WorldWideScience

Sample records for deficits including autism

  1. Autism: cognitive deficit or cognitive style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé

    1999-06-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by impaired social and communicative development, and restricted interests and activities. This article will argue that we can discover more about developmental disorders such as autism through demonstrations of task success than through examples of task failure. Even in exploring and explaining what people with autism find difficult, such as social interaction, demonstration of competence on contrasting tasks has been crucial to defining the nature of the specific deficit. Deficit accounts of autism cannot explain, however, the assets seen in this disorder; for example, savant skills in maths, music and drawing, and islets of ability in visuospatial tests and rote memory. An alternative account, reviewed here, suggests that autism is characterized by a cognitive style biased towards local rather than global information processing - termed 'weak central coherence'. Evidence that weak coherence might also characterize the relatives of people with autism, and form part of the extended phenotype of this largely genetic disorder, is discussed. This review concludes by considering some outstanding questions concerning the specific cognitive mechanism for coherence and the neural basis of individual differences in this aspect of information processing.

  2. Oral Motor Deficits in Speech-Impaired Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Belmonte, Matthew K.; Tanushree eSaxena-Chandhok; Ruth eCherian; Reema eMuneer; Lisa eGeorge; Prathibha eKaranth

    2013-01-01

    Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive versus expressive speech / language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of ...

  3. Oral motor deficits in speech-impaired children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Belmonte, MK; Saxena-Chandhok, T; Cherian, R.; Muneer, R; George, L; P Karanth

    2013-01-01

    Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive vs. expressive speech/language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. ...

  4. Dyspraxia in Autism: Association with Motor, Social, and Communicative Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuk, M. A.; Larson, J. C. Gidley; Apostu, A.; Mahone, E. M.; Denckla, M. B.; Mostofsky, S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Impaired performance of skilled gestures, referred to as dyspraxia, is consistently reported in children with autism; however, its neurological basis is not well understood. Basic motor skill deficits are also observed in children with autism and it is unclear whether dyspraxia observed in children with autism can be accounted for by problems with…

  5. Deficit, Difference, or Both? Autism and Neurodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Steven K.; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Sherman, Lauren E.; Hutman, Ted

    2013-01-01

    The neurodiversity movement challenges the medical model's interest in causation and cure, celebrating autism as an inseparable aspect of identity. Using an online survey, we examined the perceived opposition between the medical model and the neurodiversity movement by assessing conceptions of autism and neurodiversity among people with different…

  6. Deficit, Difference, or Both? Autism and Neurodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Steven K.; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Sherman, Lauren E.; Hutman, Ted

    2013-01-01

    The neurodiversity movement challenges the medical model's interest in causation and cure, celebrating autism as an inseparable aspect of identity. Using an online survey, we examined the perceived opposition between the medical model and the neurodiversity movement by assessing conceptions of autism and neurodiversity among people with different…

  7. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  8. Social Skills Deficits in Autism: A Study among Students with Austim Spectrum Disorder in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Kee Jiar; Teng, Kie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) who lack of social skills have been hindered from being included in IE classrooms. The purpose of this study was to identify the most frequently occurring social skills deficits area among students with ASD in IE classrooms so that the mainstream teachers will be ready and well prepared to cater to…

  9. Autism Plus versus Autism Pure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The reported prevalence of autism is going up and up. We propose that some--even much--of the increase in the rate of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is driven by "Autism Plus". Autism Plus refers to autism with comorbidities (including intellectual developmental disorder, language disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder),…

  10. Developmental deficits in social perception in autism: the role of the amygdala and fusiform face area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Robert T

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a severe developmental disorder marked by a triad of deficits, including impairments in reciprocal social interaction, delays in early language and communication, and the presence of restrictive, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. In this review, it is argued that the search for the neurobiological bases of the autism spectrum disorders should focus on the social deficits, as they alone are specific to autism and they are likely to be most informative with respect to modeling the pathophysiology of the disorder. Many recent studies have documented the difficulties persons with an autism spectrum disorder have accurately perceiving facial identity and facial expressions. This behavioral literature on face perception abnormalities in autism is reviewed and integrated with the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature in this area, and a heuristic model of the pathophysiology of autism is presented. This model posits an early developmental failure in autism involving the amygdala, with a cascading influence on the development of cortical areas that mediate social perception in the visual domain, specifically the fusiform "face area" of the ventral temporal lobe. Moreover, there are now some provocative data to suggest that visual perceptual areas of the ventral temporal pathway are also involved in important ways in representations of the semantic attributes of people, social knowledge and social cognition. Social perception and social cognition are postulated as normally linked during development such that growth in social perceptual skills during childhood provides important scaffolding for social skill development. It is argued that the development of face perception and social cognitive skills are supported by the amygdala-fusiform system, and that deficits in this network are instrumental in causing autism.

  11. Cognitive Deficits in the Pathogenesis of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, M.

    1983-01-01

    Reports empirical findings indicating that autistic children have a basic cognitive deficit that is not a secondary consequence of social withdrawal. The precise nature of the deficit is discussed, as are studies of autistic children's general intelligence, language abnormalities, and social impairments. (RH)

  12. Oral motor deficits in speech-impaired children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Matthew K; Saxena-Chandhok, Tanushree; Cherian, Ruth; Muneer, Reema; George, Lisa; Karanth, Prathibha

    2013-01-01

    Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive vs. expressive speech/language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills) and 90 (for oral motor skills) typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual.

  13. Oral Motor Deficits in Speech-Impaired Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K Belmonte

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive versus expressive speech / language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills and 90 (for oral motor skills typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual.

  14. Differential Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Means of Inhibitory Control and "Theory of Mind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Eva; Bachmann, Christian; Goyert, Hannah; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) are both associated with deficits in executive control and with problems in social contexts. This study analyses the variables inhibitory control and theory of mind (ToM), including a developmental aspect in the case of the latter, to differentiate between the…

  15. Communication Deficits and the Motor System: Exploring Patterns of Associations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, M; Shui, A M; Nowinski, L A; Golas, S B; Ferrone, C; O'Rourke, J A; McDougle, C J

    2017-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have notable difficulties in motor, speech and language domains. The connection between motor skills (oral-motor, manual-motor) and speech and language deficits reported in other developmental disorders raises important questions about a potential relationship between motor skills and speech-language deficits in ASD. To this end, we examined data from children with ASD (n = 1781), 2-17 years of age, enrolled in the Autism Speaks-Autism Treatment Network (AS-ATN) registry who completed a multidisciplinary evaluation that included diagnostic, physical, cognitive and behavioral assessments as part of a routine standard of care protocol. After adjusting for age, non-verbal IQ, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medication use, and muscle tone, separate multiple linear regression analyses revealed significant positive associations of fine motor skills (FM) with both expressive language (EL) and receptive language (RL) skills in an impaired FM subgroup; in contrast, the impaired gross motor (GM) subgroup showed no association with EL but a significant negative association with RL. Similar analyses between motor skills and interpersonal relationships across the sample found both GM skills and FM skills to be associated with social interactions. These results suggest potential differences in the contributions of fine versus gross motor skills to autistic profiles and may provide another lens with which to view communication differences across the autism spectrum for use in treatment interventions.

  16. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD.

  17. Comparison of motor deficits in autism spectrum disorder and developmental coordination disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an umbrella term for disorders involving deficits in social interaction, stereotyped behaviours and communication dificulties. A growing area of research has recently focused on motor deficits in ASD, which have been noted in clinical observations and diagnostic criteria since autism was first described. However, motor deficits have traditionally carried little weight in the diagnostic procedure. Until recent changes to diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Sta...

  18. Executive Function Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining Profiles across Domains and Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Francesca; Booth, Rhonda; Charlton, Rebecca; Hughes, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Deficits in "executive function" (EF) are characteristic of several clinical disorders, most notably Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In this study, age-and IQ-matched groups with ASD, ADHD, or typical development (TD) were compared on a battery of EF tasks tapping three core domains:…

  19. When the Social Mirror Breaks: Deficits in Automatic, but Not Voluntary, Mimicry of Emotional Facial Expressions in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Daniel N.; Reichmann-Decker, Aimee; Winkielman, Piotr; Wilbarger, Julia L.

    2006-01-01

    Humans, infants and adults alike, automatically mimic a variety of behaviors. Such mimicry facilitates social functioning, including establishment of interpersonal rapport and understanding of other minds. This fundamental social process may thus be impaired in disorders such as autism characterized by socio-emotional and communicative deficits.…

  20. A specific deficit of imitation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hannah J; McIntosh, Rob D; Williams, Justin H G

    2013-12-01

    Imitation is a potentially crucial aspect of social cognitive development. Although deficits in imitation ability have been widely demonstrated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the specificity and significance of the findings is unclear, due largely to methodological limitations. We developed a novel assessment of imitation ability, using objective movement parameters (path length and action duration) derived from a touch-sensitive tablet laptop during drawing actions on an identical tablet. By direct comparison of the kinematics of a model's actions with those of the participant who observed them, measures of imitation accuracy were obtained. By replaying the end-point of the movement as a spot on the screen, imitation accuracy was compared against a "ghost control" condition, with no human actor but only the end-point of the movement seen [object movement reenactment (OMR)]. Hence, demands of the control task were closely matched to the experimental task with respect to motor, memory, and attentional abilities. Adolescents with ASD showed poorer accuracy for copying object size and action duration on both the imitation and OMR tasks, but were significantly more impaired for imitation of object size. Our results provide evidence that some of the imitation deficit in ASD is specific to a self-other mapping problem, and cannot be explained by general factors such as memory, spatial reasoning, motor control, or attention, nor related to the social demands of the testing situation.

  1. Deficits in Metacognitive Monitoring in Mathematics Assessments in Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawemeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Antoniadou, Konstantina; Hollinworth, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Children and adults with autism spectrum disorder have been found to have deficits in metacognition that could impact upon their learning. This study explored metacognitive monitoring in 28 (23 males and 5 females) participants with autism spectrum disorder and 56 (16 males and 40 females) typically developing controls who were being educated at…

  2. Brief Report: New Evidence for a Social-Specific Imagination Deficit in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Eycke, Kayla D.; Müller, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that children with autism have deficits in drawing imaginative content. However, these conclusions are largely based on tasks that require children to draw impossible persons, and performance on this task may be limited by social deficits. To determine the generality of the deficit in imagination in children with autism,…

  3. Response Inhibition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K.; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with…

  4. Autism-relevant social abnormalities and cognitive deficits in engrailed-2 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brielmaier

    Full Text Available ENGRAILED 2 (En2, a homeobox transcription factor, functions as a patterning gene in the early development and connectivity of rodent hindbrain and cerebellum, and regulates neurogenesis and development of monoaminergic pathways. To further understand the neurobiological functions of En2, we conducted neuroanatomical expression profiling of En2 wildtype mice. RTQPCR assays demonstrated that En2 is expressed in adult brain structures including the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem. Human genetic studies indicate that EN2 is associated with autism. To determine the consequences of En2 mutations on mouse behaviors, including outcomes potentially relevant to autism, we conducted comprehensive phenotyping of social, communication, repetitive, and cognitive behaviors. En2 null mutants exhibited robust deficits in reciprocal social interactions as juveniles and adults, and absence of sociability in adults, replicated in two independent cohorts. Fear conditioning and water maze learning were impaired in En2 null mutants. High immobility in the forced swim test, reduced prepulse inhibition, mild motor coordination impairments and reduced grip strength were detected in En2 null mutants. No genotype differences were found on measures of ultrasonic vocalizations in social contexts, and no stereotyped or repetitive behaviors were observed. Developmental milestones, general health, olfactory abilities, exploratory locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviors and pain responses did not differ across genotypes, indicating that the behavioral abnormalities detected in En2 null mutants were not attributable to physical or procedural confounds. Our findings provide new insight into the role of En2 in complex behaviors and suggest that disturbances in En2 signaling may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders marked by social and cognitive deficits, including autism spectrum disorders.

  5. Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

  6. Identification of neuromotor deficits common to autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and imitation deficits specific to autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaldi, Monica; Rauh, Reinhold; Müller, Cora; Irion, Lisa; Saville, Christopher W N; Schulz, Eberhard; Klein, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in motor and imitation abilities are a core finding in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but impaired motor functions are also found in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given recent theorising about potential aetiological overlap between the two disorders, the present study aimed to assess difficulties in motor performance and imitation of facial movements and meaningless gestures in a sample of 24 ADHD patients, 22 patients with ASD, and 20 typically developing children, matched for age (6-13 years) and similar in IQ (>80). Furthermore, we explored the impact of comorbid ADHD symptoms on motor and imitation performance in the ASD sample and the interrelationships between the two groups of variables in the clinical groups separately. The results show motor dysfunction was common to both disorders, but imitation deficits were specific to ASD. Together with the pattern of interrelated motor and imitation abilities, which we found exclusively in the ASD group, our findings suggest complex phenotypic, and possibly aetiological, relationships between the two neurodevelopmental conditions.

  7. Temperament and character as endophenotype in adults with autism spectrum disorders or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, B.B.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Brink, W. van den

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  8. Temperament and Character as Endophenotype in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Bram B.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in cognitive and brain domains. They found that…

  9. Temperament and Character as Endophenotype in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Bram B.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in cognitive and brain domains. They found that…

  10. Axonal deficits in young adults with High Functioning Autism and their impact on processing speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural white matter deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD have been suggested by both histological findings and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI studies, which show reduced fractional anisotropy (FA and increased mean diffusivity (MD. However, imaging reports are generally not consistent across studies and the underlying physiological causes of the reported differences in FA and MD remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to further characterize white matter deficits in ASD by employing an advanced diffusion imaging method, the Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI, and a two-compartment diffusion model of white matter. This model differentially describes intra- and extra-axonal white matter compartments using Axonal Water Fraction (faxon a measure reflecting axonal caliber and density, and compartment-specific diffusivity measures. Diagnostic utility of these measures and associations with processing speed performance were also examined. Comparative studies were conducted in 16 young male adults with High Functioning Autism (HFA and 17 typically developing control participants (TDC. Significantly decreased faxon was observed in HFA compared to the control group in most of the major white matter tracts, including the corpus callosum, cortico-spinal tracts, and superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi. Intra-axonal diffusivity (Daxon was also found to be reduced in some of these regions. Decreased axial extra-axonal diffusivity (ADextra was noted in the genu of the corpus callosum. Reduced processing speed significantly correlated with decreased faxon and Daxon in several tracts. faxon of the left cortico-spinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculi showed good accuracy in discriminating the HFA and TDC groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest altered axonal microstructure in young adults with HFA which is associated with reduced processing speed. Compartment-specific diffusion

  11. Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Romero-Munguía

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity, and behavioral flexibility (core triad). Three major cognitive theories (theory of mind deficit, weak central coherence, and executive dysfunction) seem to explain many of these impairments. Currently, however, the empathizing-systemizing (a newer version of the theory of mind deficit account) and mnesic imbalance theories are the only ones that attempt to explain all these core tr...

  12. Face recognition deficits in autism spectrum disorders are both domain specific and process specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Sarah; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies have reported face identity recognition deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), two fundamental question remains: 1) Is this deficit "process specific" for face memory in particular, or does it extend to perceptual discrimination of faces as well? And 2) Is the deficit "domain specific" for faces, or is it found more generally for other social or even nonsocial stimuli? The answers to these questions are important both for understanding the nature of autism and its developmental etiology, and for understanding the functional architecture of face processing in the typical brain. Here we show that children with ASD are impaired (compared to age and IQ-matched typical children) in face memory, but not face perception, demonstrating process specificity. Further, we find no deficit for either memory or perception of places or cars, indicating domain specificity. Importantly, we further showed deficits in both the perception and memory of bodies, suggesting that the relevant domain of deficit may be social rather than specifically facial. These results provide a more precise characterization of the cognitive phenotype of autism and further indicate a functional dissociation between face memory and face perception.

  13. Emotion Perception or Social Cognitive Complexity: What Drives Face Processing Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer A; Creighton, Sarah E; Rutherford, M D

    2016-02-01

    Some, but not all, relevant studies have revealed face processing deficits among those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, deficits are revealed in face processing tasks that involve emotion perception. The current study examined whether either deficits in processing emotional expression or deficits in processing social cognitive complexity drive face processing deficits in ASD. We tested adults with and without ASD on a battery of face processing tasks that varied with respect to emotional expression processing and social cognitive complexity. Results revealed significant group differences on tasks involving emotional expression processing, but typical performance on a non-emotional but socially complex task. These results support an emotion processing rather than a social complexity explanation for face processing deficits in ASD.

  14. Deficits in metacognitive monitoring in mathematics assessments in learners with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawemeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Antoniadou, Konstantina; Hollinworth, Melissa

    2016-05-01

    Children and adults with autism spectrum disorder have been found to have deficits in metacognition that could impact upon their learning. This study explored metacognitive monitoring in 28 (23 males and 5 females) participants with autism spectrum disorder and 56 (16 males and 40 females) typically developing controls who were being educated at the same level. Participants were asked a series of mathematics questions. Based upon previous research, after each question they were asked two metacognitive questions: (1) whether they thought they had got the answer correct or not (or 'don't know') and (2) whether they meant to get the answer correct or not (or 'don't know'). Participants with autism spectrum disorder were significantly more likely than the typically developing group to erroneously think that they had got an incorrect answer correct. Having made an error, those with autism spectrum disorder were also significantly more likely to report that they had meant to make the error. Different patterns in the types of errors made were also identified between the two groups. Deficits in metacognition were identified for the autism spectrum disorder group in the learning of mathematics. This is consistent with metacognitive research from different contexts and the implications for supporting learning in autism spectrum disorder are discussed.

  15. Lymphocyte Subset Alterations Related to Executive Function Deficits and Repetitive Stereotyped Behavior in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie Wing-man; Wong, Chun Kwok; Lam, Joseph M. K.; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that immunological factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined whether immunological abnormalities are associated with cognitive deficits in children with ASD. Eighteen high-functioning (HFA) and 19 low-functioning (LFA) children with ASD, aged 8-17 years,…

  16. Efficacy of Methylphenidate among Children with Autism and Symptoms of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Lubetsky, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen children (ages 5-11) with autism and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of methylphenidate. Eight subjects responded positively, decreasing their hyperactivity. Ratings of stereotypy and inappropriate speech also decreased, however, no changes were found…

  17. Remediation of Deficits in Recognition of Facial Emotions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinger, Paige M.; Depue, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the Mind Reading interactive computer software to remediate emotion recognition deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Six unmedicated children with ASD and 11 unmedicated non-clinical control subjects participated in the study. The clinical sample used the software for five sessions. The…

  18. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Chi-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Yen-Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and epilepsy in clinical settings. We assessed 64 children with ASD, 64 with ADHD, 64 with epilepsy, and 64 typically developing children without any neuropsychiatric disorders by using a sex-and age-matched…

  19. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Chi-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Yen-Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and epilepsy in clinical settings. We assessed 64 children with ASD, 64 with ADHD, 64 with epilepsy, and 64 typically developing children without any neuropsychiatric disorders by using a sex-and age-matched…

  20. Theory of "Own" Mind in Autism: Evidence of a Specific Deficit in Self-Awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that self-awareness is not a unitary phenomenon, and that one can be aware of different aspects of self at any one time, it follows that selective impairments in self-awareness can occur. This article explores the idea that autism involves a particular deficit in awareness of the "psychological self", or "theory of "own" mind". This…

  1. Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Franke, Barbara; Geurts, Hilde M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders. Evidence indicates both disorders co-occur with a high frequency, in 20-50% of children with ADHD meeting criteria for ASD and in 30-80% of ASD children meeting

  2. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  3. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  4. Communication Deficits and the Motor System: Exploring Patterns of Associations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, M.; Shui, A. M.; Nowinski, L. A.; Golas, S. B.; Ferrone, C.; O'Rourke, J. A.; McDougle, C. J.

    2017-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have notable difficulties in motor, speech and language domains. The connection between motor skills (oral-motor, manual-motor) and speech and language deficits reported in other developmental disorders raises important questions about a potential relationship between motor skills and…

  5. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  6. Weak Central Coherence, Poor Joint Attention, and Low Verbal Ability: Independent Deficits in Early Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Bronwyn; Maybery, Murray; Durkin, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Compared preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders with a matched control group to investigate whether weak central coherence could account for deficits in two behaviors purported to tap capabilities fundamental to a theory of mind: joint attention and pretend play. Found that pretend play did not differentiate the two groups. Weak central…

  7. Involvement of Neuroinflammation during Brain Development in Social Cognitive Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yutaka; Chiba, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Development of social cognition, a unique and high-order function, depends on brain maturation from childhood to adulthood in humans. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia have similar social cognitive deficits, although age of onset in each disorder is different. Pathogenesis of these disorders is complex and contains several features, including genetic risk factors, environmental risk factors, and sites of abnormalities in the brain. Although several hypotheses have been postulated, they seem to be insufficient to explain how brain alterations associated with symptoms in these disorders develop at distinct developmental stages. Development of ASD appears to be related to cerebellar dysfunction and subsequent thalamic hyperactivation in early childhood. By contrast, schizophrenia seems to be triggered by thalamic hyperactivation in late adolescence, whereas hippocampal aberration has been possibly initiated in childhood. One of the possible culprits is metal homeostasis disturbances that can induce dysfunction of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Thalamic hyperactivation is thought to be induced by microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and abnormalities of intracerebral environment. Consequently, it is likely that the thalamic hyperactivation triggers dysregulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for lower brain regions related to social cognition. In this review, we summarize the brain aberration in ASD and schizophrenia and provide a possible mechanism underlying social cognitive deficits in these disorders based on their distinct ages of onset. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. Cultural Basis of Social "Deficits" in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepa, Prithvi

    2014-01-01

    There is very little research that specifically looks at how autism spectrum disorders are perceived in various communities. This qualitative research was conducted with parents who had children on the autistic spectrum belonging to four different ethnic communities (White British, Somali, West African and South Asian--63 in total) and living in…

  9. QUANTITATIVE EEG COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD AND ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen D. Dimitrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a mental developmental disorder, manifested in the early childhood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is another psychiatric condition of the neurodevelopmental type. Both disorders affect information processing in the nervous system, altering the mechanisms which control how neurons and their synapses are connected and organized. Purpose: To examine if quantitative EEG assessment is sensitive and simple enough to differentiate autism from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and neurologically typical children. Material and methods: Quantitative EEG is a type of electrophysiological assessment that uses computerized mathematical analysis to convert the raw waveform data into different frequency ranges. Each frequency range is averaged across a sample of data and quantified into mean amplitude (voltage in microvolts mV. We performed quantitative EEG analysis and compared 4 cohorts of children (aged from 3 to 7 years: with autism (high [n=27] and low [n=52] functioning, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [n=34], and with typical behavior [n75]. Results: Our preliminary results show that there are significant qEEG differences between the groups of patients and the control cohort. The changes affect the potential levels of delta-, theta-, alpha-, and beta- frequency spectrums. Conclusion: The present study shows some significant quantitative EEG findings in autistic patients. This is a step forward in our efforts, aimed at defining specific neurophysiologic changes, in order to develop and refine strategies for early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders, differentiation from other development conditions in childhood, detection of specific biomarkers and early initiation of treatment.

  10. Autism Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Familial Trait which Correlates with Conduct, Oppositional Defiant, Language and Motor Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Aisling; Anney, Richard J. L; O'Regan, Myra; Chen, Wai; Butler, Louise; Fitzgerald, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Rothenberger, Aribert; Minderaa, Ruud; Nijmeijer, Judith; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Buschgens, Cathelijne; Christiansen, Hanna; Franke, Barbara; Gabriels, Isabel; Hartman, Catharina; Kuntsi, Jonna; Marco, Rafaela; Meidad, Sheera; Mueller, Ueli; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Rommelse, Nanda; Thompson, Margaret; Uebel, Henrik; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Phil; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gill, Michael

    2009-01-01

    It is hypothesised that autism symptoms are present in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are familial and index subtypes of ADHD. Autism symptoms were compared in 821 ADHD probands, 1050 siblings and 149 controls. Shared familiality of autism symptoms and ADHD was calculated using DeFries-Fulker analysis. Autism symptoms were higher…

  11. Everyone's Included: Supporting Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Responsive Classroom Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterman, Kathleen G.; Sapona, Regina H.

    2002-01-01

    This case study discusses how Jon, a boy with autism, was fully included into general education classrooms in grades K-2 that implemented tenets of the "Responsive Classroom." The guiding principles of a responsive classroom approach, benefits for children with autism, and the need for collaboration among professionals are discussed.…

  12. Unlocking the Mystery of Social Deficits in Autism: Theory of Mind as Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacher, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is key to the development of one's social skills. Without ToM, children (or adults) cannot understand or infer the thoughts, feelings, or intentions of others. A lack of ToM skills is considered by some to be a core deficit in autism. ToM affects all interpersonal interactions as well as academics, daily living, following…

  13. On the nature of the speech perception deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, R S; Serniclaes, W; Rider, D; Chabane, N

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have claimed to show deficits in the perception of speech sounds in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of the current study was to clarify the nature of such deficits. Children with ASD might only exhibit a lesser amount of precision in the perception of phoneme categories (CPR deficit). However, these children might further present an allophonic mode of speech perception, similar to the one evidenced in dyslexia, characterised by enhanced discrimination of acoustic differences within phoneme categories. Allophonic perception usually gives rise to a categorical perception (CP) deficit, characterised by a weaker coherence between discrimination and identification of speech sounds. The perceptual performance of ASD children was compared to that of control children of the same chronological age. Identification and discrimination data were collected for continua of natural vowels, synthetic vowels, and synthetic consonants. Results confirmed that children with ASD exhibit a CPR deficit for the three stimulus continua. These children further exhibited a trend toward allophonic perception that was, however, not accompanied by the usual CP deficit. These findings confirm that the commonly found CPR deficit is also present in ASD. Whether children with ASD also present allophonic perception requires further investigations.

  14. Association between Severity of Behavioral Phenotype and Comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Patricia A.; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association," 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity…

  15. Stop Hurting Start Helping. Empathy in children with disruptive behavior, attention-deficit and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, P.K.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357395964

    2014-01-01

    To date, various psychiatric disorders such as disruptive behavior, attention-deficit/hyperactivity and autism spectrum disorders have been associated with deficits in empathy in school-aged children and adolescents. In this dissertation, behavioral and physiological measures were used to study

  16. Stop Hurting Start Helping. Empathy in children with disruptive behavior, attention-deficit and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, P.K.H.

    2014-01-01

    To date, various psychiatric disorders such as disruptive behavior, attention-deficit/hyperactivity and autism spectrum disorders have been associated with deficits in empathy in school-aged children and adolescents. In this dissertation, behavioral and physiological measures were used to study empa

  17. Prevention of cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Alan D

    2014-05-01

    This hypothesis states that cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are all caused by an exaggerated central nervous system inflammatory response to a prenatal insult. This prenatal insult may be one or more episodes of ischemia-reperfusion, an infectious disease of the mother or the fetus, or other causes of maternal inflammation such as allergy or autoimmune disease. The resultant fetal inflammatory hyper-response injures susceptible neurons in the developing white matter of the brain in specific areas at specific gestational ages. The exaggerated neuroinflammatory response is theorized to occur between about 19 and 34 post-conception weeks for CP, about 32 and 40 weeks for ADHD, and about 36 and 48 weeks (i.e. 2 months after delivery) for ASD. The exaggerated inflammatory response is hypothesized to occur because present diets limit intake of effective antioxidants and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids while increasing intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oxidation products of the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) limit neuroinflammation while oxidation products of the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid exacerbate inflammation. Preventative treatment should begin in all pregnant women during the first trimester and should include both DHA and an effective antioxidant for prevention of neuroinflammation. The suggested antioxidant would be N-acetylcysteine, though melatonin could be chosen instead. Combined DHA and NAC therapy is theorized to decrease the incidence of the three disorders by more than 75%.

  18. Autism-like socio-communicative deficits and stereotypies in mice lacking heparan sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Fumitoshi; Badie-Mahdavi, Hedieh; Yamaguchi, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate regulates diverse cell-surface signaling events, and its roles in the development of the nervous system recently have been increasingly uncovered by studies using genetic models carrying mutations of genes encoding enzymes for its synthesis. On the other hand, the role of heparan sulfate in the physiological function of the adult brain has been poorly characterized, despite several pieces of evidence suggesting its role in the regulation of synaptic function. To address this issue, we eliminated heparan sulfate from postnatal neurons by conditionally inactivating Ext1, the gene encoding an enzyme essential for heparan sulfate synthesis. Resultant conditional mutant mice show no detectable morphological defects in the cytoarchitecture of the brain. Remarkably, these mutant mice recapitulate almost the full range of autistic symptoms, including impairments in social interaction, expression of stereotyped, repetitive behavior, and impairments in ultrasonic vocalization, as well as some associated features. Mapping of neuronal activation by c-Fos immunohistochemistry demonstrates that neuronal activation in response to social stimulation is attenuated in the amygdala in these mice. Electrophysiology in amygdala pyramidal neurons shows an attenuation of excitatory synaptic transmission, presumably because of the reduction in the level of synaptically localized AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Our results demonstrate that heparan sulfate is critical for normal functioning of glutamatergic synapses and that its deficiency mediates socio-communicative deficits and stereotypies characteristic for autism. PMID:22411800

  19. Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sooner they can start getting help with their language and learning skills. There are no medical tests for autism, but doctors may do certain tests to rule out other possible problems, including hearing loss and difficulties with learning and paying attention. Diagnosing autism can ...

  20. Autism symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : A Familial trait which Correlates with Conduct, Oppositional Defiant, Language and Motor Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, Aisling; Anney, Richard J. L.; O'Regan, Myra; Chen, Wai; Butler, Louise; Fitzgerald, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Rothenberger, Aribert; Minderaa, Ruud; Nijmeijer, Judith; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Buschgens, Cathelijne; Christiansen, Hanna; Franke, Barbara; Gabriels, Isabel; Hartman, Catharina; Kuntsi, Jonna; Marco, Rafaela; Meidad, Sheera; Mueller, Ueli; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Rommelse, Nanda; Thompson, Margaret; Uebel, Henrik; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Phil; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gill, Michael

    It is hypothesised that autism symptoms are present in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are familial and index subtypes of ADHD. Autism symptoms were compared in 821 ADHD probands, 1050 siblings and 149 controls. Shared familiality of autism symptoms and ADHD was calculated using

  1. Autism symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : A Familial trait which Correlates with Conduct, Oppositional Defiant, Language and Motor Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, Aisling; Anney, Richard J. L.; O'Regan, Myra; Chen, Wai; Butler, Louise; Fitzgerald, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Rothenberger, Aribert; Minderaa, Ruud; Nijmeijer, Judith; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Buschgens, Cathelijne; Christiansen, Hanna; Franke, Barbara; Gabriels, Isabel; Hartman, Catharina; Kuntsi, Jonna; Marco, Rafaela; Meidad, Sheera; Mueller, Ueli; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Rommelse, Nanda; Thompson, Margaret; Uebel, Henrik; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Phil; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gill, Michael

    2009-01-01

    It is hypothesised that autism symptoms are present in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are familial and index subtypes of ADHD. Autism symptoms were compared in 821 ADHD probands, 1050 siblings and 149 controls. Shared familiality of autism symptoms and ADHD was calculated using DeF

  2. Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Munguía, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity, and behavioral flexibility (core triad). Three major cognitive theories (theory of mind deficit, weak central coherence, and executive dysfunction) seem to explain many of these impairments. Currently, however, the empathizing-systemizing (a newer version of the theory of mind deficit account) and mnesic imbalance theories are the only ones that attempt to explain all these core triadic symptoms of ASD On the other hand, theory of mind deficit in empathizing-systemizing theory is the most influential account for ASD, but its counterpart in the mnesic imbalance theory, faulty procedural memory, seems to occur earlier in development; consequently, this might be a better solution to the problem of the etiology of ASD, if it truly meets the precedence criterion. Hence, in the present paper I review the reasoning in favor of the theory of mind deficit but with a new interpretation based on the mnesic imbalance theory, which posits that faulty procedural memory causes deficits in several cognitive skills, resulting in poor performance in theory of mind tasks.

  3. Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Romero-Munguía

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD have impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity, and behavioral flexibility (core triad. Three major cognitive theories (theory of mind deficit, weak central coherence, and executive dysfunction seem to explain many of these impairments. Currently, however, the empathizing-systemizing (a newer version of the theory of mind deficit account and mnesic imbalance theories are the only ones that attempt to explain all these core triadic symptoms of ASD On the other hand, theory of mind deficit in empathizing-systemizing theory is the most influential account for ASD, but its counterpart in the mnesic imbalance theory, faulty procedural memory, seems to occur earlier in development; consequently, this might be a better solution to the problem of the etiology of ASD, if it truly meets the precedence criterion. Hence, in the present paper I review the reasoning in favor of the theory of mind deficit but with a new interpretation based on the mnesic imbalance theory, which posits that faulty procedural memory causes deficits in several cognitive skills, resulting in poor performance in theory of mind tasks.

  4. Working Memory Arrest in Children with High-Functioning Autism Compared to Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Per N.; Skogli, Erik W.; Hovik, Kjell T.; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically…

  5. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and childhood autism in association with prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants found to be endocrine disruptive and neurotoxic in animals. Positive correlations between PFASs and neurobehavioral problems in children were reported in cross-sectional data, but findings from prospective studies are limited....... OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. METHODS: Among 83,389 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301...

  6. Driving characteristics of teens with attention deficit hyperactivity and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Sherrilene; Monahan, Miriam; Wang, Yanning

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death among teens. Teens with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), or both (ADHD-ASD) may have a greater crash risk. We examined the between-groups demographic, clinical, and predriving performance differences of 22 teens with ADHD-ASD (mean age = 15.05, standard deviation [SD] = 0.95) and 22 healthy control (HC) teens (mean age = 14.32, SD = 0.72). Compared with HC teens, the teens with ADHD-ASD performed more poorly on right-eye visual acuity, selective attention, visual-motor integration, cognition, and motor performance and made more errors on the driving simulator pertaining to visual scanning, speed regulation, lane maintenance, adjustment to stimuli, and total number of driving errors. Teens with ADHD-ASD, compared with HC teens, may have more predriving deficits and as such require the skills of a certified driving rehabilitation specialist to assess readiness to drive.

  7. Decreased Coherent Motion Discrimination in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Attentional Zoom-Out Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Milena; Franceschini, Sandro; Urbani, Barbara; Molteni, Massimo; Facoetti, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with decreased coherent dot motion (CDM) performance, a task that measures magnocellular sensitivity as well as fronto-parietal attentional integration processing. In order to clarify the role of spatial attention in CDM tasks, we measured the perception of coherently moving dots displayed in the central or peripheral visual field in ASD and typically developing children. A dorsal-stream deficit in children with ASD should predict a generally poorer performance in both conditions. In our study, however, we show that in children with ASD, CDM perception was selectively impaired in the central condition. In addition, in the ASD group, CDM efficiency was correlated to the ability to zoom out the attentional focus. Importantly, autism symptoms severity was related to both the CDM and attentional zooming-out impairment. These findings suggest that a dysfunction in the attentional network might help to explain decreased CDM discrimination as well as the “core” social cognition deficits of ASD. PMID:23139831

  8. Decreased coherent motion discrimination in autism spectrum disorder: the role of attentional zoom-out deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ronconi

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been associated with decreased coherent dot motion (CDM performance, a task that measures magnocellular sensitivity as well as fronto-parietal attentional integration processing. In order to clarify the role of spatial attention in CDM tasks, we measured the perception of coherently moving dots displayed in the central or peripheral visual field in ASD and typically developing children. A dorsal-stream deficit in children with ASD should predict a generally poorer performance in both conditions. In our study, however, we show that in children with ASD, CDM perception was selectively impaired in the central condition. In addition, in the ASD group, CDM efficiency was correlated to the ability to zoom out the attentional focus. Importantly, autism symptoms severity was related to both the CDM and attentional zooming-out impairment. These findings suggest that a dysfunction in the attentional network might help to explain decreased CDM discrimination as well as the "core" social cognition deficits of ASD.

  9. Intrinsic Visual-Motor Synchrony Correlates With Social Deficits in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Mary Beth; Eloyan, Ani; Nettles, Carrie A; Sweeney, Kristie L; Ament, Katarina; Ward, Rebecca E; Choe, Ann S; Barber, Anita D; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2016-04-15

    Imitation, which is impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and critically depends on the integration of visual input with motor output, likely impacts both motor and social skill acquisition in children with ASD; however, it is unclear what brain mechanisms contribute to this impairment. Children with ASD also exhibit what appears to be an ASD-specific bias against using visual feedback during motor learning. Does the temporal congruity of intrinsic activity, or functional connectivity, between motor and visual brain regions contribute to ASD-associated deficits in imitation, motor, and social skills? We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from 100 8- to 12-year-old children (50 ASD). Group independent component analysis was used to estimate functional connectivity between visual and motor systems. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed by regressing functional connectivity measures with social deficit severity, imitation, and gesture performance scores. We observed increased intrinsic asynchrony between visual and motor systems in children with ASD and replicated this finding in an independent sample from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange. Moreover, children with more out-of-sync intrinsic visual-motor activity displayed more severe autistic traits, while children with greater intrinsic visual-motor synchrony were better imitators. Our twice replicated findings confirm that visual-motor functional connectivity is disrupted in ASD. Furthermore, the observed temporal incongruity between visual and motor systems, which may reflect diminished integration of visual consequences with motor output, was predictive of the severity of social deficits and may contribute to impaired social-communicative skill development in children with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tracking Social Motivation Systems Deficits: The Affective Neuroscience View of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Arnaud; Chevallier, Coralie; Robel, Laurence; Barry, Caroline; Maria, Anne-Solène; Pouga, Lydia; Philippe, Anne; Pinabel, François; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal functioning of primary brain systems that express and modulate basic emotional drives are increasingly considered to underlie mental disorders including autism spectrum disorders. We hypothesized that ASD are characterized by disruptions in the primary systems involved in the motivation for social bonding. Twenty adults with ASD were…

  11. Effects of a Social Skills Intervention on Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Peers with Shared Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; O'Handley, Roderick D.; Battaglia, Allison A.; Lum, John D. K.; Dadakhodjaeva, Komila; Ford, William B.; McHugh, Melissa B.

