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Sample records for define optimum operating

  1. Optimum Criteria for Developing Defined Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic aspects concerning distributed applications are presented: definition, particularities and importance. For distributed applications linear, arborescent, graph structures are defined with different versions and aggregation methods. Distributed applications have associated structures which through their characteristics influence the costs of the stages in the development cycle and the exploitation costs transferred to each user. The complexity of the defined structures is analyzed. The minimum and maximum criteria are enumerated for optimizing distributed application structures.

  2. Optimum Operational Parameters for Yawed Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Peters

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of systematical optimum operational parameters for wind turbines under various wind directions is derived by using combined momentum-energy and blade-element-energy concepts. The derivations are solved numerically by fixing some parameters at practical values. Then, the interactions between the produced power and the influential factors of it are generated in the figures. It is shown that the maximum power produced is strongly affected by the wind direction, the tip speed, the pitch angle of the rotor, and the drag coefficient, which are specifically indicated by figures. It also turns out that the maximum power can take place at two different optimum tip speeds in some cases. The equations derived herein can also be used in the modeling of tethered wind turbines which can keep aloft and deliver energy.

  3. Defining poor and optimum performance in an IVF programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Jose A; Hernandez, Juana; Cabello, Yolanda; Lafuente, Alejandro; Pajuelo, Nuria; Marqueta, Javier; Coroleu, Buenaventura

    2008-01-01

    At present there is considerable interest in healthcare administration, among professionals and among the general public concerning the quality of programmes of assisted reproduction. There exist various methods for comparing and analysing the results of clinical activity, with graphical methods being the most commonly used for this purpose. As yet, there is no general consensus as to how the poor performance (PP) or optimum performance (OP) of assisted reproductive technologies should be defined. Data from the IVF/ICSI register of the Spanish Fertility Society were used to compare and analyse different definitions of PP or OP. The primary variable best reflecting the quality of an IVF/ICSI programme was taken to be the percentage of singleton births per IVF/ICSI cycle initiated. Of the 75 infertility clinics that took part in the SEF-2003 survey, data on births were provided by 58. A total of 25 462 cycles were analysed. The following graphical classification methods were used: ranking of the proportion of singleton births per cycles started in each centre (league table), Shewhart control charts, funnel plots, best and worst-case scenarios and state of the art methods. The clinics classified as producing PP or OP varied considerably depending on the classification method used. Only three were rated as providing 'PP' or 'OP' by all methods, unanimously. Another four clinics were classified as 'poor' or 'optimum' by all the methods except one. On interpreting the results derived from IVF/ICSI centres, it is essential to take into account the characteristics of the method used for this purpose.

  4. Techniques for evaluating optimum data center operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Rodriguez, Sergio Adolfo Bermudez; Wehle, Hans-Dieter

    2017-06-14

    Techniques for modeling a data center are provided. In one aspect, a method for determining data center efficiency is provided. The method includes the following steps. Target parameters for the data center are obtained. Technology pre-requisite parameters for the data center are obtained. An optimum data center efficiency is determined given the target parameters for the data center and the technology pre-requisite parameters for the data center.

  5. Optimum operation of restoration techniques for eutrophic water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, N. M.; Kleeberg, H.-B.

    1994-05-01

    Operating rules have been applied in water resources management for a long time in order to control and supply a required quantity (volume) of water. The operating rules have to guarantee the optimum management of the reservoir(s). The quality of the stored water has been satisfactory for the desired utilization up to the sixties. Due to the deterioration of reservoir water quality through human impacts, however, increased attention had to be paid since. Eutrophication of stagnant waters is still an unsolved problem. Through means of various restoration techniques, i.e., dilution/flushing or hypolimnetic withdrawal, the quality of the stored water can be improved. Continuous operation or appropriate time or depth variant operating rules are required to achieve this goal. The paper presents such rules for long-term operation. They have been established for the first time and can he represented in two or three-dimensional graphs depending on the number of included components (e.g., actual water storage and quality). The ‘quality operating rules’ take into account the dynamics of the processes in aquatic ecosystems. Simplifications with regard to application and acceptance (e.g., clarity) are developed and tested. The general validity and efficiency of the operating rules have been proved in a case study (a multi-purpose reservoir) and a fictitious lake.

  6. Optimum Operating Conditions for PZT Actuators for Vibrotactile Wearables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetis, Irini; Matsouka, Dimitra; Vassiliadis, Savvas; Vossou, Clio; Siores, Elias

    2018-04-01

    Recently, vibrotactile wearables have received much attention in fields such as medicine, psychology, athletics and video gaming. The electrical components presently used to generate vibration are rigid; hence, the design and creation of ergonomical wearables are limited. Significant advances in piezoelectric components have led to the production of flexible actuators such as piezoceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film. To verify the functionality of PZT actuators for use in vibrotactile wearables, the factors influencing the electromechanical conversion were analysed and tested. This was achieved through theoretical and experimental analyses of a monomorph clamped-free structure for the PZT actuator. The research performed for this article is a three-step process. First, a theoretical analysis presents the equations governing the actuator. In addition, the eigenfrequency of the film was analysed preceding the experimental section. For this stage, by applying an electric voltage and varying the stimulating electrical characteristics (i.e., voltage, electrical waveform and frequency), the optimum operating conditions for a PZT film were determined. The tip displacement was measured referring to the mechanical energy converted from electrical energy. From the results obtained, an equation for the mechanical behaviour of PZT films as actuators was deduced. It was observed that the square waveform generated larger tip displacements. In conjunction with large voltage inputs at the predetermined eigenfrequency, the optimum operating conditions for the actuator were achieved. To conclude, PZT films can be adapted to assist designers in creating comfortable vibrotactile wearables.

  7. Pointwise extensions of GSOS-defined operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, H.H.; Klin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Final coalgebras capture system behaviours such as streams, infinite trees and processes. Algebraic operations on a final coalgebra can be defined by distributive laws (of a syntax functor S over a behaviour functor F). Such distributive laws correspond to abstract specification formats. One such

  8. Pointwise Extensions of GSOS-Defined Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Hansen (Helle); B. Klin

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFinal coalgebras capture system behaviours such as streams, infinite trees and processes. Algebraic operations on a final coalgebra can be defined by distributive laws (of a syntax functor $\\FSig$ over a behaviour functor $F$). Such distributive laws correspond to abstract specification

  9. Optimum reliable operation of water distribution networks by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent decades much attention has been paid to optimal operation of water distribution networks (WDNs). In this regard, the system operation costs, including energy and disinfection chemicals, as well as system reliability should be simultaneously considered in system performance optimisation, to provide the minimum ...

  10. ANALYSIS OF OPTIMUM OPERATING MODES OF POWER TRANSFORMERS UNDER OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Khomenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study of parallel operation optimal modes of transformer equipment for a variety of operating conditions: same or different types of transformers, with or without reactive power flows. Methodology. Losses of energy in transformers make 30 % of all losses. Therefore the choice of the economically justified parallel operation of transformers is effective action to reduce losses. Typically, in the calculations of reactive power flows in the transformers are not taken into account. It is interesting to analyze the optimal operating conditions of transformers with and without reactive power flows. Results. Calculations for transformers in distribution networks showed that the inclusion of reactive power flows in transformers significant impact on the calculated optimum regimes of transformers.

  11. Optimum ratio of main mechanized operations for direct-flow fertilizers introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Uvarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of transport and technological means is carried out according to the direct-flow scheme and includes stage-by-stage performance as the main standard-setting operations (fertilizers transportation, movement and their distribution across a field, and auxiliary (return from a field and loading of fertilizers. The method of comparison of main types of operations at fertilizers application is given. An estimation criterion is a ratio of cargo movements on a road and across a field, proportionality coefficient between movement of freight and a fertilizers distribution area across the field. These indicators depend on transportation distances and doses of fertilizers application, and also on technology factor that is freight moving frequency across the field. The last characteristic is taken as the optimized parameter. An extremum of this indicator was searched due to a classical method. Optimum values of estimated indicators with the accounting of a variation of a ratio of load capacity and operating width of technical means are received. Concrete combinations of transportation distances and doses of fertilizers application are specified. The authors defined conditions of effective use of tractor and perspective automobile transport and technological means. They recommended to use the automeans allowing to change operating width. Realization of the stated methodological approach will make it possible to select an optimum ratio of the mechanized operations at direct-flow fertilizers application, to exclude additional cargo movements across the field, to cut fuel consumption, to increase productivity. Productivity of transport and technological means increases by 2.0; 1.3 and 1.15 times respectively to length of furrow 3; 9 and 27 km at fertilizers application by a dose of 0.06 kg per sq.m.

  12. Optimum operating conditions for a combined power and cooling thermodynamic cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadrameli, S.M.; Goswami, D.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The combined production of thermal power and cooling with an ammonia-water based cycle proposed by Goswami is under intensive investigation. In the cycle under consideration, simultaneous cooling output is produced by expanding an ammonia-rich vapor in an expander to sub-ambient temperatures and subsequently heating the cool exhaust. When this mechanism for cooling production is considered in detail, it is apparent that the cooling comes at some expense to work production. To optimize this trade-off, a very specific coefficient-of-performance has been defined. In this paper, the simulation of the cycle was carried out in the process simulator ASPEN Plus. The optimum operating conditions have been found by using the Equation Oriented mode of the simulator and some of the results have been compared with the experimental data obtained from the cycle. The agreement between the two sets proves the accuracy of the optimization results

  13. Optimum operation of a small power production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capehart, B.L.; Mahoney, J.F.; Sivazlian, B.D.

    1983-09-01

    To help reduce the U.S.A.'s dependence on imported oil for electrical power generation, the 1978 National Energy Act established regulations to promote construction and operation of cogeneration and small power production facilities. Many of these facilities are presently under construction, with a great number planned. This paper examines the operation of a small power production facility with on-site generation and storage, on-site use, and connection to an electric utility grid system for the purpose of both selling excess power and buying power. It is assumed that the buying and selling price of electricity varies frequently during the day and that the relevant price and demand data may be accurately projected into the near future. With this system description, a mathematical model is formulated and solved by linear programming to obtain a series of periodic buy and sell decisions so as to maximize the profit from operating the small power production facility. Results are presented to illustrate the methodology for determining potential profits.

  14. PLATEAUING COSMIC RAY DETECTORS TO ACHIEVE OPTIMUM OPERATING VOLTAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoff, E.N.; Peterson, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Through QuarkNet, students across the country have access to cosmic ray detectors in their high school classrooms. These detectors operate using a scintillator material and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). A data acquisition (DAQ) board counts cosmic ray hits from the counters. Through an online e-Lab, students can analyze and share their data. In order to collect viable data, the PMTs should operate at their plateau voltages. In these plateau ranges, the number of counts per minute remains relatively constant with small changes in PMT voltage. We sought to plateau the counters in the test array and to clarify the plateauing procedure itself. In order to most effectively plateau the counters, the counters should be stacked and programmed to record the number of coincident hits as well as their singles rates. We also changed the threshold value that a signal must exceed in order to record a hit and replateaued the counters. For counter 1, counter 2, and counter 3, we found plateau voltages around 1V. The singles rate plateau was very small, while the coincidence plateau was very long. The plateau voltages corresponded to a singles rate of 700–850 counts per minute. We found very little effect of changing the threshold voltages. Our chosen plateau voltages produced good performance studies on the e-Lab. Keeping in mind the nature of the experiments conducted by the high school students, we recommend a streamlined plateauing process. Because changing the threshold did not drastically affect the plateau voltage or the performance study, students should choose a threshold value, construct plateau graphs, and analyze their data using a performance study. Even if the counters operate slightly off their plateau voltage, they should deliver good performance studies and return reliable results.

  15. Selection of the optimum condition for electron capture detector operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.; Korus, A.

    1974-01-01

    A method of determination of the optimal work conditions for the electron capture detector is presented in the paper. Physical phenomena which occur in the detector, as well as the energetic dependence of the electron attachment process are taken into consideration. The influence of the kind of carrier gas, temperature, and the parameters of the supplied voltage in both direct and pulse methods on average values of electron energy is described. Dependence of the sensitivity of the electron capture detector on the carrier gas and the polarizing voltage is illustrated for the Model DNW-300 electron capture detector produced in Poland. Practical indications for selecting optimal conditions of electron capture detector operation are given at the end of the paper. (author)

  16. Optimum Design and Operation of Cyclic Storage Systems; Lumped Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ostadrahimi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources is a preferred approach in water resources management. Compared to dam construction, groundwater has certain advantages, among which are less costs, less sedimentation and evaporation, fewer water quality problems, and less social and cultural problems. To reduce the major problems associated with the development of large-scale surface impoundment systems, cyclic storage systems can be used as an alternative. A cyclic storage system (CYCS is an integrated interactive system consisting of two subsystems of surface water storage (reservoir and groundwater; this system together with artificial recharge is able to satisfy the predefined demands with rather high reliability. In order to optimize these systems, one must consider the hydraulic interactions between all the components, but unfortunately it has been neglected in many studies. In this article, a nonlinear optimization model for design and operation of cyclic storage systems has been developed using the lumped approach. In order to evaluate the model, its results have been compared with the results of a model in which distributed approach had been deployed, and so the efficiency of lumped models to solve the problems of cyclic storage systems has been investigated.

  17. Calculation of optimum control rod operation programme for boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, L.

    1978-01-01

    Control rod operation programmes are calculated based on a three dimensional Boiling Water Reactor situation model. The position of the control rods at variosu burn-ups is chosen by an optimisation so that the sum of the square deviations of the load density distribution from an optimum distribution ('Haling' distribution) are minimised. Other conditions are remaining critical and observing the thermal limits for central fuel element melting and critical heat surface loading. As an example, an optimum control rod operation programme for the first cycle in Lengen nuclear power station is calculated and is compared with the programme actually used. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  18. Do preliminary chest X-ray findings define the optimum role of pulmonary scintigraphy in suspected pulmonary embolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, Kirsten P.N.; Reid, John H.; Murchison, John T.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if preliminary chest radiograph (CXR) findings can define the optimum role of lung scintigraphy in subjects investigated for pulmonary embolism (PE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CXR and scintigraphy findings from 613 consecutive subjects investigated for suspected PE were retrieved from a radiological database. Of 393 patients with abnormal CXRs, a subgroup of 238 was examined and individual radiographic abnormalities were characterized. CXR findings were related to the scintigraphy result. RESULTS: Scintigraphy was normal in 286 subjects (47%), non-diagnostic in 207 (34%) and high probability for PE in 120 (20%). In 393 subjects (64%) the preliminary CXR was abnormal and 188 (48%) of scintigrams in this group were non-diagnostic. Individual radiographic abnormalities were not associated with significantly different scintigraphic outcomes. If the preliminary CXR was normal (36%), the proportion of non-diagnostic scintigrams decreased to 9% (19 of 220 subjects) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In subjects investigated for PE, an abnormal CXR increases the prevalence of non-diagnostic scintigrams. A normal pre-test CXR is more often associated with a definitive (normal or high probability) scintigram result. The chest radiograph may be useful in deciding the optimum sequence of investigations. Forbes, K.P.N., Reid, J.H., Murchison, J.T. (2001)

  19. Optimum Design of a Coil Spring for Improving the Performance of a Spring -Operated Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Woo; Sohn, Jeong Hyun; Yoo, Wan Suk

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a release test bed is designed to evaluate the dynamic behaviors of a coil spring. From the release tests, the dynamic behaviors of a coil spring are analyzed. A lumped parameter spring model was established for numerical simulation of a spring. The design variables of a coil spring are optimized by using the design of experiments approach. Two-level factorial designs are used for the design optimization, and the primary effects of the design variables are analyzed. Based on the results of the interaction analysis and design sensitivity analysis, the level of the design variables is rearranged. Finally, the mixed-level factorial design is used for the optimum design process. According to the optimum design of the opening spring, the dynamic performance of the spring-operated mechanism increases by 2.90

  20. Solving optimum operation of single pump unit problem with ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y; Liu, C

    2012-01-01

    For pumping stations, the effective scheduling of daily pump operations from solutions to the optimum design operation problem is one of the greatest potential areas for energy cost-savings, there are some difficulties in solving this problem with traditional optimization methods due to the multimodality of the solution region. In this case, an ACO model for optimum operation of pumping unit is proposed and the solution method by ants searching is presented by rationally setting the object function and constrained conditions. A weighted directed graph was constructed and feasible solutions may be found by iteratively searching of artificial ants, and then the optimal solution can be obtained by applying the rule of state transition and the pheromone updating. An example calculation was conducted and the minimum cost was found as 4.9979. The result of ant colony algorithm was compared with the result from dynamic programming or evolutionary solving method in commercial software under the same discrete condition. The result of ACO is better and the computing time is shorter which indicates that ACO algorithm can provide a high application value to the field of optimal operation of pumping stations and related fields.

  1. Operational Risk Defined Through a Complex Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-26

    analysis . But the report noted that “CJTF-HOA’s presence in Africa offers benefits such as its ability to respond to contingencies, provide forces for...18 Analysis ...Development JOPP Joint Operations Planning Process NGO Non-Governmental Organization PRC Profitable Risk Control SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses

  2. Important improvement of utilization the available geological reserves of the South mining district deposit in Majdanpek in the new defined optimum contour of the open pit using the Whittle and Gemcom softwares

    OpenAIRE

    Kržanović, Daniel; Žikić, Miodrag; Pantović, Radoje

    2012-01-01

    A significant increase in copper prices on the World Metal Exchange, whose lower limit in the long term will not be under $ 6,000 per ton of cathode copper, and reduction the operating costs of ore mining by introduction the high capacity mining equipment in the production process, requires a new consideration of the open pit South Mining District Majdanpek and defining the new final (optimum) limit of mining for the given techno economic parameters. Using the modern software tools for strate...

  3. Optimum pressure for total-reflux operated thermal diffusion column for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Ichiro; Makino, Hitoshi; Kanagawa, Akira

    1990-01-01

    A formula for prediction of the optimum operating pressure P opt of the thermal diffusion columns at total reflux is derived based on the approximate formulae for the column constants which can be evaluated analytically. The formula is expressed explicitly in terms of (1) physical properties of gases to be separated, (2) ratio of radii between hot wire and cold wall of the column, and (3) the ratio of the temperature difference to the cold wall temperature. The result is compared with experimental data; (1) binary monatomic gas systems, (2) multicomponent monatomic gas systems, (3) isotopically substituted polyatomic systems, (4) systems of low atomic or molecular weight, and (5) mixtures of unlike gases; mainly obtained by Rutherford and coworkers. Although the formula is based on the rather rough approximation for the column constants, the optimum pressures predicted by the present formula are in successfully good agreement with the experimental data even for the systems of low atomic or molecular weight and that of mixtures of unlike gases. (author)

  4. An ergonomic study of the optimum operating table height for laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquer, R; Smith, W D; Davis, S

    2002-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery requires the use of longer instruments than open surgery, thus changing the relation between the height of the surgeon's hands and the desirable height of the operating room table. The optimum height of the operating room table for laparoscopic surgery is investigated in this study. Twenty-one surgeons performed a two-handed, one-fourth circle cutting task using a laparoscopic video system and laparoscopic instruments positioned at five instrument handle heights relative to subjects' elbow height (-20, -10, 0, +10, and +20 cm) by adjusting the height of the trainer box. Subjects rated the difficulty and discomfort experienced during each task on a visual analog scale. Skin conductance (SC) was measured in Micromhos via paired surface electrodes placed near the ulnar edge of the palm of the right (cutting) hand. The mean electromyographic (EMG) signal from the right deltoid and trapezius muscles was measured. Arm orientation was measured in three dimensions using a magnetometer/accelerometer. Signals were acquired using analog circuitry and digitally sampled using a National Instruments DAQCard 700 connected to a Macintosh PowerBook 5300c running LabVIEW software. Statistical analysis was carried out by analysis of variance and post hoc testing. Statistically significant changes were found in the subjective rating of discomfort (p operating room tables may be required to meet these ergonomic guidelines.

  5. Defining an optimum pumping-time requirement for sampling ground-water wells on the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharnhorst, N.L.

    1982-04-01

    The objective was to determine the optimum time period necessary to pump water from a well before a representative sample of the ground water can be obtained. It was assumed that a representative sample has been collected if the concentration of chemical parameters is the same in a number of samples taken consecutively, so that the concentration of parameters does not vary with time of collection. Ground-water samples used in this project were obtained by pumping selected wells on the Hanford Site. At each well, samples were taken at two minute intervals, and on each sample various chemical analyses were performed. Samples were checked for pH, sulfate, iron, specific conductivity, chloride, nitrate and alkalinity. The data showed that pH, alkalinity, sulfate and specific conductivity levels stabilized almost immediately after pumping of the well began. In many wells, the chloride and nitrate levels were unstable throughout the 38-minute sampling period. Iron levels, however, did not behave in either fashion. The concentration of iron in the samples was high when pumping began but dropped rapidly as pumping continued. The best explanation for this is that iron is flushed from the sides of the casing into the well when pumping begins. After several minutes of pumping, most of the dissolved iron is washed from the well casing and the iron concentration reaches a stable plateau representative of the iron concentration in the ground water.Since iron concentration takes longest to stabilize, the optimum pumping time for a well is based on the iron stabilization time for that well

  6. Determining the optimum process parameter for grinding operations using robust process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neseli, Suley Man; Asilturk, Ilhan; Celik, Levent [Univ. of Selcuk, Konya (Turkmenistan)

    2012-11-15

    We applied combined response surface methodology (RSM) and Taguchi methodology (TM) to determine optimum parameters for minimum surface roughness (Ra) and vibration (Vb) in external cylindrical grinding. First, an experiment was conducted in a CNC cylindrical grinding machine. The TM using L{sup 27} orthogonal array was applied to the design of the experiment. The three input parameters were workpiece revolution, feed rate and depth of cut; the outputs were vibrations and surface roughness. Second, to minimize wheel vibration and surface roughness, two optimized models were developed using computer aided single objective optimization. The experimental and statistical results revealed that the most significant grinding parameter for surface roughness and vibration is workpiece revolution followed by the depth of cut. The predicted values and measured values were fairly close, which indicates 2 ( 94.99 R{sup 2Ra}=and 2 92.73) R{sup 2Vb}=that the developed models can be effectively used to predict surface roughness and vibration in the grinding. The established model for determination of optimal operating conditions shows that a hybrid approach can lead to success of a robust process.

  7. Determining the optimum process parameter for grinding operations using robust process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neseli, Suley Man; Asilturk, Ilhan; Celik, Levent

    2012-01-01

    We applied combined response surface methodology (RSM) and Taguchi methodology (TM) to determine optimum parameters for minimum surface roughness (Ra) and vibration (Vb) in external cylindrical grinding. First, an experiment was conducted in a CNC cylindrical grinding machine. The TM using L 27 orthogonal array was applied to the design of the experiment. The three input parameters were workpiece revolution, feed rate and depth of cut; the outputs were vibrations and surface roughness. Second, to minimize wheel vibration and surface roughness, two optimized models were developed using computer aided single objective optimization. The experimental and statistical results revealed that the most significant grinding parameter for surface roughness and vibration is workpiece revolution followed by the depth of cut. The predicted values and measured values were fairly close, which indicates 2 ( 94.99 R 2Ra =and 2 92.73) R 2Vb =that the developed models can be effectively used to predict surface roughness and vibration in the grinding. The established model for determination of optimal operating conditions shows that a hybrid approach can lead to success of a robust process

  8. Determination of an optimum reactor coolant system average temperature within the licensed operating window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaulez, F.; Basic, I.; Vrbanic, I.

    2003-01-01

    The Krsko modernization power uprate analyses have been performed in such a way as to cover plant operation in a range of average reactor coolant temperatures (Tavg) of 301.7 deg C to 307.4 deg C, with steam generator tube plugging levels of up to 5%. The upper bound is temporarily restricted to 305.7 deg C, as long as Zirc-4 fuel is present in the core. (It is, however,acceptable to operate at 307.4 deg C with a few Zirc-4 assemblies, if meeting certain conditionsand subjected to a corrosion and rod internal pressure evaluation in the frame of the cyclespecificnuclear core design.) The Tavg optimization method takes into account two effects, that are opposed to each other: the impact of steam pressure on the electrical power output versus the impact of Tavg on the cost of reactor fuel. The positive economical impact of a Tavg increase through the increase in MWe output is around 6 to 8 times higher than the corresponding negative impact on the fuel cost. From this perspective, it is desirable to have Tavg as high as possible. This statement is not affected by a change in the relationship between steam pressure and Tavg level. However, there are also other considerations intervening in the definition of the optimum. This paper discusses the procedure for selection of optimal Tavg for the forthcoming cycle in relation to the impacts of change in Tavg level and/or variations of the steam pressure versus Tavg relationship. (author)

  9. Optimum thermal sizing and operating conditions for once through steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kunwoo; Ju, Kyongin; Im, Inyoung; Kim, Eunkee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company., Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The steam generator is designed to be optimized so as to remove heat and to produce steam vapor. Because of its importance, theoretical and experimental researches have been performed on forced convection boiling heat transfer. The purpose of this study is to predict the thermal behavior and to perform optimum thermal sizing of once through steam generator. To estimate the tube thermal sizing and operating conditions of the steam generator, the analytical modeling is employed on the basis of the empirical correlation equations and theory. The optimized algorithm model, Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA)-II, uses for this analysis. This research is focused on the design of in-vessel steam generator. An one dimensional analysis code is developed to evaluate previous researches and to optimize steam generator design parameters. The results of one-dimensional analysis need to be verified with experimental data. Goals of multi-objective optimization are to minimize tube length, pressure drop and tube number. Feedwater flow rate up to 115.425kg/s is selected so as to have margin of feedwater temperature 20 ..deg. C. For the design of 200MWth once through steam generator, it is evaluated that the tube length shall be over 12.0m for the number of tubes, 2500ea, and the length of the tube shall be over 8.0m for the number of tubes, 4500ea. The parallel coordinates chart can be provided to determine the optimal combination of number of tube, pressure drop, tube diameter and length.

  10. An analysis of the optimum operating point for a switched reluctance motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, S.-H.; Tsai, M.-C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple method to determine the optimum exciting current, for high output torque in switched reluctance motors (SRMs). By modelling the flux-linkage with one curve at the unaligned position, and with two curves at the aligned position, the maximum increment of the co-energy and torque can be predicted accurately, and the optimum exciting current can also be determined. This easily implemented method is aimed at providing an index for determining the SRM exciting current. This will be useful for SRM designers in deciding the rated current and in obtaining the maximum motor efficiency

  11. Use of plant operating history to define transient loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, K.K.

    1996-01-01

    Fatigue and crack growth analyses of components subjected to transient loads have been under continuous development during the recent past to include effects of environment on the components. The accuracy of the evaluation method on the predicted reliability of the components in the operating environment has become a focus of attention. Methods have integrated available material/component test data to improve evaluation techniques. However, in the area of definition of thermal transient loads the analyst still has to remain conservative, because no realistic guidelines have been developed to define thermal transients and their sequences. Fatigue re-evaluations of components are becoming increasingly necessary in operating plants as they age due to two reasons: (1) Components show age related degradation and cannot be repaired/replaced due to economic/logistic reasons. (2) Components experience transient conditions which were not considered in the original design. In either case, the evaluation of remaining life of components involves definition of transients and their sequence from the time the component was put in service until the end of life. As a common practice, initial plant design transients are used in a conservative definition of sequences to obtain results unrealistic for the situation, which sometimes leads to inaccurate estimate of the remaining life of components. The objective of this paper is to use plant operating history and plant monitoring data to provide procedures and techniques to define realistic transients for evaluation

  12. The optimum operating conditions of the phased double-rotor facility at the ET-RR-1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naguib, K.; Habib, N.; Wahba, M.; Kilany, M.; Adib, M. [National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt). Reactor and Neutron Physics Dept.

    1997-02-07

    A pulsed neutron polyenergetic thermal beam at ET-RR-1 is produced by a phased double-rotor facility. One of the rotors has two diametrically opposite curved slots, while the second is designed to operate as a rotating collimator. The dimensions of the phased rotating collimator are selected to match the curved slot rotor. The calculated collimator transmissions at different operating conditions are found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones. The optimum operating conditions of the double-rotor facility are deduced. The calculations were carried out using a computer program RCOL. The RCOL was designed in FORTRAN-77 to operate on PCs. (author).

  13. The optimum operating conditions of the phased double-rotor facility at the ET-RR-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, K.; Habib, N.; Wahba, M.; Kilany, M.; Adib, M.

    1997-01-01

    A pulsed neutron polyenergetic thermal beam at ET-RR-1 is produced by a phased double-rotor facility. One of the rotors has two diametrically opposite curved slots, while the second is designed to operate as a rotating collimator. The dimensions of the phased rotating collimator are selected to match the curved slot rotor. The calculated collimator transmissions at different operating conditions are found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones. The optimum operating conditions of the double-rotor facility are deduced. The calculations were carried out using a computer program RCOL. The RCOL was designed in FORTRAN-77 to operate on PCs. (author)

  14. Homogenization of variational inequalities and equations defined by pseudomonotone operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrakov, G V

    2008-01-01

    Results on the convergence of sequences of solutions of non-linear equations and variational inequalities for obstacle problems are proved. The variational inequalities and equations are defined by a non-linear, pseudomonotone operator of the second order with periodic, rapidly oscillating coefficients and by sequences of functions characterizing the obstacles and the boundary conditions. Two-scale and macroscale (homogenized) limiting problems for such variational inequalities and equations are obtained. Results on the relationship between solutions of these limiting problems are established and sufficient conditions for the uniqueness of solutions are presented. Bibliography: 25 titles

  15. Federated software defined network operations for LHC experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongkyun; Byeon, Okhwan; Cho, Kihyeon

    2013-09-01

    The most well-known high-energy physics collaboration, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is based on e-Science, has been facing several challenges presented by its extraordinary instruments in terms of the generation, distribution, and analysis of large amounts of scientific data. Currently, data distribution issues are being resolved by adopting an advanced Internet technology called software defined networking (SDN). Stability of the SDN operations and management is demanded to keep the federated LHC data distribution networks reliable. Therefore, in this paper, an SDN operation architecture based on the distributed virtual network operations center (DvNOC) is proposed to enable LHC researchers to assume full control of their own global end-to-end data dissemination. This may achieve an enhanced data delivery performance based on data traffic offloading with delay variation. The evaluation results indicate that the overall end-to-end data delivery performance can be improved over multi-domain SDN environments based on the proposed federated SDN/DvNOC operation framework.

  16. An analytical method for defining the pump`s power optimum of a water-to-water heat pump heating system using COP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyers Jozsef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the energy efficiency of the heat pump and the complete heat pump heating system. Essentially, the maximum of the coefficient of performance of the heat pump and the heat pump heating system are investigated and determined by applying a new analytical optimization procedure. The analyzed physical system consists of the water-to-water heat pump, circulation and well pump. In the analytical optimization procedure the "first derivative equal to zero" mathematical method is applied. The objective function is the coefficient of performance of the heat pump, and the heat pump heating system. By using the analytical optimization procedure and the objective function, as the result, the local and the total energy optimum conditions with respect to the mass flow rate of hot and cold water i. e. the power of circulation or well pump are defined.

  17. Increased power generation from primary sludge by a submersible microbial fuel cell and optimum operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vologni, Valentina; Kakarla, Ramesh; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have received attention as a promising renewable energy technology for waste treatment and energy recovery. We tested a submersible MFC with an innovative design capable of generating a stable voltage of 0.250 ± 0.008 V (with a fixed 470 Ω resistor) directly from prima...... prolonged the current generation and increased the power density by 7 and 1.5 times, respectively, in comparison with raw primary sludge. These findings suggest that energy recovery from primary sludge can be maximized using an advanced MFC system with optimum conditions....

  18. Use of National Burden to Define Operative Emergency General Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John W; Olufajo, Olubode A; Brat, Gabriel A; Rose, John A; Zogg, Cheryl K; Haider, Adil H; Salim, Ali; Havens, Joaquim M

    2016-06-15

    Emergency general surgery (EGS) represents 11% of surgical admissions and 50% of surgical mortality in the United States. However, there is currently no established definition of the EGS procedures. To define a set of procedures accounting for at least 80% of the national burden of operative EGS. A retrospective review was conducted using data from the 2008-2011 National Inpatient Sample. Adults (age, ≥18 years) with primary EGS diagnoses consistent with the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma definition, admitted urgently or emergently, who underwent an operative procedure within 2 days of admission were included in the analyses. Procedures were ranked to account for national mortality and complication burden. Among ranked procedures, contributions to total EGS frequency, mortality, and hospital costs were assessed. The data query and analysis were performed between November 15, 2015, and February 16, 2016. Overall procedure frequency, in-hospital mortality, major complications, and inpatient costs calculated per 3-digit International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes. The study identified 421 476 patient encounters associated with operative EGS, weighted to represent 2.1 million nationally over the 4-year study period. The overall mortality rate was 1.23% (95% CI, 1.18%-1.28%), the complication rate was 15.0% (95% CI, 14.6%-15.3%), and mean cost per admission was $13 241 (95% CI, $12 957-$13 525). After ranking the 35 procedure groups by contribution to EGS mortality and morbidity burden, a final set of 7 operative EGS procedures were identified, which collectively accounted for 80.0% of procedures, 80.3% of deaths, 78.9% of complications, and 80.2% of inpatient costs nationwide. These 7 procedures included partial colectomy, small-bowel resection, cholecystectomy, operative management of peptic ulcer disease, lysis of peritoneal adhesions, appendectomy, and laparotomy. Only 7 procedures account

  19. Optimum operation of a direct-reading spectrometer with excitation by a 5kW inductively coupled plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.L.; Watson, A.E.; Russell, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    An examination was made of the optimum operating conditions, degree of interference from sodium ionization, and spectral interferences in a simultaneous 40-channel spectrometer having a data-reduction system controlled by a microprocessor. Excitation is provided by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source of medium power, i.e., with a nominal maximum of 5kW. The optimum conditions were ascertained for atomic lines, for ionic lines, and for compromise multi-element analysis in aqueous solutions and in sodium solutions at concentrations up to 30 g/l, the detection limits for 37 elements being determined. It was found that an increase of approximately 30 per cent in the power input under the optimum conditions for multi-element operation reduced the interference from ionization caused by up to 30 g of sodium per litre to less than 5 per cent relative. It was found that there is a correlation between the extent of the interference from ionization and the ionization potential of an element. Although the great majority of the lines in the spectral array were generally free of significant spectral overlap, several serious spectral interferences were observed and were determined quantitatively

  20. Problem of determining optimum geological and technical measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, G N; Roste, Z A; Salimzhanov, E S

    1968-01-01

    This article is concerned with the mathematical simulation of oilfield operation, particularly the use of linear programing to determine optimum conditions for exploitation of a field. The basic approach is to define the field operation by a series of equations, apply boundary conditions and through an iterative computer technique find optimum operating conditions. Application of the method to Tuimazy field is illustrated.

  1. Methodology to Define Delivery Accuracy Under Current Day ATC Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shivanjli; Robinson, John E., III

    2015-01-01

    In order to enable arrival management concepts and solutions in a NextGen environment, ground- based sequencing and scheduling functions have been developed to support metering operations in the National Airspace System. These sequencing and scheduling algorithms as well as tools are designed to aid air traffic controllers in developing an overall arrival strategy. The ground systems being developed will support the management of aircraft to their Scheduled Times of Arrival (STAs) at flow-constrained meter points. This paper presents a methodology for determining the undelayed delivery accuracy for current day air traffic control operations. This new method analyzes the undelayed delivery accuracy at meter points in order to understand changes of desired flow rates as well as enabling definition of metrics that will allow near-future ground automation tools to successfully achieve desired separation at the meter points. This enables aircraft to meet their STAs while performing high precision arrivals. The research presents a possible implementation that would allow delivery performance of current tools to be estimated and delivery accuracy requirements for future tools to be defined, which allows analysis of Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) accuracy for Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) and the FAA's Traffic Management Advisor (TMA). TMA is a deployed system that generates scheduled time-of-arrival constraints for en- route air traffic controllers in the US. This new method of automated analysis provides a repeatable evaluation of the delay metrics for current day traffic, new releases of TMA, implementation of different tools, and across different airspace environments. This method utilizes a wide set of data from the Operational TMA-TBFM Repository (OTTR) system, which processes raw data collected by the FAA from operational TMA systems at all ARTCCs in the nation. The OTTR system generates daily reports concerning ATC status, intent and actions. Due to its

  2. Optimum Operating Room Environment for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Sara; Luo, James N; Gilbert, Jack; Zaborina, Olga; Alverdy, John C

    Surgical site infections (SSI), whether they be incisional or deep, can entail major morbidity and death to patients and additional cost to the healthcare system. A significant amount of effort has gone into optimizing the surgical patient and the operating room environment to reduce SSI. Relevant guidelines and literature were reviewed. The modern practice of surgical antisepsis involves the employment of strict sterile techniques inside the operating room. Extensive guidelines are available regarding the proper operating room antisepsis as well as pre-operative preparation. The use of pre-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis has become increasingly prevalent, which also presents the challenge of opportunistic and nosocomial infections. Ongoing investigative efforts have brought about a greater appreciation of the surgical patient's endogenous microflora, use of non-bactericidal small molecules, and pre-operative microbial screening. Systematic protocols exist for optimizing the surgical sterility of the operating room to prevent SSIs. Ongoing research efforts aim to improve the precision of peri-operative antisepsis measures and personalize these measures to tailor the patient's unique microbial environment.

  3. Emittance measurements for optimum operation of the J-PARC RF-driven H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, A., E-mail: akira.ueno@j-parc.jp; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Yamazaki, S.; Oguri, H. [J-PARC Center, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-04-08

    In order to satisfy the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) second stage requirements of an H{sup −} ion beam of 60mA within normalized emittances of 1.5πmm•mrad both horizontally and vertically, a flat top beam duty factor of 1.25% (500μs×25Hz) and a life-time of longer than 1month, the J-PARC cesiated RF-driven H{sup −} ion source was developed by using an internal-antenna developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The transverse emittances of the source were measured with various conditions to find out the optimum operation conditions minimizing the horizontal and vertical rms normalized emittances. The transverse emittances were most effectively reduced by operating the source with the plasma electrode temperature lower than 70°C. The optimum value of the cesium (Cs) density around the beam hole of the plasma electrode seems to be proportional to the plasma electrode temperature. The fine control of the Cs density is indispensable, since the emittances seem to increase proportionally to the excessiveness of the Cs density. Furthermore, the source should be operated with the Cs density beyond a threshold value, since the plasma meniscus shape and the ellipse parameters of the transverse emittances seem to be changed step-function-likely on the threshold Cs value.

  4. Defining Criteria for Handover to Civilian Officials in Relief Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bessler, John

    2008-01-01

    .... Department of Defense Directive (DoDD) 3000.05 directs that the military shall be prepared to accomplish 'all tasks necessary to establish or maintain order when civilians are unable to do so,' but the metrics which define success...

  5. Operation Mode and Optimum Design of China's Agricultural Modern Logistics System

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Shi-bo

    2012-01-01

    Using comparative analysis and logical reasoning methods, in combination with traditional logistics theory and practice, and on the basis of objective demand of modern agricultural development for logistics service, we analyze features of logistics function. Besides, we discuss functional elements and service contents of agricultural modern logistics. In addition, we explore innovation model of agricultural modern logistics and systematized operation of supply chain. Finally, it is concluded ...

  6. Noise and optimum filtering in spectrometers with semiconductor detectors operating at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, W.; Korbel, K.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of the excess noise in the semiconductor detectors operating at the elevated temperature is discussed. Under the assumption of a conventional CR-RC type filtration the variancy of the noise output is determined. The new term ''second noise-corner time constant'' was proposed. The expression for relative signal-to-noise ratio as the dependence on the noise as well as circuits time constants was derived. It was also presented in a graphical form. 12 refs., 6 figs. (author)

  7. Method for determining the optimum mode of operation of the chemical water regime in the water-steam-circuit of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfeldt, P.; Reisner, H.; Hartmann, G.; Kulicke, P.

    1988-01-01

    The method aims at increasing the lifetime of secondary coolant circuit components in nuclear power plants through the determination of the optimum mode of operation of the chemical water regime by help of radioisotopes

  8. Type 1,1-operators defined by vanishing frequency modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a general definition of pseudo-differential operators of type 1,1; the definition is shown to be the largest one that is both compatible with negliible operators and stable under vanishing frequency modulation. Elaborating counter-examples of Ching, Hörmander and Parenti...

  9. Type 1,1-operators defined by vanishing frequency modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Jon

    This paper presents a general definition of pseudo-differential operators of type 1,1; the definition is shown to be the largest one that is both compatible with negligible operators and stable under vanishing frequency modulation. Elaborating counter-examples of Ching andHörmander, type 1...

  10. Optimum Design and Operation of an HVAC Cooling Tower for Energy and Water Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente García Cutillas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption increase in the last few years has contributed to developing energy efficiency policies in many countries, the main goal of which is decreasing CO 2 emissions. One of the reasons for this increment has been caused by the use of air conditioning systems due to new comfort standards. In that regard, cooling towers and evaporative condensers are presented as efficient devices that operate with low-level water temperature. Moreover, the energy consumption and the cost of the equipment are lower than other systems like air condensers at the same operation conditions. This work models an air conditioning system in TRNSYS software, the main elements if which are a cooling tower, a water-water chiller and a reference building. The cooling tower model is validated using experimental data in a pilot plant. The main objective is to implement an optimizing control strategy in order to reduce both energy and water consumption. Furthermore a comparison between three typical methods of capacity control is carried out. Additionally, different cooling tower configurations are assessed, involving six drift eliminators and two water distribution systems. Results show the influence of optimizing the control strategy and cooling tower configuration, with a maximum energy savings of 10.8% per story and a reduction of 4.8% in water consumption.

  11. A case study on optimum tip speed ratio and pitch angle laws for wind turbine rotors operating in yawed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuerva-Tejero, A; Lopez-Garcia, O; González-Meruelo, F; Marangoni, D

    2014-01-01

    The values of the tip speed ratio and blade pitch angle that yield maximum power coefficient are calculated for a rotor operating in yawed conditions. In a first step, the power coefficient is determined using a model based on the blade element momentum theory (BEMT) which includes a Prandtl-Glauert root-tip losses correction, a non-uniform model for the axial and tangential induction factors, and a model of the rotational augmentation effects. The BEMT model is validated with the experimental data from the NREL-UAE. The maximum values of the power coefficient are determined for different yaw angles and the corresponding values of the tip speed ratio and blade control angle are obtained. The maximum power coefficient using these optimum laws is compared to the maximum power coefficient using the optimum laws of the non-yawed case and it is shown that there is a gain in the power coefficient. For the case study presented in this paper it has been found that for yaw angles of 30° about 10% of the power coefficient can be recovered

  12. A case study on optimum tip speed ratio and pitch angle laws for wind turbine rotors operating in yawed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuerva-Tejero, A.; Lopez-Garcia, O.; Marangoni, D.; González-Meruelo, F.

    2014-12-01

    The values of the tip speed ratio and blade pitch angle that yield maximum power coefficient are calculated for a rotor operating in yawed conditions. In a first step, the power coefficient is determined using a model based on the blade element momentum theory (BEMT) which includes a Prandtl-Glauert root-tip losses correction, a non-uniform model for the axial and tangential induction factors, and a model of the rotational augmentation effects. The BEMT model is validated with the experimental data from the NREL-UAE. The maximum values of the power coefficient are determined for different yaw angles and the corresponding values of the tip speed ratio and blade control angle are obtained. The maximum power coefficient using these optimum laws is compared to the maximum power coefficient using the optimum laws of the non-yawed case and it is shown that there is a gain in the power coefficient. For the case study presented in this paper it has been found that for yaw angles of 30° about 10% of the power coefficient can be recovered.

  13. Optimum pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis value after operation for patients with adult degenerative scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang-Yao; Zhang, Xi-Nuo; Hai, Yong

    2017-07-01

    Schwab classification for adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) concluded that health-related quality of life was closely related to curve type and three sagittal modifiers. It was suggested that pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis value (PI-LL) should be corrected within -10°~+10°. However, recent studies also indicated that ideal clinical outcomes could also be achieved in patients without the ideal PI-LL mentioned above. This study evaluated the relation between the clinical outcomes and the PI-LL of Chinese patients with ADS who received long posterior internal fixation and fusion. This was a single-center retrospective comparative study of patients treated by long posterior internal fixation and fusion in our hospital between 2010 and 2014. Inclusion criteria were age >45 years at the time of surgery, Cobb angle of lumbar curves ≥10°, long posterior internal fixation and fusion ≥least 3 motion segments, follow-up ≥2 years, complete preoperative and postoperative radiographic data, and functional evaluation results. Exclusion criteria were history of previous lumbar spine surgery, other kinds of scoliosis, history of severe spinal trauma, spinal tumor, ankylosing spondylitis, and spinal tuberculosis. Seventy-four patients were enrolled in this study. Operative parameters included intraoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, length of hospital stay, number of fusion levels, and decompression. The radiological measurements included Cobb angle of the curves and PI-LL. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analog scale, and Lumbar Stiffness Disability Index (LSDI). In addition, the complications of surgery were also collected. One-way analysis of variance, Student t test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Pearson chi-square test, and curve estimation were calculated for variables. All the patients were divided into Group 1 (long instrumentation and fusion to L5) and Group 2 (long

  14. Defining operational taxonomic units using DNA barcode data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, Mark; Mann, Jenna; Chapman, Tom; Thomas, Fran; Whitton, Claire; Floyd, Robin; Abebe, Eyualem

    2005-10-29

    The scale of diversity of life on this planet is a significant challenge for any scientific programme hoping to produce a complete catalogue, whatever means is used. For DNA barcoding studies, this difficulty is compounded by the realization that any chosen barcode sequence is not the gene 'for' speciation and that taxa have evolutionary histories. How are we to disentangle the confounding effects of reticulate population genetic processes? Using the DNA barcode data from meiofaunal surveys, here we discuss the benefits of treating the taxa defined by barcodes without reference to their correspondence to 'species', and suggest that using this non-idealist approach facilitates access to taxon groups that are not accessible to other methods of enumeration and classification. Major issues remain, in particular the methodologies for taxon discrimination in DNA barcode data.

  15. An Operational Framework for Defining and Monitoring Forest Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Thompson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest degradation is broadly defined as a reduction in the capacity of a forest to produce ecosystem services such as carbon storage and wood products as a result of anthropogenic and environmental changes. The main causes of degradation include unsustainable logging, agriculture, invasive species, fire, fuelwood gathering, and livestock grazing. Forest degradation is widespread and has become an important consideration in global policy processes that deal with biodiversity, climate change, and forest management. There is, however, no generally recognized way to identify a degraded forest because perceptions of forest degradation vary depending on the cause, the particular goods or services of interest, and the temporal and spatial scales considered. Here, we suggest that there are types of forest degradation that produce a continuum of decline in provision of ecosystem services, from those in primary forests through various forms of managed forests to deforestation. Forest degradation must be measured against a desired baseline condition, and the types of degradation can be represented using five criteria that relate to the drivers of degradation, loss of ecosystem services and sustainable management, including: productivity, biodiversity, unusual disturbances, protective functions, and carbon storage. These criteria are not meant to be equivalent and some might be considered more important than others, depending on the local forest management objectives. We propose a minimum subset of seven indicators for the five criteria that should be assessed to determine forest degradation under a sustainable ecosystem management regime. The indicators can be remotely sensed (although improving calibration requires ground work and aggregated from stand to management unit or landscape levels and ultimately to sub-national and national scales.

  16. The effect of noble metal additives on the optimum operating temperature of SnO2 gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad-Yousefi, S.; Rahbarpour, S.; Ghafoorifard, H.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of Pd and Au additives on gas sensing properties of SnO2 was investigated. SnO2 pallets were fabricated and sintered at 900 °C for 90 minutes. Several nanometer layers of Pd and Au were deposited on separate SnO2 pallets and were intentionally dispersed into the SnO2 pallets by long heat treatment (400 °C for 1 Day). All metal loaded samples showed significant enhancement in response level and optimum operating temperature compare to pure SnO2 gas sensors. The amount of enhancement was strongly dependent on the material and the thickness of deposited metal layer. Studying butanol response showed that increasing the thickness of metal causes the response level to increase. Further thickness increase caused contrary effect and decreased the performance of sensors. Best results were achieved at 10 nm-thick Au and 7 nm-thick Pd. Generally, Pd-SnO2 samples demonstrated better performance than Au-SnO2 ones, however, Au-SnO2 samples were proved to be good candidate to sense reducing gases with lower hydrogen atoms in their formula. Given experimental results were also good evidence of chemical activity of gold and simply confirms the relation between chemical activity and gold particle size. Results were qualitatively described by gas diffusion theory and surface reactions take place on metal particles.The first section in your paper

  17. Determining the Optimum Exposure and Recovery Periods for Efficient Operation of a QCM Based Elemental Mercury Vapor Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Mohibul Kabir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mass based transducers such as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM have gained huge interest as potential sensors for online detection of elemental mercury (Hg0 vapor from anthropogenic sources due to their high portability and robust nature enabling them to withstand harsh industrial environments. In this study, we determined the optimal Hg0 exposure and recovery times of a QCM based sensor for ensuring its efficient operation while monitoring low concentrations of Hg0 vapor (<400 ppbv. The developed sensor was based on an AT-cut quartz substrate and utilized two gold (Au films on either side of the substrate which functions as the electrodes and selective layer simultaneously. Given the temporal response mechanisms associated with mass based mercury sensors, the experiments involved the variation of Hg0 vapor exposure periods while keeping the recovery time constant following each exposure and vice versa. The results indicated that an optimum exposure and recovery periods of 30 and 90 minutes, respectively, can be utilized to acquire the highest response magnitudes and recovery rate towards a certain concentration of Hg0 vapor whilst keeping the time it takes to report an accurate reading by the sensor to a minimum level as required in real-world applications.

