the findings in the existing literature, among which, e.g., portability losses considerably reduce the relative attractiveness of the DB plan. However, we also find that the attractiveness of the DB plan can decrease in the level of risk aversion, which is inconsistent with the existing literature.

  3. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  4. City Labs as Vehicles for Innovation in Urban Planning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Scholl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the role of urban experiments for local planning processes through a case-based analysis of the city lab of Maastricht. In conjunction with this, the article offers three contributions, as additional elements. Firstly, the paper develops a set of defining characteristics of city labs as an analytical concept which is relevant for discussions about (collaborative planning. Secondly, it refines the literature on collaborative planning by drawing attention to experimentation and innovation. Thirdly, the paper assesses the potential of city labs to contribute to the innovation of urban governance. The work draws from the literature on experimentation and learning as well as the literature on collaborative urban planning. In the conclusions, we discuss the potential of city labs as vehicles for learning about new urban planning approaches and their limitations as spaces for small-scale experimentation. The paper is based on research for the URB@Exp research project funded by JPI Urban Europe.

  5. Work program analysis - defining the capability/risk plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrinivich, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Bruce Power has developed and implemented an analysis methodology (Work Program Analysis) to assess and address corporate business risk associated with work group capability. Work Program Analysis is proving to be an excellent tool for identifying and supporting key business decisions facing the line and senior management at Bruce Power. The following describes the methodology, its application and the results achieved. (author)

  6. Defining and Analyzing the Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wendell L.

    1986-01-01

    Market analysis and definition are critical to developing a marketing plan for continuing education. The process begins with assessment of institutional resources and goals, as well as assessment of the competition. A target market is then chosen and a marketing plan is devised. (CH)

  7. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  8. Independent Technical Review Of The Focused Feasibility Study And Proposed Plan For Designated Solid Waste Management Units Contributing To The Southwest Groundwater Plume At The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.; Amidon, M.; Rossabi, J.; Stewart, L.

    2011-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently developing a Proposed Plan (PP) for remediation of designated sources of chlorinated solvents that contribute contamination to the Southwest (SW) Groundwater Plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, KY. The principal contaminants in the SW Plume are trichloroethene (TCE) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); these industrial solvents were used and disposed in various facilities and locations at PGDP. In the SW plume area, residual TCE sources are primarily in the fine-grained sediments of the Upper Continental Recharge System (UCRS), a partially saturated zone that delivers contaminants downward into the coarse-grained Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). The RGA serves as the significant lateral groundwater transport pathway for the plume. In the SW Plume area, the four main contributing TCE source units are: (1) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 1 / Oil Landfarm; (2) C-720 Building TCE Northeast Spill Site (SWMU 211A); (3) C-720 Building TCE Southeast Spill Site (SWMU 211B); and (4) C-747 Contaminated Burial Yard (SWMU 4). The PP presents the Preferred Alternatives for remediation of VOCs in the UCRS at the Oil Landfarm and the C-720 Building spill sites. The basis for the PP is documented in a Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) (DOE, 2011) and a Site Investigation Report (SI) (DOE, 2007). The SW plume is currently within the boundaries of PGDP (i.e., does not extend off-site). Nonetheless, reasonable mitigation of the multiple contaminant sources contributing to the SW plume is one of the necessary components identified in the PGDP End State Vision (DOE, 2005). Because of the importance of the proposed actions DOE assembled an Independent Technical Review (ITR) team to provide input and assistance in finalizing the PP.

  9. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE FOCUSED FEASIBILITY STUDY AND PROPOSED PLAN FOR DESIGNATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNITS CONTRIBUTING TO THE SOUTHWEST GROUNDWATER PLUME AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.; Amidon, M.; Rossabi, J.; Stewart, L.

    2011-05-31

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently developing a Proposed Plan (PP) for remediation of designated sources of chlorinated solvents that contribute contamination to the Southwest (SW) Groundwater Plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, KY. The principal contaminants in the SW Plume are trichloroethene (TCE) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); these industrial solvents were used and disposed in various facilities and locations at PGDP. In the SW plume area, residual TCE sources are primarily in the fine-grained sediments of the Upper Continental Recharge System (UCRS), a partially saturated zone that delivers contaminants downward into the coarse-grained Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). The RGA serves as the significant lateral groundwater transport pathway for the plume. In the SW Plume area, the four main contributing TCE source units are: (1) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 1 / Oil Landfarm; (2) C-720 Building TCE Northeast Spill Site (SWMU 211A); (3) C-720 Building TCE Southeast Spill Site (SWMU 211B); and (4) C-747 Contaminated Burial Yard (SWMU 4). The PP presents the Preferred Alternatives for remediation of VOCs in the UCRS at the Oil Landfarm and the C-720 Building spill sites. The basis for the PP is documented in a Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) (DOE, 2011) and a Site Investigation Report (SI) (DOE, 2007). The SW plume is currently within the boundaries of PGDP (i.e., does not extend off-site). Nonetheless, reasonable mitigation of the multiple contaminant sources contributing to the SW plume is one of the necessary components identified in the PGDP End State Vision (DOE, 2005). Because of the importance of the proposed actions DOE assembled an Independent Technical Review (ITR) team to provide input and assistance in finalizing the PP.

  10. Planning for agroforestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budd, W.W.; Duchhart, I.; Hardesty, L.N.; Steiner, F.

    1990-01-01

    In this book a selection of contributions to the international symposium "Planning for agroforestry", held at Washington State University on April 24-27, 1989, is published. First the planning for agroforestry and agroforestry diagnosis and design is viewed over. Then the planning for and

  11. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  12. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  13. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  14. Contributions: SAGE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Contributions: SAGE. Space Alternating Generalized Expectation (SAGE) Maximization algorithm provides an iterative approach to parameter estimation when direct maximization of the likelihood function may be infeasible. Complexity is less in those applications ...

  15. Various Contributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Various Contributions. Developed an Off –Diagonal MIMO Canceller to mitigate Upstream Crosstalk in VDSL. Developed a low complexity, Expectation Maximization based iterative Crosstalk cancellation. Developed an optimal way of computational complexity ...

  16. Original contributions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hefere

    Original contributions ... Results suggest that there is a significant positive ... psychological abuse, including economic abuse, intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage ... or maintaining the structure and function of the African home (Alio et al., 2011; Jewkes,. Levin ... Revictimisation occurs due to emotional violence and.

  17. Defining Medical Capabilities for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, M.; Antonsen, E.; Blue, R.; Reyes, D.; Mulcahy, R.; Kerstman, E.; Bayuse, T.

    2018-01-01

    Exploration-class missions to the moon, Mars and beyond will require a significant change in medical capability from today's low earth orbit centric paradigm. Significant increases in autonomy will be required due to differences in duration, distance and orbital mechanics. Aerospace medicine and systems engineering teams are working together within ExMC to meet these challenges. Identifying exploration medical system needs requires accounting for planned and unplanned medical care as defined in the concept of operations. In 2017, the ExMC Clinicians group identified medical capabilities to feed into the Systems Engineering process, including: determining what and how to address planned and preventive medical care; defining an Accepted Medical Condition List (AMCL) of conditions that may occur and a subset of those that can be treated effectively within the exploration environment; and listing the medical capabilities needed to treat those conditions in the AMCL. This presentation will discuss the team's approach to addressing these issues, as well as how the outputs of the clinical process impact the systems engineering effort.

  18. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING QUALITY AND ITS DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra M. ACHIM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance ofhigh-quality financial statements is highlighted by the main standard-setting institutions activating in the field of accounting and reporting. These have issued Conceptual Frameworks which state and describe the qualitative characteristics of accounting information. In this qualitative study, the research methodology consists of reviewing the literature related to the definition of accounting quality and striving for understanding how it can be explained. The main objective of the study is to identify the characteristics information should possess in order to be of high quality. These characteristics also contribute to the way of defining financial accounting quality. The main conclusions that arise from this research are represented by the facts that indeed financial accounting quality cannot be uniquely defined and that financial information is of good quality when it enhances the characteristics incorporated in the conceptual frameworks issued by both International Accounting Standards Board and Financial Accounting Standards Board.

  19. Scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can

  20. Defining Plagiarism: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism has repeatedly occurred in Indonesia, resulting in focusing on such academic misbehavior as a “central issue” in Indonesian higher education. One of the issues of addressing plagiarism in higher education is that there is a confusion of defining plagiarism. It seems that Indonesian academics had different perception when defining plagiarism. This article aims at exploring the issue of plagiarism by helping define plagiarism to address confusion among Indonesian academics. This article applies literature review by firs finding relevant articles after identifying databases for literature searching. After the collection of required articles for review, the articles were synthesized before presenting the findings. This study has explored the definition of plagiarism in the context of higher education. This research found that plagiarism is defined in the relation of criminal acts. The huge numbers of discursive features used position plagiaristic acts as an illegal deed. This study also found that cultural backgrounds and exposure to plagiarism were influential in defining plagiarism.

  1. Defining the Strategy of Nuclear Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racana, R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents nuclear activity as defined within the field of the nuclear industry, which is studied from its capacity to generate electric power to its application in industry and medicine as well as a source for weapons of mass destruction. These fields of analysis introduce some problems that the nuclear activity itself must know how to confront employing action strategies aimed at becoming an activity to be kept in mind when making use of the benefits that its peaceful use contributes to human life. (Author)

  2. Healthcare Engineering Defined: A White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Austin, Tony; Calisir, Fethi; Chanjaplammootil, Samuel; Davis, Mark J; Favela, Jesus; Gan, Heng; Gefen, Amit; Haddas, Ram; Hahn-Goldberg, Shoshana; Hornero, Roberto; Huang, Yu-Li; Jensen, Øystein; Jiang, Zhongwei; Katsanis, J S; Lee, Jeong-A; Lewis, Gladius; Lovell, Nigel H; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo; Morales, George G; Matis, Timothy; Matthews, Judith T; Mazur, Lukasz; Ng, Eddie Yin-Kwee; Oommen, K J; Ormand, Kevin; Rohde, Tarald; Sánchez-Morillo, Daniel; Sanz-Calcedo, Justo García; Sawan, Mohamad; Shen, Chwan-Li; Shieh, Jiann-Shing; Su, Chao-Ton; Sun, Lilly; Sun, Mingui; Sun, Yi; Tewolde, Senay N; Williams, Eric A; Yan, Chongjun; Zhang, Jiajie; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Engineering has been playing an important role in serving and advancing healthcare. The term "Healthcare Engineering" has been used by professional societies, universities, scientific authors, and the healthcare industry for decades. However, the definition of "Healthcare Engineering" remains ambiguous. The purpose of this position paper is to present a definition of Healthcare Engineering as an academic discipline, an area of research, a field of specialty, and a profession. Healthcare Engineering is defined in terms of what it is, who performs it, where it is performed, and how it is performed, including its purpose, scope, topics, synergy, education/training, contributions, and prospects.

  3. Healthcare Engineering Defined: A White Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chien Chyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering has been playing an important role in serving and advancing healthcare. The term “Healthcare Engineering” has been used by professional societies, universities, scientific authors, and the healthcare industry for decades. However, the definition of “Healthcare Engineering” remains ambiguous. The purpose of this position paper is to present a definition of Healthcare Engineering as an academic discipline, an area of research, a field of specialty, and a profession. Healthcare Engineering is defined in terms of what it is, who performs it, where it is performed, and how it is performed, including its purpose, scope, topics, synergy, education/training, contributions, and prospects.

  4. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  5. Defining and Selecting Independent Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the Enlightened Shareholder Theory that the author first developed in 2011, this theoretical paper with practical and normative ambitions achieves a better definition of independent director, while improving the understanding of the roles he fulfils on boards of directors. The first part defines constructs like firms, Governance system and Corporate governance, offering a clear distinction between the latter two concepts before explaining the four main missions of a board. The second part defines the ideal independent director by outlining the objective qualities that are necessary and adding those subjective aspects that have turned this into a veritable profession. The third part defines the ideal process for selecting independent directors, based on nominating committees that should themselves be independent. It also includes ways of assessing directors who are currently in function, as well as modalities for renewing their mandates. The paper’s conclusion presents the Paradox of the Independent Director.

  6. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...... in the organizational attributes of specific interest group types. As expected, our comparison of coding schemes reveals a closer link between group attributes and group type in narrower classification schemes based on group organizational characteristics than those based on a behavioral definition of lobbying....

  7. ON DEFINING S-SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Strati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work is intended to be an introduction to the Superposition Theory of David Carfì. In particular I shall depict the meaning of his brand new theory, on the one hand in an informal fashion and on the other hand by giving a formal approach of the algebraic structure of the theory: the S-linear algebra. This kind of structure underpins the notion of S-spaces (or Carfì-spaces by defining both its properties and its nature. Thus I shall define the S-triple as the fundamental principle upon which the S-linear algebra is built up.

  8. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-09-30

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach.

  9. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach

  10. Defining and Differentiating the Makerspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousay, Tonia A.

    2017-01-01

    Many resources now punctuate the maker movement landscape. However, some schools and communities still struggle to understand this burgeoning movement. How do we define these spaces and differentiate them from previous labs and shops? Through a multidimensional framework, stakeholders should consider how the structure, access, staffing, and tools…

  11. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  12. Systems Engineering Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to define and establish the MRS Project Systems Engineering process that implements the approved policy and requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This plan is Volume 5 of the MRS Project Management Plan (PMP). This plan provides the framework for implementation of systems engineering on the MRS Project consistent with DOE Order 4700.1, the OCRWM Program Management System Manual (PMSM), and the OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)

  13. EMI Registry Development Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Memon, S.; Szigeti, G.; Field, L.

    2012-01-01

    This documents describes the overall development plan of the EMI Registry product, the plan focuses on the realisation of the EMI Registry specification as defined in the document. It is understood that during the course of the development phase the specification will likely evolve and the changes will be fed into the specification document.

  14. Creating a Marketing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A guide to developing a college marketing plan defines key marketing terms, outlines the development of a plan (including institutional analysis, market research, strategy formation and execution, and program evaluation), and provides a list of important principles with which to operate a program. (MSE)

  15. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  16. How do people define moderation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. SOCIAL ROBOT: DEFINING THE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Nikolaevna Zilberman

    2016-11-01

    Practical implications. The results of the study contribute toьthe theoretical basis of the cross-disciplinary research field of social robotics and may be used by researchers. They may also be used as educational aid in teaching academic courses in social studies, robotics, ethics of technology, artificial intelligence, etc.

  18. Contribution to a Danish action plan for development and demonstration of CHP from solid biomass; Oplaeg til en national handlingsplan for udvikling og demonstration indenfor kraftvarme fra fast biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Morten Tony

    2011-01-15

    The report is the contribution from the industry to an action plan for development and demonstration of CHP technology for solid biomass. The report aims to serve as inspiration and basis for administrators and applicants of Danish funding schemes for development and demonstration in future tenders. Although Danish-based cogeneration technologies for solid biofuels are advanced compared to the competitors in many areas there is a large need to continuously improve the technology by sustained development and demonstration activities. The aim is to overcome the technological barriers that this project has identified and thus maintain competitiveness. The industry currently has very strong focus on market deployment of especially technologies for cogeneration in small scale (up to 15 MW thermal power) and on the overall economy of these plants. Reference installations that displays many operational hours with a reasonable economy, are crucial for investors. Currently, no companies market commercial plants that have sufficiently low costs to operate under Danish conditions and few do for the conditions found internationally. Thus, from the industry perspective there is still a need for development and demonstration of CHP technology below 15 MW thermal. The analysis does not exclude any technology tracks, but the development and demonstration efforts should lead to improvements in conditions such as availability, efficiencies and operating and maintenance costs. Also technologies for large plants and systems need to be improved with respect to availability and efficiency and reduced operating and maintenance costs. For all technologies, there is a need to develop the use of special solid biofuels that on the one hand may have troublesome characteristics but on the other may help lower operating costs. The Danish-based companies have good opportunities to find support for the development and demonstration effort. A number of support programs and pools are in place and

  19. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  20. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  1. (Re)Defining Salesperson Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Rushana; de Jong, Ad; Lee, Nick

    2018-01-01

    The construct of motivation is one of the central themes in selling and sales management research. Yet, to-date no review article exists that surveys the construct (both from an extrinsic and intrinsic motivation context), critically evaluates its current status, examines various key challenges...... apparent from the extant research, and suggests new research opportunities based on a thorough review of past work. The authors explore how motivation is defined, major theories underpinning motivation, how motivation has historically been measured, and key methodologies used over time. In addition......, attention is given to principal drivers and outcomes of salesperson motivation. A summarizing appendix of key articles in salesperson motivation is provided....

  2. Expressiveness and definability in circumscription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francicleber Martins Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate expressiveness and definability issues with respect to minimal models, particularly in the scope of Circumscription. First, we give a proof of the failure of the Löwenheim-Skolem Theorem for Circumscription. Then we show that, if the class of P; Z-minimal models of a first-order sentence is Δ-elementary, then it is elementary. That is, whenever the circumscription of a first-order sentence is equivalent to a first-order theory, then it is equivalent to a finitely axiomatizable one. This means that classes of models of circumscribed theories are either elementary or not Δ-elementary. Finally, using the previous result, we prove that, whenever a relation Pi is defined in the class of P; Z-minimal models of a first-order sentence Φ and whenever such class of P; Z-minimal models is Δ-elementary, then there is an explicit definition ψ for Pi such that the class of P; Z-minimal models of Φ is the class of models of Φ ∧ ψ. In order words, the circumscription of P in Φ with Z varied can be replaced by Φ plus this explicit definition ψ for Pi.

  3. Community participation in fire management planning: The Trinity county fire safe council's fire plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvonne Everett

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, Trinity County CA, initiated a participatory fire management planning effort. Since that time, the Trinity County Fire Safe Council has completed critical portions of a fire safe plan and has begun to implement projects defined in the plan. Completion of a GIS based, landscape scale fuels reduction element in the plan defined by volunteer fire fighters, agency...

  4. Company Stock in Pension Plans: How Costly Is It?

    OpenAIRE

    Meulbroek, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Employees often hold substantial levels of company stock in their defined contribution pension plans, a practice widely recognized as risky. But holding company stock is not only risky, it is costly: employees who own company stock are not fully diversified, so expected returns on their portfolios are lower than equally risky, but fully diversified, portfolios. This paper investigates the costs of holding company stock and finds that the loss in diversification reduces the value of employees'...

  5. Application of Grid Planning Method in Drilling-Blasting Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Spasovski, Orce

    2012-01-01

    The problem occurs almost every day in operation and causes troubles to mining engineers. The right performance of drilling-blasting work is important for the successful operation of the entire excavation. The aim of the paper is to point out the importance of planning and how it can contribute to the right organization and make drilling-blasting and other mining activities in mine operations easier. Defining the activities and practical example that has been given are carried out by the u...

  6. On strategic spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to explain the origin and development of strategic spatial planning, to show complex features and highlight the differences and/or advantages over traditional, physical spatial planning. Strategic spatial planning is seen as one of approaches in legally defined planning documents, and throughout the display of properties of sectoral national strategies, as well as issues of strategic planning at the local level in Serbia. The strategic approach is clearly recognized at the national and sub-national level of spatial planning in European countries and in our country. It has been confirmed by the goals outlined in documents of the European Union and Serbia that promote the grounds of territorial cohesion and strategic integrated planning, emphasizing cooperation and the principles of sustainable spatial development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  7. Defining the "normal" postejaculate urinalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Akanksha; Jarow, Jonathan P; Maples, Pat; Sigman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although sperm have been shown to be present in the postejaculate urinalysis (PEU) of both fertile and infertile men, the number of sperm present in the PEU of the general population has never been well defined. The objective of this study was to describe the semen and PEU findings in both the general and infertile population, in order to develop a better appreciation for "normal." Infertile men (n = 77) and control subjects (n = 71) were prospectively recruited. Exclusion criteria included azoospermia and medications known to affect ejaculation. All men underwent a history, physical examination, semen analysis, and PEU. The urine was split into 2 containers: PEU1, the initial voided urine, and PEU2, the remaining voided urine. Parametric statistical methods were applied for data analysis to compare sperm concentrations in each sample of semen and urine between the 2 groups of men. Controls had higher average semen volume (3.3 ± 1.6 vs 2.0 ± 1.4 mL, P sperm concentrations (112 million vs 56.2 million, P = .011), compared with infertile men. The presence of sperm in urine was common in both groups, but more prevalent among infertile men (98.7% vs 88.7%, P = .012), in whom it comprised a greater proportion of the total sperm count (46% vs 24%, P = .022). The majority of sperm present in PEU were seen in PEU1 of both controls (69%) and infertile men (88%). An association was noted between severe oligospermia (sperm counts in PEU (sperm in the urine compared with control, there is a large degree of overlap between the 2 populations, making it difficult to identify a specific threshold to define a positive test. Interpretation of a PEU should be directed by whether the number of sperm in the urine could affect subsequent management.

  8. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  9. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  10. Defining an Open Source Strategy for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Crichton, D. J.; Lindsay, F.; Berrick, S. W.; Marshall, J. J.; Downs, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    Over the course of the past year, we have worked to help frame a strategy for NASA and open source software. This includes defining information processes to understand open source licensing, attribution, commerciality, redistribution, communities, architectures, and interactions within the agency. Specifically we held a training session at the NASA Earth Science Data Systems Working Group meeting in Open Source software as it relates to the NASA Earth Science data systems enterprise, including EOSDIS, the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), ACCESS proposals, and the MEASURES communities, and efforts to understand how open source software can be both consumed and produced within that ecosystem. In addition, we presented at the 1st NASA Open Source Summit (OSS) and helped to define an agency-level strategy, a set of recommendations and paths forward for how to identify healthy open source communities, how to deal with issues such as contributions originating from other agencies, and how to search out talent with the right skills to develop software for NASA in the modern age. This talk will review our current recommendations for open source at NASA, and will cover the set of thirteen recommendations output from the NASA Open Source Summit and discuss some of their implications for the agency.

  11. Distributed controller clustering in software defined networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelaziz

    Full Text Available Software Defined Networking (SDN is an emerging promising paradigm for network management because of its centralized network intelligence. However, the centralized control architecture of the software-defined networks (SDNs brings novel challenges of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance and interoperability. In this paper, we proposed a novel clustered distributed controller architecture in the real setting of SDNs. The distributed cluster implementation comprises of multiple popular SDN controllers. The proposed mechanism is evaluated using a real world network topology running on top of an emulated SDN environment. The result shows that the proposed distributed controller clustering mechanism is able to significantly reduce the average latency from 8.1% to 1.6%, the packet loss from 5.22% to 4.15%, compared to distributed controller without clustering running on HP Virtual Application Network (VAN SDN and Open Network Operating System (ONOS controllers respectively. Moreover, proposed method also shows reasonable CPU utilization results. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism makes possible to handle unexpected load fluctuations while maintaining a continuous network operation, even when there is a controller failure. The paper is a potential contribution stepping towards addressing the issues of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance, and inter-operability.

  12. Distributed controller clustering in software defined networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Fong, Ang Tan; Gani, Abdullah; Garba, Usman; Khan, Suleman; Akhunzada, Adnan; Talebian, Hamid; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an emerging promising paradigm for network management because of its centralized network intelligence. However, the centralized control architecture of the software-defined networks (SDNs) brings novel challenges of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance and interoperability. In this paper, we proposed a novel clustered distributed controller architecture in the real setting of SDNs. The distributed cluster implementation comprises of multiple popular SDN controllers. The proposed mechanism is evaluated using a real world network topology running on top of an emulated SDN environment. The result shows that the proposed distributed controller clustering mechanism is able to significantly reduce the average latency from 8.1% to 1.6%, the packet loss from 5.22% to 4.15%, compared to distributed controller without clustering running on HP Virtual Application Network (VAN) SDN and Open Network Operating System (ONOS) controllers respectively. Moreover, proposed method also shows reasonable CPU utilization results. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism makes possible to handle unexpected load fluctuations while maintaining a continuous network operation, even when there is a controller failure. The paper is a potential contribution stepping towards addressing the issues of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance, and inter-operability.