    2017-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the "Superheroes Social Skills" program (Jenson et al. 2011) in promoting accurate demonstration of target social skills in training and generalization conditions in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and peers with shared social deficits. Three preschool-age children with ASD…

  12. A Causal and Mediation Analysis of the Comorbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Elena; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Rommelse, Nanda N.; Groot, Perry; Hartman, Catharina A.; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Claassen, Tom; Heskes, Tom; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between ASD and ADHD symptoms by applying causal modeling. We used a large phenotypic data set of 417 children with ASD and/or ADHD, 562 affected and unaffected siblings, and 414 controls,…

  13. A Causal and Mediation Analysis of the Comorbidity Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolova, Elena; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Rommelse, Nanda; Groot, Perry; Hartman, Catharina A.; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Claassen, Tom; Heskes, Tom; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between ASD and ADHD symptoms by applying causal modeling. We used a large phenotypic data set of 417 children with ASD and/or ADHD, 562

  14. Response inhibition in adults with autism spectrum disorder compared to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J

    2011-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with children. No studies have directly compared the stable cognitive profile of adults. It was hypothesised that adults with ASD would show generally intact response inhibition whereas those with ADHD would show more global impairment. Participants were 24 adults aged 18-55 with high functioning ASD, 24 with ADHD, and 14 age and IQ matched controls. Participants completed three standardised measures of response inhibition. Participants with ASD had generally intact response inhibition but slow response latencies, possibly due to deficits in response initiation. Adults with ADHD did not show the more global impairments hypothesised. There were some significant differences between the clinical groups across measures of inhibition. In terms of performance style, adults with ASD were slow and accurate whilst those with ADHD showed an impulsive style.

  15. Distinguishing between autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by using behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and neuropsychological test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Naomi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Arai, Sumiyoshi; Kawamura, Kaori; Asano, Mizuki; Inohara, Keisuke; Narimoto, Tadamasa; Wada, Yuji; Hiratani, Michio; Kosaka, Hirotaka

    2014-12-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share many common symptoms, including attention deficit, behavioral problems, and difficulties with social skills. The aim of this study was to distinguish between ASD and ADHD by identifying the characteristic features of both the disorders, by using multidimensional assessments, including screening behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and comprehensive neurological battery. After screening for comorbid disorders, we carefully selected age-, sex-, IQ-, and socio-economic status-matched children with typical development (TD). In the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, a lower score was observed for the ASD group than for the TD group in Picture concept, which is a subscale of perceptual reasoning. A lower score was shown by the ADHD group than by the TD group in the spatial working memory test in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB(®)). Although ASD and ADHD have many similar symptoms, they can be differentiated by focusing on the behavioral and cognitive characteristics of executive function.

  16. Comparing the results of DAADD and ABC of children included in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Milene Rossi Pereira; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2014-01-01

    To verify if there are characteristic behaviors of the different diagnosis included in the autism spectrum according to the Differential Assessment of Autism and Other Developmental Disorders (DAADD) and to the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). Participants were 45 individuals and their respective speech-language therapists. All therapists are graduate students working with the children for at least 1 year. This time was considered sufficient to the therapists to have the information required by the DAADD questionnaire. It is comprised by 3 protocols specifically designed to children with 2 to 4 years, 4 to 6 years and 6 to 8 years, the same criteria used to separate the research groups, G1, G2 and G3, respectively. Data referring to the ABC were retrieved from the subject's files at the Laboratório de Investigação Fonoaudiológica nos Distúrbios do Espectro do Autismo (Research Laboratory on Language Disorders in the Autism Spectrum) of the School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, where it is routinely applied during the annual assessment. Answers to the different areas of DAADD are similar to the different areas of ABC. These data show data the diagnosis by DAADD is easier in older children. Although there is no significant difference, the large occurrence of Rett's syndrome diagnosis according to the DAADD was associated to higher risk for autism according to the ABC in G1. With increasing age this tendency decreases and either in G2 and G3 Autism is the most frequent diagnosis. Although the results of both questionnaires tend to agree more with increasing age, the DAADD is more sensitive in the different ages while the ABC if more specific only to older children.

  17. Alterations of Growth Factors in Autism and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Y. Galvez-Contreras

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors (GFs are cytokines that regulate the neural development. Recent evidence indicates that alterations in the expression level of GFs during embryogenesis are linked to the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In this concise review, we summarize the current evidence that supports the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor 2, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, neurotrophins 3 and 4, and epidermal growth factor in the pathogenesis of ADHD and ASD. We also highlight the potential use of these GFs as clinical markers for diagnosis and prognosis of these neurodevelopmental disorders.

  18. Brain hyper-connectivity in children with autism and its links to social deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Uddin, Lucina Q.; Khouzam, Amirah; Phillips, Jennifer; Gaillard, William D.; Kenworthy, Lauren E.; Yerys, Benjamin E.; Vaidya, Chandan J.; Menon, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Summary Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting nearly 1 in 88 children, is thought to result from aberrant brain connectivity. Remarkably, there have been no systematic attempts to characterize whole-brain connectivity in children with ASD. Here, we use neuroimaging to show there are more instances of greater functional connectivity in the brains of children with ASD compared with typically developing children. Hyper-connectivity in ASD was observed at the whole-brain and subsystems level, across long- and short-range connections, and was associated with higher levels of fluctuations in regional brain signals. Brain hyper-connectivity predicted symptom severity in ASD such that children with greater functional connectivity exhibited more severe social deficits. We replicated these findings in two additional independent cohorts, demonstrating again that at earlier ages, the brain in ASD is largely functionally hyper-connected in ways that contribute to social dysfunction. Our findings provide novel insights into brain mechanisms underlying childhood autism. PMID:24210821

  19. Brain Hyperconnectivity in Children with Autism and its Links to Social Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh Supekar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD, a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting nearly 1 in 88 children, is thought to result from aberrant brain connectivity. Remarkably, there have been no systematic attempts to characterize whole-brain connectivity in children with ASD. Here, we use neuroimaging to show that there are more instances of greater functional connectivity in the brains of children with ASD in comparison to those of typically developing children. Hyperconnectivity in ASD was observed at the whole-brain and subsystems levels, across long- and short-range connections, and was associated with higher levels of fluctuations in regional brain signals. Brain hyperconnectivity predicted symptom severity in ASD, such that children with greater functional connectivity exhibited more severe social deficits. We replicated these findings in two additional independent cohorts, demonstrating again that at earlier ages, the brain of children with ASD is largely functionally hyperconnected in ways that contribute to social dysfunction. Our findings provide unique insights into brain mechanisms underlying childhood autism.

  20. Late onset deficits in synaptic plasticity in the valproic acid rat model of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Giles Stratten Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA is a frequently used drug in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorders and migraines; however it is also a potent teratogen. Prenatal exposure increases the risk of childhood malformations and can result in cognitive deficits. In rodents in utero exposure to VPA also causes neurodevelopmental abnormalities and is an important model of autism. In early postnatal life VPA exposed rat pups show changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC physiology and synaptic connectivity. Specifically, principal neurons show decreased excitability but increased local connectivity, coupled with an increase in long-term potentiation (LTP due to an up-regulation of NMDA receptor (NMDAR expression. However recent evidence suggests compensatory homeostatic mechanisms lead to normalization of synaptic NMDA receptors during later postnatal development. Here we have extended study of mPFC synaptic physiology into adulthood to better understand the longitudinal consequences of early developmental abnormalities in VPA exposed rats. Surprisingly in contrast to early postnatal life and adolescence, we find that adult VPA exposed rats show reduced synaptic function. Both NMDAR mediated currents and LTP are lower in adult VPA rats, although spontaneous activity and endocannabinoid dependent long-term depression are normal. We conclude that rather than correcting, synaptic abnormalities persist into adulthood in VPA exposed rats, although a quite different synaptic phenotype is present. This switch from hyper to hypo function in mPFC may be linked to some of the neurodevelopmental defects found in prenatal VPA exposure and autism spectrum disorders in general.

  1. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Motor Preparation Deficits in a Visual Cued Spatial Attention Task in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, Estate M; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Guela E; El-Baz, Ayman S; Casanova, Manuel F

    2016-03-01

    Abnormalities in motor skills have been regarded as part of the symptomatology characterizing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It has been estimated that 80 % of subjects with autism display "motor dyspraxia" or clumsiness that are not readily identified in a routine neurological examination. In this study we used behavioral measures, event-related potentials (ERP), and lateralized readiness potential (LRP) to study cognitive and motor preparation deficits contributing to the dyspraxia of autism. A modified Posner cueing task was used to analyze motor preparation abnormalities in children with autism and in typically developing children (N = 30/per group). In this task, subjects engage in preparing motor response based on a visual cue, and then execute a motor movement based on the subsequent imperative stimulus. The experimental conditions, such as the validity of the cue and the spatial location of the target stimuli were manipulated to influence motor response selection, preparation, and execution. Reaction time and accuracy benefited from validly cued targets in both groups, while main effects of target spatial position were more obvious in the autism group. The main ERP findings were prolonged and more negative early frontal potentials in the ASD in incongruent trials in both types of spatial location. The LRP amplitude was larger in incongruent trials and had stronger effect in the children with ASD. These effects were better expressed at the earlier stages of LRP, specifically those related to response selection, and showed difficulties at the cognitive phase of stimulus processing rather that at the motor execution stage. The LRP measures at different stages reflect the chronology of cognitive aspects of movement preparation and are sensitive to manipulations of cue correctness, thus representing very useful biomarker in autism dyspraxia research. Future studies may use more advance and diverse manipulations of movement preparation demands in testing more

  2. Deletion of PTEN produces autism-like behavioral deficits and alterations in synaptic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Joaquin N; Smith, Gregory D; Arbuckle, Erin P; White, Jessika; Holley, Andrew J; Floruta, Crina M; Ahmed, Nowrin; Gomez, Maribel C; Okonkwo, Obi

    2014-01-01

    Many genes have been implicated in the underlying cause of autism but each gene accounts for only a small fraction of those diagnosed with autism. There is increasing evidence that activity-dependent changes in neuronal signaling could act as a convergent mechanism for many of the changes in synaptic proteins. One candidate signaling pathway that may have a critical role in autism is the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. A major regulator of this pathway is the negative repressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). In the current study we examined the behavioral and molecular consequences in mice with neuron subset-specific deletion of PTEN. The knockout (KO) mice showed deficits in social chamber and social partition test. KO mice demonstrated alterations in repetitive behavior, as measured in the marble burying test and hole-board test. They showed no changes in ultrasonic vocalizations emitted on postnatal day 10 or 12 compared to wildtype (WT) mice. They exhibited less anxiety in the elevated-plus maze test and were more active in the open field test compared to WT mice. In addition to the behavioral alterations, KO mice had elevation of phosphorylated AKT, phosphorylated S6, and an increase in S6K. KO mice had a decrease in mGluR but an increase in total and phosphorylated fragile X mental retardation protein. The disruptions in intracellular signaling may be why the KO mice had a decrease in the dendritic potassium channel Kv4.2 and a decrease in the synaptic scaffolding proteins PSD-95 and SAP102. These findings demonstrate that deletion of PTEN results in long-term alterations in social behavior, repetitive behavior, activity, and anxiety. In addition, deletion of PTEN significantly alters mGluR signaling and many synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. Our data demonstrates that deletion of PTEN can result in many of the behavioral features of autism and may provide insights into the regulation of intracellular signaling on synaptic proteins.

  3. Neuromagnetic oscillations predict evoked-response latency delays and core language deficits in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, J Christopher; Khan, Sarah Y; Blaskey, Lisa; Chow, Vivian Y; Rey, Michael; Gaetz, William; Cannon, Katelyn M; Monroe, Justin F; Cornew, Lauren; Qasmieh, Saba; Liu, Song; Welsh, John P; Levy, Susan E; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have observed evoked response latency as well as gamma band superior temporal gyrus (STG) auditory abnormalities in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A limitation of these studies is that associations between these two abnormalities, as well as the full extent of oscillatory phenomena in ASD in terms of frequency and time, have not been examined. Subjects were presented pure tones at 200, 300, 500, and 1,000 Hz while magnetoencephalography assessed activity in STG auditory areas in a sample of 105 children with ASD and 36 typically developing controls (TD). Findings revealed a profile such that auditory STG processes in ASD were characterized by pre-stimulus abnormalities across multiple frequencies, then early high-frequency abnormalities followed by low-frequency abnormalities. Increased pre-stimulus activity was a 'core' abnormality, with pre-stimulus activity predicting post-stimulus neural abnormalities, group membership, and clinical symptoms (CELF-4 Core Language Index). Deficits in synaptic integration in the auditory cortex are associated with oscillatory abnormalities in ASD as well as patient symptoms. Increased pre-stimulus activity in ASD likely demonstrates a fundamental signal-to-noise deficit in individuals with ASD, with elevations in oscillatory activity suggesting an inability to maintain an appropriate 'neural tone' and an inability to rapidly return to a resting state prior to the next stimulus.

  4. Disordered cortical connectivity underlies the executive function deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yvonne M Y; Chan, Agnes S

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined the executive function and cortical connectivity of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and investigated whether the executive function deficits exhibited by these children were differentially affected and associated with the cortical connectivity. The present study compared high-functioning (HFA) and low-functioning (LFA) children with typically developing children (TDC) on their executive functions as measured by the Hong Kong List Learning Test, D2 Test of Concentration, Five Point Test, Children's Color Trail Test, Tower of California Test, and Go/No-Go task and neural connectivity as measured by theta coherence in the distributed fronto-parietal network. Thirty-eight children with ASD (19 HFA and 19 LFA) and 28 TDC children, aged 8-17 years, participated voluntarily in the study. The results on executive function showed that the LFA group demonstrated the poorest performance as exhibited by their Executive Composite and individual executive function scores, while the TDC group exhibited the highest. These results have extended the findings of previous studies in demonstrating that HFA and LFA children have significant differences in their degree of executive function deficits. The results on neural connectivity also showed that children with ASD demonstrated a different pattern of electroencephalography (EEG) coherence from TDC children, as demonstrated by the significantly elevated theta coherence in the fronto-parietal network, and that the severity of executive dysfunction between high- and low-functioning children with ASD was found to be associated with the disordered neural connectivity in these children.

  5. [Neurobiology of autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by means of neuroimaging techniques: convergences and divergences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proal, Erika; González-Olvera, Jorge; Blancas, Áurea S; Chalita, Pablo J; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2013-09-01

    In the clinical area, some symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also present in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Research has shown that there are alterations in brain circuits that have an impact upon specific cognitive and behavioural failures in each of these disorders. Yet, little research has been conducted on the brain correlates underlying both the similarities and the differences in the symptoms. In this review, the structural and functional meta-analytical studies that have been carried out to date on ADHD and ASD have been analysed. On the one hand, there are convergences in the attentional dorsal, executive functions, visual, somatomotor circuits and the default activation circuit. These similarities can account for the comorbid manifestations between the disorders, such as failure in the integration of information, fine motor control and specific attention processes. On the other hand, specifically in ADHD, there is a deficit in the reward circuit and in the attentional ventral, which are systems involved in the measurement of the effects of reinforcement and monitoring of attention. In ASD, the circuits that are most strongly affected are those involved in social cognition and language processes. In conclusion, there are neuronal correlates in both disorders that explain both the convergent and divergent clinical and behavioural manifestations.

  6. Preliminary evidence for deficits in multisensory integration in autism spectrum disorders: the mirror neuron hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Lindsay M; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a complex disorder, characterized by social, cognitive, communicative, and motor symptoms. One suggestion, proposed in the current study, to explain the spectrum of symptoms is an underlying impairment in multisensory integration (MSI) systems such as a mirror neuron-like system. The mirror neuron system, thought to play a critical role in skills such as imitation, empathy, and language can be thought of as a multisensory system, converting sensory stimuli into motor representations. Consistent with this, we report preliminary evidence for deficits in a task thought to tap into MSI--"the bouba-kiki task" in children with ASD. The bouba-kiki effect is produced when subjects are asked to pair nonsense shapes with nonsense "words". We found that neurotypical children chose the nonsense "word" whose phonemic structure corresponded with the visual shape of the stimuli 88% of the time. This is presumably because of mirror neuron-like multisensory systems that integrate the visual shape with the corresponding motor gestures used to pronounce the nonsense word. Surprisingly, individuals with ASD only chose the corresponding name 56% of the time. The poor performance by the ASD group on this task suggests a deficit in MSI, perhaps related to impaired MSI brain systems. Though this is a behavioral study, it provides a testable hypothesis for the communication impairments in children with ASD that implicates a specific neural system and fits well with the current findings suggesting an impairment in the mirror systems in individuals with ASD.

  7. Working memory arrest in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results from a 2-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen, P.N.; Skogli, E.W.; Hovik, K.T.; Geurts, H.; Egeland, J.; Øie, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention

  8. Working memory arrest in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results from a 2-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen, P.N.; Skogli, E.W.; Hovik, K.T.; Geurts, H.; Egeland, J.; Øie, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with

  9. Association of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders with Mean Platelet Volume and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garipardic, Mesut; Doğan, Murat; Bala, Keziban Asli; Mutluer, Tuba; Kaba, Sultan; Aslan, Oktay; Üstyol, Lokman

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the values of the mean platelet volume (MPV) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) to determine the risk of cardiovascular disease in these 2 disorder groups. Material/Methods The study included a total of 79 patients with ADHD or ASDs and controls in the Van region of Turkey. The control group included subjects of matching age and sex with no ADHD, ASDs, or chronic disease and taking no vitamins. The hematological parameters of the patients, including MPV, vitamin B12, and vitamin D, were assessed. Results The study included a total of 79 children and adolescents aged 2–18 years (32 females and 47 males). Of the patients, 36 were in the ADHD group, 18 in the ASDs group, and 25 in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in hematological parameters between the groups, but there were significant differences in terms of vitamin D and vitamin B12. The patient groups showed lower levels of vitamin B12 and vitamin D. In the ADHD group, there was a negative correlation between both vitamins and MPV (pdisorders should be closely followed up. PMID:28319054

  10. Autism-Associated Insertion Mutation (InsG) of Shank3 Exon 21 Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Behavioral Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Haley E; Kouser, Mehreen; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M; Ochoa, Christine F; Gupta, Natasha; Liu, Shunan; Powell, Craig M

    2015-07-01

    SHANK3 (also known as PROSAP2) is a postsynaptic scaffolding protein at excitatory synapses in which mutations and deletions have been implicated in patients with idiopathic autism, Phelan-McDermid (aka 22q13 microdeletion) syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we have created a novel mouse model of human autism caused by the insertion of a single guanine nucleotide into exon 21 (Shank3(G)). The resulting frameshift causes a premature STOP codon and loss of major higher molecular weight Shank3 isoforms at the synapse. Shank3(G/G) mice exhibit deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, impaired motor coordination, altered response to novelty, and sensory processing deficits. At the cellular level, Shank3(G/G) mice also exhibit impaired hippocampal excitatory transmission and plasticity as well as changes in baseline NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses. This work identifies clear alterations in synaptic function and behavior in a novel, genetically accurate mouse model of autism mimicking an autism-associated insertion mutation. Furthermore, these findings lay the foundation for future studies aimed to validate and study region-selective and temporally selective genetic reversal studies in the Shank3(G/G) mouse that was engineered with such future experiments in mind.

  11. Neural markers of social and monetary rewards in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luz Gonzalez-Gadea; Mariano Sigman; Alexia Rattazzi; Claudio Lavin; Alvaro Rivera-Rei; Julian Marino; Facundo Manes; Agustin Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of decision making propose a shared value-related brain mechanism for encoding monetary and social rewards. We tested this model in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and control children. We monitored participants’ brain dynamics using high density-electroencephalography while they played a monetary and social reward tasks. Control children exhibited a feedback Error-Related Negativity (fERN) modulation ...

  12. Face Scanning in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Human Versus Dog Face Scanning

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro eMuszkat; Claudia Berlim De Melo; Patricia de Oliveira Lima Muñoz; Tania Kiehl Lucci; Vinicius Frayze David; José de Oliveira Siqueira; Emma eOtta

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to explore attention allocation to human and dog faces in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD). Significant differences were found among the three groups. TD participants looked longer at the eyes than ASD and ADHD ones, irrespective of the faces presented. In spite of this difference, groups were similar in that they looked more to the eyes than to the mouth are...

  13. Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jeremy

    2010-01-07

    Evidence for the efficacy of treatments for autism has improved in recent years. In this systematic review the evidence for both drug and non-drug treatments is appraised and clinical guidance is provided for their use. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of early intensive multidisciplinary intervention programmes in children with autism? What are the effects of dietary interventions in children with autism? What are the effects of drug treatments in children with autism? What are the effects of non-drug treatments in children with autism? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2009 (Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 30 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: applied behavioural analysis; auditory integration training; Autism Preschool Programme; casein-free diet; chelation; Child's Talk programme; cognitive behavioural therapy; digestive enzymes; EarlyBird programme; facilitated communication; Floortime therapy; gluten-free diet; immunoglobulins; melatonin; memantine; methylphenidate; More Than Words programme; music therapy; olanzapine; omega-3 fish oil; picture exchange communication system; Portage scheme; probiotics; relationship development interventions; risperidone; secretin; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); sensory integration training; social stories; social skills training; Son-Rise programme; TEACCH

  14. Risk factors for the existence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamanna AL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anna Linda Lamanna, Francesco Craig, Emilia Matera, Marta Simone, Maura Buttiglione, Lucia Margari Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy Abstract: Over the years, several authors have reported symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; however, studies on the risk factors of ADHD symptoms in children with ASD are lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the risk factors for the development of ADHD symptoms in children with ASD. The sample consisted of 67 children with ASD who were assessed with Conner’s Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R, and with a semi-structured detailed interview administered to parents, to collect a series of clinical data such as coexisting somatic and neuropsychiatric problems and familial and pre/peri/postpartum risk factors. We found that 55% of ASD children exceeded the cut-off of CPRS-R Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV, total scale. The univariate analyses showed that children’s age (P=0.048, motor delay (P=0.039, enuresis (P=0.014, allergies (P<0.01, comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (P=0.026 and intellectual disabilities comorbidities (P=0.034 were associated to the CPRS-R DSM-IV total score. Some familial predictors such as neuropsychiatric family history of intellectual disabilities (P=0.003 and psychosis (P=0.039 were related to the CPRS-R DSM-IV total score. In particular, a model including allergies (P=0.000 and family history of psychosis (P=0.03 explained 25% (corrected R2=0.25 of the variance of the DSM-IV ADHD score. In conclusion, we identified some risk factors associated with the development of ADHD symptoms in ASD children that need to be studied further. Keywords: neurodevelopmental disorders, autism spectrum disorders, ASD, attention deficit hyperactivity

  15. Development of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention Program to Treat Anxiety and Social Deficits in Teens with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Albano, Anne Marie; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Kasari, Connie; Ollendick, Thomas; Klin, Ami; Oswald, Donald; Scahill, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety is a common co-occurring problem among young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Characterized by deficits in social interaction, communication problems, and stereotyped behavior and restricted interests, this group of disorders is more prevalent than previously realized. When present, anxiety may compound the social deficits of…

  16. Predictive coding in autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Chennu, Srivas; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Rattazzi, Alexia; Beraudi, Ana; Tripicchio, Paula; Moyano, Beatriz; Soffita, Yamila; Steinberg, Laura; Adolfi, Federico; Sigman, Mariano; Marino, Julian; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2015-11-01

    Predictive coding has been proposed as a framework to understand neural processes in neuropsychiatric disorders. We used this approach to describe mechanisms responsible for attentional abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We monitored brain dynamics of 59 children (8-15 yr old) who had ASD or ADHD or who were control participants via high-density electroencephalography. We performed analysis at the scalp and source-space levels while participants listened to standard and deviant tone sequences. Through task instructions, we manipulated top-down expectation by presenting expected and unexpected deviant sequences. Children with ASD showed reduced superior frontal cortex (FC) responses to unexpected events but increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to expected events. In contrast, children with ADHD exhibited reduced cortical responses in superior FC to expected events but strong PFC activation to unexpected events. Moreover, neural abnormalities were associated with specific control mechanisms, namely, inhibitory control in ASD and set-shifting in ADHD. Based on the predictive coding account, top-down expectation abnormalities could be attributed to a disproportionate reliance (precision) allocated to prior beliefs in ASD and to sensory input in ADHD.

  17. Differentiation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder by the social communication questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenck, Christina; Freitag, Christine M

    2014-09-01

    The differentiation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) poses a clinical challenge. In children, overlap of psychopathological and cognitive findings has been found for both disorders. In addition, some children suffer from both disorders. The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a screening instrument for ASD symptoms which indicates the presence of ASD in a rapid and economic way. However, validity to differentiate ASD and ADHD as differential or comorbid diagnoses has not been studied. Here, the differential validity was compared in groups of children with ASD, ADHD, ASD + ADHD, and typically developing (TD) children and IQ > 70. ROC analyses indicated an excellent differentiation between ASD and TD with ROC-AUC = .941 and between ASD + ADHD with ROC-AUC = .993. The optimal cutoff was below the originally recommended one of 15. The differentiation between children with ASD with (ROC-AUC = .982) or without ADHD (ROC-AUC = .864) and ADHD alone also showed acceptable differential validity, and here, the optimal cutoff corresponded to the recommended. Taken together, the SCQ can be recommended as a screening instrument for a first differentiation between children with ASD and typically developing children as well as children with ADHD.

  18. Communication deficits and avoidance of angry faces in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blanco, Ana; López-Soler, Concepción; Vento, Máximo; García-Blanco, María Carmen; Gago, Belén; Perea, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Understanding how emotional faces are processed is important to help characterize the social deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We examined: (i) whether attention is modulated by emotional facial expression; (ii) the time course of the attentional preferences (short vs. long stimulus presentation rates); and (iii) the association between attentional biases and autistic symptomatology. We applied a dot-probe experiment with emotional faces (happy, sad, and angry). The sample was composed of ASD children without additional language and/or intellectual impairments (n=29) and age-matched Typically Developing (TD) children (n=29). When compared to the TD group, the ASD group showed an attentional bias away from angry faces at long presentation rates. No differences between groups were found for happy or sad faces. Furthermore, correlational analyses showed that the higher avoidance of angry faces, the greater are the social communication difficulties of ASD children. The attentional bias away from angry faces may be an underlying mechanism of social dysfunction in ASD. We discuss the implications of these findings for current theories of emotional processing in ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. QTL replication and targeted association highlight the nerve growth factor gene for nonverbal communication deficits in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, A T-H; Yoon, J; Geschwind, D H; Cantor, R M

    2013-02-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has a heterogeneous etiology that is genetically complex. It is defined by deficits in communication and social skills and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors. Genetic analyses of heritable quantitative traits that correlate with ASD may reduce heterogeneity. With this in mind, deficits in nonverbal communication (NVC) were quantified based on items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised. Our previous analysis of 228 families from the Autism Genetics Research Exchange (AGRE) repository reported 5 potential quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here we report an NVC QTL replication study in an independent sample of 213 AGRE families. One QTL was replicated (PNVC with a P-value of 0.001. Three associated haplotype blocks were intronic to the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) gene (P=0.001, 0.001, 0.002), and one was intronic to KCND3 (P=0.001). Individual haplotypes within the associated blocks drove the associations (0.003, 0.0004 and 0.0002) for NGF and 0.0001 for KCND3. Using the same methods, these genes were tested for association with NVC in an independent sample of 1517 families from an Autism Genome Project (AGP). NVC was associated with a haplotype in an adjacent NGF block (P=0.0005) and one 46 kb away from the associated block in KCND3 (0.008). These analyses illustrate the value of QTL and targeted association studies for genetically complex disorders such as ASD. NGF is a promising risk gene for NVC deficits.

  20. Co-morbidity and factor analysis on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder DSM-IV-derived items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a gap in the literature regarding the extent of possible co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD. This study aimed to investigate co-occurring of ADHD in children with PDD. Methods: A clinical sample of 68 children with PDD was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria to make ADHD and/ or PDD diagnoses. All the different types of PDD were included. DSM-IV derived criteria for ADHD and PDD were analyzed. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Results: the rate of autism, Asperger syndrome, Rett′s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder and PDD-NOS (not otherwise specified was 55.4%, 16.9%, 3.1%, 3.1%, 21.5%, respectively. 53.8% of the sample was with ADHD co-morbidity. The rate of ADHD subtypes was 37.1%, 22.9%, and 40.0% for inattentive type, hyperactivity/impulsivity type and combined type, respectively. Conclusion: ADHD and its symptoms highly co-occur with PDD. Meanwhile, the result of factor analysis supports the independence of ADHD and PDD diagnostic criteria.

  1. Co-morbidity and factor analysis on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder DSM-IV-derived items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2012-04-01

    There is a gap in the literature regarding the extent of possible co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). This study aimed to investigate co-occurring of ADHD in children with PDD. A clinical sample of 68 children with PDD was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria to make ADHD and/ or PDD diagnoses. All the different types of PDD were included. DSM-IV derived criteria for ADHD and PDD were analyzed. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted. the rate of autism, Asperger syndrome, Rett's disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder and PDD-NOS (not otherwise specified) was 55.4%, 16.9%, 3.1%, 3.1%, 21.5%, respectively. 53.8% of the sample was with ADHD co-morbidity. The rate of ADHD subtypes was 37.1%, 22.9%, and 40.0% for inattentive type, hyperactivity/impulsivity type and combined type, respectively. ADHD and its symptoms highly co-occur with PDD. Meanwhile, the result of factor analysis supports the independence of ADHD and PDD diagnostic criteria.

  2. Detecting subtle facial emotion recognition deficits in high-functioning Autism using dynamic stimuli of varying intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law Smith, Miriam J; Montagne, Barbara; Perrett, David I; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2010-07-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by social and communication impairment, yet evidence for deficits in the ability to recognise facial expressions of basic emotions is conflicting. Many studies reporting no deficits have used stimuli that may be too simple (with associated ceiling effects), for example, 100% 'full-blown' expressions. In order to investigate subtle deficits in facial emotion recognition, 21 adolescent males with high-functioning Austism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 16 age and IQ matched typically developing control males completed a new sensitive test of facial emotion recognition which uses dynamic stimuli of varying intensities of expressions of the six basic emotions (Emotion Recognition Test; Montagne et al., 2007). Participants with ASD were found to be less accurate at processing the basic emotional expressions of disgust, anger and surprise; disgust recognition was most impaired--at 100% intensity and lower levels, whereas recognition of surprise and anger were intact at 100% but impaired at lower levels of intensity.

  3. To Include or Not to Include: Evaluations and Reasoning about the Failure to Include Peers with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Turiel, Elliot; DeWitt, Mila N.; Wolfberg, Pamela J.

    2017-01-01

    Given the significant role that typically developing children play in the social lives of children with autism spectrum disorder, it is important to understand how they evaluate and reason about the inclusion/exclusion of children with autism spectrum disorder in social situations. The objective of this study is to determine elementary students'…

  4. Overlap Between Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Distinctive/Common Clinical Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Francesco; Lamanna, Anna Linda; Margari, Francesco; Matera, Emilia; Simone, Marta; Margari, Lucia

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies support several overlapping traits between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), assuming the existence of a combined phenotype. The aim of our study was to evaluate the common or distinctive clinical features between ASD and ADHD in order to identify possible different phenotypes that could have a clinical value. We enrolled 181 subjects divided into four diagnostic groups: ADHD group, ASD group, ASD+ADHD group (that met diagnostic criteria for both ASD and ADHD), and control group. Intelligent quotient (IQ), emotional and behavior problems, ADHD symptoms, ASD symptoms, and adaptive behaviors were investigated through the following test: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence or Leiter International Performances Scale Revised, Child Behavior Checklist, Conners' Rating Scales-Revised, SNAP-IV Rating Scale, the Social Communication Questionnaire, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. The ASD+ADHD group differs from ADHD or ASD in some domains such as lower IQ mean level and a higher autistic symptoms severity. However, the ASD+ADHD group shares inattention and hyperactivity deficit and some emotional and behavior problems with the ADHD group, while it shares adaptive behavior impairment with ASD group. These findings provide a new understanding of clinical manifestation of ASD+ADHD phenotype, they may also inform a novel treatment target. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  5. Tracking social motivation systems deficits: the affective neuroscience view of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Arnaud; Chevallier, Coralie; Robel, Laurence; Barry, Caroline; Maria, Anne-Solène; Pouga, Lydia; Philippe, Anne; Pinabel, François; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal functioning of primary brain systems that express and modulate basic emotional drives are increasingly considered to underlie mental disorders including autism spectrum disorders. We hypothesized that ASD are characterized by disruptions in the primary systems involved in the motivation for social bonding. Twenty adults with ASD were compared to 20 neurotypical participants on the basis of self-reports and clinical assessments, including the Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS) and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS). ASD diagnosis was related to SAS, as well as to positive (PLAYFULNESS) and negative (FEAR) ANPS-traits. In the overall sample, levels of autistic traits (AQ) were related to SAS and PLAYFULNESS. We argue that PLAYFULNESS could be at the root of social bonding impairments in ASD.

  6. Autism genetic database (AGD: a comprehensive database including autism susceptibility gene-CNVs integrated with known noncoding RNAs and fragile sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebizadeh Zohreh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a highly heritable complex neurodevelopmental disorder, therefore identifying its genetic basis has been challenging. To date, numerous susceptibility genes and chromosomal abnormalities have been reported in association with autism, but most discoveries either fail to be replicated or account for a small effect. Thus, in most cases the underlying causative genetic mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present work, the Autism Genetic Database (AGD was developed as a literature-driven, web-based, and easy to access database designed with the aim of creating a comprehensive repository for all the currently reported genes and genomic copy number variations (CNVs associated with autism in order to further facilitate the assessment of these autism susceptibility genetic factors. Description AGD is a relational database that organizes data resulting from exhaustive literature searches for reported susceptibility genes and CNVs associated with autism. Furthermore, genomic information about human fragile sites and noncoding RNAs was also downloaded and parsed from miRBase, snoRNA-LBME-db, piRNABank, and the MIT/ICBP siRNA database. A web client genome browser enables viewing of the features while a web client query tool provides access to more specific information for the features. When applicable, links to external databases including GenBank, PubMed, miRBase, snoRNA-LBME-db, piRNABank, and the MIT siRNA database are provided. Conclusion AGD comprises a comprehensive list of susceptibility genes and copy number variations reported to-date in association with autism, as well as all known human noncoding RNA genes and fragile sites. Such a unique and inclusive autism genetic database will facilitate the evaluation of autism susceptibility factors in relation to known human noncoding RNAs and fragile sites, impacting on human diseases. As a result, this new autism database offers a valuable tool for the research

  7. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement.

  8. Autism overflows: increasing prevalence and proliferating theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Lynn

    2008-12-01

    This selective review examines the lack of an explanation for the sharply increasing prevalence of autism, and the lack of any synthesis of the proliferating theories of autism. The most controversial and most widely disseminated notion for increasing prevalence is the measles-mumps-rubella/thimerosal vaccine theory. Less controversial causes that have been proposed include changes in autism diagnostic criteria, increasing services for autism, and growing awareness of the disorder. Regardless of its causes, the increasing prevalence of autism has put pressure on the field of autism research to generate productive and predictive theories of autism. However, the heterogeneity of brain deficits, impaired behaviors, and genetic variants in autism have challenged researchers and theorists, and despite 45 years of research, no standard causal synthesis has emerged. Research going forward should assume that autism is an aggregation of myriad independent disorders of impaired sociality, social cognition, communication, and motor and cognitive skills.

  9. Quantitative EEG neurofeedback for the treatment of pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, learning disorders, and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Elizabeth; Arnold, L Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas

    2014-07-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) using surface electroencephalographic signals has been used to treat various child psychiatric disorders by providing patients with video/audio information about their brain's electrical activity in real-time. Research data are reviewed and clinical recommendations are made regarding NF treatment of youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, learning disorders, and epilepsy. Most NF studies are limited by methodological issues, such as failure to use or test the validity of a full-blind or sham NF. The safety of NF treatment has not been thoroughly investigated in youth or adults, although clinical experience suggests reasonable safety.

  10. Association between autism symptoms and family functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jessica L; Rinehart, Nicole; Anderson, Vicki; Efron, Daryl; Nicholson, Jan M; Jongeling, Brad; Hazell, Philip; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms are elevated in populations of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined cross-sectional associations between ASD symptoms and family functioning in children with and without ADHD. Participants were recruited to a longitudinal cohort study, aged 6-10 years (164 ADHD; 198 controls). ADHD cases were ascertained using community-based screening and diagnostic confirmation from a diagnostic interview. ASD symptoms were measured using the Social Communication Questionnaire. Outcome variables were parent mental health, family quality of life (FQoL), couple conflict and support, and parenting behaviours. After adjustment for a range of child and family factors (including other mental health comorbidities), higher ASD symptoms were associated with poorer FQoL across all three domains; emotional impact (p = 0.008), family impact (p = 0.001) and time impact (p = 0.003). In adjusted analyses by subgroup, parents of children with ADHD+ASD had poorer parent self-efficacy (p = 0.01), poorer FQoL (p ≤ 0.05), with weak evidence of an association for less couple support (p = 0.06), compared to parents of children with ADHD only. Inspection of covariates in the adjusted analyses indicated that the association between ASD symptoms and most family functioning measures was accounted forby child internalising and externalising disorders, ADHD severity, and socioeconomic status; however, ASD symptoms appear to be independently associated with poorer FQoL in children with ADHD. The presence of ASD symptoms in children with ADHD may signal the need for enhanced family support.

  11. Autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among individuals with a family history of alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Ji, Jianguang

    2014-08-19

    Recent studies suggest de novo mutations may involve the pathogenesis of autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Based on the evidence that excessive alcohol consumption may be associated with an increased rate of de novo mutations in germ cells (sperms or eggs), we examine here whether the risks of autism and ADHD are increased among individuals with a family history of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of autism and ADHD among individuals with a biological parental history of AUDs were 1.39 (95% CI 1.34-1.44) and 2.19 (95% CI 2.15-2.23), respectively, compared to individuals without an affected parent. Among offspring whose parents were diagnosed with AUDs before their birth, the corresponding risks were 1.46 (95% CI 1.36-1.58) and 2.70 (95% CI 2.59-2.81), respectively. Our study calls for extra surveillance for children with a family history of AUDs, and further studies examining the underlying mechanisms are needed.

  12. Prevalence of autism and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in Down syndrome: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxelgren, Ulrika Wester; Myrelid, Åsa; Annerén, Göran; Ekstam, Bodil; Göransson, Cathrine; Holmbom, Agneta; Isaksson, Anne; Åberg, Marie; Gustafsson, Jan; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based group of children and adolescents with Down syndrome, and to relate the findings to level of intellectual disability and to medical conditions. From a population-based cohort of 60 children and adolescents with Down syndrome, 41 individuals (29 males, 12 females; mean age 11y, age range 5-17y) for whom parents gave consent for participation were clinically assessed with regard to ASD and ADHD. The main instruments used were the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV Rating Scale, and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II. High rates of ASD and ADHD were found: 17 (42%) and 14 (34%) of the 41 children met DSM criteria for ASD and ADHD respectively. Children with Down syndrome and coexisting neurodevelopmental/neuropsychiatric disorders in addition to intellectual disability and medical disorders constitute a severely disabled group. Based on the results, we suggest that screening is implemented for both ASD and ADHD, at the age of 3 to 5 years and early school years respectively, to make adequate interventions possible. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  13. Deficit

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    UCL's former provost, Sir Derek Roberts, has been drafted in for a year to run the college. UCL is expected to have a 6 million pounds deficit this year and up to a 10 million pounds deficit next year. Sir Christopher Llewellyn-Smith took over at UCL nearly 4 years ago and decided then that the finanical situation was serious enough to warrant a reduction in the vast expansion policy undertaken by his predecessor (1 page).