  18. OPTIMUM PROSESSENTRERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Adendorff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The paper derives an expression for optimum process centreing for a given design specification and spoilage and/or rework costs.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die problem Van prosessentrering vir n gegewe ontwerpspesifikasie en herwerk- en/of skrootkoste word behandel.

  19. The optimum operating conditions of the phased double-rotor facility at the et-R R-1 reactor. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naguib, K; Habib, N; Kilany, M; Adib, M [Reactor and Neutron Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, AEA., Cairo (Egypt); Wahba, M [Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The pulsed neutron polyenergetic thermal beam at ET-R R-1 is produced by a phased double-rotor facility. One of the rotors has two diametrically opposite curved slots, while the second is designed to operate as a rotating collimator, the dimensions of the phased rotating collimator are selected to match the curved slot rotor. The calculated collimator transmissions at different operating conditions are found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones. The optimum operating conditions of double-rotor facility are deduced. The calculations were carried out using a computer programme RCOL. The RCOL was designed in Fortran-77 to operate on PCs. 6 figs.

  20. The optimum operating conditions of the phased double-rotor facility at the et-R R-1 reactor. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, K.; Habib, N.; Kilany, M.; Adib, M.; Wahba, M.

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed neutron polyenergetic thermal beam at ET-R R-1 is produced by a phased double-rotor facility. One of the rotors has two diametrically opposite curved slots, while the second is designed to operate as a rotating collimator, the dimensions of the phased rotating collimator are selected to match the curved slot rotor. The calculated collimator transmissions at different operating conditions are found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones. The optimum operating conditions of double-rotor facility are deduced. The calculations were carried out using a computer programme RCOL. The RCOL was designed in Fortran-77 to operate on PCs. 6 figs

  1. Optimum burnup of BAEC TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyric, Zoairia Idris; Mahmood, Mohammad Sayem; Motalab, Mohammad Abdul; Khan, Jahirul Haque

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optimum loading scheme for BAEC TRIGA core is out-to-in loading with 10 fuels/cycle starting with 5 for the first reload. ► The discharge burnup ranges from 17% to 24% of U235 per fuel element for full power (3 MW) operation. ► Optimum extension of operating core life is 100 MWD per reload cycle. - Abstract: The TRIGA Mark II research reactor of BAEC (Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission) has been operating since 1986 without any reshuffling or reloading yet. Optimum fuel burnup strategy has been investigated for the present BAEC TRIGA core, where three out-to-in loading schemes have been inspected in terms of core life extension, burnup economy and safety. In considering different schemes of fuel loading, optimization has been searched by only varying the number of fuels discharged and loaded. A cost function has been defined and evaluated based on the calculated core life and fuel load and discharge. The optimum loading scheme has been identified for the TRIGA core, the outside-to-inside fuel loading with ten fuels for each cycle starting with five fuels for the first reload. The discharge burnup has been found ranging from 17% to 24% of U235 per fuel element and optimum extension of core operating life is 100 MWD for each loading cycle. This study will contribute to the in-core fuel management of TRIGA reactor

  2. Some properties for integro-differential operator defined by a fractional formal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulnaby, Zainab E; Ibrahim, Rabha W; Kılıçman, Adem

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the study of the fractional formal (operators, polynomials and classes of special functions) has been increased. This study not only in mathematics but extended to another topics. In this effort, we investigate a generalized integro-differential operator [Formula: see text] defined by a fractional formal (fractional differential operator) and study some its geometric properties by employing it in new subclasses of analytic univalent functions.

  3. Requirements on fuel management for a safe and optimum operation of the German research reactor FRJ-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabbi, R.; Bormann, H.J.; Wolters, J.

    1997-01-01

    In case of a coarse control arm (CCAs) at FRJ-2, reactivity is added to the reactor. The amount of this reactivity depends on the efficiency of the individual CCAs which has been measured as 180% of the average reactivity of the six arms for the central arm. For this design basis accident, it is required that only 4 out of 5 residual arms must be capable of shutting down the reactor. This minimum shutdown reactivity is provided by an optimum fuel management including an experimental reactivity determination. Calculation of fuel burnup and material densities is performed by the depletion code SUSAN, which has been verified by separate calculations using ORIGEN. The difference in the reactivity values (between calculation and measurement) is mainly a consequence of the limitation of the inverse kinetic method, which is not capable of covering the effects of the flux deformation and interaction of the CCAs and core in the process of reactor scram. (author)

  4. Defining the Intrinsic Cardiac Risks of Operations to Improve Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason B; Liu, Yaoming; Cohen, Mark E; Ko, Clifford Y; Sweitzer, Bobbie J

    2018-02-01

    Current preoperative cardiac risk stratification practices group operations into broad categories, which might inadequately consider the intrinsic cardiac risks of individual operations. We sought to define the intrinsic cardiac risks of individual operations and to demonstrate how grouping operations might lead to imprecise estimates of perioperative cardiac risk. Elective operations (based on Common Procedural Terminology codes) performed from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015 at hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were studied. A composite measure of perioperative adverse cardiac events was defined as either cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation or acute myocardial infarction. Operations' intrinsic cardiac risks were derived from mixed-effects models while controlling for patient mix. Resultant risks were sorted into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk categories, and the most commonly performed operations within each category were identified. Intrinsic operative risks were also examined using a representative grouping of operations to portray within-group variation. Sixty-six low, 30 intermediate, and 106 high intrinsic cardiac risk operations were identified. Excisional breast biopsy had the lowest intrinsic cardiac risk (overall rate, 0.01%; odds ratio, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.25) relative to the average, whereas aorto-bifemoral bypass grafting had the highest (overall rate, 4.1%; odds ratio, 6.61; 95% CI, 5.54 to 7.90). There was wide variation in the intrinsic cardiac risks of operations within the representative grouping (median odds ratio, 1.40; interquartile range, 0.88 to 2.17). A continuum of intrinsic cardiac risk exists among operations. Grouping operations into broad categories inadequately accounts for the intrinsic cardiac risk of individual operations.

  5. A New Class of Analytic Functions Defined by Using Salagean Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. El-Ashwah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive some results for a new class of analytic functions defined by using Salagean operator. We give some properties of functions in this class and obtain numerous sharp results including for example, coefficient estimates, distortion theorem, radii of star-likeness, convexity, close-to-convexity, extreme points, integral means inequalities, and partial sums of functions belonging to this class. Finally, we give an application involving certain fractional calculus operators that are also considered.

  6. Performance evaluation of operational energy use in refurbishment, reuse, and conservation of heritage buildings for optimum sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Akande

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The operational phase of a building project has increasingly gained importance with their energy performance becoming valuable and determining their operational excellence. In most heritage building projects (HBPs, the operational energy use aspects are less considered, and a systematic way of analyzing their energy performance following project delivery is often lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the operational performance of refurbishment and reuse of UK listed church projects. The objective is to assess the operational energy use with a view to optimizing their sustainable performance. The methodology includes eight selected case study buildings refurbished and converted for multipurpose use. The case study approach provided qualitative insights into how the study contributes to a more structured requirements for energy management in HBPs with specific attention to energy-efficient building operations. The findings show the need to focus on fundamental areas of operational management (i.e. by developing and implementing more focused policy on operational energy performance of heritage buildings to minimize the energy required to operate them. The challenges of implementing changes in operational energy performance improvement of heritage buildings are addressed in the form of recommendations that could lead to real results. The study concludes that leveraging these areas requires commitment from all heritage building stakeholders because they all have substantial roles in harmonizing the requirement for the project׳s sustainability and not just the building operators. Meanwhile, baseline project planning, periodic updating, monitoring, and managing the energy use pattern are suggested as measures that could greatly facilitate better energy performance to optimizing their sustainable reuse compared with the traditional approach of trying to improve their thermal performance.

  7. Inter-operator Variability in Defining Uterine Position Using Three-dimensional Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Mariwan; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Behrens, Claus F.

    2013-01-01

    significantly larger inter-fractional uterine positional displacement, in some cases up to 20 mm, which outweighs the magnitude of current inter-operator variations. Thus, the current US-phantom-study suggests that the inter-operator variability in addressing uterine position is clinically irrelevant.......In radiotherapy the treatment outcome of gynecological (GYN) cancer patients is crucially related to reproducibility of the actual uterine position. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the inter-operator variability in addressing uterine position using a novel 3-D ultrasound (US) system....... The study is initiated by US-scanning of a uterine phantom (CIRS 404, Universal Medical, Norwood, USA) by seven experienced US operators. The phantom represents a female pelvic region, containing a uterus, bladder and rectal landmarks readily definable in the acquired US-scans. The organs are subjected...

  8. Redefining the Indirect Approach, Defining Special Operations Forces (SOF Power, and the Global Networking of SOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Morrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current Defense Strategy assigns Special Operations Forces (SOF to play a central role in countering terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, and irregular warfare. However, there has been little published that defines the role of Special Operations alongside air, land, and sea domains. The U.S. Special Operations Community struggles to define its own theoretical concepts such as direct approach and indirect approach. The U.S. SOF circles typically define direct approach with direct action and the indirect approach with foreign internal defense or security force assistance. Military theorist Liddell Hart viewed the indirect approach as a method to orient upon, target, and upset an adversary’s equilibrium in order to plan for and direct decisive blows. Today, the SOF indirect approach is arguable more applicable due to the prevalence of non-state threats and internal conflicts. Following Hart’s definition, precision raids are among the integral components of a broader application of the indirect approach. The approach also networks U.S. government power as a force when used in concert with allies and local partners. Global networking along with balanced precision raids will exponentially increase the utility of SOF power and position it to appropriately complement all domains to tackle 21st century challenges.

  9. Quantum theory with an energy operator defined as a quartic form of the momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezák, Viktor, E-mail: bezak@fmph.uniba.sk

    2016-09-15

    Quantum theory of the non-harmonic oscillator defined by the energy operator proposed by Yurke and Buks (2006) is presented. Although these authors considered a specific problem related to a model of transmission lines in a Kerr medium, our ambition is not to discuss the physical substantiation of their model. Instead, we consider the problem from an abstract, logically deductive, viewpoint. Using the Yurke–Buks energy operator, we focus attention on the imaginary-time propagator. We derive it as a functional of the Mehler kernel and, alternatively, as an exact series involving Hermite polynomials. For a statistical ensemble of identical oscillators defined by the Yurke–Buks energy operator, we calculate the partition function, average energy, free energy and entropy. Using the diagonal element of the canonical density matrix of this ensemble in the coordinate representation, we define a probability density, which appears to be a deformed Gaussian distribution. A peculiarity of this probability density is that it may reveal, when plotted as a function of the position variable, a shape with two peaks located symmetrically with respect to the central point.

  10. A systems integration approach to the optimum operation and scheduling of biocide usage and discharge for seawater cooling systems

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Abdullah Bin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a systematic approach to the optimal design and integration of seawater cooling systems in industrial facilities along with the usage and discharge of biocides. Specifically, the paper will address the following tasks: 1 identification of the reaction pathways for the biocide from the mixing basin to the discharge points 2 kinetic modelling of the biocide and by-products throughout the process 3 a process integration framework to provide a holistic approach to optimising the design and operation of the seawater cooling systems, along with the dosage and discharge systems. A hierarchical procedure is developed to first identify design modifications for heat integration and energy efficiency. Then, a multi-period, multi-segment optimisation formulation is developed and solved to identify the optimal operation and scheduling of biocide usage and discharge. A case study is solved to illustrate the applicability of the devised approach.

  11. Distributed generation incorporated with the thermal generation for optimum operation of a smart grid considering forecast error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlader, Harun Or Rashid; Matayoshi, Hidehito; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal operation of the thermal generation for the smart grid system. • Different distributed generations are considered as the power generation sources. • Forecast error of the renewable energy systems is considered. • Controllable loads of the smart houses are considered to achieve the optimal operation. • Economical benefits can be achieved for the smart grid system. - Abstract: This paper concentrates on the optimal operation of the conventional thermal generators with distributed generations for a smart grid considering forecast error. The distributed generations are considered as wind generators, photovoltaic generators, battery energy storage systems in the supply side and a large number of smart houses in the demand side. A smart house consists of the electric vehicle, heat pump, photovoltaic generator and solar collector. The electric vehicle and heat pump are considered as the controllable loads which can compensate the power for the forecast error of renewable energy sources. As a result, power generation cost of the smart grid can reduce through coordinated with distributed generations and thermal units scheduling process. The electric vehicles of the smart house are considered as the spinning reserve in the scheduling process which lead to lessen the additional operation of thermal units. Finally, obtained results of the proposed system have been compared with the conventional method. The conventional method does not consider the electric vehicle in the smart houses. The acquired results demonstrate that total power generation cost of the smart grid has been reduced by the proposed method considering forecast error. Effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified by the extensive simulation results using MATLAB® software

  12. Optimum operating conditions for a water purification process integrated to a heat transformer with energy recycling using neural network inverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, J.A.; Siqueiros, J.; Juarez-Romero, D. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (UAEM), Av. Universidad No. 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos C.P. 62209 (Mexico); Bassam, A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (UAEM), Av. Universidad No. 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos C.P. 62209 (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    Artificial neural network inverse (ANNi) is applied to calculate the optimal operating conditions on the coefficient of performance (COP) for a water purification process integrated to an absorption heat transformer with energy recycling. An artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed to predict the COP which was increased with energy recycling. This ANN model takes into account the input and output temperatures for each one of the four components (absorber, generator, evaporator, and condenser), as well as two pressures and LiBr + H{sub 2}O concentrations. For the network, a feedforward with one hidden layer, a Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm, a hyperbolic tangent sigmoid transfer function and a linear transfer function were used. The best fitting training data set was obtained with three neurons in the hidden layer. On the validation data set, simulations and experimental data test were in good agreement (R > 0.99). This ANN model can be used to predict the COP when the input variables (operating conditions) are well known. However, to control the COP in the system, we developed a strategy to estimate the optimal input variables when a COP is required from ANNi. An optimization method (the Nelder-Mead simplex method) is used to fit the unknown input variable resulted from the ANNi. This methodology can be applied to control on-line the performance of the system. (author)

  13. Method for optimum determination of adjustable parameters in the boiling water reactor core simulator using operating data on flux distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiguchi, T.; Kawai, T.

    1975-01-01

    A method has been developed to optimally and automatically determine the adjustable parameters of the boiling water reactor three-dimensional core simulator FLARE. The steepest gradient method is adopted for the optimization. The parameters are adjusted to best fit the operating data on power distribution measured by traversing in-core probes (TIP). The average error in the calculated TIP readings normalized by the core average is 0.053 at the rated power. The k-infinity correction term has also been derived theoretically to reduce the relatively large error in the calculated TIP readings near the tips of control rods, which is induced by the coarseness of mesh points. By introducing this correction, the average error decreases to 0.047. The void-quality relation is recognized as a function of coolant flow rate. The relation is estimated to fit the measured distributions of TIP reading at the partial power states

  14. Per-operative vibration analysis: a valuable tool for defining correct stem insertion: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulier, Michiel; Pastrav, Cesar; Van der Perre, Georges

    2008-01-01

    Defining the stem insertion end point during total hip replacement still relies on the surgeon's feeling. When a custom-made stem prosthesis with an optimal fit into the femoral canal is used, the risk of per-operative fractures is even greater than with standard prostheses. Vibration analysis is used in other clinical settings and has been tested as a means to detect optimal stem insertion in the laboratory. The first per-operative use of vibration analysis during non-cemented custom-made stem insertion in 30 patients is reported here. Thirty patients eligible for total hip replacement with uncemented stem prosthesis were included. The neck of the stem was connected with a shaker that emitted white noise as excitation signal and an impedance head that measured the frequency response. The response signal was sent to a computer that analyzed the frequency response function after each insertion phase. A technician present in the operating theatre but outside the laminated airflow provided feed-back to the surgeon. The correlation index between the frequency response function measured during the last two insertion hammering sessions was >0.99 in 86.7% of the cases. In four cases the surgeon stopped the insertion procedure because of a perceived risk of fracture. Two special cases illustrating the potential benefit of per-operative vibration analysis are described. The results of intra-operative vibration analysis indicate that this technique may be a useful tool assisting the orthopaedic surgeon in defining the insertion endpoint of the stem. The development of a more user-friendly device is therefore warranted.

  15. Development of the Optimum Operation Scheduling Model of Domestic Electric Appliances for the Supply-Demand Adjustment in a Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Takashi; Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    The high penetration of variable renewable generation such as Photovoltaic (PV) systems will cause the issue of supply-demand imbalance in a whole power system. The activation of the residential power usage, storage and generation by sophisticated scheduling and control using the Home Energy Management System (HEMS) will be needed to balance power supply and demand in the near future. In order to evaluate the applicability of the HEMS as a distributed controller for local and system-wide supply-demand balances, we developed an optimum operation scheduling model of domestic electric appliances using the mixed integer linear programming. Applying this model to several houses with dynamic electricity prices reflecting the power balance of the total power system, it was found that the adequate changes in electricity prices bring about the shift of residential power usages to control the amount of the reverse power flow due to excess PV generation.

  16. Probabilistic-Multiobjective Comparison of User-Defined Operating Rules. Case Study: Hydropower Dam in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bianucci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A useful tool is proposed in this paper to assist dam managers in comparing and selecting suitable operating rules. This procedure is based on well-known multiobjective and probabilistic methodologies, which were jointly applied here to assess and compare flood control strategies in hydropower reservoirs. The procedure consisted of evaluating the operating rules’ performance using a simulation fed by a representative and sufficiently large flood event series. These flood events were obtained from a synthetic rainfall series stochastically generated by using the RainSimV3 model coupled with a deterministic hydrological model. The performance of the assessed strategies was characterized using probabilistic variables. Finally, evaluation and comparison were conducted by analyzing objective functions which synthesize different aspects of the rules’ performance. These objectives were probabilistically defined in terms of risk and expected values. To assess the applicability and flexibility of the tool, it was implemented in a hydropower dam located in Galicia (Northern Spain. This procedure allowed alternative operating rule to be derived which provided a reasonable trade-off between dam safety, flood control, operability and energy production.

  17. Reliable and Fault-Tolerant Software-Defined Network Operations Scheme for Remote 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongkyun; Gil, Joon-Min

    2015-03-01

    The recent wide expansion of applicable three-dimensional (3D) printing and software-defined networking (SDN) technologies has led to a great deal of attention being focused on efficient remote control of manufacturing processes. SDN is a renowned paradigm for network softwarization, which has helped facilitate remote manufacturing in association with high network performance, since SDN is designed to control network paths and traffic flows, guaranteeing improved quality of services by obtaining network requests from end-applications on demand through the separated SDN controller or control plane. However, current SDN approaches are generally focused on the controls and automation of the networks, which indicates that there is a lack of management plane development designed for a reliable and fault-tolerant SDN environment. Therefore, in addition to the inherent advantage of SDN, this paper proposes a new software-defined network operations center (SD-NOC) architecture to strengthen the reliability and fault-tolerance of SDN in terms of network operations and management in particular. The cooperation and orchestration between SDN and SD-NOC are also introduced for the SDN failover processes based on four principal SDN breakdown scenarios derived from the failures of the controller, SDN nodes, and connected links. The abovementioned SDN troubles significantly reduce the network reachability to remote devices (e.g., 3D printers, super high-definition cameras, etc.) and the reliability of relevant control processes. Our performance consideration and analysis results show that the proposed scheme can shrink operations and management overheads of SDN, which leads to the enhancement of responsiveness and reliability of SDN for remote 3D printing and control processes.

  18. Operational Meanings of Orders of Observables Defined through Quantum Set Theories with Different Conditionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanao Ozawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In quantum logic there is well-known arbitrariness in choosing a binary operation for conditional. Currently, we have at least three candidates, called the Sasaki conditional, the contrapositive Sasaki conditional, and the relevance conditional. A fundamental problem is to show how the form of the conditional follows from an analysis of operational concepts in quantum theory. Here, we attempt such an analysis through quantum set theory (QST. In this paper, we develop quantum set theory based on quantum logics with those three conditionals, each of which defines different quantum logical truth value assignment. We show that those three models satisfy the transfer principle of the same form to determine the quantum logical truth values of theorems of the ZFC set theory. We also show that the reals in the model and the truth values of their equality are the same for those models. Interestingly, however, the order relation between quantum reals significantly depends on the underlying conditionals. We characterize the operational meanings of those order relations in terms of joint probability obtained by the successive projective measurements of arbitrary two observables. Those characterizations clearly show their individual features and will play a fundamental role in future applications to quantum physics.

  19. Optimum Operating Conditions of (PbxX1−x(ZryTizY1−y−z Piezoelectric Transducer for Vibrational Energy Harvesting Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical energy production capability of bimorph (PbxX1-x(ZryTizY1-y-z fiber composite piezoelectric transducer has been investigated for energy harvesting applications. The material has been analyzed under different frequencies, bending amounts, and temperatures. The operating conditions for maximum electrical energy outcome have been determined. The natural frequencies of oscillations in the macro dimensions have been found to be inversely proportional to the length of the material. On the other hand, the voltage output with respect to the oscillation frequency exhibits an interesting behavior such that the characteristic curve shifts to higher frequencies as the bending radius is decreased. This behavior has been interpreted as a result of possible overtone transitions of the oscillations to a stiffer mode. The increasing temperature has been observed to have a negative effect on the piezoelectric energy harvesting property. When the determined optimum conditions were utilized, the amount of electrical energy stored in 6300 s by an energy harvester circuitry has been found to be 0.8 J.

  20. Choosing the optimum burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, L.; Goldstein, L.; Franks, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the considerations utilities must evaluate when going to higher discharge burnups. The advantages and disadvantages of higher discharge burnups are described, as well as a consistent approach for evaluating optimum discharge burnup and its comparison to current practice. When an analysis is performed over the life of the plant, the design of the terminal cycles has significant impact on the lifetime savings from higher burnups. Designs for high burnup cycles have a greater average inventory value in the core. As one goes to higher burnup, there is a greater likelihood of discarding a larger value in unused fuel unless the terminal cycles are designed carefully. This effect can be large enough in some cases to wipe out the lifetime cost savings relative to operating with a higher discharge burnup cycle

  1. Nondissipative optimum charge regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, R.; Vitebsky, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Optimum charge regulator provides constant level charge/discharge control of storage batteries. Basic power transfer and control is performed by solar panel coupled to battery through power switching circuit. Optimum controller senses battery current and modifies duty cycle of switching circuit to maximize current available to battery.

  2. Eigenvalue for Densely Defined Perturbations of Multivalued Maximal Monotone Operators in Reflexive Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubakari Ibrahimou

    2013-01-01

    maximal monotone with and . Using the topological degree theory developed by Kartsatos and Quarcoo we study the eigenvalue problem where the operator is a single-valued of class . The existence of continuous branches of eigenvectors of infinite length then could be easily extended to the case where the operator is multivalued and is investigated.

  3. Re-Defining the Radio Operator: Honing AFSOF’s Edge for the Joint IW Fight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    warfare vision is to equip the joint force with capabilities, doctrine, organization, training, leadership , and operating concepts needed to make it as...proper training on their use, key mission leadership did not know that the systems on the C-130s could not directly communicate with the systems on...Containment Before Korea. Westport, Connecticut. Greenwood Press. Daft , R. L. (2003). Essentials of Organization Theory and Design, Fourth

  4. Stability and Support Operations, Intervening Armed Forces and the Population They Serve: Defining a Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-24

    Chauvancy, Le moral du soldat occidental dans les nouveaux contextes d’intervention » (The Western Soldier Moral In The New Intervention Environment). MARS...Lawrence A. “Military Stability and Support Operations: Analogies, Patterns And Recurring Themes”. Military Review 4 (July-august 1997): 51. WEB SITES...And General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 1967. BOOKS IN FRENCH Corvisier, André. Histoire militaire de la France, 4. de 1940 à nos jours

  5. Integration operators for generating RDF/OWL-based user defined mediator views in a grid environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tawil, Abdel-Rahman H.; Taweel, Adel; Naeem, Usman; Montebello, Matthew; Bashroush, Rabih; Al-Nemrat, Ameer

    2014-01-01

    Research and development activities relating to the grid have generally focused on applications where data is stored in files. However, many scientific and commercial applications are highly dependent on Information Servers (ISs) for storage and organization of their data. A data-information system that supports operations on multiple information servers in a grid environment is referred to as an interoperable grid system. Different perceptions by end-users of interoperable systems in a grid ...

  6. Fixed points for some non-obviously contractive operators defined in a space of continuous functions

    OpenAIRE

    C. Avramescu; Cristian Vladimirescu

    2004-01-01

    Let $X$ be an arbitrary (real or complex) Banach space, endowed with the norm $\\left| \\cdot \\right| .$ Consider the space of the continuous functions $C\\left( \\left[ 0,T\\right] ,X\\right) $ $\\left( T>0\\right) $, endowed with the usual topology, and let $M$ be a closed subset of it. One proves that each operator $A:M\\rightarrow M$ fulfilling for all $x,y\\in M$ and for all $t\\in \\left[ 0,T\\right] $ the condition \\begin{eqnarray*} \\left| \\left( Ax\\right) \\left( t\\right) -\\left( Ay\\right) \\l...

  7. Understanding Physiological and Degenerative Natural Vision Mechanisms to Define Contrast and Contour Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, Jacques; Fouquet, Yannick; Tayyab, Muhammad; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Background Dynamical systems like neural networks based on lateral inhibition have a large field of applications in image processing, robotics and morphogenesis modeling. In this paper, we will propose some examples of dynamical flows used in image contrasting and contouring. Methodology First we present the physiological basis of the retina function by showing the role of the lateral inhibition in the optical illusions and pathologic processes generation. Then, based on these biological considerations about the real vision mechanisms, we study an enhancement method for contrasting medical images, using either a discrete neural network approach, or its continuous version, i.e. a non-isotropic diffusion reaction partial differential system. Following this, we introduce other continuous operators based on similar biomimetic approaches: a chemotactic contrasting method, a viability contouring algorithm and an attentional focus operator. Then, we introduce the new notion of mixed potential Hamiltonian flows; we compare it with the watershed method and we use it for contouring. Conclusions We conclude by showing the utility of these biomimetic methods with some examples of application in medical imaging and computed assisted surgery. PMID:19547712

  8. Understanding physiological and degenerative natural vision mechanisms to define contrast and contour operators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Demongeot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dynamical systems like neural networks based on lateral inhibition have a large field of applications in image processing, robotics and morphogenesis modeling. In this paper, we will propose some examples of dynamical flows used in image contrasting and contouring. METHODOLOGY: First we present the physiological basis of the retina function by showing the role of the lateral inhibition in the optical illusions and pathologic processes generation. Then, based on these biological considerations about the real vision mechanisms, we study an enhancement method for contrasting medical images, using either a discrete neural network approach, or its continuous version, i.e. a non-isotropic diffusion reaction partial differential system. Following this, we introduce other continuous operators based on similar biomimetic approaches: a chemotactic contrasting method, a viability contouring algorithm and an attentional focus operator. Then, we introduce the new notion of mixed potential Hamiltonian flows; we compare it with the watershed method and we use it for contouring. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude by showing the utility of these biomimetic methods with some examples of application in medical imaging and computed assisted surgery.

  9. Defining Learning Space in a Serious Game in Terms of Operative and Resultant Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael W.; Shen, Yuzhong

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the distinction between operative and resultant actions in games, and proposes that the learning space created by a serious game is a function of these actions. Further, it suggests a possible relationship between these actions and the forms of cognitive load imposed upon the game player. Association of specific types of cognitive load with respective forms of actions in game mechanics also presents some heuristics for integrating learning content into serious games. Research indicates that different balances of these types of actions are more suitable for novice or experienced learners. By examining these relationships, we can develop a few basic principles of game design which have an increased potential to promote positive learning outcomes.

  10. Defining freight rates as a contribution to the successful operation of container shipping companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Oblak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world market and the flexibility of containerization to adjust to the constant changes in supply and demand of the international goods market, has led to a continuous increase in the portion of the container transport within the international maritime cargo transport. By the increase of the container transport level, the impact and importance of container freight rates have been growing, the variability of which directly reflects on the world economy. The aim of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of actual methods in establishing the container freight rates according to the problems which appear in the container shipping operation and refer to large differences in the weights of the actual transported cargo and the declared cargo in containers. The consequence of is lower freight rates and higher costs of the vessels exploitation, concerning the increase of the bunker oil consumption. The conducted research is based on actual data that have been collected and analyzed from particular container vessel liner services within period of 90 days and casting off from 16 container ports. The proposed measures could increase the level of usability of the transporting ships capacities and enable a more accurate and correct account of sea freight rates. The results of the research have shown that by increasing the control of accuracy of the cargo weight in containers and by improving the model of accounting, the freight rates can increase the incomes of shipping companies maintaining the same level of container traffic, which can have a direct influence on the efficiency of their successful operation.

  11. Optimum coolant chemistry in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.; Cowan, R.L.; Kiss, E.

    2004-01-01

    LWR water chemistry parameters are directly or indirectly related to the plant's operational performance and for a significant amount of Operation and Maintenance (O and M) costs. Obvious impacts are the operational costs associated with water treatment, monitoring and associated radwaste generation. Less obvious is the important role water chemistry plays in the magnitude of drywell shutdown dose rates, fuel corrosion performance and, (probably most importantly) materials degradation such as from stress corrosion cracking of piping and Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) internal components. To improve the operational excellence of the BWR and to minimize the impact of water chemistry on O and M costs. General Electric has developed the concept of Optimum Water Chemistry (OWC). The 'best practices' and latest technology findings from the U.S., Asia and Europe are integrated into the suggested OWC Specification. This concept, together with cost effective ways to meet the requirement, are discussed. (author)

  12. Oil well fires of Operation Desert Storm--defining troop exposures and determining health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jack M

    2011-07-01

    During Operation Desert Storm, in February 1991, Iraqi troops began burning Kuwaiti oil wells. Almost immediately there was concern about possible adverse health effects in U.S. personnel exposed to crude oil combustion products. Combustions products were predicted from the known composition of Kuwaiti crude oil. Monitoring sites were established in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait; about 5,000 environmental samples were studied. Data collected were used to develop health risk assessments for the geographic areas sampled. This initial approach to assessing risk had to be greatly expanded when Congress passed Public Law 102-190, requiring development of means to calculate environmental exposures for individual U.S. service members. To estimate daily exposure levels for the entire area over 10 months for all U.S. troops, air dispersion modeling was used in conjunction with satellite imagery and geographic information system technology. This methodology made it possible to separate the risk caused by oil fire smoke from the total risk from all sources for each service member. The U.S. military responses to health concerns related to the oil well fires and to Public Law 102-190 were reviewed. Consideration was given to changes in technology, practices, and policies over the last two decades that might impact a similar contemporary response.

  13. Experimental investigation of an optimum configuration for a high-voltage photoemission gun for operation at ≥500  kV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Nishimori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the generation of a 500-keV electron beam from a high dc voltage photoemission gun for an energy recovery linac light source [N. Nishimori et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 234103 (2013]. This demonstration was achieved by addressing two discharge problems that lead to vacuum breakdown in the dc gun. One is field emission generated from a central stem electrode. We employed a segmented insulator to protect the ceramic insulator surface from the field emission. The other is microdischarge at an anode electrode or a vacuum chamber, which is triggered by microparticle transfer or field emission from a cathode electrode. An experimental investigation revealed that a larger acceleration gap, optimized mainly to reduce the surface electric field of the anode electrode, suppresses the microdischarge events that accompany gas desorption. It was also found that nonevaporable getter pumps placed around the acceleration gap greatly help to suppress those microdischarge events. The applied voltage as a function of the total gas desorption is shown to be a good measure for finding the optimum dc gun configuration.

  14. On Optimum Stratification

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. M. Khan; V. D. Prasad; D. K. Rao

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript, we discuss the problem of determining the optimum stratification of a study (or main) variable based on the auxiliary variable that follows a uniform distribution. If the stratification of survey variable is made using the auxiliary variable it may lead to substantial gains in precision of the estimates. This problem is formulated as a Nonlinear Programming Problem (NLPP), which turn out to multistage decision problem and is solved using dynamic programming technique.

  15. Optimum Design of Heat Exchangers Networks Part -I: Software Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabr, E.M.A.; EI-Temtamy, S.A.; Deriasl, S.F.; Moustafa, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we have developed a computerized framework for Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis (HENS) with optimality conditions of achieving the least operating and capital cost. The framework of HEN design involves the development three-computer programs, which applied sequentially to design an optimum HEN. The first program Automatic Minimum Utilities [AMU] developed for automatic formulation of LP equations, these equations can be solved by the optimization software [LINDO] to predict minimum hot and cold utilities. The second program based on Vertical Heat Transfer Method [VHTM] for predicting minimum overall heat transfer area and defining the optimum δbT m in. The third program [Mod.RESHEX] developed for targeting of heat transfer area and automatic synthesis of HEN. This program represents the modifications and development of RESHEX method to overcome the design defects, which appeared on original RESHEX applications

  16. The optimum spanning catenary cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. Y.

    2015-03-01

    A heavy cable spans two points in space. There exists an optimum cable length such that the maximum tension is minimized. If the two end points are at the same level, the optimum length is 1.258 times the distance between the ends. The optimum lengths for end points of different heights are also found.

  17. Optimum body size of Holstein replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C

    1997-03-01

    Criteria that define optimum body size of replacement heifers are required by commercial dairy producers to evaluate replacement heifer management programs. Historically recommended body size criteria have been based on live BW measurements. Numerous research studies have observed a positive relationship between BW at first calving and first lactation milk yield, which has served as the impetus for using live BW to define body size of replacement heifers. Live BW is, however, not the only available measurement to define body size. Skeletal measurements such as wither height, length, and pelvic area have been demonstrated to be related to first lactation performance and (or) dystocia. Live BW measurements also do not define differences in body composition. Differences in body composition of replacement heifers at first calving are also related to key performance variables. An updated research data base is available for the modern Holstein genotype to incorporate measures of skeletal growth and body composition with BW when defining body size. These research projects also lend insight into the relative importance of measurements that define body size of replacement heifers. Incorporation of these measurements from current research into present BW recommendations should aid commercial dairy producers to better define replacement heifer growth and management practices. This article proposes enhancements in defining optimum body size and growth characteristics of Holstein replacement heifers.

  18. Defining Spino-Pelvic Alignment Thresholds: Should Operative Goals in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery Account for Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafage, Renaud; Schwab, Frank; Challier, Vincent; Henry, Jensen K; Gum, Jeffrey; Smith, Justin; Hostin, Richard; Shaffrey, Christopher; Kim, Han J; Ames, Christopher; Scheer, Justin; Klineberg, Eric; Bess, Shay; Burton, Douglas; Lafage, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective review of prospective, multicenter database. The aim of the study was to determine age-specific spino-pelvic parameters, to extrapolate age-specific Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) values from published Short Form (SF)-36 Physical Component Score (PCS) data, and to propose age-specific realignment thresholds for adult spinal deformity (ASD). The Scoliosis Research Society-Schwab classification offers a framework for defining alignment in patients with ASD. Although age-specific changes in spinal alignment and patient-reported outcomes have been established in the literature, their relationship in the setting of ASD operative realignment has not been reported. ASD patients who received operative or nonoperative treatment were consecutively enrolled. Patients were stratified by age, consistent with published US-normative values (Norms) of the SF-36 PCS (75  y old). At baseline, relationships between between radiographic spino-pelvic parameters (lumbar-pelvic mismatch [PI-LL], pelvic tilt [PT], sagittal vertical axis [SVA], and T1 pelvic angle [TPA]), age, and PCS were established using linear regression analysis; normative PCS values were then used to establish age-specific targets. Correlation analysis with ODI and PCS was used to determine age-specific ideal alignment. Baseline analysis included 773 patients (53.7 y old, 54% operative, 83% female). There was a strong correlation between ODI and PCS (r = 0.814, P US-normative ODI by age group. Linear regression analysis (all with r > 0.510, P US-normative PCS values demonstrated that ideal spino-pelvic values increased with age, ranging from PT = 10.9 degrees, PI-LL = -10.5 degrees, and SVA = 4.1 mm for patients under 35 years to PT = 28.5 degrees, PI-LL = 16.7 degrees, and SVA = 78.1 mm for patients over 75 years. Clinically, older patients had greater compensation, more degenerative loss of lordosis, and were more pitched forward. This study demonstrated that

  19. Optimum operating regimes of common paramagnetic refrigerants

    CERN Document Server

    Wikus, P; Figueroa-Feliciano, E

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) are commonly used in cryogenic laboratories to achieve subkelvin temperatures. ADRs are also the technology of choice for several space borne instruments which make use of cryogenic microcalorimeters or bolometers {[}1-4]. For these applications, refrigerants with high ratios of cooling capacity to volume, or cooling capacity to mass are usually required. In this manuscript, two charts for the simple selection of the most suitable of several common refrigerants (CAA, CMN, CPA, DGG, FAA, GGG, GLF and MAS) are presented. These graphs are valid for single stage cycles. The selection of the refrigerants is uniquely dependent on the starting conditions of the refrigeration cycle (temperature and magnetic field density) and the desired final temperature. Only thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants have been taken into account, and other important factors such as availability and manufacturability have not been considered. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserve...

  20. Probabilistic studies for safety at optimum cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, P.

    1999-01-01

    By definition, the risk of failure of very reliable components is difficult to evaluate. How can the best strategies for in service inspection and maintenance be defined to limit this risk to an acceptable level at optimum cost? It is not sufficient to design structures with margins, it is also essential to understand how they age. The probabilistic approach has made it possible to develop well proven concepts. (author)

  1. Electromagnetic radiation optimum neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This particular article relates to subtle electrical effects, and provides some evidence of a fundamental nature on how subtle low frequency electromagnetic fields might be utilized to protect human body against harmful effects of high frequencies electromagnetic radiation. I have focused my efforts on definite polar polymer compound named EMRON which is patented in the USA. This polar polymer compound can be excited by external high frequencies electromagnetic fields to generate subtle low frequency oscillations that are beneficial for cellular life structures. This concept is based on the possibility of existence of resonance phenomenon between polar polymers and biopolymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Low frequency patterns generated by defined polar polymer compound can interact with biostructures and transmit the signals that support and improve cellular functions in the body. The mechanism of this process was confirmed by number of studies. The animal (including human) brain is affected by electromagnetic waves to the extent that production of Alpha or Theta waves can be directly induced into brain by carrying an ELF (extremely low frequency, 5-12 Hz) signal on a microwave carrier frequency. EMRON does not reduce the power of electromagnetic fields. It 'shields' the cellular structures of the body against the harmful effects of EMR. The radiation is still entering the body but the neutralizing effect of EMRON renders the radiation harmless

  2. Optimum design of dual pressure heat recovery steam generator using non-dimensional parameters based on thermodynamic and thermoeconomic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naemi, Sanaz; Saffar-Avval, Majid; Behboodi Kalhori, Sahand; Mansoori, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses are investigated to achieve the optimum operating parameters of a dual pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), coupled with a heavy duty gas turbine. In this regard, the thermodynamic objective function including the exergy waste and the exergy destruction, is defined in such a way to find the optimum pinch point, and consequently to minimize the objective function by using non-dimensional operating parameters. The results indicated that, the optimum pinch point from thermodynamic viewpoint is 2.5 °C and 2.1 °C for HRSGs with live steam at 75 bar and 90 bar respectively. Since thermodynamic analysis is not able to consider economic factors, another objective function including annualized installation cost and annual cost of irreversibilities is proposed. To find the irreversibility cost, electricity price and also fuel price are considered independently. The optimum pinch point from thermoeconomic viewpoint on basis of electricity price is 20.6 °C (75 bar) and 19.2 °C (90 bar), whereas according to the fuel price it is 25.4 °C and 23.7 °C. Finally, an extensive sensitivity analysis is performed to compare optimum pinch point for different electricity and fuel prices. -- Highlights: ► Presenting thermodynamic and thermoeconomic optimization of a heat recovery steam generator. ► Defining an objective function consists of exergy waste and exergy destruction. ► Defining an objective function including capital cost and cost of irreversibilities. ► Obtaining the optimized operating parameters of a dual pressure heat recovery boiler. ► Computing the optimum pinch point using non-dimensional operating parameters

  3. Development of the operator training system using computer graphics. Pt. 1. Defining the system configuration and developing basic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takana, Kenchi; Sasou, Kunihide; Sano, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Koichi; Noji, Kunio

    2001-01-01

    Efficient and concurrent operator training seems to be crucial in near future because of an increase in operators to be trained due to generation alternations. Ever developed Man -Machine-Simulator (MMS) has several merits: (1) Operators' cognitive and behavioral activities among team in emergency could be simulated based on the concurrent mental model; (2) Simulated scenarios could be expanded to multiple malfunctions events, to all of which procedures could not be stipulated previously, (3) Standard behavior in coping with anomalies including communication and operations could be presented. This paper describes the development of an operator training system by applying this MMS. Three dimensional computer graphics (3D-CG) was adopted for improving the training effects and attracting operators' interest by visually presenting realistic operating team behavior in the main control room. Towards the completion of the operator training system, following designs of system configuration and developments of several basic techniques were availed: (1) Imaging the utilization of the operator training system, functions to be equipped and system configurations for realizing functions were determined. And three of scenarios were chosen in order to appeal the merits of the MMS and to raise training effects. (2) Knowledge base was completed to execute simulations. And connection between operator team model and plant simulator, that is the 2nd generation type simulator of the BTC -4, was executed to obtain simulation results (time sequential log data of plant dynamics and operating team behavior). (3) Operator's actions seen in VCR tapes in real training were classified for eighteen kinds of fundamental categories and those fundamental actions were modeled on 3D-CG using the People Shop software. The 3D-CG of main control panel was prepared using Multi Gen software. (author)

  4. Optimum Design of Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ruben; Gonzalez, Jose; Clausse, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    The optimum design of Plasma Focus devices is presented based in a lumped parameter model of the MHD equations.Maps in the design parameters space are obtained, which determine the length and deuterium pressure required to produce a given neutron yield.Sensitivity analyses of the main effective numbers (sweeping efficiencies) was performed, and lately the optimum values were determined in order to set a basis for the conceptual design

  5. Optimum operation of heating systems in office buildings. Automated error detection and analysis improves running building operation; Heizsysteme in Buerogebaeuden optimal betreiben. Automatisierte Fehlererkennung und -analyse verbessert den laufenden Gebaeudebetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Uwe

    2013-06-01

    Since 2010, various institutes, universities and consultancy companies have been conducting research on automated operation optimisation in larger buildings. For this purpose, they have developed procedures for commissioning and monitoring building services equipment systems, firstly for large heat supply units. These are currently being used and evaluated on an ongoing basis in seven office and school buildings. The aim is to make significant energy and cost savings, and to improve the level of convenience in the building.

  6. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  7. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  8. A new method for defining and managing process alarms and for correcting process operation when an alarm occurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Robin; Thorpe, Richard; Wilson, John

    2004-01-01

    A new mathematical treatment of alarms that considers them as multi-variable interactions between process variables has provided the first-ever method to calculate values for alarm limits. This has resulted in substantial reductions in false alarms and hence in alarm annunciation rates in field trials. It has also unified alarm management, process control and product quality control into a single mathematical framework so that operations improvement and hence economic benefits are obtained at the same time as increased process safety. Additionally, an algorithm has been developed that advises what changes should be made to Manipulable process variables to clear an alarm. The multi-variable Best Operating Zone at the heart of the method is derived from existing historical data using equation-free methods. It does not require a first-principles process model or an expensive series of process identification experiments. Integral with the method is a new format Process Operator Display that uses only existing variables to fully describe the multi-variable operating space. This combination of features makes it an affordable and maintainable solution for small plants and single items of equipment as well as for the largest plants. In many cases, it also provides the justification for the investments about to be made or already made in process historian systems. Field Trials have been and are being conducted at IneosChlor and Mallinckrodt Chemicals, both in the UK, of the new geometric process control (GPC) method for improving the quality of both process operations and product by providing Process Alarms and Alerts of much high quality than ever before. The paper describes the methods used, including a simple visual method for Alarm Rationalisation that quickly delivers large sets of Consistent Alarm Limits, and the extension to full Alert Management with highlights from the Field Trials to indicate the overall effectiveness of the method in practice

  9. A new method for defining and managing process alarms and for correcting process operation when an alarm occurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Robin [Curvaceous Software Limited, P.O. Box 43, Gerrards Cross, Bucks SL98UX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: enquiries@curvaceous.com; Thorpe, Richard [Curvaceous Software Limited, P.O. Box 43, Gerrards Cross, Bucks SL98UX (United Kingdom); Wilson, John [Curvaceous Software Limited, P.O. Box 43, Gerrards Cross, Bucks SL98UX (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-11

    A new mathematical treatment of alarms that considers them as multi-variable interactions between process variables has provided the first-ever method to calculate values for alarm limits. This has resulted in substantial reductions in false alarms and hence in alarm annunciation rates in field trials. It has also unified alarm management, process control and product quality control into a single mathematical framework so that operations improvement and hence economic benefits are obtained at the same time as increased process safety. Additionally, an algorithm has been developed that advises what changes should be made to Manipulable process variables to clear an alarm. The multi-variable Best Operating Zone at the heart of the method is derived from existing historical data using equation-free methods. It does not require a first-principles process model or an expensive series of process identification experiments. Integral with the method is a new format Process Operator Display that uses only existing variables to fully describe the multi-variable operating space. This combination of features makes it an affordable and maintainable solution for small plants and single items of equipment as well as for the largest plants. In many cases, it also provides the justification for the investments about to be made or already made in process historian systems. Field Trials have been and are being conducted at IneosChlor and Mallinckrodt Chemicals, both in the UK, of the new geometric process control (GPC) method for improving the quality of both process operations and product by providing Process Alarms and Alerts of much high quality than ever before. The paper describes the methods used, including a simple visual method for Alarm Rationalisation that quickly delivers large sets of Consistent Alarm Limits, and the extension to full Alert Management with highlights from the Field Trials to indicate the overall effectiveness of the method in practice.

  10. A new method for defining and managing process alarms and for correcting process operation when an alarm occurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Robin; Thorpe, Richard; Wilson, John

    2004-11-11

    A new mathematical treatment of alarms that considers them as multi-variable interactions between process variables has provided the first-ever method to calculate values for alarm limits. This has resulted in substantial reductions in false alarms and hence in alarm annunciation rates in field trials. It has also unified alarm management, process control and product quality control into a single mathematical framework so that operations improvement and hence economic benefits are obtained at the same time as increased process safety. Additionally, an algorithm has been developed that advises what changes should be made to Manipulable process variables to clear an alarm. The multi-variable Best Operating Zone at the heart of the method is derived from existing historical data using equation-free methods. It does not require a first-principles process model or an expensive series of process identification experiments. Integral with the method is a new format Process Operator Display that uses only existing variables to fully describe the multi-variable operating space. This combination of features makes it an affordable and maintainable solution for small plants and single items of equipment as well as for the largest plants. In many cases, it also provides the justification for the investments about to be made or already made in process historian systems. Field Trials have been and are being conducted at IneosChlor and Mallinckrodt Chemicals, both in the UK, of the new geometric process control (GPC) method for improving the quality of both process operations and product by providing Process Alarms and Alerts of much high quality than ever before. The paper describes the methods used, including a simple visual method for Alarm Rationalisation that quickly delivers large sets of Consistent Alarm Limits, and the extension to full Alert Management with highlights from the Field Trials to indicate the overall effectiveness of the method in practice.

  11. Optimum Safety Levels for Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Optimum design safety levels for rock and cube armoured rubble mound breakwaters without superstructure are investigated by numerical simulations on the basis of minimization of the total costs over the service life of the structure, taking into account typical uncertainties related to wave...... statistics and structure response. The study comprises the influence of interest rate, service lifetime, downtime costs and damage accumulation. Design limit states and safety classes for breakwaters are discussed. The results indicate that optimum safety levels are somewhat higher than the safety levels...

  12. Optimum target thickness for polarimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Polarimeters with thick targets are a tool to measure the proton polarization. But the question about the optimum target thickness is still the subject of discussion. An attempt to calculate the most common parameters concerning this problem, in a few GeV region, is made

  13. Optimum design of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, József

    2013-01-01

    This book helps designers and manufacturers to select and develop the most suitable and competitive steel structures, which are safe, fit for production and economic. An optimum design system is used to find the best characteristics of structural models, which guarantee the fulfilment of design and fabrication requirements and minimize the cost function. Realistic numerical models are used as main components of industrial steel structures. Chapter 1 containts some experiences with the optimum design of steel structures Chapter 2 treats some newer mathematical optimization methods. Chapter 3 gives formulae for fabrication times and costs. Chapters 4 deals with beams and columns. Summarizes the Eurocode rules for design. Chapter 5 deals with the design of tubular trusses. Chapter 6 gives the design of frame structures and fire-resistant design rules for a frame. In Chapters 7 some minimum cost design problems of stiffened and cellular plates and shells are worked out for cases of different stiffenings and loads...