  13. US ITER Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This US ITER Management Plan is the plan for conducting the Engineering Design Activities within the US. The plan applies to all design, analyses, and associated physics and technology research and development (R ampersand D) required to support the program. The plan defines the management considerations associated with these activities. The plan also defines the management controls that the project participants will follow to establish, implement, monitor, and report these activities. The activities are to be conducted by the project in accordance with this plan. The plan will be updated to reflect the then-current management approach required to meet the project objectives. The plan will be reviewed at least annually for possible revision. Section 2 presents the ITER objectives, a brief description of the ITER concept as developed during the Conceptual Design Activities, and comments on the Engineering Design Activities. Section 3 discusses the planned international organization for the Engineering Design Activities, from which the tasks will flow to the US Home Team. Section 4 describes the US ITER management organization and responsibilities during the Engineering Design Activities. Section 5 describes the project management and control to be used to perform the assigned tasks during the Engineering Design Activities. Section 6 presents the references. Several appendices are provided that contain detailed information related to the front material

  14. [How to define Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, Michel

    2011-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease, which was considered to be a rare disease in subjects aged under 65 until the seventies/eighties, has become a very common disease affecting mostly older subjects. Many consider that it is important to review the meaning of the eponym "Alzheimer's disease", and a revolution, quite literally, is likely to occur. The role of vascular lesions in the onset of dementias among older subjects is widely acknowledged; considering those dementias as Alzheimer's disease may have negative consequences for patient management. Indeed, vascular lesions can be prevented and treated, while Alzheimer's lesions cannot. It may be justified to use "Alzheimer syndrome" instead of "Alzheimer's disease" when vascular risk factors and, all the more so, vascular lesions are present. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of the pathological proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease, as well as their effects on neurons and synapses. However, the etiology of the disease is still unknown, except in the rare hereditary cases, and there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease at present. Clinical research is progressing, and diagnostic criteria for the pre-dementia stage of Alzheimer's disease were suggested. In France, the outstanding Alzheimer plan 2008-2012 should play an important role in enhancing the understanding of Alzheimer's disease, Alzheimer's syndromes and related disorders.

  15. The benefits of defining "snacks".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie M; Slavin, Joanne L

    2018-04-18

    Whether eating a "snack" is considered a beneficial or detrimental behavior is largely based on how "snack" is defined. The term "snack food" tends to connote energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods high in nutrients to limit (sugar, sodium, and/or saturated fat) like cakes, cookies, chips and other salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Eating a "snack food" is often conflated with eating a "snack," however, leading to an overall perception of snacks as a dietary negative. Yet the term "snack" can also refer simply to an eating occasion outside of breakfast, lunch, or dinner. With this definition, the evidence to support health benefits or detriments to eating a "snack" remains unclear, in part because relatively few well-designed studies that specifically focus on the impact of eating frequency on health have been conducted. Despite these inconsistencies and research gaps, in much of the nutrition literature, "snacking" is still referred to as detrimental to health. As discussed in this review, however, there are multiple factors that influence the health impacts of snacking, including the definition of "snack" itself, the motivation to snack, body mass index of snack eaters, and the food selected as a snack. Without a definition of "snack" and a body of research using methodologically rigorous protocols, determining the health impact of eating a "snack" will continue to elude the nutrition research community and prevent the development of evidence-based policies about snacking that support public health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Defining safety goals. 2. Basic Consideration on Defining Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakata, T.

    2001-01-01

    cancer and severe hereditary effects are 10 x 10 -2 /Sv and 1.3 x10 -2 /Sv, respectively. The basic safety goals can be expressed by the complementary accumulative distribution function (CCDF) of dose versus frequencies of events: Pc(C > Cp) 5 (Cp/Co) -α . The aversion factor a is here expressed by the following arbitrary equation, which gives a polynomial curve of the order of m on a logarithmic plane: α = a+b(log(Cp/Co)) m , where: Pc = CCDF frequency for Cp (/yr), Cp = dose (mSv), Co = Cp for Pc =1, a, b, m = constants. Figure 1 shows a typical tolerable risk profile (risk limit curve), which is drawn so that all the points obtained in the previous discussions are above the curve (Co=1, a=1, b=0.0772, and m = 2). Safety criteria by ANS (Ref. 2) and SHE (Ref. 3) are shown in Fig. 1 for comparison. An aversion of a factor of 2 is resulted between 1 mSv and 1 Sv. No ALARA is included, which must be considered in defining specific safety goals. The frequency of a single class of events must be lower than the CCDF profile, and a curve lower by a factor of 10 is drawn in Fig. 1. The doses referenced in the current Japanese safety guidelines and site criteria are shown in Fig. 1. The referenced doses seem reasonable, considering the conservatism in the analysis of design-basis accidents. Specific safety goals for each sort of facility can be defined based on the basic safety goals, reflecting the characteristics of the facilities and considering ALARA. The indexes of engineering terms, such as CMF and LERF, are preferable for nuclear power plants, although interpretation from dose to the engineering terms is needed. Other indexes may be used (such as frequency of criticality accidents, etc.) for facilities except for power plants. The applicability of safety goals will thus be improved. Figure 2 shows the relative risk factors (1, 1%, and 0.1%) versus the severity of radiation effects. This might indicate the adequacy of the risk factors. The absolute risk limits, which

  17. Financial Network Systemic Risk Contributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautsch, N.; Schaumburg, J.; Schienle, M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose the realized systemic risk beta as a measure of financial companies' contribution to systemic risk, given network interdependence between firms' tail risk exposures. Conditional on statistically pre-identified network spillover effects and market and balance sheet information, we define

  18. Defining Tobacco Regulatory Science Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Institutional Image: How to Define, Improve, Market It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topor, Robert S.

    Advice for colleges on how to identify, develop, and communicate a positive image for the institution is offered in this handbook. The use of market research techniques to measure image is discussed along with advice on how to improve an image so that it contributes to a unified marketing plan. The first objective is to create and communicate some…

  20. COP 21: the national contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouette, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This article comments the content of the national contributions (the so-called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions or INDC) which every country should have transmitted to the UN before the COP 21. In fact, 148 contributions, i.e. 75 per cent of the expected ones, have been transmitted. The author recalls that the content of these contributions had to obey some principles which had been defined in Lima in 2014, and that each country must identify its objectives in terms of mitigation (reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) and adaptation (reduction of the vulnerability of natural and human systems). The author comments some specific commitments regarding climate, emission reduction, adaptation to climate change, and more particularly evokes the Ethiopian contribution which is considered as exemplary

  1. Reasoning about plans

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, James; Pelavin, Richard; Tenenberg, Josh

    1991-01-01

    This book presents four contributions to planning research within an integrated framework. James Allen offers a survey of his research in the field of temporal reasoning, and then describes a planning system formalized and implemented directly as an inference process in the temporal logic. Starting from the same logic, Henry Kautz develops the first formal specification of the plan recognition process and develops a powerful family of algorithms for plan recognition in complex situations. Richard Pelavin then extends the temporal logic with model operators that allow the representation to

  2. Defining, Developing, and Measuring "Proclivities for Teaching Mathematics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jennifer M.; Fischman, Davida; Riggs, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a form of teacher reasoning that we call "proclivities for teaching mathematics." We define proclivities for teaching mathematics as the beliefs, knowledge, and dispositions that are actionable in the flow of instruction, and we argue that growth in this area contributes to positive change in mathematics…

  3. What Does "Apple" Mean? Learning To Define Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinellie, Sally A.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of learning to define a word. It provides a brief background on the contribution of the definitional skills to communication and school success, information on children's development of definitions, and teacher and family strategies for enhancing young children's definitions in relation to other skills.…

  4. Defining the Perception and Experiences of Educational Service Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Ahmady

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The office of educational services at universities is a very important division and it is necessary for employees to strive towards providing suitable services to students. The quality of educational services has always been a major concern for higher education managers. Interviewing stakeholders and experts increases our understanding of different aspects of the subject in order to create a native model with high performance capability based on existing conditions and the cultural and political infrastructure of our country. Therefore, we aimed to define the perception and experiences of educational service stakeholders.Methods: In this qualitative thematic content analysis that adapted a deductive approach using Graneheim and Lundman’s method. Initially, purposeful sampling was done to identify and select the students (as first level stakeholders studying paramedical majors at one of the medical science universities of the country during the educational year 2015-2016. Altogether, 20 people were interviewed consisting of 6 students, 4 faculty members, 2 student affairs employees, 1 counselor, 2 education officers, and 2 education office managers.Data were analyzed and coded using MAXQDA software.Results: Of the 400 initial codes extracted through data analysis, 336 abstract codes, 48 sub-categories, 20 categories, and 7 themes were obtained. The level of abstraction was different in the categories. The extracted themes were as follows: information gap before and after entering university, the difference between expected and perceived services and factors contributing to expectations, the university’s approach in enhancing service quality, the student and management of educational problems, the system-student interaction in educational planning, and the professors’ responsibilities and performance in enhancing quality, and the role on the university management system in enhancing the quality of services

  5. 7 CFR 25.202 - Strategic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contributed to the planning process; (3) Identify the amount of State, local, and private resources that will... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strategic plan. 25.202 Section 25.202 Agriculture... Procedure § 25.202 Strategic plan. (a) Principles of strategic plan. The strategic plan included in the...

  6. Pension Plan Types and Financial Literacy in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Burr, Jeffrey A; Miller, Edward Alan

    2017-09-09

    The ongoing shift from defined benefit (DB) to defined contribution (DC) pension plans means that middle-aged and older adults are increasingly being called upon to manage their own fiscal security in retirement. Yet, half of older Americans are financially illiterate, lacking the knowledge and skills to manage financial resources. This study investigates whether pension plan types are associated with varying levels of financial literacy among older Americans. Cross-sectional analyses of the 2010 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (n = 1,281) using logistic and linear regression models were employed to investigate the association between different pension plans and multiple indicators of financial literacy. The potential moderating effect of gender was also examined. Respondents with DC plans, with or without additional DB plans, were more likely to correctly answer various financial literacy questions, in comparison with respondents with DB plans only. Men with both DC and DB plans scored significantly higher on the financial literacy index than women with both types of plans, relative to respondents with DB plans only. Middle-aged and older adults, who are incentivized by participation in DC plans to manage financial resources and decide where to invest pension funds, tend to self-educate to improve financial knowledge and skills, thereby resulting in greater financial literacy. This finding suggests that traditional financial education programs may not be the only means of achieving financial literacy. Further consideration should be given to providing older adults with continued, long-term exposure to financial decision-making opportunities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Individual account retirement plans: an analysis of the 2007 survey of consumer finances, with market adjustments to June 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Craig

    2009-08-01

    LATEST SCF DATA: This Issue Brief assesses the current status of Americans' savings for retirement by examining the incidence of individual account plans among families, as well as the average amount of assets accumulated in these accounts. The 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF), the Federal Reserve Board's triennial survey of wealth, is the basis for this study, as it is a leading source of data on Americans' wealth, provides detailed information on retirement plan incidence and account balances among families, and is the latest available. ACCOUNTING FOR THE ECONOMIC DOWNTURN: While 2007 SCF is the most comprehensive and current survey of Americans' finances, its timing was unfortunate due to the significant downturn in the economy in 2008 just after the survey was released. To account for that change, this analysis provides estimates of the changes in asset values from the end of 2007 to mid-June 2009 for individual account plan balances. The account balances of the defined contribution plans and IRAs are adjusted based on the asset allocation reported within the plans by using equity market returns and bond market returns from January 1, 2008, to June 19, 2009. MEDIAN ASSET LEVELS FOR DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLANS: Among all families with a defined contribution plan in 2007, the median (mid-point) plan balance was $31,800, up 16 percent from 2004. According to EBRI estimates, this dropped 16.4 percent (to $26,578) from year-end 2007 to mid-June 2009. Losses were higher for families with more than $100,000 a year in income (down 22 percent) or having a net worth in the top 10 percent (down 28 percent). MEDIAN ASSET LEVELS FOR IRA/KEOGH PLANS: Among all families with an IRA/Keogh plan, the median value of their plan was $34,000 in 2007, up 3 percent from 2004. EBRI estimates this median value dropped 15 percent (to $28,955) from year-end 2007 to mid-June 2009. LESS THAN HALF OF ALL FAMILIES HAVE A RETIREMENT PLAN THROUGH A CURRENT JOB: In 2007, 40.6 percent of

  8. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  9. Lesson Planning the Kodaly Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkoff, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the contribution of Zoltan Kodaly to music lesson planning. Emphasizes preparation, presentation, and practice as the three important strategies in teaching concepts and skills to be included in a lesson plan. Includes a sample lesson plan covering a semester and advice on choosing song material. (DK)

  10. Excellence through outage planning and scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferriole, G.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear and Fossil Generation Division of Electricite de France (EdF) has been the largest nuclear plant operating utility in France since 1984. The size of the units, their standardization, and extensive operating experience were favorable parameters leading to the development of a very complete maintenance organization. Electricite de France believes in the importance of well-defined maintenance concepts. These maintenance concepts contribute to outage performance by requiring a careful consideration of work to be done and by defining the techniques and means of accomplishing this work. In addition to maintenance concepts and careful planning and scheduling, good outage management is achieved through the motivation and dedication of the people involved. It is the key to good operational results

  11. Plan well, plan often

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2013-01-01

    This issue includes an invited paper by Courtney Schultz and her colleagues commenting on the application of the newly adopted U.S. Forest Service Planning Rule (hereafter, the rule) for wildlife. The rule is basically implementing language to interpret the spirit and intent of the National Forest Management Act (NFMA) of 1976. Laws such as NFMA require additional...

  12. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  13. Planning Practice and Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Urban planning has dramatically shifted when compared with its former logics and styles. Increasingly, the dynamics of large urban agglomerations spanning multiple boundaries put significant pressure on planning institutions to scale up. In this shifting context, how can both planning theory...... and practice co- evolve in adapting to the ever-increasing transformation of cities and urban regions? In this context, Planning Practice and Research (PPR) is seeking perspectives from the young academic community in planning. We propose to publish at least one special edition of PPR with a number of short...... papers from Young Academics. The contributions should address the question of how planning theory and practice can respond to the increasing complexity of cities and regions....

  14. Project implementation plan: ASTD remote deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CRASS, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the project implementation plan for the ASTD Remote Deployment Project. The Plan identifies the roles and responsibilities for the project and defines the integration between the ASTD Project and the B-Cell Cleanout Project

  15. Management Cycle: from Planning to Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kova?i?, Luka; Jakši?, Želimir

    2008-01-01

    The planning process in health care known as management cycle or cycle of organization and management is described. The cycle is divided in four main elements: planning, organization, implementation and evaluation. Each element is defined and described.

  16. South Dakota ITS/CVO business plan : final business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-18

    This report defines an Intelligent Transportation Systems/Commercial Vehicle Operations (ITS/CVO) program for the State of South Dakota. Structured as a business plan, the document includes the following components: 1) description of the current CVO ...

  17. 76 FR 3648 - NIMS Training Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ...] NIMS Training Plan AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability... comments on the NIMS Training Plan. This plan defines National Incident Management System (NIMS) national... sustaining NIMS training. In addition to delineating responsibilities and actions, the NIMS Training Plan...

  18. Defining Ecosystem Assets for Natural Capital Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Ken; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; de Jong, Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management. In particular, we define ecosystems' capacity and capability to supply ecosystem services, as well as the potential supply of ecosystem services. Capacity relates to sustainable use levels of multiple ecosystem services, capability involves prioritising the use of one ecosystem service over a basket of services, and potential supply considers the ability of ecosystems to generate services regardless of demand for these services. We ground our definitions in the ecosystem services and accounting literature, and illustrate and compare the concepts of flow, capacity, capability, and potential supply with a range of conceptual and real-world examples drawn from case studies in Europe and North America. Our paper contributes to the development of measurement frameworks for natural capital to support environmental accounting and other assessment frameworks.

  19. Defining Ecosystem Assets for Natural Capital Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Ken; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; de Jong, Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management. In particular, we define ecosystems’ capacity and capability to supply ecosystem services, as well as the potential supply of ecosystem services. Capacity relates to sustainable use levels of multiple ecosystem services, capability involves prioritising the use of one ecosystem service over a basket of services, and potential supply considers the ability of ecosystems to generate services regardless of demand for these services. We ground our definitions in the ecosystem services and accounting literature, and illustrate and compare the concepts of flow, capacity, capability, and potential supply with a range of conceptual and real-world examples drawn from case studies in Europe and North America. Our paper contributes to the development of measurement frameworks for natural capital to support environmental accounting and other assessment frameworks. PMID:27828969

  20. Defining ecosystem assets for natural capital accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; de Jong, Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management. In particular, we define ecosystems’ capacity and capability to supply ecosystem services, as well as the potential supply of ecosystem services. Capacity relates to sustainable use levels of multiple ecosystem services, capability involves prioritising the use of one ecosystem service over a basket of services, and potential supply considers the ability of ecosystems to generate services regardless of demand for these services. We ground our definitions in the ecosystem services and accounting literature, and illustrate and compare the concepts of flow, capacity, capability, and potential supply with a range of conceptual and real-world examples drawn from case studies in Europe and North America. Our paper contributes to the development of measurement frameworks for natural capital to support environmental accounting and other assessment frameworks.

  1. Health Workforce Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sawai, Abdulaziz; Al-Shishtawy, Moeness M.

    2015-01-01

    In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested. PMID:25685381

  2. FFTF reactor plant procedures plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The document presented defines the plan to be used to coordinate the preparation, review, approval, and issuance of the operating procedure documents required to ensure safe and efficient operation of FFTF

  3. Professional analysis in spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Černe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial analysis contributes to accomplishment of the three basic aims of spatial planning: it is basic element for setting spatial policies, concepts and strategies, gives basic information to inhabitants, land owners, investors, planners and helps in performing spatial policies, strategies, plans, programmes and projects. Analysis in planning are generally devoted to: understand current circumstances and emerging conditions within planning decisions; determine priorities of open questions and their solutions; formulate general principles for further development.

  4. Urban Growth Areas, Priority Funding Area (PFA) - Vector Database. PFAs are geographic growth areas defined under State law and designated by local jurisdictions to provide a map for targeting State investment in infrastructure., Published in 1998, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Department of Planning.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Urban Growth Areas dataset current as of 1998. Priority Funding Area (PFA) - Vector Database. PFAs are geographic growth areas defined under State law and designated...

  5. Complex systems, evolutionary planning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertolini, L.; de Roo, G.; Silva, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Coping with uncertainty is a defining challenge for spatial planners. Accordingly, most spatial planning theories and methods are aimed at reducing uncertainty. However, the question is what should be done when this seems impossible? This chapter proposes an evolutionary interpretation of spatial

  6. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...

  7. Is the U.S. Retirement System Contributing to Rising Wealth Inequality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Devlin-Foltz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances for 1989 through 2013 reveal five broad findings. First, overall retirement plan participation was stable or rising through 2007, though overall participation fell noticeably in the wake of the Great Recession and has remained lower. Second, cohort-based analysis of life-cycle trajectories shows that participation in retirement plans is strongly correlated with income, and that the recent decline in participation is concentrated among younger and low- to middle-income families. Third, the shift in the type of pension coverage from defined benefit (DB to defined contribution (DC occurred within—not just across—income groups. Fourth, retirement wealth is less concentrated than nonretirement wealth, so the growth of retirement wealth relative to nonretirement wealth helped offset the increasing concentration in nonretirement wealth. Fifth, the shift from DB to DC had only a modest effect in the other direction because DC wealth is more concentrated than DB wealth.

  8. Practical planning extending the classical AI planning paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkins, David E

    2014-01-01

    Planning, or reasoning about actions, is a fundamental element of intelligent behavior--and one that artificial intelligence has found very difficult to implement. The most well-understood approach to building planning systems has been under refinement since the late 1960s and has now reached a level of maturity where there are good prospects for building working planners. Practical Planning is an in-depth examination of this classical planning paradigm through an intensive case study of SIPE, a significantly implemented planning system. The author, the developer of SIPE, defines the plann

  9. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Call for Abstracts

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial, you will learn how to define and open a call for abstracts. When defining a call for abstracts, you will be able to define settings related to the type of questions asked during a review of an abstract, select the users who will review the abstracts, decide when to open the call for abstracts, and more.

  10. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetic...

  11. Languages for Software-Defined Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    switches, firewalls, and middleboxes) with closed and proprietary configuration inter- faces. Software - Defined Networks ( SDN ) are poised to change...how- ever, have seen growing interest in software - defined networks ( SDNs ), in which a logically-centralized controller manages the packet-processing...switches, firewalls, and middleboxes) with closed and proprietary configuration interfaces. Software - Defined Networks ( SDN ) are poised to change this

  12. Contribution à l'étude de murs maçonnés renforcés par matériaux composites (FRP et TRC) : application aux sollicitations dans le plan

    OpenAIRE

    Bui , Thi Loan

    2014-01-01

    This study, using both experimental and numerical approaches, will help to better understand the behaviour of masonry walls. It especially focuses on walls reinforced with composite materials under in-plane loading conditions. In France, more stringent seismic design requirements for building structures have taken effect. So, this research has been initiated in an effort to define reliable strengthening techniques. The selected reinforcement materials are (1) – fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) ...

  13. Intelligent transportation systems business plan for Kentucky : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report presents a Business Plan for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in Kentucky. The purpose of the Business Plan is to define ITS projects that are planned for implementation from 2002 through 2007. The list of projects contained withi...

  14. Continual improvement plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's approach to continual improvement (CI) is a systems-oriented, agency-wide approach that builds on the past accomplishments of NASA Headquarters and its field installations and helps achieve NASA's vision, mission, and values. The NASA of the future will fully use the principles of continual improvement in every aspect of its operations. This NASA CI plan defines a systematic approach and a model for continual improvement throughout NASA, stressing systems integration and optimization. It demonstrates NASA's constancy of purpose for improvement - a consistent vision of NASA as a worldwide leader in top-quality science, technology, and management practices. The CI plan provides the rationale, structures, methods, and steps, and it defines NASA's short term (1-year) objectives for improvement. The CI plan presents the deployment strategies necessary for cascading the goals and objectives throughout the agency. It also provides guidance on implementing continual improvement with participation from top leadership and all levels of employees.

  15. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartock, Mike (ed.); Hansen, Todd (ed.)

    1999-08-01

    The FY 2000-2004 Institutional Plan provides an overview of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab, the Laboratory) mission, strategic plan, initiatives, and the resources required to fulfill its role in support of national needs in fundamental science and technology, energy resources, and environmental quality. To advance the Department of Energy's ongoing efforts to define the Integrated Laboratory System, the Berkeley Lab Institutional Plan reflects the strategic elements of our planning efforts. The Institutional Plan is a management report that supports the Department of Energy's mission and programs and is an element of the Department of Energy's strategic management planning activities, developed through an annual planning process. The Plan supports the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 and complements the performance-based contract between the Department of Energy and the Regents of the University of California. It identifies technical and administrative directions in the context of the national energy policy and research needs and the Department of Energy's program planning initiatives. Preparation of the plan is coordinated by the Office of Planning and Communications from information contributed by Berkeley Lab's scientific and support divisions.