  14. GABAB Receptor Agonist R-Baclofen Reverses Social Deficits and Reduces Repetitive Behavior in Two Mouse Models of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, J L; Pride, M C; Hayes, J E; Puhger, K R; Butler-Struben, H M; Baker, S; Crawley, J N

    2015-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed by two core behavioral criteria, unusual reciprocal social interactions and communication, and stereotyped, repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Excitatory/inhibitory imbalance is a prominent hypothesis for the etiology of autism. The selective GABAB receptor agonist R-baclofen previously reversed social deficits and reduced repetitive behaviors in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, and Arbaclofen improved some clinical symptoms in some Fragile X and ASD patients. To evaluate R-baclofen in a broader range of mouse models of ASD, we tested both the R-baclofen enantiomer and the less potent S-baclofen enantiomer in two inbred strains of mice that display low sociability and/or high repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. R-baclofen treatment reversed social approach deficits in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR), reduced repetitive self-grooming and high marble burying scores in BTBR, and reduced stereotyped jumping in C58/J (C58), at nonsedating doses. S-baclofen produced minimal effects at the same doses. These findings encourage investigations of R-baclofen in other preclinical model systems. Additional clinical studies may be warranted to further evaluate the hypothesis that the GABAB receptor represents a promising pharmacological target for treating appropriately stratified subsets of individuals with ASD.

  15. Psychopharmacology in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, L Y

    1999-01-01

    Autism is a neurobiological disorder. The core clinical features of autism include impairment in social interaction, impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Autism often has coexisting neuropsychiatric disorders, including seizure disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, affective disorders, anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette disorder. No etiology-based treatment modality has been developed to cure individuals with autism. However, comprehensive intervention, including parental counseling, behavior modification, special education in a highly structured environment, sensory integration training, speech therapy, social skill training, and medication, has demonstrated significant treatment effects in many individuals with autism. Findings from preliminary studies of major neurotransmitters and other neurochemical agents strongly suggest that neurochemical factors play a major role in autism. The findings also provide the rationale for psychopharmacotherapy in individuals with autism. This article reviews studies of neurochemical systems and related psychopharmacological research in autism and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinical indications for pharmacotherapy are described, and uses of various medications are suggested. This article also discusses new avenues of investigation that may lead to the development of more effective medication treatments in persons with autism.

  16. Reduced Tract Integrity of the Model for Social Communication Is a Neural Substrate of Social Communication Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Chun; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with social communication deficits as one of the core symptoms. Recently, a five-level model for the social communication has been proposed in which white matter tracts corresponding to each level of the model are identified. Given that the model for social communication…

  17. A Randomized Double-Blind Study of Atomoxetine Versus Placebo for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harfterkamp, Myriam; van de Loo-Neus, Gigi; Minderaa, Ruud B.; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Escobar, Rodrigo; Schacht, Alexander; Pamulapati, Sireesha; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy of atomoxetine as treatment of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not been established. Method: In this study, 97 patients aged 6 to 17 years with ADHD and ASD were randomly assigned to double-blind

  18. The co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in parents of children with ASD or ASD with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijn, D.J. van; Richards, J.S.; Oerlemans, A.M.; Ruiter, S.W. de; Aken, M.A. van; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Lambregts-Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share about 50-72% of their genetic factors, which is the most likely explanation for their frequent co-occurrence within the same patient or family. An additional or alternative explanation for the

  19. The Influence of Parental and Offspring Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Family Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of knowledge of the influence of parental and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on the quality of family climate. The number of affected children may play an important moderating role. 103 Families were recruited

  20. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijn, D.J. van; Oerlemans, A.M.; Ruiter, S.W. de; Aken, M.A.G. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child

  1. Identifying Loci for the Overlap between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Genome-Wide QTL Linkage Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Altink, Marieke E.; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; Fliers, Ellen A.; Gill, Michael; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Franke, Barbara; Ebstein, Richard P.; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The genetic basis for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was addressed using a genome-wide linkage approach. Method: Participants of the International Multi-Center ADHD Genetics study comprising 1,143 probands with ADHD and 1,453 siblings were analyzed. The total and…

  2. Developmental Coordination Disorder and Other Motor Control Problems in Girls with Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Svenny; Beckung, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Examine the rate, predictors, and effect on daily life skills of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and other motor control difficulties in school age girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in preschool age girls with ASD referred to a neuropsychiatric clinic, and in a community…

  3. Coping styles in substance use disorder (SUD) patients with and without co-occurring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronenberg, Linda M; Goossens, Peter J J; van Busschbach, Jooske; van Achterberg, Theo; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with a substance use disorder (SUD) and co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often start using substances in an attempt to cope with the stress related to their ADHD or ASD. To improve treatment for these patient groups,

  4. Coping styles in substance use disorder (SUD) patients with and without co-occurring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronenberg, Linda M.; Goossens, Peter J. J.; van Busschbach, Jooske; van Achterberg, Theo; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with a substance use disorder (SUD) and co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often start using substances in an attempt to cope with the stress related to their ADHD or ASD. To improve treatment for these patient groups,

  5. Brief Report: Performance Pattern Differences between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder on Measures of Verbal Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayat, Maya; Kalb, Luther; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2011-01-01

    Performance patterns on verbal subtests from the WISC-IV were compared between a clinically-referred sample of children with either autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ASD demonstrated a statistically significant stepwise pattern where performance on Similarities was best, followed by…

  6. A review on cognitive and brain endophenotypes that may be common in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and facilitate the search for pleiotropic genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2011-01-01

    We propose to bring together the hitherto rather separate research fields of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and argue that by contrasting and combining findings of the endophenotypes of ASD and ADHD new insights can be gained into the etiology and

  7. Parental Age and Assisted Reproductive Technology in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Tourette Syndrome in a Japanese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takafumi; Kitamoto, Atsushi; Todokoro, Ayako; Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kim, Soo-Yung; Watanabe, Kei-ichiro; Minowa, Iwao; Someya, Toshikazu; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Kano, Yukiko; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kato, Nobumasa; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether advanced parental age and assisted reproductive technology (ART) are risk factors in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette syndrome (TS). Clinical charts of Japanese outpatients with ASD (n = 552), ADHD (n = 87), and TS (n = 123) were reviewed. Parental age of…

  8. Atypical Processing of Gaze Cues and Faces Explains Comorbidity between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Kochhar, Puja; Hamilton, Antonia; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Simeou, Marina; Hollis, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the neurobiological basis of comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We compared children with ASD, ADHD or ADHD+ASD and typically developing controls (CTRL) on behavioural and electrophysiological correlates of gaze cue and face processing. We measured effects…

  9. A Randomized Double-Blind Study of Atomoxetine versus Placebo for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfterkamp, Myriam; van de Loo-Neus, Gigi; Minderaa, Ruud B.; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Escobar, Rodrigo; Schacht, Alexander; Pamulapati, Sireesha; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy of atomoxetine as treatment of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not been established. Method: In this study, 97 patients aged 6 to 17 years with ADHD and ASD were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with 1.2 mg/kg/day atomoxetine or…

  10. Autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in early childhood: A review of unique and shared characteristics and developmental antecedents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.C.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Greven, C.U.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have overlapping characteristics and etiological factors, but to which extent this applies to infant- and preschool age is less well understood. Comparing the pathways to ASD and ADHD from the earliest possible stages

  11. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  12. Developmental Coordination Disorder and Other Motor Control Problems in Girls with Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Svenny; Beckung, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Examine the rate, predictors, and effect on daily life skills of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and other motor control difficulties in school age girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in preschool age girls with ASD referred to a neuropsychiatric clinic, and in a community…

  13. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijn, D.J. van; Oerlemans, A.M.; Ruiter, S.W. de; Aken, M.A.G. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child

  14. Personal recovery in individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD) and co-occurring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronenberg, L.M.; Verkerk-Tamminga, R.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Brink, W. van den; Achterberg, T. van

    2015-01-01

    The process of personal recovery in people diagnosed with substance use disorder and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was mapped. Four general themes representing four consecutive stages in the recovery process were identified in both client

  15. The Co-Occurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Parents of Children with ASD or ASD with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Richards, Jennifer S.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; de Ruiter, Saskia W.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan. K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share about 50-72% of their genetic factors, which is the most likely explanation for their frequent co-occurrence within the same patient or family. An additional or alternative explanation for the co-occurrence may be (cross-)assortative mating, e.g.,…

  16. The Influence of Parental and Offspring Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Family Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of knowledge of the influence of parental and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on the quality of family climate. The number of affected children may play an important moderating role. 103 Families were recruited

  17. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  18. Narrative Production in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) : Similarities and Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Sanne J. M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Bogaerds-Hazenberg, S. T.; Hendriks, Petra

    The present study focuses on the similarities and differences in language production between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, we investigated whether Theory of Mind (ToM), working memory, and response

  19. Identifying Loci for the Overlap Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Genome-wide QTL Linkage Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Altink, Marieke E.; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; Fliers, Ellen A.; Gill, Michael; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Franke, Barbara; Ebstein, Richard P.; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen. V.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Objective: The genetic basis for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was addressed using a genome-wide linkage approach. Method: Participants of the International Multi-Center ADHD Genetics study comprising 1,143 probands with ADHD

  20. 3p14.1 de novo microdeletion involving the FOXP1 gene in an adult patient with autism, severe speech delay and deficit of motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Orazio; D'Agruma, Leonardo; Minenna, Adelaide Franca; Palumbo, Pietro; Stallone, Raffaella; Palladino, Teresa; Zelante, Leopoldo; Carella, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Interstitial deletion of chromosome region 3p14.1, including FOXP1 gene, is relatively rare and, until recently, there were no strong evidences to support the hypothesis that this microdeletion could play a role in the etiology of genomic disorders. Here, we report on an adult patient with a recognizable phenotype of autism, severe speech delay, deficit of motor coordination and typical dysmorphic features. Analysis of a dense whole genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array showed a 1Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome region 3p14.1 including the entire coding region of FOXP1 (MIM 605515) gene. In order to study the parental origin of the deletion, we analyzed selected SNPs in the deleted area in the proband and his parents showing Mendelian incompatibilities suggesting a de novo deletion on the chromosome of paternal origin. Despite the frequency of this genomic alteration has not been estimated, our patient confirm the hypothesis that microdeletion of 3p14.1 seems to be a rare cause of cognitive disorders and that haploinsufficiency of FOXP1 may play a role in neurological and language deficits in patients carrying a 3p14.1 deletion. Finally, our patient is also important because useful to further delineate the clinical spectrum secondary to the 3p14.1 microdeletions.

  1. A Descriptive Study on the Neonatal Morbidity Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Including a Comparison with Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atladóttir, H. Ó.; Schendel, D. E.; Parner, E. T.; Henriksen, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the profile of specific neonatal morbidities in children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to compare this profile with the profile of children with hyperkinetic disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy or intellectual disability. This is a Danish population based cohort study, including all…

  2. Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during temporal discounting in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism and comorbid ADHD and Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiluke, Kaylita; Christakou, Anastasia; Murphy, Clodagh M; Giampietro, Vincent; Daly, Eileen M; Ecker, Christina; Brammer, Michael; Murphy, Declan G; Rubia, Katya

    2014-08-30

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often comorbid and share cognitive abnormalities in temporal foresight. A key question is whether shared cognitive phenotypes are based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies and whether comorbid patients have additive neurofunctional deficits, resemble one of the disorders or have a different pathophysiology. We compared age- and IQ-matched boys with non-comorbid ADHD (18), non-comorbid ASD (15), comorbid ADHD and ASD (13) and healthy controls (18) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a temporal discounting task. Only the ASD and the comorbid groups discounted delayed rewards more steeply. The fMRI data showed both shared and disorder-specific abnormalities in the three groups relative to controls in their brain-behaviour associations. The comorbid group showed both unique and more severe brain-discounting associations than controls and the non-comorbid patient groups in temporal discounting areas of ventromedial and lateral prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum and anterior cingulate, suggesting that comorbidity is neither an endophenocopy of the two pure disorders nor an additive pathology.

  3. Including Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Around 80% of pupils with attention deficit disorders are educated in mainstream schools. The difficulties relating to inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity experienced by such pupils present mainstream educators with a unique set of challenges and opportunities. In this article, Neil Humphrey, Senior Lecturer in the Psychology of Education…

  4. Face Scanning in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Human Versus Dog Face Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszkat, Mauro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; Muñoz, Patricia de Oliveira Lima; Lucci, Tania Kiehl; David, Vinicius Frayze; Siqueira, José de Oliveira; Otta, Emma

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to explore attention allocation to human and dog faces in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD). Significant differences were found among the three groups. TD participants looked longer at the eyes than ASD and ADHD ones, irrespective of the faces presented. In spite of this difference, groups were similar in that they looked more to the eyes than to the mouth areas of interest. The ADHD group gazed longer at the mouth region than the other groups. Furthermore, groups were also similar in that they looked more to the dog than to the human faces. The eye-tracking technology proved to be useful for behavioral investigation in different neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26557097

  5. A Causal and Mediation Analysis of the Comorbidity Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Elena; Oerlemans, Anoek M; Rommelse, Nanda N; Groot, Perry; Hartman, Catharina A; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Claassen, Tom; Heskes, Tom; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between ASD and ADHD symptoms by applying causal modeling. We used a large phenotypic data set of 417 children with ASD and/or ADHD, 562 affected and unaffected siblings, and 414 controls, to infer a structural equation model using a causal discovery algorithm. Three distinct pathways between ASD and ADHD were identified: (1) from impulsivity to difficulties with understanding social information, (2) from hyperactivity to stereotypic, repetitive behavior, (3) a pairwise pathway between inattention, difficulties with understanding social information, and verbal IQ. These findings may inform future studies on understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms behind the overlap between ASD and ADHD.

  6. Personality characteristics of adults with autism spectrum disorders or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with and without substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Bram; van den Brink, Wim; Gorissen van Eenige, Marielle; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2009-06-01

    We examined temperament and character profiles of 128 adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants completed the abbreviated Temperament and Character Inventory. The ASD and ADHD groups showed distinct temperament profiles (ADHD: high novelty seeking, ASD: low reward dependence, high harm avoidance) and low character scores in both groups. We then stratified ASD and ADHD into current substance use disorder (SUD+), former (SUD;), or no history of Substance Use Disorder (SUD-). Novelty seeking and reward dependence were only significantly lower for ASD/SUD-, but normal for ASD/SUD; and ASD/SUD+ subgroups. Persistence scores were highest in both SUD; subgroups. We concluded that temperament profiles of ASD and ADHD patients differ significantly, and are similar to profiles reported in earlier studies, but appear to depend on the SUD status. Surprisingly, normal social orientation is found in ASD patients with former or current SUD. High persistence scores characterize patients who overcome SUD.

  7. Face Scanning in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Human Versus Dog Face Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszkat, Mauro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; Muñoz, Patricia de Oliveira Lima; Lucci, Tania Kiehl; David, Vinicius Frayze; Siqueira, José de Oliveira; Otta, Emma

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to explore attention allocation to human and dog faces in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD). Significant differences were found among the three groups. TD participants looked longer at the eyes than ASD and ADHD ones, irrespective of the faces presented. In spite of this difference, groups were similar in that they looked more to the eyes than to the mouth areas of interest. The ADHD group gazed longer at the mouth region than the other groups. Furthermore, groups were also similar in that they looked more to the dog than to the human faces. The eye-tracking technology proved to be useful for behavioral investigation in different neurodevelopmental disorders.

  8. Face scanning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD: human versus dog face scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro eMuszkat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study used eye-tracking to explore attention allocation to human and dog faces in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and typical development (TD. Significant differences were found among the three groups. TD participants looked longer at the eyes than ASD and ADHD ones, irrespective of the faces presented. In spite of this difference, groups were similar in that they looked more to the eyes than to the mouth areas of interest. The ADHD group gazed longer at the mouth region than the other groups. Furthermore, groups were also similar in that they looked more to the dog than to the human faces. The eye tracking technology proved to be useful for behavioral investigation in different neurodevelopmental disorders.

  9. DSM-5 Changes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Comorbid Sleep Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramtekkar, Ujjwal P

    2017-07-27

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite significant comorbidity, the previous diagnostic criteria prohibited the simultaneous diagnosis of both disorders. Sleep problems are highly prevalent in both disorders; however, these have been studied independently for ADHD and ASD. In the context of revised criteria in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) that allows combined diagnosis of ADHD and ASD, this short review presents an overview of relationship between sleep problems, ADHD and ASD, as well as conceptualizing the shared pathophysiology. The practical considerations for clinical management of sleep problems in combination with ADHD and ASD are also discussed.

  10. Development of Planning in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and/or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrainer, Josef M; Rauh, Reinhold; Rahm, Benjamin; Hardt, Jochen; Kaller, Christoph P; Klein, Christoph; Paschke-Müller, Mirjam; Biscaldi, Monica

    2016-07-01

    Planning impairment is often observed in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but attempts to differentiate planning in ASD from children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing children (TD) have yielded inconsistent results. This study examined differences between these groups by focusing on development and analyzing performance in searching ahead several steps ("search depth") in addition to commonly used global performance measures in planning. A cross-sectional consecutive sample of 83 male patients (6-13 years), subgrouped as ASD without (ASD-, n = 18) or with comorbid ADHD (ASD+, n = 23), ADHD only (n = 42) and n = 42 TD children (6-13 years) were tested with the Tower-of-London-task. For global performance, ASD+ showed the lowest accuracy in younger children, but similar performance as TD at older ages, suggesting delayed development. Typically, a prolongation of planning time with increasing problem difficulty is observed in older children as compared to younger children. Here, this was most pronounced in ASD-, but under-expressed in ADHD. In contrast to global performance, effects of search depth were independent of age. ASD-, but not ASD+, showed increased susceptibility to raised demands on mentally searching ahead, along with the longest planning times. Thus, examining both global and search depth performance across ages revealed discernible patterns of planning between groups. Notably, the potentially detrimental impact of two diagnosed disorders does not add up in ASD+ in this task. Rather, our results suggest paradoxical enhancement of performance, ostensibly attributable to disruption of behavioral rigidity through increased impulsivity, which did not take place in ASD-. Autism Res 2016, 9: 739-751. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cognitive Set Shifting Deficits and Their Relationship to Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Haylie L.; Ragozzino, Michael E.; Cook, Edwin H.; Sweeney, John A.; Mosconi, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive impairments associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not yet clear. Prior studies indicate that individuals with ASD show reduced cognitive flexibility, which could reflect difficulty shifting from a previously learned response pattern or a failure to maintain a new…

  12. No Proprioceptive Deficits in Autism despite Movement-Related Sensory and Execution Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Christina T.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often involves sensory and motor problems, yet the proprioceptive sense of limb position has not been directly assessed. We used three tasks to assess proprioception in adolescents with ASD who had motor and sensory perceptual abnormalities, and compared them to age- and IQ-matched controls. Results showed no group…

  13. Novel Therapeutic Targets to Treat Social Behavior Deficits in Autism and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    emotions in adults with autism: an fMRI study using acute tryptophan depletion. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 69,1003-13. Daws, L.C., Gould, G.G. 2011...Disorders and 6 Stroke of the NIH under Award Number R25NS080684. The content is solely the responsibility of the 7 authors and does not represent

  14. The Effect of Karate Techniques Training on Communication Deficit of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Sorensen, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the long term effect of Karate techniques training on communication of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty school aged children with ASD were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Participants in the exercise group were engaged in 14 weeks of Karate techniques training.…

  15. The Effect of Karate Techniques Training on Communication Deficit of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Sorensen, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the long term effect of Karate techniques training on communication of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty school aged children with ASD were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Participants in the exercise group were engaged in 14 weeks of Karate techniques training.…

  16. Nasal Oxytocin for Social Deficits in Childhood Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadds, Mark R.; MacDonald, Elayne; Cauchi, Avril; Williams, Katrina; Levy, Florence; Brennan, John

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a surge in research investigating the application of oxytocin as a method of enhancing social behaviour in humans. Preliminary evidence suggests oxytocin may have potential as an intervention for autism. We evaluated a 5-day "live-in" intervention using a double-blind randomized control trial. 38 male…

  17. Brief Report: Face-Specific Recognition Deficits in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jessica; Shic, Frederick; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    This study used eyetracking to investigate the ability of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to recognize social (faces) and nonsocial (simple objects and complex block patterns) stimuli using the visual paired comparison (VPC) paradigm. Typically developing (TD) children showed evidence for recognition of faces and simple…

  18. Speech-specific categorical perception deficit in autism: An Event-Related Potential study of lexical tone processing in Mandarin-speaking children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Suiping; Fan, Yuebo; Huang, Dan; Zhang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies reveal that tonal language speakers with autism have enhanced neural sensitivity to pitch changes in nonspeech stimuli but not to lexical tone contrasts in their native language. The present ERP study investigated whether the distinct pitch processing pattern for speech and nonspeech stimuli in autism was due to a speech-specific deficit in categorical perception of lexical tones. A passive oddball paradigm was adopted to examine two groups (16 in the autism group and 15 in the control group) of Chinese children’s Mismatch Responses (MMRs) to equivalent pitch deviations representing within-category and between-category differences in speech and nonspeech contexts. To further examine group-level differences in the MMRs to categorical perception of speech/nonspeech stimuli or lack thereof, neural oscillatory activities at the single trial level were further calculated with the inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) measure for the theta and beta frequency bands. The MMR and ITPC data from the children with autism showed evidence for lack of categorical perception in the lexical tone condition. In view of the important role of lexical tones in acquiring a tonal language, the results point to the necessity of early intervention for the individuals with autism who show such a speech-specific categorical perception deficit. PMID:28225070

  19. Haploinsufficiency of the autism-associated Shank3 gene leads to deficits in synaptic function, social interaction, and social communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozdagi Ozlem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SHANK3 is a protein in the core of the postsynaptic density (PSD and has a critical role in recruiting many key functional elements to the PSD and to the synapse, including components of α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA, metabotropic glutamate (mGlu and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA glutamate receptors, as well as cytoskeletal elements. Loss of a functional copy of the SHANK3 gene leads to the neurobehavioral manifestations of 22q13 deletion syndrome and/or to autism spectrum disorders. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of haploinsufficiency of full-length Shank3 in mice, focusing on synaptic development, transmission and plasticity, as well as on social behaviors, as a model for understanding SHANK3 haploinsufficiency in humans. Methods We used mice with a targeted disruption of Shank3 in which exons coding for the ankyrin repeat domain were deleted and expression of full-length Shank3 was disrupted. We studied synaptic transmission and plasticity by multiple methods, including patch-clamp whole cell recording, two-photon time-lapse imaging and extracellular recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials. We also studied the density of GluR1-immunoreactive puncta in the CA1 stratum radiatum and carried out assessments of social behaviors. Results In Shank3 heterozygous mice, there was reduced amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and the input-output (I/O relationship at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in acute hippocampal slices was significantly depressed; both of these findings indicate a reduction in basal neurotransmission. Studies with specific inhibitors demonstrated that the decrease in basal transmission reflected reduced AMPA receptor-mediated transmission. This was further supported by the observation of reduced numbers of GluR1-immunoreactive puncta in the stratum radiatum. Long-term potentiation (LTP

  20. Early communication deficits in the Shank1 knockout mouse model for autism spectrum disorder: Developmental aspects and effects of social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, A Özge; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Wöhr, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in SHANK genes were repeatedly reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed by persistent deficits in social communication/interaction across multiple contexts, with restricted/repetitive patterns of behavior. To date, diagnostic criteria for ASD are purely behaviorally defined and reliable biomarkers have still not been identified. The validity of mouse models for ASD therefore strongly relies on their behavioral phenotype. Here, we studied communication by means of isolation-induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in the Shank1 mouse model for ASD by comparing Shank1(-/-) null mutant, Shank1(+/-) heterozygous, and Shank1(+/+) wildtype littermate controls. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Shank1 deletions on developmental aspects of communication in order to see whether ASD-related communication deficits are due to general impairment or delay in development. Second, we focused on social context effects on USV production. We show that Shank1(-/-) pups vocalized less and displayed a delay in the typical inverted U-shaped developmental USV emission pattern with USV rates peaking on postnatal day (PND) 9, resulting in a prominent genotype difference on PND6. Moreover, testing under social conditions revealed even more prominently genotype-dependent deficits regardless of the familiarity of the social context. As communication by definition serves a social function, introducing a social component to the typically nonsocial test environment could therefore help to reveal communication deficits in mouse models for ASD. Together, these results indicate that SHANK1 is involved in acoustic communication across species, with genetic alterations in SHANK1 resulting in social communication/interaction deficits. Autism Res 2016, 9: 696-709. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley

  1. Exploring Teachers' Strategies for Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mainstream Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Scott, Helen; Thomson, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    As the rates of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) increase and more students with ASD are enrolled in mainstream schools, educators face many challenges in teaching and managing social and behavioural development while ensuring academic success for all students. This descriptive, qualitative study, embedded within an inclusive…

  2. Including Children with Autism in Social and Imaginary Play with Typical Peers: Integrated Play Groups Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfberg, Pamela; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; DeWitt, Mila

    2012-01-01

    Peer-play experiences are a vital part of children's socialization, development, and culture. Children with autism face distinct challenges in social and imaginary play, which place them at high risk for being excluded by peers. Without explicit support, they are likely to remain isolated from peers and the consistent interactive play that…

  3. Benefits of Including Siblings in the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraioli, Suzannah J.; Hansford, Amy; Harris, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Having a brother or sister with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly impact the life of a typically developing sibling. These relationships are generally characterized by less frequent and nurturing interactions than are evident in sibling constellations with neurotypical children or children with other developmental disabilities.…

  4. The temporal dynamics of coherent motion processing in autism spectrum disorder: evidence for a deficit in the dorsal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimel, E; Bartling, J; Dunkel, J; Brückl, M; Deimel, W; Remschmidt, H; Kamp-Becker, I; Schulte-Körne, G

    2013-08-15

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impairments in processing coherent motion which have been proposed to be linked to a general deficit in the dorsal visual pathway. However, few studies have investigated the neural mechanisms underlying coherent motion processing in ASD. Thus, the aim of this study was to further test the hypothesis of a dorsal pathway deficit in ASD using visual evoked potentials (VEPs). 16 children and adolescents with ASD and 12 typically developing controls were examined with VEPs elicited by a random dot kinematogram. After an initial experimental sequence, where subjects were presented randomly moving dots, a fraction of the dots moved coherently (dependent on the level of coherence, 20%, 40%, or 60% of the dots) to the left or right side. Subjects were asked to detect the direction of coherent motion via button press. On the behavioural level, no significant group differences emerged. On the neural level, coherently moving dots elicited a N200 followed by a late positive potential (P400). ASD subjects exhibited a reduced N200 amplitude compared to controls. Moreover, in the ASD group, a trend for a negative relationship between N200 amplitude and a measure of autistic pathology was revealed. The present study provides strong support of a dorsal stream deficiency in the disorder and renders alternative explanations for impaired coherent motion processing in ASD less likely. Together with findings from related research fields, our data indicate that deviances in the N200 during coherent motion perception might be fundamental to ASD.

  5. The Application of Modeling and Simulation to the Behavioral Deficit of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, John J.

    2010-01-01

    This abstract describes a research effort to apply technological advances in virtual reality simulation and computer-based games to create behavioral modification programs for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The research investigates virtual social skills training within a 3D game environment to diminish the impact of ASD social impairments and to increase learning capacity for optimal intellectual capability. Individuals with autism will encounter prototypical social contexts via computer interface and will interact with 3D avatars with predefined roles within a game-like environment. Incremental learning objectives will combine to form a collaborative social environment. A secondary goal of the effort is to begin the research and development of virtual reality exercises aimed at triggering the release of neurotransmitters to promote critical aspects of synaptic maturation at an early age to change the course of the disease.

  6. Resveratrol prevents social deficits in animal model of autism induced by valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Zanatta, Geancarlo; Della Flora Nunes, Gustavo; Mueller de Melo, Gabriela; Michels, Marcus; Fontes-Dutra, Mellanie; Nogueira Freire, Valder; Riesgo, Rudimar; Gottfried, Carmem

    2014-11-07

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) involve a complex interplay of both genetic and environmental risk factors, such as prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA). Considering the neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol (RSV), we investigated the influence of prenatal RSV treatment on social behaviors of a rodent model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to VPA. In the three-chambered apparatus test, the VPA group showed a reduced place preference conditioned by conspecific and no preference between exploring a wire-cage or a rat enclosed inside a wire cage, revealing sociability impairments. Prenatal administration of RSV prevented the VPA-induced social impairments evaluated in this study. A bioinformatics analysis was used to discard possible molecular interactions between VPA and RSV during administration. The interaction energy between RSV and VPA is weak and highly unstable, suggesting cellular effects instead of a single chemical process. In summary, the present study highlights a promising experimental strategy to evaluate new molecular targets possibly involved in the etiology of autism and developmental alterations implicated in neural and behavioral impairments in ASD.

  7. Overlapping 16p13.11 deletion and gain of copies variations associated with childhood onset psychosis include genes with mechanistic implications for autism associated pathways: Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Catherine A; Kleiman, Robin J; Engle, Elizabeth C; Towne, Meghan C; D'Angelo, Eugene J; Yu, Timothy W; Beggs, Alan H; Picker, Jonathan; Fogler, Jason M; Carroll, Devon; Schmitt, Rachel C O; Wolff, Robert R; Shen, Yiping; Lip, Va; Bilguvar, Kaya; Kim, April; Tembulkar, Sahil; O'Donnell, Kyle; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Copy number variability at 16p13.11 has been associated with intellectual disability, autism, schizophrenia, epilepsy, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Adolescent/adult- onset psychosis has been reported in a subset of these cases. Here, we report on two children with CNVs in 16p13.11 that developed psychosis before the age of 7. The genotype and neuropsychiatric abnormalities of these patients highlight several overlapping genes that have possible mechanistic relevance to pathways previously implicated in Autism Spectrum Disorders, including the mTOR signaling and the ubiquitin-proteasome cascades. A careful screening of the 16p13.11 region is warranted in patients with childhood onset psychosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... autism spectrum disorder have average or above-average intelligence. The other 60% have intellectual disabilities that range ... viruses, allergies, or vaccines. But none of these theories have been scientifically proven. Most of the scientific ...

  9. Autism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parr, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for the efficacy of treatments for autism has improved in recent years. In this systematic review the evidence for both drug and non-drug treatments is appraised and clinical guidance is provided for their use...

  10. A brief history of autism, the autism/vaccine hypothesis and a review of the genetic basis of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jerome; Hoyme, H Eugene; Crotwell, Patricia L

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a common spectrum of developmental disabilities, sharing deficits in social interactions, communication and restricted interests or repetitive behaviors with difficult transitions. In this article, we review the history of the identification and classification of autism and the origin of the now widely-debunked autism/vaccine hypothesis. The differences between syndromal (complex) and non-syndromal (essential) autism are described and illustrated with case descriptions where appropriate. Finally, the evidence that autism is fundamentally a genetic disease is discussed, including family studies, the role of DNA copy number variation and known single gene mutations.

  11. Forebrain GABAergic interneuron connectivity and BDNF signaling deficits in Engrailed-2 knockout (En2-/-) mice, a mouse model for autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zunino, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disabilities characterized by repetitive behaviors as well as deficits in communication and social/emotional interactions and behaviors. Defects in GABA transmission have been hypothesized to underlie the symptoms of ASD (Ben-Ari, Khalilov, Kahle, & Cherubini, 2012). Engrailed-2 (En2) is a homeodomain transcription factor involved in regionalization and patterning of the midbrain and hindbrain reg...

  12. Difficulties in everyday life: Young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders perspectives. A chat-log analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlström, Britt H; Wentz, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the everyday life of young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are follow-up studies describing ADHD, and ASD in adults, and residual impairments that affect life. Few qualitative studies have been conducted on the subject of their experiences of everyday life, and even fewer are from young persons’ perspectives. This study’s aim was to describe how young persons with ADHD and ASD function and how they ma...

  13. Postural Control Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Sensory Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Michail; McKenna, Roisin; Murphy, Blain

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the nature of sensory integration deficits in postural control of young adults with ASD. Postural control was assessed in a fixed environment, and in three environments in which sensory information about body sway from visual, proprioceptive or both channels was inaccurate. Furthermore, two levels of inaccurate information were…

  14. Screening for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and developmental delay in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan HL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hsiang-Lin Chan,1,2,* Wen-Sheng Liu,3–6,* Yi-Hsuan Hsieh,1,2 Chiao-Fan Lin,1,2 Tiing-Soon Ling,2,7 Yu-Shu Huang1,2 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taipei City Hospital, Zhong-Xing Branch, Taipei, Taiwan; 4School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6College of Science and Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 7Department of Family Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the percentages of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children. Child development level was compared between the two groups. Methods: Teachers completed screening questionnaires for ADHD, ASD, and development level for 36- to 72-month-old children in kindergartens in Taiwan. The questionnaire results were compared between the aboriginal and nonaboriginal children. One child psychiatrist then interviewed the aboriginal preschool children to determine if they had ADHD and/or ASD. Results: We collected 93 questionnaires from the aboriginal group and 60 from the nonaboriginal group. In the aboriginal group, 5.37% of the children were identified to have ADHD, while 1.08% were identified to have ASD. Significantly fewer aboriginal children had developmental delays for situation comprehension and personal–social development (P=0.012 and 0.002, respectively than nonaboriginal children. Conclusion: Aboriginal children in Taiwan had typical percentages of ADHD and ASD compared to those published in the literature. Aboriginal children showed relative strengths in situation

  15. A Psychological Approach to Understanding the Social and Language Impairments in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    1999-01-01

    This paper surveys current research on the social and communicative impairments in autism. In diagnostic schemes, the criteria for identifying autism in these domains include overlapping features. One approach to interpreting this overlap is to consider that social and communicative impairments reflect the same underlying cognitive deficit, referred to as the ‘theory of mind’ hypothesis of autism. On this view autism involves primary difficulties in identifying mental states in other people, ...

  16. Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakou, A; Murphy, C M; Chantiluke, K; Cubillo, A I; Smith, A B; Giampietro, V; Daly, E; Ecker, C; Robertson, D; Murphy, D G; Rubia, K

    2013-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often comorbid and share behavioural-cognitive abnormalities in sustained attention. A key question is whether this shared cognitive phenotype is based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies. To elucidate this question, we compared 20 boys with ADHD to 20 age and IQ matched ASD and 20 healthy boys using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a parametrically modulated vigilance task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention. ADHD and ASD boys had significantly reduced activation relative to controls in bilateral striato-thalamic regions, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal cortex. Both groups also displayed significantly increased precuneus activation relative to controls. Precuneus was negatively correlated with the DLPFC activation, and progressively more deactivated with increasing attention load in controls, but not patients, suggesting problems with deactivation of a task-related default mode network in both disorders. However, left DLPFC underactivation was significantly more pronounced in ADHD relative to ASD boys, which furthermore was associated with sustained performance measures that were only impaired in ADHD patients. ASD boys, on the other hand, had disorder-specific enhanced cerebellar activation relative to both ADHD and control boys, presumably reflecting compensation. The findings show that ADHD and ASD boys have both shared and disorder-specific abnormalities in brain function during sustained attention. Shared deficits were in fronto-striato-parietal activation and default mode suppression. Differences were a more severe DLPFC dysfunction in ADHD and a disorder-specific fronto-striato-cerebellar dysregulation in ASD.

  17. Autism: definition, neurobiology, screening, diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapin, Isabelle; Tuchman, Roberto F

    2008-10-01

    Autism (ie, the autism spectrum disorders) is now recognized in 1 in 150 children. This article highlights the definition, neurobiology, screening, and diagnosis of autism. The genetics, immunology, imaging, and neurophysiology of autism are reviewed, with particular emphasis on areas that impact pediatricians. Early recognition of the social deficits that characterize autism is key to maximizing the potential of these children.

  18. [Comorbidity of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit with hyperactivity. A review study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer-Forner, Carmen; Miranda-Casas, Ana; Pastor-Cerezuela, Gema; Roselló-Miranda, Rocío

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. La elevada presencia de trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) en el trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) ha sido reconocida en el Manual diagnostico y estadistico de los trastornos mentales, quinta edicion, permitiendo el diagnostico de ambos trastornos. Objetivo. Revisar las investigaciones publicadas entre 2010 y 2014 sobre las caracteristicas cognitivas y sociales de la coocurrencia del TEA y el TDAH. Desarrollo. La revision de los 33 estudios identificados evidencia una prevalencia de sintomas de TDAH en niños con TEA del 33-37%. La condicion comorbida presenta mas deficit en el control inhibitorio, la atencion y la memoria de trabajo. Asimismo, en cognicion social, la sintomatologia del TDAH incrementa las dificultades en los casos de TEA. Ademas, el perfil clinico de TEA + TDAH muestra mayor gravedad que el de TDAH o TEA puros, y el retraso en el lenguaje y la intensidad/frecuencia de rabietas son sintomas que ayudan a la identificacion en edades tempranas. Conclusiones. Los hallazgos sugieren una superposicion 'aditiva', y el TEA + TDAH comparte algunos deficits de ambos trastornos, lo cual tiene implicaciones para la evaluacion y el diseño de tratamientos efectivos.

  19. Severe Multisensory Speech Integration Deficits in High-Functioning School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Their Resolution During Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxe, John J.; Molholm, Sophie; Del Bene, Victor A.; Frey, Hans-Peter; Russo, Natalie N.; Blanco, Daniella; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ross, Lars A.

    2015-01-01

    Under noisy listening conditions, visualizing a speaker's articulations substantially improves speech intelligibility. This multisensory speech integration ability is crucial to effective communication, and the appropriate development of this capacity greatly impacts a child's ability to successfully navigate educational and social settings. Research shows that multisensory integration abilities continue developing late into childhood. The primary aim here was to track the development of these abilities in children with autism, since multisensory deficits are increasingly recognized as a component of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype. The abilities of high-functioning ASD children (n = 84) to integrate seen and heard speech were assessed cross-sectionally, while environmental noise levels were systematically manipulated, comparing them with age-matched neurotypical children (n = 142). Severe integration deficits were uncovered in ASD, which were increasingly pronounced as background noise increased. These deficits were evident in school-aged ASD children (5–12 year olds), but were fully ameliorated in ASD children entering adolescence (13–15 year olds). The severity of multisensory deficits uncovered has important implications for educators and clinicians working in ASD. We consider the observation that the multisensory speech system recovers substantially in adolescence as an indication that it is likely amenable to intervention during earlier childhood, with potentially profound implications for the development of social communication abilities in ASD children. PMID:23985136

  20. Frequency of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Kummer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the frequency of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and their parents, in comparison with children and adolescents without developmental disorders. Methods: Anthropometric measures were obtained in 69 outpatients with ASD (8.4±4.2 years old, 23 with ADHD (8.5±2.4 and 19 controls without developmental disorders (8.6±2.9 between August and November 2014. Parents of patients with ASD and ADHD also had their anthropometric parameters taken. Overweight was defined as a percentile ≥85; obesity as a percentile ≥95; and underweight as a percentile ≤5. For adults, overweight was defined as a BMI between 25 and 30kg/m2 and obesity as a BMI higher than 30kg/m2. Results: Children and adolescents with ASD and ADHD had higher BMI percentile (p<0.01 and z-score (p<0.01 than controls, and increased frequency of overweight and obesity (p=0.04. Patients with ASD and ADHD did not differ between them in these variables, nor regarding abdominal circumference. Parents of children with ASD and ADHD did not differ between themselves. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with ASD and ADHD are at a higher risk of overweight and obesity than children without developmental problems in the community.