  14. Measuring behavioral responses of sea turtles, saltwater crocodiles, and crested terns to drone disturbance to define ethical operating thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Elizabeth; Whiting, Scott; Tucker, Tony; Guinea, Michael; Raith, Andrew; Douglas, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Drones are being increasingly used in innovative ways to enhance environmental research and conservation. Despite their widespread use for wildlife studies, there are few scientifically justified guidelines that provide minimum distances at which wildlife can be approached to minimize visual and auditory disturbance. These distances are essential to ensure that behavioral and survey data have no observer bias and form the basis of requirements for animal ethics and scientific permit approvals. In the present study, we documented the behaviors of three species of sea turtle (green turtles, Chelonia mydas, flatback turtles, Natator depressus, hawksbill turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata), saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), and crested terns (Thalasseus bergii) in response to a small commercially available (1.4 kg) multirotor drone flown in Northern Territory and Western Australia. Sea turtles in nearshore waters off nesting beaches or in foraging habitats exhibited no evasive behaviors (e.g. rapid diving) in response to the drone at or above 20-30 m altitude, and at or above 10 m altitude for juvenile green and hawksbill turtles foraging on shallow, algae-covered reefs. Adult female flatback sea turtles were not deterred by drones flying forward or stationary at 10 m altitude when crawling up the beach to nest or digging a body pit or egg chamber. In contrast, flyovers elicited a range of behaviors from crocodiles, including minor, lateral head movements, fleeing, or complete submergence when a drone was present below 50 m altitude. Similarly, a colony of crested terns resting on a sand-bank displayed disturbance behaviors (e.g. flight response) when a drone was flown below 60 m altitude. The current study demonstrates a variety of behavioral disturbance thresholds for diverse species and should be considered when establishing operating conditions for drones in behavioral and conservation studies.

  15. Measuring behavioral responses of sea turtles, saltwater crocodiles, and crested terns to drone disturbance to define ethical operating thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Scott; Tucker, Tony; Guinea, Michael; Raith, Andrew; Douglas, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Drones are being increasingly used in innovative ways to enhance environmental research and conservation. Despite their widespread use for wildlife studies, there are few scientifically justified guidelines that provide minimum distances at which wildlife can be approached to minimize visual and auditory disturbance. These distances are essential to ensure that behavioral and survey data have no observer bias and form the basis of requirements for animal ethics and scientific permit approvals. In the present study, we documented the behaviors of three species of sea turtle (green turtles, Chelonia mydas, flatback turtles, Natator depressus, hawksbill turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata), saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), and crested terns (Thalasseus bergii) in response to a small commercially available (1.4 kg) multirotor drone flown in Northern Territory and Western Australia. Sea turtles in nearshore waters off nesting beaches or in foraging habitats exhibited no evasive behaviors (e.g. rapid diving) in response to the drone at or above 20–30 m altitude, and at or above 10 m altitude for juvenile green and hawksbill turtles foraging on shallow, algae-covered reefs. Adult female flatback sea turtles were not deterred by drones flying forward or stationary at 10 m altitude when crawling up the beach to nest or digging a body pit or egg chamber. In contrast, flyovers elicited a range of behaviors from crocodiles, including minor, lateral head movements, fleeing, or complete submergence when a drone was present below 50 m altitude. Similarly, a colony of crested terns resting on a sand-bank displayed disturbance behaviors (e.g. flight response) when a drone was flown below 60 m altitude. The current study demonstrates a variety of behavioral disturbance thresholds for diverse species and should be considered when establishing operating conditions for drones in behavioral and conservation studies. PMID:29561901

  16. First field trial of Virtual Network Operator oriented network on demand (NoD) service provisioning over software defined multi-vendor OTN networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Xiaosong; Chen, Haoran; Zhu, Ruijie; Zhou, Quanwei; Yu, Chenbei; Cui, Rui

    2017-01-01

    A Virtual Network Operator (VNO) is a provider and reseller of network services from other telecommunications suppliers. These network providers are categorized as virtual because they do not own the underlying telecommunication infrastructure. In terms of business operation, VNO can provide customers with personalized services by leasing network infrastructure from traditional network providers. The unique business modes of VNO lead to the emergence of network on demand (NoD) services. The conventional network provisioning involves a series of manual operation and configuration, which leads to high cost in time. Considering the advantages of Software Defined Networking (SDN), this paper proposes a novel NoD service provisioning solution to satisfy the private network need of VNOs. The solution is first verified in the real software defined multi-domain optical networks with multi-vendor OTN equipment. With the proposed solution, NoD service can be deployed via online web portals in near-real time. It reinvents the customer experience and redefines how network services are delivered to customers via an online self-service portal. Ultimately, this means a customer will be able to simply go online, click a few buttons and have new services almost instantaneously.

  17. Optimum design of a nuclear heat supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borel, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis for the optimum design of a nuclear heat supply to a given district-heating network. First, a general description of the system is given, which includes a nuclear power plant, a heating power plant and a district-heating network. The heating power plant is fed with steam from the nuclear power plant. It is assumed that the heating network is already in operation and that the nuclear power plant was previously designed to supply electricity. Second, a technical definition of the heat production and transportation installations is given. The optimal power of these installations is examined. The main result is a relationship between the network capacity and the level of the nuclear heat supply as a substitute for oil under the best economic conditions. The analysis also presents information for choosing the best operating mode. Finally, the heating power plant is studied in more detail from the energy, technical and economic aspects. (author)

  18. Determination of optimum filter in myocardial SPECT: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takavar, A.; Shamsipour, Gh.; Sohrabi, M.; Eftekhari, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In myocardial perfusion SPECT images are degraded by photon attenuation, the distance-dependent collimator, detector response and photons scatter. Filters greatly affect quality of nuclear medicine images. Materials and Methods: A phantom simulating heart left ventricle was built. About 1mCi of 99m Tc was injected into the phantom. Images was taken from this phantom. Some filters including Parzen, Hamming, Hanning, Butter worth and Gaussian were exerted on the phantom images. By defining some criteria such as contrast, signal to noise ratio, and defect size detectability, the best filter can be determined. Results: 0.325 Nyquist frequency and 0.5 nq was obtained as the optimum cut off frequencies respectively for hamming and handing filters. Order 11, cut off 0.45 Nq and order 20 cut off 0.5 Nq obtained optimum respectively for Butter worth and Gaussian filters. Conclusion: The optimum member of every filter's family was obtained

  19. On the optimum energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yasumasa

    2011-01-01

    After the Fukushima accident occurred in March 2011, reform of Japan's basic energy plan and energy supply system was reported to be under discussion such as to reduce dependence on nuclear power. Planning of energy policy should be considered based on four evaluation indexes of 'economics'. 'environmental effects', 'stable supply of energy' and 'sustainability'. 'Stable supply of energy' should include stability of domestic energy supply infrastructure against natural disasters in addition to stable supply of overseas resources. 'Sustainability' meant long-term availability of resources. Since there did not exist an almighty energy source and energy supply system superior in terms of every above-mentioned evaluation index, it would be wise to use combining various energy sources and supply system in rational way. This combination lead to optimum energy mix, so-called 'Energy Best Mix'. The author evaluated characteristics of energy sources and energy supply system in terms of four indexes and showed best energy mix from short-, medium- and long-term perspectives. Since fossil fuel resources would deplete anyhow, it would be inevitable for human being to be dependent on non-fossil energy resources regardless of greenhouse effects. At present it would be difficult and no guarantee to establish society fully dependent on renewable energy, then it would be probable to need utilization of nuclear energy in the long term. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Optimum Onager: The Classical Mechanics of a Classical Siege Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The onager is a throwing weapon of classical antiquity, familiar to both the ancient Greeks and Romans. Here we analyze the dynamics of onager operation and derive the optimum angle for launching a projectile to its maximum range. There is plenty of scope for further considerations about increasing onager range, and so by thinking about how this…

  1. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  2. "Dermatitis" defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne M; Nedorost, Susan T

    2010-01-01

    The term "dermatitis" can be defined narrowly or broadly, clinically or histologically. A common and costly condition, dermatitis is underresourced compared to other chronic skin conditions. The lack of a collectively understood definition of dermatitis and its subcategories could be the primary barrier. To investigate how dermatologists define the term "dermatitis" and determine if a consensus on the definition of this term and other related terms exists. A seven-question survey of dermatologists nationwide was conducted. Of respondents (n  =  122), half consider dermatitis to be any inflammation of the skin. Nearly half (47.5%) use the term interchangeably with "eczema." Virtually all (> 96%) endorse the subcategory "atopic" under the terms "dermatitis" and "eczema," but the subcategories "contact," "drug hypersensitivity," and "occupational" are more highly endorsed under the term "dermatitis" than under the term "eczema." Over half (55.7%) personally consider "dermatitis" to have a broad meaning, and even more (62.3%) believe that dermatologists as a whole define the term broadly. There is a lack of consensus among experts in defining dermatitis, eczema, and their related subcategories.

  3. Optimum Arrangement of Reactive Power Sources While Using Genetic Algori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gashimov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of total losses in distribution electricity supply network is considered as an important measure which serves for improvement of efficiency of electric power supply systems. This objective can be achieved by optimum distribution of reactive power sources in proper places of distribution electricity supply network. The proposed methodology is based on application of a genetic algorithm. Total expenses for installation of capacitor banks, their operation and also expenses related to electric power losses are considered as an efficiency function which is used for determination of places with optimum values of capacitor bank power. The methodology is the most efficient for selection of optimum places in the network where it is necessary to install capacitor banks with due account of their power control depending on a switched-on load value in the units.

  4. Topology of sustainable management of dynamical systems with desirable states: from defining planetary boundaries to safe operating spaces in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kittel, Tim; Donges, Jonathan; Molkenthin, Nora

    2016-04-01

    To keep the Earth System in a desirable region of its state space, such as defined by the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "guardrails", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space for humanity", one not only needs to understand the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management), but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are: Which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region? Which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this work, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that before performing some form of quantitative optimization such as of indicators of human well-being for achieving certain sustainable development goals, a sustainable and resilient management of the Earth System may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmas, e.g., choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and larger flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmas drawing on conceptual models from climate science, ecology, coevolutionary Earth System modeling

  5. Mesh networks: an optimum solution for AMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimno, G.

    2003-12-01

    Characteristics of mesh networks and the advantage of using them in automatic meter reading equipment (AMR) are discussed. Mesh networks are defined as being similar to a fishing net made of knots and links. In mesh networks the knots represent meter sites and the links are the radio paths between the meter sites and the neighbourhood concentrator. In mesh networks any knot in the communications chain can link to any other and the optimum path is calculated by the network by hopping from meter to meter until the radio message reaches a concentrator. This mesh communications architecture is said to be vastly superior to many older types of radio-based meter reading technologies; its main advantage is that it not only significantly improves the economics of fixed network deployment, but also supports time-of-use metering, remote disconnect services and advanced features, such as real-time pricing, demand response, and other efficiency measures, providing a better return on investment and reliability.

  6. Defining chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian R; Ott, Edward

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose, discuss, and illustrate a computationally feasible definition of chaos which can be applied very generally to situations that are commonly encountered, including attractors, repellers, and non-periodically forced systems. This definition is based on an entropy-like quantity, which we call "expansion entropy," and we define chaos as occurring when this quantity is positive. We relate and compare expansion entropy to the well-known concept of topological entropy to which it is equivalent under appropriate conditions. We also present example illustrations, discuss computational implementations, and point out issues arising from attempts at giving definitions of chaos that are not entropy-based.

  7. Defining Cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Elizabeth; Donnerstein, Edward; Kowalski, Robin; Lin, Carolyn A; Parti, Katalin

    2017-11-01

    Is cyberbullying essentially the same as bullying, or is it a qualitatively different activity? The lack of a consensual, nuanced definition has limited the field's ability to examine these issues. Evidence suggests that being a perpetrator of one is related to being a perpetrator of the other; furthermore, strong relationships can also be noted between being a victim of either type of attack. It also seems that both types of social cruelty have a psychological impact, although the effects of being cyberbullied may be worse than those of being bullied in a traditional sense (evidence here is by no means definitive). A complicating factor is that the 3 characteristics that define bullying (intent, repetition, and power imbalance) do not always translate well into digital behaviors. Qualities specific to digital environments often render cyberbullying and bullying different in circumstances, motivations, and outcomes. To make significant progress in addressing cyberbullying, certain key research questions need to be addressed. These are as follows: How can we define, distinguish between, and understand the nature of cyberbullying and other forms of digital conflict and cruelty, including online harassment and sexual harassment? Once we have a functional taxonomy of the different types of digital cruelty, what are the short- and long-term effects of exposure to or participation in these social behaviors? What are the idiosyncratic characteristics of digital communication that users can be taught? Finally, how can we apply this information to develop and evaluate effective prevention programs? Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. CT4 - Cost-Optimum Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects the status in European member states regarding implementation of the cos optimum procedure for setting energy performance requirements to new and existing buildings.......This report collects the status in European member states regarding implementation of the cos optimum procedure for setting energy performance requirements to new and existing buildings....

  9. Optimum design of Nd-doped fiber optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Lumholt, Ole

    1992-01-01

    The waveguide parameters for a Nd-doped fluoride (Nd:ZBLANP) fiber amplifier have been optimized for small-signal and booster operation using an accurate numerical model. The optimum cutoff wavelength is shown to be 800 nm and the numerical aperture should be made as large as possible. Around 80%......% booster quantum conversion efficiency can be reached for an input power of 10 dBm and a pump power of 100 mW by the use of one filter...

  10. NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) SST V2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The optimum interpolation (OI) sea surface temperature (SST) analysis is produced weekly on a one-degree grid. The analysis uses in situ and satellite SST's plus...

  11. On Optimum Safety Levels of Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents results from numerical simulations performed with the objective of identifying optimum design safety levels of conventional rubble mound and caisson breakwaters, corresponding to the lowest costs over the service life of the structures. The work is related to the PIANC Working...... Group 47 on "Selection of type of breakwater structures". The paper summaries results given in Burcharth and Sorensen (2005) related to outer rubble mound breakwaters but focus on optimum safety levels for outer caisson breakwaters on low and high rubble foundations placed on sea beds strong enough...... to resist geotechnical slip failures. Optimum safety levels formulated for use both in deterministic and probabilistic design procedures are given. Results obtained so far indicate that the optimum safety levels for caisson breakwaters are much higher than for rubble mound breakwaters....

  12. NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (or daily OISST) is an analysis constructed by combining observations from different platforms...

  13. Application of customer-interruption costs for optimum distribution planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Y.L.; Chung, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    We present a new methodology for obtaining optimum values of the integrated cost of utility investment with customer interruption in distribution planning for electric power systems by determining the reliability cost and worth of the distribution system. Reliability cost refers to investment cost of the utility in achieving a defined level of reliability. Reliability worth is the benefit gained by the utility customer from an increase of reliability. A computer program has been developed to determine comparative reliability indices for a typical distribution network. With the average interruption cost, outage duration, average disconnected load, cost data for distribution equipment, etc. being known, the relation between reliability cost, reliability worth and reliability at the specified load point are obtained. The optimum reliability of the distribution system is then determined from the minimum cost to the utility with customer interruption. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated by several practical networks. (Author)

  14. How stem defects affect the capability of optimum bucking method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Emin Akay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In forest harvesting activities, computer-assisted optimum bucking method increases the economic value of harvested trees. The bucking decision highly depends on the log quality grades which mainly vary with the surface characteristics such as stem defects and form of the stems. In this study, the effects of stem defects on optimum bucking method was investigated by comparing bucking applications which were conducted during the logging operations in two different Brutian Pine (Pinus brutia Ten stands. In the applications, the first stand contained the stems with relatively more stem defects than that of the stems in the second stand. The average number of defects per log for sample trees in the first and the second stand was recorded as 3.64 and 2.70, respectively. The results indicated that optimum bucking method increased the average economic value of harvested trees by 15.45% and 8.26 % in the stands, respectively. Therefore, the computer-assisted optimum bucking method potentially provides better results than that of traditional bucking method especially for the harvested trees with more stem defects.

  15. Optimum Stratification of a Skewed Population

    OpenAIRE

    D.K. Rao; M.G.M. Khan; K.G. Reddy

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to develop a technique of solving a combined problem of determining Optimum Strata Boundaries(OSB) and Optimum Sample Size (OSS) of each stratum, when the population understudy isskewed and the study variable has a Pareto frequency distribution. The problem of determining the OSB isformulated as a Mathematical Programming Problem (MPP) which is then solved by dynamic programming technique. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the compu...

  16. Simulation of heat exchanger network (HEN) and planning the optimum cleaning schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaye, Sepehr; Niroomand, Behzad

    2007-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of heat exchanger networks for estimating the amount of fouling, variations in overall heat transfer coefficient, and variations in outlet temperatures of hot and cold streams has a significant effect on production analysis. In this analysis, parameters such as the exchangers' types and arrangements, their heat transfer surface areas, mass flow rates of hot and cold streams, heat transfer coefficients and variations of fouling with time are required input data. The main goal is to find the variations of the outlet temperatures of the hot and cold streams with time to plan the optimum cleaning schedule of heat exchangers that provides the minimum operational cost or maximum amount of savings. In this paper, the simulation of heat exchanger networks is performed by choosing an asymptotic fouling function. Two main parameters in the asymptotic fouling formation model, i.e. the decay time of fouling formation (τ) and the asymptotic fouling resistance (R f ∼ ) were obtained from empirical data as input parameters to the simulation relations. These data were extracted from the technical history sheets of the Khorasan Petrochemical Plant to guaranty the consistency between our model outputs and the real operating conditions. The output results of the software program developed, including the variations with time of the outlet temperatures of the hot and cold streams, the heat transfer coefficient and the heat transfer rate in the exchangers, are presented for two case studies. Then, an objective function (operational cost) was defined, and the optimal cleaning schedule of the HEN (heat exchanger network) in the Urea and Ammonia units were found by minimizing the objective function using a numerical search method. Based on this minimization procedure, the decision was made whether a heat exchanger should be cleaned or continue to operate. The final result was the most cost effective plan for the HEN cleaning schedule. The corresponding savings by

  17. Simulation of heat exchanger network (HEN) and planning the optimum cleaning schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanaye, Sepehr [Energy Systems Improvement Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran 16488 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: sepehr@iust.ac.ir; Niroomand, Behzad [Energy Systems Improvement Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran 16488 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    Modeling and simulation of heat exchanger networks for estimating the amount of fouling, variations in overall heat transfer coefficient, and variations in outlet temperatures of hot and cold streams has a significant effect on production analysis. In this analysis, parameters such as the exchangers' types and arrangements, their heat transfer surface areas, mass flow rates of hot and cold streams, heat transfer coefficients and variations of fouling with time are required input data. The main goal is to find the variations of the outlet temperatures of the hot and cold streams with time to plan the optimum cleaning schedule of heat exchangers that provides the minimum operational cost or maximum amount of savings. In this paper, the simulation of heat exchanger networks is performed by choosing an asymptotic fouling function. Two main parameters in the asymptotic fouling formation model, i.e. the decay time of fouling formation ({tau}) and the asymptotic fouling resistance (R{sub f}{sup {approx}}) were obtained from empirical data as input parameters to the simulation relations. These data were extracted from the technical history sheets of the Khorasan Petrochemical Plant to guaranty the consistency between our model outputs and the real operating conditions. The output results of the software program developed, including the variations with time of the outlet temperatures of the hot and cold streams, the heat transfer coefficient and the heat transfer rate in the exchangers, are presented for two case studies. Then, an objective function (operational cost) was defined, and the optimal cleaning schedule of the HEN (heat exchanger network) in the Urea and Ammonia units were found by minimizing the objective function using a numerical search method. Based on this minimization procedure, the decision was made whether a heat exchanger should be cleaned or continue to operate. The final result was the most cost effective plan for the HEN cleaning schedule. The

  18. Determination of optimum pressurizer level for kori unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dong Soo; Lee, Chang Sup; Lee Jae Yong; Kim, Yo Han; Lee, Dong Hyuk [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    To determine the optimum pressurizer water level during normal operation for Kori unit 1, performance and safety analysis are performed. The methodology is developed by evaluating {sup d}ecrease in secondary heat removal{sup e}vents such as Loss of Normal Feedwater accident. To demonstrate optimum pressurizer level setpoint, RETRAN-03 code is used for performance analysis. Analysis results of RETRAN following reactor trip are compared with the actual plant data to justify RETRAN code modelling. The results of performance and safety analyses show that the newly established level setpoints not only improve the performance of pressurizer during transient including reactor trip but also meet the design bases of the pressurizer volume and pressure. 6 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  19. Determination of optimum pressurizer level for kori unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dong Soo; Lee, Chang Sup; Yong, Lee Jae; Kim, Yo Han; Lee, Dong Hyuk [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    To determine the optimum pressurizer water level during normal operation for Kori unit 1, performance and safety analysis are performed. The methodology is developed by evaluating {sup d}ecrease in secondary heat removal{sup e}vents such as Loss of Normal Feedwater accident. To demonstrate optimum pressurizer level setpoint, RETRAN-03 code is used for performance analysis. Analysis results of RETRAN following reactor trip are compared with the actual plant data to justify RETRAN code modelling. The results of performance and safety analyses show that the newly established level setpoints not only improve the performance of pressurizer during transient including reactor trip but also meet the design bases of the pressurizer volume and pressure. 6 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  20. The theory of an ‘optimum currency area’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Kundera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to analyse and distinguish the main components of the theory of an ‘Optimum Currency Area’. The theory of an optimum currency area indicates some essential elements as preconditions for the successful introduction of a common currency: high mobility of labour, openness of the economy defined as a high proportion of tradable to non-tradable goods, and high diversification of domestic production before joining the union. The article’s analysis helps to better understanding the reasons of the current crisis in the euro zone. The main problem with a common currency area is the adjustment to imbalances, which cannot take place through exchange rates in conditions of a common currency. The missing elements of the theory are the role of the mobility of capital to correct interregional balance of payments disequilibria and lack of a common budget with sufficient own resources during the occurrence of debt crises in member countries. The theory of an optimum currency area has noticed the importance of coordination between fiscal and monetary policy and the necessity of redistribution of resources among partners. However, it does not say much about the methods applied, how to deal with debt crises and what the cost of a potential breaking up of monetary union would be.

  1. Determination of optimum filter in inferolateral view of myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takavar; Eftekhari, M.; Fallahi, B.; Shamsipour, Gh.; Sohrabi, M.; Saghari, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging, images are degraded by photon attenuation, distance-dependent collimator, detector response and photon scattering. As filters greatly affect quality of nuclear medicine images, in this study determination of optimum filter for inferolateral view is our prime objective. Materials and Methods: .A phantom simulating heart left ventricle was built. About 1mCi of 99m Tc, was injected into the phantom. Images were taken from this phantom. Parzen, Hamming, Hanning, Butter worth and Gaussian filters were exerted on the images obtained from the phantom.. By defining some criteria such as contrast, signal to noise ratio, and defect size delectability, the best filter was determined for our ADAC spect system at our nuclear medicine center. In this study, 27 patients who previously had undergone coronary angiography were chosen to be included. All of these patients revealed significant stenosis in the left circumflex artery. Myocardial SPECT images of these patients had inferolateral defect. The images of these patients were processed with 12 filters including the optimum filters obtained from phantom study and some other non-optimum filters. A nuclear medicine physician quantified the results by assigmng mark from 0 to 4. to every image. 0 mark for images that didn't show the defect properly and 4 for the best one. The data from patient study were analyzed with non-related, non -parametric Friedman test. Results: Nyquist frequency of 0.325 and 0.5 were obtained as the optimum cut-off frequencies for hamming and Hanning filters respectively. Order 11 and cut-off frequency of 0.45 and order 20. with cut-off frequency of 0.5 were found to be optimum for Butter worth and Gaussian filters. In patient studies it was found that, Butter worth filter with cut-off frequency of 0.45 and order of 11 produced the best quality images. Conclusion: In this study. Butter worth filter with cut-off frequency of 0.45 and order of 11 was the

  2. Optimum Tilt Angle at Tropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soulayman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available : One of the important parameters that affect the performance of a solar collector is its tilt angle with the horizon. This is because of the variation of tilt angle changes the amount of solar radiation reaching the collector surface. Meanwhile, is the rule of thumb, which says that solar collector Equator facing position is the best, is valid for tropical region? Thus, it is required to determine the optimum tilt as for Equator facing and for Pole oriented collectors. In addition, the question that may arise: how many times is reasonable for adjusting collector tilt angle for a definite value of surface azimuth angle? A mathematical model was used for estimating the solar radiation on a tilted surface, and to determine the optimum tilt angle and orientation (surface azimuth angle for the solar collector at any latitude. This model was applied for determining optimum tilt angle and orientation in the tropical zones, on a daily basis, as well as for a specific period. The optimum angle was computed by searching for the values for which the radiation on the collector surface is a maximum for a particular day or a specific period. The results reveal that changing the tilt angle 12 times in a year (i.e. using the monthly optimum tilt angle maintains approximately the total amount of solar radiation near the maximum value that is found by changing the tilt angle daily to its optimum value. This achieves a yearly gain in solar radiation of 11% to 18% more than the case of a solar collector fixed on a horizontal surface.

  3. Optimum reliable operation of water distribution networks by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... ௠௔௫. Ͳ Ǥʹͷ ݂݅ ܲ௜ ൐ ܲ௜. ௠௔௫. ,. , ,. 1. 1 max p t. Npu. p t sc sc sc. Npu sc sc. R. R r r. = = ×. = ∑ .... programming effort. Figure 3. Penalty curve for ...

  4. Common Core: Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Moore, Roxane Kushner

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core has become a household term and yet many educators do not understand what it means. This article explains the historical perspectives of the Common Core and gives guidance to teachers in application of Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE) necessary for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards. An effective…

  5. Optimum fiber distribution in singlewall corrugated fiberboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard W. Johnson; Thomas J. Urbanik; William E. Denniston

    1979-01-01

    Determining optimum distribution of fiber through rational design of corrugated fiberboard could result in significant reductions in fiber required to meet end-use conditions, with subsequent reductions in price pressure and extension of the softwood timber supply. A theory of thin plates under large deformations is developed that is both kinematically and physically...

  6. Calculations enable optimum design of magnetic brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmahl, H. G.

    1966-01-01

    Mathematical analysis and computations determine optimum magnetic coil configurations for a magnetic brake which controllably decelerates a free falling load to a soft stop. Calculations on unconventionally wound coils determine the required parameters for the desired deceleration with minimum electrical energy supplied to the stationary coil.

  7. Genotype x environment interaction and optimum resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... x E) interaction and to determine the optimum resource allocation for cassava yield trials. The effects of environment, genotype and G x E interaction were highly significant for all yield traits. Variations due to G x E interaction were greater than those due to genotypic differences for all yield traits. Genotype x location x year ...

  8. Determination of the Optimum Thickness of Approximately ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to conserve the world's scarce energy and material resources, a balance between the cost of heating a material and the optimum thickness of the material becomes vey essential. One of such materials is the local cast aluminium pot commonly used as cooking ware in Nigeria. This paper therefore sets up a ...

  9. Development of the optimum rotor theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; van Kuik, Gijs A.M.

    The purpose of this study is the examination of optimum rotor theories with ideal load distributions along the blades, to analyze some of the underlying ideas and concepts, as well as to illuminate them. The book gives the historical background of the issue and presents the analysis of the problems...

  10. OPTIMUM PROGRAMMABLE CONTROL OF UNMANNED FLYING VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. А. Lobaty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an analytical synthesis problem pertaining to programmable control of an unmanned flying vehicle while steering it to the fixed space point. The problem has been solved while applying a maximum principle which takes into account a final control purpose and its integral expenses. The paper presents an optimum law of controlling overload variation of a flying vehicle that has been obtained analytically

  11. The optimum lead thickness for lead-activation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Fenni; Hu Qingyuan

    2009-01-01

    The optimum lead thickness for lead-activation detectors has been studied in this paper. First existence of the optimum lead thickness is explained theoretically. Then the optimum lead thickness is obtained by two methods, MCNP5 calculation and mathematical estimation. At last factors which affect the optimum lead thickness are discussed. It turns out that the optimum lead thickness is irrelevant to incident neutron energies. It is recommended 2.5 cm generally.

  12. Defining the target volume for post-operative radiotherapy after D2 dissection in gastric cancer by CT-based vessel-guided delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hong In; Chang, Jee Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Noh, Sung Hoon; Hyung, Woo Jin; An, Ji Yeong; Lee, Yong Chan; Rha, Sun Young; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Koom, Woong Sub

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the recurrent nodal gross tumor volume (rnGTV) based on CT-guided vascular structure to refine the clinical target volume (CTV) delineation in postoperative radiotherapy for advanced gastric cancer following radical gastrectomy with D2 dissection. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed follow-up images from 91 patients with their first regional recurrence after D2 dissection in stage III gastric cancer with N3 disease. We defined rnGTV as recurrent nodes shown in follow-up CT images, in which one diagnostic radiologist with specialty of gastrointestinal tract investigated. We drew rnGTVs at the equivalent location based on the same vessels of reference comparing CT images to recurrence CT images. Results: We propose vessel-based locations of rnGTVs on CT images with axial and coronal views. We show different patterns of regional recurrence according to the location of primary gastric cancer using CT and digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) images. Frequently recurred sites, overlapped by more than five rnGTVs, are depicted in a DRR image. Conclusions: This study suggests vessel-based delineations of rnGTVs on CT images depending on nodal recurrence sites from follow-up images after D2 lymphadenectomy. Our results could help reduce the inter-observer variation of CTV delineation after D2 dissection in gastric cancer

  13. Optimum MRS site location to minimize spent fuel transportation impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A range of spent fuel transportation system parameters are examined in terms of attributes important to minimizing transportation impacts as a basis for identifying geographic regions best suited for siting a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. Transportation system parameters within existing transport cask design and transportation mode capabilities were systematically analyzed. The optimum MRS location was found to be very sensitive to transportation system assumptions particularly with regard to the relative efficiencies of the reactor-to-MRS and MRS-to-repository components of the system. Moreover, dramatic improvements in the reactor-to-MRS component can be made through use of multiple cask shipment of the largest practical casks by dedicated train compared to the traditional single cask rail (70%) and truck (30%) shipments assumed the Department of Energy in their studies that defined the optimum MRS location in the vicinity of Tennessee. It is important to develop and utilize an efficient transportation system irrespective of whether or not an MRS is in the system. Assuming reasonably achievable efficiency in reactor-to-MRS spent fuel transportation and assigning equal probabilities to the three western sites selected for characterization of being the repository site, the optimum MRS location would be in the far-mid-western states. Based on various geographic criteria including barge access and location in a nuclear service area, the State of Tennessee ranks any place from 12th to the 25th at a penalty of about 30% over the minimum achievable impacts. While minimizing transportation impacts is an important factor, other criteria should also be considered in selecting an MRS site

  14. Determining the optimum length of a bridge opening with a specified reliability level of water runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current trends in construction are aimed at providing reliability and safety of engineering facilities. According to the latest government regulations for construction, the scientific approach to engineering research, design, construction and operation of construction projects is a key priority. The reliability of a road depends on a great number of factors and characteristics of their statistical compounds (sequential and parallel. A part of a road with such man-made structures as a bridge or a pipe is considered as a system with a sequential element connection. The overall reliability is the multiplication of the reliability of these elements. The parameters of engineering structures defined by analytical dependences are highly volatile because of the inaccuracy of the defining factors. However each physical parameter is statistically unstable that is evaluated by variable coefficient of their values. It causes the fluctuation in the parameters of engineering structures. Their study may result in the changes in general and particular design rules in order to increase the reliability. The paper gives the grounds for these changes by the example of a bridge. It allows calculating its optimum length with a specified reliability level of water runoff under the bridge.

  15. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  16. Design issues for optimum solar cell configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Thakur, Ajay D.

    2018-05-01

    A computer based simulation of solar cell structure is performed to study the optimization of pn junction configuration for photovoltaic action. The fundamental aspects of photovoltaic action viz, absorption, separation collection, and their dependence on material properties and deatails of device structures is discussed. Using SCAPS 1D we have simulated the ideal pn junction and shown the effect of band offset and carrier densities on solar cell performance. The optimum configuration can be achieved by optimizing transport of carriers in pn junction under effect of field dependent recombination (tunneling) and density dependent recombination (SRH, Auger) mechanisms.

  17. On the optimum area-balanced filters for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripamonti, G.; Pullia, A.

    1996-01-01

    The minimum noise area-balanced (A-B) filters for nuclear spectroscopy are disentangled in the sum of two optimized individual filters. The former is the unipolar finite cusp filter, used for pulse amplitude estimation but affected by baseline shift errors, the latter is a specific filter used for baseline estimation. Each of them is optimized so as to give the minimum noise in the estimation of the pulse amplitude or of its baseline level. It is shown that double optimisation produces an overall optimum filter exhibiting a total noise V 2 n equal to the sum of the noises V 2 n1 and V 2 n2 exhibited by each filter individually. This is a consequence of the orthogonality of the individual filter weight-functions in a function space where the norm is defined as √(V 2 n ). (orig.)

  18. A novel approach for optimum allocation of FACTS devices using multi-objective function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitizadeh, M.; Kalantar, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to find optimum type, location, and capacity of flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS) devices in a power system using a multi-objective optimization function. Thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) and static var compensator (SVC) are utilized to achieve these objectives: active power loss reduction, new introduced FACTS devices cost reduction, increase the robustness of the security margin against voltage collapse, and voltage deviation reduction. The operational and controlling constraints as well as load constraints are considered in the optimum allocation procedure. Here, a goal attainment method based on simulated annealing is used to approach the global optimum. In addition, the estimated annual load profile has been utilized to the optimum siting and sizing of FACTS devices to approach a practical solution. The standard IEEE 14-bus test system is used to validate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method

  19. Deposition uniformity, particle nucleation and the optimum conditions for CVD in multi-wafer furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, S.K.; Nilson, R.H.

    1996-06-01

    A second-order perturbation solution describing the radial transport of a reactive species and concurrent deposition on wafer surfaces is derived for use in optimizing CVD process conditions. The result is applicable to a variety of deposition reactions and accounts for both diffusive and advective transport, as well as both ordinary and Knudsen diffusion. Based on the first-order approximation, the deposition rate is maximized subject to a constraint on the radial uniformity of the deposition rate. For a fixed reactant mole fraction, the optimum pressure and optimum temperature are obtained using the method of Lagrange multipliers. This yields a weak one-sided maximum; deposition rates fall as pressures are reduced but remain nearly constant at all pressures above the optimum value. The deposition rate is also maximized subject to dual constraints on the uniformity and particle nucleation rate. In this case, the optimum pressure, optimum temperature and optimum reactant fraction are similarly obtained, and the resulting maximum deposition rate is well defined. These results are also applicable to CVI processes used in composites manufacturing.

  20. REGARDING "TRAGIC ECONOMIC OPTIMUM" FROM HOLISTIC+ PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Popescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication aims to discuss the new scientific vision of "the entire integrated" as it follows the recent achievements of quantum physics, psychology and biology. From this perspective, economy is seen as a living organism, part of the social organism and together with de bright ecology. The optimum of the economy as a living organism is based on dynamic compatibilities with all common living requirements. The evolution of economic life is organically linked to the unavoidable circumstances contained in the form of V. Frankl ‘s tragic triad consisting of: pain, guilt and death. In interaction with the holistic triad circumscribed by limitations, uncertainties and open interdependencies, the tragic economic optimum (TEO is formed. It can be understood as that state of economic life in which freedom of choice of scarce resources under uncertainty has in the compatibility of rationality and hope the development criteria of MEANING. TEO means to say YES to economic life even in conditions of resource limitations, bankruptcies and unemployment, negative externalities, stress, etc. By respiritualization of responsibility using scientific knowledge. TEO - involves multicriteria modeling of economic life by integrating human demands, community, environmental, spiritual and business development in the assessment predicting human GDP as a variable wave aggregate.

  1. Uniform and Non-Uniform Optimum Scalar Quantizers Performances: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fendy Santoso

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate source coding, the representation of information source output by finite R bits/symbol. The performance of optimum quantisers subject to an entropy constraint has been studied. The definitive work in this area is best summarised by Shannon’s source coding theorem, that is, a source with entropy H can be encoded with arbitrarily small error probability at any rate R (bits/source output as long as R>H. Conversely, If R the error probability will be driven away from zero, independent of the complexity of the encoder and the decoder employed. In this context, the main objective of engineers is however to design the optimum code. Unfortunately, the rate-distortion theorem does not provide the recipe for such a design. The theorem does, however, provide the theoretical limit so that we know how close we are to the optimum. The full understanding of the theorem also helps in setting the direction to achieve such an optimum. In this research, we have investigated the performances of two practical scalar quantisers, i.e., a Lloyd-Max quantiser and the uniformly defined one and also a well-known entropy coding scheme, i.e., Huffman coding against their theoretically attainable optimum performance due to Shannon’s limit R. It has been shown that our uniformly defined quantiser could demonstrate superior performance. The performance improvements, in fact, are more noticeable at higher bit rates.

  2. Design chart of optimum current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, K.; Katase, A.; Maechata, K.

    1986-01-01

    The heat flow through current leads is one of major heat losses in a superconducting magnet system. To reduce the heat flow, current leads have been optimized in a complex way by varying such quantities as conductor length, cross-sectional area, heat transfer coefficient and cooling perimeter. Therefore, this study is made to simplify the design procedure, and to explain the general characteristics of the current leads. A new combined parameter which takes turbulent flow into account is introduced in the present work to enable us to draw a useful design chart. This chart gives, to a wide variety of current leads, detailed information about the optimum design-viz. geometric dimensions, heat flow into liquid helium, and pressure drop of the cooling gas. Change of the cross-sectional area along the conductor may improve the current lead performance. The effects of this area change are examined in detail

  3. Optimum Maintenance Strategies for Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frangopol, Dan M.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Das, Parag C.

    As bridges become older and maintenance costs become higher, transportation agencies are facing challenges related to implementation of optimal bridge management programs based on life cycle cost considerations. A reliability-based approach is necessary to find optimal solutions based on minimum...... expected life-cycle costs or maximum life-cycle benefits. This is because many maintenance activities can be associated with significant costs, but their effects on bridge safety can be minor. In this paper, the program of an investigation on optimum maintenance strategies for different bridge types...... is described. The end result of this investigation will be a general reliability-based framework to be used by the UK Highways Agency in order to plan optimal strategies for the maintenance of its bridge network so as to optimize whole-life costs....

  4. Optimum utilisation of the uranium resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, S. E.; Wilson, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear industry faces many challenges, notably to maximise safety, secure an adequate energy supply, manage wastes satisfactorily and achieve political acceptability. One way forward is to optimise together the various interdependent stages of the fuel cycle - the now familiar 'holistic approach'. Many of the issues will demand large R and D expenditure, most effectively met through international collaboration. Sustainable development requires optimum utilisation of energy potential, to which the most accessible key is recycling uranium and the plutonium bred from it. Realising anything like this full potential requires fast-neutron reactors, and therefore BNFL continues to sustain the UK involvement in their international development. Meanwhile, current R and D programmes must aim to make the nuclear option more competitive against fossil resources, while maintaining and developing the necessary skills for more advanced technologies The paper outlines the strategies being pursued and highlights BNFL 's programmes. (author)

  5. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    Network Service Providers (NSP) often choose to overprovision their networks instead of deploying proper Quality of Services (QoS) mechanisms that allow for traffic differentiation and predictable quality. This tendency of overprovisioning is not sustainable for the simple reason that network...... resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...... generic perspective (e.g. service provisioning speed, resources availability). As a result, new mechanisms for providing QoS are proposed, solutions for SDN-specific QoS challenges are designed and tested, and new network management concepts are prototyped, all aiming to improve QoS for network services...

  6. Optimum regulation of grid monopoly in the power trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, E.

    1994-06-01

    The report discusses the organization and behaviour of grid monopolies in the Norwegian power trade and relations to the socio-economic effectiveness. The main attention is laid on analyzing regulation mechanisms and measures leading to an efficient short-term operation and to the investment of optimum production capacity in a long run. Regarding the management, measures are discussed for increasing the efficiency of total power trade by evaluating the existing marketing function of Statnett. Some basic conditions are accounted concerning the regulation problem of grid monopolies with a particular attention to asymmetric information between the authority and the monopoly. In addition, forms of regulation and regulation mechanisms together with the incentive characteristics of these, are discussed. The existing profit regulation principles in relation to an alternative system design such as maximum price regulation combined with standard regulation, are evaluated. 16 refs., 7 figs

  7. Optimum Choice of RF Frequency for Two Beam Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Hans Heinrich

    2003-01-01

    Recent experimental results on normal conducting RF structures indicate that the scaling of the gradient limit with frequency is less favourable than what was believed. We therefore reconsider the optimum choice of RF frequency and iris aperture for a normal conducting, two-beam linear collider with E_CMS=3 TeV, a loaded accelerating gradient of 150 MV/m and a luminosity of 8 10^34 cm-^2 s^-1. The optimisation criterion is minimizing overall RF costs for investment and operation with constraints put on peak surface electric fields and pulsed heating of accelerating structures. Analytical models are employed where applicable, while interpolation on simulation program results is used for the calculation of luminosity and RF structure properties.

  8. Optimum energy management of a photovoltaic water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallem, Souhir; Chaabene, Maher; Kamoun, M.B.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new management approach which makes decision on the optimum connection times of the elements of a photovoltaic water pumping installation: battery, water pump and photovoltaic panel. The decision is made by fuzzy rules considering the battery safety on the first hand and the Photovoltaic Panel Generation (PVPG) forecast during a considered day and the load required power on the second hand. The optimization approach consists of the extension of the operation time of the water pump with respects to multi objective management criteria. Compared to the stand alone management method, the new approach effectiveness is confirmed by the extension of the pumping period for more than 5 h a day.

  9. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Zacarias, A. [ESIME UPA, IPN, Av. de las Granjas 682, Col. Santa Catarina, 02550, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  10. Optimum fuel allocation in parallel steam generator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollettini, U.; Cangioli, E.; Cerri, G.; Rome Univ. 'La Sapienza'; Trento Univ.

    1991-01-01

    An optimization procedure was developed to allocate fuels into parallel steam generators. The procedure takes into account the level of performance deterioration connected with the loading history (fossil fuel allocation and maintenance) of each steam generator. The optimization objective function is the system hourly cost, overall steam demand being satisfied. Costs are due to fuel and electric power supply and to plant depreciation and maintenance as well. In order to easily updata the state of each steam generator, particular care was put in the general formulation of the steam production function by adopting a special efficiency-load curve description based on a deterioration scaling parameter. The influence of the characteristic time interval length on the optimum operation result is investigated. A special implementation of the method based on minimum cost paths is suggested

  11. Optimum design of cogeneration system for nuclear seawater desalination - 15272

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y.H.; Jeong, Y.H.

    2015-01-01

    A nuclear desalination process, which uses the energy released by nuclear fission, has less environmental impact and is generally cost-competitive with a fossil-fuel desalination process. A reference cogeneration system focused on in this study is the APR-1400 coupled with a MED (multi-effect distillation) process using the thermal vapor compression (TVC) technology. The thermal condition of the heat source is the most crucial factor that determines the desalination performance, i.e. energy consumption or freshwater production, of the MED-TVC process. The MED-TVC process operating at a higher motive steam pressure clearly shows a higher desalination performance. However, this increased performance does not necessarily translate to an advantage over processes operated at lower motive steam pressures. For instance, a higher motive steam pressure will increase the heat cost resulting from larger electricity generation loss, and thus may make this process unfavorable from an economic point of view. Therefore, there exists an optimum design point in the coupling configuration that makes the nuclear cogeneration system the most economical. This study is mainly aimed at investigating this optimum coupling design point of the reference nuclear cogeneration system using corresponding analysis tools. The following tools are used: MEE developed by the MEDRC for desalination performance analysis of the MED-TVC process, DE-TOP and DEEP developed by the IAEA for modeling of coupling configuration and economic evaluation of the nuclear cogeneration system, respectively. The results indicate that steam extraction from the MS exhaust and condensate return to HP FWHTR 5 is the most economical coupling design

  12. DETERMINATION of OPTIMUM CONDITION of PAPAIN ENZYME FROM PAPAYA VAR JAVA (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Puspita Kusumadjaja

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study to investigate the optimum condition of papain enzyme has been carried out. The condition that are investigated are pH and temperature, based on measurement of enzyme activity which is defined as mmole tyrosin that are released in reaction between papain enzyme and casein as substrat per minute. In this research, the papain enzyme was isolated from pepaya burung varietas Java. The enzyme was partially purified by precipitation method using 30% - 50% saturated acetone. The result showed that the optimum conditions of papain enzyme are in pH 6 with activity 2,606 U/mL, and temperature at 50 oC with activity 2,469 U/mL. Keywords : Papaya var Java, papain, optimum condition, enzymatic activity

  13. An Optimum Solution for Electric Power Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Hussain Memon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric power theft is a problem that continues to plague power sector across the whole country. Every year, the electricity companies face the line losses at an average 20-30% and according to power ministry estimation WAPDA companies lose more than Rs. 125 billion. Significantly, it is enough to destroy the entire power sector of country. According to sources 20% losses means the masses would have to pay extra 20% in terms of electricity tariffs. In other words, the innocent consumers pay the bills of those who steal electricity. For all that, no any permanent solution for this major issue has ever been proposed. We propose an applicable and optimum solution for this impassable problem. In our research, we propose an Electric power theft solution based on three stages; Transmission stage, Distribution stage, and User stage. Without synchronization among all, the complete solution can not be achieved. The proposed solution is simulated on NI (National Instruments Circuit Design Suite Multisim v.10.0. Our research work is an implicit and a workable approach towards the Electric power theft, as for conditions in Pakistan, which is bearing the brunt of power crises already

  14. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  15. Designing from minimum to optimum functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannova, Olga; Bell, Larry

    2011-04-01

    This paper discusses a multifaceted strategy to link NASA Minimal Functionality Habitable Element (MFHE) requirements to a compatible growth plan; leading forward to evolutionary, deployable habitats including outpost development stages. The discussion begins by reviewing fundamental geometric features inherent in small scale, vertical and horizontal, pressurized module configuration options to characterize applicability to meet stringent MFHE constraints. A proposed scenario to incorporate a vertical core MFHE concept into an expanded architecture to provide continuity of structural form and a logical path from "minimum" to "optimum" design of a habitable module. The paper describes how habitation and logistics accommodations could be pre-integrated into a common Hab/Log Module that serves both habitation and logistics functions. This is offered as a means to reduce unnecessary redundant development costs and to avoid EVA-intensive on-site adaptation and retrofitting requirements for augmented crew capacity. An evolutionary version of the hard shell Hab/Log design would have an expandable middle section to afford larger living and working accommodations. In conclusion, the paper illustrates that a number of cargo missions referenced for NASA's 4.0.0 Lunar Campaign Scenario could be eliminated altogether to expedite progress and reduce budgets. The plan concludes with a vertical growth geometry that provides versatile and efficient site development opportunities using a combination of hard Hab/Log modules and a hybrid expandable "CLAM" (Crew Lunar Accommodations Module) element.

  16. Achieving optimum diffraction based overlay performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee; Coogans, Martyn; Fuchs, Andreas; Ponomarenko, Mariya; van der Schaar, Maurits; Vanoppen, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) metrology has been shown to have significantly reduced Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) compared to Image Based Overlay (IBO), primarily due to having no measurable Tool Induced Shift (TIS). However, the advantages of having no measurable TIS can be outweighed by increased susceptibility to WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) caused by target damage, process non-uniformities and variations. The path to optimum DBO performance lies in having well characterized metrology targets, which are insensitive to process non-uniformities and variations, in combination with optimized recipes which take advantage of advanced DBO designs. In this work we examine the impact of different degrees of process non-uniformity and target damage on DBO measurement gratings and study their impact on overlay measurement accuracy and precision. Multiple wavelength and dual polarization scatterometry are used to characterize the DBO design performance over the range of process variation. In conclusion, we describe the robustness of DBO metrology to target damage and show how to exploit the measurement capability of a multiple wavelength, dual polarization scatterometry tool to ensure the required measurement accuracy for current and future technology nodes.

  17. A comparison of optimum JP and LH2 turbofan engines designed for two subsonic transport missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civinskas, K. C.

    1974-01-01

    The use of liquid hydrogen fuel instead of JP fuel for two subsonic commercial transports was examined. The following determinations which are important to meeting noise reduction requirements were calculated: (1) take off gross weight, (2) energy consumption, and (3) direct operating costs. The optimum engine cycles were found to be the same for both fuels.

  18. Optimum copper to superconductor ratio in cables for superconducting magnets at 1.9 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the optimum copper to superconducting ratio is calculated to prevent quenching for superconducting cables used in accelerator magnets like the LHC dipoles, operating in superfluid helium at 1.9K. The duration of the perturbations leading to a quench are estimated from flux measurements made with pickup coils in the LHC dipole models. The optimum copper to superconducting ratio is then found by studying the minimum quench energy and the influence of the length and the duration or the perturbation and heat transfer to the surroundings. A comparison is made of the behavior at temperatures of 1.9 and 4.3 K

  19. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Under the 10 th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels

  20. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.

    2014-10-01

    Under the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  1. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A., E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Sivapalan, Subarna, E-mail: subarna-sivapalan@petronas.com.my [Department of Management and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  2. A techno-economic model for optimum regeneration of surface mined land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Manas K.; Sinha, Indra N.