  16. Path to a Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Fran

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the status and goals for the NASA OBPR Physical Science Research Program. The following text was used to summarize the presentation. The OBPR Physical Sciences Research program has been comprehensively reviewed and endorsed by National Research Council. The value and need for the research have been re-affirmed. The research program has been prioritized and resource re-allocations have been carried out through an OBPR-wide process. An increasing emphasis on strategic, mission-oriented research is planned. The program will strive to maintain a balance between strategic and fundamental research. A feasible ISS flight research program fitting within the budgetary and ISS resource envelopes has been formulated for the near term (2003-2007). The current ISS research program will be significantly strengthened starting 2005 by using discipline dedicated research facility racks. A research re-planning effort has been initiated and will include active participation from the research community in the next few months. The research re-planning effort will poise PSR to increase ISS research utilization for a potential enhancement beyond ISS IP Core Complete. The Physical Sciences research program readily integrates the cross-disciplinary requirements of the NASA and OBPR strategic objectives. Each fundamental research thrust will develop a roadmap through technical workshops and Discipline Working Groups (DWGs). Most fundamental research thrusts will involve cross-disciplinary efforts. A Technology Roadmap will guide the Strategic Research for Exploration thrust. The Research Plan will integrate and coordinate fundamental Research Thrusts Roadmaps with the Technology Roadmap. The Technology Roadmap will be developed in coordination with other OBPR programs as well as other Enterprise (R,S,M,N). International Partners will contribute to the roadmaps and through research coordination. The research plan will be vetted with the discipline

  17. Environmental development plan: magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This Environmental Development Plan (EDP) identifies the planning and management requirements and schedules needed to evaluate and assess the environmental, health and safety (EH and S) aspects of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program (MFE). Environment is defined to include the environmental, health (occupational and public), and safety aspects

  18. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health insurance... and who has elected to enroll for self and family in the uniform plan. (b) For retired employees and...

  19. Can Complexity be Planned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Koutny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The long accepted complexity invariance of human languages has become controversial within the last decade. In investigations of the problem, both creole and planned languages have often been neglected. After a presentation of the scope of the invariance problem and the proposition of the natural to planned language continuum, this article will discuss the contribution of planned languages. It will analyze the complexity of Esperanto at the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic levels, using linguistic data bases. The role of the L2 speech community and development of the language will also be taken into account when discussing the endurance of the same level of simplicity of this planned international language. The author argues that complexity can be variable and to some extent planned and maintained.

  20. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy...

  1. Standard review plan for the review of environmental restoration remedial action quality assurance program plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This plan establishes both the scope of the review and the acceptance criteria to be utilized for the review of Quality Assurance Program Plans (QAPPs) developed in accordance with the requirements of DOE/RL-90-28. DOE/RL-90-28, the Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Quality Assurance Requirements Document (QARD) defines all quality assurance (QA) requirements governing activities that affect the quality of the Environmental Restoration Remedial Action (ERRA) program at the Hanford Site. These requirements are defined in three parts, Part 1 of Quality Management and Administration tasks, Part 2 for Environmental Data Operations, and Part 3 of the Design and Construction of items, systems, and facilities. The purpose of this document is to identify the scope of the review by the DOE Field Office, Richland staff, and establish the acceptance criteria (Parts 1, 2, and 3) that the DOE Field Office, Richland staff will utilize to evaluate the participant QAPPs. Use of the standard review plan will (1) help ensure that participant QAPPs contain the information required by DOE/RL-90-28, (2) aid program participant and DOE Field Office, Richland staff is ensuring that the information describing the participant's QAPP is complete, (3) help persons regarding DOE/RL- 90-28 to locate information, and (4) contribute to decreasing the time needed for the review process. In addition, the Standard Review Plan (SRP) ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate compliance of participant quality programs against DOE/RL-90-28

  2. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides a land use plan for the Hanford Site and presents a picture of what is currently known and anticipated in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B. Site Development Planning. The HSDP wig be updated annually as future decisions further shape the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  3. Evaluation of participatory planning: Lessons from Hungarian Natura 2000 management planning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Eszter; Kelemen, Eszter; Kiss, Gabriella; Kalóczkai, Ágnes; Fabók, Veronika; Mihók, Barbara; Megyesi, Boldizsár; Pataki, György; Bodorkós, Barbara; Balázs, Bálint; Bela, Györgyi; Margóczi, Katalin; Roboz, Ágnes; Molnár, Dániel

    2017-12-15

    Stakeholder participation in nature conservation policies and especially in the management of protected areas has gained importance in the last decades. These changes are underlined by democratic principles and the perceived contribution of stakeholder involvement to the effectiveness of conservation management. Evaluating participatory processes is essential to learn about the past and thus increase the quality of future processes. The evaluation can be useful for the organisations responsible for planning and management, stakeholders and policy makers as well. The present paper shows the results of a systematic evaluation of 25 participatory processes related to the development of management plans for Natura 2000 sites in Hungary between 2007 and 2015. A conceptual framework was developed to evaluate the process and outcome of participatory management planning processes. Criteria were based on the scientific literature on public participation and tailored to conservation-related management planning and stakeholder involvement. Evaluated processes were grouped in three cases based on their time range and financial sources. Overall, the analysed processes scored at a medium level, showing better performance in the process criteria than in the outcome criteria. The best case scored significantly higher in four criteria compared to the other cases: representativeness, resource availability for facilitation, new, creative ideas and impact on the plan. The main factors behind the success were (1) embeddedness of the planning process in a larger project, where the plan was a tool for conservation, (2) carrying out only one process at a time, (3) previous experience of facilitators and planners with participatory planning and (4) the opportunity and capacity to propose a payment scheme as an incentive. But even this case received low scores in some criteria: conflict resolution, early involvement and well defined goals. Based on the results we suggest that more data is

  4. Rural development index: a contribution for the planning of the wide using of the access to electric power; Indicador de desenvolvimento rural: uma contribuicao para o planejamento da universalizacao do acesso a energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannini, Marcio; Souza, Danielle; Batista, Norma [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: giannini@cepel.br; dpires@cepel.br; norma@cepel.br; Camacho, Cristiane F.; Paz, Luciana; Rodrigues, Alexia [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca (FPLF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: ccamacho@cepel.br; lrocha@cepel.br; alexia@cepel.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to present a methodology to be applied in the evaluation of projects of rural electrification including those related to the social, economic, energy and environmental areas. Based on the analysis of data collected in a large field research that covered all country, it was created the Rural Development Index (IDR) that seeks to summarize the acquired information to help in the evaluation and planning of the Electric Sector's actions concerned to the rural areas. Thus, it is presented the results of the methodology application in three Brazilian states during the two phases of the research, before and after the supply of electric energy in a regular and safe basis. (author)

  5. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  6. [Contribution of palaeopathology to defining the pathocoenosis of infectious diseases (Part two)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, S; Fiorino, S

    2009-03-01

    In the second part of their review the authors focus on palaeopathological studies, performed in mummified tissues, with reference to infectious diseases. The analysis of samples obtained from both natural and artificial mummies may provide, in some favourable events, a more complete knowledge of these findings in comparison to information obtained from only comprehensive examination of the skeleton. The acquired data enable us to understand not only the diseases which afflicted mankind, but also dietary and hygiene conditions of ancient populations. We report knowledge acquired regarding some palaeopathological conditions, including schistosomiasis, smallpox, cisticercosis, trichinosis, ascaridiasis, echinococcosis, filariasis, hepatitis E virus, condylomatosis, pulmonary tubercolosis, pediculosis, visceral leishmaniasis as well as Diphyllobotrium sp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica infestations. In addition some interesting findings concerning the relationship between dietary and food intake colonized by streptomyces are described. This review reports the discovery of human remains from different geographic areas: while most of these studies describe findings in two Mediterranean countries (Italy and Egypt), some refer to Britain and German-speaking countries (Austria and Germany) as well as the area in Africa known as Nubia, along the Nile. Both histological and biomolecular diagnosis are useful not only to identify a specific disease in a subject from the remote past, but also to achieve information concerning its frequency and evolution. Such knowledge may thus allow us to understand the intensity of cultural exchanges and links among different populations and the role of these relationships in transmitting and spreading infectious diseases in a certain geographic area.

  7. CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Pollution rates Cultural norms Roads Agricultu ral practises / norms Level of Income Access to safe water Gender based discriminati on Fear of...internal conflicts Civil rights Quality of nutrition Status of environm ental policies Spiritual practises Dams Food for sale ... Fertility rates Literacy rates These developed categories are currently being tested by using both qualitative and

  8. Contributions of adipose tissue architectural and tensile properties toward defining healthy and unhealthy obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Denise E; Burk, David H; Ali, Mohamed R; Mostaedi, Rouzbeh; Smith, William H; Park, Jiyoung; Scherer, Philipp E; Seay, Shundra A; McCoin, Colin S; Bonaldo, Paolo; Adams, Sean H

    2014-02-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in the maintenance of white adipose tissue (WAT) architecture and function, and proper ECM remodeling is critical to support WAT malleability to accommodate changes in energy storage needs. Obesity and adipocyte hypertrophy place a strain on the ECM remodeling machinery, which may promote disordered ECM and altered tissue integrity and could promote proinflammatory and cell stress signals. To explore these questions, new methods were developed to quantify omental and subcutaneous WAT tensile strength and WAT collagen content by three-dimensional confocal imaging, using collagen VI knockout mice as a methods validation tool. These methods, combined with comprehensive measurement of WAT ECM proteolytic enzymes, transcript, and blood analyte analyses, were used to identify unique pathophenotypes of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese women, using multivariate statistical modeling and univariate comparisons with weight-matched healthy obese individuals. In addition to the expected differences in inflammation and glycemic control, approximately 20 ECM-related factors, including omental tensile strength, collagen, and enzyme transcripts, helped discriminate metabolically compromised obesity. This is consistent with the hypothesis that WAT ECM physiology is intimately linked to metabolic health in obese humans, and the studies provide new tools to explore this relationship.

  9. CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-31

    trends) and the corresponding human behavioural responses (eg. food access and migration patterns) will provide an input to metric creation...Task 2.2: Determine if significant changes in environmental variability data correspond to changes in human behaviour using both visual (GIS) and...14-1-0113 to the CSIR. The grant is based on the premise that human security and environmental security is inextricably linked and that a better

  10. Defining freight rates as a contribution to the successful operation of container shipping companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Oblak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world market and the flexibility of containerization to adjust to the constant changes in supply and demand of the international goods market, has led to a continuous increase in the portion of the container transport within the international maritime cargo transport. By the increase of the container transport level, the impact and importance of container freight rates have been growing, the variability of which directly reflects on the world economy. The aim of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of actual methods in establishing the container freight rates according to the problems which appear in the container shipping operation and refer to large differences in the weights of the actual transported cargo and the declared cargo in containers. The consequence of is lower freight rates and higher costs of the vessels exploitation, concerning the increase of the bunker oil consumption. The conducted research is based on actual data that have been collected and analyzed from particular container vessel liner services within period of 90 days and casting off from 16 container ports. The proposed measures could increase the level of usability of the transporting ships capacities and enable a more accurate and correct account of sea freight rates. The results of the research have shown that by increasing the control of accuracy of the cargo weight in containers and by improving the model of accounting, the freight rates can increase the incomes of shipping companies maintaining the same level of container traffic, which can have a direct influence on the efficiency of their successful operation.

  11. Epistemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Chitta; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans

    The seminar Epistemic Planning brought together the research communities of Dynamic Epistemic Logic, Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, and Automated Planning to address fundamental problems on the topic of epistemic planning. In the context of this seminar, dynamic epistemic logic...... investigates the formal semantics of communication and communicative actions, knowledge representation and reasoning focuses on theories of action and change, and automated planning investigates computational techniques and tools to generate plans. The original goals of the seminar were to develop benchmarks...... for epistemic planning, to explore the relationship between knowledge and belief in multi-agent epistemic planning, to develop models of agency and capability in epistemic planning and to explore action types and their representations (these originally separate goals were merged during the seminar), and finally...

  12. Strategic Planning for Cardiac Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gauthier, Gail D

    2008-01-01

    .... In August 2007, a Tiger Team formed between members of DDEAMC and the Augusta VAMC to determine causative factors contributing to the results, and to provide an action plan that would satisfy CSCB requirements...

  13. Public affairs plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the Fiscal Year 1995 UMTRA public affairs program and identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It also describes the roles of various agencies involved in the conduct of the public affairs program and defines the functions of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It integrates and replaces the Public Participation Plan (DOE/AL/62350-47D) and Public Information Plan (DOE/AL/623590-71). The plan describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Office; the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs (OIEA); the UMTRA TAC; the UMTRA Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies.

  14. Public affairs plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the Fiscal Year 1995 UMTRA public affairs program and identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It also describes the roles of various agencies involved in the conduct of the public affairs program and defines the functions of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It integrates and replaces the Public Participation Plan (DOE/AL/62350-47D) and Public Information Plan (DOE/AL/623590-71). The plan describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Office; the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs (OIEA); the UMTRA TAC; the UMTRA Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies

  15. 22 CFR 92.36 - Authentication defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authentication defined. 92.36 Section 92.36... Notarial Acts § 92.36 Authentication defined. An authentication is a certification of the genuineness of... recognized in another jurisdiction. Documents which may require authentication include legal instruments...

  16. A definability theorem for first order logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butz, C.; Moerdijk, I.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we will present a definability theorem for first order logic This theorem is very easy to state and its proof only uses elementary tools To explain the theorem let us first observe that if M is a model of a theory T in a language L then clearly any definable subset S M ie a subset S

  17. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  18. Defining Hardwood Veneer Log Quality Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Michael Wiemann; Delton Alderman; John Baumgras; William Luppold

    2004-01-01

    This publication provides a broad spectrum of information on the hardwood veneer industry in North America. Veneer manufacturers and their customers impose guidelines in specifying wood quality attributes that are very discriminating but poorly defined (e.g., exceptional color, texture, and/or figure characteristics). To better understand and begin to define the most...

  19. Sci—Thur PM: Planning and Delivery — 06: Real-Time Interactive Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Q; Mestrovic, A; Otto, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and evaluate a novel system for generalized Real-Time Interactive Planning (RTIP) applied to head and neck (H and N) VMAT. Methods: The clinician interactively manipulates dose distributions using DVHs, isodoses, or rate of dose fall-off, which may be subjected to user-defined constraints. Dose is calculated using a fast Achievable Dose Estimate (ADE) algorithm, which simulates the limits of what can be achieved during treatment. After each manipulation contributing fluence elements are modified and the dose distribution updates in effectively real-time. For H and N VMAT planning, structure sets for 11 patients were imported into RTIP. Each dose distribution was interactively modified to minimize OAR dose while constraining target DVHs. The resulting RTIP DVHs were transferred to the Eclipse™ VMAT optimizer, and conventional VMAT optimization was performed. Results: Dose calculation and update times for the ADE algorithm ranged from 2.4 to 22.6 milliseconds, thus facilitating effectively real-time manipulation of dose distributions. For each of the 11 H and N VMAT cases, the RTIP process took ∼2–10 minutes. All RTIP plans exhibited acceptable PTV coverage, mean dose, and max dose. 10 of 11 RTIP plans achieved substantially improved sparing of one or more OARs without compromising dose to targets or other OARs. Importantly, 10 of the 11 RTIP plans required only one or two post-RTIP optimizations. Conclusions: RTIP is a novel system for manipulating and updating achievable dose distributions in real-time. H and N VMAT plans generated using RTIP demonstrate improved OAR sparing and planning efficiency. Disclosures: One author has a commercial interest in the presented materials

  20. Caracterização de geoambientes da floresta nacional do purus, Amazônia ocidental: uma contribuição ao plano de manejo Geoenvironments of the purus national forest: a contribution to the management plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Christo Brandão

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A falta de estudos básicos necessários para o plano de manejo vem retardando a implementação efetiva de diversas Unidades de Conservação na região amazônica. Neste trabalho, interpretações de imagens orbitais e semiorbitais aliadas a trabalhos de campo foram utilizadas para a caracterização geoambiental da Floresta Nacional (FLONA do Purus. Através da geração de mapas temáticos, criou-se uma base digital georreferenciada que constitui a primeira plataforma para o SIG da FLONA. Foram identificados quatro geoambientes principais: Platôs Dissecados com Mata sobre Latossolos e Argissolos; Encostas e Rampas com Mata sobre Argissolos; Planícies Aluviais Eutróficas com Neossolos Flúvicos e Gleissolos; e Planícies Aluviais Distróficas com Gleissolos. Os aluviões holocênicos na área sob influência do rio Purus são ricos em nutrientes (eutróficos, com influência de sedimentos subandinos. Em contraste, a maior parte da FLONA possui solos extremamente ácidos e pobres em nutrientes (distróficos, formados a partir do intemperismo de sedimentos da Formação Solimões. O manejo dessas áreas deve visar ao incremento do aporte de biomassa na superfície dos solos, aumentando a eficiência da ciclagem de nutrientes pela vegetação, já que a reserva química natural é extremamente baixa.The lack of basic studies for the elaboration of management plans has delayed the effective implementation of conservation units in the Amazon region. In this work, the interpretation of orbital and sub-orbital images, together with field surveys were used for the geoenvironmental characterization of the Purus National Forest (PNF. A georreferenced digital database composed of thematic maps was produced and constitutes the base of a GIS for the PNF. Four geoenvironments were identified and mapped: Dissecated Plateaux with forest vegetation on Latosols and Argisols; Forested slopes on Argisols; Alluvial plains with eutric soils; Alluvial plains

  1. GTRgaz: investment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    GTRgaz company published on June 2007 its indicative development plan for the 10 years to come. This document serves as a communication vector between GTRgaz and the actors of the market and presents the projects of development of the gas transportation network as defined on the basis of the evolution of French and European markets, and on the knowledge of capacity needs directly or indirectly expressed by the suppliers community. This article summarizes the different points of this plan: reduction of the number of balancing points, development of interconnection capacities, development of output capacities, network free interplay improvement beyond 2013. (J.S.)

  2. Defining Compensable Injury in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Megan E

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research provides a core social good by enabling medical progress. In the twenty-first century alone, this includes reducing transmission of HIV/AIDS, developing innovative therapies for cancer patients, and exploring the possibilities of personalized medicine. In order to continue to advance medical science, research relies on the voluntary participation of human subjects. Because research is inherently uncertain, unintended harm is an inevitable part of the research enterprise. Currently, injured research participants in the United States must turn to the “litigation lottery” of the tort system in search of compensation. This state of affairs fails research participants, who are too often left uncompensated for devastating losses, and makes the United States an outlier in the international community. In spite of forty years’ worth of Presidential Commissions and other respected voices calling for the development of a no-fault compensation system, no progress has been made to date. One of the reasons for this lack of progress is the failure to develop a coherent ethical basis for an obligation to provide compensation for research related injuries. This problem is exacerbated by the lack of a clear definition of “compensable injury” in the biomedical research context. This article makes a number of important contributions to the scholarship in this growing field. To begin, it examines compensation systems already in existence and concludes that there are four main definitional elements that must be used to define “compensable injury.” Next, it examines the justifications that have been put forth as the basis for an ethical obligation to provide compensation, and settles on retrospective nonmaleficence and distributive and compensatory justice as the most salient and persuasive. Finally, it uses the regulatory elements and the justifications discussed in the first two sections to develop a well-rounded definition of “compensable injury

  3. The Scenario Planning Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaniol, Matthew Jon; Rowland, Nicholas James

    2017-01-01

    planning paradox. Contributing fresh theory supposedly attends to the “dismal” state of theory, while contributing new typologies purportedly helps bring order to methodological chaos. Repeated over time, the contribution strategy breaks down. Effort to resolve the theoretical and methodological issue......, foundational theoretical perspective in futures studies. Perceived chaos gives way to typologies, which, as they mount, contribute to the chaos they were meant to resolve. The end result, intended by no one, is that theory remains dismal and methods remain chaotic. This direction for the field is indefensible......For more than a decade, futures studies scholars have prefaced scholarly contributions by repeating the claim that there is insufficient theory to support chaotic scenario methodology. The strategy is formulaic, and the net effect is a curious one, which the authors refer to as the scenario...

  4. 26 CFR 1.415(f)-1 - Aggregating plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). After the 2010 stock sale, XYZ Corporation continues to maintain Plan XYZ. LMN Corporation maintains a qualified defined benefit plan (Plan LMN). After the 2010 stock sale, M begins to accrue benefits under Plan... maintained by ABC Corporation after the 2010 stock sale. Under § 1.415(a)-1(f)(1), any plan maintained by any...

  5. Employer-sponsored pension plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from pension plans within social insurance, in developed pension systems there are also available to individuals schemes which may to a large extent ensure a significant part of their total pension. Among them are the following: employer-sponsored pension plans or individual pension plans. The most widely used employer-sponsored pension plan in the USA is 401(k, in which both the employer and the employee contribute to the financing of the pension. These contributions as well as the return to their investment have a preferential tax treatment, i.e. do not enter a tax base. The funds are taxed only when drawn from the account in the form of a pension. This paper aims to present the functioning of 401(k pension plan as the most widely used employer sponsored pension plan in the USA, which is likely, in a modified form, to have an important place within our future reformed pension insurance system.

  6. Optimal Switch Configuration in Software-Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla GENGE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging Software-Defined Networks (SDN paradigm facilitates innovative applications and enables the seamless provisioning of resilient communications. Nevertheless, the installation of communication flows in SDN requires careful planning in order to avoid configuration errors and to fulfill communication requirements. In this paper we propose an approach that installs automatically and optimally static flows in SDN switches. The approach aims to select high capacity links and shortest path routing, and enforces communication link and switch capacity limitations. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and scalability of the developed methodology.

  7. Contribution of PET and PET/CT in CTV/PTV-modulation for planning of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT); Aktueller Beitrag der PET und PET/CT zur Zielvolumenmodulation fuer die biologischmedizinische Planung im Rahmen der intensitaetsmodulierten Strahlentherapie (IMRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehler, W. [Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Suedharz-Krankenhaus Nordhausen (Germany); Baum, R.P. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin/PET-Zentrum, Zentralklinik Bad Berka (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    PET and PET/CT enlarge the possibilities of purely anatomic imaging by opening up new horizons in determining the metabolic and molecular properties of tumors. This enables to determine the spread of tumors with higher accuracy, especially concerning the primary staging and the diagnosis of recurrences. Patients with locoregional disease which are curable by surgery or local radiotherapy (eventually in combination with chemotherapy) can be differentiated from those patients, where only palliative treatment is indicated. Novel nuclear medicine procedures, which use specific tracers, open the door for the molecular treatment of tumors. This will be especially important for radiation oncology. In future it will be possible to define specific tumor areas within a morphologically homogeneous tumor (e.g. areas of tumor hypoxia, increased local tumor stem cell concentration, tumor parts with higher proliferative activity etc.). With IMRT (intensity modulated radiotherapy) we have already now the opportunity, to concentrate the dose to these specific tumor areas, without overloading normal tissues and organs at risk. (orig.)

  8. Forward planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontenla, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    By definition, forward planning is a process where input consists of conditions on beam configurations and parameters and output consists of dose distributions on target and critical structures, in contrast to inverse planning, where the opposite is true. For forward planning IMRT, criteria are as follows: (i) Plans created as an extension of standard 3D conformational planning; (ii) No significant increase in the complexity of the treatment planning or treatment delivery process; (3) Treatment verification using standard QA procedures; and process consists of the following steps: (i) Create a standard 3D conformational treatment plan; (ii) Copy one of the existing beams; (iii) Create control points: design new beam segments, blocking high dose areas; (iv) Repeat for all beams; (v) Re-compute dose; and (vi) Adjust control points weights to achieve desired dose distribution. A detailed exposition, with many clinical examples, is given for the breast, lung, and brain (P.A.)