  1. [Frequency of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Arthur; Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; Rodrigues, David Henrique; Rocha, Natália Pessoa; Rafael, Marianna da Silva; Pfeilsticker, Larissa; Silva, Ana Cristina Simões E; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2016-01-01

    To assess the frequency of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their parents, in comparison with children and adolescents without developmental disorders. Anthropometric measures were obtained in 69 outpatients with ASD (8.4±4.2 years old), 23 with ADHD (8.5±2.4) and 19 controls without developmental disorders (8.6±2.9) between August and November 2014. Parents of patients with ASD and ADHD also had their anthropometric parameters taken. Overweight was defined as a percentile ≥85; obesity as a percentile ≥95; and underweight as a percentile ≤5. For adults, overweight was defined as a BMI between 25 and 30kg/m(2) and obesity as a BMI higher than 30kg/m(2). Children and adolescents with ASD and ADHD had higher BMI percentile (p<0.01) and z-score (p<0.01) than controls, and increased frequency of overweight and obesity (p=0.04). Patients with ASD and ADHD did not differ between them in these variables, nor regarding abdominal circumference. Parents of children with ASD and ADHD did not differ between themselves. Children and adolescents with ASD and ADHD are at a higher risk of overweight and obesity than children without developmental problems in the community. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive endophenotypes of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and intra-subject variability in patients with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaldi, M; Bednorz, N; Weissbrodt, K; Saville, C W N; Feige, B; Bender, S; Klein, C

    2016-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously been studied mainly in isolation from each other. However the two conditions may be aetiologically related and thus show overlap in aetiologically relevant functions. In order to address this question of potential aetiological overlap between ADHD and ASD, the present study set out to investigate putative endophenotypes of ADHD in N=33 typically developing (TD) children and N=28 patients with ASD that were (ASD+) or were not (ASD-) co-morbid for ADHD. With regard to both the cognitive endophenotype candidates (working memory, inhibition, temporal processing) and intra-subject variability (ISV) the pattern of abnormalities was inconsistent. Furthermore, the overall profile of ASD-TD differences was extremely similar to the pattern of differences between the ASD+ and ASD- sub-groups, suggesting that any abnormalities found were due to the comorbid ASD subgroup. This held in particular for ISV, which did not show in patients with ASD the task-general increase that is common in ADHD samples. Altogether, the present results do not support the hypothesis of aetiological overlap between ASD and ADHD.

  3. Investigating the Relationship between Self-Injurious Behavior, Social Deficits, and Cooccurring Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Waters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that self-injurious behavior (SIB is related to social deficits and cooccurring problem behaviors in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 95 participants with ASD was assessed on presence and frequency of SIB (Behavior Problems Inventory, social deficits (the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters-II and cooccurring problem behaviors (ASD-Comorbidity-Child version. A model was created and tested to explain the relationship between these variables. Results showed that the model was acceptable in presenting the relationships between these variables. This information could be used to help predict which individuals are at risk of developing further cooccurring behavioral problems and determine risk markers for the development of social deficits.

  4. A comparison of social cognitive profiles in children with autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a matter of quantitative but not qualitative difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Carly; Hopkins, Joyce; Davis, Amy

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare social cognitive profiles of children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and ADHD. Participants diagnosed with an ASD (n = 137) were compared to participants with ADHD (n = 436) on tests of facial and vocal affect recognition, social judgment and problem-solving, and parent- and teacher-report of social functioning. Both groups performed significantly worse than the normative sample on all measures. Although the ASD group had more severe deficits, the pattern of deficits was surprisingly similar between groups, suggesting that social cognitive deficit patterns may be more similar in ASD and ADHD than previously thought. Thus, like those with ASDs, individuals with ADHD may also need to be routinely considered for treatments targeting social skills.

  5. [Autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: similarities and differences in executive functioning and theory of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Casas, Ana; Baixauli-Fortea, Immaculada; Colomer-Diago, Carla; Roselló-Miranda, Belén

    2013-09-06

    Introduccion. Aunque los criterios diagnosticos del autismo y del trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) en el DSM-IV-TR no se solapan, la presencia de sintomas de TDAH en individuos con un diagnostico clinico de autismo es muy elevada. A su vez, los niños con TDAH pueden tener rasgos autistas, aunque los mas prevalentes son las dificultades sociales y de comunicacion. El analisis del perfil en las funciones ejecutivas y en la teoria de la mente (ToM) podria ayudar a explicar el solapamiento y la diferenciacion entre ambos trastornos. Objetivo. Revisar los hallazgos de estudios empiricos en los que se ha comparado a niños con TDAH y con autismo en indicadores de funcionamiento ejecutivo y ToM. Desarrollo. La revision de las investigaciones sugiere la existencia de patrones distintos en el trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) y en el TDAH cuando el funcionamiento ejecutivo se segmenta en componentes. Los niños con TDAH experimentan deficit en el control inhibitorio mientras que los niños con TEA tienen mas problemas en flexibilidad cognitiva y en planificacion. En cuanto al dominio de las habilidades mentales se producen diferencias evolutivas, asi como en su gravedad. Los niños mas pequeños con TEA experimentan mayores deficiencias en la ToM en comparacion con los niños con TDAH y un deficit primario en la orientacion social. Conclusiones. Aunque los avances son importantes, quedan asuntos pendientes por aclarar, entre los que destaca el analisis de como afecta un pobre desarrollo de las funciones ejecutivas al desarrollo de la ToM, con estudios longitudinales que analicen las trayectorias evolutivas de niños con TEA y niños con TDAH.

  6. Mirror Me: Imitative Responses in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunke, Odette; Schöttle, Daniel; Vettorazzi, Eik; Brandt, Valerie; Kahl, Ursula; Bäumer, Tobias; Ganos, Christos; David, Nicole; Peiker, Ina; Engel, Andreas K; Brass, Marcel; Münchau, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctions of the human mirror neuron system have been postulated to underlie some deficits in autism spectrum disorders including poor imitative performance and impaired social skills. Using three reaction time experiments addressing mirror neuron system functions under simple and complex conditions, we examined 20 adult autism spectrum…

  7. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Are Minimally Verbal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…

  8. Striatal development in autism: repetitive behaviors and the reward circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Kohls, Gregor; Yerys, Benjamin; Schultz, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by two essential features – impaired social communication abilities, including deficits with social reciprocity, nonverbal communication and establishing relationships, and by the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (RRBIs). Social deficits get the majority of attention both in science and in the popular media, but RRBIs are equally important in understanding autism. Although RRBIs are also seen in typically...

  9. [Oxytocin in the treatment of the social deficits associated to autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachafeiro-Espino, Carla; Vale-Martínez, Anna M

    2015-11-01

    Introduccion. La implicacion de la oxitocina en la conducta social de animales y humanos ha llevado a estudiar los efectos de su administracion en el comportamiento y cognicion social de pacientes con trastornos del espectro autista (TEA). Objetivos. Revisar la investigacion sobre el potencial terapeutico de la oxitocina en el tratamiento de los deficits sociales de la poblacion con TEA y discutir las probables direcciones futuras de los estudios en este campo. Desarrollo. Diversos trabajos han relacionado la oxitocina con la fisiopatologia de los TEA. La mayoria de los estudios que han administrado oxitocina, generalmente por via intranasal (24 UI), ha observado mejoras significativas en el rendimiento social, sin detectar efectos secundarios destacables. No obstante, existen datos contradictorios debido a la heterogeneidad de las variables analizadas por los diferentes estudios, al uso de muestras heterogeneas y pequeñas o a la diferente duracion de los tratamientos. Las limitaciones relacionadas con la falta de comprension de los mecanismos de accion de la oxitocina y la diversidad sintomatologica de los TEA dificultan el establecimiento de este peptido como tratamiento de los pacientes autistas. Estudios recientes destacan la conveniencia de explorar el efecto de la combinacion del tratamiento de oxitocina con programas conductuales de intervencion en habilidades sociales, asi como la potenciacion de la secrecion endogena de oxitocina. Conclusiones. Los efectos de la administracion de oxitocina resultan prometedores en relacion con el tratamiento de los deficits sociales en individuos con TEA. Estudios futuros deberian facilitar la comprension de las vias de accion de la oxitocina y el establecimiento de pautas optimas de tratamiento.

  10. Support for a link between the local processing bias and social deficits in autism: an investigation of embedded figures test performance in non-clinical individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Smith, Suzanna N; Maybery, Murray T; Bayliss, Donna M; Sng, Adelln A H

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to explore the degree to which specific subsets of autistic-like traits relate to performance on the Embedded Figures Test (Witkin et al. in A manual for the embedded figures test. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA, 1971). In the first group-based investigation with this focus, students were selected for their extreme scores (either high or low) on each of the 'Social Skills' and 'Details/Patterns' factors of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (Baron-Cohen et al. in J Austim Dev Disord 31:5-17, 2001). The resulting 2 × 2 factorial design permitted examination of the degree to which the social and non-social autistic-like traits separately relate to EFT performance. Surprisingly, in two studies, superior EFT performance was found to relate only to greater social difficulty, suggesting that the local processing bias in autism may be linked specifically to the social deficits.

  11. The Evaluation of Family Quality of Life of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana ŞIPOŞ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Quality of Life (QoL represents a dimension of the overall status and of the wellbeing that might be influenced by various factors. Researchers suggest that the parents of children with disabilities may be more vulnerable in developing physical or mental issues and that these families have a lower quality of life. Primary objective of the study was to evaluate the QoL of families with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD children as compared with that of families with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD children. The data were collected from 65 children with age ranging between 2 and 14 years, diagnosed with ASD and 49 children diagnosed with ADHD. The Family Quality of Life Survey (FQoL was used to evaluate the family QoL. The multidimensional model of quality of life explains 48% of the variance of the global evaluation of the family’s quality of life, proportion statistically significant (F (9, 103 = 12.71 p<0.01. Under statistical control of other factors the most important predictors remain family (beta = 0.43, p < 0.001, support from others (beta =- 0.26, p < 0.001, career (beta = 0.23, p < 0.001 and financial status (beta = 0.15, p = 0.04. Parents of children from the ADHD sample believe that family relationships are less important for the family quality of life, have fewer opportunities to improve these relations, a lower initiative which can derive also from the reduced importance they place on this domain.

  12. Analysis of the chromosome X exome in patients with autism spectrum disorders identified novel candidate genes, including TMLHE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, C; Lamari, F; Héron, D; Mignot, C; Rastetter, A; Keren, B; Cohen, D; Faudet, A; Bouteiller, D; Gilleron, M; Jacquette, A; Whalen, S; Afenjar, A; Périsse, D; Laurent, C; Dupuits, C; Gautier, C; Gérard, M; Huguet, G; Caillet, S; Leheup, B; Leboyer, M; Gillberg, C; Delorme, R; Bourgeron, T; Brice, A; Depienne, C

    2012-01-01

    The striking excess of affected males in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggests that genes located on chromosome X contribute to the etiology of these disorders. To identify new X-linked genes associated with ASD, we analyzed the entire chromosome X exome by next-generation sequencing in 12 unrelated families with two affected males. Thirty-six possibly deleterious variants in 33 candidate genes were found, including PHF8 and HUWE1, previously implicated in intellectual disability (ID). A nonsense mutation in TMLHE, which encodes the ɛ-N-trimethyllysine hydroxylase catalyzing the first step of carnitine biosynthesis, was identified in two brothers with autism and ID. By screening the TMLHE coding sequence in 501 male patients with ASD, we identified two additional missense substitutions not found in controls and not reported in databases. Functional analyses confirmed that the mutations were associated with a loss-of-function and led to an increase in trimethyllysine, the precursor of carnitine biosynthesis, in the plasma of patients. This study supports the hypothesis that rare variants on the X chromosome are involved in the etiology of ASD and contribute to the sex-ratio disequilibrium. PMID:23092983

  13. Analysis of the chromosome X exome in patients with autism spectrum disorders identified novel candidate genes, including TMLHE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, C; Lamari, F; Héron, D; Mignot, C; Rastetter, A; Keren, B; Cohen, D; Faudet, A; Bouteiller, D; Gilleron, M; Jacquette, A; Whalen, S; Afenjar, A; Périsse, D; Laurent, C; Dupuits, C; Gautier, C; Gérard, M; Huguet, G; Caillet, S; Leheup, B; Leboyer, M; Gillberg, C; Delorme, R; Bourgeron, T; Brice, A; Depienne, C

    2012-10-23

    The striking excess of affected males in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggests that genes located on chromosome X contribute to the etiology of these disorders. To identify new X-linked genes associated with ASD, we analyzed the entire chromosome X exome by next-generation sequencing in 12 unrelated families with two affected males. Thirty-six possibly deleterious variants in 33 candidate genes were found, including PHF8 and HUWE1, previously implicated in intellectual disability (ID). A nonsense mutation in TMLHE, which encodes the ɛ-N-trimethyllysine hydroxylase catalyzing the first step of carnitine biosynthesis, was identified in two brothers with autism and ID. By screening the TMLHE coding sequence in 501 male patients with ASD, we identified two additional missense substitutions not found in controls and not reported in databases. Functional analyses confirmed that the mutations were associated with a loss-of-function and led to an increase in trimethyllysine, the precursor of carnitine biosynthesis, in the plasma of patients. This study supports the hypothesis that rare variants on the X chromosome are involved in the etiology of ASD and contribute to the sex-ratio disequilibrium.

  14. Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and the Relation with Comorbid Autism Traits and Attention Deficit Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantiene Schoorl

    Full Text Available Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD, children with other psychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, have emotion regulation difficulties too. On a behavioral level some overlap exists between these disorders and comorbidity is high. The aim of this study was therefore twofold: 1 to examine emotion regulation difficulties in 65 boys with ODD/CD in comparison to a non-clinical control group (NC of 38 boys (8-12 years using a performance measure (Ultimatum Game, parent report and self-report, and 2 to establish to what extent emotion regulation in the ODD/CD group was correlated with severity of autism and/or attention deficit traits. Results on the Ultimatum Game showed that the ODD/CD group rejected more ambiguous offers than the NC group, which is seen as an indication of poor emotion regulation. Parents also reported that the ODD/CD group experienced more emotion regulation problems in daily life than the NC group. In contrast to these cognitive and behavioral measures, self-reports did not reveal any difference, indicating that boys with ODD/CD do not perceive themselves as having impairments in regulating their emotions. Emotional decision making within the ODD/CD group was not related to variation in autism or attention deficit traits. These results support the idea that emotion dysregulation is an important problem within ODD/CD, yet boys with ODD/CD have reduced awareness of this.

  15. Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and the Relation with Comorbid Autism Traits and Attention Deficit Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, Sophie; de Wied, Minet; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD), children with other psychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, have emotion regulation difficulties too. On a behavioral level some overlap exists between these disorders and comorbidity is high. The aim of this study was therefore twofold: 1) to examine emotion regulation difficulties in 65 boys with ODD/CD in comparison to a non-clinical control group (NC) of 38 boys (8–12 years) using a performance measure (Ultimatum Game), parent report and self-report, and 2) to establish to what extent emotion regulation in the ODD/CD group was correlated with severity of autism and/or attention deficit traits. Results on the Ultimatum Game showed that the ODD/CD group rejected more ambiguous offers than the NC group, which is seen as an indication of poor emotion regulation. Parents also reported that the ODD/CD group experienced more emotion regulation problems in daily life than the NC group. In contrast to these cognitive and behavioral measures, self-reports did not reveal any difference, indicating that boys with ODD/CD do not perceive themselves as having impairments in regulating their emotions. Emotional decision making within the ODD/CD group was not related to variation in autism or attention deficit traits. These results support the idea that emotion dysregulation is an important problem within ODD/CD, yet boys with ODD/CD have reduced awareness of this. PMID:27420110

  16. Consensus Paper: Pathological Role of the Cerebellum in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Ashwood, Paul; Bauman, Margaret L.; Blaha, Charles D.; Blatt, Gene J.; Chauhan, Abha; Chauhan, Ved; Dager, Stephen R.; Dickson, Price E.; Estes, Annette M.; Goldowitz, Dan; Heck, Detlef H.; Kemper, Thomas L.; King, Bryan H.; Martin, Loren A.; Millen, Kathleen J.; Mittleman, Guy; Mosconi, Matthew W.; Persico, Antonio M.; Sweeney, John A.; Webb, Sara J.; Welsh, John P.

    2013-01-01

    There has been significant advancement in various aspects of scientific knowledge concerning the role of cerebellum in the etiopathogenesis of autism. In the current consensus paper, we will observe the diversity of opinions regarding the involvement of this important site in the pathology of autism. Recent emergent findings in literature related to cerebellar involvement in autism are discussed, including: cerebellar pathology, cerebellar imaging and symptom expression in autism, cerebellar genetics, cerebellar immune function, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and oxytocin related changes in autism, motor control and cognitive deficits, cerebellar coordination of movements and cognition, gene-environment interactions, therapeutics in autism and relevant animal models of autism. Points of consensus include presence of abnormal cerebellar anatomy, abnormal neurotransmitter systems, oxidative stress, cerebellar motor and cognitive deficits, and neuroinflammation in subjects with autism. Undefined areas or areas requiring further investigation include lack of treatment options for core symptoms of autism, vermal hypoplasia and other vermal abnormalities as a consistent feature of autism, mechanisms underlying cerebellar contributions to cognition, and unknown mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation. PMID:22370873

  17. [Assessment of anxiety in autism spectrum disorders and in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortea-Sevilla, M S; Escandell-Bermudez, M O; Castro-Sanchez, J J; Martos-Perez, J

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. La identificacion de factores que estan influyendo en el trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) o en los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA) permitira desarrollar estrategias de intervencion que repercutiran en beneficio de su ajuste personal y social. Es de sobra conocido que los niños con trastornos del desarrollo presentan mayor riesgo de manifestar sintomas de ansiedad que los que tienen desarrollo tipico. Objetivo. Valorar la percepcion que de la ansiedad tiene un grupo de niños y adolescentes con TDAH o TEA y la que creen los padres que poseen sus hijos mediante el Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorder (SCARED). Sujetos y metodos. Muestra de 107 niños y adolescentes, 73 diagnosticados de TDAH y 34 de TEA, con edades comprendidas entre 8 y 17 años (91 niños y 16 niñas), y sus respectivos padres o madres (53 padres y 54 madres). Todos cumplimentaron la correspondiente version del SCARED en presencia de alguno de los investigadores. Resultados. Los resultados muestran diferencias en los factores de ansiedad. Generalmente estas diferencias indican mayores niveles de ansiedad, tanto en los padres como en los hijos, en los niños y adolescentes diagnosticados de TDAH frente a los diagnosticados de TEA. Conclusiones. Hay diferencias significativas tanto entre los niveles de ansiedad mostrados por los niños y adolescentes diagnosticados de TDAH y los diagnosticados de TEA, como en los niveles de ansiedad percibida por sus padres.

  18. Failure in Pantomime Action Execution Correlates with the Severity of Social Behavior Deficits in Children with Autism: A Praxis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzonio, Valentina; Avanzini, Pietro; Campi, Cristina; Orivoli, Sonia; Piccolo, Benedetta; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe the performance of children with autism, their siblings, and typically developing children using the Florida Apraxia Battery. Children with autism showed the lowest performance in all sections of the test. They were mostly impaired in pantomime actions execution on imitation and on verbal command, and in imitation of meaningless…

  19. Theory of Mind and Executive Control Deficits in Typically Developing Adults and Adolescents with High Levels of Autism Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçen, Elif; Frederickson, Norah; Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by profound difficulties in empathic processing and executive control. Whilst the links between these processes have been frequently investigated in populations with autism, few studies have examined them at the subclinical level. In addition, the contribution of alexithymia, a trait characterised by…

  20. Failure in Pantomime Action Execution Correlates with the Severity of Social Behavior Deficits in Children with Autism: A Praxis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzonio, Valentina; Avanzini, Pietro; Campi, Cristina; Orivoli, Sonia; Piccolo, Benedetta; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe the performance of children with autism, their siblings, and typically developing children using the Florida Apraxia Battery. Children with autism showed the lowest performance in all sections of the test. They were mostly impaired in pantomime actions execution on imitation and on verbal command, and in imitation of meaningless…

  1. Theory of Mind and Executive Control Deficits in Typically Developing Adults and Adolescents with High Levels of Autism Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçen, Elif; Frederickson, Norah; Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by profound difficulties in empathic processing and executive control. Whilst the links between these processes have been frequently investigated in populations with autism, few studies have examined them at the subclinical level. In addition, the contribution of alexithymia, a trait characterised by…

  2. Prefrontal activation during inhibitory control measured by near-infrared spectroscopy for differentiating between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD based solely on symptomatic and behavioral assessments can be difficult, even for experts. Thus, the development of a neuroimaging marker that differentiates ASDs from ADHD would be an important contribution to this field. We assessed the differences in prefrontal activation between adults with ASDs and ADHD using an entirely non-invasive and portable neuroimaging tool, near-infrared spectroscopy. This study included 21 drug-naïve adults with ASDs, 19 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and IQ. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex were assessed during a stop signal task and a verbal fluency task. During the stop signal task, compared to the control group, the ASDs group exhibited lower activation in a broad prefrontal area, whereas the ADHD group showed underactivation of the right premotor area, right presupplementary motor area, and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Significant differences were observed in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex between the ASDs and ADHD groups during the stop signal task. The leave-one-out cross-validation method using mean oxygenated hemoglobin changes yielded a classification accuracy of 81.4% during inhibitory control. These results were task specific, as the brain activation pattern observed during the verbal fluency task did not differentiate the ASDs and ADHD groups significantly. This study therefore provides evidence of a difference in left ventrolateral prefrontal activation during inhibitory control between adults with ASDs and ADHD. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful as an auxiliary tool for the differential diagnosis of such developmental disorders.

  3. Prefrontal activation during inhibitory control measured by near-infrared spectroscopy for differentiating between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Takizawa, Ryu; Nishimura, Yukika; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Matsubayashi, Junko; Hamada, Kasumi; Okuhata, Shiho; Yahata, Noriaki; Igarashi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Shingo; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kato, Nobumasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kano, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based solely on symptomatic and behavioral assessments can be difficult, even for experts. Thus, the development of a neuroimaging marker that differentiates ASDs from ADHD would be an important contribution to this field. We assessed the differences in prefrontal activation between adults with ASDs and ADHD using an entirely non-invasive and portable neuroimaging tool, near-infrared spectroscopy. This study included 21 drug-naïve adults with ASDs, 19 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and IQ. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex were assessed during a stop signal task and a verbal fluency task. During the stop signal task, compared to the control group, the ASDs group exhibited lower activation in a broad prefrontal area, whereas the ADHD group showed underactivation of the right premotor area, right presupplementary motor area, and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Significant differences were observed in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex between the ASDs and ADHD groups during the stop signal task. The leave-one-out cross-validation method using mean oxygenated hemoglobin changes yielded a classification accuracy of 81.4% during inhibitory control. These results were task specific, as the brain activation pattern observed during the verbal fluency task did not differentiate the ASDs and ADHD groups significantly. This study therefore provides evidence of a difference in left ventrolateral prefrontal activation during inhibitory control between adults with ASDs and ADHD. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful as an auxiliary tool for the differential diagnosis of such developmental disorders.

  4. Designing and recruiting to UK autism spectrum disorder research databases: do they include representative children with valid ASD diagnoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnell, F; George, B; McConachie, H; Johnson, M; Hardy, R; Parr, J R

    2015-09-04

    (1) Describe how the Autism Spectrum Database-UK (ASD-UK) was established; (2) investigate the representativeness of the first 1000 children and families who participated, compared to those who chose not to; (3) investigate the reliability of the parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses, and present evidence about the validity of diagnoses, that is, whether children recruited actually have an ASD; (4) present evidence about the representativeness of the ASD-UK children and families, by comparing their characteristics with the first 1000 children and families from the regional Database of children with ASD living in the North East (Dasl(n)e), and children and families identified from epidemiological studies. Recruitment through a network of 50 UK child health teams and self-referral. Parents/carers with a child with ASD, aged 2-16 years, completed questionnaires about ASD and some gave professionals' reports about their children. 1000 families registered with ASD-UK in 30 months. Children of families who participated, and of the 208 who chose not to, were found to be very similar on: gender ratio, year of birth, ASD diagnosis and social deprivation score. The reliability of parent-reported ASD diagnoses of children was very high when compared with clinical reports (over 96%); no database child without ASD was identified. A comparison of gender, ASD diagnosis, age at diagnosis, school placement, learning disability, and deprivation score of children and families from ASD-UK with 1084 children and families from Dasl(n)e, and families from population studies, showed that ASD-UK families are representative of families of children with ASD overall. ASD-UK includes families providing parent-reported data about their child and family, who appear to be broadly representative of UK children with ASD. Families continue to join the databases and more than 3000 families can now be contacted by researchers about UK autism research. Published by the BMJ

  5. Parent-reported and clinician-observed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): implications for practice under DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Dick, Catherine; Lord, Catherine; Bishop, Somer

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often present with social difficulties, though the extent to which these clearly overlap with symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not well understood. We explored parent-reported and directly-observed ASD symptoms on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in children referred to ASD-specialty clinics who received diagnoses of either ADHD (n = 48) or ASD (n = 164). Of the ADHD sample, 21 % met ASD cut-offs on the ADOS and 30 % met ASD cut-offs on all domains of the ADI-R. Four social communication ADOS items (Quality of Social Overtures, Unusual Eye Contact, Facial Expressions Directed to Examiner, and Amount of Reciprocal Social Communication) adequately differentiated the groups while none of the items on the ADI-R met the criteria for adequate discrimination. Results of this work highlight the challenges that clinicians and researchers face when distinguishing ASD from other disorders in verbally fluent, school-age children.

  6. A novel approach of homozygous haplotype sharing identifies candidate genes in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casey, Jillian P.; Magalhaes, Tiago; Conroy, Judith M.; Regan, Regina; Shah, Naisha; Anney, Richard; Shields, Denis C.; Abrahams, Brett S.; Almeida, Joana; Bacchelli, Elena; Bailey, Anthony J.; Baird, Gillian; Battaglia, Agatino; Berney, Tom; Bolshakova, Nadia; Bolton, Patrick F.; Bourgeron, Thomas; Brennan, Sean; Cali, Phil; Correia, Catarina; Corsello, Christina; Coutanche, Marc; Dawson, Geraldine; de Jonge, Maretha; Delorme, Richard; Duketis, Eftichia; Duque, Frederico; Estes, Annette; Farrar, Penny; Fernandez, Bridget A.; Folstein, Susan E.; Foley, Suzanne; Fombonne, Eric; Freitag, Christine M.; Gilbert, John; Gillberg, Christopher; Glessner, Joseph T.; Green, Jonathan; Guter, Stephen J.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Holt, Richard; Hughes, Gillian; Hus, Vanessa; Igliozzi, Roberta; Kim, Cecilia; Klauck, Sabine M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Lamb, Janine A.; Leboyer, Marion; Le Couteur, Ann; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Lord, Catherine; Lund, Sabata C.; Maestrini, Elena; Mantoulan, Carine; Marshall, Christian R.; McConachie, Helen; McDougle, Christopher J.; McGrath, Jane; McMahon, William M.; Merikangas, Alison; Miller, Judith; Minopoli, Fiorella; Mirza, Ghazala K.; Munson, Jeff; Nelson, Stanley F.; Nygren, Gudrun; Oliveira, Guiomar; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Parr, Jeremy R.; Parrini, Barbara; Pickles, Andrew; Pinto, Dalila; Piven, Joseph; Posey, David J.; Poustka, Annemarie; Poustka, Fritz; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Roge, Bernadette; Rutter, Michael L.; Sequeira, Ana F.; Soorya, Latha; Sousa, Ines; Sykes, Nuala; Stoppioni, Vera; Tancredi, Raffaella; Tauber, Maite; Thompson, Ann P.; Thomson, Susanne; Tsiantis, John; Van Engeland, Herman; Vincent, John B.; Volkmar, Fred; Vorstman, Jacob A. S.; Wallace, Simon; Wang, Kai; Wassink, Thomas H.; White, Kathy; Wing, Kirsty; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Yaspan, Brian L.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Betancur, Catalina; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cantor, Rita M.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hallmayer, Joachim; Monaco, Anthony P.; Nurnberger, John I.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Szatmari, Peter; Vieland, Veronica J.; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Green, Andrew; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise; Vicente, Astrid; Ennis, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable disorder of complex and heterogeneous aetiology. It is primarily characterized by altered cognitive ability including impaired language and communication skills and fundamental deficits in social reciprocity. Despite some notable successes in neur

  7. Novel Therapeutic Targets to Treat Social Behavior Deficits in Autism and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    acceptance of any term or condition included therein. FINANCIAL INSTABILITY, INSOLVENCY, BANKRUPTCY OR RECEIVERSHIP a. The recipient shall...the Bankruptcy Act; (3) the recipient’s consent to the institution of an involuntary case under the Bankruptcy Act against the organization or...and track invoices electronically. Recipients shall (i) register to use WAWF at https://wawf.eb.mil and (ii) ensure an electronic business point of

  8. The interstitial duplication 15q11.2-q13 syndrome includes autism, mild facial anomalies and a characteristic EEG signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urraca, Nora; Cleary, Julie; Brewer, Victoria; Pivnick, Eniko K; McVicar, Kathryn; Thibert, Ronald L; Schanen, N Carolyn; Esmer, Carmen; Lamport, Dustin; Reiter, Lawrence T

    2013-08-01

    Chromosomal copy number variants (CNV) are the most common genetic lesion found in autism. Many autism-associated CNVs are duplications of chromosome 15q. Although most cases of interstitial (int) dup(15) that present clinically are de novo and maternally derived or inherited, both pathogenic and unaffected paternal duplications of 15q have been identified. We performed a phenotype/genotype analysis of individuals with interstitial 15q duplications to broaden our understanding of the 15q syndrome and investigate the contribution of 15q duplication to increased autism risk. All subjects were recruited solely on the basis of interstitial duplication 15q11.2-q13 status. Comparative array genome hybridization was used to determine the duplication size and boundaries while the methylation status of the maternally methylated small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N gene was used to determine the parent of origin of the duplication. We determined the duplication size and parental origin for 14 int dup(15) subjects: 10 maternal and 4 paternal cases. The majority of int dup(15) cases recruited were maternal in origin, most likely due to our finding that maternal duplication was coincident with autism spectrum disorder. The size of the duplication did not correlate with the severity of the phenotype as established by Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale calibrated severity score. We identified phenotypes not comprehensively described before in this cohort including mild facial dysmorphism, sleep problems and an unusual electroencephalogram variant. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the maternally expressed ubiquitin protein ligase E3A gene is primarily responsible for the autism phenotype in int dup(15) since all maternal cases tested presented on the autism spectrum.

  9. Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)…

  10. The Prevalence of Internet Addiction among a Japanese Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic Sample with Autism Spectrum Disorder And/or Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Ryuhei; Makino, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Masaki; Hirota, Tomoya; Ohcho, Kozo; Ikeda, Shin; Tsubouchi, Shouko; Inagaki, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Extant literature suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are risk factors for internet addiction (IA). The present cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of IA among 132 adolescents with ASD and/or ADHD in a Japanese psychiatric clinic using Young's Internet Addiction Test. The…

  11. [Autism and pain - a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Amandine; Rattaz, Cécile; Pry, René; Baghdadli, Amaria

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to assess the available literature concerning pain and autism. First, authors summarized the published articles on pain reactivity in people with autism. Second, the hypotheses envisaged to explain the presence of expressive particularities in people with autism spectrum disorders were reviewed; these included endogenous opioid excess theory, sensorial abnormalities and sociocommunicative deficit. Finally, the present review dealt with the tools available to assess and manage pain in people with autism. In conclusion, the authors revealed the need for more research to obtain more consensual data and provided some recommendations in this domain that were under exploited by the scientific community. From a clinical point of view, more knowledge about pain in people with autism should enable the development of specific assessment tools and, consequently, better pain management in daily care.

  12. Autisme et Douleur – Analyse Bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Dubois

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article was to assess the available literature concerning pain and autism. First, authors summarized the published articles on pain reactivity in people with autism. Second, the hypotheses envisaged to explain the presence of expressive particularities in people with autism spectrum disorders were reviewed; these included endogenous opioid excess theory, sensorial abnormalities and sociocommunicative deficit. Finally, the present review dealt with the tools available to assess and manage pain in people with autism. In conclusion, the authors revealed the need for more research to obtain more consensual data and provided some recommendations in this domain that were underexploited by the scientific community. From a clinical point of view, more knowledge about pain in people with autism should enable the development of specific assessment tools and, consequently, better pain management in daily care.

  13. [Functioning of memory in subjects with autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Vincendon, A; Bursztejn, C; Danion, J-M

    2008-12-01

    , suggesting they have difficulties in relation to processes involving the self. Studies involving assessment of subjective states of awareness during recognition show less conscious recollection and more feelings of familiarity. Recent investigations are consistent in demonstrating memory impairments related to the failure of subjects with autism to use organizing strategies or meaning to support memory, an effect which grows with the increasing complexity of the material. Memory deficits in autism may be related more to retrieval and less to encoding, as deficit in source memory in participants with autism is largely eliminated when source was supported at test. The neuroanatomical basis of the specificities of memory impairment in autism is still uncertain, but it is suggested that autism involves an impairment in the conversion of limbic inputs into medial prefrontal outputs. Memory deficits found in individuals with autism may explain some of the clinical symptoms. Failure to encode all the information, especially its social aspects, may therefore contribute to dysfunction in the social, communication, and reasoning domains. Abnormal memory functioning in autism is also related to more general cognitive impairments, including executive function deficits and central coherence weakness. Evidence of the normality of certain memory capacities, at least in individuals with moderate autistic symptomatology, is encouraging for adaptive improvements in cognitive functioning.

  14. Brain Mechanism of Face Perception Deficits in Autism%自闭症面部知觉缺陷的脑机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炼

    2011-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that autism has marked deficits in face perception. Based on the literature review, the study explored the brain mechanism of autism's face perception deficits. The results showed that: 1 ) Recognition of individual faces is an integral part of interpersonal interactions and successful functioning within a social group. This would have a profound influence on the social skill areas that are deficient in autism. 2)Researches in neuropsychology suggested that face perception is modulated by a patch of cortex within the lateral aspect of the middle part of the fusiform gyms that is known as the FFA( fusiform face area). 3 ) Evidence has shown the amygdale as well as FFA to be hypoactive during a face perceptual task or face expression task. Both areas are likely to affect the social development in autism.%自闭症存在明显的面部知觉缺陷.通过对文献进行分析,文章对自闭症的面部知觉缺陷的脑机制进行了概括.结果显示:1)对个人面孔的识别是进行人际交往和成功在一个社会群体中发挥作用的一个重要成分,这与自闭症存在的社会发展缺陷有着密切联系.2)神经心理学研究表明,面部知觉控制是由梭状回(枕颞叶内侧回)中部内侧出现的一小块皮质区所控制的(梭形的面部区,Fusiform face area,FFA).3)自闭症在对面孔区分时FFA部位激活水平更低,在情绪性面孔知觉时杏仁核激活水平也较低.这两个部位的病理缺陷,也会进而影响到自闭症儿童社会技能的发展.了解面部知觉在社会发展过程中的作用,为对自闭症进行早期干预提供了一条可能的途径.

  15. Communication deficits in babies and infants with autism and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if, and in what ways, communication impairments are present in toddlers (17-37 months) diagnosed with autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). Study 1-The scores of 20 toddlers with autism or PDD-NOS (i.e. ASD group) were compared to those of 20 typically-developing infants on the Communication sub-scale of the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT)-Part 1. Study 2-These same scores were compared between 660 toddlers who fell into three groups: autism, PDD-NOS and non-ASD-related developmentally delayed. Infants with an ASD exhibited greater communication impairments than did typically-developing infants overall and on all items. Additionally, significant differences were found in overall communication impairments and the majority of individual items between all three groups in Study 2. Significant communication impairments are present in toddlers diagnosed with autism and PDD-NOS before 37 months.

  16. Sensory processing in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relationship with non-verbal IQ, autism severity and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Cervera, Pilar; Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, Maria-Inmaculada; Tárraga-Mínguez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze in a sample of children with ASD the relationship between sensory processing, social participation and praxis impairments and some of the child's characteristics, such as non-verbal IQ, severity of ASD symptoms and the number of ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), both in the home and main-classroom environments. Participants were the parents and teachers of 41 children with ASD from 5 to 8 years old (M=6.09). They completed the Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) to evaluate sensory processing, social participation and praxis; the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS-2) to evaluate autism severity; and a set of items (the DSM-IV-TR criteria) to evaluate the number of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in the child. Non-verbal IQ - measured by the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices Test - did not show a relationship with any of the SPM variables. The SPM variables were significant predictors of autism severity and had similar weights in the two environments. In the case of ADHD symptoms, the SPM variables had a greater weight in the home than in the classroom environment, and they were significant predictors of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity - especially inattention - only in the family context. The moderate association between inattention and auditory processing found in the main-classroom suggests the possible utility of certain measures aimed to simplify any classroom's acoustic environment.

  17. Educational and Behavioral Interventions in Management of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Koyeli; Lobo, Leera; Krishnamurthy, Vibha

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) makes early recognition, evaluation and management an important task for pediatricians, physicians and other professionals caring for children. Educational interventions form the mainstay of management for children with autism spectrum disorder. Such interventions focus on improving social interaction, communication and challenging behaviors, thereby promoting learning and independence in children. This article provides an overview of educational and behavioral interventions in autism spectrum disorder, with special reference to challenges and feasible solutions in the Indian context. Articles were retrieved from various databases including Google Scholar, Medscape, Cochrane, PubMed using the search terms 'autism spectrum disorder OR autism AND educational interventions'; 'autism spectrum disorder OR autism, educational interventions AND India' and 'autism spectrum disorder OR autism AND India'. Reference lists from retrieved articles as well as websites of organizations working in this space in India were also searched. Extracted manuscripts were analysed for content related to various aspects of educational and behavioral interventions in autism spectrum disorder. Intervention models for autism spectrum disorder are based on various theoretical orientations and target specific deficits associated with the disorder. In addition, evidence-based principles for effective intervention are highlighted. In developing countries like India, access to interventions is a challenge and resources are limited. In such settings, the pediatrician's or physician's role is vital in supporting families choose programs that are evidence-based, target individual needs and result in improved outcomes.