    2006-07-01

    The recent global scenario in the mineral sector may be characterized by rising competitiveness, increasing production costs and a slump in market price. This has pushed the mineral sector in general and that in the developing countries in particular to a situation where the industry has a limited capacity to sustain unproductive costs. This, more often than not, results in a situation where the industry fails to ensure environmental safeguards during and after mineral extraction. The situation is conspicuous in the Indian coal mining industry where more than 73% production comes from surface operations. India has an ambitious power augmentation projection for the coming 10 years. A phenomenal increase in coal production is proposed from the power grade coalfields in India. One of the most likely fall-outs of land degradation due to mining in these areas would be significant reduction of agricultural and other important land-uses. Currently, backfilling costs are perceived as prohibitive and abandonment of land is the easy way out. This study attempts to provide mine planners with a mathematical model that distributes generated overburden at defined disposal options while ensuring maximization of backfilled land area at minimum direct and economic costs. Optimization has been accomplished by linear programming (LP) for optimum distribution of each year’s generated overburden. Previous year’s disposal quantity outputs are processed as one set of the inputs to the LP model for generation of current year’s disposal output. From various geo-mining inputs, site constants of the LP constraints are calculated. Arrived value of economic vectors, which guide the programming statement, decides the optimal overburden distribution in defined options. The case example (with model test run) indicates that overburden distribution is significantly sensitive to coal seam gradient. The model has universal applicability to cyclic system (shovel dumper combination) of opencast

  3. Optimum gain and phase for stochastic cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meer, S. van der.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed analysis of optimum gain and phase adjustment in stochastic cooling systems reveals that the result is strongly influenced by the beam feedback effect and that for optimum performance the system phase should change appreciably across each Schottky band. It is shown that the performance is not greatly diminished if a constant phase is adopted instead. On the other hand, the effect of mixing between pick-up and kicker (which produces a phase change similar to the optimum one) is shown to be less perturbing than is usually assumed, provided that the absolute value of the gain is not too far from the optimum value. (orig.)

  4. Generalized Pareto optimum and semi-classical spinors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleux, M.

    2018-02-01

    In 1971, S. Smale presented a generalization of Pareto optimum he called the critical Pareto set. The underlying motivation was to extend Morse theory to several functions, i.e. to find a Morse theory for m differentiable functions defined on a manifold M of dimension ℓ. We use this framework to take a 2 × 2 Hamiltonian ℋ = ℋ(p) ∈ 2 C ∞(T * R 2) to its normal form near a singular point of the Fresnel surface. Namely we say that ℋ has the Pareto property if it decomposes, locally, up to a conjugation with regular matrices, as ℋ(p) = u ‧(p)C(p)(u ‧(p))*, where u : R 2 → R 2 has singularities of codimension 1 or 2, and C(p) is a regular Hermitian matrix (“integrating factor”). In particular this applies in certain cases to the matrix Hamiltonian of Elasticity theory and its (relative) perturbations of order 3 in momentum at the origin.

  5. Evaluation of the optimum region for mammographic system using computer simulation to study modulation transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Isaura N. Sombra; Schiable, Homero; Porcel, Naider T.; Frere, Annie F.; Marques, Paulo M.A.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the 'optimum region' of the radiation field considering mammographic systems is studied. Such a region was defined in previous works as the field range where the system has its best performance and sharpest images. This study is based on a correlation of two methods for evaluating radiologic imaging systems, both using computer simulation in order to determine modulation transfer functions (MTFs) due to the X-ray tube focal spot in several field orientation and locations

  6. (ajst) on optimum dispatch of electric power

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    same time satisfy the load flow equation without violating the inequality constraints. Key Words: Generation ... variables, including real and reactive power generations, phase – shifter ... variable u and the operating limits on the power system bus voltage ... soft” limits (i.e. small violation is tolerable, e. g. voltage limit at load ...

  7. The optimum decision rules for the oddity task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versfeld, N.J.; Dai, H.; Green, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the optimum decision rule for an m-interval oddity task in which m-1 intervals contain the same signal and one is different or odd. The optimum decision rule depends on the degree of correlation among observations. The present approach unifies the different strategies that occur

  8. Optimum mobility’ facelift. Part 2 – the technique

    OpenAIRE

    Fanous, Nabil; Karsan, Naznin; Zakhary, Kristina; Tawile, Carolyne

    2006-01-01

    In the first of this two-part article on the ‘optimum mobility’ facelift, facial tissue mobility was analyzed, and three theories or mechanisms emerged: ‘intrinsic mobility’, ‘surgically induced mobility’ and ‘optimum mobility points’.

  9. Optimum material gradient composition for the functionally graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the relation between the material gradient properties and the optimum sensing/actuation design of the functionally graded piezoelectric beams. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis has been employed for the prediction of an optimum composition profile in these types of sensors and ...

  10. Optimum unambiguous discrimination of linearly independent pure state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Shengshi; Wu, Shengjun

    2009-01-01

    be satisfied by the optimum solution in different situations. We also provide the detailed steps to find the optimum measurement strategy. The method and results we obtain are given a geometrical illustration with a numerical example. Furthermore, using these equations, we derive a formula which shows a clear...

  11. Improving Influence Operations by Defining Influence and Influence Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    exclusive. The classical one views the threat or use of force as influence, while the contemporary excludes force in favor of marketing and advertising approaches...grounded within western principles of marketing and advertising —otherwise known as attitudinal messaging.89 Such an approach separates the physical

  12. Optimum fuel use in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, W.

    1979-07-01

    An optimization program was developed to calculate minimum-cost refuelling schedules for PWR reactors. Optimization was made over several cycles, without any constraints (equilibrium cycle). In developing the optimization program, special consideration was given to an individual treatment of every fuel element and to a sufficiently accurate calculation of all the data required for safe reactor operation. The results of the optimization program were compared with experimental values obtained at Obrigheim nuclear power plant. (orig.) [de

  13. Defining Quantum Control Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable difference between quantum and classical programs is that the control flow of the former can be either classical or quantum. One of the key issues in the theory of quantum programming languages is defining and understanding quantum control flow. A functional language with quantum control flow was defined by Altenkirch and Grattage [\\textit{Proc. LICS'05}, pp. 249-258]. This paper extends their work, and we introduce a general quantum control structure by defining three new quantu...

  14. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  15. Optimum motion track planning for avoiding obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attia, A.A.A

    2008-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) is a stochastic search and optimization technique based on the mechanism of natural selection. A population of candidate solutions (Chromosomes) is held and interacts over a number of iterations (Generations) to produce better solutions. In canonical GA, the chromosomes are encoded as binary strings. Driving the process is the fitness of the chromosomes, which relates the quality of a candidate in quantitative terms. The fitness function encapsulates the problem- specific knowledge. The fitness is used in a stochastic selection of pairs of chromosomes which are 'reproduced' to generate new solution strings. Reproduction involves crossover, which generates new children by combining chromosomes in a process which swaps portions of each others genes. The other reproduction operator is called mutation. Mutation randomly changes genes and is used to introduce new information into the search. Both crossover and mutation make heavy use of random numbers.The aim of this thesis is to investigate the H/W implementation of genetic algorithm based motion path planning of robot. The potential benefit of using genetic algorithm hardware is that it allows both the huge parallelism which is suited to random number generation, crossover, mutation and fitness evaluation. For many real-world applications, GA can run for days, even when it is executed on a high performance workstation. According to the extensive computation of GA, it follows that hardware-based GA has been put forward. There are aspects of GA approach attract H/W implementation. The operation of selection and reproduction are basically problem independent and involve basic string manipulation tasks. These can be achieved by logical circuits.The fitness evaluation task, which is problem dependent, however proves a major difficulty in H/W implementation. Another difficulty comes from that designs can only be used for the individual problem their fitness function represents. Therefore, in this

  16. Optimum Resource Allocation and Eliminating Waste Inside Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandru Nagarajan Sathiyabama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to allocate optimum resources for wrapping section and suggesting a suitable method that need to be in place for successful elimination of waste inside the food industry wrapping section. It also includes identifying the main reasons for various types of wastages inside wrapping section and cost of all the wastages. The paper is based on the observation and research using the approach of lean tools and techniques. The methodology used for evaluating data is value stream mapping and some statistical SPSS tools for analysis. Data’s are real and are gathered from three different production shifts inside a food industry wrapping section. The main reasons for wastages inside the wrapping section are highlighted. Finally, the paper was concluded by estimating total cost of wastages and recommended suitable way to save the wastage costs. The need of change of jaws inside the wrapping machines, regular maintenance of all machines throughout the industry and training the personnel are recommended. The possible methods along with its benefits to reduce waste, operators, improve productivity and business growth was also highlighted.

  17. Determination of Optimum Compression Ratio: A Tribological Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yüksek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are the primary energy conversion machines both in industry and transportation. Modern technologies are being implemented to engines to fulfill today's low fuel consumption demand. Friction energy consumed by the rubbing parts of the engines are becoming an important parameter for higher fuel efficiency. Rate of friction loss is primarily affected by sliding speed and the load acting upon rubbing surfaces. Compression ratio is the main parameter that increases the peak cylinder pressure and hence normal load on components. Aim of this study is to investigate the effect of compression ratio on total friction loss of a diesel engine. A variable compression ratio diesel engine was operated at four different compression ratios which were "12.96", "15:59", "18:03", "20:17". Brake power and speed was kept constant at predefined value while measuring the in- cylinder pressure. Friction mean effective pressure ( FMEP data were obtained from the in cylinder pressure curves for each compression ratio. Ratio of friction power to indicated power of the engine was increased from 22.83% to 37.06% with varying compression ratio from 12.96 to 20:17. Considering the thermal efficiency , FMEP and maximum in- cylinder pressure optimum compression ratio interval of the test engine was determined as 18.8 ÷ 19.6.

  18. Analysis of optimum density of forest roads in rural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Cipriano de Assis do Carmo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the density of roads in rural properties in the south of the Espírito Santo and compared it with the calculation of the optimal density in forestry companies in steep areas. The work was carried out in six small rural properties based on the costs of roads of forest use, wood extraction and the costs of loss of productive area. The technical analysis included time and movement study and productivity. The economic analysis included operational costs, production costs and returns for different scenarios of productivity (180m.ha-1, 220m.ha-1and 250 m.ha-1. According to the results, all the properties have densities of road well above the optimum, which reflects the lack of criteria in the planning of the forest stands, resulting in a inadequate use of plantation area. Property 1 had the highest density of roads (373.92 m.ha-1 and the property 5 presented the lowest density (111.56 m.ha-1.

  19. Optimum Water Chemistry in radiation field buildup control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chien, C. [Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Nuclear utilities continue to face the challenGE of reducing exposure of plant maintenance personnel. GE Nuclear Energy has developed the concept of Optimum Water Chemistry (OWC) to reduce the radiation field buildup and minimize the radioactive waste production. It is believed that reduction of radioactive sources and improvement of the water chemistry quality should significantly reduce both the radiation exposure and radwaste production. The most important source of radioactivity is cobalt and replacement of cobalt containing alloy in the core region as well as in the entire primary system is considered the first priority to achieve the goal of low exposure and minimized waste production. A plant specific computerized cobalt transport model has been developed to evaluate various options in a BWR system under specific conditions. Reduction of iron input and maintaining low ionic impurities in the coolant have been identified as two major tasks for operators. Addition of depleted zinc is a proven technique to reduce Co-60 in reactor water and on out-of-core piping surfaces. The effect of HWC on Co-60 transport in the primary system will also be discussed.

  20. Investigation of earthquake factor for optimum tuned mass dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigdeli, Sinan Melih; Bekdaş, Gebrail

    2012-09-01

    In this study the optimum parameters of tuned mass dampers (TMD) are investigated under earthquake excitations. An optimization strategy was carried out by using the Harmony Search (HS) algorithm. HS is a metaheuristic method which is inspired from the nature of musical performances. In addition to the HS algorithm, the results of the optimization objective are compared with the results of the other documented method and the corresponding results are eliminated. In that case, the best optimum results are obtained. During the optimization, the optimum TMD parameters were searched for single degree of freedom (SDOF) structure models with different periods. The optimization was done for different earthquakes separately and the results were compared.

  1. Optimum Design of LLC Resonant Converter using Inductance Ratio (Lm/Lr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle, Kowstubha; Krishnaveni, K.; Ramesh Reddy, Kolli

    2017-06-01

    The main benefits of LLC resonant dc/dc converter over conventional series and parallel resonant converters are its light load regulation, less circulating currents, larger bandwidth for zero voltage switching, and less tuning of switching frequency for controlled output. An unique analytical tool, called fundamental harmonic approximation with peak gain adjustment is used for designing the converter. In this paper, an optimum design of the converter is proposed by considering three different design criterions with different values of inductance ratio (Lm/Lr) to achieve good efficiency at high input voltage. The optimum design includes the analysis in operating range, switching frequency range, primary side losses of a switch and stability. The analysis is carried out with simulation using the software tools like MATLAB and PSIM. The performance of the optimized design is demonstrated for a design specification of 12 V, 5 A output operating with an input voltage range of 300-400 V using FSFR 2100 IC of Texas instruments.

  2. Exact Optimum Design of Segmented Thermoelectric Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A considerable difference between experimental and theoretical results has been observed in the studies of segmented thermoelectric generators (STEGs. Because of simplicity, the approximate methods are widely used for design and optimization of the STEGs. This study is focused on employment of exact method for design and optimization of STEGs and comparison of exact and approximate results. Thus, using new highly efficient thermoelectric materials, four STEGs are proposed to operate in the temperature range of 300 to 1300 kelvins. The proposed STEGs are optimally designed to achieve maximum efficiency. Design and performance characteristics of the optimized generators including maximum conversion efficiency and length of elements are calculated through both exact and approximate methods. The comparison indicates that the approximate method can cause a difference up to 20% in calculation of some design characteristics despite its appropriate results in efficiency calculation. The results also show that the maximum theoretical efficiency of 23.08% is achievable using the new proposed STEGs. Compatibility factor of the selected materials for the proposed STEGs is also calculated using both exact and approximate methods. The comparison indicates a negligible difference in calculation of compatibility factor, despite the considerable difference in calculation of reduced efficiency (temperature independence efficiency.

  3. OPTIMUM DESIGN OF ULTRAHIGH STRENGTH NANOLAYERED COMPOSITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. KUNG; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Refinement of the microstructure in metallic multilayers from the micrometer-scale to the nanometer-scale often results in a break down of the classical Hall-Petch model relating strength to the microstructural length scale. The critical length scale at which this behavior breaks down is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Using transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation, we evaluated the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu/Cr, Cu./Ni, and Cu/Nb multilayers that had different shear moduli mismatch between layers and lattice misfit strain between layers. Two-dimensional maps showing layer thickness and grain size ranges over which different deformation mechanisms operate were constructed using dislocation theory. The deformation mechanisms responsible for the breakdown of Hall-Petch behavior are discussed. By correlating the deformation mechanism maps with the experimental data, we show that these maps serve as guidelines for interpreting the scale-dependent deformation mechanisms in multilayers. Atomistic simulation was also used to evaluate the interaction between interfaces and glide dislocations to provide atomic scale insights into the deformation mechanisms.

  4. Comparison of Efficacy and Tolerance of Automatic Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Devices With the Optimum Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommi, George; Aronow, Wilbert S; Sheehan, John C; McCleay, Matthew T; Meyers, Patrick G

    Patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were randomly placed on automatic continuous positive airway pressure (ACPAP) for 2 hours followed by manual titration for the rest of the night. One hundred sixty-one patients entered the study, with at least 50 patients titrated with each of 3 ACPAP devices. The optimum continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was defined as the lowest pressure with an apnea-hypoxia index of ≤5/hr, which ranged from 4 cm to 18 cm. Success with ACPAP was approximately 60%-80% when the optimum CPAP was 4-6 cm but fell to below 30% if the optimum CPAP was ≥8 cm (P = 0.001). Average ACPAP ranged from 2 to 10 cm below the optimum level if the optimum CPAP was ≥8 cm. Patients who responded to a low CPAP but deteriorated on higher pressures failed to respond to any of the automatic devices. We recommend that CPAP titration be performed manually before initiation of ACPAP in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The basal pressure for ACPAP should be the optimum pressure obtained by manual titration. Limits on the upper level of ACPAP may be necessary for patients who deteriorate on higher positive pressures.

  5. The determination of the optimum counting conditions for a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurasevic, M.M.; Kandic, A.B.; Novkovic, D.N; Vukanac, I.S. . E-mail address of corresponding author: mirad@vin.bg.ac.yu; Djurasevic, M.M.)

    2005-01-01

    The methods that use scintillation counting with ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector are widely used for gross alpha activity determination. The common criteria for the selection of optimum counting condition for a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector do not consider simultaneously operating voltage and discrimination level variation. In presented method a relationship between voltage and discrimination level is derived for counting efficiency. (author)

  6. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... weight for a given height is described as overweight or obese. Body Mass Index, or BMI, is ...

  7. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): For women, low-risk drinking is defined ...

  8. Optimum Temperature and Thermal Stability of Crude Polyphenol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimum temperature was found to be 300C for the enzyme extracted from guava, ... processing industries because during the processing ... enhance the brown colour produced (Valero et al., ... considerable economic and nutritional loss.

  9. Performance characteristics of aerodynamically optimum turbines for wind energy generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, C.; Worobel, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a brief discussion of the aerodynamic methodology for wind energy generator turbines, an approach to the design of aerodynamically optimum wind turbines covering a broad range of design parameters, some insight on the effect on performance of nonoptimum blade shapes which may represent lower fabrication costs, the annual wind turbine energy for a family of optimum wind turbines, and areas of needed research. On the basis of the investigation, it is concluded that optimum wind turbines show high performance over a wide range of design velocity ratios; that structural requirements impose constraints on blade geometry; that variable pitch wind turbines provide excellent power regulation and that annual energy output is insensitive to design rpm and solidity of optimum wind turbines.

  10. Optimum strategies for nuclear energy system development (method of synthesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belenky, V.Z.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of optimum long-term development of the nuclear energy system is considered. The optimum strategies (i.e. minimum total uranium consumption) for the transition phase leading to a stationary regime of development are found. For this purpose the author has elaborated a new method of solving linear problems of optimal control which can include jumps in trajectories. The method gives a possibility to fulfil a total synthesis of optimum strategies. A key characteristic of the problem is the productivity function of the nuclear energy system which connects technological system parameters with its growth rate. There are only two types of optimum strategies, according to an increasing or decreasing productivity function. Both cases are illustrated with numerical examples. (orig.) [de

  11. Experimental validation of optimum resistance moment of concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental validation of optimum resistance moment of concrete slabs reinforced ... other solutions to combat corrosion problems in steel reinforced concrete. ... Eight specimens of two-way spanning slabs reinforced with CFRP bars were ...

  12. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  13. Optimum filters for narrow-band frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a computer search for the optimum type of bandpass filter for low-index angle-modulated signals are reported. The bandpass filters are discussed in terms of their low-pass prototypes. Only filter functions with constant numerators are considered. The pole locations for the optimum filters of several cases are shown in a table. The results are fairly independent of modulation index and bandwidth.

  14. Optimum coagulant forecasting by modeling jar test experiments using ANNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghiri, Sadaf; Daghighi, Amin; Moharramzadeh, Sina

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the proper utilization of water treatment plants and optimizing their use is of particular importance. Coagulation and flocculation in water treatment are the common ways through which the use of coagulants leads to instability of particles and the formation of larger and heavier particles, resulting in improvement of sedimentation and filtration processes. Determination of the optimum dose of such a coagulant is of particular significance. A high dose, in addition to adding costs, can cause the sediment to remain in the filtrate, a dangerous condition according to the standards, while a sub-adequate dose of coagulants can result in the reducing the required quality and acceptable performance of the coagulation process. Although jar tests are used for testing coagulants, such experiments face many constraints with respect to evaluating the results produced by sudden changes in input water because of their significant costs, long time requirements, and complex relationships among the many factors (turbidity, temperature, pH, alkalinity, etc.) that can influence the efficiency of coagulant and test results. Modeling can be used to overcome these limitations; in this research study, an artificial neural network (ANN) multi-layer perceptron (MLP) with one hidden layer has been used for modeling the jar test to determine the dosage level of used coagulant in water treatment processes. The data contained in this research have been obtained from the drinking water treatment plant located in Ardabil province in Iran. To evaluate the performance of the model, the mean squared error (MSE) and correlation coefficient (R2) parameters have been used. The obtained values are within an acceptable range that demonstrates the high accuracy of the models with respect to the estimation of water-quality characteristics and the optimal dosages of coagulants; so using these models will allow operators to not only reduce costs and time taken to perform experimental jar tests

  15. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields. I

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We study definably compact definably connected groups definable in a sufficiently saturated real closed field $R$. We introduce the notion of group-generic point for $\\bigvee$-definable groups and show the existence of group-generic points for definably compact groups definable in a sufficiently saturated o-minimal expansion of a real closed field. We use this notion along with some properties of generic sets to prove that for every definably compact definably connected group $G$ definable in...

  16. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI is actively developing Software Defined Radio platforms that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation by modifying both transmit waveforms and...

  17. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation Inc, (IAI) is currently developing a software defined radio (SDR) platform that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation for...

  18. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  19. Modal Logics and Definability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusisto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research into the mathematical foundations of modal logic has become increasingly popular. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that modal logic seems to adapt well to the requirements of a wide range of different fields of application. This paper is a summary of some of the author’s contributions to the understanding of modal definability theory.

  20. Software Defined Cyberinfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian; Blaiszik, Ben; Chard, Kyle; Chard, Ryan

    2017-07-17

    Within and across thousands of science labs, researchers and students struggle to manage data produced in experiments, simulations, and analyses. Largely manual research data lifecycle management processes mean that much time is wasted, research results are often irreproducible, and data sharing and reuse remain rare. In response, we propose a new approach to data lifecycle management in which researchers are empowered to define the actions to be performed at individual storage systems when data are created or modified: actions such as analysis, transformation, copying, and publication. We term this approach software-defined cyberinfrastructure because users can implement powerful data management policies by deploying rules to local storage systems, much as software-defined networking allows users to configure networks by deploying rules to switches.We argue that this approach can enable a new class of responsive distributed storage infrastructure that will accelerate research innovation by allowing any researcher to associate data workflows with data sources, whether local or remote, for such purposes as data ingest, characterization, indexing, and sharing. We report on early experiments with this approach in the context of experimental science, in which a simple if-trigger-then-action (IFTA) notation is used to define rules.

  1. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  2. Software Defined Coded Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Carla; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Palazzo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    the quality of each link and even across neighbouring links and using simulations to show that an additional reduction of packet transmission in the order of 40% is possible. Second, to advocate for the use of network coding (NC) jointly with software defined networking (SDN) providing an implementation...

  3. Defining depth of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S L; Stanski, D R

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, drawn largely from the synthesis of material that we first presented in the sixth edition of Miller's Anesthesia, Chap 31 (Stanski and Shafer 2005; used by permission of the publisher), we have defined anesthetic depth as the probability of non-response to stimulation, calibrated against the strength of the stimulus, the difficulty of suppressing the response, and the drug-induced probability of non-responsiveness at defined effect site concentrations. This definition requires measurement of multiple different stimuli and responses at well-defined drug concentrations. There is no one stimulus and response measurement that will capture depth of anesthesia in a clinically or scientifically meaningful manner. The "clinical art" of anesthesia requires calibration of these observations of stimuli and responses (verbal responses, movement, tachycardia) against the dose and concentration of anesthetic drugs used to reduce the probability of response, constantly adjusting the administered dose to achieve the desired anesthetic depth. In our definition of "depth of anesthesia" we define the need for two components to create the anesthetic state: hypnosis created with drugs such as propofol or the inhalational anesthetics and analgesia created with the opioids or nitrous oxide. We demonstrate the scientific evidence that profound degrees of hypnosis in the absence of analgesia will not prevent the hemodynamic responses to profoundly noxious stimuli. Also, profound degrees of analgesia do not guarantee unconsciousness. However, the combination of hypnosis and analgesia suppresses hemodynamic response to noxious stimuli and guarantees unconsciousness.

  4. Defining and classifying syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Roland D.; Wieling, Wouter; Kaufmann, Horacio; van Dijk, Gert

    2004-01-01

    There is no widely adopted definition or classification of syncope and related disorders. This lack of uniformity harms patient care, research, and medical education. In this article, syncope is defined as a form of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Differences

  5. Parametric Investigation of Optimum Thermal Insulation Thickness for External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Kaynakli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have estimated the optimum thickness of thermal insulation materials used in building walls for different climate conditions. The economic parameters (inflation rate, discount rate, lifetime and energy costs, the heating/cooling loads of the building, the wall structure and the properties of the insulation material all affect the optimum insulation thickness. This study focused on the investigation of these parameters that affect the optimum thermal insulation thickness for building walls. To determine the optimum thickness and payback period, an economic model based on life-cycle cost analysis was used. As a result, the optimum thermal insulation thickness increased with increasing the heating and cooling energy requirements, the lifetime of the building, the inflation rate, energy costs and thermal conductivity of insulation. However, the thickness decreased with increasing the discount rate, the insulation material cost, the total wall resistance, the coefficient of performance (COP of the cooling system and the solar radiation incident on a wall. In addition, the effects of these parameters on the total life-cycle cost, payback periods and energy savings were also investigated.

  6. Nuclear fusion ion beam source composed of optimum channel wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukaw, T.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Numerical and experimental researches of the hall-type beam accelerator was conducted by highlighting both neutral species and material of acceleration channel wall. The hall-type beam accelerator is expected as ion beam source for nuclear fusion since it could product ion beam density over 10 3 times as high as that of electrostatic accelerator, which is used regularly as beam heating device, because it is proven that the beam heating method could accelerate ion to high energy beam by electric field and heat plasma to ultra high temperature of 100 million degrees or more. At high-voltage mode of DC regime that is normal operational condition, however, the various plasma MHD (magneto-hydrodynamic) instabilities are generated. In particular, the large-amplitude and low-frequency plasma MHD instability in the tens of kHz among them has been a serious problem that should be solved to improve the operational stability and the system durability. So, we propose a hall-type beam accelerator with new design concepts; both acquisition of simultaneous solution for reducing the plasma MHD instability and the accelerator core overheating and optimum combination of the acceleration channel wall material. The technologies for this concept are as follows: 1) To increase neutral species velocity-inlet in acceleration channel by preheating propellant through circularly propellant conduit line inside accelerator system could bring about the lower amplitude of the instability. 2) Through this method, the accelerator system is cooled, and the higher thrust and specific-impulse is produced with hardly changing thrust efficiency at the same time. 3) To select BN (Boron- Nitride) and Al 2 O 3 as wall material of ionization- and acceleration-zone in acceleration channel respectively having different secondary-electron emission-coefficient could achieve the higher-efficiency and -durability. The hall-type beam accelerator designed using these technologies

  7. Numerical approach for optimum electromagnetic parameters of electrical machines used in vehicle traction applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodorean, D.; Giurgea, S.; Djerdir, A.; Miraoui, A.

    2009-01-01

    A large speed variation is an essential request in the automobile industry. In order to compete with diesel engines, the flux weakening technique has to be employed on the electrical machines. In this way, appropriate electromagnetic and geometrical parameters can give the desired speed. Using the inverse problem method coupled with numerical analysis by finite element method (FEM), the authors propose an optimum parameters configuration that maximizes the speed domain operation. Several types of electrical machines are under study: induction, synchronous permanent magnet, variable reluctance and transverse flux machines, respectively. With a proper non-linear model, by using analytical and numerical calculation, the authors propose an optimum solution for the speed variation of the studied drives, which will be standing for a final comparison.

  8. [Calculating the optimum size of a hemodialysis unit based on infrastructure potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Palomares, Paula; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Durán-Arenas, Luis

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the optimum size for hemodialysis units to maximize production given capital constraints. A national study in Mexico was conducted in 2009. Three possible methods for estimating a units optimum size were analyzed: hemodialysis services production under monopolistic market, under a perfect competitive market and production maximization given capital constraints. The third method was considered best based on the assumptions made in this paper; an optimal size unit should have 16 dialyzers (15 active and one back up dialyzer) and a purifier system able to supply all. It also requires one nephrologist, five nurses per shift, considering four shifts per day. Empirical evidence shows serious inefficiencies in the operation of units throughout the country. Most units fail to maximize production due to not fully utilizing equipment and personnel, particularly their water purifier potential which happens to be the most expensive asset for these units.

  9. Analytical upper bound on optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner GCMAC using hadamard inequality

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents an original analytical expression for an upper bound on the optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner circular Gaussian cellular multiple access channel (C-GCMAC) for uniformly distributed mobile terminals (MTs) across the cells. This upper bound is referred to as Hadamard upper bound (HUB) and is a novel application of the Hadamard inequality established by exploiting the Hadamard operation between the channel fading and channel path gain matrices. In this context, we employ an approximation approach based on the estimation of probability density function (PDF) of Hadamard product of two matrices. A closed-form expression has been derived to capture the effect of variable user density in adjacent cells on optimal joint decoding capacity. The results of this paper demonstrate that the analytical HUB based on the proposed approximation approach converges to the theoretical results for medium range of signal to noise ratios and shows a comparable tighter bound on optimum joint decoding capacity. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Optimum Repartition of Transport Capacities in the Logistic System using Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BĂŞANU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Transportations take an essential role in logistics, interconnecting the majority of processes and operations within logistic system. The efficient use of transportation capacity is a priority whose achievement can diminish logistic costs. This objective is today difficult to achieve due to increasing complexity of transportation monitoring and coordination. This complexity is determined by transportation number and diversity, by the volume and diversity of orders, by increasing the targets to be supplied.Dynamic programming represents a highly useful tool for logistic managers, considering that its specific techniques and methods are oriented toward solving problems related to resource optimum allocation and utilization.The present paper presents briefly a series of theoretical elements of dynamic programming applied in logistics, based on which it is shown a mathematic model to determine the optimum policy for transport capacity repartition for the area attached to a logistic centre, through three distribution centres.

  11. Optimum phase shift in the self-oscillating loop for piezoelectric transformer-based power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2017-01-01

    A new method is implemented in designing of self-oscillating loop for driving piezoelectric transformers. The implemented method is based on combining both analog and digital control systems. Digitally controlled time delay through the self-oscillating loop results in very precise frequency control...... and ensures optimum operation of the piezoelectric transformer in terms of gain and efficiency. Time delay is implemented digitally for the first time through a 16 bit digital-to-analog converter in the self-oscillating loop. The new design of the delay circuit provides 45 ps time resolution, enabling fine......-grained control of phase in the self-oscillating loop. This allows the control loop to dynamically follow frequency changes of the transformer in each resonant cycle. Ultimately, by selecting the optimum phase shift, maximum efficiency under the load and temperature condition is achievable....

  12. Confidence interval of intrinsic optimum temperature estimated using thermodynamic SSI model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takaya Ikemoto; Issei Kurahashi; Pei-Jian Shi

    2013-01-01

    The intrinsic optimum temperature for the development of ectotherms is one of the most important factors not only for their physiological processes but also for ecological and evolutional processes.The Sharpe-Schoolfield-Ikemoto (SSI) model succeeded in defining the temperature that can thermodynamically meet the condition that at a particular temperature the probability of an active enzyme reaching its maximum activity is realized.Previously,an algorithm was developed by Ikemoto (Tropical malaria does not mean hot environments.Journal of Medical Entomology,45,963-969) to estimate model parameters,but that program was computationally very time consuming.Now,investigators can use the SSI model more easily because a full automatic computer program was designed by Shi et al.(A modified program for estimating the parameters of the SSI model.Environmental Entomology,40,462-469).However,the statistical significance of the point estimate of the intrinsic optimum temperature for each ectotherm has not yet been determined.Here,we provided a new method for calculating the confidence interval of the estimated intrinsic optimum temperature by modifying the approximate bootstrap confidence intervals method.For this purpose,it was necessary to develop a new program for a faster estimation of the parameters in the SSI model,which we have also done.

  13. Towards New Renewable Energy Policies in Urban Areas: the Re-Definition of Optimum Inclination of Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Weissenbacher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimum inclination and orientation of fixed photovoltaic (PV panels has long been defined in terms of maximizing the annual electricity yield per capacity installed according to the hemisphere and latitude where the PV system is located. Such optimum setup would thus also maximize the output per system cost, but it would not maximize the output per unit of available area, and it would not necessarily optimize the contribution of photovoltaic electricity vis-à-vis overall electricity demand patterns. This study seeks to draw the attention of policy-makers to the fact that incentivizing lower-than-optimum PV panel tilt angles can be an inexpensive strategy to substantially increase the renewable electricity yield in a given area. It also discusses how such strategy can be incorporated into an overall supply/demand grid management and renewable energy integration plan.

  14. Optimum Combining for Rapidly Fading Channels in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Furman

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Research and technology in wireless communication systems such as radar and cellular networks have successfully implemented alternative design approaches that utilize antenna array techniques such as optimum combining, to mitigate the degradation effects of multipath in rapid fading channels. In ad hoc networks, these methods have not yet been exploited primarily due to the complexity inherent in the network's architecture. With the high demand for improved signal link quality, devices configured with omnidirectional antennas can no longer meet the growing need for link quality and spectrum efficiency. This study takes an empirical approach to determine an optimum combining antenna array based on 3 variants of interelement spacing. For rapid fading channels, the simulation results show that the performance in the network of devices retrofitted with our antenna arrays consistently exceeded those with an omnidirectional antenna. Further, with the optimum combiner, the performance increased by over 60% compared to that of an omnidirectional antenna in a rapid fading channel.

  15. Optimum detection for extracting maximum information from symmetric qubit sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Jun; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Akiba, Makoto; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate a class of optimum detection strategies for extracting the maximum information from sets of equiprobable real symmetric qubit states of a single photon. These optimum strategies have been predicted by Sasaki et al. [Phys. Rev. A 59, 3325 (1999)]. The peculiar aspect is that the detections with at least three outputs suffice for optimum extraction of information regardless of the number of signal elements. The cases of ternary (or trine), quinary, and septenary polarization signals are studied where a standard von Neumann detection (a projection onto a binary orthogonal basis) fails to access the maximum information. Our experiments demonstrate that it is possible with present technologies to attain about 96% of the theoretical limit

  16. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  17. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  18. Determination of optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef products

    OpenAIRE

    Rodas?Gonz?lez, Argenis; Larsen, Ivy L.; Uttaro, Bethany; Ju?rez, Manuel; Parslow, Joyce; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In order to determine optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef, the effects of searing at 232 or 260?C for 0, 10, 20 or 30?min, and roasting at 160 or 135?C on semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were evaluated. In addition, the optimum determined cooking method (oven?seared for 10?min at 232?C and roasted at 135?C) was applied to SM roasts varying in weight from 0.5 to 2.5?kg. Mainly, SM muscles seared for 0 or 10?min at 232?C followed by roast at 135?C h...

  19. A first course in optimum design of yacht sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takeshi

    1993-03-01

    The optimum sail geometry is analytically obtained for the case of maximizing the thrust under equality and inequality constraints on the lift and the heeling moment. A single mainsail is assumed to be set close-hauled in uniform wind and upright on the flat sea surface. The governing parameters are the mast height and the gap between the sail foot and the sea surface. The lifting line theory is applied to analyze the aerodynamic forces acting on a sail. The design method consists of the variational principle and a feasibility study. Almost triangular sails are found to be optimum. Their advantages are discussed.

  20. Generic Advertising Optimum Budget for Iran’s Milk Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the main targets of planners, decision makers and governments is increasing society health with promotion and production of suitable and healthy food. One of the basic commodities that have important role in satisfaction of required human food is milk. So, some part of government and producer healthy budget allocate to milk consumption promotion by using generic advertising. If effectiveness of advertising budget on profitability is more, producer will have more willing to spend for advertising. Determination of optimal generic advertising budget is one of important problem in managerial decision making in producing firm as well as increase in consumption and profit and decrease in wasting and non-optimality of budget. Materials and Methods: In this study, optimal generic advertising budget intensity index (advertising budget share of production cost was estimated under two different scenarios by using equilibrium replacement model. In equilibrium replacement model, producer surplus are maximized in respect to generic advertising in retail level. According to market where two levels of farm and processing before retail exist and there is trade in farm and retail level, we present different models. Fixed and variable proportion hypothesis is another one. Finally, eight relations are presented for determination of milk generic advertising optimum budget. So, we use data from several resources such as previous studies, national (Iran Static center and international institute (Fao formal data and own estimation. Because there are several estimations in previous studies, we identify some scenarios (in two general scenarios for calculation of milk generic advertising optimum budget. Results and Discussion: Estimation of milk generic advertising optimum budget in scenario 1 shows that in case of one market level, fixed supplies and no trade, optimum budget is 0.4672539 percent. In case of one market level and no trade, optimum

  1. Optimum position of isolators within erbium-doped fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Ole; Schüsler, Kim; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1992-01-01

    An isolator is used as an amplified spontaneous emission suppressing component within an erbium-doped fiber. The optimum isolator placement is both experimentally and theoretically determined and found to be slightly dependent upon pump power. Improvements of 4 dB in gain and 2 dB in noise figure...... are measured for the optimum isolator location at 25% of the fiber length when the fiber is pumped with 60 mW of pump power at 1.48 μm...

  2. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  3. Optimum gas turbine cycle for combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyzakis, A.L.; Koroneos, C.; Xydis, G.

    2008-01-01

    The gas turbine based power plant is characterized by its relatively low capital cost compared with the steam power plant. It has environmental advantages and short construction lead time. However, conventional industrial engines have lower efficiencies, especially at part load. One of the technologies adopted nowadays for efficiency improvement is the 'combined cycle'. The combined cycle technology is now well established and offers superior efficiency to any of the competing gas turbine based systems that are likely to be available in the medium term for large scale power generation applications. This paper has as objective the optimization of a combined cycle power plant describing and comparing four different gas turbine cycles: simple cycle, intercooled cycle, reheated cycle and intercooled and reheated cycle. The proposed combined cycle plant would produce 300 MW of power (200 MW from the gas turbine and 100 MW from the steam turbine). The results showed that the reheated gas turbine is the most desirable overall, mainly because of its high turbine exhaust gas temperature and resulting high thermal efficiency of the bottoming steam cycle. The optimal gas turbine (GT) cycle will lead to a more efficient combined cycle power plant (CCPP), and this will result in great savings. The initial approach adopted is to investigate independently the four theoretically possible configurations of the gas plant. On the basis of combining these with a single pressure Rankine cycle, the optimum gas scheme is found. Once the gas turbine is selected, the next step is to investigate the impact of the steam cycle design and parameters on the overall performance of the plant, in order to choose the combined cycle offering the best fit with the objectives of the work as depicted above. Each alterative cycle was studied, aiming to find the best option from the standpoint of overall efficiency, installation and operational costs, maintainability and reliability for a combined power

  4. Determination of Optimum Moisture Content of Palm Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: After processing the palm fruit for oil, the nut is usually dried in order to loosen the kernel from the shell. The drying is necessary to enhance the release of whole kernel when the nut is cracked. A study was carried out to determine the optimum moisture content of nuts for high yield of whole kernels during ...

  5. Optimum tilt angle and orientation for solar collectors in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeiker, Kamal

    2009-01-01

    One of the important parameters that affect the performance of a solar collector is its tilt angle with the horizon. This is because of the variation of tilt angle changes the amount of solar radiation reaching the collector surface. A mathematical model was used for estimating the solar radiation on a tilted surface, and to determine the optimum tilt angle and orientation (surface azimuth angle) for the solar collector in the main Syrian zones, on a daily basis, as well as for a specific period. The optimum angle was computed by searching for the values for which the radiation on the collector surface is a maximum for a particular day or a specific period. The results reveal that changing the tilt angle 12 times in a year (i.e. using the monthly optimum tilt angle) maintains approximately the total amount of solar radiation near the maximum value that is found by changing the tilt angle daily to its optimum value. This achieves a yearly gain in solar radiation of approximately 30% more than the case of a solar collector fixed on a horizontal surface.

  6. Analytical Solution for Optimum Design of Furrow Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwan, M. E.

    1996-05-01

    An analytical solution for the optimum design of furrow irrigation systems is derived. The non-linear calculus optimization method is used to formulate a general form for designing the optimum system elements under circumstances of maximizing the water application efficiency of the system during irrigation. Different system bases and constraints are considered in the solution. A full irrigation water depth is considered to be achieved at the tail of the furrow line. The solution is based on neglecting the recession and depletion times after off-irrigation. This assumption is valid in the case of open-end (free gradient) furrow systems rather than closed-end (closed dike) systems. Illustrative examples for different systems are presented and the results are compared with the output obtained using an iterative numerical solution method. The final derived solution is expressed as a function of the furrow length ratio (the furrow length to the water travelling distance). The function of water travelling developed by Reddy et al. is considered for reaching the optimum solution. As practical results from the study, the optimum furrow elements for free gradient systems can be estimated to achieve the maximum application efficiency, i.e. furrow length, water inflow rate and cutoff irrigation time.

  7. Optimum position for wells producing at constant wellbore pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho-Velazquez, R.; Rodriguez de la Garza, F. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Galindo-Nava, A. [Inst. Mexicanos del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico)]|[Univ. Nacional de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Prats, M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with the determination of the optimum position of several wells, producing at constant different wellbore pressures from a two-dimensional closed-boundary reservoirs, to maximize the cumulative production or the total flow rate. To achieve this objective they authors use an improved version of the analytical solution recently proposed by Rodriguez and Cinco-Ley and an optimization algorithm based on a quasi-Newton procedure with line search. At each iteration the algorithm approximates the negative of the objective function by a cuadratic relation derived from a Taylor series. The improvement of rodriguez and Cinco`s solution is attained in four ways. First, an approximation is obtained, which works better at earlier times (before the boundary dominated period starts) than the previous solution. Second, the infinite sums that are present in the solution are expressed in a condensed form, which is relevant for reducing the computer time when the optimization algorithm is used. Third, the solution is modified to take into account the possibility of having wells starting to produce at different times. This point allows them to deal with the problem of getting the optimum position for an infill drilling program. Last, the solution is extended to include the possibility of changing the value of wellbore pressure or being able to stimulate any of the wells at any time. When the wells are producing at different wellbore pressures it is found that the optimum position is a function of time, otherwise the optimum position is fixed.

  8. The effects of physical and chemical changes on the optimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine physical and chemical changes during fruit development and their relationship with optimum harvest maturity for Bacon, Fuerte and Zutano avocado cultivars grown under Dörtyol ecological condition. Fruits cv. Bacon, Fuerte and Zutano were obtained trees grafted on seedlings and ...

  9. Applied orthogonal experiment design for the optimum microwave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment on polysaccharides from Rhodiolae Radix (PRR) extraction was carried out using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method with an objective to establishing the optimum MAE conditions of PRR. Single factor experiments were performed to determine the appropriate range of extraction conditions, and the ...

  10. Optimum geometry for torque ripple minimization of switched reluctance motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahin, F.; Ertan, H.B.; Leblebicioglu, K.

    2000-01-01

    For switched reluctance motors, one of the major problems is torque ripple which causes increased undesirable acoustic noise and possibly speed ripple. This paper describes an approach to determine optimum magnetic circuit parameters to minimize low speed torque ripple for such motors. The

  11. METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMUM EXPLOSIVES IN DIFFERENT ROCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Krsnik

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The most appropriate explosives required for blasting of the particular types of rocks were established by test blasting method with linear burden increase. By the same method the optimum magnitudes of deep-holes blasting were established (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. Applicability Problem in Optimum Reinforced Concrete Structures Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashara Assedeq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimum reinforced concrete structures design is very complex problem, not only considering exactness of calculus but also because of questionable applicability of existing methods in practice. This paper presents the main theoretical mathematical and physical features of the problem formulation as well as the review and analysis of existing methods and solutions considering their exactness and applicability.

  13. Is there an optimum level for renewable energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Honnery, Damon

    2011-01-01

    Because continued heavy use of fossil fuel will lead to both global climate change and resource depletion of easily accessible fuels, many researchers advocate a rapid transition to renewable energy (RE) sources. In this paper we examine whether RE can provide anywhere near the levels of primary energy forecast by various official organisations in a business-as-usual world. We find that the energy costs of energy will rise in a non-linear manner as total annual primary RE output increases. In addition, increasing levels of RE will lead to increasing levels of ecosystem maintenance energy costs per unit of primary energy output. The result is that there is an optimum level of primary energy output, in the sense that the sustainable level of energy available to the economy is maximised at that level. We further argue that this optimum occurs at levels well below the energy consumption forecasts for a few decades hence. - Highlights: → We need to shift to renewable energy for climate change and fuel depletion reasons. → We examine whether renewable energy can provide the primary energy levels forecast. → The energy costs of energy rise non-linearly with renewable energy output. → There is thus an optimum level of primary energy output. → This optimum occurs at levels well below future official energy use forecasts.

  14. Optimum length of finned pipe for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeylemez, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A thermoeconomic feasibility analysis is presented yielding a simple algebraic optimization formula for estimating the optimum length of a finned pipe that is used for waste heat recovery. A simple economic optimization method is used in the present study by combining it with an integrated overall heat balance method based on fin effectiveness for calculating the maximum savings from a waste heat recovery system

  15. The Optimum Conditions of Foreign Languages in Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannikas, Christina Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to review the primary language learning situation in Europe and shed light on the benefits it carries. Early language learning is the biggest policy development in education and has developed in rapid speed over the past 30 years; this article considers the effects and advantages of the optimum condition of an early start,…

  16. Improved optimum condition for recovery and measurement of 210 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for deposition of 210Po and evaluate the accuracy and precision of the results for its determination in environmental samples. To improve the technique for measurement of polonium-210(210Po) in environmental samples. The optimization of five factors (volume ...

  17. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... optimum weights at dietary energy levels of 13.81, 13.23, 13.43 and ... Tadelle & Ogle (2000) reported that energy requirement of ..... The authors would like to acknowledge the National Research Foundation (NRF) and VLIR ...

  18. Bud initiation and optimum harvest date in Brussels sprouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Sukkel, W.

    1999-01-01

    For six cultivars of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) with a decreasing degree of earliness, or optimum harvest date, the time of bud initiation was determined during two seasons. Fifty percent of the plants had initiated buds between 60 and 75 days after planting (DAP) in 1994

  19. Optimum dietary protein requirement of genetically male tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the optimum dietary protein level needed for growing genetically male tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Diets containing crude protein levels 40, 42.5, 45, 47.5 and 50% were formulated and tried in triplicates. Test diets were fed to 20 fish/1m3 floating hapa at 5% of fish body weight daily ...

  20. Optimum development temperature and duration for nuclear plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, Chieko.

    1975-01-01

    Sakura 100 μm thick nuclear plates have been employed to determine optimum temperature and duration of the Amidol developer for low energy protons (Ep 0 C were tried for periods of 15--35 min. For Ep 0 C and for development time less than 30 min. (auth.)

  1. Optimum workforce-size model using dynamic programming approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an optimum workforce-size model which determines the minimum number of excess workers (overstaffing) as well as the minimum total recruitment cost during a specified planning horizon. The model is an extension of other existing dynamic programming models for manpower planning in the sense ...

  2. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine dietary energy levels for optimum productivity and carcass characteristics of indigenous Venda chickens raised in closed confinement. Four dietary treatments were considered in the first phase (1 to 7 weeks) on two hundred day-old unsexed indigenous Venda chicks indicated as EVS1, ...

  3. Procedure for determining the optimum rate of increasing shaft depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    Presented is an economic analysis of increasing shaft depth during mine modernization. Investigations carried out by the Yuzhgiproshakht Institute are analyzed. The investigations are aimed at determining the optimum shaft sinking rate (the rate which reduces investment to the minimum). The following factors are considered: coal output of a mine (0.9, 1.2, 1.5 and 1.8 Mt/year), depth at which the new mining level is situated (600, 800, 1200, 1400 and 1600 m), four schemes of increasing depth of 2 central shafts (rock hoisting to ground surface, rock hoisting to the existing level, rock haulage to the developed level, rock haulage to the level being developed using a large diameter borehole drilled from the new level to the shaft bottom and enlarged from shaft bottom to the new level), shaft sinking rate (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 m/month), range of increasing shaft depth (the difference between depth of the shaft before and after increasing its depth by 100, 200, 300 and 400 m). Comparative evaluations show that the optimum shaft sinking rate depends on the scheme for rock hoisting (one of 4 analyzed), range of increasing shaft depth and gas content in coal seams. The optimum shaft sinking rate ranges from 20 to 40 m/month in coal mines with low methane content and from 20 to 30 m/month in gassy coal mines. The planned coal output of a mine does not influence the optimum shaft sinking rate.

  4. Deuterium–tritium catalytic reaction in fast ignition: Optimum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    proton beam, the corresponding optimum interval values are proton average energy 3 ... contributions, into the study of the ignition and burn dynamics in a fast ignition frame- ..... choice of proton beam energy would fall in 3 ≤ Ep ≤ 10 MeV.