  9. Climate Action Planning Tool | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL's Climate Action Planning Tool provides a quick, basic estimate of how various technology options can contribute to an overall climate action plan for your research campus. Use the tool to Tool Calculation Formulas and Assumptions Climate Neutral Research Campuses Website Climate Neutral

  10. Planning for design quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguglio, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    In the nuclear industry and in other high technology industries in which the Government serves as either a customer or a regulator, it is almost always required that the contractor prepare a Quality Program Plan sometimes also referred to as a Quality Program Index. Often, the Quality Program Plan is included as part of the contractor's proposal in response to the Government's or a prime contractor's Request for Proposal. At this stage, the Quality Program Plan serves to demonstrate to the prospective customer the availability of the various quality systems. It provides the customer with a commitment as to the use of these quality systems, thus giving greater assurance that the customer's overall quality and design requirements can be met. The Quality Program Plan is contributing to the salability of the proposal. 1 ref

  11. Inverse planning IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The lecture addressed the following topics: Optimizing radiotherapy dose distribution; IMRT contributes to optimization of energy deposition; Inverse vs direct planning; Main steps of IMRT; Background of inverse planning; General principle of inverse planning; The 3 main components of IMRT inverse planning; The simplest cost function (deviation from prescribed dose); The driving variable : the beamlet intensity; Minimizing a 'cost function' (or 'objective function') - the walker (or skier) analogy; Application to IMRT optimization (the gradient method); The gradient method - discussion; The simulated annealing method; The optimization criteria - discussion; Hard and soft constraints; Dose volume constraints; Typical user interface for definition of optimization criteria; Biological constraints (Equivalent Uniform Dose); The result of the optimization process; Semi-automatic solutions for IMRT; Generalisation of the optimization problem; Driving and driven variables used in RT optimization; Towards multi-criteria optimization; and Conclusions for the optimization phase. (P.A.)

  12. A Study on Strategic Planning and Procurement of Medicals in Uganda’s Regional Referral Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study was an analysis of the effect of strategic planning on procurement of medicals in Uganda’s regional referral hospitals (RRH’s). Medicals were defined as essential medicines, medical devices and medical equipment. The Ministry of Health (MOH) has been carrying out strategic planning for the last 15 years via the Health Sector Strategic Plans. Their assumption was that strategic planning would translate to strategic procurement and consequently, availability of medicals in the RRH’s. However, despite the existence of these plans, there have been many complaints about expired drugs and shortages in RRH’s. For this purpose, a third variable was important because it served the role of mediation. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on perceptions of 206 respondents who were selected using simple random sampling. 8 key informant interviews were held, 2 in each RRH. 4 Focus Group Discussions were held, 1 for each RRH, and between 5 and 8 staff took part as discussants for approximately three hours. The findings suggested that strategic planning was affected by funding to approximately 34% while the relationship between funding and procurement was 35%. The direct relationship between strategic planning and procurement was 18%. However when the total causal effect was computed it turned out that strategic planning and the related variable of funding contributed 77% to procurement of medicals under the current hierarchical model where MOH is charged with development of strategic plans for the entire health sector. Since even with this contribution there were complaints, the study proposed a new model called CALF which according to a simulation, if adopted by MOH, strategic planning would contribute 87% to effectiveness in procurement of medicals. PMID:28299158

  13. A Study on Strategic Planning and Procurement of Medicals in Uganda's Regional Referral Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masembe, Ishak Kamaradi

    2016-12-31

    This study was an analysis of the effect of strategic planning on procurement of medicals in Uganda's regional referral hospitals (RRH's). Medicals were defined as essential medicines, medical devices and medical equipment. The Ministry of Health (MOH) has been carrying out strategic planning for the last 15 years via the Health Sector Strategic Plans. Their assumption was that strategic planning would translate to strategic procurement and consequently, availability of medicals in the RRH's. However, despite the existence of these plans, there have been many complaints about expired drugs and shortages in RRH's. For this purpose, a third variable was important because it served the role of mediation. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on perceptions of 206 respondents who were selected using simple random sampling. 8 key informant interviews were held, 2 in each RRH. 4 Focus Group Discussions were held, 1 for each RRH, and between 5 and 8 staff took part as discussants for approximately three hours. The findings suggested that strategic planning was affected by funding to approximately 34% while the relationship between funding and procurement was 35%. The direct relationship between strategic planning and procurement was 18%. However when the total causal effect was computed it turned out that strategic planning and the related variable of funding contributed 77% to procurement of medicals under the current hierarchical model where MOH is charged with development of strategic plans for the entire health sector. Since even with this contribution there were complaints, the study proposed a new model called CALF which according to a simulation, if adopted by MOH, strategic planning would contribute 87% to effectiveness in procurement of medicals.

  14. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W., E-mail: hans.w.schumacher@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  15. General Criteria to Evaluate Students' Performance in Dealing with Ill-Defined Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peterson, Donna

    1998-01-01

    .... The purpose of constructing ill defined assessment tasks for our students is to assess their ability to recognize and contribute to the resolution of real world dilemmas they are likely to face...

  16. Application-Defined Decentralized Access Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Dunn, Alan M.; Hofmann, Owen S.; Lee, Michael Z.; Mehdi, Syed Akbar; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    DCAC is a practical OS-level access control system that supports application-defined principals. It allows normal users to perform administrative operations within their privilege, enabling isolation and privilege separation for applications. It does not require centralized policy specification or management, giving applications freedom to manage their principals while the policies are still enforced by the OS. DCAC uses hierarchically-named attributes as a generic framework for user-defined policies such as groups defined by normal users. For both local and networked file systems, its execution time overhead is between 0%–9% on file system microbenchmarks, and under 1% on applications. This paper shows the design and implementation of DCAC, as well as several real-world use cases, including sandboxing applications, enforcing server applications’ security policies, supporting NFS, and authenticating user-defined sub-principals in SSH, all with minimal code changes. PMID:25426493

  17. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this research is to propose a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-band, multi-mode, miniaturized frequency-agile EVA software defined radio...

  18. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI is actively developing Software Defined Radio platforms that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation by modifying both transmit waveforms and...

  19. Software Defined Multiband EVA Radio, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of Phase 2 is to build a reliable, lightweight, programmable, multi-mode, miniaturized EVA Software Defined Radio (SDR) that supports data telemetry,...

  20. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation Inc, (IAI) is currently developing a software defined radio (SDR) platform that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation for...

  1. Performance Confirmation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    As described, the purpose of the Performance Confirmation Plan is to specify monitoring, testing, and analysis activities for evaluating the accuracy and adequacy of the information used to determine that performance objectives for postclosure will be met. This plan defines a number of specific performance confirmation activities and associated test concepts in support of the MGR that will be implemented to fulfill this purpose. In doing so, the plan defines an approach to identify key factors and processes, predict performance, establish tolerances and test criteria, collect data (through monitoring, testing, and experiments), analyze these data, and recommend appropriate action. The process of defining which factors to address under performance confirmation incorporates input from several areas. In all cases, key performance confirmation factors are those factors which are: (1) important to safety, (2) measurable and predictable, and (3) relevant to the program (i.e., a factor that is affected by construction, emplacement, or is a time-dependent variable). For the present version of the plan, performance confirmation factors important to safety are identified using the principal factors from the RSS (CRWMS M and O 2000a) (which is derived from TSPA analyses) together with other available performance assessment analyses. With this basis, key performance confirmation factors have been identified, and test concepts and test descriptions have been developed in the plan. Other activities are also incorporated into the performance confirmation program outside of these key factors. Additional activities and tests have been incorporated when they are prescribed by requirements and regulations or are necessary to address data needs and model validation requirements relevant to postclosure safety. These other activities have been included with identified factors to construct the overall performance confirmation program

  2. Performance Confirmation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    As described, the purpose of the Performance Confirmation Plan is to specify monitoring, testing, and analysis activities for evaluating the accuracy and adequacy of the information used to determine that performance objectives for postclosure will be met. This plan defines a number of specific performance confirmation activities and associated test concepts in support of the MGR that will be implemented to fulfill this purpose. In doing so, the plan defines an approach to identify key factors and processes, predict performance, establish tolerances and test criteria, collect data (through monitoring, testing, and experiments), analyze these data, and recommend appropriate action. The process of defining which factors to address under performance confirmation incorporates input from several areas. In all cases, key performance confirmation factors are those factors which are: (1) important to safety, (2) measurable and predictable, and (3) relevant to the program (i.e., a factor that i s affected by construction, emplacement, or is a time-dependent variable). For the present version of the plan, performance confirmation factors important to safety are identified using the principal factors from the RSS (CRWMS M and O 2000a) (which is derived from TSPA analyses) together with other available performance assessment analyses. With this basis, key performance confirmation factors have been identified, and test concepts and test descriptions have been developed in the plan. Other activities are also incorporated into the performance confirmation program outside of these key factors. Additional activities and tests have been incorporated when they are prescribed by requirements and regulations or are necessary to address data needs and model validation requirements relevant to postclosure safety. These other activities have been included with identified factors to construct the overall performance confirmation program

  3. Optimum Criteria for Developing Defined Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic aspects concerning distributed applications are presented: definition, particularities and importance. For distributed applications linear, arborescent, graph structures are defined with different versions and aggregation methods. Distributed applications have associated structures which through their characteristics influence the costs of the stages in the development cycle and the exploitation costs transferred to each user. The complexity of the defined structures is analyzed. The minimum and maximum criteria are enumerated for optimizing distributed application structures.

  4. Contribution of Global Polio Eradication Initiative-Funded Personnel to the Strengthening of Routine Immunization Programs in the 10 Focus Countries of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ent, Maya M V X; Swift, Rachel D; Anaokar, Sameer; Hegg, Lea Anne; Eggers, Rudolf; Cochi, Stephen L

    2017-07-01

    The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) established a target that at least 50% of the time of personnel receiving funding from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) for polio eradication activities (hereafter, "GPEI-funded personnel") should be dedicated to the strengthening of immunization systems. This article describes the self-reported profile of how GPEI-funded personnel allocate their time toward immunization goals and activities beyond those associated with polio, the training they have received to conduct tasks to strengthen routine immunization systems, and the type of tasks they have conducted. A survey of approximately 1000 field managers of frontline GPEI-funded personnel was conducted by Boston Consulting Group in the 10 focus countries of the PEESP during 2 phases, in 2013 and 2014, to determine time allocation among frontline staff. Country-specific reports on the training of GPEI-funded personnel were reviewed, and an analysis of the types of tasks that were reported was conducted. A total of 467 managers responded to the survey. Forty-seven percent of the time (range, 23%-61%) of GPEI-funded personnel was dedicated to tasks related to strengthening immunization programs, other than polio eradication. Less time was spent on polio-associated activities in countries that had already interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission, compared with findings for WPV-endemic countries. All countries conducted periodic trainings of the GPEI-funded personnel. The types of non-polio-related tasks performed by GPEI-funded personnel varied among countries and included surveillance, microplanning, newborn registration and defaulter tracing, monitoring of routine immunization activities, and support of district immunization task teams, as well as promotion of health behaviors, such as clean-water use and good hygiene and sanitation practices. In all countries, GPEI-funded personnel perform critical tasks in the strengthening of routine

  5. Contribution of Global Polio Eradication Initiative–Funded Personnel to the Strengthening of Routine Immunization Programs in the 10 Focus Countries of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Rachel D.; Anaokar, Sameer; Hegg, Lea Anne; Eggers, Rudolf; Cochi, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) established a target that at least 50% of the time of personnel receiving funding from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) for polio eradication activities (hereafter, “GPEI-funded personnel”) should be dedicated to the strengthening of immunization systems. This article describes the self-reported profile of how GPEI-funded personnel allocate their time toward immunization goals and activities beyond those associated with polio, the training they have received to conduct tasks to strengthen routine immunization systems, and the type of tasks they have conducted. Methods. A survey of approximately 1000 field managers of frontline GPEI-funded personnel was conducted by Boston Consulting Group in the 10 focus countries of the PEESP during 2 phases, in 2013 and 2014, to determine time allocation among frontline staff. Country-specific reports on the training of GPEI-funded personnel were reviewed, and an analysis of the types of tasks that were reported was conducted. Results. A total of 467 managers responded to the survey. Forty-seven percent of the time (range, 23%–61%) of GPEI-funded personnel was dedicated to tasks related to strengthening immunization programs, other than polio eradication. Less time was spent on polio-associated activities in countries that had already interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission, compared with findings for WPV-endemic countries. All countries conducted periodic trainings of the GPEI-funded personnel. The types of non–polio-related tasks performed by GPEI-funded personnel varied among countries and included surveillance, microplanning, newborn registration and defaulter tracing, monitoring of routine immunization activities, and support of district immunization task teams, as well as promotion of health behaviors, such as clean-water use and good hygiene and sanitation practices. Conclusion. In all countries, GPEI-funded personnel

  6. Strategic planning for marketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, I

    1978-12-01

    The merits of strategic planning as a marketing tool are discussed in this article which takes the view that although marketers claim to be future-oriented, they focus too little attention on long-term planning and forecasting. Strategic planning, as defined by these authors, usually encompasses periods of between five and twenty-five years and places less emphasis on the past as an absolute predictor of the future. It takes a more probabilistic view of the future than conventional marketing strategy and looks at the corporation as but one component interacting with the total environment. Inputs are examined in terms of environmental, social, political, technological and economic importance. Because of its futuristic orientation, an important tenant of strategic planning is the preparation of several alternative scenarios ranging from most to least likely. By planning for a wide-range of future market conditions, a corporation is more able to be flexible by anticipating the course of future events, and is less likely to become a captive reactor--as the authors believe is now the case. An example of strategic planning at General Elecric is cited.

  7. Public affairs plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the fiscal year (FY) 1996 UMTRA Project public affairs program and to identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It describes the roles of various agencies involved in the public affairs program and defines the functions of the UMTRA Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It replaces the FY 1995 Public Affairs Plan (DOE/AL/62350-154). The plan also describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about UMTRA Project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in UMTRA Project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Team; the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO); the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Public Affairs (OPA); the TAC; the UMTRA Project Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies

  8. An action plan for radioactive substances regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document sets out an action plan for the Agency's Radioactive Substances Regulation function. Our vision is to secure continuous improvement in the protection of the public and the environment from the harmful effects of radioactive substances. Radioactive Substances Regulation will work with others to realise this vision and contribute to the Agency's role in achieving sustainable development. We will also work to ensure that the Agency achieves its objectives in an efficient, consistent and integrated way. The main elements of our Action Plan are as follows: establishing indicators of sustainability and the means and methods of monitoring them; establishing performance indicators and a programme of targets and objectives to be achieved; establishing a database of all premises subject to RSA93 and to use it for work planning, resource targeting, and improvement to radioactive waste management; provision of systems of procedures and technical guidance to ensure nationally consistent and cost- effective regulation; establishing systems to audit the implementation of the procedures and guidance; ensuring quality of regulation by defining technical competencies of inspectors and the training programmes to secure them; an R and D programme targeted on improving radioactive waste management and radioactive substances regulation; and full and effective participation in development of national policy

  9. Egypt boosts family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-27

    A $4 million Agency for International Development (AID) agreement was signed in Cairo September 30 which will help the Egyptian government increase family planning services. The project is in response to a request for up to $17 million of AID funds for family planning programs during the next 3 years. The funds will pay for: contract advisors to provide short-term in-country training of physicians, architectural and engineering services to renovate a hospital for family planning and obstetrics/gynecology training, and a field training site for family planning service providers. Some Egyptians will receive training in specialized areas in the U.S. and other countries. More than $1.5 million of the $4 million will finance local costs of goods and services required. In addition, it is anticipated that U.S.-owned local currencies will be obligated for direct support of U.S. technical personnel. Over the 3-year life of the project the $17 million from AID plus $664,000 of U.S.-owned local currency will cover 44% of the total costs of selected Egyptian family planning activities. The Egyptian government will contribute at least $18.4 million and the U.N. Fund for Population Activities and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development will contribute $4.3 million.

  10. Inspection planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.; Levstek, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) division of nuclear and radiological safety inspection has developed systematic approach to their inspections. To be efficient in their efforts regarding regular and other types of inspections, in past years, the inspection plan has been developed. It is yearly based and organized on a such systematic way, that all areas of nuclear safety important activities of the licensee are covered. The inspection plan assures appropriate preparation for conducting the inspections, allows the overview of the progress regarding the areas to be covered during the year. Depending on the licensee activities and nature of facility (nuclear power plant, research reactor, radioactive waste storage, others), the plan has different levels of intensity of inspections and also their frequency. One of the basic approaches of the plan is to cover all nuclear and radiological important activities on such way, that all regulatory requests are fulfilled. In addition, the inspection plan is a good tool to improve inspection effectiveness based on previous experience and allows to have the oversight of the current status of fulfillment of planned inspections. Future improvement of the plan is necessary in the light of newest achievements on this field in the nuclear world, that means, new types of inspections are planned and will be incorporated into plan in next year.(author)

  11. Flood action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slopek, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Safe operating procedures developed by TransAlta Utilities for dealing with flooding, resulting from upstream dam failures or extreme rainfalls, were presented. Several operating curves developed by Monenco AGRA were described, among them the No Overtopping Curve (NOC), the Safe Filling Curve (SFC), the No Spill Curve (NSC) and the Guaranteed Fill Curve (GFC). The concept of an operational comfort zone was developed and defined. A flood action plan for all operating staff was created as a guide in case of a flooding incident. Staging of a flood action plan workshop was described. Dam break scenarios pertinent to the Bow River were developed for subsequent incorporation into a Flood Action Plan Manual. Evaluation of the technical presentations made during workshops were found them to have been effective in providing operating staff with a better understanding of the procedures that they would perform in an emergency. 8 figs

  12. Defining Smart City. A Conceptual Framework Based on Keyword Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Mosannenzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available “Smart city” is a concept that has been the subject of increasing attention in urban planning and governance during recent years. The first step to create Smart Cities is to understand its concept. However, a brief review of literature shows that the concept of Smart City is the subject of controversy. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework to define Smart City. To this aim, an extensive literature review was done. Then, a keyword analysis on literature was held against main research questions (why, what, who, when, where, how and based on three main domains involved in the policy decision making process and Smart City plan development: Academic, Industrial and Governmental. This resulted in a conceptual framework for Smart City. The result clarifies the definition of Smart City, while providing a framework to define Smart City’s each sub-system. Moreover, urban authorities can apply this framework in Smart City initiatives in order to recognize their main goals, main components, and key stakeholders.

  13. Simulation of a relativistic heavy ions beam transport in the matter: contribution of the fragmentation process and biological implications; Simulation du transport d`un faisceau d`ions lourds relativistes dans la matiere: contribution du processus de fragmentation et implication sur le plan biologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibnouzahir, M

    1995-03-01

    The study of relativistic heavy ion collisions permit an approach of the properties of dense and not hadronic matter, and an analysis of the reaction mechanisms. Such studies are also interesting on the biological point of view, since there exist now well defined projects concerning the radiotherapy with high LET particles as neutrons, protons, heavy ions. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the processes which occur in the propagation of a relativistic heavy ion beam (E{>=} 100 A.MeV) in matter. We have elaborated a three dimensional transport code, using a Monte Carlo method, in order to describe the propagation of Ne and Ar ions in water. Violent nuclear collisions giving fragmentation process have been taken into account by use of the FREESCO program. We have tested the validity of our transport model and we show an important change of the energy deposition at the vicinity of the Bragg peak; such a distortion, due mainly to fragmentation reactions, is of a great interest for biological applications. (author).

  14. Contribution to the planning and dosimetry of photon beams applied to radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy; Contribuicao ao planejamento e a dosimetria de feixes de fotons aplicados a radiocirurgia e a radioterapia estereotaxica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Walter Menezes

    2003-08-15

    radiosurgery. Measurements were also performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters in order to verify the degree of compliance between the doses calculated through the Radionics{sup TM} Planning System and the actual treatment dose. This was accomplished by using a Rando(R) anthropomorphic phantom. The results showed that the two doses agree within {+-} 2%. The influence of the presence of inhomogeneities within the irradiated volume, due to the presence of air or bone in the radiation path was assessed. The results showed that these inhomogeneities significantly affect both the dose distribution pattern and the beam profiles in the treatment volume. The results of this study show that the dosimetry of small diameter radiation beams is still challenging, due mainly to the limited resolution of available detectors and to the lack of lateral equilibrium in small diameter radiation beams. (author)

  15. Contribution to the planning and dosimetry of photon beams applied to radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy; Contribuicao ao planejamento e a dosimetria de feixes de fotons aplicados a radiocirurgia e a radioterapia estereotaxica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Walter Menezes

    2003-08-15

    . Measurements were also performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters in order to verify the degree of compliance between the doses calculated through the Radionics{sup TM} Planning System and the actual treatment dose. This was accomplished by using a Rando(R) anthropomorphic phantom. The results showed that the two doses agree within {+-} 2%. The influence of the presence of inhomogeneities within the irradiated volume, due to the presence of air or bone in the radiation path was assessed. The results showed that these inhomogeneities significantly affect both the dose distribution pattern and the beam profiles in the treatment volume. The results of this study show that the dosimetry of small diameter radiation beams is still challenging, due mainly to the limited resolution of available detectors and to the lack of lateral equilibrium in small diameter radiation beams. (author)

  16. Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station five-year business plan and operating results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shanming

    2000-01-01

    Guangdong Nuclear Power Joint Venture Company, Ltd. first 5-Year Business Plan (hereinafter referred to as 5-Year Business Plan) serves as guidance of both the operations and management of the company. Continuous performance improvement of the nuclear power station has been achieved through the fulfillment of goals and improvement plan defined by the 5-Year Business Plan, and through standard and systematic management. Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) has made great contributions to sustainable economic developments of both Guangdong and Hong Kong since its commercial operation in 1994. As of the end of 1999, the cumulative off-take electricity generated by GNPS had reached 69.9 billion kWh. Of the WANO indicators universally applied by nuclear power industry throughout the world, 6 indicators of Daya Bay performance entered the world top quartile while 9 the medium level

  17. MUSICAL LANGUAGE AND LEARNER`S PLANNING: WHEN THE TONES DON´T COINCIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Costa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It´s about the music and its utilization in the initial years in the place it occupies deployment in class. By means of classroom observations with teachers of 2nd and 3th grade classes from a state public school in Pau dos Ferros city, RN and its respective plans, notes that in the lesson plans, the occupied place by music is focused on acquisition of contents approached in the subject taught on initial years. Both the lesson plans and the teaching practice have gaps in the clearly defined objectives, on coherence between what is placed in the plan into its items and the didactic transposition. Such finding contributes to an emptying of a work with the musical art while individual and collective professional that enable creative learner´s conduct relegating the educational role at school.

  18. Defining Political Extremism in the Balkans. The Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Marko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Political extremism (and particularly right wing political extremism remains relatively insufficiently explored due to the fact that the phenomenon is controversial and hard to define. Its ambiguity and variability depending on time and spatial point of view further complicates its definition. Its structure is amorphous and eclectic as it often includes elements from different ideologies and connects incompatible ideas. A multidimensional conceptualization and an interdisciplinary approach - sociological, social, psychological and historical, are the Author’s tools in explaining the phenomenon of political extremism in Serbia, hopefully contributing to its clarification and laying a foundation for its further explanatory theoretical studies.

  19. Communication Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Communication Report, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Communication planning in developing countries is discussed in individual articles on theory, knowledge production and utilization, planning at the regional level, software, and rural development. A nutrition education project and three experiments in developing educational materials with feedback from villagers in Africa are described in the…

  20. Conference Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Presents an overview of the management planning technique known as Break Even Analysis and outlines its use as a tool in financial planning for organizations intending to conduct or sponsor a conference, seminar, or workshop. Three figures illustrating Break Even Analysis concepts and a Break Even Analysis worksheet are included. (JL)

  1. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering...