  18. Cognitive profiles of adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder based on the WAIS-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Chieko; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Itahashi, Takashi; Tani, Masayuki; Yamada, Takashi; Ota, Haruhisa; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa

    2017-02-01

    The cognitive profile differences between adult patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well characterized. We examined the cognitive profiles of adults having either ASD (n=120) or ADHD (n=76) with no intellectual disabilities (IQ≥70) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). Verbal Intelligence (VIQ) - Performance Intelligence (PIQ) difference discrepancies were detected between the two groups. Information subtest scores of the Verbal Comprehension index and Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests of the Freedom from Distractibility index were significantly higher in ASD than in ADHD, while the Picture Completion subtest was significantly lower in ASD. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the difference in the cognitive profiles of adults with ASD and those with ADHD based on the WAIS III with a large number of participants.

  19. Personal recovery in individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD) and co-occurring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Linda M; Verkerk-Tamminga, Roeliene; Goossens, Peter J J; van den Brink, Wim; van Achterberg, Theo

    2015-08-01

    The process of personal recovery in people diagnosed with substance use disorder and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was mapped. Four general themes representing four consecutive stages in the recovery process were identified in both client groups: (1) crisis and diagnosis; (2) dealing with agitation, symptoms, and burden; (3) reorganization of life; and (4) meaningful life. However, the personal recovery outcomes and the need for support were different for the two clients groups. Based on these findings, mental health nurses can offer recovery supporting care tailored to the challenging needs of these clients. For the SUD+ADHD group, overall, a coaching attitude is preferred. For the SUD+ASD group, overall, instructional, supportive and directive attitude is needed.

  20. [Study of situational recognition of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders, Asperger's disorder and high functioning autism with the Metaphor and Sarcasm Scenario Test (MSST)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Taeko; Hirabayashi, Shinichi; Shiota, Madoka; Suzuki, Shuhei; Wakamiya, Eiji; Kitayama, Shinji; Kono, Masaki; Maeoka, Yukinori; Koeda, Tatsuya

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to clear up the difference between Asperger's disorder (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) with a newly developed test, the metaphor and sarcasm scenario test (MSST) can be used to distinguish pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD). So 66 AS children, 20 HFA children and 37 AD/HD children were selected, compared the profiles of score on the MSST. The results showed that the inability to understand sarcastic situation was specific to group with AS, both group with HFA and AD/HD were differ little to understand between metaphor and sarcasm. In this study suggest differences in situational recognition among the PDD subtypes, the clinical symptoms of PDD reflects characteristics of AS.

  1. The simulating social mind: the role of the mirror neuron system and simulation in the social and communicative deficits of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Lindsay M; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2007-03-01

    The mechanism by which humans perceive others differs greatly from how humans perceive inanimate objects. Unlike inanimate objects, humans have the distinct property of being "like me" in the eyes of the observer. This allows us to use the same systems that process knowledge about self-performed actions, self-conceived thoughts, and self-experienced emotions to understand actions, thoughts, and emotions in others. The authors propose that internal simulation mechanisms, such as the mirror neuron system, are necessary for normal development of recognition, imitation, theory of mind, empathy, and language. Additionally, the authors suggest that dysfunctional simulation mechanisms may underlie the social and communicative deficits seen in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

  2. Do communication and social interaction skills differ across youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or dual diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salley, Brenda; Gabrielli, Joy; Smith, Catherine M; Braun, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    Given the well-documented symptom overlap between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), careful evaluation of potential differentiation and overlap is critical for accurate diagnostic decisions. Although research has considered the use of symptom checklists and parent/teacher report questionnaires for symptom differentiation, standardized observational methods, typically utilized in the context of ASD evaluation, have received less attention. The present study examined the continuum of communication and social interaction impairment for youth diagnosed with ASD and ADHD, as indexed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Participants were 209 youth ages 3 to 18 years with ASD, ADHD, Dual Diagnosis (ASD+ADHD) or No Diagnosis. Differences across diagnostic groups were observed for mean communication and social interaction total scores on the ADOS, with the highest scores (i.e., greater impairment) observed for the ASD group and lowest scores for the ADHD and No Diagnosis groups. Results provide the first evidence for use of the ADOS for distinguishing youth who have ADHD alone versus ASD alone or co-occurring ASD+ADHD. Findings are discussed in light of implications for clinical practice and future research.

  3. Chronic metals ingestion by prairie voles produces sex-specific deficits in social behavior: an animal model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J Thomas; Hood, Amber N; Chen, Yue; Cobb, George P; Wallace, David R

    2010-11-12

    We examined the effects of chronic metals ingestion on social behavior in the normally highly social prairie vole to test the hypothesis that metals may interact with central dopamine systems to produce the social withdrawal characteristic of autism. Relative to water-treated controls, 10 weeks of chronic ingestion of either Hg(++) or Cd(++) via drinking water significantly reduced social contact by male voles when they were given a choice between isolation or contact with an unfamiliar same-sex conspecific. The effects of metals ingestion were specific to males: no effects of metals exposure were seen in females. Metals ingestion did not alter behavior of males allowed to choose between isolation or their familiar cage-mates, rather than strangers. We also examined the possibility that metals ingestion affects central dopamine functioning by testing the voles' locomotor responses to peripheral administration of amphetamine. As with the social behavior, we found a sex-specific effect of metals on amphetamine responses. Males that consumed Hg(++) did not increase their locomotor activity in response to amphetamine, whereas similarly treated females and males that ingested only water significantly increased their locomotor activities. Thus, an ecologically relevant stimulus, metals ingestion, produced two of the hallmark characteristics of autism - social avoidance and a male-oriented bias. These results suggest that metals exposure may contribute to the development of autism, possibly by interacting with central dopamine function, and support the use of prairie voles as a model organism in which to study autism.

  4. An Examination of the Relationship between Communication and Socialization Deficits in Children with Autism and PDD-NOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are characterized by pervasive impairments in repetitive behaviors or interests, communication, and socialization. As the onset of these features occurs at a very young age, early detection is of the utmost importance. In an attempt to better clarify the behavioral presentation of communication and socialization…

  5. Quantitative Linkage for Autism Spectrum Disorders Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : Significant Locus on Chromosome 7q11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Judith; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Altink, Marieke E.; Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; Fliers, Ellen A.; Franke, Barbara; Minderaa, Rudolf; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2014-01-01

    We studied 261 ADHD probands and 354 of their siblings to assess quantitative trait loci associated with autism spectrum disorder symptoms (as measured by the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ)) using a genome-wide linkage approach, followed by locus-wide association analysis. A genome-

  6. Quantitative linkage for autism spectrum disorders symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: significant locus on chromosome 7q11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, J.S.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Altink, M.E.; Buschgens, C.J.M.; Fliers, E.A.; Franke, B.; Minderaa, R.B.; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Hartman, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    We studied 261 ADHD probands and 354 of their siblings to assess quantitative trait loci associated with autism spectrum disorder symptoms (as measured by the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ)) using a genome-wide linkage approach, followed by locus-wide association analysis. A genome-

  7. Evidence for Shared Deficits in Identifying Emotions from Faces and from Voices in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Grayndler, Luke; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) have traditionally been conceptualized as distinct disorders, recent findings indicate that the boundaries between these two conditions are not clear-cut. While considerable research has investigated overlap in the linguistic characteristics of ASD and SLI,…

  8. Structural-functional connectivity deficits of neocortical circuits in the Fmr1 (-/y) mouse model of autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haberl, M.G.; Zerbi, V.; Veltien, A.A.; Ginger, M.; Heerschap, A.; Frick, A.

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited form of intellectual disability disorder and a frequent cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is characterized by a high prevalence of sensory symptoms. Perturbations in the anatomical connectivity of neocortical circuits resulting in their

  9. Quantitative Linkage for Autism Spectrum Disorders Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Significant Locus on Chromosome 7q11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Rommelse, Nanda N.; Altink, Marieke E.; Buschgens, Cathelijne J.; Fliers, Ellen A.; Franke, Barbara; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2014-01-01

    We studied 261 ADHD probands and 354 of their siblings to assess quantitative trait loci associated with autism spectrum disorder symptoms (as measured by the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) using a genome-wide linkage approach, followed by locus-wide association analysis. A genome-wide significant locus for the CSBQ subscale…

  10. Structural-functional connectivity deficits of neocortical circuits in the Fmr1 (-/y) mouse model of autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haberl, M.G.; Zerbi, V.; Veltien, A.A.; Ginger, M.; Heerschap, A.; Frick, A.

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited form of intellectual disability disorder and a frequent cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is characterized by a high prevalence of sensory symptoms. Perturbations in the anatomical connectivity of neocortical circuits resulting in their func

  11. Feeling, Caring, Knowing: Different Types of Empathy Deficit in Boys with Psychopathic Tendencies and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alice P.; Happe, Francesca G. E.; Gilbert, Francesca; Burnett, Stephanie; Viding, Essi

    2010-01-01

    Background: Empathy dysfunction is one of the hallmarks of psychopathy, but it is also sometimes thought to characterise autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Individuals with either condition can appear uncaring towards others. This study set out to compare and contrast directly boys with psychopathic tendencies and boys with ASD on tasks assessing…

  12. Difficulties in everyday life: Young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders perspectives. A chat-log analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt H. Ahlström

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the everyday life of young persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. There are follow-up studies describing ADHD, and ASD in adults, and residual impairments that affect life. Few qualitative studies have been conducted on the subject of their experiences of everyday life, and even fewer are from young persons’ perspectives. This study's aim was to describe how young persons with ADHD and ASD function and how they manage their everyday life based on analyses of Internet-based chat logs. Twelve young persons (7 males and 5 females aged 15–26 diagnosed with ADHD and ASD were included consecutively and offered 8 weeks of Internet-based Support and Coaching (IBSC. Data were collected from 12 chat logs (445 pages of text produced interactively by the participants and the coaches. Qualitative content analysis was applied. The text was coded and sorted into subthemes and further interpreted into themes. The findings revealed two themes: “fighting against an everyday life lived in vulnerability” with the following subthemes: “difficult things,” “stress and rest,” and “when feelings and thoughts are a concern”; and the theme “struggling to find a life of one's own” with the following subthemes: “decide and carry out,” “making life choices,” and “taking care of oneself.” Dealing with the problematic situations that everyday encompasses requires personal strength and a desire to find adequate solutions, as well as to discover a role in society. This study, into the provision of support and coaching over the Internet, led to more in-depth knowledge about these young persons’ everyday lives and revealed their ability to use IBSC to express the complexity of everyday life for young persons with ADHD and ASD. The implications of the findings are that using online coaching makes available new opportunities for healthcare professionals to acknowledge

  13. Differentiating Communication Disorders and Autism in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), particularly in young children has become a top priority in the fields of mental health and education. Core symptoms include rituals and stereotypies, social skills deficits, and problems in communication. Considerable overlap exists in symptoms for…

  14. Behavioral phenotypes of genetic mouse models of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdoba, T M; Leach, P T; Crawley, J N

    2016-01-01

    More than a hundred de novo single gene mutations and copy-number variants have been implicated in autism, each occurring in a small subset of cases. Mutant mouse models with syntenic mutations offer research tools to gain an understanding of the role of each gene in modulating biological and behavioral phenotypes relevant to autism. Knockout, knockin and transgenic mice incorporating risk gene mutations detected in autism spectrum disorder and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders are now widely available. At present, autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed solely by behavioral criteria. We developed a constellation of mouse behavioral assays designed to maximize face validity to the types of social deficits and repetitive behaviors that are central to an autism diagnosis. Mouse behavioral assays for associated symptoms of autism, which include cognitive inflexibility, anxiety, hyperactivity, and unusual reactivity to sensory stimuli, are frequently included in the phenotypic analyses. Over the past 10 years, we and many other laboratories around the world have employed these and additional behavioral tests to phenotype a large number of mutant mouse models of autism. In this review, we highlight mouse models with mutations in genes that have been identified as risk genes for autism, which work through synaptic mechanisms and through the mTOR signaling pathway. Robust, replicated autism-relevant behavioral outcomes in a genetic mouse model lend credence to a causal role for specific gene contributions and downstream biological mechanisms in the etiology of autism.

  15. The dynamics of attentional and inhibitory functions in the presence of distracting stimuli in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, high-functioning autism and oppositional defiant disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to elucidate the specific nature of attention and response inhibition deficits in three clinical groups: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and high-functioning autism, as compared to children with a typical development. The analysis approached task performance dynamics as a function of time and the presence of distracting stimuli. Material and method: 108 children aged 7–12 years participated in the study – 21 diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder, 21 with high-functioning autism, 19 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; 47 made the control group. The study employed the MOXO-CPT to evaluate attention and inhibition functions. Results: Pairwise comparisons of clinical groups with typically-developing children in their performance on the entire test indicated considerable differences between the control group and children with both oppositional defiant disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but not between healthy subjects and children with autism. Performance profiles varied depending on the group, i.e. the type of disorder, and the level of the test, i.e. stimulus duration and intensity, but they were different for the particular studied aspects of attention and/or inhibition. High levels of similarity in functioning for all clinical groups were found in the measures of response accuracy, i.e. sustained attention and the speed of accurate response. The tendency to provide unnecessary responses and difficulties in complying with rules were found only in children with oppositional-defiant disorders. Impulsiveness rates increased over time in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, fluctuated over time in autism, while in the oppositional defiant disorder group performance was stable over time, but worse than in the control group. Conclusions: The dynamics of attentional and inhibitory control in clinical groups

  16. Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a diagnosis that includes significant social communication deficits/delays along with restricted patterns of interests and behaviors. The prevalence of this diagnosis has increased over the past few decades, and it is unclear whether this is solely attributable to the increased awareness of milder forms of the disorder among medical providers. The current treatment options for the core symptoms of autism are limited to psychosocial therapies, such as applied behavi...

  17. Autism and Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, E R

    1998-08-01

    Autism is a severe developmental disability believed to have multiple etiologies. This paper outlines the possibility of a subacute, chronic tetanus infection of the intestinal tract as the underlying cause for symptoms of autism observed in some individuals. A significant percentage of individuals with autism have a history of extensive antibiotic use. Oral antibiotics significantly disrupt protective intestinal microbiota, creating a favorable environment for colonization by opportunistic pathogens. Clostridium tetani is an ubiquitous anaerobic bacillus that produces a potent neurotoxin. Intestinal colonization by C. tetani, and subsequent neurotoxin release, have been demonstrated in laboratory animals which were fed vegetative cells. The vagus nerve is capable of transporting tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) and provides a route of ascent from the intestinal tract to the CNS. This route bypasses TeNT's normal preferential binding sites in the spinal cord, and therefore the symptoms of a typical tetanus infection are not evident. Once in the brain, TeNT disrupts the release of neurotransmitters by the proteolytic cleavage of synaptobrevin, a synaptic vesicle membrane protein. This inhibition of neurotransmitter release would explain a wide variety of behavioral deficits apparent in autism. Lab animals injected in the brain with TeNT have exhibited many of these behaviors. Some children with autism have also shown a significant reduction in stereotyped behaviors when treated with antimicrobials effective against intestinal clostridia. When viewed as sequelae to a subacute, chronic tetanus infection, many of the puzzling abnormalities of autism have a logical basis. A review of atypical tetanus cases, and strategies to test the validity of this paper's hypothesis, are included.

  18. Structural and functional connectivity of the human brain in autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A rich club organization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Siddharth; Miller, Meghan; Karalunas, Sarah; Robertson, C.J.; Grayson, David; Cary, Paul; Hawkey, Elizabeth; Painter, Julia G.; Kriz, Daniel; Fombonne, Eric; Nigg, Joel T.; Fair, Damien A.

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are two of the most common and vexing neurodevelopmental disorders among children. Although the two disorders share many behavioral and neuropsychological characteristics, most MRI studies examine only one of the disorders at a time. Using graph theory combined with structural and functional connectivity, we examined the large-scale network organization among three groups of children: a group with ADHD (8-12 years, n = 20), a group with ASD (7-13 years, n = 16), and typically developing controls (TD) (8-12 years, n = 20). We apply the concept of the rich-club organization, whereby central, highly connected hub regions are also highly connected to themselves. We examine the brain into two different network domains: (1) inside a rich-club network phenomena, and (2) outside a rich-club network phenomena. ASD and ADHD populations had markedly different patterns of rich club and non rich-club connections in both functional and structural data. The ASD group exhibited higher connectivity in structural and functional networks but only inside the rich-club networks. These findings were replicated using the autism brain imaging data exchange (ABIDE) dataset with ASD (n = 85) and TD (n = 101). The ADHD group exhibited a lower generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and functional connectivity inside the rich-club networks, but a higher number of axonal fibers and correlation coefficient values outside the rich-club. Despite some shared biological features and frequent comorbity, these data suggest ADHD and ASD exhibit distinct large-scale connectivity patterns in middle childhood. PMID:25116862

  19. Teaching social skills to people with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M J; Harris, S L

    2001-10-01

    The treatment of social skills deficits remains one of the most challenging areas in meeting the needs of people with autism. Difficulties in understanding social stimuli, in initiating and responding to social bids, and in appreciating the affect that is intrinsic to social interactions can be baffling for people with autism. Researchers and practitioners of applied behavior analysis have tried a variety of strategies for teaching social skills. This article examines a range of useful procedures for teaching social skills to people with autism, including skills that are adult mediated, peer mediated, and child-with-autism mediated. The authors also consider the potential of classwide interventions in inclusive settings, pivotal response training, and the use of scripts to teach social initiations.

  20. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1 sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2 complex active place avoidance learning (APA and simple passive avoidance retention (PA. Electroretinogram (ERG, hemispheric loss (infarction, hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001, sensory (p<0.001, beam balance performance (p<0.01 and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01. tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05 but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining. No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01 in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and

  1. Attentional Processes in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Gerald; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2001-01-01

    Attention processes in 103 children and adults with high functioning autism were compared with a matched control group using a battery of attention measures. Differences were found only on tasks which placed demands on cognitive flexibility or psychomotor speed, suggesting that purported attention deficits in autism may actually be primary…

  2. Mouse Models of Autism: Testing Hypotheses About Molecular Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is currently diagnosed by the presence of three behavioral criteria (1) qualitative impairments in reciprocal social interactions, (2) deficits in communication, including delayed language and noninteractive conversation, and (3) motor stereotypies, repetitive behaviors, insistence on sameness, and restricted interests. This chapter describes analogous behavioral assays that have been developed for mice, including tests for social approach, recipro...

  3. [Schooling of patients exhibiting Autism Spectrum Disorders without mental retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, D; Assouline, B; Piero, A

    2015-12-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders belong to Pervasive Development Disorders. Although access to education is recommended by the French National High Authority for Health (HAS), the practice remains limited and the reasons for the low education rate of these children have still not been sufficiently explored in the literature. The main objective of this study was to analyze the links between Autism Spectrum Disorder without mental retardation, psychiatric comorbidity and education. The secondary objective was to analyze the cognitive and contextual factors that could limit educational inclusion. Eighty-three autistic patients (3-18years old; 73 males and 10 females) with childhood autism, atypical autism or Asperger's syndrome (criteria from the International Classification of Diseases-10) without mental retardation and in education were assessed at the Alpine Centre for Early Diagnosis of Autism. The sample included 45 subjects with childhood autism, 12 subjects with atypical autism and 26 subjects with Asperger's syndrome. The diagnosis was based on the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R), in accordance with the recommendations of the HAS, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV). Our results showed that childhood autism and atypical autism were mainly found in nursery and primary school, whereas Asperger's syndrome was mainly found in secondary school (Chi(2)=18.23; df=6; PWISC-IV also differed: the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and Working Memory Index (WMI) were higher for Asperger's syndrome than for childhood autism and atypical autism (respectively, F=23.11, PWISC-IV, along a continuum that ranges from childhood autism (more needs and deficits) to atypical autism to Asperger's syndrome. The Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and the Processing Speed Index (PSI) could be used to evaluate the number of hours of support needed by children and to better target the deficits and

  4. Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi S. Gadad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology.

  5. Absence of evidence for increase in risk for autism or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder following antidepressant exposure during pregnancy: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, V M; Kong, S W; Clements, C C; Brady, R; Kaimal, A J; Doyle, A E; Robinson, E B; Churchill, S E; Kohane, I S; Perlis, R H

    2016-01-05

    Multiple studies have examined the risk of prenatal antidepressant exposure and risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with inconsistent results. Precisely estimating such risk, if any, is of great importance in light of the need to balance such risk with the benefit of depression and anxiety treatment. We developed a method to integrate data from multiple New England health systems, matching offspring and maternal health data in electronic health records to characterize diagnoses and medication exposure. Children with ASD or ADHD were matched 1:3 with children without neurodevelopmental disorders. Association between maternal antidepressant exposure and ASD or ADHD liability was examined using logistic regression, adjusting for potential sociodemographic and psychiatric confounding variables. In new cohorts of 1245 ASD cases and 1701 ADHD cases, along with age-, sex- and socioeconomic status matched controls, neither disorder was significantly associated with prenatal antidepressant exposure in crude or adjusted models (adjusted odds ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.50-1.54 for ASD; 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.53-1.69 for ADHD). Pre-pregnancy antidepressant exposure significantly increased risk for both disorders. These results suggest that prior reports of association between prenatal antidepressant exposure and neurodevelopmental disease are likely to represent a false-positive finding, which may arise in part through confounding by indication. They further demonstrate the potential to integrate data across electronic health records studies spanning multiple health systems to enable efficient pharmacovigilance investigation.

  6. Absence of evidence for increase in risk for autism or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder following antidepressant exposure during pregnancy: a replication study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, V M; Kong, S W; Clements, C C; Brady, R; Kaimal, A J; Doyle, A E; Robinson, E B; Churchill, S E; Kohane, I S; Perlis, R H

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have examined the risk of prenatal antidepressant exposure and risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with inconsistent results. Precisely estimating such risk, if any, is of great importance in light of the need to balance such risk with the benefit of depression and anxiety treatment. We developed a method to integrate data from multiple New England health systems, matching offspring and maternal health data in electronic health records to characterize diagnoses and medication exposure. Children with ASD or ADHD were matched 1:3 with children without neurodevelopmental disorders. Association between maternal antidepressant exposure and ASD or ADHD liability was examined using logistic regression, adjusting for potential sociodemographic and psychiatric confounding variables. In new cohorts of 1245 ASD cases and 1701 ADHD cases, along with age-, sex- and socioeconomic status matched controls, neither disorder was significantly associated with prenatal antidepressant exposure in crude or adjusted models (adjusted odds ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.50−1.54 for ASD; 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.53−1.69 for ADHD). Pre-pregnancy antidepressant exposure significantly increased risk for both disorders. These results suggest that prior reports of association between prenatal antidepressant exposure and neurodevelopmental disease are likely to represent a false-positive finding, which may arise in part through confounding by indication. They further demonstrate the potential to integrate data across electronic health records studies spanning multiple health systems to enable efficient pharmacovigilance investigation. PMID:26731445

  7. Independence of hot and cold executive function deficits in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Laird Zimmerman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD display diverse deficits in social, cognitive and behavioral functioning. To date, there has been mixed findings on the profile of executive function deficits for high-functioning adults (IQ >70 with ASD. A conceptual distinction is commonly made between cold and hot executive functions. Cold executive functions refer to mechanistic higher-order cognitive operations (e.g., working memory, whereas hot executive functions entail cognitive abilities supported by emotional awareness and social perception (e.g., social cognition. This study aimed to determine the independence of deficits in hot and cold executive functions for high-functioning adults with ASD. Forty-two adults with ASD (64% male, aged 18-66 years and 40 age and gender matched controls were administered The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; emotion recognition and social inference, Letter Number Sequencing (working memory and Hayling Sentence Completion Test (response initiation and suppression. Between-group analyses identified that the ASD group performed significantly worse than matched controls on all measures of cold and hot executive functions (d = .54-1.5. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the ASD sample performed more poorly on emotion recognition and social inference tasks than matched controls after controlling for cold executive functions and employment status. The findings also indicated that the ability to recognise emotions and make social inferences was supported by working memory and response initiation and suppression processes. Overall, this study supports the distinction between hot and cold executive function impairments for adults with ASD. Moreover, it advances understanding of higher-order impairments underlying social interaction difficulties for this population which, in turn, may assist with diagnosis and inform intervention programs.

  8. Ability to show shame can include children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    ) the children have to participate in physical activities at least 45 minutes each school day. Autism and ADHD are disabling conditions that affects social communication and interaction, and often also their motor skills and cognition (Harvey & Reid, 2003; Verret, 2010). Therefore these children can be challenge...... children and the principals at the schools, focus group interviews with the PE teachers and modified Social Network method on the school classes. The empirical framework will be analyzed through process-sociologist Norbert Elias theory of Civilizing (1994) and The Establish and Outsiders (Elias & Scotson......, 1994) and micro-sociologist Erving Goffmans theory about Stigma (2014) and Dramaturgies (2014). The research is at the moment in process and the presentation will only show initial analyses.Some of the children participate and enjoy PE, but the majority of the children often get a feeling of being...

  9. Divergent Patterns of Social Cognition Performance in Autism and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kathryn L.; Melville, Jessica L.; Rich, Dominique; Strutt, Paul A.; Cooper, Gavin; Loughland, Carmel M.; Schall, Ulrich; Campbell, Linda E.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with developmental disorders frequently report a range of social cognition deficits including difficulties identifying facial displays of emotion. This study examined the specificity of face emotion processing deficits in adolescents with either autism or 22q11DS compared to typically developing (TD) controls. Two tasks (face emotion…

  10. A review of autism spectrum disorders children co-morbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%孤独症谱系障碍共患注意力缺陷多动障碍的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李堃

    2016-01-01

    研究发现,很多孤独症谱系障碍(autism spectrum disorders,ASD)儿童伴有不同程度的注意力缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)的症状.与单纯ASD儿童相比,共患病儿童的ASD症状更明显,认知功能也受损更严重,其生活也会受到影响.该文对目前共患ADHD的ASD儿童临床表现以及执行功能的相关研究做出综述.%In recent several decades, studies have reported the representation of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) symptoms could co-morbid in children with autism spectrum disorders(ASD).Compared with the ASD-only group, children with both ADHD and ASD often have a more obvious representation of autism symptom as well as more impaired cognitive functions which could deeply impact on their daily life.There is a brief review of observation and executive functions in ASD children co-morbid ADHD-symptoms.

  11. Disentangling imitation and dyspraxia in individuals with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Heidi Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Imitation deficits are well-documented in autism although the specific nature of these deficits is not completely understood. Researchers have attempted to account for imitation deficits within the context of cognitive theories of autism but these theories have not been successful in explaining all of the gestural disturbances reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The types of gestural impairments along with error patterns observed in autism are simila...

  12. The Co- Occurrence of Autism and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children-what do we know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eLeitner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD often co-occur. The DSM IV had specified that an ASD diagnosis is an exclusion criterion for ADHD, thereby limiting research of this common clinical co-occurrence. As neurodevelopmental disorders, both ASD and ADHD share some phenotypic similarities, but are characterized by distinct diagnostic criteria. The present review will examine the frequency and implications of this clinical co-occurrence in children, with an emphasis on the available data regarding preschool age. The review will highlight possible etiologies explaining it, and suggest future research directions necessary to enhance our understanding of both etiology and therapeutic interventions, in light of the new DSM V criteria , allowing for a dual diagnosis.

  13. Emotion Dysregulation and the Core Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C.; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Parker, Karen J.; Shah, Shweta; Gross, James J.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between emotion dysregulation and the core features of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), which include social/communication deficits, restricted/repetitive behaviors, and sensory abnormalities. An 18-item Emotion Dysregulation Index was developed on the basis of expert ratings of the Child…

  14. Autism in action: Reduced bodily connectedness during social interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. (Lieke E. Peper

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a lifelong disorder, defined by deficits in social interactions and flexibility. To date, diagnostic markers for autism primarily include limitations in social behavior and cognition. However, such tests have often shown to be inadequate for individuals with autism who are either more cognitively able or intellectually disabled. The assessment of the social limitations of autism would benefit from new tests that capture the dynamics of social initiative and reciprocity in interaction processes, and that are not dependent on intellectual or verbal skills. New entry points for the development of such assessments may be found in 'bodily connectedness', the attunement of bodily movement between two individuals. In typical development, bodily connectedness is related to psychological connectedness, including social skills and relation quality. Limitations in bodily connectedness could be a central mechanism underlying the social impairment in autism. While bodily connectedness can be minutely assessed with advanced techniques, our understanding of these skills in autism is limited. This Perspective provides examples of how the potential relation between bodily connectedness and specific characteristics of autism can be examined using methods from the coordination dynamics approach. Uncovering this relation is particularly important for developing sensitive tools to assess the tendency to initiate social interactions and the dynamics of mutual adjustments during social interactions, as current assessments are not suited to grasp ongoing dynamics and reciprocity in behavior. The outcomes of such research may yield valuable openings for the development of diagnostic markers for autism that can be applied across the lifespan.

  15. Cerebrolysin prevents deficits in social behavior, repetitive conduct, and synaptic inhibition in a rat model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Olguin, Roberto; Roychowdhury, Swagata; Banerjee, Anwesha; Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Esquivel-Rendon, Eric; Bringas, María Elena; Kilgard, Michael P; Flores, Gonzalo; Atzori, Marco

    2017-06-13

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome of diverse neuropsychiatric diseases of growing incidence characterized by repetitive conduct and impaired social behavior and communication for which effective pharmacological treatment is still unavailable. While the mechanisms and etiology of ASD are still unknown, a consensus is emerging about the synaptic nature of the syndrome, suggesting a possible avenue for pharmacological treatment with synaptogenic compounds. The peptidic mixture cerebrolysin (CBL) has been successfully used during the last three decades in the treatment of stroke and neurodegenerative disease. Animal experiments indicate that at least one possible mechanism of action of CBL is through neuroprotection and/or synaptogenesis. In the present study, we tested the effect of CBL treatment (daily injection of 2.5 mL/Kg i.p. during 15 days) on a rat model of ASD. This was based on the offspring (43 male and 51 female pups) of a pregnant female rat injected with valproic acid (VPA, 600 mg/Kg) at the embryonic day 12.5, which previous work has shown to display extensive behavioral, as well as synaptic impairment. Comparison between saline vs. CBL-injected VPA animals shows that CBL treatment improves behavioral as well as synaptic impairments, measured by behavioral performance (social interaction, Y-maze, plus-maze), maximal response of inhibitory γ-amino butyric acid type A receptor (GABAA R)-mediated synaptic currents, as well as their kinetic properties and adrenergic and muscarinic modulation. We speculate that CBL might be a viable and effective candidate for pharmacological treatment or co-treatment of ASD patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.

  17. Mouse models of autism: testing hypotheses about molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullet, Florence I; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is currently diagnosed by the presence of three behavioral criteria (1) qualitative impairments in reciprocal social interactions, (2) deficits in communication, including delayed language and noninteractive conversation, and (3) motor stereotypies, repetitive behaviors, insistence on sameness, and restricted interests. This chapter describes analogous behavioral assays that have been developed for mice, including tests for social approach, reciprocal social interactions, olfactory communication, ultrasonic vocalizations, repetitive and perseverative behaviors, and motor stereotypies. Examples of assay applications to genetic mouse models of autism are provided. Robust endophenotypes that are highly relevant to the core symptoms of autism are enabling the search for the genetic and environmental causes of autism, and the discovery of effective treatments.

  18. Helping the most vulnerable out of the poverty trap and reducing inequality: Policies, strategies, and services for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder, including intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities: BASE Project Report (Volume 2) NILT Survey Autism Module

    OpenAIRE

    Dillenburger, Karola; Jordan, Julie-Ann; McKerr, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of the BASE Project was to establish how to help individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder out of poverty by promoting social inclusion. In order to achieve this, a range of methodologies were utilised that aimed to provide a baseline against which the effect of the Autism Act (NI) 2011 and the associated Autism Strategy (2013-2020) and Action Plans can be measured. The BASE Project is reported in 5 volumes. Volume 2 reports on the analysis of the autism module of the Nort...

  19. Towards a Convergent Account of Pragmatic Language Deficits in Children with High-Functioning Autism: Depicting the Phenotype Using the Pragmatic Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu Sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Despite its prominence, pragmatic characteristic associated with autism is under-explored and thus was not well defined. The present study attempted to depict a relatively comprehensive profile of language pragmatics in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) using the Pragmatic Rating Scale (PRS). Pragmatic behaviors of 26 HFA children were…

  20. Electrophysiological Signs of Supplementary-Motor-Area Deficits in High-Functioning Autism but Not Asperger Syndrome: An Examination of Internally Cued Movement-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G.; Bradshaw, John L.; Iansek, Robert; Tonge, Bruce J.; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Motor dysfunction is common to both autism and Asperger syndrome, but the underlying neurophysiological impairments are unclear. Neurophysiological examinations of motor dysfunction can provide information about likely sites of functional impairment and can contribute to the debate about whether autism and Asperger syndrome are variants of…

  1. Adaptive and Innate Immune Responses in Autism: Rationale for Therapeutic Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sudhir; Samra, Daljeet; Agrawal, Sudhanshu

    2010-01-01

    Background Autism is a complex polygenic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in communication and social interactions as well as specific stereotypical behaviors. Both genetic and environmental factors appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of autism. Accumulating data including changes in immune responses, linkage to major histocompatibility complex antigens, and the presence of autoantibodies to neural tissues/antigens suggest that the immune system plays an important ro...

  2. An Inside Job: How Endosomal Na+/H+ Exchangers Link to Autism and Neurological Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kondapalli, Kalyan C.; Hari ePrasad; Rajini eRao

    2014-01-01

    Autism imposes a major impediment to childhood development and a huge emotional and financial burden on society. In recent years, there has been rapidly accumulating genetic evidence that links the eNHE, a subset of Na+/H+ exchangers that localize to intracellular vesicles, to a variety of neurological conditions including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability, and epilepsy. By providing a leak pathway for protons pumped by the V-ATPase, eNHE determi...

  3. FINDING MEANING IN LIFE FOR PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: A SALUTOGENIC APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold Chee Keong, Chua

    2016-01-01

    Parenting a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has never been easy. Research has shown that parenting stress is much higher whose children are diagnosed with developmental disabilities such as ASD than typically developing children. The contributing factors include, but not limited to, the child’s limited social and communication skills and restricted and stereotypical activities (core deficits of autism). Parents lacking knowledge about ASD often resort to other forms of interve...

  4. Study on the social maturity, self-perception, and associated factors, including motor coordination, of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fumiko; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify characteristics of social maturity and self-perception in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to elucidate associated factors, including motor coordination. The subjects were 15 children (14 boys and 1 girl, in elementary school grades 3 to 6). Their characteristics were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), the Japanese version of the Social Maturity Scale-R (S-M scale), and Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children (SPPC). The results of the study suggested that most of the subjects had some degree of motor problem and delay of social maturity. They also suggested an association between social maturity and static-dynamic balance, which was one of the indices of motor coordination.

  5. Evidence of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism and Implications for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Rossignol

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical mitochondrial diseases occur in a subset of individuals with autism and are usually caused by genetic anomalies or mitochondrial respiratory pathway deficits. However, in many cases of autism, there is evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD without the classic features associated with mitochondrial disease. MtD appears to be more common in autism and presents with less severe signs and symptoms. It is not associated with discernable mitochondrial pathology in muscle biopsy specimens despite objective evidence of lowered mitochondrial functioning. Exposure to environ-mental toxins is the likely etiology for MtD in autism. This dysfunction then contributes to a number of diagnostic symptoms and comorbidities observed in autism including: cognitive impairment, language deficits, abnormal energy metabolism, chronic gastrointestinal problems, abnormalities in fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxidative stress. MtD and oxidative stress may also explain the high male to female ratio found in autism due to increased male vulnerability to these dysfunctions. Biomarkers for mitochondrial dysfunction have been identified, but seem widely under-utilized despite available therapeutic interventions. Nutritional supplementation to decrease oxidative stress along with factors to improve reduced glutathione, as well as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT represent supported and rationale approaches. The underlying pathophysiology and autistic symptoms of affected individuals would be expected to either improve or cease worsening once effective treatment for MtD is implemented.

  6. Grammaticality Judgments in Autism: Deviance or Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Bennetto, Loisa

    2009-01-01

    Language in autism has been the subject of intense interest, because communication deficits are central to the disorder, and because autism serves as an arena for testing theories of language acquisition. High-functioning older children with autism are often considered to have intact grammatical abilities, despite pragmatic impairments. Given the…

  7. Brief Report: Enhanced Picture Naming in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walenski, Matthew; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Gidley-Larson, Jennifer C.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are key diagnostic criteria for autism. However, not all aspects of language are equally affected. Here we present evidence of "enhanced" performance of a critical aspect of language--word processing--in children with autism. The results have implications for explanatory theories of autism and language, and for…

  8. Elderly with Autism: Executive Functions and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Vissers, Marlies E.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive autism research is mainly focusing on children and young adults even though we know that autism is a life-long disorder and that healthy aging already has a strong impact on cognitive functioning. We compared the neuropsychological profile of 23 individuals with autism and 23 healthy controls (age range 51-83 years). Deficits were…

  9. Comparison of Scores on the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale for Children with Low Functioning Autism, High Functioning Autism, Asperger's Disorder, ADHD, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Mahr, Fauzia; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and validity for three autism instruments were compared for 190 children with low functioning autism (LFA), 190 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (HFA), 76 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 64 typical children. The instruments were the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder…

  10. Comparison of Scores on the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale for Children with Low Functioning Autism, High Functioning Autism, Asperger's Disorder, ADHD, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Mahr, Fauzia; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and validity for three autism instruments were compared for 190 children with low functioning autism (LFA), 190 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (HFA), 76 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 64 typical children. The instruments were the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder…

  11. Autism Phenotypes in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Tanjala T; Poretti, Andrea; Thomas, Emily A; Jenkins, Kosunique T; Desai, Sonal; Johnston, Michael V

    2015-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multisystem, chronic genetic condition characterized by systemic growth of benign tumors and often accompanied by epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and intellectual disability. Nonetheless, the neurodevelopmental phenotype of these patients is not often detailed. The authors describe 3 individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex who share common characteristics that can help to identify a distinct profile of autism spectrum disorder. These findings include typical cognitive development, expressive and pragmatic language deficits, and anxiety. The authors also describe features specific to tuberous sclerosis complex that require consideration before diagnosing an autism spectrum disorder. Identifying distinct profiles of autism spectrum disorder in tuberous sclerosis complex can help optimize treatment across the life span.