  5. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  6. Optimum design for pipe-support allocation against seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Fumio; Iwasaki, Akira

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimum design methodology of a piping system subjected to a seismic design loading to reduce its dynamic response by selecting the location of pipe supports and whereby reducing the number of pipe supports to be used. The author employs the Genetic Algorithm for obtaining a reasonably optimum solution of the pipe support location, support capacity and number of supports. The design condition specified by the support location, support capacity and the number of supports to be used is encored by an integer number string for each of the support allocation candidates and they prepare many strings for expressing various kinds of pipe-support allocation state. Corresponding to each string, the authors evaluate the seismic response of the piping system to the design seismic excitation and apply the Genetic Algorithm to select the next generation candidates of support allocation to improve the seismic design performance specified by a weighted linear combination of seismic response magnitude, support capacity and the number of supports needed. Continuing this selection process, they find a reasonably optimum solution to the seismic design problem. They examine the feasibility of this optimum design method by investigating the optimum solution for 5, 7 and 10 degree-of-freedom models of piping system, and find that this method can offer one a theoretically feasible solution to the problem. They will be, thus, liberated from the severe uncertainty of damping value when the pipe support guaranties the design capacity of damping. Finally, they discuss the usefulness of the Genetic Algorithm for the seismic design problem of piping systems and some sensitive points when it will be applied to actual design problems

  7. Optimum technoeconomic energy autonomous photovoltaic solution for remote consumers throughout Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous photovoltaic systems have turned into one of the most promising ways to handle the electrification requirements of numerous isolated consumers worldwide. Such an autonomous system comprises a number of photovoltaic panels, properly connected, and a battery storage device, along with the corresponding electronic equipment. Considering the high solar potential of most Greek territories, an integrated study is conducted based on long term solar potential experimental measurements in order to determine the optimum configuration of a stand alone photovoltaic system at representative locations all over Greece. The proposed solution 'guarantees' zero load rejections for all the areas and time periods examined. For this purpose, a fast and reliable numerical code 'PHOTOV-III' has been used. The algorithm provides analytical results concerning the energy autonomy and the operational status of the autonomous system components. Besides, the optimum panel tilt angle, minimizing the first installation cost of a small photovoltaic system, is predicted. Finally, by introducing available financial aspects, it is possible to determine the optimum system dimensions on a minimum first installation cost basis. According to the results obtained, an autonomous photovoltaic system can definitely contribute to solution of the urgent electrification problem of remote consumers spread throughout Greece, also improving their life quality level

  8. Hadamard upper bound on optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner Gaussian cellular MAC

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    This article presents an original analytical expression for an upper bound on the optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner circular Gaussian cellular multiple access channel (C-GCMAC) for uniformly distributed mobile terminals (MTs). This upper bound is referred to as Hadamard upper bound (HUB) and is a novel application of the Hadamard inequality established by exploiting the Hadamard operation between the channel fading matrix G and the channel path gain matrix Ω. This article demonstrates that the actual capacity converges to the theoretical upper bound under the constraints like low signal-to-noise ratios and limiting channel path gain among the MTs and the respective base station of interest. In order to determine the usefulness of the HUB, the behavior of the theoretical upper bound is critically observed specially when the inter-cell and the intra-cell time sharing schemes are employed. In this context, we derive an analytical form of HUB by employing an approximation approach based on the estimation of probability density function of trace of Hadamard product of two matrices, i.e., G and Ω. A closed form of expression has been derived to capture the effect of the MT distribution on the optimum joint decoding capacity of C-GCMAC. This article demonstrates that the analytical HUB based on the proposed approximation approach converges to the theoretical upper bound results in the medium to high signal to noise ratio regime and shows a reasonably tighter bound on optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner GCMAC.

  9. Non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians defined by generalized Riesz bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, H., E-mail: h-inoue@math.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Takakura, M., E-mail: mayumi@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Mathematics, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Bagarello, Inoue, and Trapani [J. Math. Phys. 55, 033501 (2014)] investigated some operators defined by the Riesz bases. These operators connect with quasi-Hermitian quantum mechanics, and its relatives. In this paper, we introduce a notion of generalized Riesz bases which is a generalization of Riesz bases and investigate some operators defined by the generalized Riesz bases by changing the frameworks of the operators defined in the work of Bagarello, Inoue, and Trapani.

  10. Defined contribution health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health

  11. Defining Acquisition Related Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    34 National Contract Man- agement Journal, 23: 25-32 (1990) 34. Heizer , Jay, Barry Render and Ralph M. Stair, Jr. Production and Operations Methods...551. The FAR definition(s) furnish a useful explanation of "service contracl(s)" and give a comprehensive description of the types of services rendered ...other fa- cilities charge to be paid by the Government will be reduced or eliminated. (3) The utility service supplier refuses to render the desired

  12. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement surrounding the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is associated with discovering the mechanism responsible for the masses of the elementary particles. This paper will first briefly examine the leading definitions, pointing out their shortcomings. Then, utilizing relativity theory, it will propose—for consideration by the community of physicists—a conceptual definition of mass predicated on the more fundamental concept of energy, more fundamental in that everything that has mass has energy, yet not everything that has energy has mass.

  13. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  14. Defining the mobilome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Janet L

    2009-01-01

    This chapter defines the agents that provide for the movement of genetic material which fuels the adaptive potential of life on our planet. The chapter has been structured to be broadly comprehensive, arbitrarily categorizing the mobilome into four classes: (1) transposons, (2) plasmids, (3) bacteriophage, and (4) self-splicing molecular parasites.Our increasing understanding of the mobilome is as dynamic as the mobilome itself. With continuing discovery, it is clear that nature has not confined these genomic agents of change to neat categories, but rather the classification categories overlap and intertwine. Massive sequencing efforts and their published analyses are continuing to refine our understanding of the extent of the mobilome. This chapter provides a framework to describe our current understanding of the mobilome and a foundation on which appreciation of its impact on genome evolution can be understood.

  15. Sequence homolog-based molecular engineering for shifting the enzymatic pH optimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell-free synthetic biology system organizes multiple enzymes (parts from different sources to implement unnatural catalytic functions. Highly adaption between the catalytic parts is crucial for building up efficient artificial biosynthetic systems. Protein engineering is a powerful technology to tailor various enzymatic properties including catalytic efficiency, substrate specificity, temperature adaptation and even achieve new catalytic functions. However, altering enzymatic pH optimum still remains a challenging task. In this study, we proposed a novel sequence homolog-based protein engineering strategy for shifting the enzymatic pH optimum based on statistical analyses of sequence-function relationship data of enzyme family. By two statistical procedures, artificial neural networks (ANNs and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso, five amino acids in GH11 xylanase family were identified to be related to the evolution of enzymatic pH optimum. Site-directed mutagenesis of a thermophilic xylanase from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii revealed that four out of five mutations could alter the enzymatic pH optima toward acidic condition without compromising the catalytic activity and thermostability. Combination of the positive mutants resulted in the best mutant M31 that decreased its pH optimum for 1.5 units and showed increased catalytic activity at pH < 5.0 compared to the wild-type enzyme. Structure analysis revealed that all the mutations are distant from the active center, which may be difficult to be identified by conventional rational design strategy. Interestingly, the four mutation sites are clustered at a certain region of the enzyme, suggesting a potential “hot zone” for regulating the pH optima of xylanases. This study provides an efficient method of modulating enzymatic pH optima based on statistical sequence analyses, which can facilitate the design and optimization of suitable catalytic parts for the construction

  16. Analysis and Experimental Investigation of Optimum Design of Thermoelectric Cooling/Heating System for Car Seat Climate Control (CSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elarusi, Abdulmunaem; Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung

    2018-02-01

    The optimum design of a thermoelectric system for application in car seat climate control has been modeled and its performance evaluated experimentally. The optimum design of the thermoelectric device combining two heat exchangers was obtained by using a newly developed optimization method based on the dimensional technique. Based on the analytical optimum design results, commercial thermoelectric cooler and heat sinks were selected to design and construct the climate control heat pump. This work focuses on testing the system performance in both cooling and heating modes to ensure accurate analytical modeling. Although the analytical performance was calculated using the simple ideal thermoelectric equations with effective thermoelectric material properties, it showed very good agreement with experiment for most operating conditions.

  17. Optimum electron temperature and density for short-wavelength plasma-lasing from nickel-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudnia, Leili; Bleiner, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Soft X-ray lasing across a Ni-like plasma gain-medium requires optimum electron temperature and density for attaining to the Ni-like ion stage and for population inversion in the 3d 9 4d 1 (J=0)→3d 9 4p 1 (J=1) laser transition. Various scaling laws, function of operating parameters, were compared with respect to their predictions for optimum temperatures and densities. It is shown that the widely adopted local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model underestimates the optimum plasma-lasing conditions. On the other hand, non-LTE models, especially when complemented with dielectronic recombination, provided accurate prediction of the optimum plasma-lasing conditions. It is further shown that, for targets with Z equal or greater than the rare-earth elements (e.g. Sm), the optimum electron density for plasma-lasing is not accessible for pump-pulses at λ=1ω=1μm. This observation explains a fundamental difficulty in saturating the wavelength of plasma-based X-ray lasers below 6.8 nm, unless using 2ω pumping

  18. Integrative STEM Education Defined

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    “My work with integrative STEM education began in 1990 with the NSF-funded Technology, Science, Mathematics Integration Project… By 2008, I was convinced “STEM Education” was (and always would be) a hopelessly ambiguous phrase, and therefore felt we absolutely needed to rename our “STEM Education” graduate program and develop a tight operational definition of the central idea underlying our program, in hopes of preventing the sort of hopeless ambiguity that ruined the term “STEM education” fr...

  19. Optimum power of radiation dose in X ray television systems of flaw inspection in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denbnovetskii, S.V.; Troitskii, V.A.; Belyi, N.G.; Grom, V.S.; Kuz'micheva, N.V.; Leshchishin, A.V.; Mikhailov, V.N.; Shutenko, O.V.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present the experimental dose characteristics of a x ray television system based on x ray vidicons with the diameter of the working field of 900 mm which operate in the continuous and pulsed conditions with the longer time of cumulation of radiation images on the target of the x ray vidicon. For each type of the inspected material, its thickness, and cumulation time, the dose characteristics were used to determine the optimum power of the exposure dose ensuring the maximum signal/noise ratio and detectability of the defects at the output of the system. (author)

  20. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  1. Teleology and Defining Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Nathan K; Pruski, Michal

    2018-07-01

    Disorders of sexual differentiation lead to what is often referred to as an intersex state. This state has medical, as well as some legal, recognition. Nevertheless, the question remains whether intersex persons occupy a state in between maleness and femaleness or whether they are truly men or women. To answer this question, another important conundrum needs to be first solved: what defines sex? The answer seems rather simple to most people, yet when morphology does not coincide with haplotypes, and genetics might not correlate with physiology the issue becomes more complex. This paper tackles both issues by establishing where the essence of sex is located and by superimposing that framework onto the issue of the intersex. This is achieved through giving due consideration to the biology of sexual development, as well as through the use of a teleological framework of the meaning of sex. Using a range of examples, the paper establishes that sex cannot be pinpointed to one biological variable but is rather determined by how the totality of one's biology is oriented towards biological reproduction. A brief consideration is also given to the way this situation could be comprehended from a Christian understanding of sex and suffering.

  2. Determination of optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-González, Argenis; Larsen, Ivy L; Uttaro, Bethany; Juárez, Manuel; Parslow, Joyce; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    In order to determine optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef, the effects of searing at 232 or 260°C for 0, 10, 20 or 30 min, and roasting at 160 or 135°C on semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were evaluated. In addition, the optimum determined cooking method (oven-seared for 10 min at 232°C and roasted at 135°C) was applied to SM roasts varying in weight from 0.5 to 2.5 kg. Mainly, SM muscles seared for 0 or 10 min at 232°C followed by roast at 135°C had lower cooking loss, higher external browning color, more uniform internal color, and were more tender and flavorful (P searing is the recommended oven cooking procedure; with best response from muscle roast weight ≥1 kg.

  3. RECENT APPROACHES IN THE OPTIMUM CURRENCY AREAS THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURA SOCOL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is dealing with the endogenous characteristic of the OCA criteria, starting from the idea that a higherconformity of the business cycles will result in a better timing of the economic cycles and, thus, in getting closerto the quality of an optimum currency area. Thus, if the classical theory is focused on a static approach of theproblem, the new theories assert that these conditions are dynamic, and they cannot be positively affected evenby the establishment of the Economic and Monetary Union. The consequences are overwhelming, as theendogenous approach shows that a monetary union can be achieved even if all the conditions mentioned inMundell’s optimum currency areas theory are not met, showing that some of them may also be met subsequentto the unification. Thus, a country joining a monetary union, althogh it does not meet the criteria for an optimumcurrency area, will ex post lead to the increase of the integration and business cycle correlation degree.

  4. Optimum design of exploding pusher target to produce maximum neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Miyanaga, N.; Kato, Y.; Nakatsuka, M.; Nishiguchi, A.; Yabe, T.; Yamanaka, C.

    1985-03-01

    Exploding pusher target experiments have been conducted with the 1.052-μm GEKKO MII two-beam glass laser system to design an optimum target, which couples to the incident laser light most effectively to produce the maximum neutrons. Since hot electrons preheat the shell entirely in spite of strongly nonuniform irradiation, a simple model can design the optimum target, of which the shell/fuel interface is accelerated to 0.5 to 0.7 times the initial radius within a laser pulse. A 2-dimensional computer simulation supports this target design. The scaling of the neutron yield N with the laser power P is N ∝ P 2.4±0.4 . (author)

  5. Determination of the Optimum Ozone Product on the Plasma Ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi; Widdi Usada; Suryadi; Isyuniarto; Sri Sukmajaya

    2002-01-01

    An experiment of the optimum ozone product determination on the cylindrical plasma ozonizer has been done. The experiment is carried out by using alternating high voltage power supply, oscilloscope CS-1577 A, flow meter and spectronik-20 instrument for the absorbance solution samples which produced by varying the physics parameter values of the discharge alternating high voltage and velocity of oxygen gas input. The plasma ozonizer is made of cylinder stainless steel as the electrode and cylinder glass as the dielectric with 1.00 mm of the discharge gap and 7.225 mm 3 of the discharge tube volume. The experiment results shows that the optimum ozone product is 0.360 mg/s obtained at the the discharge of alternating high voltage of 25.50 kV, the frequency of 1.00 kHz and the rate of oxygen gas input of 1.00 lpm. (author)

  6. A methodology for selecting optimum organizations for space communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper suggests that a methodology exists for selecting optimum organizations for future space communities of various sizes and purposes. Results of an exploratory study to identify an optimum hypothetical organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary research and applications (R&A) Space Base manned by a mixed crew of technologists are presented. Since such a facility does not presently exist, in situ empirical testing was not possible. Study activity was, therefore, concerned with the identification of a desired organizational structural model rather than the empirical testing of it. The principal finding of this research was that a four-level project type 'total matrix' model will optimize the effectiveness of Space Base technologists. An overall conclusion which can be reached from the research is that application of this methodology, or portions of it, may provide planning insights for the formal organizations which will be needed during the Space Industrialization Age.

  7. Determining optimum aging time using novel core flooding equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahkami, Mehrdad; Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Xiarchos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    the optimum aging time regardless of variations in crude oil, rock, and brine properties. State of the art core flooding equipment has been developed that can be used for consistently determining the resistivity of the coreplug during aging and waterflooding using advanced data acquisition software......New methods for enhanced oil recovery are typically developed using core flooding techniques. Establishing reservoir conditions is essential before the experimental campaign commences. The realistic oil-rock wettability can be obtained through optimum aging of the core. Aging time is affected....... In the proposed equipment, independent axial and sleeve pressure can be applied to mimic stresses at reservoir conditions. 10 coreplugs (four sandstones and six chalk samples) from the North Sea have been aged for more than 408 days in total and more than 29000 resistivity data points have been measured...

  8. Optimum Conditions for Uricase Enzyme Production by Gliomastix gueg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalla, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen strains of microorganisms were screened for uricase production. Gliomastix gueg was recognized to produce high levels of the enzyme. The optimum fermentation conditions for uricase production by Gliomastix gueg were examined. Results showed that uric acid medium was the most favorable one, the optimum temperature was at 30ºC, and incubation period required for maximum production was 8 days with aeration level at 150 rpm and at pH 8.0. Sucrose proved to be the best carbon source, uric acid was found to be the best nitrogen source. Both, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and ferrous chloride as well as some vitamins gave the highest amount of uricase by Gliomastix gueg.

  9. Optimum biasing of integral equations in Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    In solving integral equations and estimating average values with the Monte Carlo method, biasing functions may be used to reduce the variancee of the estimates. A simple derivation was used to prove the existence of a zero-variance collision estimator if a specific biasing function and survival probability are applied. This optimum biasing function is the same as that used for the well known zero-variance last-event estimator

  10. Optimum concrete compression strength using bio-enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Bagio Tony Hartono; Basoeki Makno; Tistogondo Julistyana; Pradana Sofyan Ali

    2017-01-01

    To make concrete with high compressive strength and has a certain concrete specifications other than the main concrete materials are also needed concrete mix quality control and other added material is also in line with the current technology of concrete mix that produces concrete with specific characteristics. Addition of bio enzyme on five concrete mixture that will be compared with normal concrete in order to know the optimum level bio-enzyme in concrete to increase the strength of the con...

  11. Theoretical and numerical study of an optimum design algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destuynder, Philippe.

    1976-08-01

    This work can be separated into two main parts. First, the behavior of the solution of an elliptic variational equation is analyzed when the domain is submitted to a small perturbation. The case of inequations is also considered. Secondly the previous results are used for deriving an optimum design algorithm. This algorithm was suggested by the center-method proposed by Huard. Numerical results show the superiority of the method on other different optimization techniques [fr

  12. Generating AN Optimum Treatment Plan for External Beam Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabus, Irwin

    1990-01-01

    The application of linear programming to the generation of an optimum external beam radiation treatment plan is investigated. MPSX, an IBM linear programming software package was used. All data originated from the CAT scan of an actual patient who was treated for a pancreatic malignant tumor before this study began. An examination of several alternatives for representing the cross section of the patient showed that it was sufficient to use a set of strategically placed points in the vital organs and tumor and a grid of points spaced about one half inch apart for the healthy tissue. Optimum treatment plans were generated from objective functions representing various treatment philosophies. The optimum plans were based on allowing for 216 external radiation beams which accounted for wedges of any size. A beam reduction scheme then reduced the number of beams in the optimum plan to a number of beams small enough for implementation. Regardless of the objective function, the linear programming treatment plan preserved about 95% of the patient's right kidney vs. 59% for the plan the hospital actually administered to the patient. The clinician, on the case, found most of the linear programming treatment plans to be superior to the hospital plan. An investigation was made, using parametric linear programming, concerning any possible benefits derived from generating treatment plans based on objective functions made up of convex combinations of two objective functions, however, this proved to have only limited value. This study also found, through dual variable analysis, that there was no benefit gained from relaxing some of the constraints on the healthy regions of the anatomy. This conclusion was supported by the clinician. Finally several schemes were found that, under certain conditions, can further reduce the number of beams in the final linear programming treatment plan.

  13. Choice of economical optimum blanket of hybrid reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinkin, V L; Novikov, V M

    1981-01-01

    The economical effectiveness of symbiotic power systems depends on the choice of the correlation between energy production and fissile fuel production in blankets of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor (CTR), what is investigated here. It is shown that the optimum value of this correlation essentially depends on the ratio between the specific costs for energy production in hybrid thermonuclear reactors and that in fission reactors as part of the symbiotic system.

  14. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  15. An integrated expert system for optimum in core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elmoatty, Mona S.; Nagy, M.S.; Aly, Mohamed N.; Shaat, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → An integrated expert system constructed for optimum in core fuel management. → Brief discussion of the ESOIFM Package modules, inputs and outputs. → Package was applied on the DALAT Nuclear Research Reactor (0.5 MW). → The Package verification showed good agreement. - Abstract: An integrated expert system called Efficient and Safe Optimum In-core Fuel Management (ESOIFM Package) has been constructed to achieve an optimum in core fuel management and automate the process of data analysis. The Package combines the constructed mathematical models with the adopted artificial intelligence techniques. The paper gives a brief discussion of the ESOIFM Package modules, inputs and outputs. The Package was applied on the DALAT Nuclear Research Reactor (0.5 MW). Moreover, the data of DNRR have been used as a case study for testing and evaluation of ESOIFM Package. This paper shows the comparison between the ESOIFM Package burn-up results, the DNRR experimental burn-up data, and other DNRR Codes burn-up results. The results showed good agreement.

  16. Optimum profit model considering production, quality and sale problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Ho; Lu, Chih-Lun

    2011-12-01

    Chen and Liu ['Procurement Strategies in the Presence of the Spot Market-an Analytical Framework', Production Planning and Control, 18, 297-309] presented the optimum profit model between the producers and the purchasers for the supply chain system with a pure procurement policy. However, their model with a simple manufacturing cost did not consider the used cost of the customer. In this study, the modified Chen and Liu's model will be addressed for determining the optimum product and process parameters. The authors propose a modified Chen and Liu's model under the two-stage screening procedure. The surrogate variable having a high correlation with the measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the first stage. The measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the second stage when the product decision cannot be determined in the first stage. The used cost of the customer will be measured by adopting Taguchi's quadratic quality loss function. The optimum purchaser's order quantity, the producer's product price and the process quality level will be jointly determined by maximising the expected profit between them.

  17. An optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Torre, F.; Rios M, C.; Ruvalcaba A, M. G.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J. L., E-mail: fta777@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Centro Regional de Estudis Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    This work aims to obtain an optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectroscopy by means of Genie 2000 (Canberra). Twenty different analysis sequences were customized using different peak area percentages and different algorithms for: 1) peak finding, and 2) peak area determination, and with or without the use of a library -based on evaluated nuclear data- of common gamma-ray emitters in environmental samples. The use of an optimum analysis sequence with certified nuclear information avoids the problems originated by the significant variations in out-of-date nuclear parameters of commercial software libraries. Interference-free gamma ray energies with absolute emission probabilities greater than 3.75% were included in the customized library. The gamma-ray spectroscopy system (based on a Ge Re-3522 Canberra detector) was calibrated both in energy and shape by means of the IAEA-2002 reference spectra for software intercomparison. To test the performance of the analysis sequences, the IAEA-2002 reference spectrum was used. The z-score and the reduced {chi}{sup 2} criteria were used to determine the optimum analysis sequence. The results show an appreciable variation in the peak area determinations and their corresponding uncertainties. Particularly, the combination of second derivative peak locate with simple peak area integration algorithms provides the greater accuracy. Lower accuracy comes from the combination of library directed peak locate algorithm and Genie's Gamma-M peak area determination. (Author)

  18. An optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Torre, F.; Rios M, C.; Ruvalcaba A, M. G.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J. L.

    2010-10-01

    This work aims to obtain an optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectroscopy by means of Genie 2000 (Canberra). Twenty different analysis sequences were customized using different peak area percentages and different algorithms for: 1) peak finding, and 2) peak area determination, and with or without the use of a library -based on evaluated nuclear data- of common gamma-ray emitters in environmental samples. The use of an optimum analysis sequence with certified nuclear information avoids the problems originated by the significant variations in out-of-date nuclear parameters of commercial software libraries. Interference-free gamma ray energies with absolute emission probabilities greater than 3.75% were included in the customized library. The gamma-ray spectroscopy system (based on a Ge Re-3522 Canberra detector) was calibrated both in energy and shape by means of the IAEA-2002 reference spectra for software intercomparison. To test the performance of the analysis sequences, the IAEA-2002 reference spectrum was used. The z-score and the reduced χ 2 criteria were used to determine the optimum analysis sequence. The results show an appreciable variation in the peak area determinations and their corresponding uncertainties. Particularly, the combination of second derivative peak locate with simple peak area integration algorithms provides the greater accuracy. Lower accuracy comes from the combination of library directed peak locate algorithm and Genie's Gamma-M peak area determination. (Author)

  19. WHAT IS THE OPTIMUM SIZE OF GOVERNMENT: A SUGGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Ekinci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available What is the optimum size of government? When the rule of law and the establishment of private property rights are taken into consideration, it is clear that the answer will not be at some 0%. On the other hand, when the experience of the old Soviet Union, East Germany and North Korea is considered, the answer will not be at some 100% either. Therefore, extreme points should not be the right answer. This study offers using normal distribution to answer this question. The study has revealed the following findings: (i The total amount of public expenditures as % of GDP, a is at minimum level at 4.55% rate, b is at optimum level at 13.4% rate, c is at maximum level at 31.7%. (ii Thus, as a fiscal rule, countries should: a choose the total amount of public expenditures as % of GDP ≤ 31.7% b target 13.4%. (iii Tree dimensional (3D normal distribution demonstrates that a healthy market system could be built upon a healthy government system (iv This approach rejects Wagner’s law. In a healthy growing economy, optimum government size could be kept at 13.4%. (v The UK, the USA and the European countries have been in the Keynesian-Marxist area, which reduces their average growth.

  20. Optimum Antenna Downtilt Angles for Macrocellular WCDMA Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemelä Jarno

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of antenna downtilt on the performance of cellular WCDMA network has been studied by using a radio network planning tool. An optimum downtilt angle has been evaluated for numerous practical macrocellular site and antenna configurations for electrical and mechanical antenna downtilt concepts. The aim of this massive simulation campaign was expected to provide an answer to two questions: firstly, how to select the downtilt angle of a macrocellular base station antenna? Secondly, what is the impact of antenna downtilt on system capacity and network coverage? Optimum downtilt angles were observed to vary between – depending on the network configuration. Moreover, the corresponding downlink capacity gains varied between – . Antenna vertical beamwidth affects clearly the required optimum downtilt angle the most. On the other hand, with wider antenna vertical beamwidth, the impact of downtilt on system performance is not such imposing. In addition, antenna height together with the size of the dominance area affect the required downtilt angle. Finally, the simulation results revealed how the importance of the antenna downtilt becomes more significant in dense networks, where the capacity requirements are typically also higher.

  1. Planning of optimum production from a natural gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, J

    1968-03-01

    The design of an optimum development plan for a natural gas field always depends on the typical characteristics of the producing field, as well as those of the market to be served by this field. Therefore, a good knowledge of the field parameters, such as the total natural gas reserves, the well productivity, and the dependence of production rates on pipeline pressure and depletion of natural gas reserves, is required prior to designing the development scheme of the field, which in fact depends on the gas-sales contract to be concluded in order to commit the natural gas reserves to the market. In this paper these various technical parameters are discussed in some detail, and on this basis a theoretical/economical analysis of natural gas production is given. For this purpose a simplified economical/mathematical model for the field is proposed, from which optimum production rates at various future dates can be calculated. The results of these calculations are represented in a dimensionless diagram which may serve as an aid in designing optimum development plans for a natural gas field. The use of these graphs is illustrated in a few examples.

  2. Semianalytical and Seminumerical Calculations of Optimum Material Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Gunnar

    1963-06-15

    Perturbation theory applied to the multigroup diffusion equations gives a general condition for optimum distribution of reactor materials. A certain function of the material densities and the fluxes, here called the W (eight) function, must thus be constant where the variable material density is larger than zero if changes in this density affect only the group constants where the changes occur. The weight function is, however, generally a complicated function and complete solutions have therefore previously been presented only for the special case when constant weight function implies constant thermal flux. It is demonstrated that the condition of constant weight function can be used together with well known methods for numerical solution of the multigroup diffusion equations to obtain optimum material distributions also when the thermal flux varies over the core. Solution of the minimum fuel mass problem for two reflected reactors thus shows that an effective reflector such as D{sub 2}O gives a peak in the optimum fuel distribution at the core-reflector interface, while an ineffective reflector such as a breeder blanket or a steel tank wall 'pushes' the fuel away from the strongly absorbing zone. It is also interesting to compare the effective reflector case with analytically obtained solutions corresponding to flat power density, flat thermal flux and flat fuel density.

  3. Optimum heat power cycles for specified boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, O.M.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper optimization of the power output of Carnot and closed Brayton cycles is considered for both finite and infinite thermal capacitance rates of the external fluid streams. The method of Lagrange multipliers is used to solve for working fluid temperatures that yield maximum power. Analytical expressions for the maximum power and the cycle efficiency at maximum power are obtained. A comparison of the maximum power from the two cycles for the same boundary conditions, i.e., the same heat source/sink inlet temperatures, thermal capacitance rates, and heat exchanger conductances, shows that the Brayton cycle can produce more power than the Carnot cycle. This comparison illustrates that cycles exist that can produce more power than the Carnot cycle. The optimum heat power cycle, which will provide the upper limit of power obtained from any thermodynamic cycle for specified boundary conditions and heat exchanger conductances is considered. The optimum heat power cycle is identified by optimizing the sum of the power output from a sequence of Carnot cycles. The shape of the optimum heat power cycle, the power output, and corresponding efficiency are presented. The efficiency at maximum power of all cycles investigated in this study is found to be equal to (or well approximated by) η = 1 - sq. root T L.in /φT H.in where φ is a factor relating the entropy changes during heat rejection and heat addition

  4. Optimum moisture levels for biodegradation of mortality composting envelope materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2008-01-01

    Moisture affects the physical and biological properties of compost and other solid-state fermentation matrices. Aerobic microbial systems experience different respiration rates (oxygen uptake and CO2 evolution) as a function of moisture content and material type. In this study the microbial respiration rates of 12 mortality composting envelope materials were measured by a pressure sensor method at six different moisture levels. A wide range of respiration (1.6-94.2mg O2/g VS-day) rates were observed for different materials, with alfalfa hay, silage, oat straw, and turkey litter having the highest values. These four envelope materials may be particularly suitable for improving internal temperature and pathogen destruction rates for disease-related mortality composting. Optimum moisture content was determined based on measurements across a range that spans the maximum respiration rate. The optimum moisture content of each material was observed near water holding capacity, which ranged from near 60% to over 80% on a wet basis for all materials except a highly stabilized soil compost blend (optimum around 25% w.b.). The implications of the results for moisture management and process control strategies during mortality composting are discussed.

  5. Optimum structure of Whipple shield against hypervelocity impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M

    2014-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact of a spherical aluminum projectile onto two spaced aluminum plates (Whipple shield) was simulated to estimate an optimum structure. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code which has a unique migration scheme from a rectangular coordinate to an axisymmetic coordinate was used. The ratio of the front plate thickness to sphere diameter varied from 0.06 to 0.48. The impact velocities considered here were 6.7 km/s. This is the procedure we explored. To guarantee the early stage simulation, the shapes of debris clouds were first compared with the previous experimental pictures, indicating a good agreement. Next, the debris cloud expansion angle was predicted and it shows a maximum value of 23 degree for thickness ratio of front bumper to sphere diameter of 0.23. A critical sphere diameter causing failure of rear wall was also examined while keeping the total thickness of two plates constant. There exists an optimum thickness ratio of front bumper to rear wall, which is identified as a function of the size combination of the impacting body, front and rear plates. The debris cloud expansion-correlated-optimum thickness ratio study provides a good insight on the hypervelocity impact onto spaced target system.

  6. Optimum structure of Whipple shield against hypervelocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.

    2014-05-01

    Hypervelocity impact of a spherical aluminum projectile onto two spaced aluminum plates (Whipple shield) was simulated to estimate an optimum structure. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code which has a unique migration scheme from a rectangular coordinate to an axisymmetic coordinate was used. The ratio of the front plate thickness to sphere diameter varied from 0.06 to 0.48. The impact velocities considered here were 6.7 km/s. This is the procedure we explored. To guarantee the early stage simulation, the shapes of debris clouds were first compared with the previous experimental pictures, indicating a good agreement. Next, the debris cloud expansion angle was predicted and it shows a maximum value of 23 degree for thickness ratio of front bumper to sphere diameter of 0.23. A critical sphere diameter causing failure of rear wall was also examined while keeping the total thickness of two plates constant. There exists an optimum thickness ratio of front bumper to rear wall, which is identified as a function of the size combination of the impacting body, front and rear plates. The debris cloud expansion-correlated-optimum thickness ratio study provides a good insight on the hypervelocity impact onto spaced target system.

  7. The optimum decision rules for the oddity task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versfeld, N J; Dai, H; Green, D M

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the optimum decision rule for an m-interval oddity task in which m-1 intervals contain the same signal and one is different or odd. The optimum decision rule depends on the degree of correlation among observations. The present approach unifies the different strategies that occur with "roved" or "fixed" experiments (Macmillan & Creelman, 1991, p. 147). It is shown that the commonly used decision rule for an m-interval oddity task corresponds to the special case of highly correlated observations. However, as is also true for the same-different paradigm, there exists a different optimum decision rule when the observations are independent. The relation between the probability of a correct response and d' is derived for the three-interval oddity task. Tables are presented of this relation for the three-, four-, and five-interval oddity task. Finally, an experimental method is proposed that allows one to determine the decision rule used by the observer in an oddity experiment.

  8. Efficiency of different techniques of physical flattening by fuel while selection of optimum arrangement of large fast reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, E.A.; Dejnega, N.L.; Mitin, A.M.

    1974-01-01

    Results are given of calculations for selecting the parameters of the large fast breeder reactor core (1500 Mw) operating on oxide fuel with a sodium coolant. A complex optimum criterion was selected for energy intensity, energy distribution, breeding ratio and critical load factor, run duration, burning, reactivity variations, influence of CV3, fuel overloads, and calculated fue fuel expenses. The effectivities of various methods for physical grading of fuel (enrichment and composition) were examined in accordance with the optimum criterion. Parameters of reactor cores optimum arrangements are presented. Continuous reactor operation during 0.8-1.0 yr. at energy intensity more than 400 kW was shown to be essential for attaining the optimum chosen. Accounting for the CV3 system and partial fuel overloads, the methods of balancing energy release either by enriching fuel or by changing its composition proved to be almost equally effective. All calculations were performed with the aid of a 18-4-RZ-15B program on the basis of a BNAB-26 constant system [ru

  9. Analytical and numerical calculations of optimum design frequency for focused ultrasound therapy and acoustic radiation force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, A Sanlı

    2011-10-01

    Focused ultrasound therapy relies on acoustic power absorption by tissue. The stronger the absorption the higher the temperature increase is. However, strong acoustic absorption also means faster attenuation and limited penetration depth. Hence, there is a trade-off between heat generation efficacy and penetration depth. In this paper, we formulated the acoustic power absorption as a function of frequency and attenuation coefficient, and defined two figures of merit to measure the power absorption: spatial peak of the acoustic power absorption density, and the acoustic power absorbed within the focal area. Then, we derived "rule of thumb" expressions for the optimum frequencies that maximized these figures of merit given the target depth and homogeneous tissue type. We also formulated a method to calculate the optimum frequency for inhomogeneous tissue given the tissue composition for situations where the tissue structure can be assumed to be made of parallel layers of homogeneous tissue. We checked the validity of the rules using linear acoustic field simulations. For a one-dimensional array of 4cm acoustic aperture, and for a two-dimensional array of 4×4cm(2) acoustic aperture, we found that the power absorbed within the focal area is maximized at 0.86MHz, and 0.79MHz, respectively, when the target depth is 4cm in muscle tissue. The rules on the other hand predicted the optimum frequencies for acoustic power absorption as 0.9MHz and 0.86MHz, respectively for the 1D and 2D array case, which are within 6% and 9% of the field simulation results. Because radiation force generated by an acoustic wave in a lossy propagation medium is approximately proportional to the acoustic power absorption, these rules can be used to maximize acoustic radiation force generated in tissue as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields.II

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We continue the analysis of definably compact groups definable in a real closed field $\\mathcal{R}$. In [3], we proved that for every definably compact definably connected semialgebraic group $G$ over $\\mathcal{R}$ there are a connected $R$-algebraic group $H$, a definable injective map $\\phi$ from a generic definable neighborhood of the identity of $G$ into the group $H\\left(R\\right)$ of $R$-points of $H$ such that $\\phi$ acts as a group homomorphism inside its domain. The above result and o...

  11. Proposal of guidelines for selecting optimum options in packagings and transportation systems of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, T.; Abe, H.; Fukuda, S.

    1983-01-01

    Type and size of spent fuel shipping packagings and packaging transport ships in spent fuel transport system would have been determined separately in response to technical requirements etc. of reactor sites and reprocessing plants. However, since more and more spent fuel will be generated from world's nuclear power plants and will be transported much frequently to reprocessing plants or storage facilities, the current spent fuel transport system will have to be necessarily reexamined from the operational and economical aspects or an optimum transport system may have to be newly determined in the near future. In the literature, a variety of options are found, particularly of spent fuel packagings. This paper listed and classified options of spent fuel packagings and packaging transport ships in the transportation systems of spent fuel on the basis of literature surveys. These options were discussed from viewpoints of designers and users and compared in terms of transport efficiency. Finally, one way to determine an optimum transport system of spent fuel was indicated considering the total transport system in the light of safety, operational efficiency and economy

  12. SYNTHESIS OF THE SERVO DRIVER WITH SPEED LOOP TUNED AT THE MODULAR OPTIMUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sergei V. Stelmashchuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of synthesis of servo driver for controlling the speed of the object with the speed tuned at the modular optimum. An automatic electric motor drive is considered as the controlled element. This assumes the use of the speed sensor on the output shaft of the drive gear. This approach can be used for geared motors, which are more commonly used in a variety of compact drives. The technique is based on the method of synthesis by using logarithmic frequency response (LFR. The result is a synthesis of the two tracking angle controllers: proportional-integral and proportional-derivative (PIPD regulator. The criterion for the synthesis of tracking angle controller is the desired LFR, the characteristics of which are defined based on saturated capability transition function of controlled object with standard configuration for modular optimum. It is assumed that the maximum speed and acceleration of the transition functions are required for the synthesis of parameters of servo driver system by LFR. The article covers the accuracy and contains an example of a particular electric motor.

  13. Model for Determining the Optimum Location for Performance Improvement in Supply-Chain Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Iulia ȚARȚAVULEA (DIEACONESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis which started in 2007 has caused damaging effects to most international companies. In several EU countries, foreign investments decreased and international companies closed or relocated production and/or distribution centres, due to cost reduction measures. This paper is aiming to demonstrate that applying a performant solution in defining the supply chain strategy can be a low cost process, which can generate positive effects on the sales and revenues. The research objective is to present a concrete solution for redesigning the supply chain, in order to achieve the optimal delivery strategy. The solution implies the use of mathematic methods, for determining the optimum location for placing a central warehouse, in a geographic region. The use of an optimum delivery strategy leads to lower depositing and transport costs, which generates positive effects on sales, by offering more competitive prices on products. The main contribution of the author is the development of a model, used to identify the optimal location for placing a central warehouse.

  14. Co-registration of pre-operative CT with ex vivo surgically excised ground glass nodules to define spatial extent of invasive adenocarcinoma on in vivo imaging: a proof-of-concept study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, Mirabela [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States); GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Rajiah, Prabhakar [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Cleveland Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH (United States); Gilkeson, Robert; Yang, Michael; Donatelli, Christopher; Linden, Philip [Cleveland Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH (United States); Thawani, Rajat; Madabhushi, Anant [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States); Jacono, Frank J. [Cleveland Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH (United States); Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-10-15

    To develop an approach for radiology-pathology fusion of ex vivo histology of surgically excised pulmonary nodules with pre-operative CT, to radiologically map spatial extent of the invasive adenocarcinomatous component of the nodule. Six subjects (age: 75 ± 11 years) with pre-operative CT and surgically excised ground-glass nodules (size: 22.5 ± 5.1 mm) with a significant invasive adenocarcinomatous component (>5 mm) were included. The pathologist outlined disease extent on digitized histology specimens; two radiologists and a pulmonary critical care physician delineated the entire nodule on CT (in-plane resolution: <0.8 mm, inter-slice distance: 1-5 mm). We introduced a novel reconstruction approach to localize histology slices in 3D relative to each other while using CT scan as spatial constraint. This enabled the spatial mapping of the extent of tumour invasion from histology onto CT. Good overlap of the 3D reconstructed histology and the nodule outlined on CT was observed (65.9 ± 5.2%). Reduction in 3D misalignment of corresponding anatomical landmarks on histology and CT was observed (1.97 ± 0.42 mm). Moreover, the CT attenuation (HU) distributions were different when comparing invasive and in situ regions. This proof-of-concept study suggests that our fusion method can enable the spatial mapping of the invasive adenocarcinomatous component from 2D histology slices onto in vivo CT. (orig.)

  15. Co-registration of pre-operative CT with ex vivo surgically excised ground glass nodules to define spatial extent of invasive adenocarcinoma on in vivo imaging: a proof-of-concept study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Gilkeson, Robert; Yang, Michael; Donatelli, Christopher; Linden, Philip; Thawani, Rajat; Madabhushi, Anant; Jacono, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    To develop an approach for radiology-pathology fusion of ex vivo histology of surgically excised pulmonary nodules with pre-operative CT, to radiologically map spatial extent of the invasive adenocarcinomatous component of the nodule. Six subjects (age: 75 ± 11 years) with pre-operative CT and surgically excised ground-glass nodules (size: 22.5 ± 5.1 mm) with a significant invasive adenocarcinomatous component (>5 mm) were included. The pathologist outlined disease extent on digitized histology specimens; two radiologists and a pulmonary critical care physician delineated the entire nodule on CT (in-plane resolution: <0.8 mm, inter-slice distance: 1-5 mm). We introduced a novel reconstruction approach to localize histology slices in 3D relative to each other while using CT scan as spatial constraint. This enabled the spatial mapping of the extent of tumour invasion from histology onto CT. Good overlap of the 3D reconstructed histology and the nodule outlined on CT was observed (65.9 ± 5.2%). Reduction in 3D misalignment of corresponding anatomical landmarks on histology and CT was observed (1.97 ± 0.42 mm). Moreover, the CT attenuation (HU) distributions were different when comparing invasive and in situ regions. This proof-of-concept study suggests that our fusion method can enable the spatial mapping of the invasive adenocarcinomatous component from 2D histology slices onto in vivo CT. (orig.)

  16. Optimum cooling of data centers application of risk assessment and mitigation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Jun; Das, Diganta; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This book provides data center designers and operators with methods by which to assess and mitigate the risks associated with utilization of optimum cooling solutions. The goal is to provide readers with sufficient knowledge to implement measures such as free air cooling or direct liquid immersion cooling properly, or combination of existing and emerging cooling technologies in data centers, base stations, and server farms. This book also: Discusses various telecommunication infrastructures, with an emphasis on data centers and base stations Covers the most commonly known energy and power management techniques, as well as emerging cooling solutions for data centers Describes the risks to the electronic equipment fitted in these installations and the methods of risk mitigation Devotes  a particular focus to an up-to-date review of the emerging cooling methods (such as free air cooling and direct liquid immersion cooling) and tools and best practices for designers, technology developers, installation operators...

  17. Studies on optimum harvest time for hybrid rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hong; Cao, Dong-Dong; Hu, Wei-Min; Guan, Ya-Jing; Fu, Yu-Ying; Fang, Yong-Feng; Hu, Jin

    2017-03-01

    Timely harvest is critical for hybrid rice to achieve maximum seed viability, vigor and yield. However, how to predict the optimum harvest time has been rarely reported so far. The seed vigor of Zhuliangyou 06 (ZLY06) increased and reached the highest level at 20 days after pollination (DAP), when seed moisture content had a lower value, which was maintained until final seed maturation. For Chunyou 84 (CY84), seed vigor, fresh and dry weight had relatively high values at 25 DAP, when seed moisture content reached the lowest value and changed slightly from 25 to 55 DAP. In both hybrid rice varieties, seed glume chlorophyll content declined rapidly from 10 to 30 DAP and remained at a very low level after 35 DAP. Starch content exhibited an increasing trend during seed maturation, while both soluble sugar content and amylase activity decreased significantly at the early stages of seed development. Moreover, correlation analyses showed that seed dry weight, starch content and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly positively correlated with seed vigor. In contrast, chlorophyll content, moisture content, soluble sugar, soluble protein, abscisic acid, gibberellin content, electrical conductivity, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were significantly negatively correlated with seed vigor. Physiological and biochemical parameters were obviously more closely related with seed vigor than with seed germinability during seed development. Seed vigor could be better used as a comprehensive factor to predict the optimum seed harvest time. It is suggested that for ZLY06 seeds could be harvested as early as 20 DAP, whereas for CY84 the earliest optimum harvest time was 25 DAP. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Developed Hybrid Model for Propylene Polymerisation at Optimum Reaction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jakir Hossain Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A statistical model combined with CFD (computational fluid dynamic method was used to explain the detailed phenomena of the process parameters, and a series of experiments were carried out for propylene polymerisation by varying the feed gas composition, reaction initiation temperature, and system pressure, in a fluidised bed catalytic reactor. The propylene polymerisation rate per pass was considered the response to the analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM, with a full factorial central composite experimental design, was applied to develop the model. In this study, analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated an acceptable value for the coefficient of determination and a suitable estimation of a second-order regression model. For better justification, results were also described through a three-dimensional (3D response surface and a related two-dimensional (2D contour plot. These 3D and 2D response analyses provided significant and easy to understand findings on the effect of all the considered process variables on expected findings. To diagnose the model adequacy, the mathematical relationship between the process variables and the extent of polymer conversion was established through the combination of CFD with statistical tools. All the tests showed that the model is an excellent fit with the experimental validation. The maximum extent of polymer conversion per pass was 5.98% at the set time period and with consistent catalyst and co-catalyst feed rates. The optimum conditions for maximum polymerisation was found at reaction temperature (RT 75 °C, system pressure (SP 25 bar, and 75% monomer concentration (MC. The hydrogen percentage was kept fixed at all times. The coefficient of correlation for reaction temperature, system pressure, and monomer concentration ratio, was found to be 0.932. Thus, the experimental results and model predicted values were a reliable fit at optimum process conditions. Detailed and adaptable CFD results were capable

  19. Is optimum and effective work done in administrative jurisdiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoecht, H.

    1980-01-01

    Is optimum and effective work done in administrative jurisdiction. The author describes the general situation prevailing in administrative jurisdiction. He gives tables on the number of subjects received per annum, of judges administering justice and figures on executed and non-executed proceedings. He reports on districts of jurisdiction, personnel, court administration and the amount of work. The investigation into administrative jurisdiction has shown accomplishments for 1978 which are not bad at all. Sporadic administrative shortcomings are to be realized and put to an end. (HSCH) [de

  20. Optimum filter-based discrimination of neutrons and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, Moslem; Prenosil, Vaclav; Cvachovec, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    An optimum filter-based method for discrimination of neutrons and gamma-rays in a mixed radiation field is presented. The existing filter-based implementations of discriminators require sample pulse responses in advance of the experiment run to build the filter coefficients, which makes them less practical. Our novel technique creates the coefficients during the experiment and improves their quality gradually. Applied to several sets of mixed neutron and photon signals obtained through different digitizers using stilbene scintillator, this approach is analyzed and its discrimination quality is measured. (authors)

  1. Optimum policies for a system with general imperfect maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, S.-H.; Lin, Y.-B.; Liao, G.-L.

    2006-01-01

    This study considers periodic preventive maintenance policies, which maximizes the availability of a repairable system with major repair at failure. Three types of preventive maintenance are performed, namely: imperfect preventive maintenance (IPM), perfect preventive maintenance (PPM) and failed preventive maintenance (FPM). The probability that preventive maintenance is perfect depends on the number of imperfect maintenances conducted since the previous renewal cycle, and the probability that preventive maintenance remains imperfect is not increasing. The optimum preventive maintenance time that maximizes availability is derived. Various special cases are considered. A numerical example is given

  2. Optimum amount of an insurance sum in life insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Balkovec

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal insurance represents one of the sources of personal social security as a category of personal property. How to get a proper life insurance is a frequently asked question. When insuring material objects (car, house..., the problem is usually not in the amount of the taken insurance. With life insurance (abstract goods, problems as such occur. In this paper, we wish to present a model that, according to the financial situation and the anticipated future, makes it possible to calculate the optimum insurance sum in life insurance.

  3. Search for an optimum time response of spark counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devismes, A.; Finck, Ch.; Kress, T.; Gobbi, A.; Eschke, J.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Koczon, P.; Petrovici, M.

    2002-01-01

    A spark counter of the type developed by Pestov has been tested with the aim of searching for an optimum time response function, changing voltage, content of noble and quencher gases, pressure and energy-loss. Replacing the usual argon by neon has brought an improvement of the resolution and a significant reduction of tails in the time response function. It has been proven that a counter as long as 90 cm can deliver, using neon gas mixture, a time resolution σ<60 ps with about 1% absolute tail and an efficiency of about 90%

  4. Design optimum frac jobs using virtual intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Shahab; Popa, Andrei; Ameri, Sam

    2000-10-01

    Designing optimal frac jobs is a complex and time-consuming process. It usually involves the use of a two- or three-dimensional computer model. For the computer models to perform as intended, a wealth of input data is required. The input data includes wellbore configuration and reservoir characteristics such as porosity, permeability, stress and thickness profiles of the pay layers as well as the overburden layers. Among other essential information required for the design process is fracturing fluid type and volume, proppant type and volume, injection rate, proppant concentration and frac job schedule. Some of the parameters such as fluid and proppant types have discrete possible choices. Other parameters such as fluid and proppant volume, on the other hand, assume values from within a range of minimum and maximum values. A potential frac design for a particular pay zone is a combination of all of these parameters. Finding the optimum combination is not a trivial process. It usually requires an experienced engineer and a considerable amount of time to tune the parameters in order to achieve desirable outcome. This paper introduces a new methodology that integrates two virtual intelligence techniques, namely, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms to automate and simplify the optimum frac job design process. This methodology requires little input from the engineer beyond the reservoir characterizations and wellbore configuration. The software tool that has been developed based on this methodology uses the reservoir characteristics and an optimization criteria indicated by the engineer, for example a certain propped frac length, and provides the detail of the optimum frac design that will result in the specified criteria. An ensemble of neural networks is trained to mimic the two- or three-dimensional frac simulator. Once successfully trained, these networks are capable of providing instantaneous results in response to any set of input parameters. These

  5. Optimum value of original events on the PEPT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadremomtaz, Alireza; Taherparvar, Payvand

    2011-01-01

    Do Positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) has been used to track the motion of a single radioactively labeled tracer particle within a bed of similar particles. In this paper, the effect of the original event fraction on the results precise in two experiments has been reviewed. Results showed that the algorithm can no longer distinguish some corrupt trajectories, in addition to; further iteration reduces the statistical significance of the sample without improving its quality. Results show that the optimum value of trajectories depends on the type of experiment.

  6. Optimum Value of Original Events on the Pept Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadremomtaz, Alireza; Taherparvar, Payvand

    2011-12-01

    Do Positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) has been used to track the motion of a single radioactively labeled tracer particle within a bed of similar particles. In this paper, the effect of the original event fraction on the results precise in two experiments has been reviewed. Results showed that the algorithm can no longer distinguish some corrupt trajectories, in addition to; further iteration reduces the statistical significance of the sample without improving its quality. Results show that the optimum value of trajectories depends on the type of experiment.