  2. Vocational teacher career planning : needs and problems

    OpenAIRE

    Sajienė, Laima

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses a contradiction between vocational teacher ability to plan his/her career and requirements for the teacher professional development set by the system of education. It aims at providing theoretical and empirical justification for vocational teacher need to develop career planning skills and identify problems. The concept and objectives of vocational teacher career planning as well as career planning skills that vocational teachers should develop are defined in the article.

  3. Environmental Restoration Program Management Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This Management Control Plan has been prepared to define the Energy Systems approach to managing its participation in the US DOE's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program in a manner consistent with DOE/ORO 931: Management Plan for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge, Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; and the Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Contract Management Plan (CMP). This plan discusses the systems, procedures, methodology, and controls to be used by the program management team to attain these objectives

  4. Employer Contribution and Premium Growth in Health Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyan Liu; Ginger Zhe Jin

    2013-01-01

    We study whether employer premium contribution schemes could impact the pricing behavior of health plans and contribute to rising premiums. Using 1991-2011 data before and after a 1999 premium subsidy policy change in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), we find that the employer premium contribution scheme has a differential impact on health plan pricing based on two market incentives: 1) consumers are less price sensitive when they only need to pay part of the premium incr...

  5. Mining and information: defining the need

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.; Peck, J. [AQUILA Mining Systems Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    Some of the current technologies at surface mining operations are discussed. The information system and communication system requirements needed to integrate these components are considered. A plan of a new mine that uses operating information, optimization through planning, monitoring, and locating systems, data processing and analysis, and integration of monitored data and information via the Total Mining System (TMS) is described. The TMS will allow integration of a network of stand-alone modules. There is an immediate requirement for setting standards in surface mining operations to prevent duplication of effort. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  6. International Photovoltaic Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-12-01

    The International Photovoltaics Program Plan is in direct response to the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (PL 95-590). As stated in the Act, the primary objective of the plan is to accelerate the widespread use of photovoltaic systems in international markets. Benefits which could result from increased international sales by US companies include: stabilization and expansion of the US photovoltaic industry, preparing the industry for supplying future domestic needs; contribution to the economic and social advancement of developing countries; reduced world demand for oil; and improvements in the US balance of trade. The plan outlines programs for photovoltaic demonstrations, systems developments, supplier assistance, information dissemination/purchaser assistance, and an informaion clearinghouse. Each program element includes tactical objectives and summaries of approaches. A program management office will be established to coordinate and manage the program plan. Although the US Department of Energy (DOE) had the lead responsibility for preparing and implementing the plan, numerous federal organizations and agencies (US Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, Treasury; Agency for International Development; ACTION; Export/Import Bank; Federal Trade Commission; Small Business Administration) were involved in the plan's preparation and implementation.

  7. Planning and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Artificial Intelig ~ence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and’ Edward A.. Feigenbaum)’, The chapter was written B’ Paul Cohen, with contributions... Artificial Intelligence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and EdWard A. Feigenbaum). The chapter was written by Paul R. Cohen, with contributions by Stephen...Wheevoats"EntermdI’ Planning and Problem ’Solving by Paul R. Cohen Chaptb-rXV-of Volumec III’of the Handbook of Artificial Intelligence edited by Paul R

  8. Strategic planning and security analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePasquale, S.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear security master planning is a deliberative process, founded on the premise that the broad scope of security must be analyzed before any meaningful determinations may be reached on an individual security aspect. This paper examines the analytical process required in developing a Security Master Plan. It defines a four stage process concluding with the selection of security measures encompassing physical security, policy and procedure considerations and guard force deployment. The final product orchestrates each security measure in a complementary and supportive configuration

  9. Integrating human resources and program-planning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J E

    1989-06-01

    The integration of human resources management (HRM) strategies with long-term program-planning strategies in hospital pharmacy departments is described. HRM is a behaviorally based, comprehensive strategy for the effective management and use of people that seeks to achieve coordination and integration with overall planning strategies and other managerial functions. It encompasses forecasting of staffing requirements; determining work-related factors that are strong "motivators" and thus contribute to employee productivity and job satisfaction; conducting a departmental personnel and skills inventory; employee career planning and development, including training and education programs; strategies for promotion and succession, including routes of advancement that provide alternatives to the managerial route; and recruitment and selection of new personnel to meet changing departmental needs. Increased competitiveness among hospitals and a shortage of pharmacists make it imperative that hospital pharmacy managers create strategies to attract, develop, and retain the right individuals to enable the department--and the hospital as a whole--to grow and change in response to the changing health-care environment in the United States. Pharmacy managers would be greatly aided in this mission by the establishment of a well-defined, national strategic plan for pharmacy programs and services that includes an analysis of what education and training are necessary for their successful accomplishment. Creation of links between overall program objectives and people-planning strategies will aid hospital pharmacy departments in maximizing the long-term effectiveness of their practice.

  10. Parallel Education and Defining the Fourth Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessell, Diana

    1996-01-01

    Parallel to the primary, secondary, postsecondary, and adult/community education sectors is education not associated with formal programs--learning in arts and cultural sites. The emergence of cultural and educational tourism is an opportunity for adult/community education to define itself by extending lifelong learning opportunities into parallel…

  11. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  12. 7 CFR 28.950 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Definitions § 28.950 Terms defined. As used... Agricultural Marketing Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. (c) Administrator. The Administrator of...

  13. 47 CFR 54.401 - Lifeline defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.401 Lifeline defined. (a) As used in this subpart, Lifeline means a retail local service offering: (1) That is available only to qualifying low-income consumers; (2) For which qualifying low-income consumers pay reduced charges as a result of...

  14. How Should Energy Be Defined throughout Schooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächtold, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The question of how to teach energy has been renewed by recent studies focusing on the learning and teaching progressions for this concept. In this context, one question has been, for the most part, overlooked: how should energy be defined throughout schooling? This paper addresses this question in three steps. We first identify and discuss two…

  15. Big data and software defined networks

    CERN Document Server

    Taheri, Javid

    2018-01-01

    Big Data Analytics and Software Defined Networking (SDN) are helping to drive the management of data usage of the extraordinary increase of computer processing power provided by Cloud Data Centres (CDCs). This new book investigates areas where Big-Data and SDN can help each other in delivering more efficient services.

  16. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  17. Towards a Southern African English Defining Vocabulary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of parameters, such as avoiding synonyms and antonyms, to determine which words are necessary to write definitions in a concise and simple way. It has been found that existing defining vocabularies lack certain words that would make definitions more accessible to southern African learners, and therefore there is a need ...

  18. Spaces defined by the Paley function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashkin, S V [Samara State University, Samara (Russian Federation); Semenov, E M [Voronezh State University, Faculty of Mathematics, Voronezh (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-31

    The paper is concerned with Haar and Rademacher series in symmetric spaces, and also with the properties of spaces defined by the Paley function. In particular, the symmetric hull of the space of functions with uniformly bounded Paley function is found. Bibliography: 27 titles.

  19. Pointwise extensions of GSOS-defined operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, H.H.; Klin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Final coalgebras capture system behaviours such as streams, infinite trees and processes. Algebraic operations on a final coalgebra can be defined by distributive laws (of a syntax functor S over a behaviour functor F). Such distributive laws correspond to abstract specification formats. One such

  20. Pointwise Extensions of GSOS-Defined Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Hansen (Helle); B. Klin

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFinal coalgebras capture system behaviours such as streams, infinite trees and processes. Algebraic operations on a final coalgebra can be defined by distributive laws (of a syntax functor $\\FSig$ over a behaviour functor $F$). Such distributive laws correspond to abstract specification

  1. Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    Defines virtual reality as a particular type of experience (in terms of "presence" and "telepresence") rather than as a collection of hardware. Maintains that media technologies can be classified and studied in terms of vividness and interactivity, two attributes on which virtual reality ranks very high. (SR)

  2. A self-defining hierarchical data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Self-Defining Data System (SDS) is a system which allows the creation of self-defining hierarchical data structures in a form which allows the data to be moved between different machine architectures. Because the structures are self-defining they can be used for communication between independent modules in a distributed system. Unlike disk-based hierarchical data systems such as Starlink's HDS, SDS works entirely in memory and is very fast. Data structures are created and manipulated as internal dynamic structures in memory managed by SDS itself. A structure may then be exported into a caller supplied memory buffer in a defined external format. This structure can be written as a file or sent as a message to another machine. It remains static in structure until it is reimported into SDS. SDS is written in portable C and has been run on a number of different machine architectures. Structures are portable between machines with SDS looking after conversion of byte order, floating point format, and alignment. A Fortran callable version is also available for some machines.

  3. Fly-by-light flight control system technology development plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, A.; Berwick, J. W.; Griffith, D. M.; Marston, S. E.; Norton, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a four-month, phased effort to develop a Fly-by-Light Technology Development Plan are documented. The technical shortfalls for each phase were identified and a development plan to bridge the technical gap was developed. The production configuration was defined for a 757-type airplane, but it is suggested that the demonstration flight be conducted on the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle. The modifications required and verification and validation issues are delineated in this report. A detailed schedule for the phased introduction of fly-by-light system components has been generated. It is concluded that a fiber-optics program would contribute significantly toward developing the required state of readiness that will make a fly-by-light control system not only cost effective but reliable without mitigating the weight and high-energy radio frequency related benefits.

  4. Workspace experiments: a journey on planning participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Summative Statement: This paper presents a resource material in planning and performing participatory workspace design processes. This material brings up design dialogues into focus and gives insights on how to stage them, bridging the gap of merging user involvement with the well-defined design...... work-practice. Problem statement: There is a widespread interest in implementing user involvement in major building and construction projects. Nevertheless, it is also often difficult to translate the contributions from users to workspace design that seriously take on board the employees’ specific work...... practices as a platform for a desired change. There is a need of tool that manages to travel into a well-defined design work-practice and merge with it. Research Objective: We developed a resource material to merge user involvement within current designers’ practices when designing new workspaces. The aim...

  5. Marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Jantunen, Essi; Hellman, Annika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to draw up an efficient marketing plan for Pohjolan Vihreä Polku Oy, which offers meeting and nature activity services. The company was in a process of conversion and needed a structured marketing plan. The objectives of the company were perceived through severe research. The main purposes of the marketing plan were to raise the visibility of the company and increase its clientele. The proposed marketing actions are also to be used to improve the company’...

  6. Ontological Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Alkan

    2017-12-01

    • Is it possible to redefine ontology within the hierarchical structure of planning? We are going to seek answers to some of these questions within the limited scope of this paper and we are going to offer the rest for discussion by just asking them. In light of these assessments, drawing attention, based on ontological knowledge relying on the wholeness of universe, to the question, on macro level planning, of whether or not the ontological realities of man, energy and movements of thinking can provide macro data for planning on a universal level as important factors affecting mankind will be one of the limited objectives of the paper.

  7. Planning ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J. [Mintec Inc. (US)

    2004-09-01

    The paper presents a state-of-the-art mine planning program that facilitates data storage and provides easy access to essential mine information. MineSight from Mintec, Inc., and the addition MineSight 3D provide a powerful tool used by major coal companies worldwide, offering modelling of different deposit types and complete planning tools including advanced surface/surface and solid/surface intersection routines. The new MineSight Operations addition helps to streamline the planning process and store raw blasthole data (in acQuire) and essential cut attribute information. 12 figs.

  8. Factor 4 planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bariol-Mathais, Brigitte; Lavoillotte, Philippine; Gall-Sorrentino, Florence; Malez, Marianne; Sanna, Daniela; Marsauche, Maud; Marquet, Sarah; Debergue, Sophie; Aminu, Olufunmi; Bernard, Helene; Marchand, Jean-Michel; Blin, Frederic; Grange, Jerome; Caillierez, Sophie; Muller, Dania; Clement, Bob; Desire, Jean-Charles; Metais, Benedicte; Lannuzel, Philippe; Pezet-Kuhn, Murielle; Pons, Anne; Rivoire-Meley, Benedicte; Tissot, Heloise

    2015-07-01

    Factor 4 is the goal of cutting our greenhouse gas emissions by 75% by 2050. Achieving this objective will necessitate radical changes in our practices, in particular concerning transport and housing; the measures currently implemented, such as positive-energy buildings, low-impact mobility and eco-neighbourhoods, will not be enough to meet this goal. These measures must be conceived in the framework of broad territorial planning that integrates environmental and energy objectives far upstream. To this end, the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and the French network of Urban Planning Agencies (FNAU), pursuing their missions in their respective areas of competence, have joined forces to make infrastructure and land use planning an integral part of the environmental and energy transition process. In 2013, the two organisations signed a partnership agreement and compiled an inventory of practices that are relevant to Factor 4 planning. This work was led by Epures, Saint-etienne urban planning agency, along with FNAU, drawing upon the expertise of a dozen urban planning agencies in precursor territories. This inventory describes the stakes, resources and strengths for each territory, which have led to cross-sectoral territorial planning exercises with ambitious environmental and energy objectives; the importance of evaluation in attaining these goals is emphasised. Current experience, questions and available methodological tools are summarised in this document, to encourage territories and help them design their planning policies along a trajectory to achieve Factor 4 goals. The compilation also aims to be a contribution to the COP21 climate conference

  9. Emergency medicine residents' beliefs about contributing to an online collaborative slideshow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Patrick M; Thanh, Jasmine; Blouin, Danielle; Gagnon, Susie; Poitras, Julien; Fountain, Renée-Marie; Fleet, Richard; Bilodeau, Andrea; van de Belt, Tom H; Légaré, France

    2015-07-01

    Collaborative writing applications (CWAs), such as the Google DocsTM platform, can improve skill acquisition, knowledge retention, and collaboration in medical education. Using CWAs to support the training of residents offers many advantages, but stimulating them to contribute remains challenging. The purpose of this study was to identify emergency medicine (EM) residents' beliefs about their intention to contribute summaries of landmark articles to a Google DocsTM slideshow while studying for their Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) certification exam. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, the authors interviewed graduating RCPSC EM residents about contributing to a slideshow. Residents were asked about behavioral beliefs (advantages/disadvantages), normative beliefs (positive/negative referents), and control beliefs (barriers/facilitators). Two reviewers independently performed qualitative content analysis of interview transcripts to identify salient beliefs in relation to the defined behaviors. Of 150 eligible EM residents, 25 participated. The main reported advantage of contributing to the online slideshow was learning consolidation (n=15); the main reported disadvantage was information overload (n=3). The most frequently reported favorable referents were graduating EM residents writing the certification exam (n=16). Few participants (n=3) perceived any negative referents. The most frequently reported facilitator was peer-reviewed high-quality scientific information (n=9); and the most frequently reported barrier was time constraints (n=22). Salient beliefs exist regarding EM residents' intention to contribute content to an online collaborative writing project using a Google DocsTM slideshow. Overall, participants perceived more advantages than disadvantages to contributing and believed that this initiative would receive wide support. However, participants reported several barriers that need to be addressed to increase contributions. Our

  10. Retirement plan participation and features and standard of living of Americans 55 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Craig

    2002-08-01

    This Issue Brief is the third in a series of Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) publications based on data collected in 1998 and released in 2002 as the Retirement and Pension Plan Coverage Topical Module of the 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). This report completes the series by examining the survey's more detailed questions concerning workers' employment-based retirement plans. Specifically, it examines the percentage of workers who are participating in a plan, and also workers' reasons for not participating in a plan when working in a job where a plan is sponsored; the features of, or decisions made concerning salary reduction plans; historical participation in employment-based retirement plans; and a comparison of the standard of living of individuals age 55 or older with their living standard in their early 50s. As of June 1998, 64.3 percent of wage and salary workers age 16 or older worked for an employer or union that sponsored any type of retirement plan (defined contribution or defined benefit) for any of its employees or members (the "sponsorship rate"). Almost 47 percent of these wage and salary workers participated in a plan (the "participation rate"), with 43.2 percent being entitled to a benefit or eligible to receive a lump-sum distribution from a plan if their job terminated at the time of survey (the "vested rate"). The predominant reason for choosing not to participate in a retirement plan was that doing so was unaffordable. The eligible participation rate for salary reduction plans was 81.4 percent. Fifty-six percent of all workers have participated in some type of retirement plan sometime during their work life through 1998. For those ages 51-60, almost 72 percent have ever participated in a plan. The median account balance in salary reduction plans in 1998 was $14,000. In 1998, 12.9 percent of salary reduction plan participants eligible to take a loan had done so, and the average outstanding loan balance was $5

  11. Environmental Restoration Information Resource Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Environmental Restoration Information Resources Management (ER IRM) Program Plan defines program requirements, organizational structures and responsibilities, and work breakdown structure and to establish an approved baseline against which overall progress of the program as well as the effectiveness of its management will be measured. This plan will guide ER IRM Program execution and define the program`s essential elements. This plan will be routinely updated to incorporate key decisions and programmatic changes and will serve as the project baseline document. Environmental Restoration Waste Management Program intersite procedures and work instructions will be developed to facilitate the implementation of this plan.

  12. Environmental Restoration Information Resource Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Environmental Restoration Information Resources Management (ER IRM) Program Plan defines program requirements, organizational structures and responsibilities, and work breakdown structure and to establish an approved baseline against which overall progress of the program as well as the effectiveness of its management will be measured. This plan will guide ER IRM Program execution and define the program's essential elements. This plan will be routinely updated to incorporate key decisions and programmatic changes and will serve as the project baseline document. Environmental Restoration Waste Management Program intersite procedures and work instructions will be developed to facilitate the implementation of this plan

  13. Language Planning and Planned Languages: How Can Planned Languages Inform Language Planning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Tonkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of language planning (LP has largely ignored planned languages. Of classic descriptions of LP processes, only Tauli (preceded by Wüster suggests that planned languages (what Wüster calls Plansprache might bear on LP theory and practice. If LP aims "to modify the linguistic behaviour of some community for some reason," as Kaplan and Baldauf put it, creating a language de novo is little different. Language policy and planning are increasingly seen as more local and less official, and occasionally more international and cosmopolitan. Zamenhof's work on Esperanto provides extensive material, little studied, documenting the formation of the language and linking it particularly to issues of supranational LP. Defining LP decision-making, Kaplan & Baldauf begin with context and target population. Zamenhof's Esperanto came shortly before Ben-Yehuda's revived Hebrew. His target community was (mostly the world's educated elite; Ben-Yehuda's was worldwide Jewry. Both planners were driven not by linguistic interest but by sociopolitical ideology rooted in reaction to anti-Semitism and imbued with the idea of progress. Their territories had no boundaries, but were not imaginary. Function mattered as much as form (Haugen's terms, status as much as corpus. For Zamenhof, status planning involved emphasis on Esperanto's ownership by its community - a collective planning process embracing all speakers (cf. Hebrew. Corpus planning included a standardized European semantics, lexical selectivity based not simply on standardization but on representation, and the development of written, and literary, style. Esperanto was successful as linguistic system and community language, less as generally accepted lingua franca. Its terminology development and language cultivation offers a model for language revival, but Zamenhof's somewhat limited analysis of language economy left him unprepared to deal with language as power.

  14. Planning Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Take the guess work out of what to eat using our tips, recipes and sample meals. Featured Book: Ultimate Diabetes Meal Planner includes weekly plans for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks, along with detailed recipes that make ...

  15. INFORMATION SYSTEM STRATEGIC PLANNING WITH ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Yorita Astri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated information system is needed in an enterprise to support businessprocesses run by an enterprise. Therefore, to develop information system can use enterprisearchitecture approach which can define strategic planning of enterprise information system. SMPNegeri 1 Jambi can be viewed as an enterprise because there are entities that should be managedthrough an integrated information system. Since there has been no unification of different elementsin a unity yet, enterprise architecture model using Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP isneeded which will obtain strategic planning of enterprise information system in SMP Negeri 1Jambi. The goal of strategic planning of information system with Enterprise Architecture Planning(EAP is to define primary activities run by SMP Negeri 1 Jambi and support activities supportingprimary activities. They can be used as a basis for making data architecture which is the entities ofapplication architecture. At last, technology architecture is designed to describe technology neededto provide environment for data application. The plan of implementation is the activity plan madeto implemented architectures by enterprise.

  16. Formalized Search Strategies for Human Risk Contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Pedersen, O. M.

    For risk management, the results of a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) as well as the underlying assumptions can be used as references in a closed-loop risk control; and the analyses of operational experiences as a means of feedback. In this context, the need for explicit definition...... risk contributions are described on the basis of general plant design features relevant for risk and accident analysis. With this background, search strategies for human risk contributions are treated: Under the designation "work analysis", procedures for the analysis of familiar, well trained, planned...... tasks are proposed. Strategies for identifying human risk contributions outside this category are outlined....

  17. Education plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, J.

    1987-01-01

    There is pressing need for education of fusion people and those in the radiation effects community on the role of radiation hardening in radiation diagnostic. There is no plan at present to do this. The plan is to be proposed and developed. The education methods should include distribution of a primer, the proceedings of this workshop, and updated data compilations and talks by experts at the fusion labs, universities, and meetings

  18. business plan

    OpenAIRE

    Luzan, Dmitrij

    2009-01-01

    My thesis is dedicated to the business plan of the gastronomic facility. The thesis describes foundation of the company, analyses demand for the gastronomic services. The financial plan is being presented as well. The thesis includes the analysis of the company's environment, suppliers and customers. SWOT analysis, net present value analysis, index of the net present value and other ratio indexes are the parts of this thesis.

  19. Did the Great Recession influence retirement plans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E; Davey, Adam; Martin, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    The recent recession constitutes one of the macro forces that may have influenced workers' retirement plans. We evaluate a multilevel model that addresses the influence of macro-, meso-, and micro-level factors on retirement plans, changes in these plans, and expected retirement age. Using data from Waves 8 and 9 of the Health and Retirement Study (N=2,618), we find that individuals with defined benefit plans are more prone to change toward plans to stop work before the stock market declined, whereas the opposite trend holds for those without pensions. Debts, ability to reduce work hours, and firm unionization also influenced retirement plans. Findings suggest retirement planning education may be particularly important for workers without defined pensions, especially in times of economic volatility. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Guidelines for state ITS/CVO business plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This technical memorandum was developed as part of the study, Systems Planning for Automated Commercial Vehicle Licensing and Permitting Systems. The objective of this study was to define the requirements and develop a plan for a national progr...

  1. Airline company management: 'Defining of necessary number of employees in airline by using artificial intelligence tools'

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović, Dragan M.; Puharic, Mirjana A.; Jovanović, Tomislav Ž.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the model for preliminary estimation of number of employees in airline by using of artificial intelligence tools. It is assumed that the tools of artificial intelligence can be applied even for complex tasks such as defining the number of employees in the airline. The results obtained can be used for planning the number of employees, ie. planning the necessary financial investments in human resources, and may also be useful for a preliminary analysis of the airlines that choose ...

  2. Defining Disability: Understandings of and Attitudes Towards Ableism and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carli Friedman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Disabled people, amidst political and social gains, continue to experience discrimination in multiple areas. Understanding how such discrimination, named here as ableism, operates is important and may require studying perspectives of people who do not claim a disability identity.  Ableism may be expressed in a number of ways, and examining how a particular group, in this case siblings of disabled people, understand and value disability may contribute to overall understandings about how ableism works. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore relationships between siblings of disabled people's broad societal understandings of disability and their attitudes towards it. In order to tease out this relationship further we have also examined factors that impact how people define disability. Using both social psychological and sociological approaches, we have contextualized individual attitudes as providing additional new information about social meanings of disability, and set this study's results against the larger backdrops of debates over meanings of disability within Disability Studies. In our research, participants revealed complex understandings of disability, but most often defined disability as preventing or slowing action, as an atypical function, a lack of independence, and as a socially constructed obstacle. Participants' unconscious (implicit disability attitudes significantly related to their understandings of disability as lacking independence, impairment, and/or in relation to the norm, and their conscious (explicit disability attitudes. Moreover, longer employment in a disability-related industry was correlated with defining disability as a general difference, rather than as slowing or limiting of tasks.