  12. Clinic attenders with autism or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: cognitive profile at school age and its relationship to preschool indicators of language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi S; Miniscalco, Carmela; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have had early indicators of language delay. The aim of the present study was to examine the cognitive profile of school age children referred to a specialist clinic for ASD, ADHD, or both, and relate this profile specifically to the age at which these children were first flagged up (or not) as suspected from language delay during the preschool years. Forty clinic children with ASD, ADHD, or the combination of the two (without clinical suspicion of learning disability) were assessed cognitively and as regards language development and language function at a mean age of 7.3 years. They were contrasted with a group of 21 children from the community who had been flagged at 2.5 years as suspected of language delay, and who had been followed up neuropsyhiatrically/neuropsychologically and in respect of language at a mean age of 7.9 years. Mean WISC-III full scale IQ was lower than population norms (in spite of the exclusion in both samples of cases with obvious learning disability) and similar across diagnostic groups (ASD and ADHD), and across settings (clinic and community). WISC-III Kaufman factor profiles separated the diagnostic groups as regards Perceptual Organisation. Early concern about language delay was a strong predictor of lower IQ and of distinguishing between "pure" cases of ASD and ADHD. School age clinic children who present with ASD and ADHD have a similar cognitive and early language development profile as do those children from the community, followed prospectively, who present with a suspicion of early preschool language delay and are shown at school age to suffer from ASD or ADHD. Concern about early language delay in the preschool age should prompt assessments (psychiatric and cognitively) for ASD and ADHD in a multidisciplinary setting much more often than is currently the case. In many cases early language delay, even in

  13. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a predictor of parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginny Russell

    Full Text Available The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ is widely used as an international standardised instrument measuring child behaviour. The primary aim of our study was to examine whether behavioral symptoms measured by SDQ were elevated among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD relative to the rest of the population, and to examine the predictive value of the SDQ for outcome of parent-reported clinical diagnosis of ASD/ADHD. A secondary aim was to examine the extent of overlap in symptoms between children diagnosed with these two disorders, as measured by the SDQ subscales. A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Birth Cohort (n = 19,519, was conducted. Data were weighted to be representative of the UK population as a whole. ADHD or ASD identified by a medical doctor or health professional were reported by parents in 2008 and this was the case definition of diagnosis; (ADHD n = 173, ASD n = 209, excluding twins and triplets. Study children's ages ranged from 6.3-8.2 years; (mean 7.2 years. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the parent-reported clinical diagnosis of ASD/ADHD and teacher and parent-reported SDQ subscales. All SDQ subscales were strongly associated with both ASD and ADHD. There was substantial co-occurrence of behavioral difficulties between children diagnosed with ASD and those diagnosed with ADHD. After adjustment for other subscales, the final model for ADHD, contained hyperactivity/inattention and impact symptoms only and had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 90%; (AUC = 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90-0.97. The final model for ASD was composed of all subscales except the 'peer problems' scales, indicating of the complexity of behavioural difficulties that may accompany ASD. A threshold of 0.03 produced model sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 93% respectively; AUC = 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86-0.95. The

  14. Addressing Working Memory in Children with Autism through Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltruschat, Lisa; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Tarbox, Jonathan; Dixon, Dennis R.; Najdowski, Adel C.; Mullins, Ryan D.; Gould, Evelyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism often struggle with executive function (EF) deficits, particularly with regard to working memory (WM). Despite the documented deficits in these areas, very little controlled research has evaluated treatments for remediation of EF or WM deficits in children with autism. This study examined the use of positive reinforcement for…

  15. Severe Childhood Autism: The Family Lived Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessette Gorlin, Jocelyn; McAlpine, Cynthia Peden; Garwick, Ann; Wieling, Elizabeth

    This research examined the experiences of families living with a child with severe autism. There is limited literature on the experiences of families when a child has severe autism as distinct from milder autism and includes the voices of multiple family members. Van Manen's phenomenological approach was used for data collection and analysis. This approach allowed for the use of innovative data sources, including unstructured individual and family interviews, observations, and family lifelines (a pictorial, temporal picture with comments of the families lives). This study included 29 interviews with 22 participants from 11 families. All data were creatively triangulated and interpreted. Six essential themes were identified. First, families experienced autism as mysterious and complex because it is an invisible and unpredictable condition with diagnostic challenges. Second, families described severe autism behaviors that often caused self-injury, harm to others and damaged homes. Third, profound communication deficits resulted in isolation between the family and child. Fourth, families discussed the unrelenting stress from lack of sleep, managing the child's developmental delays, coordinating and financing services, and concern for the child's future. Fifth, families described consequences of isolation from friends, school, the public, and health providers. Sixth, families portrayed their need for compassionate support and formed 'hybrid families' (nuclear, extended families and friends) to gain support. Study results can be utilized to educate nurses/other providers about the unique needs of families with children with severe autism and could influence health care policies to improve the care for families caring for children with severe autism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Helping the most vulnerable out of the poverty trap and reducing inequality: Policies, strategies, and services for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder, including intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities: Benchmarking Autism Services Efficacy: BASE Project (Volume 3) Secondary Data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    1) Executive SummaryLegislation (Autism Act NI, 2011), a cross-departmental strategy (Autism Strategy 2013-2020) and a first action plan (2013-2016) have been developed in Northern Ireland in order to support individuals and families affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) without a prior thorough baseline assessment of need. At the same time, there are large existing data sets about the population in NI that had never been subjected to a secondary data analysis with regards to data on ASD...

  17. Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2016-08-15

    Autism spectrum disorder is a diagnosis that includes significant social communication deficits/delays along with restricted patterns of interests and behaviors. The prevalence of this diagnosis has increased over the past few decades, and it is unclear whether this is solely attributable to the increased awareness of milder forms of the disorder among medical providers. The current treatment options for the core symptoms of autism are limited to psychosocial therapies, such as applied behavior analysis. Medications have been most effective in treating the associated behavioral symptoms of autism, though studies have examined potential benefits in some of the core symptoms of autism with certain medications, especially the repetitive behaviors often seen with this diagnosis. Risperidone and aripiprazole are currently the only medications FDA approved for symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders, targeting the irritability often seen with this diagnosis. Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder appear to be more susceptible to adverse effects with medications; therefore, initiation with low doses and titrating very slowly is recommended. Some complementary alternative treatments have been researched as possible treatments in autism, though evidence supporting many of these is very limited.

  18. Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a diagnosis that includes significant social communication deficits/delays along with restricted patterns of interests and behaviors. The prevalence of this diagnosis has increased over the past few decades, and it is unclear whether this is solely attributable to the increased awareness of milder forms of the disorder among medical providers. The current treatment options for the core symptoms of autism are limited to psychosocial therapies, such as applied behavior analysis. Medications have been most effective in treating the associated behavioral symptoms of autism, though studies have examined potential benefits in some of the core symptoms of autism with certain medications, especially the repetitive behaviors often seen with this diagnosis. Risperidone and aripiprazole are currently the only medications FDA approved for symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders, targeting the irritability often seen with this diagnosis. Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder appear to be more susceptible to adverse effects with medications; therefore, initiation with low doses and titrating very slowly is recommended. Some complementary alternative treatments have been researched as possible treatments in autism, though evidence supporting many of these is very limited. PMID:27738378

  19. [Can we cure autism? From outcome to intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, M; Thorp, D; Mundy, P; Tuchman, R F

    2005-01-15

    Outcome in autism is variable but with a significant trend toward a poor prognosis and despite reports that outcome in individuals with autism may be improving secondary to early intensive interventions there is still much to be learned about the natural history and the effects of intervention in autism spectrum disorders. While there may not be a known cure for autism, there are a number of viable treatment options available. The primary models of treatment are non pharmacological interventions that include intervention models such as applied behavior analysis and developmental and structured teaching. The role of pharmacological interventions is limited to treating specific symptoms that may be interfering with a child's ability to learn or function within a particular environment. The question of whether or not we can cure autism needs to be discussed in terms of the need to overcome the as of yet poorly understood fundamental disturbance in autism and the need to develop treatment protocols specifically targeting social deficits. At the present time, it is more appropriate to speak of our quest to understand autism than it is to speak of a cure.

  20. Multiple recurrent de novo copy number variations (CNVs), including duplications of the 7q11.23 Williams-Beuren syndrome region, are strongly associated with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Stephan J.; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Hus, Vanessa; Luo, Rui; Murtha, Michael T.; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Chu, Su H.; Moreau, Michael P.; Gupta, Abha R.; Thomson, Susanne A.; Mason, Christopher E.; Bilguvar, Kaya; Celestino-Soper, Patricia B. S.; Choi, Murim; Crawford, Emily L.; Davis, Lea; Wright, Nicole R. Davis; Dhodapkar, Rahul M.; DiCola, Michael; DiLullo, Nicholas M.; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Fielding-Singh, Vikram; Fishman, Daniel O.; Frahm, Stephanie; Garagaloyan, Rouben; Goh, Gerald S.; Kammela, Sindhuja; Klei, Lambertus; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lund, Sabata C.; McGrew, Anna D.; Meyer, Kyle A.; Moffat, William J.; Murdoch, John D.; O'Roak, Brian J.; Ober, Gordon T.; Pottenger, Rebecca S.; Raubeson, Melanie J.; Song, Youeun; Wang, Qi; Yaspan, Brian L.; Yu, Timothy W.; Yurkiewicz, Ilana R.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Curland, Martin; Grice, Dorothy E.; Günel, Murat; Lifton, Richard P.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Donna M.; Shaw, Chad A.; Sheldon, Michael; Tischfield, Jay A.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Morrow, Eric M.; Ledbetter, David H.; Fombonne, Eric; Lord, Catherine; Martin, Christa Lese; Brooks, Andrew I.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Cook, Edwin H.; Geschwind, Daniel; Roeder, Kathryn; Devlin, Bernie; State, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Given prior evidence for the contribution of rare copy number variations (CNVs) to autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we studied these events in 4,457 individuals from 1,174 simplex families, composed of parents, a proband and, in most kindreds, an unaffected sibling. We find significant association of ASD with de novo duplications of 7q11.23, where the reciprocal deletion causes Williams-Beuren syndrome, featuring a highly social personality. We identify rare recurrent de novo CNVs at five additional regions including two novel ASD loci, 16p13.2 (including the genes USP7 and C16orf72) and Cadherin13, and implement a rigorous new approach to evaluating the statistical significance of these observations. Overall, we find large de novo CNVs carry substantial risk (OR=3.55; CI =2.16-7.46, p=6.9 × 10−6); estimate the presence of 130-234 distinct ASD-related CNV intervals across the genome; and, based on data from multiple studies, present compelling evidence for the association of rare de novo events at 7q11.23, 15q11.2-13.1, 16p11.2, and Neurexin1. PMID:21658581

  1. Electrophysiological signs of supplementary-motor-area deficits in high-functioning autism but not Asperger syndrome: an examination of internally cued movement-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G; Bradshaw, John L; Iansek, Robert; Tonge, Bruce J; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2009-10-01

    Motor dysfunction is common to both autism and Asperger syndrome, but the underlying neurophysiological impairments are unclear. Neurophysiological examinations of motor dysfunction can provide information about likely sites of functional impairment and can contribute to the debate about whether autism and Asperger syndrome are variants of the same disorder or fundamentally distinct neurodevelopmental conditions. We investigated the neurophysiology of internally determined motor activity in autism and Asperger syndrome via examination of movement-related potentials (MRPs). We used electroencephalography to investigate MRPs, via an internally cued movement paradigm, in the following three groups: (1) individuals with high-functioning autism (14 males, one female; mean age 13 y 1 mo, SD 4 y 2 mo, range 7 y 8 mo to 20 y 9 mo; mean Full-scale IQ 93.40, SD 20.72); (2) individuals with Asperger syndrome (10 males, two females; mean age 13 y 7 mo, SD 3 y 9 mo, range 8 y 11 mo to 20 y 4 mo; mean Full-scale IQ 103.25, SD 19.37), and (3) a healthy control group (13 males, seven females; mean age 14 y 0 mo, SD 3 y 11 mo; range 8 y 4 mo to 21 y 0 mo; mean Full-scale IQ 114.25, SD 11.29). Abnormal MRPs can reflect disruption of motor-related neural networks involving the basal ganglia, thalamus, and supplementary motor area. There was evidence for abnormal MRPs in autism (e.g. increased post-movement cortical activity, abnormal peak time) but not in Asperger syndrome. The results support basal ganglia, thalamus, and supplementary motor area involvement as a likely source of motor dysfunction in autism, and provide further evidence for the neurobiological separateness of autism and Asperger syndrome.

  2. A trial of d-cycloserine to treat the social deficit in older adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Maria; Okwara, Leonore; Manser, Paul; Hartmann, Kathrin; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are difficult for older adolescents and young adults as impaired social communication affects the transition to adult life. d-Cycloserine, a partial glycine agonist at the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor, was tested in a double-blind randomized trial in 20 older adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders using two dosing strategies (50 mg daily versus 50 mg weekly) for 8 weeks with a 2-week follow-up after discontinuation. d-Cycloserine caused statistically and clinically significant improvement with no differentiation between dosing strategies on the Social Responsiveness Scale and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist before and after d-cycloserine administration.

  3. Enteric bacterial metabolites propionic and butyric acid modulate gene expression, including CREB-dependent catecholaminergic neurotransmission, in PC12 cells--possible relevance to autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra B Nankova

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA like propionic (PPA, and butyric acid (BA, which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals

  4. Mirror me: Imitative responses in adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunke, Odette; Schöttle, Daniel; Vettorazzi, Eik; Brandt, Valerie; Kahl, Ursula; Bäumer, Tobias; Ganos, Christos; David, Nicole; Peiker, Ina; Engel, Andreas K; Brass, Marcel; Münchau, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Dysfunctions of the human mirror neuron system have been postulated to underlie some deficits in autism spectrum disorders including poor imitative performance and impaired social skills. Using three reaction time experiments addressing mirror neuron system functions under simple and complex conditions, we examined 20 adult autism spectrum disorder participants and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender and education. Participants performed simple finger-lifting movements in response to (1) biological finger and non-biological dot movement stimuli, (2) acoustic stimuli and (3) combined visual-acoustic stimuli with different contextual (compatible/incompatible) and temporal (simultaneous/asynchronous) relation. Mixed model analyses revealed slower reaction times in autism spectrum disorder. Both groups responded faster to biological compared to non-biological stimuli (Experiment 1) implying intact processing advantage for biological stimuli in autism spectrum disorder. In Experiment 3, both groups had similar 'interference effects' when stimuli were presented simultaneously. However, autism spectrum disorder participants had abnormally slow responses particularly when incompatible stimuli were presented consecutively. Our results suggest imitative control deficits rather than global imitative system impairments.

  5. The influence of affective empathy and autism spectrum traits on empathic accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan Het Rot, Marije; Hogenelst, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by interpersonal deficits and has been associated with limited cognitive empathy, which includes perspective taking, theory of mind, and empathic accuracy (EA). The capacity for affective empathy may also be impaired. In the present study we aimed to determi

  6. The influence of affective empathy and autism spectrum traits on empathic accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan Het Rot, Marije; Hogenelst, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by interpersonal deficits and has been associated with limited cognitive empathy, which includes perspective taking, theory of mind, and empathic accuracy (EA). The capacity for affective empathy may also be impaired. In the present study we aimed to

  7. Further Analysis of the Effects of Positive Reinforcement on Working Memory in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltruschat, Lisa; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Tarbox, Jonathan; Dixon, Dennis R.; Najdowski, Adel C.; Mullins, Ryan D.; Gould, Evelyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often exhibit impaired executive function (EF) performance, including difficulty with working memory (WM), in particular. While research has documented the existence of these deficits, surprisingly little research exists that evaluates potential treatment strategies for improving EF or WM. One…

  8. Association of ADHD, Tics, and Anxiety with Dopamine Transporter ("DAT1") Genotype in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Hatchwell, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with high rates of psychiatric disturbance to include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder, and anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) functional polymorphism located in the…

  9. The influence of affective empathy and autism spectrum traits on empathic accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan Het Rot, Marije; Hogenelst, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by interpersonal deficits and has been associated with limited cognitive empathy, which includes perspective taking, theory of mind, and empathic accuracy (EA). The capacity for affective empathy may also be impaired. In the present study we aimed to determi

  10. Kinetics of 3H-serotonin uptake by platelets in infantile autism and developmental language disorder (including five pairs of twins)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsui, T.; Okuda, M.; Usuda, S.; Koizumi, T.

    1986-03-01

    The kinetics of 5-HT uptake by platelets was studied in cases of infantile autism and developmental language disorder (DLD) and normal subjects. Two patients of the autism group were twins, and the seven patients of the DLD group were members of four pairs of twins. The Vmax values (means +/- SD) for autism and DLD were 6.46 +/- .90 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min and 4.85 +/- 1.50 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min, respectively. These values were both significantly higher than that of 2.25 +/- .97 pmole 5-HT/10(7) cells/min for normal children. The Km values of the three groups were not significantly different. Data on the five pairs of twins examined suggested that the elevated Vmax of 5-HT uptake by platelets was determined genetically.

  11. Fetal exposure to teratogens: evidence of genes involved in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour-Rainfray, Diane; Vourc'h, Patrick; Tourlet, Sébastien; Guilloteau, Denis; Chalon, Sylvie; Andres, Christian R

    2011-04-01

    Environmental challenges during the prenatal period can result in behavioral abnormalities and cognitive deficits that appear later in life such as autism. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid, ethanol, thalidomide and misoprostol has been shown to be associated with an increased incidence of autism. In addition, rodents exposed in utero to some of these drugs show autism-like abnormalities, including brain changes and lifelong behavior dysfunction. Our aim is to summarize current understanding of the relationship between in utero exposure to these drugs and autism in humans and in autism-like animal model phenotypes. It also highlights the importance of these models to understanding the neurobiology of autism, particularly in the identification of susceptibility genes. These drugs are able to modulate the expression of many genes involved in processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, neuronal differentiation and migration, synaptogenesis and synaptic activity. It seems essential to focus research on genes expressed during early neurodevelopment which may be the target of mutations or affected by drugs such as those included in this review.

  12. Abnormalities in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Associated with Attentional and Inhibitory Control Deficits: A Neurophysiological Study on Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S.; Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie Wing-man; Leung, Connie; Wong, Virginia C. N.; Cheung, Mei-chun

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is activated when individuals engage in attention and inhibitory control tasks. The present study examined whether ACC activity is associated with behavioral performance of the two tasks. Twenty normal and 20 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) were subjected to…

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  14. Pharmacotherapy of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuto, Arianna; Battan, Barbara; Porfirio, Maria Cristina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    Although no pharmacological or behavioral therapy has currently proven effective for treating all core symptoms of autism, many dysfunctional behaviors may be treated pharmacologically. Drug treatments should always be part of a comprehensive management plan that includes behavioral and educational interventions, and should be focused on specific targets. Several classes of psychotropic medications have been used to decrease the wide range of "maladaptive" or "interfering" behaviors and associated medical problems that can interfere with relationships and physical health and hinder the implementation of various non-pharmacological interventions. Atypical neuroleptics have been shown to be useful in the treatment of behavioral symptoms in autism. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder medications may be effective for counteracting the additional features of hyperactivity and short attention span. Antiepileptic drugs and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have shown promising results, but there are no specific indications for them as of yet. With respect to potential drug targets, some clinical features are caused by a dysfunction in neurochemical signaling systems, and thus may improve with selective pharmacological interventions acting on specific abnormal neurobiological pathways. Recent animal studies can be useful models for understanding the common pathogenic pathways leading to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and have the potential to offer new biologically focused treatment options.

  15. Autism and behavior in adult patients with Dravet syndrome (DS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, J J L; Veugen, I; Veendrick-Meekes, M J B M; Snoeijen-Schouwenaars, F M; Schelhaas, H J; Willemsen, M H; Tan, I Y; Aldenkamp, A P

    2015-06-01

    Autism and behavioral characteristics in adults with Dravet syndrome (DS) have rarely been systematically studied. Three scales were used to assess the outcomes of DS in adulthood in terms of autism and behavior. All the adult patients with DS, nine male and four female, aged between 18 and 60 years, living at the Epilepsy Center Kempenhaeghe in The Netherlands were included in the study. In addition, the past medical history of each patient was systematically screened for diagnoses like autism, Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), hyperactivity, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and self-mutilation. Information concerning past and current use of psychoactive drugs was also evaluated. Eight patients (61.5%) were classified as having autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to the AVZ-R or according to the medical record. Self-mutilation was seen in four patients (30.8%), hyperactivity in none. Three patients (23.1%) currently used psychoactive drugs. Autism spectrum disorders persist in adult patients with DS, while certain characteristics associated with behavioral problems, such as hyperactivity or use of psychoactive medication, seem to be less prominent than in childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Autism in Angelman syndrome: implications for autism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S U; Beaudet, A L; Madduri, N; Bacino, C A

    2004-12-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe mental retardation, ataxia, and a happy/sociable disposition. Maternally, but not paternally, derived defects, such as duplications, within the AS critical region result in autistic symptomatology, suggesting that the UBE3A gene might be implicated in the causation of autism. This study examined the prevalence of autism in AS in 19 children representing three known molecular classes of AS. Children were studied over the course of 1 year. Forty-two percent of this population, eight of 19 children, met criteria for autism according to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Parents of children who were diagnosed with autism according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria as well as the ADOS - Generic, Module 1 (ADOS-G) were administered the Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (ADI-R). Data from the ADI-R were convergent with data from the ADOS-G in all cases. Children with comorbid autism and AS scored lower on measures of language, adaptive behavior, and cognition, and demonstrated a slower rate of improvement over the course of the study. Furthermore, they demonstrated deficits in communication and socialization that mirror those observed in children with idiopathic autism. The study highlights the phenotypic overlap between autism and AS and increases the probability that dysregulation of UBE3A may play a role in the causation of autism.

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder and intact executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, R; Ansermet, F; Massoni, F; Petrone, L; Onofri, E; Ricci, P; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent. The aim of the present study to examine the current standing of intact executive functioning intact in ASD.

  18. Children with Autism's Perception and Understanding of Ambiguous Figures: Evidence for Pictorial Metarepresentation, a Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Doherty, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    A large body of autism research over the last 20 years has shown that people with autism have difficulties understanding mental states. This has been conceived of as a metarepresentational deficit. An open question is whether people with autism's metarepresentational deficit is limited to the mental domain. This research explores individuals with…

  19. Gestalt Processing in Autism: Failure to Process Perceptual Relationships and the Implications for Contextual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark J.; Scott, Fiona J.; Fox, Simone; Pye, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in autism have been characterised as a bias towards local over global processing. This paper examines whether there is a deficit in gestalt grouping in autism. Method: Twenty-five low-functioning children with autism and 25 controls who were matched for chronological age and verbal mental age took part in the study. Results:…

  20. Gestalt Processing in Autism: Failure to Process Perceptual Relationships and the Implications for Contextual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark J.; Scott, Fiona J.; Fox, Simone; Pye, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in autism have been characterised as a bias towards local over global processing. This paper examines whether there is a deficit in gestalt grouping in autism. Method: Twenty-five low-functioning children with autism and 25 controls who were matched for chronological age and verbal mental age took part in the study. Results:…

  1. Oxytocin Treatment, Circuitry, and Autism: A Critical Review of the Literature Placing Oxytocin Into the Autism Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastella, Adam J; Hickie, Ian B

    2016-02-01

    Observed impairment in reciprocal social interaction is a diagnostic hallmark of autism spectrum disorders. There is no effective medical treatment for these problems. Psychological treatments remain costly, time intensive, and developmentally sensitive for efficacy. In this review, we explore the potential of oxytocin-based therapies for social impairments in autism. Evidence shows that acute oxytocin administration improves numerous markers critical to the social circuitry underlying social deficits in autism. Oxytocin may optimize these circuits and enhance reward, motivation, and learning to improve therapeutic outcomes. Despite this, the current evidence of therapeutic benefit from extended oxytocin treatment remains very limited. We highlight complexity in crossing from the laboratory to the autism clinical setting in evaluation of this therapeutic. We discuss a clinical trial approach that provides optimal opportunity for therapeutic response by using personalized methods that better target specific circuitry to define who will obtain benefit, at what stage of development, and the optimal delivery approach for circuitry manipulation. For the autism field, the therapeutic challenges will be resolved by a range of treatment strategies, including greater focus on specific interventions, such as oxytocin, that have a strong basis in the fundamental neurobiology of social behavior. More sophisticated and targeted clinical trials utilizing such approaches are now required, placing oxytocin into the autism context.

  2. The Role of Epigenetic Change in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Loke, Yuk Jing; Hannan, Anthony John; Craig, Jeffrey Mark

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by problems with social communication, social interaction, and repetitive or restricted behaviors. ASD are comorbid with other disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, Rett syndrome, and Fragile X syndrome. Neither the genetic nor the environmental components have been characterized well enough to aid diagnosis or treatment of non-syndromic ASD. However, genom...

  3. Maternal exposure to the water soluble fraction of crude oil, lead and their mixture induces autism-like behavioral deficits in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanchuan; Zhong, Hongxiu; Wang, Chonggang; Gao, Dongxu; Zhou, Yulin; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2016-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious debilitating mental illness with complex symptoms and multi-factorial pathogenesis. Although the pathogenesis of ASD remains unclear, etiology is thought to involve complex, multigenic interactions and possible environmental contributions. In the present study, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model to investigate whether maternal exposure to the water soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF, 5μg/L), lead (Pb, 20μg/L) and their mixture (5 μg/L WSF+20 μg/L Pb) could induce autism-like behavior in larvae. Our results showed that isolated and combined WSF/Pb exposure altered the behavioral pattern of fish swimming. WSF significantly increased anxiety and locomotor activity, decreased repetitive behavior in the open field test, and reduced the level of serotonin. However, co-exposure to WSF/Pb decreased behavioral activity and shoaling behavior, and increased cycle swimming and edge preference. Significant changes in the expression level of the multiple genes potentially critical for regulating environmental factor induced autism-like behavior were found. A gene network regulating ASD disturbed by WSF/Pb exposure was established using computational analysis. The information from the network could provide a clue for further mechanistic studies explaining molecular events regulating WSF/Pb mediated ASD.

  4. Social Cognition, Social Skill, and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J.; Nowlin, Rachel B.; Pinkham, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Social-cognitive deficits differentiate parents with the "broad autism phenotype" from non-broad autism phenotype parents more robustly than other neuropsychological features of autism, suggesting that this domain may be particularly informative for identifying genetic and brain processes associated with the phenotype. The current study…

  5. The Contribution of Epigenetics to Understanding Genetic Factors in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Layla; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a grouping of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social communication and language, as well as by repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. While the environment is believed to play a role in the development of autism spectrum disorder, there is now strong evidence for a genetic link to autism.…

  6. The Contribution of Epigenetics to Understanding Genetic Factors in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Layla; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a grouping of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social communication and language, as well as by repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. While the environment is believed to play a role in the development of autism spectrum disorder, there is now strong evidence for a genetic link to autism.…

  7. Immunological Treatments for Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sudhir

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses research findings that indicate immunological abnormalities in children with autism, including the dysregulation of the immune system, and concludes that there are sufficient data to suggest a role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of autism. Various biological therapies are analyzed, including intravenous…

  8. Systematic and Emotional Contents in Overselectivity Processes in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio, Rosa Angela; Oliva, Patrizia; Murdaca, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    A deficit in social interaction, along with restricted interests and impaired communication, is one of the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (American Psychiatric Association--DSM IV-TR, 2002). Also a deficit in empathy has been repeatedly described in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and, more in depth, in their unaffected…

  9. Children with Autism: Quality of Life and Parental Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca A.; Louie, Brian B.; Newschaffer, Craig J.

    2008-01-01

    Past research has shown that children with autism and their families have compromised quality of life (QOL) in several domains. This study examined QOL and parental concerns in children with autism during early childhood, childhood, and adolescence compared to children with Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder…

  10. Atypical Development of Face and Greeble Recognition in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherf, K. Suzanne; Behrmann, Marlene; Minshew, Nancy; Luna, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    Background: Impaired face processing is a widely documented deficit in autism. Although the origin of this deficit is unclear, several groups have suggested that a lack of perceptual expertise is contributory. We investigated whether individuals with autism develop expertise in visuoperceptual processing of faces and whether any deficiency in such…

  11. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically…

  12. Autism Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Register today for the 49th Annual Autism Society National Conference Please plan on joining us ... Today Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  13. The association between tick-borne infections, Lyme borreliosis and autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bransfield, Robert C; Wulfman, Jeffrey S; Harvey, William T; Usman, Anju I

    2008-01-01

    Chronic infectious diseases, including tick-borne infections such as Borrelia burgdorferi may have direct effects, promote other infections and create a weakened, sensitized and immunologically vulnerable state during fetal development and infancy leading to increased vulnerability for developing autism spectrum disorders. A dysfunctional synergism with other predisposing and contributing factors may contribute to autism spectrum disorders by provoking innate and adaptive immune reactions to cause and perpetuate effects in susceptible individuals that result in inflammation, molecular mimicry, kynurenine pathway changes, increased quinolinic acid and decreased serotonin, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and excitotoxicity that impair the development of the amygdala and other neural structures and neural networks resulting in a partial Klüver-Bucy Syndrome and other deficits resulting in autism spectrum disorders and/or exacerbating autism spectrum disorders from other causes throughout life. Support for this hypothesis includes multiple cases of mothers with Lyme disease and children with autism spectrum disorders; fetal neurological abnormalities associated with tick-borne diseases; similarities between tick-borne diseases and autism spectrum disorder regarding symptoms, pathophysiology, immune reactivity, temporal lobe pathology, and brain imaging data; positive reactivity in several studies with autistic spectrum disorder patients for Borrelia burgdorferi (22%, 26% and 20-30%) and 58% for mycoplasma; similar geographic distribution and improvement in autistic symptoms from antibiotic treatment. It is imperative to research these and all possible causes of autism spectrum disorders in order to prevent every preventable case and treat every treatable case until this disease has been eliminated from humanity.

  14. Beyond ;Deficit-Based; thinking in autism research. Comment on ;Implications of the idea of neurodiversity for understanding the origins of developmental disorders; by Nobuo Masataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Steve

    2017-03-01

    Nobuo's paper [1] marks a pioneering attempt to reconcile the provocative concept of neurodiversity - the notion that developmental disabilities like autism, dyslexia, and ADHD are not inherently pathological, but reflect natural human variations that deserve societal accommodations equivalent to those afforded to people with physical disabilities - with the ongoing effort to investigate the neurological underpinnings of these conditions. As the framework of neurodiversity rapidly gains social acceptance and influence in education, employment, service provision, and related fields, it is important for researchers to understand this concept and consider how it may inform and shape their work in the coming years. Nobuo's paper provides a useful template for these efforts.

  15. Autism: From Research to Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Autism is the most commonly studied of a spectrum of developmental disorders that are believed to be neurobiologically based but which, at this point, for lack of good biomarkers, are defined purely by behavior. In the last 20 years, the definition of autism has shifted in emphasis from extreme aloofness and positive signs of abnormality in repetitive and sensori-motor behaviors to a greater awareness of the importance of more subtle reciprocal social-communication deficits as core features. ...

  16. Unbroken Mirror Neurons in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Decety, Jean; Yang, Chia-Yen; Liu, Ji-Lin; Cheng, Yawei

    2010-01-01

    Background: The "broken mirror" theory of autism, which proposes that a dysfunction of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is responsible for the core social and cognitive deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), has received considerable attention despite weak empirical evidence. Methods: In this electroencephalographic…

  17. Establishing Metaphorical Reasoning in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persicke, Angela; Tarbox, Jonathan; Ranick, Jennifer; St. Clair, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have shown that children with autism have difficulty with non-literal language, such as irony, sarcasm, deception, humor, and metaphors. To date, few studies have attempted to remediate these deficits, and no studies of which we are aware have attempted to teach children with autism to understand metaphors. Metaphorical reasoning…

  18. Unbroken Mirror Neurons in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Decety, Jean; Yang, Chia-Yen; Liu, Ji-Lin; Cheng, Yawei

    2010-01-01

    Background: The "broken mirror" theory of autism, which proposes that a dysfunction of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is responsible for the core social and cognitive deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), has received considerable attention despite weak empirical evidence. Methods: In this electroencephalographic…

  19. The Social Motivation Theory of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Chevallier, C.; Kohls, G.; Troiani, V; Brodkin, E.S.; Schultz, R. T.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that social motivation deficits play a central role in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has recently gained increased interest. This constitutes a shift in autism research, which has traditionally focused more intensely on cognitive impairments, such as Theory of Mind deficits or executive dysfunction, while granting comparatively less attention to motivational factors. This review delineates the concept of social motivation and capitalizes on recent findings in several research areas...

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Neuropathology of the Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Hampson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum contains the largest number of neurons and synapses of any structure in the central nervous system. The concept that the cerebellum is solely involved in fine motor function has become outdated; substantial evidence has accumulated linking the cerebellum with higher cognitive functions including language. Cerebellar deficits have been implicated in autism for more than two decades. The computational power of the cerebellum is essential for many, if not most of the processes that are perturbed in autism including language and communication, social interactions, stereotyped behavior, motor activity and motor coordination, and higher cognitive functions. The link between autism and cerebellar dysfunction should not be surprising to those who study its cellular, physiological, and functional properties. Postmortem studies have revealed neuropathological abnormalities in cerebellar cellular architecture while studies on mouse lines with cell loss or mutations in single genes restricted to cerebellar Purkinje cells have also strongly implicated this brain structure in contributing to the autistic phenotype. This connection has been further substantiated by studies investigating brain damage in humans restricted to the cerebellum. In this review, we summarize advances in research on idiopathic autism and three genetic forms of autism that highlight the key roles that the cerebellum plays in this spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  1. Overlap between autism and specific language impairment: comparison of Autism Diagnostic Interview and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyfer, Ovsanna T; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Dowd, Michael; Tomblin, J Bruce; Folstein, Susan E

    2008-10-01

    Autism and specific language impairment (SLI) are developmental disorders that, although distinct by definition, have in common some features of both language and social behavior. The goal of this study was to further explore the extent to which specific clinical features of autism are seen in SLI. The children with the two disorders, matched for non-verbal IQ, were compared on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). In the SLI group, 41% met autism or autism spectrum cut-offs for social or communication domains either on the ADI or ADOS or both. No relationship was found between the language deficits exhibited by the children with SLI and their scores on the ADI and ADOS. These findings contribute to evidence that there is some overlap in social and communicative deficits between autism and SLI, supporting the view that autism and SLI share etiologic factors. This continuum of pathology between SLI and autism appears to range from structural language abnormalities as seen in individuals with SLI to individuals with SLI with both structural and social abnormalities to individuals with autism with pragmatic impairment and language abnormalities.

  2. Autism from a cognitive-pragmatic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Autism is one of a group of three neuro-developmental disorders including, in addition to autism itself, Asperger Syndrome and a fairly heterogeneous group of patients who present some but not all of the symptoms of autism (see below, section 2.2). Asperger Syndrome and autism being the best described pathologies, notably in terms of language and language development, they will be the focus of our attention in what follows. Autism has been described as being to pragmat...

  3. A meta-analysis of the evidence on the impact of prenatal and early infancy exposures to mercury on autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Takemura, Shigeki; Nakai, Kunihiko

    2014-09-01

    Although a measurable number of epidemiological studies have been conducted to clarify the associations between mercury exposure during embryo or early infancy and later incidences of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the conclusion still remains unclear. Meta-analysis was conducted for two major exposure sources; i.e., thimerosal vaccines that contain ethylmercury (clinical exposure), and environmental sources, using relevant literature published before April 2014. While thimerosal exposures did not show any material associations with an increased risk of ASD or ADHD (the summary odds ratio (OR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.24 for ASD; OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.70-1.13 for ADHD/ADD), significant associations were observed for environmental exposures in both ASD (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.14-2.17) and ADHD (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.10-2.33). The summary ORs were similar after excluding studies not adjusted for confounders. Moderate adverse effects were observed only between environmental inorganic or organic mercury exposures and ASD/ADHD. However, these results should be interpreted with caution since the number of epidemiological studies on this issue was limited and still at an early stage. Further studies focused on subjects with genetic vulnerabilities of developmental disorders are warranted for better understanding of the effects of such environmental exposures.

  4. The BTBR mouse model of autism spectrum disorders has learning and attentional impairments and alterations in acetylcholine and kynurenic acid in prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M McTighe

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex spectrum of disorders characterized by core behavioral deficits in social interaction, communication, repetitive stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Autism frequently presents with additional cognitive symptoms, including attentional deficits and intellectual disability. Preclinical models are important tools for studying the behavioral domains and biological underpinnings of autism, and potential treatment targets. The inbred BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR mouse strain has been used as an animal model of core behavioral deficits in autism. BTBR mice exhibit repetitive behaviors and deficits in sociability and communication, but other aspects of their cognitive phenotype, including attentional performance, are not well characterized. We examined the attentional abilities of BTBR mice in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT using an automated touchscreen testing apparatus. The 5-CSRTT is an analogue of the human continuous performance task of attention, and so both the task and apparatus have translational relevance to human touchscreen cognitive testing. We also measured basal extracellular levels of a panel of neurotransmitters within the medial prefrontal cortex, a brain region critically important for performing the 5-CSRTT. We found that BTBR mice have increased impulsivity, defined as an inability to withhold responding, and decreased motivation, as compared to C57Bl/6J mice. Both of these features characterize attentional deficit disorders in humans. BTBR mice also display decreased accuracy in detecting short stimuli, lower basal levels of extracellular acetylcholine and higher levels of kynurenic acid within the prefrontal cortex. Intact cholinergic transmission in prefrontal cortex is required for accurate performance of the 5-CSRTT, consequently this cholinergic deficit may underlie less accurate performance in BTBR mice. Based on our findings that BTBR mice have attentional impairments and alterations in

  5. Impaired vitality form recognition in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Magali J; Veroni, Vania; Bruschweiler-Stern, Nadia; Pieraccini, Cinzia; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Barthélémy, Catherine; Malvy, Joëlle; Sinigaglia, Corrado; Stern, Daniel N; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2013-08-01

    Along with the understanding of the goal of an action ("what" is done) and the intention underlying it ("why" it is done), social interactions largely depend on the appraisal of the action from the dynamics of the movement: "how" it is performed (its "vitality form"). Do individuals with autism, especially children, possess this capacity? Here we show that, unlike typically developing individuals, individuals with autism reveal severe deficits in recognizing vitality forms, and their capacity to appraise them does not improve with age. Deficit in vitality form recognition appears, therefore, to be a newly recognized trait marker of autism.