  7. Design optimum frac jobs using virtual intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahab Mohaghegh; Andrei Popa; Sam Ameri [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering

    2000-10-01

    Designing optimal frac jobs is a complex and time-consuming process. It usually involves the use of a two- or three-dimensional computer model. For the computer models to perform as intended, a wealth of input data is required. The input data includes wellbore configuration and reservoir characteristics such as porosity, permeability, stress and thickness profiles of the pay layers as well as the overburden layers. Among other essential information required for the design process is fracturing fluid type and volume, proppant type and volume, injection rate, proppant concentration and frac job schedule. Some of the parameters such as fluid and proppant types have discrete possible choices. Other parameters such as fluid and proppant volume, on the other hand, assume values from within a range of minimum and maximum values. A potential frac design for a particular pay zone is a combination of all of these parameters. Finding the optimum combination is not a trivial process. It usually requires an experienced engineer and a considerable amount of time to tune the parameters in order to achieve desirable outcome. This paper introduces a new methodology that integrates two virtual intelligence techniques, namely, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms to automate and simplify the optimum frac job design process. This methodology requires little input from the engineer beyond the reservoir characterizations and wellbore configuration. The software tool that has been developed based on this methodology uses the reservoir characteristics and an optimization criteria indicated by the engineer, for example a certain propped frac length, and provides the detail of the optimum frac design that will result in the specified criteria. An ensemble of neural networks is trained to mimic the two- or three-dimensional frac simulator. Once successfully trained, these networks are capable of providing instantaneous results in response to any set of input parameters. These

  8. Optimum commodity taxation with a non-renewable resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We examine optimum commodity taxation (OCT), including the taxation of non-renewable resources (NRRs), by a government that needs to rely on commodity taxes to raise revenues. NRRs should be taxed at higher rates than otherwise-identical conventional commodities, according to an augmented, dynamic...... formulas can directly be used to indicate how Pigovian taxation of carbon NRRs should be increased in the presence of public-revenue needs, as illustrated in a numerical example. We show that NRR substitutes and complements should receive a particular tax treatment. Finally, in a NRR-importing economy...

  9. Modified loss coefficients in the determination of optimum generation scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D.; Bordoloi, P.K. (Assam Engineering Coll. (IN))

    1991-03-01

    A modified method has been evolved to form the loss coefficients of an electrical power system network by decoupling load and generation and thereby creating additional fictitious load buses. The system losses are then calculated and co-ordinated to arrive at an optimum scheduling of generation using the standard co-ordination equation. The method presented is superior to the ones currently available, in that it is applicable to a multimachine system with random variation of load and it accounts for limits in plant generations and line losses. The precise nature of results and the economy in the cost of energy production obtained by this method is quantified and presented. (author).

  10. Optimum back-pressure forging using servo die cushion

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamoto, Kiichiro; Yoneyama, Takeshi; Okada, Masato; Kitayama, Satoshi; Chikahisa, Junpei

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on utilizing a servo die cushion (in conjunction with a servo press) as a "back-pressure load generator," to determine its effect on shape accuracy of the formed part and total forming load in forward extrusion during cold forging. The effect of back-pressure load application was confirmed in experiments, and the optimum setting pattern of back-pressure load was considered to minimize both shape accuracy of the formed part and back-pressure energy, which was representative ...

  11. Optimum heat storage design for heat integrated multipurpose batch plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stamp, J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available procedure is presented tha journal homepage: www All rights reserved. ajozi T, Optimum heat storage grated multipurpose batch plants , South Africa y usage in multipurpose batch plants has been in published literature most present methods, time... � 2pL?u?kins ? 1 h3A3?u?cu?U (36) The internal area for heat loss by convection from the heat transfer medium is given by Constraint (37) and the area for convective heat transfer losses to the environment is given in Constraint (38). A1?u? ? 2...

  12. The WHO/PEPFAR collaboration to prepare an operations manual for HIV prevention, care, and treatment at primary health centers in high-prevalence, resource-constrained settings: defining laboratory services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, Thomas; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Ferris, Robert; Habiyambere, Vincent; Ellerbrock, Tedd

    2009-06-01

    The expansion of HIV/AIDS care and treatment in resource-constrained countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, has generally developed in a top-down manner. Further expansion will involve primary health centers where human and other resources are limited. This article describes the World Health Organization/President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief collaboration formed to help scale up HIV services in primary health centers in high-prevalence, resource-constrained settings. It reviews the contents of the Operations Manual developed, with emphasis on the Laboratory Services chapter, which discusses essential laboratory services, both at the center and the district hospital level, laboratory safety, laboratory testing, specimen transport, how to set up a laboratory, human resources, equipment maintenance, training materials, and references. The chapter provides specific information on essential tests and generic job aids for them. It also includes annexes containing a list of laboratory supplies for the health center and sample forms.

  13. An improved optimum-path forest clustering algorithm for remote sensing image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siya; Sun, Tieli; Yang, Fengqin; Sun, Hongguang; Guan, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Remote sensing image segmentation is a key technology for processing remote sensing images. The image segmentation results can be used for feature extraction, target identification and object description. Thus, image segmentation directly affects the subsequent processing results. This paper proposes a novel Optimum-Path Forest (OPF) clustering algorithm that can be used for remote sensing segmentation. The method utilizes the principle that the cluster centres are characterized based on their densities and the distances between the centres and samples with higher densities. A new OPF clustering algorithm probability density function is defined based on this principle and applied to remote sensing image segmentation. Experiments are conducted using five remote sensing land cover images. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed method can outperform the original OPF approach.

  14. Mode analysis of heuristic behavior of searching for multimodal optimum point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, K; Araki, Y; Inoue, K

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experimental study of a heuristic behavior of searching for the global optimum (maximum) point of a two-dimensional, multimodal, nonlinear and unknown function. First, the authors define three modes dealing with the trial purposes, called the purpose modes and show the heuristic search behaviors expressed by the purpose modes which the human subjects select in the search experiments. Second, the authors classify the heuristic search behaviors into three types according to the mode transitions and extracts eight states of searches which cause the mode transitions. Third, a model of the heuristic search behavior is composed of the eight mode transitions. The analysis of the heuristic search behaviors by use of the purpose modes plays an important role in the heuristic search techniques. 6 references.

  15. Biomechanical justification of the choice of optimum mode for passing the individual pursuit race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Kolumbet

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : biomechanical justification of the choice of optimum mode of passing competitive distance of 4 km individual pursuit on track. Material : The qualified cyclists (n=14 participated in researches. The modified stationary cycle Monark was used. Cyclists performed work in two modes - A and B. Results : The mode B is physiologically more favorable. The mode B should be considered as a model of passing a distance in preliminary races of individual pursuit. Work in the mode A demands terminal mobilization of organism functions. Work in the mode A is more effective in the achievement of sports result. It can be used only once in the final race of competitions. Conclusions : The received data should be considered as a demonstration of specific features of passing a distance in the competitive modes. The tactical variant of competitive program creation is defined by the individual functional state.

  16. Operator substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Substitution of an operator into an operator-valued map is defined and studied. A Bezout-type remainder theorem is used to derive a number of results. The tensor map is used to formulate solvability conditions for linear matrix equations. Some applications to system theory are given, in particular

  17. Multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimum position and proper field of view of a photosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doulos, L.; Tsangrassoulis, A.; Topalis, F.V.

    2014-01-01

    FOV of the photosensor. The proposed methodology can be used as a tool for the determination of the optimum operation of a daylight responsive system with photosensors

  18. Application-Defined Decentralized Access Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Dunn, Alan M.; Hofmann, Owen S.; Lee, Michael Z.; Mehdi, Syed Akbar; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    DCAC is a practical OS-level access control system that supports application-defined principals. It allows normal users to perform administrative operations within their privilege, enabling isolation and privilege separation for applications. It does not require centralized policy specification or management, giving applications freedom to manage their principals while the policies are still enforced by the OS. DCAC uses hierarchically-named attributes as a generic framework for user-defined policies such as groups defined by normal users. For both local and networked file systems, its execution time overhead is between 0%–9% on file system microbenchmarks, and under 1% on applications. This paper shows the design and implementation of DCAC, as well as several real-world use cases, including sandboxing applications, enforcing server applications’ security policies, supporting NFS, and authenticating user-defined sub-principals in SSH, all with minimal code changes. PMID:25426493

  19. Optimum design and thermodynamic analysis of a gas turbine and ORC combined cycle with recuperators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yue; Gao, Yike; Zheng, Ya; Dai, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A GT-ORC combined cycle with recuperators was designed. • The effect of the ORC turbine inlet pressure on the combined cycle was examined. • Toluene was a more suitable working fluid for the GT-ORC combined cycle. • The GT-ORC combined cycle performed better than the GT-Rankine combined cycle. • The sensitivity analysis to the ambient temperature was completed. - Abstract: Gas turbines are widely used in distributed power generation because of their high efficiency, low pollution and low operational cost. To further utilize the waste heat from gas turbines, an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) was proposed as the bottoming cycle for gas turbines in this paper. Two recuperators were coupled with the combined cycle to increase the thermal efficiency, and aromatics were chosen as the working fluid for the bottoming cycle. This paper focused on the optimum design and thermodynamic analysis of the gas turbine and ORC (GT-ORC) combined cycle. Results showed that the net power and thermal efficiency of the ORC increased with the ORC turbine inlet pressure and achieved optimum values at a specific pressure based on the optimum criteria. Furthermore, compared with the GT-Rankine combined cycle, the GT-ORC combined cycle had better thermodynamic performance. Toluene was a more suitable working fluid for the GT-ORC combined cycle. Moreover, ambient temperature sensitivity simulations concluded that the GT-ORC combined cycle had a maximum thermal efficiency and the combined cycle net power was mainly determined by the topping gas turbine cycle.

  20. Optimum Tower Crane Selection and Supporting Design Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Won Sohn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To optimize tower crane selection and supporting design, lifting requirements (as well as stability should be examined, followed by a review of economic feasibility. However, construction engineers establish plans based on data provided by equipment suppliers since there are no tools with which to thoroughly examine a support design's suitability for various crane types, and such plans lack the necessary supporting data. In such cases it is impossible to optimize a tower crane selection to satisfy lifting requirements in terms of cost, and to perform lateral support and foundation design. Thus, this study is intended to develop an optimum tower crane selection and supporting design management method based on stability. All cases that are capable of generating an optimization of approximately 3,000 ˜ 15,000 times are calculated to identify the candidate cranes with minimized cost, which are examined. The optimization method developed in the study is expected to support engineers in determining the optimum lifting equipment management.

  1. Optimum concrete compression strength using bio-enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagio Tony Hartono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To make concrete with high compressive strength and has a certain concrete specifications other than the main concrete materials are also needed concrete mix quality control and other added material is also in line with the current technology of concrete mix that produces concrete with specific characteristics. Addition of bio enzyme on five concrete mixture that will be compared with normal concrete in order to know the optimum level bio-enzyme in concrete to increase the strength of the concrete. Concrete with bio-enzyme 200 ml/m3, 400 ml/m3, 600 ml/m3, 800 ml/m3, 1000 ml/m3 and normal concrete. Refer to the crushing test result, its tends to the mathematical model using 4th degree polynomial regression (least quartic, as represent on the attached data series, which is for the design mix fc′ = 25 MPa generate optimum value for 33,98 MPa, on the bio-additive dosage of 509 ml bio enzymes.

  2. Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, Erhun, E-mail: erhun.kula@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey); Gunalay, Yavuz, E-mail: yavuz.gunalay@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Business Studies, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost-benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO{sub 2}. Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It moderates the problem of global warming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

  3. The optimum content of rubber ash in concrete: flexural strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senin, M. S.; Shahidan, S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Ariffin, S. F. A.; Othman, N. H.; Rahman, R.; Khalid, F. S.; Nazri, F. M.

    2017-11-01

    Discarded scrap tyres have become one of the major environmental problems nowadays. Several studies have been carried out to reuse waste tires as an additive or sand replacement in concrete with appropriate percentages of tire rubber, called as rubberized concrete to solve this problem. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the flexural strength performance of concrete when adding the rubber ash and also to analyse the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prisms. The performance total of 30 number of concrete prisms in size of 100mm x 100mm x 500 mm were investigated, by partially replacement of rubber ash with percentage of 0%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% from the volume of the sand. The flexural strength is increased when percentage of rubber ash is added 3% from control concrete prism, RA 0 for both concrete prism age, 7 days and 28 days with value 1.21% and 0.976% respectively. However, for RA 5, RA 7 and RA 9, the flexural strength was decreased compared to the control for both age, 7 days and 28 days. In conclusion, 3% is the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prism for both concrete age

  4. Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Production of Chitosan Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dustgani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioedegradable nanoparticles are intensively investigated for their potential applications in drug delivery systems. Being a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, chitosan holds great promise for use in this area. This investigation was concerned with determination and optimization of the effective parameters involved in the production of chitosan nanoparticles using ionic gelation method. Studied variables were concentration and pH of the chitosan solution, the ratio of chitosan to sodium tripolyphosphate therein and the molecular weight of chitosan. For this purpose, Taguchistatistical method was used for design of experiments in three levels. The size of chitosan nanoparticle was determined using laser light scattering. The experimental results showed that concentration of chitosan solution was the most important parameter and chitosan molecular weight the least effective parameter. The optimum conditions for preparation of nanoparticles were found to be 1 mg/mL chitosan solution with pH=5, chitosan to sodium tripolyphosphate ratio of 3 and chitosan molecular weight of 200,000 daltons. The average nanoparticle size at optimum conditions was found to be about 150 nm.

  5. Optimum distributed generation placement with voltage sag effect minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Soma; Goswami, Swapan Kumar; Chatterjee, Amitava

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new optimal distributed generation placement algorithm is proposed. ► Optimal number, sizes and locations of the DGs are determined. ► Technical factors like loss, voltage sag problem are minimized. ► The percentage savings are optimized. - Abstract: The present paper proposes a new formulation for the optimum distributed generator (DG) placement problem which considers a hybrid combination of technical factors, like minimization of the line loss, reduction in the voltage sag problem, etc., and economical factors, like installation and maintenance cost of the DGs. The new formulation proposed is inspired by the idea that the optimum placement of the DGs can help in reducing and mitigating voltage dips in low voltage distribution networks. The problem is configured as a multi-objective, constrained optimization problem, where the optimal number of DGs, along with their sizes and bus locations, are simultaneously obtained. This problem has been solved using genetic algorithm, a traditionally popular stochastic optimization algorithm. A few benchmark systems radial and networked (like 34-bus radial distribution system, 30 bus loop distribution system and IEEE 14 bus system) are considered as the case study where the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is aptly demonstrated.

  6. Impacts of optimum cost effective energy efficiency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancic, A.B.; Peters, J.S.; Arch, M.

    1991-01-01

    Building Codes are increasingly required to be responsive to social and economic policy concerns. In 1990 the State of Connecticut passes An Act Concerning Global Warming, Public Act 90-219, which mandates the revision of the state building code to require that buildings and building elements be designed to provide optimum cost-effective energy efficiency over the useful life of the building. Further, such revision must meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 - 1989. As the largest electric energy supplier in Connecticut, Northeast Utilities (NU) sponsored a pilot study of the cost effectiveness of alternative building code standards for commercial construction. This paper reports on this study which analyzed design and construction means, building elements, incremental construction costs, and energy savings to determine the optimum cost-effective building code standard. Findings are that ASHRAE 90.1 results in 21% energy savings and alternative standards above it result in significant additional savings. Benefit/cost analysis showed that both are cost effective

  7. Optimum dietary protein requirement of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misieng, Josephine Dorin; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Musa, Mazlinda

    2011-02-01

    The optimum dietary protein requirement of the Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerlings was determined in this study. In this completely randomized designed experiment, formulated diets of five levels of dietary protein (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50%) were tested on the T. tambroides fingerlings (initial body weight of 5.85 +/- 0.40 g), reared in aquarium fitted with a biofiltering system. The fingerlings were fed twice daily at 5% of biomass. The fingerling body weight and total length was taken at every two weeks. Mortality was recorded daily. The dietary protein had significant effects on the body weight gain and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) of the fingerlings. The body weight gain and SGR of fingerlings fed with the diet with the dietary protein level of 40% was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of 30, 35 and 50%. The feed conversion ratio of the 40% dietary protein was the significantly lowest at 2.19 +/- 0.163. The dietary protein level of 40% was the most optimum for T. tambroides fingerlings.

  8. Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kula, Erhun; Gunalay, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost–benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO 2 . Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: ► Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. ► It moderates the problem of global warming. ► It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. ► This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

  9. Optimum energies for dual-energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, A.J.; Brooks, R.A.; Morgenthaler, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    By performing a dual-energy scan, separate information can be obtained on the Compton and photoelectric components of attenuation for an unknown material. This procedure has been analysed for the optimum energies, and for the optimum dose distribution between the two scans. It was found that an equal dose at both energies was a good compromise, compared with optimising the dose distributing for either the Compton or photoelectric components individually. For monoenergetic beams, it was found that low energy of 40 keV produced minimum noise when using high-energy beams of 80 to 100 keV. This was true whether one maintained constant integral dose or constant surface dose. A low energy of 50 keV which is more nearly attainable in practice, produced almost as good a degree of accuracy. The analysis can be extended to polyenergetic beams by the inclusion of a noise factor. The above results were qualitatively unchanged, although the noise was increased by about 20% with integral dose equivalence and 50% with surface dose equivalence. It is very important to make the spectra as narrow as possible, especially at the low energy, in order to minimise the noise. (author)

  10. Optimum Discharge Burnup and Cycle Length for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secker, Jeffrey R.; Johansen, Baard J.; Stucker, David L.; Ozer, Odelli; Ivanov, Kostadin; Yilmaz, Serkan; Young, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a pressurized water reactor fuel management study determining the optimum discharge burnup and cycle length. A comprehensive study was performed considering 12-, 18-, and 24-month fuel cycles over a wide range of discharge burnups. A neutronic study was performed followed by an economic evaluation. The first phase of the study limited the fuel enrichments used in the study to 235 U consistent with constraints today. The second phase extended the range of discharge burnups for 18-month cycles by using fuel enriched in excess of 5 wt%. The neutronic study used state-of-the-art reactor physics methods to accurately determine enrichment requirements. Energy requirements were consistent with today's high capacity factors (>98%) and short (15-day) refueling outages. The economic evaluation method considers various component costs including uranium, conversion, enrichment, fabrication and spent-fuel storage costs as well as the effect of discounting of the revenue stream. The resulting fuel cycle costs as a function of cycle length and discharge burnup are presented and discussed. Fuel costs decline with increasing discharge burnup for all cycle lengths up to the maximum discharge burnup considered. The choice of optimum cycle length depends on assumptions for outage costs

  11. Optimum measurement and analysis of small polarization asymmetry in high-energy inelastic scattering using a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.

    1976-01-01

    Optimum linear filter theory is employed for maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio in measurements of small polarization asymmetry in the presence of severe counting efficiency fluctuation, most likely to occur in high-energy inclusive and inelastic scattering experiments, using a polarized target. The r.m.s. error of the polarization asymmetry is obtained in closed form, allowing numeric optimization of the operation of the target. Guidelines are given for processing the record of data. (Auth.)

  12. The optimum support design selection by using AHP method for the main haulage road in WLC Tuncbilek colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, M.; Iphar, M.; Once, G.

    2008-03-15

    The engineers can frequently encounter with the situation to select the optimum option among the alternatives related with mining operations. The optimum choice can be selected by the experienced engineers taking into consideration their judgement and intuition. However, decision-making methods can offer to the engineers to support their optimum selection for a particular application in the scientific way. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is one of the multi attribute decision-making (MADM) methods utilizing structured pair-wise comparisons. This paper presents an application of the AHP method to the selection of the optimum support design for the main transport road, which has been planned for deep coal seam panels of Western Lignite Corporation (WLC) Tuncbilek in Turkeiy. The methodology considers eight main objectives, namely: four different displacement values for determined history locations, factor of safety (FOS), cost, labour and applicability factor for the selection of support design. The displacements and stress values were obtained by using the finite difference program FLAC(3D) as the numerical studies have been widely used by the engineers examining the response of any opening in underground, in advance. After carrying out several numerical models for different support design, the AHP method was incorporated to evaluate these support designs according to the pre-determined criteria. The result of this study shows that such AHP application can assist the engineers to effectively evaluate the support system alternatives for an underground mine.

  13. Operator programs and operator processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Walters, P.

    2003-01-01

    We define a notion of program which is not a computer program but an operator program: a detailed description of actions performed and decisions taken by a human operator (computer user) performing a task to achieve a goal in a simple setting consisting of that user, one or more computers and a

  14. Performance optimum analysis of an irreversible molten carbonate fuel cell–Stirling heat engine hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liwei; Zhang, Houcheng; Gao, Songhua; Yan, Huixian

    2014-01-01

    A new hybrid system mainly consists of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a Stirling heat engine is established, where the Stirling heat engine is driven by the high-quality waste heat generated in the MCFC. Based on the electrochemistry and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, analytical expressions for the efficiency and power output of the hybrid system are derived by taking various irreversible losses into account. It shows that the performance of the MCFC can be greatly enhanced by coupling a Stirling heat engine to further convert the waste heat for power generation. By employing numerical calculations, not only the influences of multiple irreversible losses on the performance of the hybrid system are analyzed, but also the impacts of some operating conditions such as the operating temperature, input gas compositions and operating pressure on the performance of the hybrid system are also discussed. The investigation method in the present paper is feasible for some other similar energy conversion systems as well. - Highlights: • A model of MCFC–Stirling heat engine hybrid system is established. • Analytical expressions for the efficiency and power output are derived. • MCFC performance can be greatly enhanced by coupling a Stirling heat engine. • Effects of some operating conditions on the performance are discussed. • Optimum operation regions are subdivided by multi-objective optimization method

  15. An optimum fuel management method based on CANDU in-core detector readings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Choi, Hang Bok

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a new optimal fuel management method is developed for a CANDU 600 MWe (CANDU-6) reactor. At first, an efficient power mapping method has been developed, which provides an accurate core status of an operating CANDU reactor. Secondly, an optimum refueling channel selection method has been developed by an optimization theory. For the power mapping method, the measured detector readings are used as boundary conditions of the diffusion theory calculation with the Kalman filtering (DIKAL) method. The performance of the DIKAL method was assessed for various core states and applied to the calculation of power and flux distribution in the CANDU 6 reactor. Sensitivity studies have shown that DIKAL method is insensitive to the detector random and systematic errors. An optimal refueling simulation method (OPTIMA), practically applicable to a CANDU 6 reactor, has also been developed. The objective of the optimization is to reproduce the reference core performance during refueling simulation, while satisfying the operation limits of channel and bundle powers. The optimization process consists of two stages: i) elimination of candidate refueling channels by several constraints and ii) selection of refueling channels by a direct search method that uses sensitivity coefficients of channel power generated for the reference core. The elimination process sorts out an appropriate number of fuel channels suitable for refueling, considering the channel power, bundle power and fuel burnup. The optimum refueling channels are then selected such that the difference of power distribution from the reference is minimized. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the overall fuel management methodology developed in this study, the DIKAL-OPTIMA method was applied to Wolsong-3 reactor refueling simulation, which is a typical CANDU-6 reactor. The results of refueling simulation have shown that the method can be efficiently used for the performance analysis of the operating

  16. An optimum fuel management method based on CANDU in-core detector readings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Choi, Hang Bok

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a new optimal fuel management method is developed for a CANDU 600 MWe (CANDU-6) reactor. At first, an efficient power mapping method has been developed, which provides an accurate core status of an operating CANDU reactor. Secondly, an optimum refueling channel selection method has been developed by an optimization theory. For the power mapping method, the measured detector readings are used as boundary conditions of the diffusion theory calculation with the Kalman filtering (DIKAL) method. The performance of the DIKAL method was assessed for various core states and applied to the calculation of power and flux distribution in the CANDU 6 reactor. Sensitivity studies have shown that DIKAL method is insensitive to the detector random and systematic errors. An optimal refueling simulation method (OPTIMA), practically applicable to a CANDU 6 reactor, has also been developed. The objective of the optimization is to reproduce the reference core performance during refueling simulation, while satisfying the operation limits of channel and bundle powers. The optimization process consists of two stages: i) elimination of candidate refueling channels by several constraints and ii) selection of refueling channels by a direct search method that uses sensitivity coefficients of channel power generated for the reference core. The elimination process sorts out an appropriate number of fuel channels suitable for refueling, considering the channel power, bundle power and fuel burnup. The optimum refueling channels are then selected such that the difference of power distribution from the reference is minimized. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the overall fuel management methodology developed in this study, the DIKAL-OPTIMA method was applied to Wolsong-3 reactor refueling simulation, which is a typical CANDU-6 reactor. The results of refueling simulation have shown that the method can be efficiently used for the performance analysis of the operating

  17. Optimum community energy storage system for demand load shifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, David; Norman, Stuart A.; Walker, Gavin S.; Gillott, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PbA-acid and lithium-ion batteries are optimised up to a 100-home community. • A 4-period real-time pricing and Economy 7 (2-period time-of-use) are compared. • Li-ion batteries perform worse with Economy 7 for small communities and vice versa. • The community approach reduced the levelised cost by 56% compared to a single home. • Heat pumps reduced the levelised cost and increased the profitability of batteries. - Abstract: Community energy storage (CES) is becoming an attractive technological option to facilitate the use of distributed renewable energy generation, manage demand loads and decarbonise the residential sector. There is strong interest in understanding the techno-economic benefits of using CES systems, which energy storage technology is more suitable and the optimum CES size. In this study, the performance including equivalent full cycles and round trip efficiency of lead-acid (PbA) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries performing demand load shifting are quantified as a function of the size of the community using simulation-based optimisation. Two different retail tariffs are compared: a time-of-use tariff (Economy 7) and a real-time-pricing tariff including four periods based on the electricity prices on the wholesale market. Additionally, the economic benefits are quantified when projected to two different years: 2020 and a hypothetical zero carbon year. The findings indicate that the optimum PbA capacity was approximately twice the optimum Li-ion capacity in the case of the real-time-pricing tariff and around 1.6 times for Economy 7 for any community size except a single home. The levelised cost followed a negative logarithmic trend while the internal rate of return followed a positive logarithmic trend as a function of the size of the community. PbA technology reduced the levelised cost down to 0.14 £/kW h when projected to the year 2020 for the retail tariff Economy 7. CES systems were sized according to the demand load and

  18. Optimum investment strategy in the power industry mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Bartnik, Ryszard; Hnydiuk-Stefan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an innovative methodology for identifying optimum investment strategies in the power industry. To do so, it examines results including, among others, the impact of oxy-fuel technology on CO2 emissions prices, and the specific cost of electricity production. The technical and economic analysis presented here extend the available knowledge in the field of investment optimization in energy engineering, while also enabling investors to make decisions involving its application. Individual chapters explore the potential impacts of different factors like environmental charges on costs connected with investments in the power sector, as well as discussing the available technologies for heat and power generation. The book offers a valuable resource for researchers, market analysts, decision makers, power engineers and students alike.

  19. Kernel Optimum Nearly-analytical Discretization (KOND) algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Hosaka, Yasuo; Ishii, Kenji

    1992-10-01

    Two applications of the Kernel Optimum Nearly-analytical Discretization (KOND) algorithm to the parabolic- and the hyperbolic type equations a presented in detail to lead to novel numerical schemes with very high numerical accuracy. It is demonstrated numerically that the two dimensional KOND-P scheme for the parabolic type yields quite less numerical error by over 2-3 orders and reduces the CPU time to about 1/5 for a common numerical accuracy, compared with the conventional explicit scheme of reference. It is also demonstrated numerically that the KOND-H scheme for the hyperbolic type yields fairly less diffusive error and has fairly high stability for both of the linear- and the nonlinear wave propagations compared with other conventional schemes. (author)

  20. Problems in the optimum display of SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielding, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    The instrumentation, computer hardware and software, and the image display system are all very important in the production of diagnostically useful SPECT images. Acquisition and processing parameters are discussed which can affect the quality of SPECT images. Regular quality control of the gamma camera and computer is important to keep the artifacts due to instrumentation to a minimum. The choice of reconstruction method will depend on the statistics in the study. The paper has shown that for high count rate studies, a high pass filter can be used to enhance the reconstructions. For lower count rate studies, pre-filtering is useful and the data can be reconstructed into thicker slices to reduce the effect of image noise. Finally, the optimum display for the images must be chosen, so that the information contained in the SPECT data can be easily perceived by the clinician. (orig.) [de

  1. A Decision Support System for Optimum Use of Fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Hoskinson; J. R. Hess; R. K. Fink

    1999-07-01

    The Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) is an expert system being developed by the Site-Specific Technologies for Agriculture (SST4Ag) precision farming research project at the INEEL. DSS4Ag uses state-of-the-art artificial intelligence and computer science technologies to make spatially variable, site-specific, economically optimum decisions on fertilizer use. The DSS4Ag has an open architecture that allows for external input and addition of new requirements and integrates its results with existing agricultural systems' infrastructures. The DSS4Ag reflects a paradigm shift in the information revolution in agriculture that is precision farming. We depict this information revolution in agriculture as an historic trend in the agricultural decision-making process.

  2. A Decision Support System for Optimum Use of Fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Hess, John Richard; Fink, Raymond Keith

    1999-07-01

    The Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) is an expert system being developed by the Site-Specific Technologies for Agriculture (SST4Ag) precision farming research project at the INEEL. DSS4Ag uses state-of-the-art artificial intelligence and computer science technologies to make spatially variable, site-specific, economically optimum decisions on fertilizer use. The DSS4Ag has an open architecture that allows for external input and addition of new requirements and integrates its results with existing agricultural systems’ infrastructures. The DSS4Ag reflects a paradigm shift in the information revolution in agriculture that is precision farming. We depict this information revolution in agriculture as an historic trend in the agricultural decision-making process.

  3. Narratives of Optimum Currency Area theory and Eurozone Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snaith, Holly Grace

    2014-01-01

    is the subject of very significant internal disagreement, to the extent that economists writing within the field do not commonly agree upon the ontological foundations of the theory. This entails that the translation of the theory into political reality has been characterised by a series of often mutually...... contradictory narratives, which build upon schisms in the academic corpus. The political realisation of this can be seen during the negotiations over the 1992 process, where certain aspects of the theory concerning governance (of fiscal policy and preferences for conflict adjudication) have been notably......Optimum Currency Area theory (OCA) is a body of research that has, since its inception in 1961, been highly influential for the discourse and design of Economic and Monetary Union, exercising a significant hermeneutical force. Nonetheless, there has been little acknowledgement that OCA...

  4. Optimum conditions for aging of stainless maraging steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironenko, P.A.; Krasnikova, S.I.; Drobot, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    Aging kinetics of two 0Kh11N10M2T type steels in which 3 % Mo (steel 1), and 3 % Mo and 11 % Co (steel 2) had been additionally introduced instead of titanium were investigated. Electron microscopy and X-ray methods were used. It was ascertained that the process of steel aging proceeded in 3 stages. Steel 2 was hardened more intensively during the aging, had a higher degree of hardness and strength after the aging, weakened more slowly if overaged than steel 1. The intermetallide hcp-phase Fe 2 Mo was the hardening phase on steels extended aging. Optimum combination of impact strength and strength was was achieved using two-stage aging: the first stage - maximum strength aging was achieved, the second stage - aging at minimum temperatures of two-phase α+γ region

  5. Testing Optimum Seeding Rates for five Bread Wheat Cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wekesa, S.J.; Kiriswa, F.; Owuoche, J.

    1999-01-01

    A cultivar by seed rate trial was conducted in 1994-1995 crop seasons at Njoro, Kenya. Yield results were found to be significant (P > 0.01) for year, variety, seed rate and year by seed rate interaction. Test weight was highly significant (P -1 were grouped together for significantly higher yields (A) whereas seed rates 85 and 50 kg ha -1 had lower significant yields (B and C respectively). The same grouping was repeated for test weight. There was no significant cultivar by seed rate interaction and no cultivar, specific seed rate. However, since seed rates 245, 205, 165 and 125 kg ha -1 were grouped together, the lowest seed rate, 125 kg ha -1 can be recommended as the optimum seed rate for the above cultivars, as higher seed rates do not give significantly higher yields or higher test weights

  6. Optimum design of band-gap beam structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Niels; Niu, Bin; Cheng, Gengdong

    2012-01-01

    The design of band-gap structures receives increasing attention for many applications in mitigation of undesirable vibration and noise emission levels. A band-gap structure usually consists of a periodic distribution of elastic materials or segments, where the propagation of waves is impeded...... or significantly suppressed for a range of external excitation frequencies. Maximization of the band-gap is therefore an obvious objective for optimum design. This problem is sometimes formulated by optimizing a parameterized design model which assumes multiple periodicity in the design. However, it is shown...... in the present paper that such an a priori assumption is not necessary since, in general, just the maximization of the gap between two consecutive natural frequencies leads to significant design periodicity. The aim of this paper is to maximize frequency gaps by shape optimization of transversely vibrating...

  7. Optimum Identification Method of Sorting Green Household Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Mohd Hisam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This project is related to design of sorting facility for reducing, reusing, recycling green waste material, and in particular to invent an automatic system to distinguish household waste in order to separate them from the main waste stream. The project focuses on thorough analysis of the properties of green household waste. The method of identification is using capacitive sensor where the characteristic data taken on three different sensor drive frequency. Three types of material have been chosen as a medium of this research, to be separated using the selected method. Based on capacitance characteristics and its ability to penetrate green object, optimum identification method is expected to be recognized in this project. The output capacitance sensor is in analogue value. The results demonstrate that the information from the sensor is enough to recognize the materials that have been selected.

  8. Constraint-Based Local Search for Constrained Optimum Paths Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quang Dung; Deville, Yves; van Hentenryck, Pascal

    Constrained Optimum Path (COP) problems arise in many real-life applications and are ubiquitous in communication networks. They have been traditionally approached by dedicated algorithms, which are often hard to extend with side constraints and to apply widely. This paper proposes a constraint-based local search (CBLS) framework for COP applications, bringing the compositionality, reuse, and extensibility at the core of CBLS and CP systems. The modeling contribution is the ability to express compositional models for various COP applications at a high level of abstraction, while cleanly separating the model and the search procedure. The main technical contribution is a connected neighborhood based on rooted spanning trees to find high-quality solutions to COP problems. The framework, implemented in COMET, is applied to Resource Constrained Shortest Path (RCSP) problems (with and without side constraints) and to the edge-disjoint paths problem (EDP). Computational results show the potential significance of the approach.

  9. Environmental Planning Strategies for Optimum Solid Waste Landfill Siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiani, Y.; Onn, C.C.; Mohd, M.A.D.; Wan, W.Z.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of environmental planning tools for optimum solid waste landfill siting taking into account all environmental implications was carried out by applying Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) to enhance the research information obtained from initial analysis using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The objective of this study is to identify the most eco-friendly landfill site by conducting a LCA analysis upon 5 potential GIS generated sites which incorporated eleven important criteria related to the social, environmental, and economical factors. The LCA analysis utilized the daily distance covered by collection trucks among the 5 selected landfill sites to generate inventory data on total energy usage for each landfill sites. The planning and selection of the potential sites were facilitated after conducting environmental impact analysis upon the inventory data which showed the least environmental impact. (author)

  10. Optimum Actuator Selection with a Genetic Algorithm for Aircraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James L.

    2004-01-01

    The placement of actuators on a wing determines the control effectiveness of the airplane. One approach to placement maximizes the moments about the pitch, roll, and yaw axes, while minimizing the coupling. For example, the desired actuators produce a pure roll moment without at the same time causing much pitch or yaw. For a typical wing, there is a large set of candidate locations for placing actuators, resulting in a substantially larger number of combinations to examine in order to find an optimum placement satisfying the mission requirements and mission constraints. A genetic algorithm has been developed for finding the best placement for four actuators to produce an uncoupled pitch moment. The genetic algorithm has been extended to find the minimum number of actuators required to provide uncoupled pitch, roll, and yaw control. A simplified, untapered, unswept wing is the model for each application.

  11. Optimum radars and filters for the passive sphere system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luers, J. K.; Soltes, A.

    1971-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to determine the influence of the tracking radar and data reduction technique on the accuracy of the meteorological measurements made in the 30 to 100 kilometer altitude region by the ROBIN passive falling sphere. A survey of accuracy requirements was made of agencies interested in data from this region of the atmosphere. In light of these requirements, various types of radars were evaluated to determine the tracking system most applicable to the ROBIN, and methods were developed to compute the errors in wind and density that arise from noise errors in the radar supplied data. The effects of launch conditions on the measurements were also examined. Conclusions and recommendations have been made concerning the optimum tracking and data reduction techniques for the ROBIN falling sphere system.

  12. The optimum functionalization of carbon nanotube/ferritin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Won; Shin, Kwang Min; Kim, Seon Jeong; Lynam, Carol; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Wallace, Gordon G

    2008-01-01

    We fabricated a covalently linked composite composed of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWNT) and ferritin protein as nanoparticles. The various f-SWNTs were prepared using an acid treatment of purified SWNT for different functionalization times (30, 60, 120 and 180 min), and ferritin was immobilized on each of the f-SWNT by covalent immobilization. The specific capacitance of the f-SWNT and the electrochemical activity of the f-SWNT/ferritin composites showed a Gaussian distribution. From the electrochemical analysis, the ferritin composite with functionalized SWNT for 60 min showed the highest capacitance and electrochemical activity than other f-SWNT/ferritin composites. This result suggests the optimum value for the best performance of the electrochemical properties of f-SWNT/ferritin composites was found for a potential bioapplication

  13. Optimum selection of an energy resource using fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouelnaga, Ayah E.; Metwally, Abdelmohsen; Nagy, Mohammad E.; Agamy, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Optimum selection of an energy resource is a vital issue in developed countries. Considering energy resources as alternatives (nuclear, hydroelectric, gas/oil, and solar) and factors upon which the proper decision will be taken as attributes (economics, availability, environmental impact, and proliferation), one can use the multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) to optimize the selection process. Recently, fuzzy logic is extensively applied to the MAUT as it expresses the linguistic appraisal for all attributes in wide and reliable manners. The rise in oil prices and the increased concern about environmental protection from CO 2 emissions have promoted the attention to the use of nuclear power as a viable energy source for power generation. For Egypt, as a case study, the nuclear option is found to be an appropriate choice. Following the introduction of innovative designs of nuclear power plants, improvements in the proliferation resistance, environmental impacts, and economics will enhance the selection of the nuclear option.

  14. The optimum choice of gate width for neutron coincidence counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S., E-mail: crofts@ornl.gov [Safeguards and Security Technology (SST), Global Nuclear Security Technology Divisions, PO Box 2008, Building 5700, MS-6166, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6166 (United States); Henzlova, D.; Favalli, A.; Hauck, D.K.; Santi, P.A. [Safeguards Science and Technology Group (NEN-1), Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, MS-E540, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-11-11

    In the measurement field of international nuclear safeguards, passive neutron coincidence counting is used to quantify the spontaneous fission rate of certain special nuclear materials. The shift register autocorrelation analysis method is the most commonly used approach. However, the Feynman-Y technique, which is more commonly applied in reactor noise analysis, provides an alternative means to extract the correlation information from a pulse train. In this work we consider how to select the optimum gate width for each of these two time-correlation analysis techniques. The optimum is considered to be that which gives the lowest fractional precision on the net doublets rate. Our theoretical approach is approximate but is instructional in terms of revealing the key functional dependence. We show that in both cases the same performance figure of merit applies so that common design criteria apply to the neutron detector head. Our prediction is that near optimal results, suitable for most practical applications, can be obtained from both techniques using a common gate width setting. The estimated precision is also comparable in the two cases. The theoretical expressions are tested experimentally using {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission sources measured in two thermal well counters representative of the type in common use by international inspectorates. Fast accidental sampling was the favored method of acquiring the Feynman-Y data. Our experimental study confirmed the basic functional dependences predicted although experimental results when available are preferred. With an appropriate gate setting Feynman-Y analysis provides an alternative to shift register analysis for safeguards applications which is opening up new avenues of data collection and data reduction to explore.

  15. On the optimum joint decoding capacity of wyner circular GCMAC by exploiting hadamard inequality

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents an original expression of the theoretical upper bound for the optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner Circular Gaussian Cellular Multiple Access Channel (C-GCMAC). This upper bound is a novel application of the Hadamard inequality established by exploiting the Hadamard operation between the channel fading (G) and channel slow gain (Ω) matrices. This paper demonstrates that the theoretical upper bound converges to the actual capacity for negligible channel slow gain among the mobile terminals and the base stations for the entire range of Signal to Noise Ratios (SNRs). The behaviour of the theoretical bound is critically observed when the intercell and the intra-cell time sharing schemes are employed. © 2010 IEEE.

  16. Optimum design for rotor-bearing system using advanced generic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Chan; Choi, Seong Pil; Yang, Bo Suk

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a combinational method to compute the global and local solutions of optimization problems. The present hybrid algorithm uses both a generic algorithm and a local concentrate search algorithm (e.g simplex method). The hybrid algorithm is not only faster than the standard genetic algorithm but also supplies a more accurate solution. In addition, this algorithm can find the global and local optimum solutions. The present algorithm can be supplied to minimize the resonance response (Q factor) and to yield the critical speeds as far from the operating speed as possible. These factors play very important roles in designing a rotor-bearing system under the dynamic behavior constraint. In the present work, the shaft diameter, the bearing length, and clearance are used as the design variables

  17. Equivalent circuit and optimum design of a multilayer laminated piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuxiang; Carazo, Alfredo Vazquez; Park, Seung Ho

    2011-12-01

    A multilayer laminated piezoelectric Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O(3) (PZT) ceramic transformer, operating in a half- wavelength longitudinal resonant mode (λ/2 mode), has been analyzed. This piezoelectric transformer is composed of one thickness-polarized section (T-section) for exciting the longitudinal mechanical vibrations, two longitudinally polarized sections (L-section) for generating high-voltage output, and two insulating layers laminated between the T-section and L-section layers to provide insulation between the input and output sections. Based on the piezoelectric constitutive and motion equations, an electro-elasto-electric (EEE) equivalent circuit has been developed, and correspondingly, an effective EEE coupling coefficient was proposed for optimum design of this multilayer transformer. Commercial finite element analysis software is used to determine the validity of the developed equivalent circuit. Finally, a prototype sample was manufactured and experimental data was collected to verify the model's validity.

  18. Optimum aggregation of geographically distributed flexible resources in strategic smart-grid/microgrid locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Myers, Kurt S.; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    This study determines optimum aggregation areas for a given distribution network considering spatial distribution of loads and costs of aggregation. An elitist genetic algorithm combined with a hierarchical clustering and a Thevenin network reduction is implemented to compute strategic locations...... operational decisions by understanding during which time of the day will be in need of flexibility, from which specific area, and in which amount, but also enables the flexibilities stemming from small distributed resources to be traded in various power/energy markets. A combination of central and local...... aggregation scheme where a central aggregator enables market participation, while local aggregators materialize the accepted bids, is implemented to realize this concept. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing network performances with and without aggregation. For a given network...

  19. Optimum regulation of grid monopoly in the power trade; Optimal regulering av nettmonopoler i kraftomsetningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope, E.

    1994-06-01

    The report discusses the organization and behaviour of grid monopolies in the Norwegian power trade and relations to the socio-economic effectiveness. The main attention is laid on analyzing regulation mechanisms and measures leading to an efficient short-term operation and to the investment of optimum production capacity in a long run. Regarding the management, measures are discussed for increasing the efficiency of total power trade by evaluating the existing marketing function of Statnett. Some basic conditions are accounted concerning the regulation problem of grid monopolies with a particular attention to asymmetric information between the authority and the monopoly. In addition, forms of regulation and regulation mechanisms together with the incentive characteristics of these, are discussed. The existing profit regulation principles in relation to an alternative system design such as maximum price regulation combined with standard regulation, are evaluated. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  20. A hybrid model for the optimum integration of renewable technologies in power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to assess the unavoidable increase in the cost of electricity of a generation system by the integration of the necessary renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) technologies in order for the European Union Member States to achieve their national RES energy target. The optimization model developed uses a genetic algorithm (GA) technique for the calculation of both the additional cost of electricity due to the penetration of RES-E technologies as well as the required RES-E levy in the electricity bills in order to fund this RES-E penetration. Also, the procedure enables the estimation of the optimum feed-in-tariff to be offered to future RES-E systems. Also, the overall cost increase in the electricity sector for the promotion of RES-E technologies, for the period 2010-2020, is analyzed taking into account factors, such as, the fuel avoidance cost, the carbon dioxide emissions avoidance cost, the conventional power system increased operation cost, etc. The overall results indicate that in the case of RES-E investments with internal rate of return (IRR) of 10% the cost of integration is higher, compared to RES-E investments with no profit, (i.e., IRR at 0%) by 0.3-0.5 Euro c/kWh (in real prices), depending on the RES-E penetration level. - Research Highlights: →Development of a hybrid optimization model for the integration of renewable technologies in power generation systems. →Estimation of the optimum feed-in-tariffs to be offered to future renewable systems. →Determination of the overall cost increase in the electricity sector for the promotion of renewable technologies. →Analyses taking into account fuel avoidance cost, the carbon dioxide emissions avoidance cost, the conventional power system increased operation cost, etc.

  1. Designing optimum diameter of skip shafts in mines with inclined or steep coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, E.M.

    1981-07-01

    This paper discusses methods of increasing depth of operating shaft mines considering optimization of hoisting systems. The following solutions are analyzed: removing mined rock material to the surface, to operating horizon, to the deepest horizon, removing rock to the deepest horizon by enlarging a large diameter borehole. It is suggested that removing rock material to the surface is most economical. This solution is sometimes difficult to implement due to design of mine shafts. If a shaft is equipped with two pairs of skips, or with a pair of skips and two independent skips, one skip or a pair of skips can be removed to form free space for buckets used to hoist mined rock and coal. The bucket moves along rope shaft guides. Analysis of the optimum hoisting systems in shaft mines for coal mines with the following design capacity is carried out: 0.9, 1.2, 1.5 and 1.8 Mmt a year. The following depth of working horizons is evaluated: 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400 and 1600 m. It is assumed that coal and rock are hoisted separately. Advance rate ranges from 10 to 50 m/month. The results of analysis are shown in two tables. It is suggested that from the point of view of increasing depth of active mine shafts the following solutions are optimum: 7 m shaft with a system of three independently moving skips (two for coal, one for rock material), and 8 m shaft equipped with a pair of skips and two independent skips (one of the independently moving skips is used for rock hoisting). 4 refs.

  2. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  3. Optimum Design of a Moving Coil Actuator for Fast-Switching Valves in Digital Hydraulic Pumps and Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Bech, Michael Møller; Johansen, Per

    2015-01-01

    Fast-switching seat valves suitable for digital hydraulic pumps and motors utilize direct electromagnetic actuators, which must exhibit superior transient performance to allow efficient operation of the fluid power pump/motor. A moving coil actuator resulting in a minimum valve switching time...... is designed for such valves using transient finite-element analysis of the electromagnetic circuit. The valve dynamics are coupled to the fluid restrictive forces, which significantly influence the effective actuator force. Fluid forces are modeled based on transient computational fluid dynamics models....... The electromagnetic finite-element model is verified against experimental measurement, and used to design an optimum moving coil actuator for the application considering different voltage-current ratios of the power supply. Results show that the optimum design depends on the supply voltage-current ratio, however...

  4. Stateless multicast switching in software defined networks

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Martin J.; Al-Naday, Mays; Thomos, Nikolaos; Trossen, Dirk; Petropoulos, George; Spirou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    Multicast data delivery can significantly reduce traffic in operators' networks, but has been limited in deployment due to concerns such as the scalability of state management. This paper shows how multicast can be implemented in contemporary software defined networking (SDN) switches, with less state than existing unicast switching strategies, by utilising a Bloom Filter (BF) based switching technique. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism uses only proactive rule insertion, and thus, is not l...

  5. Evaluation of inbreeding in laying hens by applying optimum genetic contribution and gene flow theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, S; Tsehay, F; Sitzenstock, F; von Borstel, U U; Schmutz, M; Preisinger, R; Simianer, H

    2010-04-01

    Due to consistent increases of inbreeding of on average 0.95% per generation in layer populations, selection tools should consider both genetic gain and genetic relationships in the long term. The optimum genetic contribution theory using official estimated breeding values for egg production was applied for 3 different lines of a layer breeding program to find the optimal allocations of hens and sires. Constraints in different scenarios encompassed restrictions related to additive genetic relationships, the increase of inbreeding, the number of selected sires and hens, and the number of selected offspring per mating. All these constraints enabled higher genetic gain up to 10.9% at the same level of additive genetic relationships or in lower relationships at the same gain when compared with conventional selection schemes ignoring relationships. Increases of inbreeding and genetic gain were associated with the number of selected sires. For the lowest level of the allowed average relationship at 10%, the optimal number of sires was 70 and the estimated breeding value for egg production of the selected group was 127.9. At the highest relationship constraint (16%), the optimal number of sires decreased to 15, and the average genetic value increased to 139.7. Contributions from selected sires and hens were used to develop specific mating plans to minimize inbreeding in the following generation by applying a simulated annealing algorithm. The additional reduction of average additive genetic relationships for matings was up to 44.9%. An innovative deterministic approach to estimate kinship coefficients between and within defined selection groups based on gene flow theory was applied to compare increases of inbreeding from random matings with layer populations undergoing selection. Large differences in rates of inbreeding were found, and they underline the necessity to establish selection tools controlling long-term relationships. Furthermore, it was suggested to use

  6. Determination of Optimum Cross-section for Oran Highway Revetment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu, Deniz; Sogut, Erdinc; Guler, Isikhan

    2017-04-01

    Revetments are shore parallel, sloping coastal structures which are built to provide protection from the negative effects of the sea. The revetment mentioned in this study is located in the City of Oran, Algeria and is currently under construction. This study investigates the determination of the optimum revetment cross section for Oran highway, considering both the hydraulic stability of the revetment and economy. The existence of cliffs in the region and the settlement of the City of Oran created a necessity to re-align Oran highway; therefore, it was shifted towards the Gulf of Oran. Approximately 1 km of the highway is to be constructed on the Mediterranean Sea due to the new alignment. In order to protect the sea side of the road from the adverse effects of the sea, a revetment was designed. The proposed cross section had an armour layer composed of 23 tons of antifer units and regular placement of armour units was recommended. In order to check the hydraulic stability of the proposed section, physical model tests were performed in the laboratory of LEM (Laboratoire d'Etudes Maritimes) in Algeria, using the pre-determined design wave conditions. The physical model tests revealed that the trunk of the revetment was totaly damaged. Accordingly, the proposed section was found insufficient and certain modifications were required. The first modification was made in the arrangement of armour units, changing them from regular to irregular. After testing the new cross section, it was observed that the revetment was vulnerable to breaking wave attack due to the toe geometry and thus the toe of the revetment had to be re-shaped. Therefore, the second option was to reduce the toe elevation. It was observed that even though the revetment trunk was safe, the damage in the toe was not in acceptable limits. The new cross section was found insufficient and as the final option, the weight of the antifer units used in the armour layer was increased, the toe length of the

  7. Optimization of advanced plants operation: The Escrime project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiche, C.; Papin, B.