  3. MO-G-201-01: A Multi-Institutional Study Investigating the Performance of a Knowledge-Based Planning System Against Pinnacle Auto-Planning Engine in SIB-IMRT for the Head-And-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, B; Pang, D [Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); Kusters, M; Kunze-busch, M; Dijkema, T [Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); McNutt, T [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Sanguineti, G [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Regina Elena, Roma (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Knowledge-based Planning (KBP) founded on prior planning experience and Auto-Planning Engine (APE; commercialized in Pinnacle v9.10 TPS) based on progressive optimization algorithm both aim to eliminate the trial-and-error process in radiotherapy inverse planning. This study investigates the performance of the approaches in a multi-institutional setting to evaluate their functionalities in oropharyngeal cancer and offers suggestions how they can be implemented in the clinic. Methods: Radboud University Medical Center (RUMC) provided 35 oropharyngeal cancer patients (SIB-IMRT with two-dose-level prescription: 68 Gy to PTV68 and 50.3 Gy to PTV50.3) with corresponding comparative APE plans. Johns Hopkins University (JHU) contributed to a three-dose-level (70 Gy 63 Gy and 58.1 Gy) plan library for RUMC’s patient KBP generation. MedStar Georgetown University Hospital (MGUH) contributed to a KBP approach employing overlap-volume histogram (OVH-KBP) for generating RUMC’s patient KBP plans using JHU’s plan library. Since both approaches need their own user-defined parameters as initial inputs the first 10 patients were set aside as training set to finalize them. Meanwhile cross-institutional comparisons and adjustments were implemented for investigating institutions’ protocol discrepancies and the approaches’ user-defined parameters were updated accordingly. The finalized parameters were then applied to the remaining 25 patients for OVH-KBP and APE generation. A Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for statistical comparison with significance level of p<0.05. Results: On average PTV68’s V95 was 96.5% in APE plans vs. 97% in OVH-KBP plans (p=0.36); PTV50.3’s V95 in APE plans was 97.8% vs.97.6% in OVH-KBP plans (p=0.6); cord’s D0.1 cc was 38.6 Gy in OVH-KBP plans vs. 43.7 Gy in APE plans (p=0.0001); mean doses to larynxes oral cavities parotids and submandibular glands were similar with p>0.2. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that KBP and APE can

  4. Social Contributions in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Gyorgy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social contributions have an important impact on payroll policy. Also, social contributions represent a significant budgetary revenue item which can be viewed at the edge between taxation and insurance. Social contributions in Romania experienced many changes which ended in 2008. Nowadays, they are within a long transaction period towards partial externalization of the insurance activity to privately managed funds. The aim of this paper is to analyse the homogeneity of Romanian social security public scheme using annual data extracted from 2002-2009.The main findings reveal that social contributions reached the pinnacle of diversification, being too many, some of them with a small contribution rates; fiscal reforms which reduced contribution rates advantaged employers, and state will be interested to externalize this activity as far private sector will be able to assume this responsibility and the budgetary effects are acceptable for the public finance.

  5. Institutional Plan FY 2003 - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartock, Michael; Hansen, Todd

    2003-01-27

    The Fiscal Year (FY) 2003-2007 Institutional Plan describes the strategic directions and key issues that Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory management must address with the Department of Energy (DOE) in charting its future as a multiprogram national laboratory. The Plan provides an overview of the Laboratory's mission, strategic plan, initiatives, and the resources required to fulfill its role in support of national needs in fundamental science and technology, energy resources, and environmental quality. The Plan facilitates the Department of Energy's ongoing efforts to strengthen the Integrated Laboratory System. Preparation and review of the Institutional Plan is one element of the Department of Energy's strategic management planning activities, implemented through an annual planning process. The Plan supports the President's Management Agenda and the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993. The Plan complements the current performance-based contract between the Department of Energy and the Regents of the University of California, and summarizes Best Management Practices for a potential future results-based contract as a basis for achieving DOE goals and the Laboratory's scientific and operations objectives. It identifies technical and administrative directions in the context of national energy policy and research needs and the Department of Energy's program planning initiatives. Preparation of the Plan is coordinated by the Planning and Strategic Development Office from information contributed by Berkeley Lab's scientific and support divisions and DOE comments on prior years' plans. The Laboratory Mission section identifies the specific strengths of Berkeley Lab that contribute to the mission in general and the Integrated Laboratory System in particular. The Laboratory Strategic Plan section identifies the existing activities in support of DOE Office of Science and other sponsors; support for DOE goals; and the

  6. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2013-09-01

    "Tiger" parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua's own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.

  7. Defining enthesitis in spondyloarthritis by ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terslev, Lene; Naredo, E; Iagnocco, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To standardize ultrasound (US) in enthesitis. Methods: An Initial Delphi exercise was undertaken to define US detected enthesitis and its core components. These definitions were subsequently tested on static images taken from Spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients in order to evaluate...... elementary component. On static images the intra-observer reliability showed a high degree of variability for the detection of elementary lesions with kappa coefficients ranging from 0.14 - 1. The inter-observer kappa value was variable with the lowest kappa for enthesophytes (0.24) and the best for Doppler...... activity at the enthesis (0.63). Conclusion: This is the first consensus based definition of US enthesitis and its elementary components and the first step performed to ensure a higher degree of homogeneity and comparability of results between studies and in daily clinical work. Defining Enthesitis...

  8. Control of System with Defined Risk Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Tomasov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the basic requirements for system control with defined risk level is presented. The paper should be an introduction to describe of theoretical apparatus, which was created during some years of research work in the Department of information and safety systems in this area. It a modification or creation of new parts of Information theory, System theory, and Control theory means. This parts are necessary for the analysis and synthesis tasks in the systems where dominant attribute of control is defined risk level. The basic problem is the creation of protect mechanism again the threats from inside and from controlled system environs. For each risk reduction mechanism is needed some redundancy which should be into control algorithm to put by exactly determined way.

  9. Exploring self-defining memories in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stéphane; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Lardi, Claudia; Bayard, Sophie; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Van Der Linden, Martial

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in recalling specific events from their personal past. However, the relationship between autobiographical memory impairments and disturbance of the sense of identity in schizophrenia has not been investigated in detail. In this study the authors investigated schizophrenic patients' ability to recall self-defining memories; that is, memories that play an important role in building and maintaining the self-concept. Results showed that patients recalled as many specific self-defining memories as healthy participants. However, patients with schizophrenia exhibited an abnormal reminiscence bump and reported different types of thematic content (i.e., they recalled less memories about past achievements and more memories regarding hospitalisation and stigmatisation of illness). Furthermore, the findings suggest that impairments in extracting meaning from personal memories could represent a core disturbance of autobiographical memory in patients with schizophrenia.

  10. North Dakota Metropolitan Planning Organization's peer exchange on introducing performance management into the MPO planning process : A TPCB Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This technical memorandum was developed as part of the study, Systems Planning for Automated Commercial Vehicle Licensing and Permitting Systems. The objective of this study was to define the requirements and develop a plan for a national progr...

  11. Improving network management with Software Defined Networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunev, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Software-defined networking (SDN) is developed as an alternative to closed networks in centers for data processing by providing a means to separate the control layer data layer switches, and routers. SDN introduces new possibilities for network management and configuration methods. In this article, we identify problems with the current state-of-the-art network configuration and management mechanisms and introduce mechanisms to improve various aspects of network management

  12. Stateless multicast switching in software defined networks

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Martin J.; Al-Naday, Mays; Thomos, Nikolaos; Trossen, Dirk; Petropoulos, George; Spirou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    Multicast data delivery can significantly reduce traffic in operators' networks, but has been limited in deployment due to concerns such as the scalability of state management. This paper shows how multicast can be implemented in contemporary software defined networking (SDN) switches, with less state than existing unicast switching strategies, by utilising a Bloom Filter (BF) based switching technique. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism uses only proactive rule insertion, and thus, is not l...

  13. Defining and Distinguishing Traditional and Religious Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Heather S.

    2014-01-01

    The article of record may be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23296151.2016.1239978 thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from tr...

  14. Defining Trust Using Expected Utility Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Trust has been discussed in many social sciences including economics, psychology, and sociology. However, there is no widely accepted definition of trust. Inparticular, there is no definition that can be used for economic analysis. This paper regards trust as expectation and defines it using expected utility theory together with concepts such as betrayal premium. In doing so, it rejects the widely accepted black-and-white view that (un) trustworthy people are always (un)trustworthy. This pape...

  15. On Undefined and Meaningless in Lambda Definability

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Fer-Jan

    2016-01-01

    We distinguish between undefined terms as used in lambda definability of partial recursive functions and meaningless terms as used in infinite lambda calculus for the infinitary terms models that generalise the Bohm model. While there are uncountable many known sets of meaningless terms, there are four known sets of undefined terms. Two of these four are sets of meaningless terms. In this paper we first present set of sufficient conditions for a set of lambda terms to se...

  16. How Should Energy Be Defined Throughout Schooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächtold, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    The question of how to teach energy has been renewed by recent studies focusing on the learning and teaching progressions for this concept. In this context, one question has been, for the most part, overlooked: how should energy be defined throughout schooling? This paper addresses this question in three steps. We first identify and discuss two main approaches in physics concerning the definition of energy, one claiming there is no satisfactory definition and taking conservation as a fundamental property, and the other based on Rankine's definition of energy as the capacity of a system to produce changes. We then present a study concerning how energy is actually defined throughout schooling in the case of France by analyzing national programs, physics textbooks, and the answers of teachers to a questionnaire. This study brings to light a consistency problem in the way energy is defined across school years: in primary school, an adapted version of Rankine's definition is introduced and conservation is ignored; in high school, conservation is introduced and Rankine's definition is ignored. Finally, we address this consistency problem by discussing possible teaching progressions. We argue in favor of the use of Rankine's definition throughout schooling: at primary school, it is a possible substitute to students' erroneous conceptions; at secondary school, it might help students become aware of the unifying role of energy and thereby overcome the compartmentalization problem.

  17. Defining functional distances over Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Pozo Angela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental problem when trying to define the functional relationships between proteins is the difficulty in quantifying functional similarities, even when well-structured ontologies exist regarding the activity of proteins (i.e. 'gene ontology' -GO-. However, functional metrics can overcome the problems in the comparing and evaluating functional assignments and predictions. As a reference of proximity, previous approaches to compare GO terms considered linkage in terms of ontology weighted by a probability distribution that balances the non-uniform 'richness' of different parts of the Direct Acyclic Graph. Here, we have followed a different approach to quantify functional similarities between GO terms. Results We propose a new method to derive 'functional distances' between GO terms that is based on the simultaneous occurrence of terms in the same set of Interpro entries, instead of relying on the structure of the GO. The coincidence of GO terms reveals natural biological links between the GO functions and defines a distance model Df which fulfils the properties of a Metric Space. The distances obtained in this way can be represented as a hierarchical 'Functional Tree'. Conclusion The method proposed provides a new definition of distance that enables the similarity between GO terms to be quantified. Additionally, the 'Functional Tree' defines groups with biological meaning enhancing its utility for protein function comparison and prediction. Finally, this approach could be for function-based protein searches in databases, and for analysing the gene clusters produced by DNA array experiments.

  18. Contribution to the NSAC long-range plan entitled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRETINA Physics Working Group, the GRETINA Advisor

    2006-01-01

    This is a time of great opportunity in nuclear spectroscopy. The development of radioactive beam capabilities around the world is opening a new landscape for discovery, and the connections between nuclear structure studies and astrophysics, neutrino physics, and physics beyond the standard model are stronger than ever. New detector technologies are evolving which can meet the challenges of the new generation of experiments. Leading these is the technology of ''γ-ray tracking'' which can revolutionize γ-ray spectroscopy in a way that large arrays of γ detectors did a decade ago. During the last few years this technology has been shown feasible and GRETINA a 1π detector is under construction. However, the momentum in developing this technology to its full potential must continue towards GRETA, a full 4π calorimeter. GRETA will carry γ-ray spectroscopy into the next generation where it will be needed to fully exploit the science opportunities at radioactive beam facilities and increase the reach of stable beam facilities. In addition, γ-ray tracking technology will have important applications for science, medicine, and homeland security

  19. THE CONTRIBUTION OF ERGONOMICS IN THE PLANNING OF THE WORKSPACE

    OpenAIRE

    TEREZA CRISTINA DO REIS

    2003-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como tema os processos de concepção de espaços de trabalho. Aborda as dificuldades encontradas pelos profissionais de projeto,principalmente, no que diz respeito à compreensão dos sistemas presentes nas atividades do trabalho, das características físico- cognitivas dos trabalhadores na realização de suas tarefas, da interação do trabalhador com seu ambiente de trabalho, e os problemas que essas dificuldades acarretam no desenvolvimento do projeto...

  20. Internal operating plan (P.O.I.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the POI (internal operating plan) which defines the management measures, the intervention methods and the required means that the operator must implement to protect the personnel, the population and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  1. Louisiana ITS business plan : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    The objectives are defined under: 1. Development of the plan, which identifies the preferred program of projects and policy initiatives and outlines the purpose, requirements, responsibilities, estimated cost, and implementation schedule for each pla...

  2. 12 CFR 563.47 - Pension plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by an enrolled actuary (as defined by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974) affirming... expectations, and represent the actuary's best estimate of the plan's projected experiences. [59 FR 66159, Dec...

  3. 26 CFR 1.414(l)-1 - Mergers and consolidations of plans or transfers of plan assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mergers and consolidations of plans or transfers... Plans, Etc. § 1.414(l)-1 Mergers and consolidations of plans or transfers of plan assets. (a) In general... qualified under section 403 (a) and 405 (a), unless, in the case of a merger or consolidation (as defined in...

  4. Energy planning and management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains printed copies of 60FR 53181, October 12, 1995 and 60 FR 54151. This is a record of decision concerning the Western Area Power Administration's final draft and environmental impact statement, and Energy Planning and Management Program

  5. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy is proposed. Methodology. The following methods such as cognition, induction, deduction, analysis and synthesis have been used in the process of survey. Results of the survey proves that budget planning plays an essential role in the financial management. On condition business environment changing even the best management system can become obsolete. The immediate reaction to the new trends in the financial system as a whole, in the industry is possible with budget planning as well. It also allows to make appropriate adjustments to the plans. Adjustment of long-term, medium-term and short-term plans makes it possible, without changing goals, to change ways of their achievement and thus to raise the level of efficiency of budget funds formation and use. It is necessary to revise the whole system plans, including their mission and goals in the case of global changes in the external and internal environment. Practical implications. The proposed approach to the classification of budget planning types allows to cope with the shortcomings of modern planning in the public sector (the development of the targets according to the state budget expenditures in Ukraine remains a formality and it rarely complies with realities. Value/originality is specified in the proposed interpretation which differs from existing ones that provides clarification of budget planning purpose in financial management; classification of budget planning principles, which differs from previous

  6. Major contributions to science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Andre

    1991-03-15

    It may look difficult to describe the scientific contributions of Léon Van Hove, who started his career as a pure mathematician, and then a mathematical physicist, and ended it as a phenomenologist and an adseveral of Léon's students, in particular N. Hugenholtz. In this domain, his contributions were numerous and fundamental.

  7. Major contributions to science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Andre

    1991-01-01

    It may look difficult to describe the scientific contributions of Léon Van Hove, who started his career as a pure mathematician, and then a mathematical physicist, and ended it as a phenomenologist and an adseveral of Léon's students, in particular N. Hugenholtz. In this domain, his contributions were numerous and fundamental

  8. Intelligent vehicle initiative : business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) is embarking on a new program called the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI). The USDOT intends to jointly define the program plan and conduct the IVI in cooperation with the motor vehicle, trucking, and...

  9. Scenario Planning as Organizational Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balarezo, Jose; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    existing contributions on scenario planning within a new consolidating framework that includes antecedents, processes, and outcomes. The proposed framework allows for integration of the extant literature on scenario planning from a wide variety of fields, including strategic management, finance, human...... resource management, operations management, and psychology. Findings: This study contributes to research by offering a coherent and consistent framework for understanding scenario planning as a dynamic process. As such, it offers future researchers with a systematic way to ascertain where a particular......Purpose: This paper identifies four areas in need of future research to enhance our theoretical understanding of scenario planning, and sets the basis for future empirical examination of its effects on individual and organizational level outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This paper organizes...

  10. Airline company management: 'Defining of necessary number of employees in airline by using artificial intelligence tools'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the model for preliminary estimation of number of employees in airline by using of artificial intelligence tools. It is assumed that the tools of artificial intelligence can be applied even for complex tasks such as defining the number of employees in the airline. The results obtained can be used for planning the number of employees, ie. planning the necessary financial investments in human resources, and may also be useful for a preliminary analysis of the airlines that choose to do restructuring or plan to increase/decrease the number of operations. Results were compared with those obtained by regression analysis.

  11. SU-F-T-352: Development of a Knowledge Based Automatic Lung IMRT Planning Algorithm with Non-Coplanar Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, W; Wu, Q; Yuan, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the robustness of a knowledge based automatic lung IMRT planning method and to further validate the reliability of this algorithm by utilizing for the planning of clinical cases with non-coplanar beams. Methods: A lung IMRT planning method which automatically determines both plan optimization objectives and beam configurations with non-coplanar beams has been reported previously. A beam efficiency index map is constructed to guide beam angle selection in this algorithm. This index takes into account both the dose contributions from individual beams and the combined effect of multiple beams which is represented by a beam separation score. We studied the effect of this beam separation score on plan quality and determined the optimal weight for this score.14 clinical plans were re-planned with the knowledge-based algorithm. Significant dosimetric metrics for the PTV and OARs in the automatic plans are compared with those in the clinical plans by the two-sample t-test. In addition, a composite dosimetric quality index was defined to obtain the relationship between the plan quality and the beam separation score. Results: On average, we observed more than 15% reduction on conformity index and homogeneity index for PTV and V_4_0, V_6_0 for heart while an 8% and 3% increase on V_5, V_2_0 for lungs, respectively. The variation curve of the composite index as a function of angle spread score shows that 0.6 is the best value for the weight of the beam separation score. Conclusion: Optimal value for beam angle spread score in automatic lung IMRT planning is obtained. With this value, model can result in statistically the “best” achievable plans. This method can potentially improve the quality and planning efficiency for IMRT plans with no-coplanar angles.

  12. Geomorphology and spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Zorn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Applicability of geomorphological knowledge for prevention against some natural disasters, also known as geomorphological disasters, is presented. Some home and foreign experience of applicability of this knowledge are introduced. It is known that the ratio between means put into sanitation of, for example, landslides and savings with prevention measures, are from 1:10 to 1:2.000. The use of geomorpholgical knowledge and corresponding cartographic works in Slovene spatial planning legislation is defined, but it is not carried out consistently. We recommend municipalities and spatial planners that they should also take in account geomorphic processes and characteristic of the relief.

  13. Improving risk assessment by defining consistent and reliable system scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mazzorana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available During the entire procedure of risk assessment for hydrologic hazards, the selection of consistent and reliable scenarios, constructed in a strictly systematic way, is fundamental for the quality and reproducibility of the results. However, subjective assumptions on relevant impact variables such as sediment transport intensity on the system loading side and weak point response mechanisms repeatedly cause biases in the results, and consequently affect transparency and required quality standards. Furthermore, the system response of mitigation measures to extreme event loadings represents another key variable in hazard assessment, as well as the integral risk management including intervention planning. Formative Scenario Analysis, as a supplement to conventional risk assessment methods, is a technique to construct well-defined sets of assumptions to gain insight into a specific case and the potential system behaviour. By two case studies, carried out (1 to analyse sediment transport dynamics in a torrent section equipped with control measures, and (2 to identify hazards induced by woody debris transport at hydraulic weak points, the applicability of the Formative Scenario Analysis technique is presented. It is argued that during scenario planning in general and with respect to integral risk management in particular, Formative Scenario Analysis allows for the development of reliable and reproducible scenarios in order to design more specifically an application framework for the sustainable assessment of natural hazards impact. The overall aim is to optimise the hazard mapping and zoning procedure by methodologically integrating quantitative and qualitative knowledge.

  14. Stability analysis of an implicitly defined labor market model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Diana A.; Mendes, Vivaldo M.

    2008-06-01

    Until very recently, the pervasive existence of models exhibiting well-defined backward dynamics but ill-defined forward dynamics in economics and finance has apparently posed no serious obstacles to the analysis of their dynamics and stability, despite the problems that may arise from possible erroneous conclusions regarding theoretical considerations and policy prescriptions from such models. A large number of papers have dealt with this problem in the past by assuming the existence of symmetry between forward and backward dynamics, even in the case when the map cannot be invertible either forward or backwards. However, this procedure has been seriously questioned over the last few years in a series of papers dealing with implicit difference equations and inverse limit spaces. This paper explores the search and matching labor market model developed by Bhattacharya and Bunzel [J. Bhattacharya, H. Bunzel, Chaotic Planning Solution in the Textbook Model of Equilibrium Labor Market Search and Matching, Mimeo, Iowa State University, 2002; J. Bhattacharya, H. Bunzel, Economics Bulletin 5 (19) (2003) 1-10], with the following objectives in mind: (i) to show that chaotic dynamics may still be present in the model for acceptable parameter values, (ii) to clarify some open questions related with the admissible dynamics in the forward looking setting, by providing a rigorous proof of the existence of cyclic and chaotic dynamics through the application of tools from symbolic dynamics and inverse limit theory.

  15. Laredo District Coahuila/Nuevo Leon/Tamaulipas border master plan : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Border Master Plans, as defined and supported by the U.S./Mexico Joint Working : Committee on Transportation Planning and Programming, the Federal Highway Administration, : and the U.S. Department of State, are comprehensive long range plans to inven...

  16. Defining Multiple Chronic Conditions for Quality Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drye, Elizabeth E; Altaf, Faseeha K; Lipska, Kasia J; Spatz, Erica S; Montague, Julia A; Bao, Haikun; Parzynski, Craig S; Ross, Joseph S; Bernheim, Susannah M; Krumholz, Harlan M; Lin, Zhenqiu

    2018-02-01

    Patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) are a critical but undefined group for quality measurement. We present a generally applicable systematic approach to defining an MCC cohort of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries that we developed for a national quality measure, risk-standardized rates of unplanned admissions for Accountable Care Organizations. To define the MCC cohort we: (1) identified potential chronic conditions; (2) set criteria for cohort conditions based on MCC framework and measure concept; (3) applied the criteria informed by empirical analysis, experts, and the public; (4) described "broader" and "narrower" cohorts; and (5) selected final cohort with stakeholder input. Subjects were patients with chronic conditions. Participants included 21.8 million Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries in 2012 aged 65 years and above with ≥1 of 27 Medicare Chronic Condition Warehouse condition(s). In total, 10 chronic conditions were identified based on our criteria; 8 of these 10 were associated with notably increased admission risk when co-occurring. A broader cohort (2+ of the 8 conditions) included 4.9 million beneficiaries (23% of total cohort) with an admission rate of 70 per 100 person-years. It captured 53% of total admissions. The narrower cohort (3+ conditions) had 2.2 million beneficiaries (10%) with 100 admissions per 100 person-years and captured 32% of admissions. Most stakeholders viewed the broader cohort as best aligned with the measure concept. By systematically narrowing chronic conditions to those most relevant to the outcome and incorporating stakeholder input, we defined an MCC admission measure cohort supported by stakeholders. This approach can be used as a model for other MCC outcome measures.