  6. Autism, oxytocin and interoception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocki, E.; Friston, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by profound social and verbal communication deficits, stereotypical motor behaviors, restricted interests, and cognitive abnormalities. Autism affects approximately 1% of children in developing countries. Given this prevalence, identifying risk factors and therapeutic interventions are pressing objectives—objectives that rest on neurobiologically grounded and psychologically informed theories about the underlying pathophysiology. In this article, we review the evidence that autism could result from a dysfunctional oxytocin system early in life. As a mediator of successful procreation, not only in the reproductive system, but also in the brain, oxytocin plays a crucial role in sculpting socio-sexual behavior. Formulated within a (Bayesian) predictive coding framework, we propose that oxytocin encodes the saliency or precision of interoceptive signals and enables the neuronal plasticity necessary for acquiring a generative model of the emotional and social ‘self.’ An aberrant oxytocin system in infancy could therefore help explain the marked deficits in language and social communication – as well as the sensory, autonomic, motor, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities – seen in autism. PMID:25277283

  7. [Current status of autism studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, H

    2001-01-01

    evaluate various autism treatments now practiced and to integrate effective ones into an efficient therapeutic system. Early diagnosis of PDD, support for the mother to develop a better relationship with her autistic infant, enrollment of an autistic infant in a day care for handicapped or non-handicapped infants, education in a relevant school, vocational training, treatment of behavior problems, and establishing social welfare services are a framework of the therapeutic system of autism. Much should be done to improve the long-term outcome of autism patients, including high-functioning autism.

  8. Auditory processing in autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaskamp, Chantal; Oranje, Bob; Madsen, Gitte Falcher

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show changes in (automatic) auditory processing. Electrophysiology provides a method to study auditory processing, by investigating event-related potentials such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a-amplitude. However, findings on MMN in autism...... a hyper-responsivity at the attentional level. In addition, as similar MMN deficits are found in schizophrenia, these MMN results may explain some of the frequently reported increased risk of children with ASD to develop schizophrenia later in life. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism...

  9. Brief report: social and communication abilities and disabilities in higher functioning individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Celine A; Klin, Ami

    2007-04-01

    Individuals with higher functioning autism (HFA) fail to translate their cognitive potential into real-life adaptation, and the severity of their symptoms is considerable despite their intellectual ability. This paper reports on a subsample from a larger study (A. Klin et al., in press) analyzed here by autism spectrum subtypes. It focuses on the nature of ability and disability in HFA and Asperger syndrome (AS) in relation to age and IQ. Participants included 32 individuals with autism and 35 with AS. Individuals with AS had significantly higher Verbal IQ scores and less symptomatology than individuals with autism, but their Vineland scores were equally impaired, highlighting the adaptive deficits in ASD regardless of classification. No relationship was found between adaptive functioning and symptom severity.

  10. Intellectual functioning in relation to autism and ADHD symptomatology in children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidding, E.; Swaab, H.; de Sonneville, L. M. J.; van Engeland, H.; Sijmens-Morcus, M. E. J.; Klaassen, P. W. J.; Duijff, S. N.; Vorstman, J. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundThe 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velo-cardio-facial syndrome) is associated with an increased risk of various disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between intell

  11. Intellectual Functioning in Relation to Autism and ADHD Symptomatology in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, E.; Swaab, H.; Sonneville, L. M. J.; Engeland, H.; Sijmens-Morcus, M. E. J.; Klaassen, P. W. J.; Duijff, S. N.; Vorstman, J. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velo-cardio-facial syndrome) is associated with an increased risk of various disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between intellectual functioning and severity of ASD and ADHD…

  12. GENETIC ASPECTS OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas LAKOSKI

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first paper on the syndrome of autism, Kanner described it as innate and inborn. He drew attention to the abnormalities in infancy without evidence of prior normal development and the intellectual, non emotional qualities shown by many of the parents and grandparents. Subsequently, the supposed lack of parental warmth led many clinicians to abandon the notions of constitutional deficit in the child and instead to postulate a psychogenic origin etiology was likely, genetic factors probably did not play a major role. Attention was draw to the low rate of autism in siblings, the lack of chromosome anomalies, and the similarities with syndromes associated with known brain trauma. Although the rate of autism in siblings was indeed low, it was much higher than in the general population rate providing a strong pointer to the genetic factors. The recognition that this was so, associated with the parallel finding of apparently high familiar loading for language delay, stimulated the first, systematic, twin study of autism, which suggested a strong genetic component. Subsequent research has produced findings in the same direction, although many questions remain unanswered. In this paper the evidence that has accumulated on genetic influences on autism is summarized and the remained dilemmas on this field are discussed.

  13. The clinician's guide to autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John W; Allen, Korrie

    2014-02-01

    On the basis of the most recent epidemiologic research, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects approximately 1% to 2% of all children. (1)(2) On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers isa helpful tool to screen for autism in children between ages 16 and 30 months. (11) The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, changes to a 2-symptom category from a 3-symptom category in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition(DSM-5): deficits in social communication and social interaction are combined with repetitive and restrictive behaviors, and more criteria are required per category. The DSM-5 subsumes all the previous diagnoses of autism (classic autism, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) into just ASDs. On the basis of moderate to strong evidence, the use of applied behavioral analysis and intensive behavioral programs has a beneficial effect on language and the core deficits of children with autism. (16) Currently, minimal or no evidence is available to endorse most complementary and alternative medicine therapies used by parents, such as dietary changes (gluten free), vitamins, chelation, and hyperbaric oxygen. (16) On the basis of consensus and some studies, pediatric clinicians should improve their capacity to provide children with ASD a medical home that is accessible and provides family-centered, continuous, comprehensive and coordinated, compassionate, and culturally sensitive care. (20)

  14. A novel tool for the morphometric analysis of corpus callosum: applications to the diagnosis of autism - biomed 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vatta, F.; Mininel, S.; Colafati, G.S.; D'Errico, L.; Malena, S.; Di Salle, F.

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Emerging theories indicate interregional functional and anatomical brain connectivity as a likely key feature in autism pathophysiology. Corpus callosum

  15. A novel tool for the morphometric analysis of corpus callosum: applications to the diagnosis of autism - biomed 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vatta, F.; Mininel, S.; Colafati, G.S.; D'Errico, L.; Malena, S.; Di Salle, F.

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Emerging theories indicate interregional functional and anatomical brain connectivity as a likely key feature in autism pathophysiology. Corpus callosum (

  16. Meta-analysis of neuropsychological measures of executive functioning in children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun Lun Eric; Lau, Zoe; Lui, Simon S Y; Lok, Eugenia; Tam, Venus; Chan, Quinney; Cheng, Koi Man; Lam, Siu Man; Cheung, Eric F C

    2017-05-01

    Existing literature on the profile of executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder showed inconsistent results. Age, comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cognitive abilities appeared to play a role in confounding the picture. Previous meta-analyses have focused on a few components of executive functions. This meta-analysis attempted to delineate the profile of deficit in several components of executive functioning in children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Ninety-eight English published case-control studies comparing children and adolescents with HFASD with typically developing controls using well-known neuropsychological measures to assess executive functions were included. Results showed that children and adolescents with HFASD were moderately impaired in verbal working memory (g = 0.67), spatial working memory (g = 0.58), flexibility (g = 0.59), planning (g = 0.62), and generativity (g = 0.60) except for inhibition (g = 0.41). Subgroup analysis showed that impairments were still significant for flexibility (g = 0.57-0.61), generativity (g = 0.52-0.68), and working memory (g = 0.49-0.56) in a sample of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subjects without comorbid ADHD or when the cognitive abilities of the ASD group and the control group were comparable. This meta-analysis confirmed the presence of executive dysfunction in children and adolescents with HFASD. These deficits are not solely accounted for by the effect of comorbid ADHD and the general cognitive abilities. Our results support the executive dysfunction hypothesis and contribute to the clinical understanding and possible development of interventions to alleviate these deficits in children and adolescents with HFASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 911-939. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Genetic architecture, epigenetic influence and environment exposure in the pathogenesis of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Wu, YiMing; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a spectral neurodevelopment disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population. ASD is characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, communication deficits and restricted patterns of behavior. Multiple factors, including genetic/genomic, epigenetic/epigenomic and environmental, are thought to be necessary for autism development. Recent reviews have provided further insight into the genetic/genomic basis of ASD. It has long been suspected that epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, chromatin structures and long non-coding RNAs may play important roles in the pathology of ASD. In addition to genetic/genomic alterations and epigenetic/epigenomic influences, environmental exposures have been widely accepted as an important role in autism etiology, among which immune dysregulation and gastrointestinal microbiota are two prominent ones.

  18. PRAGMATIC DEFICITS OF ASPERGER SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmy Arizatul Humaira’

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human being is social creature who needs other people to interact with. One of the ways to interact with others is communication with language. However, communication could be a complicated problem for those who were born with developmental disorder called Asperger Syndrome (AS. The communication challenge of Asperger’s is the difficulty using language appropriately for social purposes or known as pragmatic deficits. Many excellent books about autism are published whereas knowledge on pragmatic deficits are still very limited. Thus, it is expected to be a beneficial reference to understand the pragmatic deficits and to create strategies for them to communicate effectively. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the kinds of pragmatic deficits of an individual with AS. The verbal language profiles of autism purposed by MacDonald (2004 is used to analyzed the data in depth. The descriptive qualitative method is applied to develop a comprehensive understanding about the AS case in Temple Grandin movie.The finding shows that all of the five types of communication deficits are appearing and the dominant of which is unresponsive.

  19. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria Del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  20. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Faraz Kazim

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6, which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  1. Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lange

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC. Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed.

  2. Event-related potential response to auditory social stimuli, parent-reported social communicative deficits and autism risk in school-aged children with congenital visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathelt, Joe; Dale, Naomi; de Haan, Michelle

    2017-07-19

    Communication with visual signals, like facial expression, is important in early social development, but the question if these signals are necessary for typical social development remains to be addressed. The potential impact on social development of being born with no or very low levels of vision is therefore of high theoretical and clinical interest. The current study investigated event-related potential responses to basic social stimuli in a rare group of school-aged children with congenital visual disorders of the anterior visual system (globe of the eye, retina, anterior optic nerve). Early-latency event-related potential responses showed no difference between the VI and control group, suggesting similar initial auditory processing. However, the mean amplitude over central and right frontal channels between 280 and 320ms was reduced in response to own-name stimuli, but not control stimuli, in children with VI suggesting differences in social processing. Children with VI also showed an increased rate of autistic-related behaviours, pragmatic language deficits, as well as peer relationship and emotional problems on standard parent questionnaires. These findings suggest that vision may be necessary for the typical development of social processing across modalities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Pragmatic communication deficits in children with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are relat

  4. Focal atrophy of hypothalamus associated with third ventricle enlargement in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Farah; Auzias, Guillaume; Deruelle, Christine; Chaminade, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The hypothalamus is a brain structure containing multiple nuclei that mediate essential behavioral, autonomic, and endocrine functions including oxytocin synthesis. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide linked to complex social cognition and behaviors necessary for an effective social interaction. Oxytocinergic system dysfunction has been linked to social deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Limited studies have been carried out on the hypothalamus because of its small si...

  5. [Autism, genetics and synaptic function alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perche, O; Laumonnier, F; Baala, L; Ardourel, M-Y; Menuet, A; Robin, V; Mortaud, S; Montécot-Dubourg, C; Richard, O; Pichon, J; Briault, S

    2010-10-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a deficit of language and communication both associated with a restricted repertoire of activities and interests. The current prevalence of autistic disorder stricto sensu is estimated at 1/500 whereas autism spectrum disorders (ASD) increases up to 1/150 to 1/200. Mental deficiency (MD) and epilepsy are present in numerous autistic individuals. Consequently, autism is as a major public health issue. Autism was first considered as a non biological disease; however various rational approaches for analysing epidemiological data suggested the possibility of the influence of genetic factors. In 2003, this hypothesis was clearly illustrated by the characterization of genetic mutations transmitted through a mendelian manner. Subsequently, the glutamate synapse appeared as a preferential causal target in autism because the identified genes encoded proteins present in this structure. Strikingly, the findings that an identical genetic dysfunction of the synapse might also explain some MD suggested the possibility of a genetic comorbidity between these neurodevelopmental conditions. To date, various identified genes are considered indifferently as "autism" or "MD" genes. The characterization of mutations in the NLGN4X gene in patients with Asperger syndrome, autism without MD, or MD without autism, was the first example. It appears that a genetic continuum between ASD on one hand, and between autism and MD on the other hand, is present. Consequently, it is likely that genes already involved in MD will be found mutated in autistic patients and will represent future target for finding new factors in autism.

  6. How autism became autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the meaning of the word ‘autism’ experienced a radical shift in the early 1960s in Britain which was contemporaneous with a growth in epidemiological and statistical studies in child psychiatry. The first part of the article explores how ‘autism’ was used as a category to describe hallucinations and unconscious fantasy life in infants through the work of significant child psychologists and psychoanalysts such as Jean Piaget, Lauretta Bender, Leo Kanner and Elwyn James Anthony. Theories of autism were then associated both with schizophrenia in adults and with psychoanalytic styles of reasoning. The closure of institutions for ‘mental defectives’ and the growth in speech therapy services in the 1960s and 1970s encouraged new models for understanding autism in infants and children. The second half of the article explores how researchers such as Victor Lotter and Michael Rutter used the category of autism to reconceptualize psychological development in infants and children via epidemiological studies. These historical changes have influenced the form and function of later research into autism and related conditions. PMID:24014081

  7. Teaching reciprocal imitation skills to young children with autism using a naturalistic behavioral approach: effects on language, pretend play, and joint attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Schreibman, Laura

    2006-05-01

    Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills which impede the acquisition of more complex behaviors and socialization, and are thus an important focus of early intervention programs for children with autism. This study used a multiple-baseline design across five young children with autism to assess the benefit of a naturalistic behavioral technique for teaching object imitation. Participants increased their imitation skills and generalized these skills to novel environments. In addition, participants exhibited increases in other social-communicative behaviors, including language, pretend play, and joint attention. These results provide support for the effectiveness of a naturalistic behavioral intervention for teaching imitation and offer a new and potentially important treatment option for young children who exhibit deficits in social-communicative behaviors.

  8. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri Lawton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurotraining to discriminate a moving test pattern relative to a stationary background, figure-ground discrimination, improves vision and cognitive functioning in dyslexics, as well as typically-developing normal students. We predict that improving the speed and sensitivity of figure-ground movement discrimination (PATH to Reading neurotraining acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory in both dyslexic and normal students who had PATH neurotraining more than in those students who had no neurotraining. This prediction was evaluated by measuring whether dyslexic and normal students improved on standardized tests of cognitive skills following neurotraining exercises, more than following computer-based guided reading (Raz-Kids (RK. The neurotraining used in this study was visually-based training designed to improve magnocellular function at both low and high levels in the dorsal stream: the input to the executive control networks coding working memory and attention. This approach represents a paradigm shift from the phonologically-based treatment for dyslexia, which concentrates on high-level speech and reading areas. This randomized controlled-validation study was conducted by training the entire second and third grade classrooms (42 students for 30 min twice a week before guided reading. Standardized tests were administered at the beginning and end of 12-weeks of intervention training to evaluate improvements in academic skills. Only movement-discrimination training remediated both low-level visual timing deficits and high-level cognitive functioning, including selective and sustained attention, reading fluency and working memory for both dyslexic and normal students. Remediating visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream revealed the causal role of visual

  9. Implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention for children with autism in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Nadja; Gundelfinger, Ronnie; Schenker, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a major gap between the US and most European countries regarding the implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) for children with autism. The present paper reports on the current status of EIBI in Switzerland and on the effectiveness of EIBI under...... clinical conditions in a Swiss pilot project. METHODS: The paper combines a narrative report of the care system for children with autism in Switzerland and an initial evaluation of EIBI as implemented in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich. RESULTS: The current situation...... of the implementation of EIBI for children with autism in Switzerland is characterized by marked deficits in its acceptance. Major reasons include insufficient governmental approval and lacking legal and financial support. In addition, ignorance among health care providers and educational professionals has contributed...

  10. African American families on autism diagnosis and treatment: the influence of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2015-10-01

    Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD professionals. Cultural caring meant families protected their child from harm including potential or actual distrustful encounters, and took action for their child and community to optimize their child's health and address the knowledge deficits of ASD within their community. Families and professionals believed cultural influences delayed families' receiving and seeking appropriate health care for the African American child with ASD affecting timely autism diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Atypical Brain Responses to Reward Cues in Autism as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Gregor; Peltzer, Judith; Schulte-Ruther, Martin; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Social motivation deficit theories suggest that children with autism do not properly anticipate and appreciate the pleasure of social stimuli. In this study, we investigated event-related brain potentials evoked by cues that triggered social versus monetary reward anticipation in children with autism. Children with autism showed attenuated P3…

  12. Effectiveness of Modeling and Rehearsal to Teach Fire Safety Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a disorder that affects children at an alarming rate. One out of every 88 children is diagnosed with autism in the United States. The disorder is characterized by communication, social, and behavioral deficits. Children with autism often require specialized teaching methods to learn basic skills that most children acquire without…

  13. Atypical Brain Responses to Reward Cues in Autism as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Gregor; Peltzer, Judith; Schulte-Ruther, Martin; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Social motivation deficit theories suggest that children with autism do not properly anticipate and appreciate the pleasure of social stimuli. In this study, we investigated event-related brain potentials evoked by cues that triggered social versus monetary reward anticipation in children with autism. Children with autism showed attenuated P3…

  14. Uncovering the social deficits in the autistic brain.A Source-Based Morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grecucci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that mainly affects social interaction and communication. Evidence from behavioral and functional MRI studies supports the hypothesis that dysfunctional mechanisms involving social brain structures play a major role in autistic symptomatology. However, the investigation of anatomical abnormalities in the brain of people with autism has led to inconsistent results. We investigated whether specific brain regions, known to display functional abnormalities in autism, may exhibit mutual and peculiar patterns of covariance in their grey-matter concentrations. We analyzed structural MRI images of 32 young men affected by autistic disorder (AD and 50 healthy controls. Controls were matched for sex, age, handedness. IQ scores were also monitored to avoid confounding. A multivariate Source-Based Morphometry (SBM was applied for the first time on AD and controls to detect maximally independent networks of gray matter. Group comparison revealed a gray-matter source that showed differences in AD compared to controls. This network includes broad temporal regions involved in social cognition and high-level visual processing, but also motor and executive areas of the frontal lobe. Notably, we found that gray matter differences, as reflected by SBM, significantly correlated with social and behavioral deficits displayed by AD individuals and encoded via the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. These findings provide support for current hypotheses about the neural basis of atypical social and mental states information processing in autism.

  15. Brief Report: Imaginative Drawing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa L; Craig, Eleanore

    2016-02-01

    Here we examine imaginative drawing abilities in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and learning disabilities (LD) under several conditions: spontaneous production, with use of a template, and combining two real entities to form an 'unreal' entity. Sixteen children in each group, matched on mental and chronological age, were asked to draw a number of 'impossible' pictures of humans and dogs. Children with ASD were impaired in spontaneous drawings and included fewer impossible features than children with LD, but there was no difference when a template was provided. An autism-specific deficit was revealed in the task involving combining entities. Results suggest that children with ASD do not have a general imaginative deficit; impairment is instead related to planning demands.

  16. Measuring Social Communication Behaviors as a Treatment Endpoint in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Evdokia; Jones, Nancy; Huerta, Marisela; Halladay, Alycia K.; Wang, Paul; Scahill, Lawrence; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Kasari, Connie; Lord, Cathy; Choi, Dennis; Sullivan, Katherine; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Social communication impairments are a core deficit in autism spectrum disorder. Social communication deficit is also an early indicator of autism spectrum disorder and a factor in long-term outcomes. Thus, this symptom domain represents a critical treatment target. Identifying reliable and valid outcome measures for social communication across a…

  17. The physical activity patterns of children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Dale

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although motor deficits are gaining attention in autism research much less attention has been paid to the physical activity patterns in this group of children. The participants in this study were a group of children with autism spectrum disorder (N = 72 between the ages of 9-18 years. This cross-sectional study explored the physical activity patterns of seventy-two children with autism spectrum disorder as they aged. Findings Results indicated significant differences between the mean time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and the mean time spent in sedentary activity. Older children with autism spectrum disorder are significantly more physically inactive, compared to younger children. Conclusions Physical activity programs and interventions need to address this deficit, in physical activity. Children with autism have a similar trend in physical activity patterns compared to their peers without autism; associated benefits and future research will be discussed.

  18. Mnesic imbalance: a cognitive theory about autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Munguía Miguel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Autism is characterized by impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity and behavioral flexibility. Some cognitive theories can be useful for finding a relationship between these irregularities and the biological mechanisms that may give rise to this disorder. Among such theories are mentalizing deficit, weak central coherence and executive dysfunction, but none of them has been able to explain all three diagnostic symptoms of autism. These cognitive disorders may be related among themselves by faulty learning, since several research studies have shown that the brains of autistic individuals have abnormalities in the cerebellum, which plays a role in procedural learning. In keeping with this view, one may postulate the possibility that declarative memory replaces faulty procedural memory in some of its functions, which implies making conscious efforts in order to perform actions that are normally automatic. This may disturb cognitive development, resulting in autism symptoms. Furthermore, this mnesic imbalance is probably involved in all autism spectrum disorders. In the present work, this theory is expounded, including preliminary supporting evidence.

  19. Ubiquinol Improves Symptoms in Children with Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvozdjakova, Anna; Kucharska, Jarmila; Ostatnikova, Daniela; Babinska, Katarina; Nakladal, Dalibor; Crane, Fred L.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Autism is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with manifestation within 3 years after birth. Manifestations of autism include behavior problems (hyperactivity, toys destruction, self-harm, and agression) and sleep and eating disorders. Etiology of autism is poorly understood. Oxid

  20. Opioid peptides and gastrointestinal symptoms in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane P. Lázaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are characterized by deficits in the individual’s ability to socialize, communicate, and use the imagination, in addition to stereotyped behaviors. These disorders have a heterogenous phenotype, both in relation to symptoms and regarding severity. Organic problems related to the gastrointestinal tract are often associated with ASD, including dysbiosis, inflammatory bowel disease, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, celiac disease, indigestion, malabsorption, food intolerance, and food allergies, leading to vitamin deficiencies and malnutrition. In an attempt to explain the pathophysiology involved in autism, a theory founded on opioid excess has been the focus of various investigations, since it partially explains the symptomatology of the disorder. Another hypothesis has been put forward whereby the probable triggers of ASDs would be related to the presence of bacteria in the bowel, oxidative stress, and intestinal permeability. The present update reviews these hypotheses.

  1. Equivalence of Symptom Dimensions in Females and Males with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated equivalence of autism symptom domains in males and females with autism. Symptom data were obtained from 2643 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (352 females, 2291 males; age range = 4-17 years) included in the Simons Simplex Collection. Items from the Social Responsiveness Scale and Autism Diagnostic…

  2. Development of an autism severity score for mice using Nlgn4 null mutants as a construct-valid model of heritable monogenic autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kordi, Ahmed; Winkler, Daniela; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Kästner, Anne; Krueger, Dilja; Ronnenberg, Anja; Ritter, Caroline; Jatho, Jasmin; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Bourgeron, Thomas; Fischer, Julia; Brose, Nils; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2013-08-15

    Autism is the short name of a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders (autism spectrum disorders, ASD) with several lead symptoms required for classification, including compromised social interaction, reduced verbal communication and stereotyped repetitive behaviors/restricted interests. The etiology of ASD is still unknown in most cases but monogenic heritable forms exist that have provided insights into ASD pathogenesis and have led to the notion of autism as a 'synapse disorder'. Among the most frequent monogenic causes of autism are loss-of-function mutations of the NLGN4X gene which encodes the synaptic cell adhesion protein neuroligin-4X (NLGN4X). We previously described autism-like behaviors in male Nlgn4 null mutant mice, including reduced social interaction and ultrasonic communication. Here, we extend the phenotypical characterization of Nlgn4 null mutant mice to both genders and add a series of additional autism-relevant behavioral readouts. We now report similar social interaction and ultrasonic communication deficits in females as in males. Furthermore, aggression, nest-building parameters, as well as self-grooming and circling as indicators of repetitive behaviors/stereotypies were explored in both genders. The construction of a gender-specific autism severity composite score for Nlgn4 mutant mice markedly diminishes population/sample heterogeneity typically obtained for single tests, resulting in p values of 83% for female mice. Taken together, these data underscore the similarity of phenotypical consequences of Nlgn4/NLGN4X loss-of-function in mouse and man, and emphasize the high relevance of Nlgn4 null mutant mice as an ASD model with both construct and face validity.

  3. Evidence of female-specific glial deficits in the hippocampus in a mouse model of prenatal stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Aine T

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) has been associated with an increased incidence of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and autism. To determine the effects of PS on hippocampal-dependent behaviour hippocampal morphology, we examined behavioural responses and hippocampal cytoarchitecture of a maternal restraint stress paradigm of PS in C57BL6 mice. Female offspring only showed a reduction in hippocampal glial count in the pyramidal layer following PS. Additionally, only PS females showed increased depressive-like behaviour with cognitive deficits predominantly in female offspring when compared to males. This data provides evidence for functional female-specific glial deficits within the hippocampus as a consequence of PS.

  4. Evidence of female-specific glial deficits in the hippocampus in a mouse model of prenatal stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Aine T

    2012-02-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) has been associated with an increased incidence of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and autism. To determine the effects of PS on hippocampal-dependent behaviour hippocampal morphology, we examined behavioural responses and hippocampal cytoarchitecture of a maternal restraint stress paradigm of PS in C57BL6 mice. Female offspring only showed a reduction in hippocampal glial count in the pyramidal layer following PS. Additionally, only PS females showed increased depressive-like behaviour with cognitive deficits predominantly in female offspring when compared to males. This data provides evidence for functional female-specific glial deficits within the hippocampus as a consequence of PS.

  5. What is this thing called autism? A critical analysis of the tenacious search for autism's essence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2012-01-01

    Currently, autism is a widespread and diverse neurodevelopmental disorder that includes both severely impaired and institutionalized patients and the fairly geeky but brilliant university professor. Despite its heterogeneity, autism is often presented as a distinct nosological entity with a unifying

  6. What is this thing called autism? A critical analysis of the tenacious search for autism's essence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2012-01-01

    Currently, autism is a widespread and diverse neurodevelopmental disorder that includes both severely impaired and institutionalized patients and the fairly geeky but brilliant university professor. Despite its heterogeneity, autism is often presented as a distinct nosological entity with a unifying

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorder - A Complex Genetic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov Hristo Y.; Stoyanova Vili K.; Popov Nikolay T.; Vachev Tihomir I.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is an entity that reflects a scientific consensus that several previously separated disorders are actually a single spectrum disorder with different levels of symptom severity in two core domains - deficits in social communication and interaction, and restricted repetitive behaviors. Autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed in all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups and because of its increased prevalence, reported worldwide through the last years, made it one of the...

  8. [The neurobiology of autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, S

    2007-07-01

    The research effort on autism has for several years been intensive. Recent progress in this field is due mainly to the development of increasingly sophisticated visualizing assessment methods of the brain. Most of the evidence reported in this review requires further replication and elaboration by ongoing research. Evidence from volumetric studies indicates that the brain of the child with autism deviates from normal paths at the early stages of development showing excessive growth during the first year and a half involving the hemispheres and the cerebellum. Post mortem studies have shown neuron abnormalities in the frontal and temporal cortex and the cerebellum. Studies using diffusion tensor imaging, an fMRI based method, have shown disruptions between white and grey matter in several areas of the hemispheres. Other studies investigating activation of the cortex showed lack of synchrony and coordination between anterior and posterior areas of the hemispheres. It has been suggested that the deviation in brain development in autism consists of excessive numbers of neurons which cause the cytoarchitectural deviation. A theory suggesting that the basic deficit in autism is due to dysfunction of the "mirror neuron system" requires further substantiation. The aetiology of autism is not known although risk factors have been identified. Predominant among them are genetic influences. The search is currently intensive for an understanding of the pathogenesis of the pathological deviation in the development of the brain in autism. Neurotrophic factors which determine the developmental steps of the brain are examined such as serotonin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the neuropeptide reelin, neuroligines and others. There is evidence of some involvement of these factors with autism but it is still far from clear how they do interact with one another and how they lead to the pathological deviations observed in autism. The neurotrophic factors are evidently coded by

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; MacMullen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a continuum of cognitive and social problems that vary considerably in both impact and presentation for each child affected. Although successful interventions have been developed that target specific skill deficits often exhibited by children with autism, many of those interventions are exclusively…

  10. Executive Functions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally; Goddard, Lorna; Dritschel, Barbara; Wisley, Mary; Howlin, Pat

    2009-01-01

    Executive dysfunction is a characteristic impairment of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However whether such deficits are related to autism per se, or to associated intellectual disability is unclear. This paper examines executive functions in a group of children with ASD (N = 54, all IQ greater than or equal to 70) in relation…

  11. Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…

  12. Audiovisual Integration in High Functioning Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Brian P.; Rosenthal, Orna; Chun, Nicole H.; Shams, Ladan

    2010-01-01

    Autism involves various perceptual benefits and deficits, but it is unclear if the disorder also involves anomalous audiovisual integration. To address this issue, we compared the performance of high-functioning adults with autism and matched controls on experiments investigating the audiovisual integration of speech, spatiotemporal relations, and…

  13. Building Empathy and Social Mastery in Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Erik K.; Moore, Lisa; Yazdgerdi, Sasha; Milberger, Kat

    2013-01-01

    Learning to recognize and express emotions appropriately is a skill of mastery in human development, and an essential component of living the good life. Because this developmental and social skill is one of the core deficits for people along the autism spectrum, anyone who works with students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) should provide them…

  14. Injury risks in schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity or autism spectrum disorder: Results from two school-based health surveys of 6- to 17-year-old children in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonander, Carl; Beckman, Linda; Janson, Staffan; Jernbro, Carolina

    2016-09-01

    Injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability among children in Sweden and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has previously been associated with an increased risk of injury in pediatric populations elsewhere in the world. Current evidence regarding the possible link between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and injury risk appears limited, even though some potentially risk-increasing symptoms overlap. The purpose of this study was thus to study the association between both ADHD and ASD concerning the risk of injury among Swedish schoolchildren. Two samples were used: a population-based register study containing data from 18,416 children ranging from the ages of 6-17years collected by school nurses during 2012/2014 (Survey A), and a national cross-sectional study of 3202 ninth-grade children (~15years old) collected from 92 schools in 2011 (Survey B). The data were analyzed using χ(2)-tests and log-binomial generalized linear models to obtain risk ratios (RR), comparing cases reportedly affected by ADHD or ASD to unaffected controls. After adjusting for confounders, ADHD was associated with a 65% increased risk of injury (RR 1.65 [95% CI: 1.32-2.05] in Survey A, and a 57% increased risk of injury (RR 1.57 [95% CI: 1.27-1.95]) in Survey B. ASD was not significantly associated with any differences in injury risk (RR 0.81 [95% CI: 0.57-1.14]). The results indicate that there is an elevated injury risk among Swedish schoolchildren with ADHD but not for children with ASD. Future studies should focus on causal mechanisms mediating the association between ADHD and injuries in order to facilitate injury prevention strategies. Parents and teachers of schoolchildren with ADHD should be made aware of the elevated injury risks associated with the diagnosis. Safety experts and injury control professionals should consider the development of specialized prevention strategies in order to reduce these risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National

  15. Social skills training for youth with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Scott; Peters, Jessica K

    2008-10-01

    Social skill deficits are a pervasive and enduring feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As such, social skills training (SST) should be a critical component of programming for youth with ASD. A number of SST strategies exist, including those employing social stories, video modeling interventions, social problem solving, pivotal response training, scripting procedures, computer-based interventions, priming procedures, prompting procedures, and self-monitoring. This article summarizes each intervention strategy and provides results from several research studies. Social skills assessment is a crucial first step to SST, and a number of assessment measures are described. Meta-analytic reviews of the research provide further recommendations for successful SST programs.

  16. Brief Report: Do the Nature of Communication Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders Relate to the Broader Autism Phenotype in Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Wray, John; Ravine, David; Hunt, Anna; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive empirical evidence indicates that the lesser variant of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) involves a communication impairment that is similar to, but milder than, the deficit in clinical ASD. This research explored the relationship between the broader autism phenotype (BAP) among parents, an index of genetic liability for ASD, and proband…

  17. Brief Report: Do the Nature of Communication Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders Relate to the Broader Autism Phenotype in Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Wray, John; Ravine, David; Hunt, Anna; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive empirical evidence indicates that the lesser variant of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) involves a communication impairment that is similar to, but milder than, the deficit in clinical ASD. This research explored the relationship between the broader autism phenotype (BAP) among parents, an index of genetic liability for ASD, and proband…

  18. Effects of picture exchange communication system on communication and behavioral anomalies in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Shahzadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication skills deficits and stereotyped behaviors are frequently found among people with pervasive developmental disabilities like autism. These communication and behavioral oddities of autism are often considered to be difficult to treat and are challenging. Picture exchange communication system (PECS is a six-phase picture system based on applied behavior analysis and is specially designed to overcome these communication difficulties in children with autism by encouraging the child to be the communication initiator. The present paper throws light on the process of using PECS along with other traditional behavioral approaches in managing communication deficits and behavioral stereotypies in a seven-year-old male child diagnosed as having childhood autism. The identified target behaviors of repeated head turning, flapping his hands, poor communication skills were assessed using various rating scales including visual analogue scale as per clinician observation and parental reports and managed using PECS as an adjunct to traditional behavioral techniques of contingency management, differential reinforcement, task direction and reprimand. Outcome was assessed using same tools after thirty-two sessions of interventions spread over three months. Significant improvements of around 60% were observed in the target behaviors.

  19. Effects of Picture Exchange Communication System on Communication and Behavioral Anomalies in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Bhatia, Manjeet S.; Singh, Tej B.

    2010-01-01

    Communication skills deficits and stereotyped behaviors are frequently found among people with pervasive developmental disabilities like autism. These communication and behavioral oddities of autism are often considered to be difficult to treat and are challenging. Picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a six-phase picture system based on applied behavior analysis and is specially designed to overcome these communication difficulties in children with autism by encouraging the child to be the communication initiator. The present paper throws light on the process of using PECS along with other traditional behavioral approaches in managing communication deficits and behavioral stereotypies in a seven-year-old male child diagnosed as having childhood autism. The identified target behaviors of repeated head turning, flapping his hands, poor communication skills were assessed using various rating scales including visual analogue scale as per clinician observation and parental reports and managed using PECS as an adjunct to traditional behavioral techniques of contingency management, differential reinforcement, task direction and reprimand. Outcome was assessed using same tools after thirty-two sessions of interventions spread over three months. Significant improvements of around 60% were observed in the target behaviors. PMID:21716776

  20. Grammaticality judgments in autism: deviance or delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Bennetto, Loisa

    2009-11-01

    Language in autism has been the subject of intense interest, because communication deficits are central to the disorder, and because autism serves as an arena for testing theories of language acquisition. High-functioning older children with autism are often considered to have intact grammatical abilities, despite pragmatic impairments. Given the heterogeneity in language skills at younger ages, this assumption merits further investigation. Participants with autism (n=21, aged nine to seventeen years), matched on chronological age, receptive vocabulary and IQ, to 22 typically developing individuals, completed a grammaticality judgment task. Participants with autism were significantly less sensitive than controls, specifically for third person singular and present progressive marking. Performance interacted with sentence length, with lower sensitivity to errors occurring at the end of the longest stimulus sentences. Performance sensitivity was associated with onset of single word and phrase speech, and with severity of autistic symptomatology. Implications of findings are discussed.

  1. Recognition of Face and Emotional Facial Expressions in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Tayyib Kadak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a genetically transferred neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe and permanent deficits in many interpersonal relation areas like communication, social interaction and emotional responsiveness. Patients with autism have deficits in face recognition, eye contact and recognition of emotional expression. Both recognition of face and expression of facial emotion carried on face processing. Structural and functional impairment in fusiform gyrus, amygdala, superior temporal sulcus and other brain regions lead to deficits in recognition of face and facial emotion. Therefore studies suggest that face processing deficits resulted in problems in areas of social interaction and emotion in autism. Studies revealed that children with autism had problems in recognition of facial expression and used mouth region more than eye region. It was also shown that autistic patients interpreted ambiguous expressions as negative emotion. In autism, deficits related in various stages of face processing like detection of gaze, face identity, recognition of emotional expression were determined, so far. Social interaction impairments in autistic spectrum disorders originated from face processing deficits during the periods of infancy, childhood and adolescence. Recognition of face and expression of facial emotion could be affected either automatically by orienting towards faces after birth, or by “learning” processes in developmental periods such as identity and emotion processing. This article aimed to review neurobiological basis of face processing and recognition of emotional facial expressions during normal development and in autism.

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder - A Complex Genetic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Hristo Y.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder is an entity that reflects a scientific consensus that several previously separated disorders are actually a single spectrum disorder with different levels of symptom severity in two core domains - deficits in social communication and interaction, and restricted repetitive behaviors. Autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed in all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups and because of its increased prevalence, reported worldwide through the last years, made it one of the most discussed child psychiatric disorders. In term of aetiology as several other complex diseases, Autism spectrum disorder is considered to have a strong genetic component.