    1994-01-01

    The Escrime program aims at defining the optimal share of tasks between humans and computers under normal or accidental plant operation. Basic principles we keep in mind are the following: human operators are likely to be necessary in the operation of future plants because we cannot demonstrate that plant design is error free, so unexpected situation can still happen; automation must not release the operators from their decisional role but only help them avoiding situations of cognitive overload which can lead to increase the risk of errors; the optimum share of tasks between human and automatic systems must be based on a critical analysis of the tasks and of the way they are handled. The last point appeared to be of major importance. The corresponding analysis of the French PWR's operating procedures enabled us to define a unified scheme for plant operation under the form of a hierarchy of goals and means. Beyond this analysis, development of a specific testing facility is under way to check the relevance of the proposed plant operation organization and to test the human-machine cooperation in different situations for various levels of automation. 7 refs, 4 figs

  8. Defining Command, Leadership, and Management Success Factors Within Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    following 13 years of a pro-expedition- ary Labour Government. Fiscal pressures across all government departments have encouraged a debate as to...disarmament. Repatriation and reintegration . Mine clearance. Post- conflict relief and humanitarian aid rehabilitation. Confidence building measures

  9. Defining a region of optimization based on engine usage data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-08-04

    Methods and systems for engine control optimization are provided. One or more operating conditions of a vehicle engine are detected. A value for each of a plurality of engine control parameters is determined based on the detected one or more operating conditions of the vehicle engine. A range of the most commonly detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine is identified and a region of optimization is defined based on the range of the most commonly detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine. The engine control optimization routine is initiated when the one or more operating conditions of the vehicle engine are within the defined region of optimization.

  10. Optimum Image Formation for Spaceborne Microwave Radiometer Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David G; Brodzik, Mary J

    2016-05-01

    This paper considers some of the issues of radiometer brightness image formation and reconstruction for use in the NASA-sponsored Calibrated Passive Microwave Daily Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature Earth System Data Record project, which generates a multisensor multidecadal time series of high-resolution radiometer products designed to support climate studies. Two primary reconstruction algorithms are considered: the Backus-Gilbert approach and the radiometer form of the scatterometer image reconstruction (SIR) algorithm. These are compared with the conventional drop-in-the-bucket (DIB) gridded image formation approach. Tradeoff study results for the various algorithm options are presented to select optimum values for the grid resolution, the number of SIR iterations, and the BG gamma parameter. We find that although both approaches are effective in improving the spatial resolution of the surface brightness temperature estimates compared to DIB, SIR requires significantly less computation. The sensitivity of the reconstruction to the accuracy of the measurement spatial response function (MRF) is explored. The partial reconstruction of the methods can tolerate errors in the description of the sensor measurement response function, which simplifies the processing of historic sensor data for which the MRF is not known as well as modern sensors. Simulation tradeoff results are confirmed using actual data.

  11. Optimum Drafting Conditions Of Polyester And Viscose Blend Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatamvand Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used an experimental design to investigate the influence of the total draft, break draft, distance between the aprons (Clips and production roller pressure on yarn quality in order to obtain optimum drafting conditions for polyester and viscose (PES/CV blend yarns in ring spinning frame. We used PES fibers (1.4 dtex × 38 mm long and CV fibers (1.6 dtex × 38 mm long to spin a 20 Tex blend yarn of PES (70%/CV (30% blend ratio. When the break draft, adjustment of distance between of aprons and roller pressure is not reasonable, controlling and leading of the fibers is not sufficient for proper orientation of the fibers in the yarn structure to produce a high quality yarn. Experimental results and statistical analysis show that the best yarn quality will be obtained under drafting conditions total draft of 38, 1.2 break draft, 2.8 mm distance between of aprons and maximum pressure of the production top roller (18daN.

  12. Optimum sizing of wind-battery systems incorporating resource uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Anindita; Kedare, Shireesh B.; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2010-01-01

    The inherent uncertainty of the wind is a major impediment for successful implementation of wind based power generation technology. A methodology has been proposed in this paper to incorporate wind speed uncertainty in sizing wind-battery system for isolated applications. The uncertainty associated with the wind speed is incorporated using chance constraint programming approach. For a pre-specified reliability requirement, a deterministic equivalent energy balance equation may be derived from the chance constraint that allows time series simulation of the entire system. This results in a generation of the entire set of feasible design options, satisfying different system level constraints, on a battery capacity vs. generator rating diagram, also known as the design space. The proposed methodology highlights the trade-offs between the wind turbine rating, rotor diameter and the battery size for a given reliability of power supply. The optimum configuration is chosen on the basis of the minimum cost of energy (US$/kWh). It is shown with the help of illustrative examples that the proposed methodology is generic and flexible to incorporate alternate sub-component models. (author)

  13. An Optimum Solution for Electric-Power Theft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.H.; Memon, F.

    2013-01-01

    Electric power theft is a problem that continues to plague power sector across the whole country. Every year, the electricity companies face the line losses at an average 20-30% and according to power ministry estimation WAPDA companies lose more than Rs. 125 billion. Significantly, it is enough to destroy the entire power sector of country. According to sources 20% losses means the masses would have to pay extra 20% in terms of electricity tariffs. In other words, the innocent consumers pay the bills of those who steal electricity. For all that, no any permanent solution for this major issue has ever been proposed. We propose an applicable and optimum solution for this impassable problem. In our research, we propose an Electric power theft solution based on three stages; Transmission stage, Distribution stage, and User stage. Without synchronization among all, the complete solution can not be achieved. The proposed solution is simulated on NI (National Instruments) Circuit Design Suite Multisim v.10.0. Our research work is an implicit and a workable approach towards the Electric power theft, as for conditions in Pakistan, which is bearing the brunt of power crises already. (author)

  14. Optimum hypersonic airfoil with power law shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the present paper the flow field over a class of two-dimensional lifting surfaces is examined from the viewpoint of inviscid, hypersonic small-disturbance theory (HSDT). It is well known that a flow field in which the shock shape S(x) is similar to the body shape F(x) is only possible for F(x) = x k and the freestream Mach number M ∞ = ∞. This self-similar flow has been studied for several decades as it represents one of the few existing exact solutions of the equations of HSDT. Detailed discussions are found for example in papers by Cole, Mirels, Chernyi and Gersten and Nicolai but they are limited to convex body shapes, that is, k ≤ 1. The only study of concave body shapes was attempted by Sullivan where only special cases were considered. The method used here shows that similarity also exists for concave shapes and a complete solution of the flow field for any k > 2/3 is given. The effect of varying k on C L 3/2 /C D is then determined and an optimum shape is found. Furthermore, a wider class of lifting surfaces is constructed using the streamlines of the basic flow field and analysed with respect to the effect on C L 3/2 /C D . 9 refs., 3 figs

  15. A Study for Optimum Survey Method of Underwater Structure Using the Dual Sonar Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngseok Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed dual sonar equipment and an improved operating method for improving resolution in order to solve the problems of limitations of the optical equipment and the application method of SSS (side scan sonar in the investigation of damage of underwater structures. We analyzed the influence factors of the resolution of sonar data through the comparison of resolution and data quality in indoor test. Also we confirmed the problems about the overlapping area of the dual sonar. Depth and distance were analyzed as major influencing factors for survey angle. Specimens were scanned while adjusting distance and towfish angle according to depth change in order to verify applicability of the developed dual sonar in the field experiment. Optimal resolution was found to be 3 cm in specimen spacing, and 20 sample data items were extracted. We developed the regression model based on the multiple regression analysis and developed the RealDualSONAR-DAQ tool, the dual sonar optimum operating method program based on proposed correlation equations. We can use the developed tools to get the value of the major influencing factors for dual sonar operation and obtain high quality sonar data to analyze damage of underwater structures.

  16. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  17. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  18. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  19. Choice of Breakwater Type and Optimum Safety Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    2009-01-01

    Breakwaters belong generally to the more expensive part of port and coastal protection structures. The fact that the main function of breakwaters is to provide shelter for wave action defines automatically the two main problems related to breakwater engineering, namely construction in often very ...

  20. Towards implementation of optimum nutrition and better clinical nutrition support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C. F.; Prins, F.; van Kempen, A.; Tepaske, R.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical Nutrition Support--defined as nutrition for hospitalized patients suffering from metabolic stress--plays a limited role in the therapeutic routine of the physician. This is not surprising as most research in the field of clinical nutrition is disappointing with regard to the objective

  1. Defining safety goals. 2. Basic Consideration on Defining Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakata, T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop basic safety goals that are rational and consistent for all nuclear facilities, including nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities. Basic safety goals (risk limits) by an index of radiation dose are discussed, which are based on health effects of detriment and fatality and risk levels presumably accepted by society. The contents of this paper are the personal opinions of the author. The desirable structure of safety goals is assumed to be 'basic safety goals plus specific safety goals (or supplemental safety goals) for each sort of facility, which reflects their characteristics'. The requisites of the basic safety goals must include (a) rational bases (scientific and social), (b) comprehensiveness (common to all sorts of nuclear facilities covering from normal to accidental conditions), and (c) applicability. To meet the requirements, the basic safety goals might have to be a risk profile expression by an index of radiation dose. The societal rationality is consideration of absolute risk levels (10 -6 or 10 -7 /yr) and/or relative risk factors (such as 0.1% of U.S. safety goals) that the general public accepts as tolerable. The following quantitative objectives are adopted in this study for protection of average individuals in the vicinity of a nuclear facility: 1. The additive annual radiation dose during normal operation must be -4 /yr (health detriment), 2x10 -6 /yr (latent cancer and severe hereditary effects), and 10 -7 /yr (acute fatality) from the statistics in Japan. The radiation effects on human beings are determined by recommendations of UNSCEAR (Ref. 1) and ICRP. The health effects considered are non-severe stochastic health detriment, i.e., detectable opacities of lens of eye (threshold 5 0.5 to 2 Sv), depression of hematopoiesis of bone marrow (0.5 Sv), and depression of reproductive capability (temporary sterility of testes ) (0.15 Sv). The LD 50/60 of acute fatality is ∼4 Sv, and fatalities by latent

  2. Optimum Design Of Grid Connected Photovoltaic System Using Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng. Mohammed Fawzy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the increasing demand of electrical energy in Egypt and also in many neighboring countries around the world the main problem facing electrical energy production using classical methods such steam power stations is the depletion of fossil fuels. The gap between the electrical energy demand and the continuous increase on the fossil fuel cost make the problem of electricity generation more sophisticated. With the continuous decrease of the photovoltaic PV technologies cost it doesnt make sense neglecting the importance of electricity production using solar photovoltaic PV especially that the annual average daily energy received is about 6 kamp12310whmamp123112day in Cairo Egypt 30N.In this work a detailed simulation model including photovoltaic PV module characteristics and climatic conditions of Cairo Egypt is developed. The model compares fixed PV systems electrical energy output with photovoltaic PV system using concentrators and double axis tracker systems. The comparison includes the energy generated area required as well as the cost per kwh generated. The optimality criterion is the cost per kwh generated. The system that gives the minimum cost per kwh is the optimum system. To verify the developed model the simulation results of fixed PV modules and CPV using tracking system obtained by the model are compared with practical measurements of 40KW peak station erected in Cairo Egypt 30N.Very good agreement between measured values and results obtained from detailed simulation model. For fixed PV system the detailed economic analysis showed that it gives minimum cost perkwh generated Comparisons among these systems are presented. For Cairo results showed that a cost of about 6 to 9 US centskwh is attainable.

  3. Modeling Budget Optimum Allocation of Khorasan Razavi Province Agriculture Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Fahimifard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stock shortage is one of the development impasses in developing countries and trough it the agriculture sector has faced with the most limitation. The share of Iran’s agricultural sector from total investments after the Islamic revolution (1979 has been just 5.5 percent. This fact causes low efficiency in Iran’s agriculture sector. For instance per each 1 cubic meter of water in Iran’s agriculture sector, less that 1 kilogram dry food produced and each Iranian farmer achieves less annual income and has less mechanization in comparison with similar countries in Iran’s 1404 perspective document. Therefore, it is clear that increasing investment in agriculture sector, optimize the budget allocation for this sector is mandatory however has not been adequately and scientifically revised until now. Thus, in this research optimum budget allocation of Iran- Khorasan Razavi province agriculture sector was modeled. Materials and Methods: In order to model the optimum budget allocation of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector at first optimum budget allocation between agriculture programs was modeled with compounding three indexes: 1. Analyzing the priorities of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector experts with the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, 2. The average share of agriculture sector programs from 4th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector, and 3.The average share of agriculture sector programs from 5th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector. Then, using Delphi technique potential indexes of each program was determined. After that, determined potential indexes were weighted using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and finally, using numerical taxonomy model to optimize allocation of the program’s budget between cities based on two scenarios. Required data, also was gathered from the budget and planning

  4. The optimum cut-off value to differentiate Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from other species of E. granulosus sensu lato using larval rostellar hook morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, S V; Pierangeli, N B; Pianciola, L A; Mazzeo, M; Lazzarini, L E; Debiaggi, M F; Bergagna, H F J; Basualdo, J A

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is one of the most important helminth zoonoses in the world; it affects both humans and livestock. The disease is endemic in Argentina and highly endemic in the province of Neuquén. Considerable genetic and phenotypic variation has been demonstrated in E. granulosus, and ten different genotypes (G1-G10) have been identified using molecular tools. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato may be considered a species complex, comprised of E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-G10). In endemic areas, the characterization of cystic echinococcosis molecular epidemiology is important in order to apply adequate control strategies. A cut-off value for larval large hook total length to distinguish E. granulosus sensu stricto isolates from those produced by other species of the complex was defined for the first time. Overall, 1780 larval hooks of 36 isolates obtained from sheep (n= 11, G1), goats (n= 10, G6), cattle (n= 5, G6) and pigs (n= 10, G7) were analysed. Validation against molecular genotyping as gold standard was carried out using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimum cut-off value was defined as 26.5 μm. The proposed method showed high sensitivity (97.8%) and specificity (91.1%). Since in most endemic regions the molecular epidemiology of echinococcosis includes the coexistence of the widely distributed E. granulosus sensu stricto G1 strain and other species of the complex, this technique could be useful as a quick and economical tool for epidemiological and surveillance field studies, when fertile cysts are present.

  5. Defining Plagiarism: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism has repeatedly occurred in Indonesia, resulting in focusing on such academic misbehavior as a “central issue” in Indonesian higher education. One of the issues of addressing plagiarism in higher education is that there is a confusion of defining plagiarism. It seems that Indonesian academics had different perception when defining plagiarism. This article aims at exploring the issue of plagiarism by helping define plagiarism to address confusion among Indonesian academics. This article applies literature review by firs finding relevant articles after identifying databases for literature searching. After the collection of required articles for review, the articles were synthesized before presenting the findings. This study has explored the definition of plagiarism in the context of higher education. This research found that plagiarism is defined in the relation of criminal acts. The huge numbers of discursive features used position plagiaristic acts as an illegal deed. This study also found that cultural backgrounds and exposure to plagiarism were influential in defining plagiarism.

  6. Optimum tilt angle for flat plate collectors all over the World – A declination dependence formula and comparisons of three solar radiation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, Camelia; Stanciu, Dorin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Monthly optimum tilt angle is predicted for North latitudes between 0° and 80°. • From practical considerations, an optimum fixed value all along the year is derived. • Three solar radiation models are compared from the point of view of total incident solar radiation density prediction. - Abstract: The paper presents a theoretical study on the optimum tilt angle for flat plate collectors at different geographical locations and different time moments over a year. The solar radiation density is estimated based on three analysis models, namely Hottel and Woertz model (the simplest), Isotropic diffuse model (Liu and Jordan model) and HDKR model (Hay–Davis–Klucker–Reindl), passing from the simplest to the most complex one. Further, the absorbed solar radiation density is computed and the optimum tilt angle is found for different geographical locations (covering the Globe latitudes). The optimum value for the tilt angle is researched for maximum incident solar radiation and also for maximum absorbed one. The results indicate that the same angle is obtained when looking for maximum incident and for maximum absorbed solar radiation. When comparing the three above mentioned models, different tilt angles are supplied by applying the Hottel and Woertz model and respectively the others two (both of them providing the same angle). Although, the predicted absorbed solar radiation is the same in the summertime for all three models, and probably overestimated by the last model in the springtime. The obtained results give an overview over the whole year operation at different geographical latitudes. When using the Hottel and Woertz model for estimating the incident solar radiation, the optimum tilt angle for a flat plate collector should be computed as simplest as β opt = φ − δ function on the latitude and declination. If a fixed value is easier to be used over a specific operation period, an optimum value is provided by this research. The novelty

  7. Evaluation of mathematical methods for predicting optimum dose of gamma radiation in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.K.; Siddiqui, S.H.; Heinz, D.J.; Ladd, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    Two mathematical methods - the reversed logarithmic method and the regression method - were used to compare the predicted and the observed optimum gamma radiation dose (OD 50 ) in vegetative propagules of sugarcane. The reversed logarithmic method, usually used in sexually propagated crops, showed the largest difference between the predicted and observed optimum dose. The regression method resulted in a better prediction of the observed values and is suggested as a better method for the prediction of optimum dose for vegetatively propagated crops. (author)

  8. Optimum supervision intervals and order of supervision in nuclear reactor protective systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontoleon, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The optimum inspection strategy of an m-out-of-n:G nuclear reactor protective system with nonidentical units is analyzed. A 2-out-of-4:G system is used to formulate a multi-variable optimization problem to determine (a) the optimum order of supervision of the units and (b) the optimum supervision intervals between units. The case of systems with identical units is a special case of the above. Numerical results are derived using a computer algorithm

  9. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  10. Defining and Selecting Independent Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the Enlightened Shareholder Theory that the author first developed in 2011, this theoretical paper with practical and normative ambitions achieves a better definition of independent director, while improving the understanding of the roles he fulfils on boards of directors. The first part defines constructs like firms, Governance system and Corporate governance, offering a clear distinction between the latter two concepts before explaining the four main missions of a board. The second part defines the ideal independent director by outlining the objective qualities that are necessary and adding those subjective aspects that have turned this into a veritable profession. The third part defines the ideal process for selecting independent directors, based on nominating committees that should themselves be independent. It also includes ways of assessing directors who are currently in function, as well as modalities for renewing their mandates. The paper’s conclusion presents the Paradox of the Independent Director.

  11. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...... in the organizational attributes of specific interest group types. As expected, our comparison of coding schemes reveals a closer link between group attributes and group type in narrower classification schemes based on group organizational characteristics than those based on a behavioral definition of lobbying....

  12. ON DEFINING S-SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Strati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work is intended to be an introduction to the Superposition Theory of David Carfì. In particular I shall depict the meaning of his brand new theory, on the one hand in an informal fashion and on the other hand by giving a formal approach of the algebraic structure of the theory: the S-linear algebra. This kind of structure underpins the notion of S-spaces (or Carfì-spaces by defining both its properties and its nature. Thus I shall define the S-triple as the fundamental principle upon which the S-linear algebra is built up.

  13. Spatial Model for Determining the Optimum Placement of Logistics Centers in a Predefined Economic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Iulia Țarțavulea (Dieaconescu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization has stimulated the demand for logistics services at a level of speed and increased efficiency, which involves using of techniques, tools, technologies and modern models in supply chain management. The aim of this research paper is to present a model that can be used in order to achieve an optimized supply chain, associated with minimum transportation costs. The utilization of spatial modeling for determining the optimal locations for logistics centers in a predefined economic area is proposd in this paper. The principal methods used to design the model are mathematic optimization and linear programming. The output data of the model are the precise placement of one up to ten logistics centers, in terms of minimum operational costs for delivery from the optimum locations to consumer points. The results of the research indicate that by using the proposed model, an efficient supply chain that is consistent with optimization of transport can be designed, in order to streamline the delivery process and thus reduce operational costs

  14. Optimum quantum receiver for detecting weak signals in PAM communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Navneet; Rawat, Tarun Kumar; Parthasarathy, Harish; Gautam, Kumar

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the modeling of an optimum quantum receiver for pulse amplitude modulator (PAM) communication systems. The information bearing sequence {I_k}_{k=0}^{N-1} is estimated using the maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML method is based on quantum mechanical measurements of an observable X in the Hilbert space of the quantum system at discrete times, when the Hamiltonian of the system is perturbed by an operator obtained by modulating a potential V with a PAM signal derived from the information bearing sequence {I_k}_{k=0}^{N-1}. The measurement process at each time instant causes collapse of the system state to an observable eigenstate. All probabilities of getting different outcomes from an observable are calculated using the perturbed evolution operator combined with the collapse postulate. For given probability densities, calculation of the mean square error evaluates the performance of the receiver. Finally, we present an example involving estimating an information bearing sequence that modulates a quantum electromagnetic field incident on a quantum harmonic oscillator.

  15. Computerized optimum distribution of loads among the turbogenerators of fossil-fuel electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foshko, L S; Zusmanovich, L B; Flos, S L; Pal' chik, V A; Konevskii, B I

    1979-04-01

    The problem of determining the optimum distribution of loads among turbogenerators in a fossil-fuel power plant is considered based on satisfying the following requirements: distribution of electrical and thermal loads to minimize the heat expended on the turbine unit; calculation based on turbogenerator characteristics that most completely describe operating conditions; no constraints on the configuration of turbogenerator performance characteristics; calculation of load distribution based on net characteristics including the internal needs of the turbogenerators; consideration of all operational limitations in turbogenerator working conditions; results should be applicable to any predetermined differential of the load change. A flowchart is given showing the organization of the Optim-76 program complex for solution of this problem. An example is given showing application of the Optim-76 program implemented by a Minsk-32 computer in the case of a heat and electric power station with three turbogenerators. The results show that a dynamic programming method has considerable advantages for this applicaton on third-generation computers.

  16. Distributed controller clustering in software defined networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelaziz

    Full Text Available Software Defined Networking (SDN is an emerging promising paradigm for network management because of its centralized network intelligence. However, the centralized control architecture of the software-defined networks (SDNs brings novel challenges of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance and interoperability. In this paper, we proposed a novel clustered distributed controller architecture in the real setting of SDNs. The distributed cluster implementation comprises of multiple popular SDN controllers. The proposed mechanism is evaluated using a real world network topology running on top of an emulated SDN environment. The result shows that the proposed distributed controller clustering mechanism is able to significantly reduce the average latency from 8.1% to 1.6%, the packet loss from 5.22% to 4.15%, compared to distributed controller without clustering running on HP Virtual Application Network (VAN SDN and Open Network Operating System (ONOS controllers respectively. Moreover, proposed method also shows reasonable CPU utilization results. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism makes possible to handle unexpected load fluctuations while maintaining a continuous network operation, even when there is a controller failure. The paper is a potential contribution stepping towards addressing the issues of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance, and inter-operability.

  17. Distributed controller clustering in software defined networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Fong, Ang Tan; Gani, Abdullah; Garba, Usman; Khan, Suleman; Akhunzada, Adnan; Talebian, Hamid; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an emerging promising paradigm for network management because of its centralized network intelligence. However, the centralized control architecture of the software-defined networks (SDNs) brings novel challenges of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance and interoperability. In this paper, we proposed a novel clustered distributed controller architecture in the real setting of SDNs. The distributed cluster implementation comprises of multiple popular SDN controllers. The proposed mechanism is evaluated using a real world network topology running on top of an emulated SDN environment. The result shows that the proposed distributed controller clustering mechanism is able to significantly reduce the average latency from 8.1% to 1.6%, the packet loss from 5.22% to 4.15%, compared to distributed controller without clustering running on HP Virtual Application Network (VAN) SDN and Open Network Operating System (ONOS) controllers respectively. Moreover, proposed method also shows reasonable CPU utilization results. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism makes possible to handle unexpected load fluctuations while maintaining a continuous network operation, even when there is a controller failure. The paper is a potential contribution stepping towards addressing the issues of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance, and inter-operability.

  18. Software defined radios from smart(er) to cognitive

    CERN Document Server

    Pollin, Sofie; Van der Perre, Liesbet

    2011-01-01

    Software Defined Radios presents a systematic approach to dealing with the complexity of wireless systems with varying standards. The text aims to enable smart operation of radios with impressive efficiency gains, without hampering the quality of service.

  19. Palynological Investigation of the Holocene Thermal Optimum in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, R. M.; McGlone, M. S.; Wilmshurst, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    It has long been assumed in New Zealand (NZ) that the Holocene Thermal Optimum (HTO) occurred at the beginning of the Holocene. Nearly 40 years ago, Hendy and Wilson pioneered the use of 18O/16O composition of calcite in NZ speleothems to reconstruct past climate and in so doing showed an HTO occurring earlier in NZ than in comparable Northern Hemisphere records (Hendy & Wilson,1968). More recent work on NZ speleothems (Williams et al., 2005) corroborates the concept of an early HTO dated between ca 11.7 and 10.6 ka, but there is no definitive description of the event as a NZ-wide phenomenon, no intensive dating of it, nor temperature quantification. Moreover, there is no firm conclusion as to whether it is registered consistently between different proxies and across NZ regions. Until recently, attempts to quantify past climate change from NZ pollen data have been hindered by failure to demonstrate robust relationships between modern pollen assemblages and climate due, it is thought, to strong anthropogenic modification of natural vegetation patterns and steep climatic gradients (Norton et al., 1986). However, as deforestation commenced only ca 700 years ago, and is unambiguously detected in pollen records from throughout NZ, an almost unique opportunity exists to develop pollen-climate transfer functions using pre-human pollen-vegetation sources. McGlone and Wilmshurst have assembled an extensive (138-site) `modern' pollen database, based on ca 700 yr BP pre-deforestation pollen assemblages from peat and lake cores. This now provides a basis for more secure pollen-climate reconstruction than hitherto has been possible. Statistical modelling of the environmental determinants of patterns in the pre-deforestation pollen database indicates the strongest relationship (r2 > 0.8) is with Mean Annual Temperature (MAT) and suggests that this parameter can be reliably reconstructed, with error estimates, from Late Quaternary NZ pollen profiles. We use this database to

  20. Optimum Peak Current Hysteresis Control for Energy Recovering Converter in CDI Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto M. Pernía

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive De-Ionization (CDI is becoming a suitable alternative for desalination. The low cost of the materials required and its reduced energy consumption can be critical factors for developing this technique. CDI technology does not require a high-pressure system and the energy storage capability of CDI cells allows it to be reused in other CDI cells, thus minimizing consumption. The goal of the power stage responsible of the energy recovery is transferring the stored energy from one cell to another with the maximum possible efficiency, thus allowing the desalination process to continue. Assuming hysteresis current control is implemented at the DC/DC (direct current converter, this paper aims to determine the optimum peak current through the inductor in each switching period with a view to maximizing overall efficiency. The geometrical parameters of the desalination cell and the NaCl concentration modify the cell electrical properties. The peak current control of the power stage should be adapted to the cell characteristics so that the efficiency behavior of the whole CDI system can be improved. The mathematical model defined in this paper allows the CDI plant automation using the peak inductor current as control variable, adapting its value to the salt concentration during the desalination process.

  1. Defining and Differentiating the Makerspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousay, Tonia A.

    2017-01-01

    Many resources now punctuate the maker movement landscape. However, some schools and communities still struggle to understand this burgeoning movement. How do we define these spaces and differentiate them from previous labs and shops? Through a multidimensional framework, stakeholders should consider how the structure, access, staffing, and tools…

  2. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  3. 47 CFR 2.801 - Radiofrequency device defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiofrequency device defined. 2.801 Section 2... MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Marketing of Radio-frequency Devices § 2.801 Radiofrequency device defined. As used in this part, a radiofrequency device is any device which in its operation is capable of...

  4. Effect of Remote Back-Up Protection System Failure on the Optimum Routine Test Time Interval of Power System Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Damchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate operation of protection system is one of the effective factors to have a desirable reliability in power systems, which vitally needs routine test of protection system. Precise determination of optimum routine test time interval (ORTTI plays a vital role in predicting the maintenance costs of protection system. In the most previous studies, ORTTI has been determined while remote back-up protection system was considered fully reliable. This assumption is not exactly correct since remote back-up protection system may operate incorrectly or fail to operate, the same as the primary protection system. Therefore, in order to determine the ORTTI, an extended Markov model is proposed in this paper considering failure probability for remote back-up protection system. In the proposed Markov model of the protection systems, monitoring facility is taken into account. Moreover, it is assumed that the primary and back-up protection systems are maintained simultaneously. Results show that the effect of remote back-up protection system failures on the reliability indices and optimum routine test intervals of protection system is considerable.

  5. Optimum plastic scintillator and optical fiber combination for brachytherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnfield, Mark R.; Gaballa, Hani E.; Zwicker, Robert D.; Islam, Quazi; Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: There have been several recent reports using plastic scintillators to measure dose in photon and electron beams. External beam measurements agreed well with standard ion chamber dosimetry. This was implemented by using two identical, parallel optical fibers with a small piece of plastic scintillator attached to one. We have constructed a similar device for application to brachytherapy. Brachytherapy dosimetry is a more difficult problem than external beam because of high dose gradients and widely ranging photon energies. Based on detailed spectral measurements, we have designed a dosimeter specifically to meet the unique, stringent needs of brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: The work consisted of two stages. In the first stage, we measured the optical spectra emitted by commercial plastic scintillators and silica core optical fibers in the presence of a 10 Curie iridium 192 HDR source. In the second stage, the spectral information was used to select an optimum combination of scintillator and fiber which were incorporated in the dosimeter. Equipment for the spectral measurements included a 0.1 meter monochromator with a sensitive photomultiplier (PMT) with flat response across the visible. The resolution of spectral scans was 4 nm. The dosimeter was constructed with a 1mm x 3mm piece of plastic scintillator bonded with optical cement to a 0.6 mm diameter silica core optical fiber. A second, identical optical fiber running alongside the first, with no scintillator attached, was used for background subtraction. Two PMTs with high sensitivity in the visible were used at the fiber distal ends. There was a space for an optical filter between the fiber and the PMTs, whose purpose is described below. The PMTs were connected to a differential pair whose output was transferred to a current source for measurement by a standard electrometer. Results: The scintillation spectra of six different types of silica core optical fibers in the presence of the

  6. Modern devices of optimum filtration for the active radar system

    OpenAIRE

    V. E. Bychkov; O. D. Mrachkovskiy; V. I. Pravda

    2006-01-01

    The principle of construction the matched filter and correlator, for the active radar system operating with a broadband noise signal is esteemed. The example of construction a сhan-nel of processing on the basis of microcircuits of a programmed logic (PLD) is shown

  7. Determining the Optimum Level of Working Capital in the Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of working capital is very important to the operations of the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) Net working capital (i.e. the excess of liquid current assets over current liabilities) is an indispensable component of any business organization's capital structure. For any company to make profit in order to ...

  8. LHC collimator controls for a safe LHC operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redaelli, S.; Assmann, R.; Losito, R.; Donze, M.; Masi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collimation system is designed to protect the machine against beam losses and consists of 108 collimators, 100 of which are movable, located along the 27 km long ring and in the transfer lines. The cleaning performance and machine protection role of the system depend critically on accurate jaw positioning. A fully redundant control system has been developed to ensure that the collimators dynamically follow optimum settings in all phases of the LHC operational cycle. Jaw positions and collimator gaps are interlocked against dump limits defined redundantly as functions of time, beam energy and the β functions, which describe the focusing property of the beams. In this paper, the architectural choices that guarantee a safe LHC operation are presented. Hardware and software implementations that ensure the required performance are described. (authors)

  9. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software-Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Software-defined radio (SDR) technology allows radios to be reconfigured to perform different communication functions without using multiple radios to accomplish each task. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed SDR platforms that switch adaptively between different operation modes. The innovation works by modifying both transmit waveforms and receiver signal processing tasks. In Phase I of the project, the company developed SDR cognitive capabilities, including adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), automatic modulation recognition (AMR), and spectrum sensing. In Phase II, these capabilities were integrated into SDR platforms. The reconfigurable transceiver design employs high-speed field-programmable gate arrays, enabling multimode operation and scalable architecture. Designs are based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and are modular in nature, making it easier to upgrade individual components rather than redesigning the entire SDR platform as technology advances.

  10. Automated process flowsheet synthesis for membrane processes using genetic algorithm: role of crossover operators

    KAUST Repository

    Shafiee, Alireza

    2016-06-25

    In optimization-based process flowsheet synthesis, optimization methods, including genetic algorithms (GA), are used as advantageous tools to select a high performance flowsheet by ‘screening’ large numbers of possible flowsheets. In this study, we expand the role of GA to include flowsheet generation through proposing a modified Greedysub tour crossover operator. Performance of the proposed crossover operator is compared with four other commonly used operators. The proposed GA optimizationbased process synthesis method is applied to generate the optimum process flowsheet for a multicomponent membrane-based CO2 capture process. Within defined constraints and using the random-point crossover, CO2 purity of 0.827 (equivalent to 0.986 on dry basis) is achieved which results in improvement (3.4%) over the simplest crossover operator applied. In addition, the least variability in the converged flowsheet and CO2 purity is observed for random-point crossover operator, which approximately implies closeness of the solution to the global optimum, and hence the consistency of the algorithm. The proposed crossover operator is found to improve the convergence speed of the algorithm by 77.6%.

  11. Radiographic testing - optimum radiographs of plastics and composite materials with dosimeter control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, J.

    1978-01-01

    In view of great differencies in X-ray transmission it is more difficult to get optimum radiographs of plastics and especially of reinforced plastics than for example of metals. A procedure will be reported how to get with little effort optimum radiographs especially also in the range of long wavelength radiation corresponding 10 to 25 kV.P. (orig.) [de

  12. The refining of soybean oil to optimum quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusell, J.

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the American Soybean Association is to improve the quality of soybean and related products in Turkey. In order to achieve this, a number of extraction plants and refineries were visited to enable first hand information to be obtained on the type of equipment used in all unit processes, the methodology employed, quality standards and levels of efficiency. The culmination of the visit was a seminar organised jointly by the American Soybean Association and the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association in Istanbul on 22nd September 1989, at which a paper with the above title was presented. A reproduction of this paper is attached which briefly describes the critical areas of soybean oil processing and includes recommendations for quality improvements. It concludes with the comment that provided proper care is taken and optimum refining processes employed, including hydrogenation where appropriate, an impressive range of oils, margarines and shortenings of high quality can ben produced. The author would like to record his grateful thanks to Dr. R. Leysen of the American Soybean Association for all his help and guidance, to Mr. Kenon Marasoglu, Chairman of the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association and to the management and staff of all the factories visited. Acknowledgement is also made to Dr. D. R. Arickson and Mr. L. H. Wiedermann of the American Soybean Association for the use of some technical information from a paper entitled «Soybean Oil-Modern Processing and Utilisation» which is to be published shortly.

    Uno de los objetivos de la Asociación Americana de Soja en Turquía es mejorar la calidad de la soja y de los productos relacionados. En orden a conseguir esto, diversas plantas de extracción y refinerías fueron visitadas para permitir obtener de primera mano información sobre el tipo de equipo usado en todas las unidades de proceso, la metodología empleada, los estándar de calidad y los niveles de eficacia. La

  13. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  14. NPP Dukovany modernisation programme for long-term safe and efficient operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizek, K.; Sabata, M.; Vasa, I.

    2004-01-01

    The strategy, main items and issues, responsibilities and linkages of the modernisation programme are outlined. The long-term operation (LTO) concept has been approved by the power plant board of directors, including the scope of activities and schedule, related processes have been defined, a working group of 40 specialists has been set up to manage the LTO process. The technical and economic optimum for the Dukovany LTO will be determined by the end of 2006, and a Technical LTO Programme for the Dukovany (Temelin) NPP will be completed by 2008 (2016). (P.A.)

  15. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is one of the most attractive candidates for transportation applications due to its inherently high efficiency and high power density. However, the fuel cell system efficiency can suffer because of the need for forced air supply and water-cooling systems. Hence the operating strategy of the fuel cell system can have a significant impact on the fuel cell system efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The key issues are how the fuel cell b...

  16. Optimum steering of photon beam lines in SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fong, B.; Lee, M.; Ziemann, V.

    1993-04-01

    A common operational requirement for many synchrotron light sources is to maintain steered photon beamlines with minimum corrector strength values. To solve this problem for SPEAR, we employed the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) matrix-inversion technique to minimize corrector strengths while constraining the photon beamlines to remain on target. The result was a reduction in corrector strengths, yielding increased overhead for the photon-beam position feedback systems

  17. How do people define moderation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  19. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  20. (Re)Defining Salesperson Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Rushana; de Jong, Ad; Lee, Nick

    2018-01-01

    The construct of motivation is one of the central themes in selling and sales management research. Yet, to-date no review article exists that surveys the construct (both from an extrinsic and intrinsic motivation context), critically evaluates its current status, examines various key challenges...... apparent from the extant research, and suggests new research opportunities based on a thorough review of past work. The authors explore how motivation is defined, major theories underpinning motivation, how motivation has historically been measured, and key methodologies used over time. In addition......, attention is given to principal drivers and outcomes of salesperson motivation. A summarizing appendix of key articles in salesperson motivation is provided....

  1. Defining Usability of PN Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Ahola, Titta; Fleury, Alexandre

    In this deliverable usability and user experience are defined in relation to MAGNET Beyond technologies, and it is described how the main MAGNET Beyond concepts can be evaluated through the involvement of users. The concepts include the new "Activity based communication approach" for interacting...... with the MAGNET Beyond system, as well as the core concepts: Personal Network, Personal Network-Federation, Service Discovery, User Profile Management, Personal Network Management, Privacy and Security and Context Awareness. The overall plans for the final usability evaluation are documented based on the present...

  2. Improving fault image by determination of optimum seismic survey parameters using ray-based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarzadeh, Sadegh; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Hasani, Hossein; Talebi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-06-01

    In complex structures such as faults, salt domes and reefs, specifying the survey parameters is more challenging and critical owing to the complicated wave field behavior involved in such structures. In the petroleum industry, detecting faults has become crucial for reservoir potential where faults can act as traps for hydrocarbon. In this regard, seismic survey modeling is employed to construct a model close to the real structure, and obtain very realistic synthetic seismic data. Seismic modeling software, the velocity model and parameters pre-determined by conventional methods enable a seismic survey designer to run a shot-by-shot virtual survey operation. A reliable velocity model of structures can be constructed by integrating the 2D seismic data, geological reports and the well information. The effects of various survey designs can be investigated by the analysis of illumination maps and flower plots. Also, seismic processing of the synthetic data output can describe the target image using different survey parameters. Therefore, seismic modeling is one of the most economical ways to establish and test the optimum acquisition parameters to obtain the best image when dealing with complex geological structures. The primary objective of this study is to design a proper 3D seismic survey orientation to achieve fault zone structures through ray-tracing seismic modeling. The results prove that a seismic survey designer can enhance the image of fault planes in a seismic section by utilizing the proposed modeling and processing approach.

  3. A new algorithm for optimum voltage and reactive power control for minimizing transmission lines losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoudjehbaklou, H.; Danai, B.

    2001-01-01

    Reactive power dispatch for voltage profile modification has been of interest to power utilities. Usually local bus voltages can be altered by changing generator voltages, reactive shunts, ULTC transformers and SVCs. Determination of optimum values for control parameters, however, is not simple for modern power system networks. Heuristic and rather intelligent algorithms have to be sought. In this paper a new algorithm is proposed that is based on a variant of a genetic algorithm combined with simulated annealing updates. In this algorithm a fuzzy multi-objective a approach is used for the fitness function of the genetic algorithm. This fuzzy multi-objective function can efficiently modify the voltage profile in order to minimize transmission lines losses, thus reducing the operating costs. The reason for such a combination is to utilize the best characteristics of each method and overcome their deficiencies. The proposed algorithm is much faster than the classical genetic algorithm and cna be easily integrated into existing power utilities software. The proposed algorithm is tested on an actual system model of 1284 buses, 799 lines, 1175 fixed and ULTC transformers, 86 generators, 181 controllable shunts and 425 loads

  4. An exercise to establish optimum procedures for the characterisation of porosity in UO2 fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, G.J.

    1980-05-01

    A standard metallographic preparation technique for UO 2 is proposed. The criteria for choosing the optimum route are that the specimen should be scratch-free and that the pores inherent to any sintered UO 2 pellet should be neither enlarged nor filled-in during preparation. Having met these criteria one has a specimen suitable for quantitative metallography which can be used to monitor porosity changes due to in-pile sintering. A procedure for analysing the porosity is suggested. This consists of imaging the specimen surface over a range of magnifications using both optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy in order to cover the range of pore sizes of interest (0.1 μm to 10 μm diameter). These images are then analysed to obtain figures for the distribution of pores as a function of diameter. Two methods of pore-size analysis are reviewed, the manual Zeiss Particle Size Analyser and a more sophisticated electronic instrument - the Quantimet. A comparison is made between these two instruments on the basis of accuracy, reproducibility and ease of operation. (author)

  5. Development and Optimum Composition of Locally Developed Potable Water Treatment Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Oladele BABATOLA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current high level of energy cost and operational cost of membrane technologies and couple with difficulties in obtaining chemicals for potable water treatment give rooms for development of local substance and low cost adsorbents for water treatment. This paper presents a follow-up study on an earlier work in which some water treatment Tablets were produced and tested. The current work was directed at establishing the optimum composition of the tablets. Alum, calcium hypochlorite and lime were combined in proportion and made into pastes and tablets. Residual chlorine contents of the tablets were determined. The quality of stream water samples treated with the tablets was measured by chlorine content, pH and turbidity removal. It is concluded that the best composition is one part alum, two parts hypochlorite and three parts lime and this produced treated water pH of 7.8, chlorine residual of 5.0 mg/l and settled water turbidity 3.0 NTU. The product is aimed for use in rural communities to reduce rampaging death from water borne diseases.

  6. Development Of Optimum Maintenance amp Rehabilitation Strategies For Urban Bituminous Concrete Surfaced Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Pardeep Kumar Gupta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In India the road traffic volume has increased manifolds during the post-independence period. The traffic axle loading may also in many cases be much heavier than the specified limit. As a result of which the existing road network has been subjected to severe deterioration leading to premature failure of the pavements.In such a scenario development of the effective pavement management strategies would furnish useful information to ensure the compatible and cost- effective decisions so as to keep the existing road network intact. The pavement deterioration models can prove to be an effective tool which can assist highway agencies to forecast economic and technical outcome of possible investment decisions regarding maintenance management of pavements. The optimum maintenance and rehabilitation strategies developed in this study would be useful in planning pavement maintenance strategies in a scientific manner and ensuring rational utilization of limited maintenance funds. Once this strategy for urban road network is implemented and made operational this would serve as window to the other urban road network of different regions.

  7. Optimum adjusting method of fuel in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuji, Niro; Shirakawa, Toshihisa; Toyoshi, Isamu; Tatemichi, Shin-ichiro; Mukai, Hideyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To effectively select an intermediate pattern of a control rod to thereby shorten time required to adjust the fuel. Structure: Control rods are divided into several regions in concentric and circular fashion or the like within a core. A control rod position satisfied with a thermal limit value in a maximal power level is preset as a target position by a three dimensional nuclear hydrothermal force counting code or the like. Next, an intermediate pattern of the control rods in each region is determined on the basis of the target position, and while judging operational condition, a part of fuel rods is maintained for a given period of time in a level more than power density of the target position with the power increased within the range not to produce interaction between pellet and cladding material (PCI), so that said power density may be learned. Thereafter, the power is rapidly decreased. Similar operation may be applied to the other fuel rods, after which the control rod may be set the target position to obtain the maximum power level. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. Expressiveness and definability in circumscription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francicleber Martins Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate expressiveness and definability issues with respect to minimal models, particularly in the scope of Circumscription. First, we give a proof of the failure of the Löwenheim-Skolem Theorem for Circumscription. Then we show that, if the class of P; Z-minimal models of a first-order sentence is Δ-elementary, then it is elementary. That is, whenever the circumscription of a first-order sentence is equivalent to a first-order theory, then it is equivalent to a finitely axiomatizable one. This means that classes of models of circumscribed theories are either elementary or not Δ-elementary. Finally, using the previous result, we prove that, whenever a relation Pi is defined in the class of P; Z-minimal models of a first-order sentence Φ and whenever such class of P; Z-minimal models is Δ-elementary, then there is an explicit definition ψ for Pi such that the class of P; Z-minimal models of Φ is the class of models of Φ ∧ ψ. In order words, the circumscription of P in Φ with Z varied can be replaced by Φ plus this explicit definition ψ for Pi.

  9. Defining Quality in Undergraduate Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. Bowers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research brief explores the literature addressing quality in undergraduate education to identify what previous research has said about quality and to offer future directions for research on quality in undergraduate education. Method: We conducted a scoping review to provide a broad overview of existing research. Using targeted search terms in academic databases, we identified and reviewed relevant academic literature to develop emergent themes and implications for future research. Results: The exploratory review of the literature revealed a range of thoughtful discussions and empirical studies attempting to define quality in undergraduate education. Many publications highlighted the importance of including different stakeholder perspectives and presented some of the varying perceptions of quality among different stakeholders. Conclusions: While a number of researchers have explored and written about how to define quality in undergraduate education, there is not a general consensus regarding a definition of quality in undergraduate education. Past research offers a range of insights, models, and data to inform future research. Implication for Theory and/or Practice: We provide four recommendations for future research to contribute to a high quality undergraduate educational experience. We suggest more comprehensive systematic reviews of the literature as a next step.

  10. Bilateral hip arthroplasty: is 1-week staging the optimum strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis-Owen Charles A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seventy-nine patients underwent bilateral hip arthroplasty staged either at 1 week (Group 1 or after greater intervals (as suggested by the patients, mean 44 weeks, range 16-88 weeks (Group 2, over a five year period at one Institution. Sixty-eight patients (29 bilateral hip resurfacings and 39 total hip replacements completed questionnaires regarding their post-operative recovery, complications and overall satisfaction with the staging of their surgery. There was no significant age or ASA grade difference between the patient groups. Complication rates in the two groups were similar and overall satisfaction rates were 84% in Group 1 (n = 32 and 89% in Group 2 (n = 36. Cumulative hospital lengths of stay were significantly longer in Group 1 patients (11.9 days vs 9.1 days(p The mean time to return to part-time work was 16.4 weeks for Group 1, and a cumulative 17.2 weeks (8.8 and 8.4 weeks for Group 2. The time to return to full-time work was significantly shorter for Group 1 patients (21.0 weeks, compared with a cumulative 29.7 weeks for Group 2(p Hip resurfacing patients in Group 2 had significantly shorter durations of postoperative pain and were able to return to part-time and full time work sooner than total hip arthroplasty patients. There was a general trend towards a faster recovery and resumption of normal activities following the second operation in Group 2 patients, compared with the first operation. Bilateral hip arthroplasty staged at a 1-week interval resulted in an earlier resolution of hip pain, and an earlier return to full-time work (particularly following total hip replacement surgery, with high levels of patient satisfaction and no increased risk in complications; however the hospital length of stay was significantly longer. The decision for the timing of staged bilateral surgery should be made in conjunction with the patient, making adjustments to accommodate their occupational needs and functional demands.

  11. Optimum hub height of a wind turbine for maximizing annual net profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Annual Net Profit was proposed to optimize the hub height of a wind turbine. • Procedures of the hub height optimization method were introduced. • Effect of local wind speed characteristics on optimum hub height was illustrated. • Effect of rated power on optimum hub height was negligible in the range 0.75–3 MW. • Rated speed and cut-out speed had great effects on optimum hub height. - Abstract: The optimization method of the hub height, which can ensure the economic feasibility of the wind turbine, is proposed in this study. Annual Net Profit is suggested as an objective function and the optimization procedure is developed. The effects of local wind speed and wind turbine power characteristics on the optimum hub height are investigated. The optimum hub height decreased as the mean wind speed and wind shear exponent increased. Rated power had little effect on optimum hub height; it follows that the economies of scale are negligible in the rated power range of 0.75–3 MW. Among the wind turbine power characteristics, rated speed and cut-out speed most strongly affected the optimum hub height

  12. Operation guide device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oohashi, Hideaki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable a reactor operator to perform safety and sure inspection for a reactor and take manual start-up operations for the necessary systems at optimum timing with neither misoperation nor misjudging after the occurrence of reactor accidents. Constitution: If a signal judging circuit judges the generation of an accident signal for a reactor, the circuit issues an output signal to start the time counting operation of a time counter thereby inform the elapse of time after the occurrence of the reactor accident. Further, a time signal generated on every predetermined time from the time counter and a process signal indicating the reactor status are logically judged and, if the conditions for taking manual start-up operations, are satisfied, a start-up instruction signal is generated. An information signal is formed depending on the start-up instruction and the content of the start-up instruction is displayed on every predetermined time by the information signal, whereby the operator can perform the manual start-up operations at the optimum timings. (Moriyama, K.)