  17. How do pediatric anesthesiologists define intraoperative hypotension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafiu, Olubukola O; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Morris, Michelle; Chimbira, Wilson T; Malviya, Shobha; Reynolds, Paul I; Tremper, Kevin K

    2009-11-01

    Although blood pressure (BP) monitoring is a recommended standard of care by the ASA, and pediatric anesthesiologists routinely monitor the BP of their patients and when appropriate treat deviations from 'normal', there is no robust definition of hypotension in any of the pediatric anesthesia texts or journals. Consequently, what constitutes hypotension in pediatric anesthesia is currently unknown. We designed a questionnaire-based survey of pediatric anesthesiologists to determine the BP ranges and thresholds used to define intraoperative hypotension (IOH). Members of the Society of Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) and the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists (APA) of Great Britain and Ireland were contacted through e-mail to participate in this survey. We asked a few demographic questions and five questions about specific definitions of hypotension for different age groups of patients undergoing inguinal herniorraphy, a common pediatric surgical procedure. The overall response rate was 56% (483/860), of which 76% were SPA members. Majority of the respondents (72%) work in academic institutions, while 8.9% work in institutions with fewer than 1000 annual pediatric surgical caseload. About 76% of respondents indicated that a 20-30% reduction in baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) indicates significant hypotension in children under anesthesia. Most responders (86.7%) indicated that they use mean arterial pressure or SBP (72%) to define IOH. The mean SBP values for hypotension quoted by SPA members was about 5-7% lower across all pediatric age groups compared to values quoted by APA members (P = 0.001 for all age groups). There is great variability in the BP parameters used and the threshold used for defining and treating IOH among pediatric anesthesiologists. The majority of respondents considered a 20-30% reduction from baseline in SBP as indicative of significant hypotension. Lack of a consensus definition for a common clinical condition like IOH could have

  18. Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill sampling and analysis plan and data quality objectives process summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.C.

    1997-08-01

    This sampling and analysis plan defines the sampling and analytical activities and associated procedures that will be used to support the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill soil-gas investigation. This SAP consists of three sections: this introduction, the field sampling plan, and the quality assurance project plan. The field sampling plan defines the sampling and analytical methodologies to be performed

  19. Defining research priorities for developmental logistics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available for the foreseeable future. Annual growth rates of 6% are being predicted - something that is almost unheard of in our country. These growth rates can be achieved through the commitment of both public and private sectors. In this context, the new National Freight.... This is to be expected, since the huge investment of government into the logistics infrastructure will take time to have the desired effect and impact. Nevertheless, all indications are that appropriate interventions have been planned and now need to be implemented...

  20. Defining recovery in adult bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jessica; Agras, W Stewart; Bryson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    To examine how different definitions of recovery lead to varying rates of recovery, maintenance of recovery, and relapse in bulimia nervosa (BN), end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up data were obtained from 96 adults with BN. Combining behavioral, physical, and psychological criteria led to recovery rates between 15.5% and 34.4% at EOT, though relapse was approximately 50%. Combining these criteria and requiring abstinence from binge eating and purging when defining recovery may lead to lower recovery rates than those found in previous studies; however, a strength of this definition is that individuals who meet this criteria have no remaining disordered behaviors or symptoms.

  1. Defining Marriage: Classification, Interpretation, and Definitional Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Macagno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The classification of a state of affairs under a legal category can be considered as a kind of con- densed decision that can be made explicit, analyzed, and assessed us- ing argumentation schemes. In this paper, the controversial conflict of opinions concerning the nature of “marriage” in Obergefell v. Hodges is analyzed pointing out the dialecti- cal strategies used for addressing the interpretive doubts. The dispute about the same-sex couples’ right to marry hides a much deeper disa- greement not only about what mar- riage is, but more importantly about the dialectical rules for defining it.

  2. Software defined networks a comprehensive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Goransson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Software Defined Networks discusses the historical networking environment that gave rise to SDN, as well as the latest advances in SDN technology. The book gives you the state of the art knowledge needed for successful deployment of an SDN, including: How to explain to the non-technical business decision makers in your organization the potential benefits, as well as the risks, in shifting parts of a network to the SDN modelHow to make intelligent decisions about when to integrate SDN technologies in a networkHow to decide if your organization should be developing its own SDN applications or

  3. Software Defined Radio: Basic Principles and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Machado-Fernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author makes a review of the SDR (Software Defined Radio technology, including hardware schemes and application fields. A low performance device is presented and several tests are executed with it using free software. With the acquired experience, SDR employment opportunities are identified for low-cost solutions that can solve significant problems. In addition, a list of the most important frameworks related to the technology developed in the last years is offered, recommending the use of three of them.

  4. Animal bioavailability of defined xenobiotic lignin metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandermann, H. Jr.; Arjmand, M.; Gennity, I.; Winkler, R.; Struble, C.B.; Aschbacher, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    Lignin has been recognized as a major component of bound pesticide residues in plants and is thought to be undigestible in animals. Two defined ring-U- 14 C-labeled chloroaniline/lignin metabolites have now been fed to rats, where a release of ∼66% of the bound xenobiotic occurred in the form of simple chloroaniline derivatives. The observed high degree of bioavailability indicates that bound pesticidal residues may possess ecotoxicological significance. In parallel studies, the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was more efficient, and a soil system was much less efficient, in the degradation of the [ring-U- 14 C]chloroaniline/lignin metabolites

  5. DEFINING THE CHEMICAL SPACE OF PUBLIC GENOMIC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current project aims to chemically index the genomics content of public genomic databases to make these data accessible in relation to other publicly available, chemically-indexed toxicological information. By defining the chemical space of public genomic data, it is possible to identify classes of chemicals on which to develop methodologies for the integration of chemogenomic data into predictive toxicology. The chemical space of public genomic data will be presented as well as the methodologies and tools developed to identify this chemical space.

  6. Software defined networking applications in distributed datacenters

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Heng

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides essential insights on the SDN application designing and deployment in distributed datacenters. In this book, three key problems are discussed: SDN application designing, SDN deployment and SDN management. This book demonstrates how to design the SDN-based request allocation application in distributed datacenters. It also presents solutions for SDN controller placement to deploy SDN in distributed datacenters. Finally, an SDN management system is proposed to guarantee the performance of datacenter networks which are covered and controlled by many heterogeneous controllers. Researchers and practitioners alike will find this book a valuable resource for further study on Software Defined Networking. .

  7. Defining Starch Binding by Glucan Phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a vital energy molecule in plants that has a wide variety of uses in industry, such as feedstock for biomaterial processing and biofuel production. Plants employ a three enzyme cyclic process utilizing kinases, amylases, and phosphatases to degrade starch in a diurnal manner. Starch...... is comprised of the branched glucan amylopectin and the more linear glucan amylose. Our lab has determined the first structures of these glucan phosphatases and we have defined their enzymatic action. Despite this progress, we lacked a means to quickly and efficiently quantify starch binding to glucan...

  8. Software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José

    2015-06-01

    We propose, for the first time to our knowledge, a software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics signal processor architecture that can be integrated on a chip and is capable of performing all the main functionalities by suitable programming of its control signals. The basic configuration is presented and a thorough end-to-end design model derived that accounts for the performance of the overall processor taking into consideration the impact and interdependencies of both its photonic and RF parts. We demonstrate the model versatility by applying it to several relevant application examples.

  9. Fingerprinting Software Defined Networks and Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    rps requests per second RTT Round-Trip Time SDN Software Defined Networking SOM Self-Organizing Map STP Spanning Tree Protocol TRW-CB Threshold Random...Protocol ( STP ) updates), in which case the frame will be “punted” from the forwarding lookup process and processed by the route processor [9]. The act of...environment 20 to accomplish the needs of B4. In addition to Google, the SDN market is expected to grow beyond $35 billion by April 2018 [31]. The rate

  10. Flight Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Seagull Technology, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, produced a computer program under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant called STAFPLAN (Seagull Technology Advanced Flight Plan) that plans optimal trajectory routes for small to medium sized airlines to minimize direct operating costs while complying with various airline operating constraints. STAFPLAN incorporates four input databases, weather, route data, aircraft performance, and flight-specific information (times, payload, crew, fuel cost) to provide the correct amount of fuel optimal cruise altitude, climb and descent points, optimal cruise speed, and flight path.

  11. Defining Interactions and Interfaces in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parslov, Jakob Filippson

    documents of legal matter and must therefore be unambiguously and completely described. Following this observation, a comprehensive and systematic literature review has been performed in order to investigate the definition and perception of an interface. The review resulted in a classification revealing 13......This PhD thesis focuses on the understanding and definition of interactions and interfaces during the architectural decomposition of complex, multi-technological products. The Interaction and Interface Framework developed in this PhD project contribute to the field of engineering design research...... the framework, it has been possible to arrive at a classification of interaction mechanism, which is mutually exclusive (no overlap) and collectively exhaustive (no gaps). This contribution changes the existing paradigm of reasoning about interactions and allows for an unambiguous architectural decomposition...

  12. Defining clogging potential for permeable concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Alalea; Wong, Hong S; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2018-08-15

    Permeable concrete is used to reduce urban flooding as it allows water to flow through normally impermeable infrastructure. It is prone to clogging by particulate matter and predicting the long-term performance of permeable concrete is challenging as there is currently no reliable means of characterising clogging potential. This paper reports on the performance of a range of laboratory-prepared and commercial permeable concretes, close packed glass spheres and aggregate particles of varying size, exposed to different clogging methods to understand this phenomena. New methods were developed to study clogging and define clogging potential. The tests involved applying flowing water containing sand and/or clay in cycles, and measuring the change in permeability. Substantial permeability reductions were observed in all samples, particularly when exposed to sand and clay simultaneously. Three methods were used to define clogging potential based on measuring the initial permeability decay, half-life cycle and number of cycles to full clogging. We show for the first time strong linear correlations between these parameters for a wide range of samples, indicating their use for service-life prediction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How Do You Define an Internship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C.

    2017-12-01

    According to the American Geosciences Institute's Geoscience Student Exit Survey, internship participation rates over the past four years have been low, particularly among bachelor's and doctoral graduates. In 2016, 65% of bachelor's graduates, 44% of master's graduates, and 57% of doctoral graduates did not participate in an internship while working on their degree. When asked if they submitted applications for internship opportunities, 42% of bachelor's graduates, 23% of master's graduates, and 46% of doctoral graduates claimed to not submit any applications. These statistics have raised concern at AGI because internships provide experiences that help develop critical professional skills and industry connections that can lead to jobs after graduation. However, when internships are discussed among various representatives in geoscience industries, there are disagreements in how an internship experience is defined. For example, opinions differ on whether REUs or other research experiences count as an internship. Clear definitions of internship opportunities may help academic faculty and advisors direct students towards these opportunities and help develop a collection of resources for finding future internships. This presentation will present some of the recent statistics on internship participation among geoscience graduates and present a series of questions to ascertain defining features of internships among AGU attendees and where help is needed to increase participation in internships among current geoscience students.

  14. Landscape planning and management of spas in Serbia with special reference to the selected case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnčević Tijana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is presented the overview of the legal requirements in Serbia covering planning and as well landscape planning. It is stress that Serbia is in the process of the ratification of the European Landscape Convention (ELC and adoption of the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia (SPRS where is included the obligation of the production of the study 'Characterization of the landscape in Serbia' and as well pilot projects 'Characterization of the landscape' where are separated priority areas and where are specially stressed as tourist destinations spas. Taking into consideration that important step towards development of the methodological framework for landscape planning and management in Serbia was made with the inclusion of this subject within the process of formulating of the SPRS, besides the overview of the main obligations set by this document covering landscape planning and management, as an example of the current practice, two case studies of Vrnjacka spa and Pribojska spa are presented where special attention within planning documents was given to the protection and enhancement of the landscape. Beside that, as a contribution, it is given the proposal of the preliminary typology of the landscape of Vrnjacke spa within the borders of the Master plan and Pribojska spa within the borders of the Plan of detailed regulation. Taking into consideration the scope of these plans, the landscape is defined as cultural and by more detailed analyses as urban and rural. Within these two types of landscape are separated urban area, the 'core' of the spa, peri-urban area, and within rural forest and agricultural area. One of the main conclusions of this paper is that the inclusion of the landscape within legal framework which is promoting spatial and urban planning, nature and environmental protection is very important prerequisite for adequate planning and management of the landscape in Serbia.

  15. Summaries of poster contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The 10. meeting covered subjects on the application of electron microscopy in numerous fields such as biology and medicine, solid state physics, semiconductor research and production, crystallography, materials science, and chemistry of polymers. 174 summaries of poster contributions are included

  16. Health Plan Performance Measurement within Medicare Subvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    the causes of poor performance (Siren & Laffel, 1996). Although outcomes measures such as nosocomial infection rates, admission rates for select...defined. Traditional outcomes measures include infection rates, morbidity, and mortality. The problem with these traditional measures is... Maternal /Child Care Indicators Nursing Staffing Indicators Outcome Indicators Technical Outcomes Plan Performance Stability of Health Plan

  17. Marketing Academic Libraries: A Necessary Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Ellen

    1998-01-01

    To coordinate an academic-library marketing effort effectively, a comprehensive plan is essential. A traditional marketing plan consists of four activities: determining what to promote, defining target audiences, choosing type of outreach, and evaluating program. Suggestions for promotional activities, forms of publicity, and examples from the…

  18. The EEG as an instrument of the Federal areal management of renewable energies - also a contribution to the discussion about energy sectoral planning; Das EEG als Instrument des Bundes zur raeumlichen Steuerung der erneuerbaren Energien - zugleich ein Beitrag zur Diskussion um eine Energiefachplanung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruener, Anna-Maria [Stiftung Umweltenergierecht, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sailer, Frank [Stiftung Umweltenergierecht, Wuerzburg (Germany). Forschungsgebiet Energieanlagen- und Infrastrukturrecht

    2016-05-15

    The areal management of the power generation structure takes place at first glance mainly on the Zoning and Planning Law, less than the energy law. The only sporadically encountered jurisprudential work for controlling effect of the EEG came to the conclusion, the current configuration of the support system in the EEG is in deficit and ''blind'' to the localization and areal distribution of energy generation plants in the Federal territory, although the EEG is representing a ''downright predestined management tool''. On closer inspection, however, shows that individual provisions have entirely certain location preferences or cause areal distribution effects and the EEG thus play a management effect. The contribution is therefore devoted to the question of whether and how the EEG 2014, with the overall network expansion and payment system is able to manage the energy production from renewable energy sources in the area and whether an energy specialist planning is useful and necessary. [German] Die raeumliche Steuerung der Energieerzeugungsstruktur findet auf den ersten Blick vornehmlich ueber das Raumordnungs- und Planungsrecht statt, weniger ueber das Energierecht. Die allenfalls vereinzelt anzutreffenden rechtswissenschaftlichen Arbeiten zur Steuerungsleistung des EEG kommen zu dem Ergebnis, die jetzige Ausgestaltung des Foerdersystems im EEG sei defizitaer und ''blind'' gegenueber der Lokalisierung und raeumlichen Verteilung von EE-Anlagen im Bundesgebiet, obwohl das EEG doch ein ''geradezu praedestiniertes Steuerungsinstrument'' darstelle. Bei naeherer Betrachtung zeigt sich jedoch, dass einzelne Regelungen durchaus bestimmte Standortpraeferenzen aufweisen bzw. raeumliche Verteilungseffekte bewirken und dem EEG damit eine steuernde Wirkung zukommt. Der Beitrag widmet sich daher der Frage, ob und wie das EEG 2014 sowie das allgemeine Netzausbau- und -entgeltsystem die Energieerzeugung

  19. Tunnel boring waste test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patricio, J.G.

    1984-03-01

    The test plan has been prepared in anticipation of the need to excavate certain repository openings by relying upon mechanical excavation techniques. The test plan proposes that specific technical issues can be resolved and key design parameters defined by excavating openings in basalt near the surface, utilizing a full face tunnel boring machine (TBM). The purpose and objective of this type of testing will define the overall feasibility and attributes of mechanical excavation in basalt. The test plan recognizes that although this technology is generally available for underground construction for some geologic settings, the current state of technology for excavation in basalt is limited and the potential for improvement is considerable. The test plan recommends that it is economically advantageous to conduct additional testing in the laboratory to allow refinement of this plan based on the laboratory results. Thus, this test plan is considered preliminary in nature, with respect to detailed testing recommendations. However, the gross design attributes and resource requirements of a near-surface TBM demonstration are considered to be valid. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Quality planning in Construction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, I.; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate deeper on the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of quality planning, identifying the common problems encountered in quality planning, practices and ways for improvements in quality planning for construction projects. This paper involves data collected from construction company representatives across Malaysia that are obtained through semi-structured interviews as well as questionnaire distributions. Results shows that design of experiments (average index: 4.61), inspection (average index: 4.45) and quality audit as well as other methods (average index: 4.26) rank first, second and third most important factors respectively.

  1. Defining decision making strategies in software ecosystem governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Wnuk, Krzysztof; Shollo, Arisa

    Making the right decisions is an essential part of software ecosystem governance. Decisions related to the governance of a software ecosystem can influence the health of the ecosystem and can result in fostering the success or greatly contributing to the failure of the ecosystem. However, very few...... studies touch upon the decision making of software ecosystem governance. In this paper, we propose decomposing software ecosystem governance into three activities: input or data collection, decision making, and applying actions. We focus on the decision making activity of software ecosystem governance...... and review related literature consisted of software ecosystem governance, organizational decision making, and IT governance. Based on the identified studies, we propose a framework for defining the decision making strategies in the governance of software ecosystems. We identify five decision areas...

  2. LAND USE PLANNING AND URBAN PLANS: TERRITORIAL BALANCE AS ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Helena Sguizzardi Abascal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests a necessary link between urban planning and territorial organization, in order to, through the synergistic relationship between planning tools and their application to planning, implementing a policy of urban and regional management. By linking the development plan for territorial development plans and categories of land use, this methodology helps to streamline operations at multiple scales. The establishment of this network of instruments and shapes the actions of government action against the rapid and intense increase of only economic forces that shape the territory today, suggesting that it is possible to regulate the action of the housing market through planned interventions, valuing the regional balance, social and environmental - ethical by definition. It is suggested that the possible effects predatory natural and built environment can be reversed or prevented by an action articulating these planning instruments are linked to the development and implementation of plans (and projects at multiple scales, approaching from the regional to the local and metropolitan, from regional policies to sectors, that are incidents in the municipal territory. However, the speed and magnitude of the occupation and transformation of soil occur mainly in periods of heating housing, often jeopardize the balance and environmental quality, natural heritage, urban and landscape. It assumes the argument that the overcoming of undesirable environmental effects, triggered by occupation of the ground guided by the real estate sector fast action can be successful with the articulation of levels of planning and intervention. It is proposed that the complexity of contemporary urban and metropolitan requires the articulation of different scales through the use of innovative urban instruments. By articulating these different scales, at the municipal and other levels supra, contributes to, through a network plan to overcome the undesirable dichotomy

  3. Family planning: the unfinished agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, John; Bernstein, Stan; Ezeh, Alex; Faundes, Anibal; Glasier, Anna; Innis, Jolene

    2006-11-18

    Promotion of family planning in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce poverty and hunger and avert 32% of all maternal deaths and nearly 10% of childhood deaths. It would also contribute substantially to women's empowerment, achievement of universal primary schooling, and long-term environmental sustainability. In the past 40 years, family-planning programmes have played a major part in raising the prevalence of contraceptive practice from less than 10% to 60% and reducing fertility in developing countries from six to about three births per woman. However, in half the 75 larger low-income and lower-middle income countries (mainly in Africa), contraceptive practice remains low and fertility, population growth, and unmet need for family planning are high. The cross-cutting contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals makes greater investment in family planning in these countries compelling. Despite the size of this unfinished agenda, international funding and promotion of family planning has waned in the past decade. A revitalisation of the agenda is urgently needed. Historically, the USA has taken the lead but other governments or agencies are now needed as champions. Based on the sizeable experience of past decades, the key features of effective programmes are clearly established. Most governments of poor countries already have appropriate population and family-planning policies but are receiving too little international encouragement and funding to implement them with vigour. What is currently missing is political willingness to incorporate family planning into the development arena.

  4. Stochastic Actuarial Modelling of a Defined-Benefit Social Security Pension Scheme: An Analytical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Subramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Among the systems in place in different countries for the protection of the population against the long-term contingencies of old-age (or retirement), disability and death (or survivorship), defined-benefit social security pension schemes, i.e. social insurance pension schemes, by far predominate, despite the recent trend towards defined-contribution arrangements in social security reforms. Actuarial valuations of these schemes, unlike other branches of insurance, continue to be carried out a...

  5. Improve strategic supplier performance using DMAIC to develop a Quality Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Kevin P.

    Supplier performance that meets the requirements of the customer has long plagued quality professionals. Despite the vast efforts by organizations to improve supplier performance, little has been done to standardize the plan to improve performance. This project presents a guideline and problem-solving strategy using a Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) structured tool that will assist in the management and improvement of supplier performance. An analysis of benchmarked Quality Improvement Plans indicated that this topic needs more focus on how to accomplish improved supplier performance. This project is part of a growing body of supplier continuous improvement efforts. With the input of Zodiac Aerospace quality professionals this project's results provide a solution to Quality Improvement Plans and show objective evidence of its benefits. This project contributes to the future research on similar topics.

  6. Primate amygdala neurons evaluate the progress of self-defined economic choice sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Hernadi, Istvan; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-10-12

    The amygdala is a prime valuation structure yet its functions in advanced behaviors are poorly understood. We tested whether individual amygdala neurons encode a critical requirement for goal-directed behavior: the evaluation of progress during sequential choices. As monkeys progressed through choice sequences toward rewards, amygdala neurons showed phasic, gradually increasing responses over successive choice steps. These responses occurred in the absence of external progress cues or motor preplanning. They were often specific to self-defined sequences, typically disappearing during instructed control sequences with similar reward expectation. Their build-up rate reflected prospectively the forthcoming choice sequence, suggesting adaptation to an internal plan. Population decoding demonstrated a high-accuracy progress code. These findings indicate that amygdala neurons evaluate the progress of planned, self-defined behavioral sequences. Such progress signals seem essential for aligning stepwise choices with internal plans. Their presence in amygdala neurons may inform understanding of human conditions with amygdala dysfunction and deregulated reward pursuit.

  7. Defining Leadership in a Changing Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Sean M; Elikofer, Amanda N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the difference between leadership and management. Leadership and management have been discussed for many years. Both are important to achieve success in health care, but what does that really mean? Strong leaders possess qualities that inspire others to follow them. This fosters team engagement, goal achievement, and ultimately drives outcomes. Managers plan, organize, and coordinate. It takes dedication, motivation, and passion to be more than a manager and be a good leader. There is not a single correct leadership style, but there are important characteristics that all leaders must demonstrate to get the desired results with the team. In a time when health care is rapidly changing, leadership is important at all levels of an organization.

  8. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software-Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Software-defined radio (SDR) technology allows radios to be reconfigured to perform different communication functions without using multiple radios to accomplish each task. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed SDR platforms that switch adaptively between different operation modes. The innovation works by modifying both transmit waveforms and receiver signal processing tasks. In Phase I of the project, the company developed SDR cognitive capabilities, including adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), automatic modulation recognition (AMR), and spectrum sensing. In Phase II, these capabilities were integrated into SDR platforms. The reconfigurable transceiver design employs high-speed field-programmable gate arrays, enabling multimode operation and scalable architecture. Designs are based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and are modular in nature, making it easier to upgrade individual components rather than redesigning the entire SDR platform as technology advances.