  13. The optimum shielding for a power reactor using local components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlHajali, S.; Kharita, M. H.; Yousef, S.; Naoom, B.; Al-Nassar, M.

    2009-07-01

    Some local concrete mixtures have been picked out (selected) to be studied as shielding concrete for prospective nuclear power reactor in Syria. This research has interested in the attenuation of gamma radiation and neutron fluxes by these local concretes in the ordinary conditions. In addition to the heat effect on the shielding and physical properties of local concrete. Furthermore the neutron activation of the elements of the local concrete mixtures have been studied that for selection the low-activation materials (low dose rate and short half life radioisotopes). In this way biological shielding for nuclear reactor can be safe during operation of nuclear power reactor, in addition to be low radioactive waste after decommissioning the reactor. (author)

  14. Optimum design of a microwave interferometer for plasma density measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, L.; Eriksson, A.

    1980-11-01

    Theoretical and practical problems arising in the application of microwave interferometry to density measurements on transient plasmas are discussed. The conditions for unambiquous measurements in a density range as wide as possible are analyzed. It is shown that the initial zero adjustment of the interferometer bridge recommended in many text books is the worst possible choice of initial condition when the aim is high initial sensitivity at low densities. The analytic expressions needed for unambiquous evaluation of any phase shift from a few degrees to several times π (counting of fringes) are derived. The practical design of the interferometer circuit and its inherent error sources due to reflexions and non-ideal component properties are discussed. The results are applied to an interferometer operating at 80 GHz used on a pulsed plasma experiment. The minimum measurable phase shift is 2deg and the range of linear densities that have been measured is = 1 . 10 16 - 3 . 10 18 m -2

  15. In-network adaptation of SHVC video in software-defined networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awobuluyi, Olatunde; Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz Calero, Jose Maria; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Software Defined Networks (SDN), when combined with Network Function Virtualization (NFV) represents a paradigm shift in how future networks will behave and be managed. SDN's are expected to provide the underpinning technologies for future innovations such as 5G mobile networks and the Internet of Everything. The SDN architecture offers features that facilitate an abstracted and centralized global network view in which packet forwarding or dropping decisions are based on application flows. Software Defined Networks facilitate a wide range of network management tasks, including the adaptation of real-time video streams as they traverse the network. SHVC, the scalable extension to the recent H.265 standard is a new video encoding standard that supports ultra-high definition video streams with spatial resolutions of up to 7680×4320 and frame rates of 60fps or more. The massive increase in bandwidth required to deliver these U-HD video streams dwarfs the bandwidth requirements of current high definition (HD) video. Such large bandwidth increases pose very significant challenges for network operators. In this paper we go substantially beyond the limited number of existing implementations and proposals for video streaming in SDN's all of which have primarily focused on traffic engineering solutions such as load balancing. By implementing and empirically evaluating an SDN enabled Media Adaptation Network Entity (MANE) we provide a valuable empirical insight into the benefits and limitations of SDN enabled video adaptation for real time video applications. The SDN-MANE is the video adaptation component of our Video Quality Assurance Manager (VQAM) SDN control plane application, which also includes an SDN monitoring component to acquire network metrics and a decision making engine using algorithms to determine the optimum adaptation strategy for any real time video application flow given the current network conditions. Our proposed VQAM application has been implemented and

  16. Development of Non-Optimum Factors for Launch Vehicle Propellant Tank Bulkhead Weight Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Wallace, Matthew L.; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-optimum factors are used during aerospace conceptual and preliminary design to account for the increased weights of as-built structures due to future manufacturing and design details. Use of higher-fidelity non-optimum factors in these early stages of vehicle design can result in more accurate predictions of a concept s actual weights and performance. To help achieve this objective, non-optimum factors are calculated for the aluminum-alloy gores that compose the ogive and ellipsoidal bulkheads of the Space Shuttle Super-Lightweight Tank propellant tanks. Minimum values for actual gore skin thicknesses and weld land dimensions are extracted from selected production drawings, and are used to predict reference gore weights. These actual skin thicknesses are also compared to skin thicknesses predicted using classical structural mechanics and tank proof-test pressures. Both coarse and refined weights models are developed for the gores. The coarse model is based on the proof pressure-sized skin thicknesses, and the refined model uses the actual gore skin thicknesses and design detail dimensions. To determine the gore non-optimum factors, these reference weights are then compared to flight hardware weights reported in a mass properties database. When manufacturing tolerance weight estimates are taken into account, the gore non-optimum factors computed using the coarse weights model range from 1.28 to 2.76, with an average non-optimum factor of 1.90. Application of the refined weights model yields non-optimum factors between 1.00 and 1.50, with an average non-optimum factor of 1.14. To demonstrate their use, these calculated non-optimum factors are used to predict heavier, more realistic gore weights for a proposed heavy-lift launch vehicle s propellant tank bulkheads. These results indicate that relatively simple models can be developed to better estimate the actual weights of large structures for future launch vehicles.

  17. Optimum load distribution between heat sources based on the Cournot model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkovskii, A. V.; Stennikov, V. A.; Khamisov, O. V.

    2015-08-01

    One of the widespread models of the heat supply of consumers, which is represented in the "Single buyer" format, is considered. The methodological base proposed for its description and investigation presents the use of principles of the theory of games, basic propositions of microeconomics, and models and methods of the theory of hydraulic circuits. The original mathematical model of the heat supply system operating under conditions of the "Single buyer" organizational structure provides the derivation of a solution satisfying the market Nash equilibrium. The distinctive feature of the developed mathematical model is that, along with problems solved traditionally within the bounds of bilateral relations of heat energy sources-heat consumer, it considers a network component with its inherent physicotechnical properties of the heat network and business factors connected with costs of the production and transportation of heat energy. This approach gives the possibility to determine optimum levels of load of heat energy sources. These levels provide the given heat energy demand of consumers subject to the maximum profit earning of heat energy sources and the fulfillment of conditions for formation of minimum heat network costs for a specified time. The practical realization of the search of market equilibrium is considered by the example of a heat supply system with two heat energy sources operating on integrated heat networks. The mathematical approach to the solution search is represented in the graphical form and illustrates computations based on the stepwise iteration procedure for optimization of levels of loading of heat energy sources (groping procedure by Cournot) with the corresponding computation of the heat energy price for consumers.

  18. Comparative analysis of diffused solar radiation models for optimum tilt angle determination for Indian locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, P.; Chandel, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Tilt angle and orientation greatly are influenced on the performance of the solar photo voltaic panels. The tilt angle of solar photovoltaic panels is one of the important parameters for the optimum sizing of solar photovoltaic systems. This paper analyses six different isotropic and anisotropic diffused solar radiation models for optimum tilt angle determination. The predicted optimum tilt angles are compared with the experimentally measured values for summer season under outdoor conditions. The Liu and Jordan model is found to exhibit t lowest error as compared to other models for the location. (author)

  19. Contribution to multi-agents modeling of the operation of industrial processes: application to the operation of a pressurized water reactor under accidental situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, P.

    1996-01-01

    This work is related to the CEA 'Escrime' project which concerns the reliability and functioning safety of nuclear reactors, and in particular the operation and supervision of nuclear installations. Its aim is the analysis and the formalizing of PWRs operation in order to define the collaboration and optimum sharing of tasks between human operators and automatized systems for an improved functioning safety. Chapter 1 describes the operation of nuclear reactors and the instrumentation and control activities. It focusses on the weaknesses of actual automatized systems and examines the interest of the multi-agents approach to build an improved automatized system. Chapter 2 presents the actual state of the art about multi-agent systems and about their application to reactor operation. Chapter 3 is devoted to the definition of the conceptual model of automatized systems developed in this work (distribution of operation activities, competition between agents, hierarchy, arbitration). Chapter 4 describes the computer model of the essential operating system elaborated according to the conceptual model defined above. Modeling is performed using Spirit and an application is described in chapter 5. (J.S.)

  20. Defining the "normal" postejaculate urinalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Akanksha; Jarow, Jonathan P; Maples, Pat; Sigman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although sperm have been shown to be present in the postejaculate urinalysis (PEU) of both fertile and infertile men, the number of sperm present in the PEU of the general population has never been well defined. The objective of this study was to describe the semen and PEU findings in both the general and infertile population, in order to develop a better appreciation for "normal." Infertile men (n = 77) and control subjects (n = 71) were prospectively recruited. Exclusion criteria included azoospermia and medications known to affect ejaculation. All men underwent a history, physical examination, semen analysis, and PEU. The urine was split into 2 containers: PEU1, the initial voided urine, and PEU2, the remaining voided urine. Parametric statistical methods were applied for data analysis to compare sperm concentrations in each sample of semen and urine between the 2 groups of men. Controls had higher average semen volume (3.3 ± 1.6 vs 2.0 ± 1.4 mL, P sperm concentrations (112 million vs 56.2 million, P = .011), compared with infertile men. The presence of sperm in urine was common in both groups, but more prevalent among infertile men (98.7% vs 88.7%, P = .012), in whom it comprised a greater proportion of the total sperm count (46% vs 24%, P = .022). The majority of sperm present in PEU were seen in PEU1 of both controls (69%) and infertile men (88%). An association was noted between severe oligospermia (sperm counts in PEU (sperm in the urine compared with control, there is a large degree of overlap between the 2 populations, making it difficult to identify a specific threshold to define a positive test. Interpretation of a PEU should be directed by whether the number of sperm in the urine could affect subsequent management.

  1. What is the optimum minimum segment size used in step and shoot IMRT for prostate cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Sumida, Iori; Koizumi, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Although the use of small segments in step and shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) provides better dose distribution, extremely small segments decrease treatment accuracy. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum minimum segment size (MSS) in two-step optimization in prostate step and shoot IMRT with regard to both planning quality and dosimetric accuracy. The XiO treatment planning system and Oncor Impression Plus were used. Results showed that the difference in homogeneity index (HI), defined as the ratio of maximum to minimum doses for planning target volume, between the MSS 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm plans, and 2.0 cm plans, was 0.1%, and 9.6%, respectively. With regard to V107 of planning target volume (PTV), the volume receiving 107% of the prescribed dose of the PTV, the difference between MSS 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm was 2%. However, the value of the MSS 2.0 cm or greater plans was more than 2.5-fold that of the MSS 1.0 cm plan. With regard to maximum rectal dose, a significant difference was seen between the MSS 1.5 cm and 2.0 cm plans, whereas no significant difference was seen between the MSS 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm plans. Composite plan verification revealed a greater than 5% dose difference between planned and measured dose in many regions with the MSS 1.0 cm plan, but in only limited regions in the MSS 1.5 cm plan. Our data suggest that the MSS should be determined with regard to both planning quality and dosimetric accuracy. (author)

  2. Optimum size determination of nuclear dual-purpose desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, J.

    1966-01-01

    The economics of dual-purpose desalination plants is presented from a general standpoint. The concept of demand curves for water and electricity is introduced, which leads to a rational sharing of production costs between both commodities within the framework of a market. The purpose of the study, which is based upon the principles of classical economics, is to develop objective criteria for the design of desalination plants and to derive from these a normative method for pricing both joint products, water and electricity, following as much as possible the structure of the demand. Such criteria are in particular either the maximization of benefit for the operator or the maximum welfare for the community. They involve either equality between marginal costs and revenues, or equality between marginal costs and marginal satisfactions (theory of surplus). As the size of the plant is often the predominant factor in selecting the process to be used, it follows from the above considerations that this selection is closely related to: (a) The shape of the demand curve for water; (b) The economic criterion selected and the relevant constraints (public or private ownership, limitation of the investments, etc). This makes market surveys and a rather refined economic analysis indispensable before any decision is taken on the desalination technique to be adopted. (author). Abstract only

  3. OPTIMUM DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS FOR ACCELERATED RELIABILITY TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Marian ZAHARIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented a case study that demonstrates how design to experiments (DOE information can be used to design better accelerated reliability tests. In the case study described in this paper, will be done a comparison and optimization between main accelerated reliability test plans (3 Level Best Standard Plan, 3 Level Best Compromise Plan, 3 Level Best Equal Expected Number Failing Plan, 3 Level 4:2:1 Allocation Plan. Before starting an accelerated reliability test, it is advisable to have a plan that helps in accurately estimating reliability at operating conditions while minimizing test time and costs. A test plan should be used to decide on the appropriate stress levels that should be used (for each stress type and the amount of the test units that need to be allocated to the different stress levels (for each combination of the different stress types' levels. For the case study it used ALTA 7 software what provides a complete analysis for data from accelerated reliability tests

  4. Operational Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Operational Circular N° 4 - April 2003 Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN - This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 5 - October 2000 Use of CERN computing facilities - Further details on the personal use of CERN computing facilities Operational Circular N° 5 and its Subsidiary Rules http://cern.ch/ComputingRules defines the rules for the use of CERN computing facilities. One of the basic principles governing such use is that it must come within the professional duties of the user concerned, as defined by the user's divisional hierarchy. However, personal use of the computing facilities is tolerated or allowed provided : a) It is in compliance with Operational Circular N° 5 and not detrimental to official duties, including those of other users; b) the frequency and duration is limited and there is a negligible use of CERN resources; c) it does not constitute a political, commercial and/or profit-making activity; d) it is not...

  5. Prediction of an optimum biodiesel-diesel blended fuel for compression ignition engine using GT-power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.; Shah, F.H.; Shahid, E.M.; Gardezi, S.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a turbocharged direct-injection compression ignition (CI) engine model using fluid-dynamic engine simulation codes through a simulating tool known as GT Power. The model was first fueled with diesel, and then with various blends of biodiesel and diesel by allotting suitable parameters to predict an optimum blended fuel. During the optimization, main focus was on the engine performance, combustion, and one of the major regulated gaseous pollutants known as oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The combustion parameters such as Premix Duration (DP), Main Duration (DM), Premix Fraction (FP), Main Exponent (EM) and ignition delay (ID) affect the start of injection (SOI) angle, and thus played significant role in the prediction of optimum blended fuel. The SOI angle ranging from 5.2 to 5.7 degree crank angle (DCA) measured before top dead center (TDC) revealed an optimum biodiesel-diesel blend known as B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). B20 exhibited the minimum possible NOx emissions, better combustion and acceptable engine performance. Moreover, experiments were performed to validate the simulated results by fueling the engine with B20 fuel and operating it on AC electrical dynamometer. Both the experimental and simulated results were in good agreement revealing maximum deviations of only 3%, 3.4%, 4.2%, and 5.1% for NOx, maximum combustion pressure (MCP), engine brake power (BP), and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), respectively. Meanwhile, a positive correlation was found between MCP and NOx showing that both the parameters are higher at lower speeds, relative to higher engine speeds. (author)

  6. Universal Curve of Optimum Thermoelectric Figures of Merit for Bulk and Low-Dimensional Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen T.; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Saito, Riichiro

    2018-02-01

    This paper is a contribution to the Physical Review Applied collection in memory of Mildred S. Dresselhaus. Analytical formulas for thermoelectric figures of merit and power factors are derived based on the one-band model. We find that there is a direct relationship between the optimum figures of merit and the optimum power factors of semiconductors despite of the fact that the two quantities are generally given by different values of chemical potentials. By introducing a dimensionless parameter consisting of the optimum power factor and lattice thermal conductivity (without electronic thermal conductivity), it is possible to unify optimum figures of merit of both bulk and low-dimensional semiconductors into a single universal curve that covers many materials with different dimensionalities.

  7. Optimum Wing Shape of Highly Flexible Morphing Aircraft for Improved Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weihua; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, optimum wing bending and torsion deformations are explored for a mission adaptive, highly flexible morphing aircraft. The complete highly flexible aircraft is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with unsteady aerodynamics and six-degrees-of-freedom rigid-body motions. Since there are no conventional discrete control surfaces for trimming the flexible aircraft, the design space for searching the optimum wing geometries is enlarged. To achieve high performance flight, the wing geometry is best tailored according to the specific flight mission needs. In this study, the steady level flight and the coordinated turn flight are considered, and the optimum wing deformations with the minimum drag at these flight conditions are searched by utilizing a modal-based optimization procedure, subject to the trim and other constraints. The numerical study verifies the feasibility of the modal-based optimization approach, and shows the resulting optimum wing configuration and its sensitivity under different flight profiles.

  8. NOAA Optimum Interpolation 1/4 Degree Daily Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) Analysis, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis product was developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The SST analysis has a spatial grid...

  9. Hadamard upper bound on optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner Gaussian cellular MAC

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad; Durrani, Tariq S; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    demonstrates that the analytical HUB based on the proposed approximation approach converges to the theoretical upper bound results in the medium to high signal to noise ratio regime and shows a reasonably tighter bound on optimum joint decoding capacity

  10. Dexmedetomidine provides optimum conditions during awake fiberoptic intubation in simulated cervical spine injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine provides optimum sedation without compromising airway or hemodynamic instability with better patient tolerance and satisfaction for AFOI. It also preserves patient arousability for the postintubation neurological assessment.

  11. OPTIPOLYGEN - Optimum integration of polygeneration in the food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    The expression polygeneration is defined as the use of multiple primary energy inputs to create multiple energy outputs. The aim of the project OPTIPOLYGEN is to investigate the potential of utilising and implementing polygeneration technologies in the food and drink industry. Due to its significant and simultaneous demand for process-heat, electricity and cooling, the food and drink industry is especially suitable for polygeneration. The work of the project comprised efforts covering everything from surveys of current utilisation of polygeneration to estimating the potential use in the future as well as evaluating the obstacles for further development. Moreover, the project did also have the aim to aid future implementations by developing and disseminating tools for faster evaluation of food plants applicability for polygeneration. These tools comprise technical guidelines, a web-based feasibility calculator as well as training materials for consultants and educators. All these tools are made available for interested bodies on the project website www.optipolygen.org . The results of the project reveal that whether polygeneration is applicable or not at a specific site is a complex question and depends on many details that may vary significantly by the local circumstances of each plant. Thus in order to be able to estimate the potential a thorough investigation of each plant site has to be undertaken comprising several issues such as: availability of local energy infrastructure, fuels, rules of electricity trade and transmission, district heat trade and transmission, carbon dioxide tax, regulations concerning biodegradable waste handling, subsidies, etc.. However, by disregarding these local differences and by instead extrapolating available technical and statistical data, the current potential for polygeneration in EU-15 food and drink industry is estimated to amount to 73,1 TWh{sub el}/year. The largest potentials are estimated to be in the meat and fish industry

  12. Environmentally acceptable thread compounds: Requirements defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, W.D.; Hendriks, R.V.; Jacobs, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    New environmental regulations on thread compounds are now being enforced in several areas with strong maritime tradition and a sensitive environment. These areas include Indonesia, Alaska and portions of Norway. The industry generally recognizes the environmental concerns but, with wider enforcement of regulations imminent, has not been able to define clearly the requirements for environmental compliance. This paper, written in collaboration with The Netherlands State Supervision of Mines, is based on the National Policy on Thread Compounds of The Netherlands. This national policy is representative of policies being followed by other North Sea governments. Similar policies might well be adopted by other governments worldwide. These policies will affect the operator, drilling contractor, and supplier. This paper provides a specific and detailed definition of thread compound requirements by addressing four relevant categories. The categories of interest are regulatory approval, environmental, health, and performance

  13. Effect of optimum stratification on sampling with varying probabilities under proportional allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ejaz Husain Rizvi; Jaj P. Gupta; Manoj Bhargava

    2007-01-01

    The problem of optimum stratification on an auxiliary variable when the units from different strata are selected with probability proportional to the value of auxiliary variable (PPSWR) was considered by Singh (1975) for univariate case. In this paper we have extended the same problem, for proportional allocation, when two variates are under study. A cum. 3 R3(x) rule for obtaining approximately optimum strata boundaries has been provided. It has been shown theoretically as well as empiricall...

  14. The benefits of defining "snacks".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie M; Slavin, Joanne L

    2018-04-18

    Whether eating a "snack" is considered a beneficial or detrimental behavior is largely based on how "snack" is defined. The term "snack food" tends to connote energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods high in nutrients to limit (sugar, sodium, and/or saturated fat) like cakes, cookies, chips and other salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Eating a "snack food" is often conflated with eating a "snack," however, leading to an overall perception of snacks as a dietary negative. Yet the term "snack" can also refer simply to an eating occasion outside of breakfast, lunch, or dinner. With this definition, the evidence to support health benefits or detriments to eating a "snack" remains unclear, in part because relatively few well-designed studies that specifically focus on the impact of eating frequency on health have been conducted. Despite these inconsistencies and research gaps, in much of the nutrition literature, "snacking" is still referred to as detrimental to health. As discussed in this review, however, there are multiple factors that influence the health impacts of snacking, including the definition of "snack" itself, the motivation to snack, body mass index of snack eaters, and the food selected as a snack. Without a definition of "snack" and a body of research using methodologically rigorous protocols, determining the health impact of eating a "snack" will continue to elude the nutrition research community and prevent the development of evidence-based policies about snacking that support public health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Defining Medical Capabilities for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, M.; Antonsen, E.; Blue, R.; Reyes, D.; Mulcahy, R.; Kerstman, E.; Bayuse, T.

    2018-01-01

    Exploration-class missions to the moon, Mars and beyond will require a significant change in medical capability from today's low earth orbit centric paradigm. Significant increases in autonomy will be required due to differences in duration, distance and orbital mechanics. Aerospace medicine and systems engineering teams are working together within ExMC to meet these challenges. Identifying exploration medical system needs requires accounting for planned and unplanned medical care as defined in the concept of operations. In 2017, the ExMC Clinicians group identified medical capabilities to feed into the Systems Engineering process, including: determining what and how to address planned and preventive medical care; defining an Accepted Medical Condition List (AMCL) of conditions that may occur and a subset of those that can be treated effectively within the exploration environment; and listing the medical capabilities needed to treat those conditions in the AMCL. This presentation will discuss the team's approach to addressing these issues, as well as how the outputs of the clinical process impact the systems engineering effort.

  16. Hardware-Based Non-Optimum Factors for Launch Vehicle Structural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    During aerospace vehicle conceptual and preliminary design, empirical non-optimum factors are typically applied to predicted structural component weights to account for undefined manufacturing and design details. Non-optimum factors are developed here for 32 aluminum-lithium 2195 orthogrid panels comprising the liquid hydrogen tank barrel of the Space Shuttle External Tank using measured panel weights and manufacturing drawings. Minimum values for skin thickness, axial and circumferential blade stiffener thickness and spacing, and overall panel thickness are used to estimate individual panel weights. Panel non-optimum factors computed using a coarse weights model range from 1.21 to 1.77, and a refined weights model (including weld lands and skin and stiffener transition details) yields non-optimum factors of between 1.02 and 1.54. Acreage panels have an average 1.24 non-optimum factor using the coarse model, and 1.03 with the refined version. The observed consistency of these acreage non-optimum factors suggests that relatively simple models can be used to accurately predict large structural component weights for future launch vehicles.

  17. Comparison of optimum tilt angles of solar collectors determined at yearly, seasonal and monthly levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despotovic, Milan; Nedic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimum yearly, biannual, seasonal, monthly, and daily tilt angles were found. • Energy collected per square meter is compared for ten different scenarios. • Four seasonal scenarios and two biannual scenarios were considered. • It is sufficient to adjust tilt angles only twice per year. - Abstract: The amount of energy that is transformed in solar collector depends on its tilt angle with respect to horizontal plane and orientation of the collector. In this article the optimum tilt angle of solar collectors for Belgrade, which is located at the latitude of 44°47′N is determined. The optimum tilt angle was found by searching for the values for which the solar radiation on the collector surface is maximum for a particular day or a specific period. In that manner the yearly, biannual, seasonal, monthly, fortnightly, and daily optimum tilt angles are determined. Annually collected energy per square meter of tilted surface is compared for ten different scenarios. In addition, these optimum tilt angles are used to calculate the amount of energy on the surface of PV panels that could be installed at the roof of the building. The results show that for observed case study placing the panels at yearly, seasonal and monthly optimum tilt angles, would yield increasing yearly amount of collected energy by factor of 5.98%, 13.55%, and 15.42% respectively compared to energy that could be collected by putting the panels at current roofs’ surface angles

  18. Developing an optimum protocol for thermoluminescence dosimetry with gr-200 chips using Taguchi method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Maryam; Faghihi, Reza; Sina, Sedigheh

    2017-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) is a powerful technique with wide applications in personal, environmental and clinical dosimetry. The optimum annealing, storage and reading protocols are very effective in accuracy of TLD response. The purpose of this study is to obtain an optimum protocol for GR-200; LiF: Mg, Cu, P, by optimizing the effective parameters, to increase the reliability of the TLD response using Taguchi method. Taguchi method has been used in this study for optimization of annealing, storage and reading protocols of the TLDs. A number of 108 GR-200 chips were divided into 27 groups, each containing four chips. The TLDs were exposed to three different doses, and stored, annealed and read out by different procedures as suggested by Taguchi Method. By comparing the signal-to-noise ratios the optimum dosimetry procedure was obtained. According to the results, the optimum values for annealing temperature (de.C), Annealing Time (s), Annealing to Exposure time (d), Exposure to Readout time (d), Pre-heat Temperature (de.C), Pre-heat Time (s), Heating Rate (de.C/s), Maximum Temperature of Readout (de.C), readout time (s) and Storage Temperature (de.C) are 240, 90, 1, 2, 50, 0, 15, 240, 13 and -20, respectively. Using the optimum protocol, an efficient glow curve with low residual signals can be achieved. Using optimum protocol obtained by Taguchi method, the dosimetry can be effectively performed with great accuracy. (authors)

  19. Determination of Optimum Condition of Leucine Content in Beef Protein Hydrolysate using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Roha Ab Mutalib; Zainal Samicho; Noriham Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimum condition of leucine content in beef hydrolysate. Beef hydrolysate was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis using bromelain enzyme produced from pineapple peel. Parameter conditions such as concentration of bromelain, hydrolysis temperature and hydrolysis time were assessed to obtain the optimum leucine content of beef hydrolysate according to experimental design which was recommended by response surface methodology (RSM). Leucine content in beef hydrolysate was determined using AccQ. Tag amino acid analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The condition of optimum leucine content was at bromelain concentration of 1.38 %, hydrolysis temperature of 42.5 degree Celcius and hydrolysis time of 31.59 hours with the predicted leucine content of 26.57 %. The optimum condition was verified with the leucine value obtained was 26.25 %. Since there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the predicted and verified leucine values, thus it indicates that the predicted optimum condition by RSM can be accepted to predict the optimum leucine content in beef hydrolysate. (author)

  20. Determination of optimum insulation thicknesses of the external walls and roof (ceiling) for Turkey's different degree-day regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisman, Nuri; Kahya, Emin; Aras, Nil; Aras, Haydar

    2007-01-01

    The external walls and roof of a building are the interface between its interior and the outdoor environment. Insulation of the external walls and roof is the most cost-effective way of controlling the outside elements to make homes more comfortable. Although insulation is generally accepted as a factor increasing the building costs, with the calculations we have shown that this is not the case. Fuel consumption and operational costs are reduced by increasing the thickness of the external walls and roof (ceiling), despite an increase in the investment costs. According to Turkish Standard Number 825 (TS 825), there are four different degree-day (DD) regions, and the required heat loads for the buildings in these regions exhibit large differences. Therefore, a method based on costs is needed for the determination of optimum insulation thicknesses of different DD regions. In this study, optimum insulation thicknesses for different DD regions of Turkey, namely, Izmir (DD: 1450), Bursa (DD: 2203), Eskisehir (DD: 3215) and Erzurum (DD: 4856), have been determined for a lifetime of N years, maximizing the present worth value of annual energy savings for insulated external walls

  1. Particle contamination in gas-insulated systems: new control methods and optimum SF6/N2 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, M.O.; Adcock, J.L.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibilities of two new separate techniques to control particle contamination in practical gas-insulated sytems were tested in a small-scale concentric cylinder geometry. In one technique an insulating coating was first formed on the particles in a contaminated system by low-pressure discharges in appropriate gases such as 1-C 3 F 6 and c-C 4 F 8 . When SF 6 was subsequently introduced into the same system at practical pressure as the operating insulation, the considerable harm ordinarily caused by particles was found to be eliminated. The nature of the coating formed also on the electrodes in this process was studied, with the conclusion that the observed benefits were primarily due to coating on particles, not on electrodes. In the second technique the particles, moved randomly by electrical stress, struck and adhered to the surface of a tacky insulating solid material; they were subsequently encapsulated in a melt-resolidify cycle without electrical stress. This trapping technique was also found to eliminate the harmful effects of particles in SF 6 at practical pressure. A technique for producing a trapping material with temperature characteristics appropriate for practical apparatus was devised. The effect of particle contamination on the dielectric strength of SF 6 /N 2 mixtures was studied as a function of total pressure and percentage of each gas. Optimum total pressure (approx. 6 atm) and optimum percentages (60% SF 6 /40% N 2 ) were observed in breakdown tests in particle-contaminated concentric cylinder geometry

  2. Defining Tobacco Regulatory Science Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Optimum Performance Enhancing Strategies of the Gas Turbine Based on the Effective Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Thamir K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbines (GT have come to play a significant role in distributed energy systems due to its multi-fuel capability, compact size and low environmental impact and reduced cost. Nevertheless, the low electrical efficiency, typically about 30% (LHV, is an important obstruction to the development of the GT plants. New strategies are designed for the GT plant, to increase the overall performance based on the operational modeling and optimization of GT power plants. The enhancing strategies effect on the GT power plant’s performance (with intercooler, two-shaft, reheat and regenerative based on the real power plant of GT. An analysis based on thermodynamics has been carried out on the modifications of the cycle configurations’ enhancements. Then, the results showed the effect of the ambient and turbine inlet temperatures on the performance of the GT plants to select an optimum strategy for the GT. The performance model code to compare the strategies of the GT plants were developed utilizing the MATLAB software. The results show that, the best thermal efficiency occurs in the intercooler-regenerative-reheated GT strategy (IRHGT; it decreased from 51.5 to 48%, when the ambient temperature increased (from 273 to 327K. Furthermore, the thermal efficiency of the GT for the strategies without the regenerative increased (about 3.3%, while thermal efficiency for the strategies with regenerative increased (about 22% with increased of the turbine inlet temperature. The lower thermal efficiency occurs in the IHGT strategy, while the higher thermal efficiency occurs in the IRHGT strategy. However, the power output variation is more significant at a higher value of the turbine inlet temperature. The simulation model gives a consistent result compared with Baiji GT plant. The extensive modeling performed in this study reveals that; the ambient temperature and turbine inlet temperature are strongly influenced on the performance of GT plant.

  4. Is Dor fundoplication optimum after laparoscopic Heller myotomy for achalasia? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming-Tian; He, Ya-Zhou; Deng, Xiang-Bing; Zhang, Yuan-Chuan; Yang, Ting-Han; Jin, Cheng-Wu; Hu, Bing; Wang, Zi-Qiang

    2013-11-21

    To compare the outcome of acid reflux prevention by Dor fundoplication after laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) for achalasia. Electronic database PubMed, Ovid (Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, EmBase and Ovid MEDLINE) and Cochrane Library were searched between January 1995 and September 2012. Bibliographic citation management software (EndNote X3) was used for extracted literature management. Quality assessment of random controlled studies (RCTs) and non-RCTs was performed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0 and a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, respectively. The data were analyzed using Review Manager (Version 5.1), and sensitivity analysis was performed by sequentially omitting each study. Finally, 6 studies, including a total of 523 achalasia patients, compared Dor fundoplication with other types of fundoplication after LHM (Dor-other group), and 8 studies, including a total of 528 achalasia patients, compared Dor fundoplication with no fundoplication after LHM (Dor-no group). Dor fundoplication was associated with a significantly higher recurrence rate of clinical regurgitation and pathological acid reflux compared with the other fundoplication group (OR = 7.16, 95%CI: 1.25-40.93, P = 0.03, and OR = 3.79, 95%CI: 1.23-11.72, P = 0.02, respectively). In addition, there were no significant differences between Dor fundoplication and no fundoplication in all subjects. Other outcomes, including complications, dysphagia, postoperative physiologic testing, and operation-related data displayed no significant differences in the two comparison groups. Dor fundoplication is not the optimum procedure after LHM for achalasia. We suggest more attention should be paid on quality of life among different fundoplications.

  5. Explicit analytical tuning rules for digital PID controllers via the magnitude optimum criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos G; Yadav, Praveen K; Margaris, Nikolaos I

    2017-09-01

    Analytical tuning rules for digital PID type-I controllers are presented regardless of the process complexity. This explicit solution allows control engineers 1) to make an accurate examination of the effect of the controller's sampling time to the control loop's performance both in the time and frequency domain 2) to decide when the control has to be I, PI and when the derivative, D, term has to be added or omitted 3) apply this control action to a series of stable benchmark processes regardless of their complexity. The former advantages are considered critical in industry applications, since 1) most of the times the choice of the digital controller's sampling time is based on heuristics and past criteria, 2) there is little a-priori knowledge of the controlled process making the choice of the type of the controller a trial and error exercise 3) model parameters change often depending on the control loop's operating point making in this way, the problem of retuning the controller's parameter a much challenging issue. Basis of the proposed control law is the principle of the PID tuning via the Magnitude Optimum criterion. The final control law involves the controller's sampling time T s within the explicit solution of the controller's parameters. Finally, the potential of the proposed method is justified by comparing its performance with the conventional PID tuning when controlling the same process. Further investigation regarding the choice of the controller's sampling time T s is also presented and useful conclusions for control engineers are derived. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qin

    1998-12-31

    The object of this study was dynamic modeling, simulation and optimum design of solar DHW (domestic hot water) systems, with respect to different whether conditions, and accurate dynamic behaviour of the heat load. Special attention was paid to systems with thermosyphon and drain-back design. The solar radiation in Beijing (China) and in Denmark are analyzed both by theoretical calculations and the analysis of long-term measurements. Based on the weather data from the Beijing Meteorological Station during the period of 1981-1993, a Beijing Test Reference Year has been formulated by means of statistical analysis. A brief introduction about the Danish Test Reference Year and the Design Reference Year is also presented. In order to investigate the heat loss as a part of the total heat load, dynamic models for distribution networks have been developed, and simulations have been carried out for typically designed distribution networks of the circulation type. The influence of operation parameters such as the tank outlet temperature, the hot-water load and the load pattern, on the heat loss from the distribution networks in presented. It was found that the tank outlet temperature has a significant influence on the heat loss from a circulation type of distribution network, while the hot-water load and the load pattern have no obvious effect. Dynamic models of drain-back tanks, both as a separated tank and combined with a mantle tank, have been developed and presented. Models of the other basic components commonly used in solar DHW systems, such as flat-plate collectors, connection pipes, storage tanks with a heat exchanger spiral, and controllers, are also described. (LN) 66 refs.

  7. Analysis of geologic terrain models for determination of optimum SAR sensor configuration and optimum information extraction for exploration of global non-renewable resources. Pilot study: Arkansas Remote Sensing Laboratory, part 1, part 2, and part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.; Stiles, J. A.; Frost, F. S.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Smith, S. A.; Narayanan, V.; Holtzman, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Computer-generated radar simulations and mathematical geologic terrain models were used to establish the optimum radar sensor operating parameters for geologic research. An initial set of mathematical geologic terrain models was created for three basic landforms and families of simulated radar images were prepared from these models for numerous interacting sensor, platform, and terrain variables. The tradeoffs between the various sensor parameters and the quantity and quality of the extractable geologic data were investigated as well as the development of automated techniques of digital SAR image analysis. Initial work on a texture analysis of SEASAT SAR imagery is reported. Computer-generated radar simulations are shown for combinations of two geologic models and three SAR angles of incidence.

  8. Method of optimum channel switching in equipment of infocommunication network in conditions of cyber attacks to their telecommunication infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochedykov, S. S.; Noev, A. N.; Dushkin, A. V.; Gubin, I. A.

    2018-05-01

    On the basis of the mathematical graph theory, the method of optimum switching of infocommunication networks in the conditions of cyber attacks is developed. The idea of representation of a set of possible ways on the graph in the form of the multilevel tree ordered by rules of algebra of a logic theory is the cornerstone of a method. As a criterion of optimization, the maximum of network transmission capacity to which assessment Ford- Falkerson's theorem is applied is used. The method is realized in the form of a numerical algorithm, which can be used not only for design, but also for operational management of infocommunication networks in conditions of violation of the functioning of their switching centers.

  9. Determination of optimum insulation thickness in pipe for exergetic life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keçebaş, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • It is aimed to determine optimum insulation thickness in pipe. • A new methodology is used as exergetic life cycle assessment for this purpose. • It is evaluated for various fuels, different pipe diameters and some combustion parameters. • This methodology is not suitable for determining optimum insulation thickness of a pipe. • There are benefits to our understanding of the need for insulation use in pipes. - Abstract: The energy saving and the environmental impacts’ reduction in the world building sector have gained great importance. Therefore, great efforts have been invested to create energy-saving green buildings. To do so, one of the many things to be done is the insulation of cylindrical pipes, canals and tanks. In the current study, the main focus is on the determination of the optimum insulation thickness of the pipes with varying diameters when different fuels are used. Therefore, through a new method combining exergy analysis and life cycle assessment, optimum insulation thickness of the pipes, total exergetic environmental impact, net saving and payback period were calculated. The effects of the insulation thickness on environmental and combustion parameters were analyzed in a detailed manner. The results revealed that optimum insulation thickness was affected by the temperature of the fuel when it enters into the combustion chamber, the temperature of the stack gas and the temperature of the combustion chamber. Under these optimum effects, the optimum insulation thickness of a 100 mm pipe was determined to be 55.7 cm, 57.2 cm and 59.3 cm for coal, natural gas and fuel–oil, respectively with the ratios of 76.32%, 81.84% and 84.04% net savings in the exergetic environmental impact. As the environmental impacts of the fuels and their products are bigger than those of the insulation material, the values of the optimum insulation thickness of the method used this study was found greater. Moreover, in the pipes with greater

  10. Study on optimum aseismic design of complex structure system focusing on damping effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Kohei

    1995-01-01

    Optimum design technique for the purpose of aseismic design of complex plant structures such as piping and boiler structures is proposed. Particular attention is focused on the evaluation of the optimum damping and stiffness of the structures and components. Pseudo least square algorithm is introduced to determine the optimum design parameters. Under the requirement of certain allowable maximum response to a given earthquake excitation, optimum stiffness and damping values of the structure can be simultaneously calculated by this proposed method. The applicability of the method is demonstrated through three structural models; (1) linear multi-storied building model in which stiffness and damping constant of each floor are optimized; (2) nonlinear multi-storied building model having the isolated floor in which hysteretic energy absorber of the isolator is optimized; (3) combined boiler-supporting structure model connected by the inelastic seismic ties with each other is optimized. In this model, optimum values of damping characteristic of the seismic ties are evaluated. This work is particularly important for the aseismic design of complex plant structures like integrated boiler-supporting structure in thermal power plant and piping-containment vessel structure in nuclear power plant

  11. A portable anaerobic microbioreactor reveals optimum growth conditions for the methanogen Methanosaeta concilii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Benjamin; Garcia, Marcelo L; Shen, Amy Q; Angenent, Largus T

    2007-03-01

    Conventional studies of the optimum growth conditions for methanogens (methane-producing, obligate anaerobic archaea) are typically conducted with serum bottles or bioreactors. The use of microfluidics to culture methanogens allows direct microscopic observations of the time-integrated response of growth. Here, we developed a microbioreactor (microBR) with approximately 1-microl microchannels to study some optimum growth conditions for the methanogen Methanosaeta concilii. The microBR is contained in an anaerobic chamber specifically designed to place it directly onto an inverted light microscope stage while maintaining a N2-CO2 environment. The methanogen was cultured for months inside microchannels of different widths. Channel width was manipulated to create various fluid velocities, allowing the direct study of the behavior and responses of M. concilii to various shear stresses and revealing an optimum shear level of approximately 20 to 35 microPa. Gradients in a single microchannel were then used to find an optimum pH level of 7.6 and an optimum total NH4-N concentration of less than 1,100 mg/liter (<47 mg/liter as free NH3-N) for M. concilii under conditions of the previously determined ideal shear stress and pH and at a temperature of 35 degrees C.

  12. Predicting optimum crop designs using crop models and seasonal climate forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, D; de Voil, P; Hudson, D; Brown, J N; Hayman, P; Marrou, H; Meinke, H

    2018-02-02

    Expected increases in food demand and the need to limit the incorporation of new lands into agriculture to curtail emissions, highlight the urgency to bridge productivity gaps, increase farmers profits and manage risks in dryland cropping. A way to bridge those gaps is to identify optimum combination of genetics (G), and agronomic managements (M) i.e. crop designs (GxM), for the prevailing and expected growing environment (E). Our understanding of crop stress physiology indicates that in hindsight, those optimum crop designs should be known, while the main problem is to predict relevant attributes of the E, at the time of sowing, so that optimum GxM combinations could be informed. Here we test our capacity to inform that "hindsight", by linking a tested crop model (APSIM) with a skillful seasonal climate forecasting system, to answer "What is the value of the skill in seasonal climate forecasting, to inform crop designs?" Results showed that the GCM POAMA-2 was reliable and skillful, and that when linked with APSIM, optimum crop designs could be informed. We conclude that reliable and skillful GCMs that are easily interfaced with crop simulation models, can be used to inform optimum crop designs, increase farmers profits and reduce risks.

  13. Radiotherapy for brain metastases: defining palliative response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezjak, Andrea; Adam, Janice; Panzarella, Tony; Levin, Wilfred; Barton, Rachael; Kirkbride, Peter; McLean, Michael; Mason, Warren; Wong, Chong Shun; Laperriere, Normand

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose: Most patients with brain metastases are treated with palliative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). There is no established definition of palliative response. The aim of this study was to develop and test clinically useful criteria for response following palliative WBRT. Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted of patients with symptomatic brain metastases treated with WBRT (20 Gy/5 fractions) and standardised steroid tapering. Assessments included observer rating of neurological symptoms, patient-completed symptom checklist and performance status (PS). Response criteria were operationally defined based on a combination of neurological symptoms, PS and steroid dose. Results: Seventy-five patients were accrued. At 1 month, presenting neurological symptoms were improved in 14 patients, stable in 17, and worse in 21; 23 patients were not assessed, mainly due to death or frailty. Using response criteria defined a priori, 15% (95% CI 7-23%) of patients were classified as having a response to RT, 25% no response, and 29% progression; 27% were deceased at or soon after 1 month. A revised set of criteria was tested, with less emphasis on complete tapering of steroids: they increased the proportion of patients responding to 39% (95% CI 27-50%) but didn't change the large proportion who did not benefit (44%). Conclusions: Clinical response to RT of patients with brain metastases is multifactorial, comprising symptoms, PS and other factors. Assessment of degree of palliation depend on the exact definition used. More research is needed in this important area, to help validate criteria for assessing palliation after WBRT

  14. Optimum field size and choice of isodose lines in electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Indra J.; Cheng, Chee W.; Healey, Glenn A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: A method is provided for the optimum field size and the choice of isodose line for the dose prescription in electron beam therapy. Methods and Materials: Electron beam dose uniformity was defined in terms of target coverage factor (TCF) which is an index of dose coverage of a given treatment volume. The TCF was studied with respect to the field size, the beam energy, and the isodose level for prescription from the measured data for various accelerators. The effect of the TCF on air gap between electron applicator/cone and the surface was investigated. Electron beams from scattering foil and scanned beam units were analyzed for the target coverage. Results: A mathematical method is provided to optimize a field size for target coverage by a given isodose line in terms of TCF which is strongly dependent on the type of accelerator and the design of the collimator. For a given type of collimating system, the TCF does not depend on the type of electron beam production (scattering foil or swept scanned beam). Selection of isodose line for dose prescription is very critical for the value of the TCF and the dose coverage. The TCF is inversely proportional to the isodose value selected for the treatment and nearly linear with field size and beam energy. Air gap between applicator and the surface reduces the dose uniformity. Tertiary collimator moderately improves the lateral coverage for high energy beams. Conclusions: To adequately cover the target volume in electron beam treatment, lateral and depth coverage should be considered. The coverage at depth is strongly dependent on the choice of isodose line or beam normalization. If the dose prescription is at d max (i.e., the 100% isodose line is selected), the choice of beam energy is not critical for depth coverage since d max is nearly independent of energy for smaller fields. The 100% isodose line should not be chosen for treatment because of the significant constriction of this isodose line and inadequate

  15. Atomic processes, cross sections, and reaction rates necessary for modelling hydrogen-negative-ion sources and identification of optimum H- current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The principal electron excitation cross sections for vibrational excitation in a hydrogen discharge are reported. In the first chamber of a two-chamber hydrogen negative-ion-source system subject to the beam-line constraint of a maximum gas pressure, the density of vibrationally excited molecules reaches an asymptote for increasing discharge current or the equivalent fast electron density. Operating near this first-chamber asymptote, there exists a spatially-dependent maximum negative-ion density in the second chamber. With the extraction grid placed at this maximum the optimum performance of a hydrogen-based system is determined. This optimum performance provides a criterion for the selection of differing source types for fusion applications

  16. Optimum welding condition of 2017 aluminum similar alloy friction welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujino R.; Ochi, H. [Osaka Inst. of Tech., Osaka (Japan); Morikawa, K. [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan); Yamaguchi, H.; Ogawa, K. [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Osaka (Japan); Fujishiro, Y.; Yoshida, M. [Sumitomo Metal Technology Ltd., Hyogo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Usefulness of the statistical analysis for judging optimization of the friction welding conditions was investigated by using 2017 aluminum similar alloy, where many samples under fixed welding conditions were friction welded and analyzed statistically. In general, selection of the optimum friction welding conditions for similar materials is easy. However, it was not always the case for 2017 aluminum alloy. For optimum friction welding conditions of this material, it is necessary to apply relatively larger upset pressure to obtain high friction heating. Joint efficiencies obtained under the optimum friction welding conditions showed large shape parameter (m value) of Weibull distribution as well as in the dissimilar materials previously reported. The m value calculated on the small number of data can be substituted for m value on the 30 data. Therefore, m value is useful for practical use in the factory for assuming the propriety of the friction welding conditions. (orig.)

  17. Finding the Optimum Scenario in Risk-benefit Assessment: An Example on Vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berjia, Firew Lemma; Hoekstra, J.; Verhagen, H.

    2014-01-01

    when changing from the reference to the optimum scenario. Conclusion: The method allowed us to find the optimum serum level in the vitamin D example. Additional case studies are needed to further validate the applicability of the approach to other nutrients or foods, especially with regards...... a method for finding the optimum scenario that provides maximum net health gains. Methods: A multiple scenario simulation. The method is presented using vitamin D intake in Denmark as an example. In addition to the reference scenario, several alternative scenarios are simulated to detect the scenario...... that provides maximum net health gains. As a common health metric, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) has been used to project the net health effect by using the QALIBRA (Quality of Life for Benefit Risk Assessment) software. Results: The method used in the vitamin D example shows that it is feasible to find...

  18. Comparison between coasting and bunched beams on optimum stochastic cooling and signal suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.

    1991-01-01

    A comparison has been performed between coasting and bunched particle beams pertaining to the mechanism of stochastic cooling. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate for the bunched beam is shown to be the same as that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using local particle density. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decreases in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. Furthermore, it has been shown for both coasting and bunched beams that particle motion is stable upon signal suppression if the amplitude of the gain is less than twice the optimum value over the entire frequency bandwidth of the cooling system. 7 refs., 1 fig

  19. Dependence of optimum baseline setting on scatter fraction and detector response function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, F.B.; Beck, R.N.; Hoffer, P.B.; Palmer, D.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation has been undertaken to determine the dependence of an optimum baseline setting on the amount of scattered radiation recorded in a spectrum, and on the energy resolution of the detector. In particular, baseline settings were established for clinical examinations which differed greatly in the amount of scattered radiation, namely, liver and brain scans, for which individual variations were found to produce only minimal fluctuations in the optimum baseline settings. This analysis resulted in an optimum baseline setting of 125.0 keV for brain scans and 127.2 keV for liver scans for the scintillation camera used in these studies. The criterion that was used is based on statistical considerations of the measurement of an unscattered component in the presence of a background due to scattered photons. The limitations of such a criterion are discussed, and phantom images are presented to illustrate these effects at various baseline settings. (author)

  20. Method for Estimating Optimum Free Resonant Frequencies in Overcoupled WPT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wook Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In our previous work, we proposed the method to maximize the output power even in the overcoupled state of the wireless power transfer (WPT system by controlling free resonant frequencies and derived closed-form expression for optimum free resonant frequencies of the primary and secondary resonators. In this paper, we propose the mutual coupling approach to derive the optimum free resonant frequencies and show the measured power transfer efficiency (PTE using the transmission efficiency as well as the system energy efficiency. The results of the proposed approach exactly coincide with those of the previous work, and the fabricated prototype achieves the transmission efficiency of about 80% by tuning the free resonant frequencies to the optimum values in the overcoupled state.