  9. Nurse leader resilience: career defining moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is an essential component of effective nursing leadership. It is defined as the ability to survive and thrive in the face of adversity. Resilience can be developed and internalized as a measure to improve retention and reduce burnout. Nurse leaders at all levels should develop these competencies to survive and thrive in an increasingly complex health care environment. Building positive relationships, maintaining positivity, developing emotional insight, creating work-life balance, and reflecting on successes and challenges are effective strategies for resilience building. Nurse leaders have a professional obligation to develop resilience in themselves, the teams they supervise, and the organization as a whole. Additional benefits include reduced turnover, reduced cost, and improved quality outcomes through organizational mindfulness.

  10. Defining and testing a granular continuum element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2007-12-03

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of amesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discreteparticles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granularmaterials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealinginhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cagebreaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM)simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granularelement" can indeed be defined at the scale of dynamical correlations,roughly three to five particle diameters. Its rheology is rather subtle,combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-likedependence on strain. Our results confirm some aspects of classicalplasticity theory (e.g., coaxiality of stress and deformation rate),while contradicting others (i.e., incipient yield), and can guide thedevelopment of more realistic continuum models.

  11. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S. Gregg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from traditional terrorism; investigate three goals of religious terrorism (fomenting the apocalypse, creating a religious government, and establishing a religiously pure state; consider the role of leadership and target selection of religious terrorists; and, finally, suggest a range of counterterrorism strategies based on these observations.

  12. "Defining Computer 'Speed': An Unsolved Challenge"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The reason we use computers is their speed, and the reason we use parallel computers is that they're faster than single-processor computers. Yet, after 70 years of electronic digital computing, we still do not have a solid definition of what computer 'speed' means, or even what it means to be 'faster'. Unlike measures in physics, where the definition of speed is rigorous and unequivocal, in computing there is no definition of speed that is universally accepted. As a result, computer customers have made purchases misguided by dubious information, computer designers have optimized their designs for the wrong goals, and computer programmers have chosen methods that optimize the wrong things. This talk describes why some of the obvious and historical ways of defining 'speed' haven't served us well, and the things we've learned in the struggle to find a definition that works. Biography: Dr. John Gustafson is a Director ...

  13. Using archetypes for defining CDA templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner, David; Moreno, Alberto; Maldonado, José A; Robles, Montserrat; Parra, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    While HL7 CDA is a widely adopted standard for the documentation of clinical information, the archetype approach proposed by CEN/ISO 13606 and openEHR is gaining recognition as a means of describing domain models and medical knowledge. This paper describes our efforts in combining both standards. Using archetypes as an alternative for defining CDA templates permit new possibilities all based on the formal nature of archetypes and their ability to merge into the same artifact medical knowledge and technical requirements for semantic interoperability of electronic health records. We describe the process followed for the normalization of existing legacy data in a hospital environment, from the importation of the HL7 CDA model into an archetype editor, the definition of CDA archetypes and the application of those archetypes to obtain normalized CDA data instances.

  14. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Bernard A; Schendel, Dolores J; Butterfield, Lisa H

    2011-01-01

    of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical...... immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation...... companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed...

  15. Just caring: defining a basic benefit package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Leonard M

    2011-12-01

    What should be the content of a package of health care services that we would want to guarantee to all Americans? This question cannot be answered adequately apart from also addressing the issue of fair health care rationing. Consequently, as I argue in this essay, appeal to the language of "basic," "essential," "adequate," "minimally decent," or "medically necessary" for purposes of answering our question is unhelpful. All these notions are too vague to be useful. Cost matters. Effectiveness matters. The clinical circumstances of a patient matters. But what we must ultimately determine is what we mutually agree are the just claims to needed health care of each American in a relatively complex range of clinical circumstances. Answering this question will require a public moral conversation, a fair process of rational democratic deliberation aimed at defining both just claims to needed health care and just limits.

  16. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Glaros, A G; Kato, T; Koyano, K; Lavigne, G J; de Leeuw, R; Manfredini, D; Svensson, P; Winocur, E

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined bruxism as a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. Bruxism has two distinct circadian manifestations: it can occur during sleep (indicated as sleep bruxism) or during wakefulness (indicated as awake bruxism). For the operationalisation of this definition, the expert group proposes a diagnostic grading system of 'possible', 'probable' and 'definite' sleep or awake bruxism. The proposed definition and grading system are suggested for clinical and research purposes in all relevant dental and medical domains. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Defining and Supporting Narrative-driven Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Koolen, Marijn

    2017-01-01

    Research into recommendation algorithms has made great strides in recent years. However, these algorithms are typically applied in relatively straightforward scenarios: given information about a user's past preferences, what will they like in the future? Recommendation is often more complex......: evaluating recommended items never takes place in a vacuum, and it is often a single step in the user's more complex background task. In this paper, we define a specific type of recommendation scenario called narrative-driven recommendation, where the recommendation process is driven by both a log...... of the user's past transactions as well as a narrative description of their current interest(s). Through an analysis of a set of real-world recommendation narratives from the LibraryThing forums, we demonstrate the uniqueness and richness of this scenario and highlight common patterns and properties...

  18. Defining Service and Education in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Debra; Gagne, Josh; Kesselheim, Jennifer C

    2017-11-01

    Program directors (PDs) and trainees are often queried regarding the balance of service and education during pediatric residency training. We aimed to use qualitative methods to learn how pediatric residents and PDs define service and education and to identify activities that exemplify these concepts. Focus groups of pediatric residents and PDs were performed and the data qualitatively analyzed. Thematic analysis revealed 4 themes from focus group data: (1) misalignment of the perceived definition of service; (2) agreement about the definition of education; (3) overlapping perceptions of the value of service to training; and (4) additional suggestions for improved integration of education and service. Pediatric residents hold positive definitions of service and believe that service adds value to their education. Importantly, the discovery of heterogeneous definitions of service between pediatric residents and PDs warrants further investigation and may have ramifications for Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and those responsible for residency curricula.

  19. Quantum computing. Defining and detecting quantum speedup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnow, Troels F; Wang, Zhihui; Job, Joshua; Boixo, Sergio; Isakov, Sergei V; Wecker, David; Martinis, John M; Lidar, Daniel A; Troyer, Matthias

    2014-07-25

    The development of small-scale quantum devices raises the question of how to fairly assess and detect quantum speedup. Here, we show how to define and measure quantum speedup and how to avoid pitfalls that might mask or fake such a speedup. We illustrate our discussion with data from tests run on a D-Wave Two device with up to 503 qubits. By using random spin glass instances as a benchmark, we found no evidence of quantum speedup when the entire data set is considered and obtained inconclusive results when comparing subsets of instances on an instance-by-instance basis. Our results do not rule out the possibility of speedup for other classes of problems and illustrate the subtle nature of the quantum speedup question. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Software Defined Networking Demands on Software Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinac Grbac, T.; Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a networking approach based on a centralized control plane architecture with standardised interfaces between control and data planes. SDN enables fast configuration and reconfiguration of the network to enhance resource utilization and service performances....... This new approach enables a more dynamic and flexible network, which may adapt to user needs and application requirements. To this end, systemized solutions must be implemented in network software, aiming to provide secure network services that meet the required service performance levels. In this paper......, we review this new approach to networking from an architectural point of view, and identify and discuss some critical quality issues that require new developments in software technologies. These issues we discuss along with use case scenarios. Here in this paper we aim to identify challenges...

  1. Computing platforms for software-defined radio

    CERN Document Server

    Nurmi, Jari; Isoaho, Jouni; Garzia, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses Software-Defined Radio (SDR) baseband processing from the computer architecture point of view, providing a detailed exploration of different computing platforms by classifying different approaches, highlighting the common features related to SDR requirements and by showing pros and cons of the proposed solutions. Coverage includes architectures exploiting parallelism by extending single-processor environment (such as VLIW, SIMD, TTA approaches), multi-core platforms distributing the computation to either a homogeneous array or a set of specialized heterogeneous processors, and architectures exploiting fine-grained, coarse-grained, or hybrid reconfigurability. Describes a computer engineering approach to SDR baseband processing hardware; Discusses implementation of numerous compute-intensive signal processing algorithms on single and multicore platforms; Enables deep understanding of optimization techniques related to power and energy consumption of multicore platforms using several basic a...

  2. Environmentally acceptable thread compounds: Requirements defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, W.D.; Hendriks, R.V.; Jacobs, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    New environmental regulations on thread compounds are now being enforced in several areas with strong maritime tradition and a sensitive environment. These areas include Indonesia, Alaska and portions of Norway. The industry generally recognizes the environmental concerns but, with wider enforcement of regulations imminent, has not been able to define clearly the requirements for environmental compliance. This paper, written in collaboration with The Netherlands State Supervision of Mines, is based on the National Policy on Thread Compounds of The Netherlands. This national policy is representative of policies being followed by other North Sea governments. Similar policies might well be adopted by other governments worldwide. These policies will affect the operator, drilling contractor, and supplier. This paper provides a specific and detailed definition of thread compound requirements by addressing four relevant categories. The categories of interest are regulatory approval, environmental, health, and performance

  3. National contributions to observed global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, H Damon; Graham, Tanya L; Keverian, Serge; Lamontagne, Cassandra; Seto, Donny; Smith, Trevor J

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global warming as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate warming, including CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ warming contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO 2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO 2 and non-CO 2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate warming. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures. (paper)

  4. Defining nodes in complex brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lawrence Stanley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Network science holds great promise for expanding our understanding of the human brain in health, disease, development, and aging. Network analyses are quickly becoming the method of choice for analyzing functional MRI data. However, many technical issues have yet to be confronted in order to optimize results. One particular issue that remains controversial in functional brain network analyses is the definition of a network node. In functional brain networks a node represents some predefined collection of brain tissue, and an edge measures the functional connectivity between pairs of nodes. The characteristics of a node, chosen by the researcher, vary considerably in the literature. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art based on published manuscripts and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of three main methods for defining nodes. Voxel-wise networks are constructed by assigning a node to each, equally sized brain area (voxel. The fMRI time-series recorded from each voxel is then used to create the functional network. Anatomical methods utilize atlases to define the nodes based on brain structure. The fMRI time-series from all voxels within the anatomical area are averaged and subsequently used to generate the network. Functional activation methods rely on data from traditional fMRI activation studies, often from databases, to identify network nodes. Such methods identify the peaks or centers of mass from activation maps to determine the location of the nodes. Small (~10-20 millimeter diameter spheres located at the coordinates of the activation foci are then applied to the data being used in the network analysis. The fMRI time-series from all voxels in the sphere are then averaged, and the resultant time series is used to generate the network. We attempt to clarify the discussion and move the study of complex brain networks forward. While the correct method to be used remains an open, possibly unsolvable question that

  5. Exposing the Myths, Defining the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, S.

    2013-01-01

    With this official statement, the WEC calls for policymakers and industry leaders to ''get real'' as the World Energy Council as a global energy body exposes the myths by informing the energy debate and defines a path to a more sustainable energy future. The World Energy Council urged stakeholders to take urgent and incisive actions, to develop and transform the global energy system. Failure to do so could put aspirations on the triple challenge of WEC Energy Trilemma defined by affordability, accessibility and environmental sustainability at serious risk. Through its multi-year in-depth global studies and issue-mapping the WEC has found that challenges that energy sector is facing today are much more crucial than previously envisaged. The WEC's analysis has exposed a number of myths which influence our understanding of important aspects of the global energy landscape. If not challenged, these misconceptions will lead us down a path of complacency and missed opportunities. Much has, and still is, being done to secure energy future, but the WEC' s studies reveal that current pathways fall short of delivering on global aspirations of energy access, energy security and environmental improvements. If we are to derive the full economic and social benefits from energy resources, then we must take incisive and urgent action to modify our steps to energy solutions. The usual business approaches are not effective, the business as usual is not longer a solution. The focus has moved from large universal solutions to an appreciation of regional and national contexts and sharply differentiated consumer expectations.(author)

  6. Radiotherapy for brain metastases: defining palliative response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezjak, Andrea; Adam, Janice; Panzarella, Tony; Levin, Wilfred; Barton, Rachael; Kirkbride, Peter; McLean, Michael; Mason, Warren; Wong, Chong Shun; Laperriere, Normand

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose: Most patients with brain metastases are treated with palliative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). There is no established definition of palliative response. The aim of this study was to develop and test clinically useful criteria for response following palliative WBRT. Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted of patients with symptomatic brain metastases treated with WBRT (20 Gy/5 fractions) and standardised steroid tapering. Assessments included observer rating of neurological symptoms, patient-completed symptom checklist and performance status (PS). Response criteria were operationally defined based on a combination of neurological symptoms, PS and steroid dose. Results: Seventy-five patients were accrued. At 1 month, presenting neurological symptoms were improved in 14 patients, stable in 17, and worse in 21; 23 patients were not assessed, mainly due to death or frailty. Using response criteria defined a priori, 15% (95% CI 7-23%) of patients were classified as having a response to RT, 25% no response, and 29% progression; 27% were deceased at or soon after 1 month. A revised set of criteria was tested, with less emphasis on complete tapering of steroids: they increased the proportion of patients responding to 39% (95% CI 27-50%) but didn't change the large proportion who did not benefit (44%). Conclusions: Clinical response to RT of patients with brain metastases is multifactorial, comprising symptoms, PS and other factors. Assessment of degree of palliation depend on the exact definition used. More research is needed in this important area, to help validate criteria for assessing palliation after WBRT

  7. Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

  8. Program plan for the DOE Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Technology Program. Volume I. Summary, objectives and management. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    This document defines a plan for conducting selected aspects of the engineering testing required for magnetic fusion reactor FWBS components and systems. The ultimate product of this program is an established data base that contributes to a functional, reliable, maintainable, economically attractive, and environmentally acceptable commercial fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield system. This program plan updates the initial plan issued in November of 1980 by the DOE/Office of Fusion Energy (unnumbered report). The plan consists of two parts. Part I is a summary of activities, responsibilities and program management including reporting and interfaces with other programs. Part II is a compilation of the Detailed Technical Plans for Phase I (1982 to 1984) developed by the participants during Phase 0 of the program

  9. Coupling the Biophysical and Social Dimensions of Wildfire Risk to Improve Wildfire Mitigation Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alan A; Kline, Jeffrey D; Fischer, A Paige

    2015-08-01

    We describe recent advances in biophysical and social aspects of risk and their potential combined contribution to improve mitigation planning on fire-prone landscapes. The methods and tools provide an improved method for defining the spatial extent of wildfire risk to communities compared to current planning processes. They also propose an expanded role for social science to improve understanding of community-wide risk perceptions and to predict property owners' capacities and willingness to mitigate risk by treating hazardous fuels and reducing the susceptibility of dwellings. In particular, we identify spatial scale mismatches in wildfire mitigation planning and their potential adverse impact on risk mitigation goals. Studies in other fire-prone regions suggest that these scale mismatches are widespread and contribute to continued wildfire dwelling losses. We discuss how risk perceptions and behavior contribute to scale mismatches and how they can be minimized through integrated analyses of landscape wildfire transmission and social factors that describe the potential for collaboration among landowners and land management agencies. These concepts are then used to outline an integrated socioecological planning framework to identify optimal strategies for local community risk mitigation and improve landscape-scale prioritization of fuel management investments by government entities. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Defining internal target volume (ITV) for hepatocellular carcinoma using four-dimensional CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X, Mian; Liu Mengzhong; Deng Xiaowu; Zhang Li; Huang Xiaoyan; Liu Hui; Li Qiaoqiao; Hu Yonghong; Cai Ling; Cui Nianji

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To define individualized internal target volume (ITV) for hepatocellular carcinoma using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Materials and methods: Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) and clinical target volumes (CTVs) were contoured on all 10 respiratory phases of 4DCT scans in 10 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The 3D and 4D treatment plans were performed for each patient using two different planning target volumes (PTVs): (1) PTV 3D was derived from a single CTV plus conventional margins; (2) PTV 4D was derived from ITV 4D , which encompassed all 10 CTVs plus setup margins (SMs). The volumes of PTVs and dose distribution were compared between the two plans. Results: The average PTV volume of the 4D plans (328.4 ± 152.2 cm 3 ) was less than 3D plans (407.0 ± 165.6 cm 3 ). The 4D plans spared more surrounding normal tissues than 3D plans, especially normal liver. Compared with 3D plans, the mean dose to normal liver (MDTNL) decreased from 22.7 to 20.3 Gy. Without increasing the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the 4D plans allowed for increasing the calculated dose from 50.4 ± 1.3 to 54.2 ± 2.6 Gy, an average increase of 7.5% (range 4.0-16.0%). Conclusions: The conventional 3D plans can result in geometric miss and include excess normal tissues. The 4DCT-based plans can reduce the target volumes to spare more normal tissues and allow dose escalation compared with 3D plans

  11. Safety Leadership Defined within the Australian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the tenets of safety leadership within the Australian construction environment. The scope of this research aims to establish a universal definition of safety leadership and how it differs from other leadership disciplines. The literature review into this topic was governed by the parent disciplines of Safety and Leadership.  Gaps were identified in the literature that indicated safety leadership is not a well-defined concept and much of the work into safety leadership has been borrowed from other schools of leadership. An exploratory research methodology was utilised which rooted the research into the post-positivist methodology. There were twenty interviews conducted for this research, with participants coming from various leadership positions across multiple construction projects around Australia. Findings detailed a saturation of data that allowed for an empirical definition towards safety leadership to be established. As a person’s scope of responsibility increases, their view of safety leadership becomes synonymous with leadership; although differences do exist. These differences were attributed to the importance of demonstrating safety and working within the legal framework of Australian construction projects. It is proposed that this research offers a substantial contribution to knowledge, based upon a well-defined definition into safety leadership.

  12. Control of Clostridium difficile infection by defined microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James

    2017-01-01

    Summary Each year in the United States, billions of dollars are spent combating almost half a million Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) and trying to reduce the ~29,000 patient deaths where C. difficile has an attributed role (1). In Europe, disease prevalence varies by country and level of surveillance, though yearly costs are estimated at €3 billion (2). One factor contributing to the significant healthcare burden of C. difficile is the relatively high frequency of recurrent C. difficile infections(3). Recurrent C. difficile infection (rCDI), i.e., a second episode of symptomatic CDI occurring within eight weeks of successful initial CDI treatment, occurs in ~25% of patients with 35-65% of these patients experiencing multiple episodes of recurrent disease(4, 5). Using microbial communities to treat rCDI, either as whole fecal transplants or as defined consortia of bacterial isolates have shown great success (in the case of fecal transplants) or potential promise (in the case of defined consortia of isolates). This review will briefly summarize the epidemiology and physiology of C. difficile infection, describe our current understanding of how fecal microbiota transplants treat recurrent CDI, and outline potential ways through which that knowledge can be used to rationally-design and test alternative microbe-based therapeutics. PMID:28936948

  13. The Austrian Space Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseiner, K.; Balogh, W.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of preparation and discussion among the involved players, the Austrian Space Plan was approved for implementation in November 2001. Based on careful benchmarking and analysis of the capabilities of the Austrian space sector it aims to create excellent conditions for the sector's further development. The new space strategy embraces Austria's participation in the mandatory and optional programmes of the European Space Agency and establishes a National Space Programme supported by separate funding opportunities. A set of clearly-defined indicators ensures that the progress in implementing the Space Plan can be objectively judged through independent, annual reviews. The National Space Programme promotes international cooperation in space research and space activities with the aim to strengthen the role of space science and to better prepare Austrian space industry for the commercial space market. In the framework of the Space Plan the Austrian Space Agency has been tasked with integrating the industry's growing involvement in aeronautics activities to better utilize synergies with the space sector. This paper reviews the various steps leading to the approval of the new space strategy and discusses the hurdles mastered in this process. It reports on the Space Plan's first results, specifically taking into account projects involving international cooperation. For the first the Austria aerospace-sector can rely on an integrated strategy for aeronautics- and space activities which is firmly rooted in the efforts to enhance the country's R&D activities. It may also act as a useful example for other small space- using countries planning to enhance their involvement in space activities.

  14. Environment: Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development is gradually being incorporated into the activities of Hydro-Quebec as part of that utility's environmental policy. In its proposed development plan, Hydro-Quebec's principal strategic environmental orientations comprise making environmental concerns an integral part of the planning process, managing impacts associated with the construction of generating and transmission facilities, and evaluating the utility's environmental performance. The approaches used, tools to be developed, and information required in each of these orientations are described. Issues considered include the strategic choices available for meeting electricity requirements, including renewable energy sources; the evaluation of environmental externalities; the use of environmental impact assessment studies and environmental monitoring; relationships with native peoples and mitigation of the social impacts of northern hydroelectric development; protection and management of natural and human habitats; the utility's contribution to regional development; management of wastes and rights-of-way; and environmental auditing. 1 tab

  15. A case study of IMRT planning (Plan B) subsequent to a previously treated IMRT plan (Plan A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Cao, F; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Leong, C; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Schroeder, J; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Lee, B

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment of the contralateral neck after previous ipsilateral intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer is a challenging problem. We have developed a technique that limits the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while maximizing coverage of a planning target volume (PTV) in the contralateral neck. Our case involves a patient with right tonsil carcinoma who was given ipsilateral IMRT with 70Gy in 35 fractions (Plan A). A left neck recurrence was detected 14 months later. The patient underwent a neck dissection followed by postoperative left neck radiation to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions (Plan B). Materials and Methods: The spinal cord-brainstem margin (SCBM) was defined as the spinal cord and brainstem with a 1.0 cm margin. Plan A was recalculated on the postoperative CT scan but the fluence outside of SCBM was deleted. A further modification of Plan A resulted in a base plan that was summed with Plan B to evaluate the cumulative dose received by the spinal cord and brainstem. Plan B alone was used to evaluate for coverage of the contralateral neck PTV. Results: The maximum cumulative doses to the spinal cord with 0.5cm margin and brainstem with 0.5cm margin were 51.96 Gy and 45.60 Gy respectively. For Plan B, 100% of the prescribed dose covered 95% of PTVb1. Conclusion: The use of a modified ipsilateral IMRT plan as a base plan is an effective way to limit the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while enabling coverage of a PTV in the contralateral neck.

  16. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbier, John Greaton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Calef, Matthew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  17. VOYAGE PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz SKÓRA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A sea voyage can be divided into three parts with varying degrees of risk: - from the berth at the port of departure to the pilot disembarkation point - from the pilot disembarkation to another pilot embarkation point near the port of call/destination - from the pilot embarkation point to the berth Results of statistical research into ship accidents at sea point to an increased number of incidents and accidents, including groundings, especially in restricted areas. Such areas are often narrow and have limited depths, while their short straight sections require frequent course alterations, often in varying hydrometeorological conditions. Due to all these factors, the voyage has to be carefully planned and all watchkeeping officers have to be well prepared to conduct the ship safely. The article presents the objectives, scope, legal basis and stages in the process of voyage planning. The compliance with the outlined principles will reduce the level of risk in maritime transport.

  18. From beans to breams: how participatory workshops can contribute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From beans to breams: how participatory workshops can contribute to marine conservation planning. ... conservation plan. We report on how this data void was filled using information provided by marine resource users, managers and scientists during participatory workshops. Participants described the distribution of reefs, ...

  19. Big plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Kevin F; Doyle, James F

    2005-09-01

    In Elmhurst Memorial Healthcare's capital planning method: Future replacement costs of assets are estimated by inflating their historical cost over their lives. A balanced model is created initially based on the assumption that rates of revenue growth, inflation, investment income, and interest expense are all equal. Numbers then can be adjusted to account for possible variations, such as excesses or shortages in investment or debt balances.

  20. Business plan

    OpenAIRE

    Dorożyński, Tomasz; Urbaniak, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Running a business on an international scale requires not only a substantial body of knowledge but also the ability to apply it in practice. That is why our textbook, with a vast collection of practical examples, discusses a wide variety of pertinent issues connected with business operations in international markets, from international market analysis, drafting business plans, concluding business transactions and the insurance of goods through to customs clearance procedures and professional ...