  3. Comprehensive Analysis of the 16p11.2 Deletion and Null Cntnap2 Mouse Models of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Daniela; Kabitzke, Patricia; He, Dansha; Cox, Kimberly; Thiede, Lucinda; Hanania, Taleen; Sabath, Emily; Alexandrov, Vadim; Saxe, Michael; Peles, Elior; Mills, Alea; Spooren, Will; Ghosh, Anirvan; Feliciano, Pamela; Benedetti, Marta; Luo Clayton, Alice; Biemans, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder comprises several neurodevelopmental conditions presenting symptoms in social communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors. A major roadblock for drug development for autism is the lack of robust behavioral signatures predictive of clinical efficacy. To address this issue, we further characterized, in a uniform and rigorous way, mouse models of autism that are of interest because of their construct validity and wide availability to the scientific community. We implemented a broad behavioral battery that included but was not restricted to core autism domains, with the goal of identifying robust, reliable phenotypes amenable for further testing. Here we describe comprehensive findings from two known mouse models of autism, obtained at different developmental stages, using a systematic behavioral test battery combining standard tests as well as novel, quantitative, computer-vision based systems. The first mouse model recapitulates a deletion in human chromosome 16p11.2, found in 1% of individuals with autism. The second mouse model harbors homozygous null mutations in Cntnap2, associated with autism and Pitt-Hopkins-like syndrome. Consistent with previous results, 16p11.2 heterozygous null mice, also known as Del(7Slx1b-Sept1)4Aam weighed less than wild type littermates displayed hyperactivity and no social deficits. Cntnap2 homozygous null mice were also hyperactive, froze less during testing, showed a mild gait phenotype and deficits in the three-chamber social preference test, although less robust than previously published. In the open field test with exposure to urine of an estrous female, however, the Cntnap2 null mice showed reduced vocalizations. In addition, Cntnap2 null mice performed slightly better in a cognitive procedural learning test. Although finding and replicating robust behavioral phenotypes in animal models is a challenging task, such functional readouts remain important in the development of therapeutics and we

  4. Comprehensive Analysis of the 16p11.2 Deletion and Null Cntnap2 Mouse Models of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brunner

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder comprises several neurodevelopmental conditions presenting symptoms in social communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors. A major roadblock for drug development for autism is the lack of robust behavioral signatures predictive of clinical efficacy. To address this issue, we further characterized, in a uniform and rigorous way, mouse models of autism that are of interest because of their construct validity and wide availability to the scientific community. We implemented a broad behavioral battery that included but was not restricted to core autism domains, with the goal of identifying robust, reliable phenotypes amenable for further testing. Here we describe comprehensive findings from two known mouse models of autism, obtained at different developmental stages, using a systematic behavioral test battery combining standard tests as well as novel, quantitative, computer-vision based systems. The first mouse model recapitulates a deletion in human chromosome 16p11.2, found in 1% of individuals with autism. The second mouse model harbors homozygous null mutations in Cntnap2, associated with autism and Pitt-Hopkins-like syndrome. Consistent with previous results, 16p11.2 heterozygous null mice, also known as Del(7Slx1b-Sept14Aam weighed less than wild type littermates displayed hyperactivity and no social deficits. Cntnap2 homozygous null mice were also hyperactive, froze less during testing, showed a mild gait phenotype and deficits in the three-chamber social preference test, although less robust than previously published. In the open field test with exposure to urine of an estrous female, however, the Cntnap2 null mice showed reduced vocalizations. In addition, Cntnap2 null mice performed slightly better in a cognitive procedural learning test. Although finding and replicating robust behavioral phenotypes in animal models is a challenging task, such functional readouts remain important in the development of

  5. Multisensory Temporal Integration in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemann, Justin K.; Schneider, Brittany C.; Eberly, Haley E.; Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Camarata, Stephen M.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include sensory disturbances in addition to the well-established language, communication, and social deficits. One sensory disturbance seen in ASD is an impaired ability to integrate multisensory information into a unified percept. This may arise from an underlying impairment in which individuals with ASD have difficulty perceiving the temporal relationship between cross-modal inputs, an important cue for multisensory integration. Such impairments in multisensory processing may cascade into higher-level deficits, impairing day-to-day functioning on tasks, such as speech perception. To investigate multisensory temporal processing deficits in ASD and their links to speech processing, the current study mapped performance on a number of multisensory temporal tasks (with both simple and complex stimuli) onto the ability of individuals with ASD to perceptually bind audiovisual speech signals. High-functioning children with ASD were compared with a group of typically developing children. Performance on the multisensory temporal tasks varied with stimulus complexity for both groups; less precise temporal processing was observed with increasing stimulus complexity. Notably, individuals with ASD showed a speech-specific deficit in multisensory temporal processing. Most importantly, the strength of perceptual binding of audiovisual speech observed in individuals with ASD was strongly related to their low-level multisensory temporal processing abilities. Collectively, the results represent the first to illustrate links between multisensory temporal function and speech processing in ASD, strongly suggesting that deficits in low-level sensory processing may cascade into higher-order domains, such as language and communication. PMID:24431427

  6. A randomized, placebo controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of young children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Mankad, Deepali; Dupuis, Annie; Smile, Sharon; Roberts, Wendy; Brian, Jessica; Lui, Toni; Genore, Lisa; Zaghloul, Dina; Iaboni, Alana; Marcon, Peggy Margaret A; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting more than 1% of children. It is characterized by social communication deficits and repetitive behaviors/restricted interests. In the absence of any medications known to improve core symptom domains, parents often use complementary alternative treatments, including omega-3 fatty acid supplements. Methods We conducted a 6-month, randomized, placebo controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (1.5 g) vs p...

  7. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and magnetic fields (ERFs) may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient...

  8. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and magnetic fields (ERFs) may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salien...

  9. Management of a child with autism and severe bruxism: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by severe deficits in social interaction and communication. A wide spectrum of medical and behavioral symptoms is exhibited by children with autism, which makes routine dental care very difficult in them. Bruxism or forceful grinding of teeth is one of the sleep problems commonly observed in children with autism. Our patient, a 4-year-old male child with autism, presented with complaints of pain and sensitivity of the teeth. There was history of excessive grinding and clenching of teeth. Limited oral examination revealed severe attrition of all primary teeth. Treatment was planned under general anesthesia because of his poor cognitive abilities. Full-mouth rehabilitation, including placement of stainless steel crowns for all primary molars, was done. Following treatment there was a significant decrease in the grinding habit over the next 2 months. Although the communication and behavioral problems in children with autism pose challenges for the dentist, treatment with proper planning and a lot of patience can definitely make a difference.

  10. Management of a child with autism and severe bruxism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, M S; Prathibha, K M

    2008-06-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by severe deficits in social interaction and communication. A wide spectrum of medical and behavioral symptoms is exhibited by children with autism, which makes routine dental care very difficult in them. Bruxism or forceful grinding of teeth is one of the sleep problems commonly observed in children with autism. Our patient, a 4-year-old male child with autism, presented with complaints of pain and sensitivity of the teeth. There was history of excessive grinding and clenching of teeth. Limited oral examination revealed severe attrition of all primary teeth. Treatment was planned under general anesthesia because of his poor cognitive abilities. Full-mouth rehabilitation, including placement of stainless steel crowns for all primary molars, was done. Following treatment there was a significant decrease in the grinding habit over the next 2 months. Although the communication and behavioral problems in children with autism pose challenges for the dentist, treatment with proper planning and a lot of patience can definitely make a difference.

  11. Regression in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Prahbhjot; Singhi, Pratibha

    2012-10-01

    To understand the characteristics of autistic regression and to compare the clinical and developmental profile of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in whom parents report developmental regression with age matched ASD children in whom no regression is reported. Participants were 35 (Mean age = 3.57 y, SD = 1.09) children with ASD in whom parents reported developmental regression before age 3 y and a group of age and IQ matched 35 ASD children in whom parents did not report regression. All children were recruited from the outpatient Child Psychology Clinic of the Department of Pediatrics of a tertiary care teaching hospital in North India. Multi-disciplinary evaluations including neurological, diagnostic, cognitive, and behavioral assessments were done. Parents were asked in detail about the age at onset of regression, type of regression, milestones lost, and event, if any, related to the regression. In addition, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was administered to assess symptom severity. The mean age at regression was 22.43 mo (SD = 6.57) and large majority (66.7%) of the parents reported regression between 12 and 24 mo. Most (75%) of the parents of the regression-autistic group reported regression in the language domain, particularly in the expressive language sector, usually between 18 and 24 mo of age. Regression of language was not an isolated phenomenon and regression in other domains was also reported including social skills (75%), cognition (31.25%). In majority of the cases (75%) the regression reported was slow and subtle. There were no significant differences in the motor, social, self help, and communication functioning between the two groups as measured by the DP II.There were also no significant differences between the two groups on the total CARS score and total number of DSM IV symptoms endorsed. However, the regressed children had significantly (t = 2.36, P = .021) more social deficits as per the DSM IV as

  12. What's in a game: The effect of social motivation on interference control in boys with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; Luman, M.; van Meel, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are known to have cognitive control deficits. Some studies suggest that such deficits may be reduced when motivation is increased through tangible reinforcers. Whether these deficits ca

  13. Social skills interventions for individuals with autism: evaluation for evidence-based practices within a best evidence synthesis framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a best evidence synthesis of interventions to increase social behavior for individuals with autism. Sixty-six studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 2001 and July 2008 with 513 participants were included. The results are presented by the age of the individual receiving intervention and by delivery agent of intervention. The findings suggest there is much empirical evidence supporting many different treatments for the social deficits of individuals with autism. Using the criteria of evidence-based practice proposed by Reichow et al. (Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38:1311-1318, 2008), social skills groups and video modeling have accumulated the evidence necessary for the classifications of established EBP and promising EBP, respectively. Recommendations for practice and areas of future research are provided.

  14. Development and Implementation of a Video-Based Physical Activity Preference Assessment for Children with Autism and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankovich, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Development and Implementation of a Video-Based Physical Activity Preference Assessment for Children with Autism and Their Parents Individuals with autism often lack the necessary motivation to engage in physical activity. In addition, due to the characteristics defining autism, such as deficits in social skills, motor coordination, and behavior,…

  15. Improving Social Competence in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders through a Combined-Strategy Group Intervention: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    This applied dissertation investigated whether a combined-strategy group intervention improved social competence among children with autism spectrum disorders. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders exhibit deficits in social behaviors that may negatively impact all aspects of their lives. Social competence for individuals with autism spectrum…

  16. A Controlled Study of Mercury Levels in Hair Samples of Children with Autism as Compared to Their Typically Developing Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. Gail; Hersh, Joseph H.; Allard, AnnaMary; Sears, Lonnie L.

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disability characterized by severe, pervasive deficits in social interaction, communication and range of interests and activities. The neurobiologic basis of autism is well accepted, although the specific etiology is unknown. It has been theorized that autism may result from a combination of predisposing genes and…

  17. Brain imaging and autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilbovicius, M. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM CEA 0205, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  18. Trends in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Joav; Kandel, Isack; Morad, Mohammed

    2004-01-01

    Leo Kanner described autism in 1943, and Hans Asperger described the syndrome in 1944. The term Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) was first used in the 1980s to describe a class of disorders that include (1) Autistic disorder, (2) Rett disorder or syndrome, (3) Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, (4) Asperger's disorder or syndrome, and (5) Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, or PDDNOS. Autism prevalence studies published before 1985 showed prevalence rates of 4 to 5 per 10,000 children for the broader autism spectrum, and about 2 per 10,000 for the classic autism definition. Since 1985 there have been higher rates of autism reported from several countries. From the UK a prevalence rate of 16.8 per 10,000 children for autistic disorder was reported, and 62.6 per 10,000 for the entire autistic spectrum disorders. Sweden reported a prevalence of 36 per 10,000 for Asperger and 35 per 10,000 for social impairment, or a total prevalence of 71 per 10,000 for suspected and possible cases. From the US, 40 per 10,000 in three to ten year old children for autistic disorder and 67 per 10,000 children for the entire autism spectrum was reported. From the north region in Israel for children born between 1989-93 in the Haifa area, an incidence rate of 10 per 10,000 was found for autism. In recent years concern has been shown about the possible increase in the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders. Studies have shown an increase, but during these last twenty years diagnostic criteria and definition have also changed. Although many factors are at play, it is evident that there has been an increase.

  19. Influence of Autism Traits and Executive Functioning on Quality of Life in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) often experience a low Quality of Life (QoL). We studied if IQ, early language development, current autism traits, and daily Executive Functions (EFs) are related to QoL in children (aged 8-12 years) with ASD (N = 120) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 76). Children with ASD showed a lower QoL than TD children. This lower QoL was related to higher levels of autism traits and EF deficits. Moreover, specific autism traits and EFs were rel...

  20. Immune dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briceno Noriega, D.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common and severe neuro-developmental disorder in early childhood which is defined by social and communication deficits and repetitive and stereotypic behaviours. The aetiology of ASD remains poorly understood. Susceptibility to development of ASD has significant

  1. Gender in voice perception in autism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.B.; Orsouw, L van; Zwiers, M.; Swinkels, S.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Deficits in the perception of social stimuli may contribute to the characteristic impairments in social interaction in high functioning autism (HFA). Although the cortical processing of voice is abnormal in HFA, it is unclear whether this gives rise to impairments in the perception of voice gender.

  2. Gender in Voice Perception in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Wouter B.; van Orsouw, Linda; Zwiers, Marcel; Swinkels, Sophie; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Deficits in the perception of social stimuli may contribute to the characteristic impairments in social interaction in high functioning autism (HFA). Although the cortical processing of voice is abnormal in HFA, it is unclear whether this gives rise to impairments in the perception of voice gender. About 20 children with HFA and 20 matched…

  3. Fundamental Movement Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…

  4. Observational Learning and Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bridget A.; DeQuinzio, Jaime A.

    2012-01-01

    A skill essential for successful inclusion in general education settings is the ability to learn by observing others. Research, however, has documented children with autism display significant deficits in the fundamental skills necessary for observational learning. This article outlines the skills essential for observational learning from an…

  5. Immune dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briceno Noriega, D.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common and severe neuro-developmental disorder in early childhood which is defined by social and communication deficits and repetitive and stereotypic behaviours. The aetiology of ASD remains poorly understood. Susceptibility to development of ASD has significant

  6. Right Temporoparietal Gray Matter Predicts Accuracy of Social Perception in the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Nicole; Schultz, Johannes; Milne, Elizabeth; Schunke, Odette; Schöttle, Daniel; Münchau, Alexander; Siegel, Markus; Vogeley, Kai; Engel, Andreas K.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show hallmark deficits in social perception. These difficulties might also reflect fundamental deficits in integrating visual signals. We contrasted predictions of a social perception and a spatial-temporal integration deficit account. Participants with ASD and matched controls performed two…

  7. The psychophysics of Visual Motion and Global form Processing in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldewyn, Kami; Whitney, David; Rivera, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Several groups have recently reported that people with autism may suffer from a deficit in visual motion processing and proposed that these deficits may be related to a general dorsal stream dysfunction. In order to test the dorsal stream deficit hypothesis, we investigated coherent and biological motion perception as well as coherent form…

  8. 门诊孤独症患儿感觉统合失调与注意缺陷多动障碍症状调查%A survey of sensory integrative dysfunction and attention deficit and hyperactivity in 56 children with autism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宝铮; 李雪; 刘靖

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the occurrence of sensory integrative dysfunction and attention deficit and hyperactivity in children with autism.Methods Fifty-six consecutive children meeting the autism criteria of DSM-Ⅳ in outpatient department were rated with Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Conner' s Parent Symptom Questionnaire and Sensory Integrative Schedule (SIS).Those above six years old were diagnosed according to the criteria of DSM-Ⅳ for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADH D).Results The rate of sensory integrative dysfunction was 87.5 % in children with autism.Most items of SIS negatively correlated with the factors of ABC (r = -0.272 ~-0.685, P < 0.05 and 0.01 ).The rate of hyperactivity in children with autism was 58.9 %.About 75.9% children aged above 6 years old met the symptom criteria of DSM-Ⅳ for ADHD.Children with hyperactivity or meeting the symptom criteria of DSM-Ⅳ for ADHD had higher ABC total and body movement score and lower score of some factor of SIS (P < 0.05).Conclusion The children with autism usually have sensory integrative dysfunction, attention deficit and hyperactivity.Autistic children with sensory integrative dysfunction or attention deficit or hyperactivity have more severe autistic core symptom.It is necessary to intervene the sensory integrative dysfunction or attention deficit or hyperactivity in children with autism.%目的 探讨孤独症患儿感觉统合失调和注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)症状的发生情况.方法 2007年7月至2007年11月北京大学精神卫生研究所儿科门诊4岁以上的孤独症患儿56例,进行孤独症行为检查量表(ABC)、Conner父母症状问卷、感觉统合能力发展评定量表(SIS)的评定,并运用DSM-IV ADHD诊断标准对年龄≥6岁者进行诊断.结果 49例(87.5%)患儿存在感觉统合失调,其中38例(77.55%)为重度感觉统合失调;大肌肉及平衡感、触觉防御及情绪、本体感及协调3个因子分与ABC总分及ABC各

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorders: In Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Volkmar, Fred R

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a prevalent and strongly genetic brain-based disorder. Early focus in the field on the relevance of psychogenic factors led to the blaming of parents for the occurrence of the disorder, and as a result mainstream research on psychotherapeutic approaches has until recently been limited. Although psychoanalytic approaches continue to be considered of limited relevance for these individuals, dynamic theory is both informative and informed by conceptual approaches to the understanding of autism. Theory of mind in particular is a prominent model for understanding the core deficits of autism and bears strong resemblance to the concept of mentalization. Although cognitive-behavioral and social skills interventions may form the cornerstone of psychotherapy for individuals with autism, the formation of a treatment alliance remains crucial and may require a particular willingness for flexibility on the part of the therapist.

  10. Beyond pragmatics: morphosyntactic development in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Bennetto, Loisa; Dadlani, Mamta B

    2007-07-01

    Language acquisition research in autism has traditionally focused on high-level pragmatic deficits. Few studies have examined grammatical abilities in autism, with mixed findings. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by providing a detailed investigation of syntactic and higher-level discourse abilities in verbal children with autism, age 5 years. Findings indicate clear language difficulties that go beyond what would be expected based on developmental level; specifically, syntactic delays, impairments in discourse management and increased production of non-meaningful words (jargon). The present study indicates a highly specific pattern of language impairments, and importantly, syntactic delays, in a group of children with autism carefully matched on lexical level and non-verbal mental age with children with developmental delays and typical development.

  11. A Few Close Friends: The Pediatrician's Role in the Management of Social Skills Deficits in Adolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara A; Twyman, Kimberly A; Garrity, Matthew R; Wang, Tracy; Neary, Meaghan K; Ezzelgot, Jamie; Heithaus, Jennifer L

    2015-10-01

    Pediatricians must recognize and respond to adolescents with social skills deficits because they are at heightened risk for mental health disorders, peer victimization, and social isolation. The aim of this project was to describe a group of adolescent children at the time of enrollment into social skills treatment. Ninety participants with neurodevelopmental weaknesses or disorders, to include high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, participated. Results showed that adolescents referred for social skills deficits had communication weaknesses and concerns in everyday social reciprocal behavior. They rarely hosted get-togethers with same-aged peers and were not often invited by same-aged peers to get-togethers. Twenty-nine percent of participants reported that they were victims of bullying, and more than half of participants reported clinically significant ostracism experiences. Results are discussed in terms of the pediatrician's role in the prevention, identification, and treatment of social skills deficits in light of recent research showing brain neuroplasticity extending into adolescence.

  12. Prevalence of non-febrile seizures in children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder and their unaffected siblings: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized not only by deficits in communication and social interactions but also a high rate of co-occurring disorders, including metabolic abnormalities, gastrointestinal and sleep disorders, and seizures. Seizures, when present, interfere with cognitive development and are associated with a higher mortality rate in the ASD population. Methods To determine the relative prevalence of non-febrile seizures in children wit...

  13. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Discriminate Autism Spectrum Disorder from ADHD in Adult Patients With and Without Comorbid Substance Use Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, B.B.; van den Brink, W.; Gorissen-van Eenige, M.; Koeter, M.W.; van Wijngaarden-Cremers, P.J.M.; van der Gaag, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    It is unknown whether the Autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) can discriminate between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with or without comorbid Substance Use Disorder (SUD). ANOVA's were used to analyse the mean AQ (sub)scores of 129 adults with ASD o

  14. Using the Autism-spectrum quotient to discriminate Autism Spectrum Disorder from ADHD in adult patients with and without comorbid Substance Use Disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, B.B.; Brink, W. van den; Gorissen-van Eenige, M.E.E.; Koeter, M.W.; Wijngaarden-Cremers, P.J. van; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    It is unknown whether the Autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) can discriminate between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with or without comorbid Substance Use Disorder (SUD). ANOVA's were used to analyse the mean AQ (sub)scores of 129 adults with ASD o

  15. Advocacy Update: Autism Speaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursitti, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Autism Speaks, the world's largest autism non-profit organization, is addressing a struggle to obtain evidence-based treatment on autism. The mission of Autism Speaks is to change the future for all who struggle with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Part of their focus is to change state insurance laws to require private health insurance policies…

  16. Autism and sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti A Devnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available “Autism Spectrum Disorders” (ASDs are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM sleep which included decreased quantity, increased undifferentiated sleep, immature organization of eye movements into discrete bursts, decreased time in bed, total sleep time, REM sleep latency, and increased proportion of stage 1 sleep. Implementation of nonpharmacotherapeutic measures such as bedtime routines and sleep-wise approach is the mainstay of behavioral management. Treatment strategies along with limited regulated pharmacotherapy can help improve the quality of life in ASD children and have a beneficial impact on the family. PubMed search was performed for English language articles from January 1995 to January 2015. Following key words: Autism spectrum disorder, sleep disorders and autism, REM sleep and autism, cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep-wise approach, melatonin and ASD were used. Only articles reporting primary data relevant to the above questions were included.

  17. Object-directed imitation in children with high-functioning autism: testing the social motivation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mark; Slaughter, Virginia; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2013-02-01

    Children with autism show clear deficits in copying others' bodily oriented actions whereas their capacity for replicating others' object-directed actions appears relatively spared. One explanation is that unlike bodily oriented actions, object-directed actions have tangible, functional outcomes and hence rely far less on social motivations for their production. To investigate this, we compared the performance of a group of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and a group of typically developing (TD) children on two distinct object-directed tasks that are considered highly social: overimitation and synchronic imitation. Our findings were surprising. The HFA children copied all of a modeling adult's actions, including those that had no function or purpose (i.e. they overimitated), and they entered into extended bouts repeating an arbitrary action along with the adult who had a similar object to play with (i.e. they engaged in synchronic imitation). Moreover, they did so at rates indistinguishable from the TD children. This work demonstrates that the capacity and propensity for overimitation and synchronic imitation are intact in children with HFA, and questions whether socially based imitation should be considered an autism-specific deficit.

  18. Sensory and motor characterization in the postnatal valproate rat model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Stacey; Millette, Alexandre; Devine, Darragh P

    2012-01-01

    Although autism is diagnosed according to three core features of social deficits, communication impairments, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors, other behavioral features such as sensory and motor impairments are present in more than 70% of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Exposure of rat pups to the teratogen valproate during sensitive periods of brain development has been shown to elicit behavioral features associated with autism diagnosis and has been proposed as a valid animal model of the disorder. The purpose of this study was to characterize sensory and motor performance in rats postnatally treated with valproate. Thirty-four rat pups were injected with either valproate (150 mg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 6-12. Auditory and tactile startle as well as auditory sensory gating was assessed during both the juvenile and adolescent stages of development; motor testing was conducted during late adolescence and included a sunflower seed eating task and a vermicelli handling task. Valproate-treated rats were underresponsive to auditory stimuli, showed deficits in auditory sensory gating, and demonstrated impairments in motor speed and performance. These findings suggest that postnatal valproate treatment elicits sensory and motor features often seen in individuals with ASD. Further, the hyposensitivity seen in postnatally valproate-treated rats contrasted with hypersensitivity previously reported in prenatally valproate-exposed rats. This suggests that timing of teratogenic exposure during early brain development may be important to consider when investigating the neurobiological basis of sensorimotor impairments in ASD.

  19. Brief Report: Atypical Social Cognition and Social Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder--A Different Way of Processing Rather than an Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kate; Kirk, Ian

    2008-01-01

    A central question to autism research is whether autism is largely the result of an impairment in social cognition and/or motivation or the result of a more general processing difference. This review discusses problems with the "social deficit" model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is suggested that superior attention to low-level perceptual…

  20. Facial emotion recognition deficits in relatives of children with autism are not associated with 5HTTLPR Prejuízos no reconhecimento de emoções faciais em parentes de primeiro grau de portadores de autismo não são associados com o polimorfismo 5HTTLPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maila de Castro Lourenço das Neves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A large body of evidence suggests that several aspects of face processing are impaired in autism and that this impairment might be hereditary. This study was aimed at assessing facial emotion recognition in parents of children with autism and its associations with a functional polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR. METHOD: We evaluated 40 parents of children with autism and 41 healthy controls. All participants were administered the Penn Emotion Recognition Test (ER40 and were genotyped for 5HTTLPR. RESULTS: Our study showed that parents of children with autism performed worse in the facial emotion recognition test than controls. Analyses of error patterns showed that parents of children with autism over-attributed neutral to emotional faces. We found evidence that 5HTTLPR polymorphism did not influence the performance in the Penn Emotion Recognition Test, but that it may determine different error patterns. CONCLUSION: Facial emotion recognition deficits are more common in first-degree relatives of autistic patients than in the general population, suggesting that facial emotion recognition is a candidate endophenotype for autism.OBJETIVO: Diversos estudos sugerem que o processamento de emoções faciais está prejudicado em portadores de autismo e que tal prejuízo possa ser hereditário. Nós estudamos o reconhecimento de emoções faciais em parentes de primeiro grau de portadores de autismo e suas associações com o polimorfismo funcional de transportador de serotonina (5HTTLPR. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 40 parentes de primeiro grau de portadores de autismo e 41 controles saudáveis. Todos os participantes foram submetidos ao Teste de Reconhecimento de Emoções (ER40 da Bateria Neuropsicológica Computadorizada da Universidade da Pensilvânia (PENNCNP e genotipados para o 5HTTLPR. RESULTADOS: Os parentes de primeiro grau de portadores de autismo apresentaram pior reconhecimento de emoções faciais comparados aos

  1. Communicative competence in parents of children with autism and parents of children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruser, Tilla F; Arin, Deborah; Dowd, Michael; Putnam, Sara; Winklosky, Brian; Rosen-Sheidley, Beth; Piven, Joseph; Tomblin, Bruce; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Folstein, Susan

    2007-08-01

    While the primary language deficit in autism has been thought to be pragmatic, and in specific language impairment (SLI) structural, recent research suggests phenomenological and possibly genetic overlap between the two syndromes. To compare communicative competence in parents of children with autism, SLI, and down syndrome (DS), we used a modified pragmatic rating scale (PRS-M). Videotapes of conversational interviews with 47 autism, 47 SLI, and 21 DS parents were scored blind to group membership. Autism and SLI parents had significantly lower communication abilities than DS parents. Fifteen percent of the autism and SLI parents showed severe deficits. Our results suggest that impaired communication is part of the broader autism phenotype and a broader SLI phenotype, especially among male family members.

  2. Increased secreted amyloid precursor protein-α (sAPPα in severe autism: proposal of a specific, anabolic pathway and putative biomarker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmiki Ray

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in verbal communication, social interactions, and the presence of repetitive, stereotyped and compulsive behaviors. Excessive early brain growth is found commonly in some patients and may contribute to disease phenotype. Reports of increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and other neurotrophic-like factors in autistic neonates suggest that enhanced anabolic activity in CNS mediates this overgrowth effect. We have shown previously that in a subset of patients with severe autism and aggression, plasma levels of the secreted amyloid-β (Aβ precursor protein-alpha form (sAPPα were significantly elevated relative to controls and patients with mild-to-moderate autism. Here we further tested the hypothesis that levels of sAPPα and sAPPβ (proteolytic cleavage products of APP by α- and β-secretase, respectively are deranged in autism and may contribute to an anabolic environment leading to brain overgrowth. We measured plasma levels of sAPPα, sAPPβ, Aβ peptides and BDNF by corresponding ELISA in a well characterized set of subjects. We included for analysis 18 control, 6 mild-to-moderate, and 15 severely autistic patient plasma samples. We have observed that sAPPα levels are increased and BDNF levels decreased in the plasma of patients with severe autism as compared to controls. Further, we show that Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42, and sAPPβ levels are significantly decreased in the plasma of patients with severe autism. These findings do not extend to patients with mild-to-moderate autism, providing a biochemical correlate of phenotypic severity. Taken together, this study provides evidence that sAPPα levels are generally elevated in severe autism and suggests that these patients may have aberrant non-amyloidogenic processing of APP.

  3. Antipurinergic therapy corrects the autism-like features in the poly(IC mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K Naviaux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Mitochondria act to connect genes and environment by regulating gene-encoded metabolic networks according to changes in the chemistry of the cell and its environment. Mitochondrial ATP and other metabolites are mitokines-signaling molecules made in mitochondria-that undergo regulated release from cells to communicate cellular health and danger to neighboring cells via purinergic signaling. The role of purinergic signaling has not yet been explored in autism spectrum disorders. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We used the maternal immune activation (MIA mouse model of gestational poly(IC exposure and treatment with the non-selective purinergic antagonist suramin to test the role of purinergic signaling in C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: We found that antipurinergic therapy (APT corrected 16 multisystem abnormalities that defined the ASD-like phenotype in this model. These included correction of the core social deficits and sensorimotor coordination abnormalities, prevention of cerebellar Purkinje cell loss, correction of the ultrastructural synaptic dysmorphology, and correction of the hypothermia, metabolic, mitochondrial, P2Y2 and P2X7 purinergic receptor expression, and ERK1/2 and CAMKII signal transduction abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperpurinergia is a fundamental and treatable feature of the multisystem abnormalities in the poly(IC mouse model of autism spectrum disorders. Antipurinergic therapy provides a new tool for refining current concepts of pathogenesis in autism and related spectrum disorders, and represents a fresh path forward for new drug development.

  4. It's all in the eyes: subcortical and cortical activation during grotesqueness perception in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole R Zürcher

    Full Text Available Atypical face processing plays a key role in social interaction difficulties encountered by individuals with autism. In the current fMRI study, the Thatcher illusion was used to investigate several aspects of face processing in 20 young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD and 20 matched neurotypical controls. "Thatcherized" stimuli were modified at either the eyes or the mouth and participants discriminated between pairs of faces while cued to attend to either of these features in upright and inverted orientation. Behavioral data confirmed sensitivity to the illusion and intact configural processing in ASD. Directing attention towards the eyes vs. the mouth in upright faces in ASD led to (1 improved discrimination accuracy; (2 increased activation in areas involved in social and emotional processing; (3 increased activation in subcortical face-processing areas. Our findings show that when explicitly cued to attend to the eyes, activation of cortical areas involved in face processing, including its social and emotional aspects, can be enhanced in autism. This suggests that impairments in face processing in autism may be caused by a deficit in social attention, and that giving specific cues to attend to the eye-region when performing behavioral therapies aimed at improving social skills may result in a better outcome.

  5. Acetylcholine elevation relieves cognitive rigidity and social deficiency in a mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvat, Golan; Kimchi, Tali

    2014-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are defined by behavioral deficits in social interaction and communication, repetitive stereotyped behaviors, and restricted interests/cognitive rigidity. Recent studies in humans and animal-models suggest that dysfunction of the cholinergic system may underlie autism-related behavioral symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that augmentation of acetylcholine (ACh) in the synaptic cleft by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase may ameliorate autistic phenotypes. We first administered the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) Donepezil systemically by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections. Second, the drug was injected directly into the rodent homolog of the caudate nucleus, the dorsomedial striatum (DMS), of the inbred mouse strain BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR), a commonly-used model presenting all core autism-related phenotypes and expressing low brain ACh levels. We found that i.p. injection of AChEI to BTBR mice significantly relieved autism-relevant phenotypes, including decreasing cognitive rigidity, improving social preference, and enhancing social interaction, in a dose-dependent manner. Microinjection of the drug directly into the DMS, but not into the ventromedial striatum, led to significant amelioration of the cognitive-rigidity and social-deficiency phenotypes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence of the key role of the cholinergic system and the DMS in the etiology of ASD, and suggest that elevated cognitive flexibility may result in enhanced social attention. The potential therapeutic effect of AChEIs in ASD patients is discussed.

  6. Disruption of visual circuit formation and refinement in a mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ning; Khanbabaei, Maryam; Murari, Kartikeya; Rho, Jong M

    2017-02-01

    Aberrant connectivity is believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent neuroimaging studies have increasingly identified such impairments in patients with ASD, including alterations in sensory systems. However, the cellular substrates and molecular underpinnings of disrupted connectivity remain poorly understood. Utilizing eye-specific segregation in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) as a model system, we investigated the formation and refinement of precise patterning of synaptic connections in the BTBR T + tf/J (BTBR) mouse model of ASD. We found that at the neonatal stage, the shape of the dLGN occupied by retinal afferents was altered in the BTBR group compared to C57BL/6J (B6) animals. Notably, the degree of overlap between the ipsi- and contralateral afferents was significantly greater in the BTBR mice. Moreover, these abnormalities continued into mature stage in the BTBR animals, suggesting persistent deficits rather than delayed maturation of axonal refinement. Together, these results indicate disrupted connectivity at the synaptic patterning level in the BTBR mice, suggesting that in general, altered neural circuitry may contribute to autistic behaviours seen in this animal model. In addition, these data are consistent with the notion that lower-level, primary processing mechanisms contribute to altered visual perception in ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 212-223. © 2016 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  7. It’s All in the Eyes: Subcortical and Cortical Activation during Grotesqueness Perception in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Nicole R.; Donnelly, Nick; Rogier, Ophélie; Russo, Britt; Hippolyte, Loyse; Hadwin, Julie; Lemonnier, Eric; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2013-01-01

    Atypical face processing plays a key role in social interaction difficulties encountered by individuals with autism. In the current fMRI study, the Thatcher illusion was used to investigate several aspects of face processing in 20 young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 20 matched neurotypical controls. “Thatcherized” stimuli were modified at either the eyes or the mouth and participants discriminated between pairs of faces while cued to attend to either of these features in upright and inverted orientation. Behavioral data confirmed sensitivity to the illusion and intact configural processing in ASD. Directing attention towards the eyes vs. the mouth in upright faces in ASD led to (1) improved discrimination accuracy; (2) increased activation in areas involved in social and emotional processing; (3) increased activation in subcortical face-processing areas. Our findings show that when explicitly cued to attend to the eyes, activation of cortical areas involved in face processing, including its social and emotional aspects, can be enhanced in autism. This suggests that impairments in face processing in autism may be caused by a deficit in social attention, and that giving specific cues to attend to the eye-region when performing behavioral therapies aimed at improving social skills may result in a better outcome. PMID:23342130

  8. Virginia Tech Center for Autism Research - Susan White perspective

    OpenAIRE

    White, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights of the autism research of Susan White, Psychology professor and the co-director of the VT Autism clinic, are explained. Topics include anxiety, treatment development, ASD in adults, and biomarker pursuit. Fit of research of the clinic to the Center for Autism Research is explained, with potential for leadership in technology applications, environmental considerations, and interdisciplinary work.

  9. Romantic attachment, empathy, and the broader autism phenotype among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Dustin; Turner, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that mild autistic-like characteristics can be measured among relatives of individuals with autism and in the general population. These characteristics have been referred to as the broader autism phenotype (BAP), and include pragmatic language difficulties, aloofness, and rigidity. Evidence is growing to suggest that individuals with BAP encounter difficulties in their social interactions. Recent work demonstrates that college students scoring high on the BAP report more loneliness (Jobe & Williams White, 2007) and more interpersonal problems (Wainer, Ingersoll, & Hopwood, 2012). Because intimate relationships are important in development and are very salient in emerging adulthood, the authors examined the relation of the BAP to romantic attachment and empathy among young adults. Higher BAP scores were associated with lower empathy and higher attachment anxiety and avoidance. Specifically, pragmatic language difficulties were related to higher rates of avoidant attachment and this relationship was mediated by empathy. In contrast, pragmatic language deficits were directly related to anxious attachment.

  10. Perception of dynamic facial emotional expressions in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Spee, P.S.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown deficits in the perception of static emotional facial expressions in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but results are inconclusive. Possibly, using dynamic facial stimuli expressing emotions at different levels of intensities may produce more robust

  11. Perception of dynamic facial emotional expressions in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Spee, P.; Hendriks, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown deficits in the perception of static emotional facial expressions in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but results are inconclusive. Possibly, using dynamic facial stimuli expressing emotions at different levels of intensities may produce more robust

  12. Cardiac reactivity and stimulant use in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders with comorbid ADHD versus ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I.L.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+)

  13. Teaching teenagers with autism to answer cell phones and seek assistance when lost

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoch, Hannah; Taylor, Bridget A; Rodriguez, Angela

    2009-01-01

    .... Results are discussed in terms of the importance of teaching community safety skills to individuals with autism and the challenges of teaching these responses to individuals with severe communication and social deficits.

  14. Clinical practice guideline: screening and diagnosing autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, J

    2001-12-01

    The clinical practice guideline (CPG) reviewed in this month's column concerns the screening and diagnosis of autism. Autism is the third most common developmental disability and affects more than 1 in 500 children, or nearly 400,000 people in the United States, in some form. Primary care providers of children, including pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) and family nurse practitioners (FNPs), should reasonably expect to care for at least one child with autism (CWA). The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has therefore developed guidelines to help healthcare providers facilitate the early identification of children with autism.

  15. Relationship between motor abilities and severity of autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cvijetić Marija; Gagić Sanja

    2017-01-01

    According to the findings in literature, motor skills of children with autism spectrum disorders generally differ from age expectations and are increasingly being associated with speech and language and social development, and adaptive behavior. The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between the development level of fine and gross motor skills and autism severity of children with autism spectrum disorder. The sample included 30 children with autism spectrum disorder and ass...

  16. Consensus Paper: Pathological Role of the Cerebellum in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Ashwood, Paul; Bauman, Margaret L.; Blaha, Charles D.; Gene J. Blatt; Chauhan, Abha; Chauhan, Ved; Dager, Stephen R.; Dickson, Price E.; Estes, Annette M.; Goldowitz, Dan; Heck, Detlef H.; Kemper, Thomas L.; King, Bryan H.

    2012-01-01

    There has been significant advancement in various aspects of scientific knowledge concerning the role of cerebellum in the etiopathogenesis of autism. In the current consensus paper, we will observe the diversity of opinions regarding the involvement of this important site in the pathology of autism. Recent emergent findings in literature related to cerebellar involvement in autism are discussed, including: cerebellar pathology, cerebellar imaging and symptom expression in autism, cerebellar ...

  17. A Twin Study of Heritable and Shared Environmental Contributions to Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Thompson, Lee; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Law, Paul; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Eng, Charis; Morris, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined genetic and shared environment contributions to quantitatively-measured autism symptoms and categorically-defined autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants included 568 twins from the Interactive Autism Network. Autism symptoms were obtained using the Social Communication Questionnaire and Social Responsiveness…

  18. A Twin Study of Heritable and Shared Environmental Contributions to Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Thompson, Lee; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Law, Paul; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Eng, Charis; Morris, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined genetic and shared environment contributions to quantitatively-measured autism symptoms and categorically-defined autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants included 568 twins from the Interactive Autism Network. Autism symptoms were obtained using the Social Communication Questionnaire and Social Responsiveness…

  19. Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder as Behavior Technicians for Young Children with Autism: Outcomes of a Behavioral Skills Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In…

  20. Contactin 4 as a Possible Autism Susceptibility Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    3 yrs  Restricted interests and stereotypic and/or repetitive behaviors – Up to 90% of the risk is genetic, although underlying causes remain...Working Together, Achieving Success 1 2011 MHS Conference Autism Spectrum Disorder - ASD  Declared a national public health crisis – Nationwide 1 in...BACKGROUND – Autism is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in the US  Deficits in communication and social interaction skills with onset

  1. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne

    2011-03-01

    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders.

  2. Towards a Handy Interactive Persuasive Diary for Teenagers with a Diagnosis of Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meiland Ranfelt, Anja; Wigram, Tony; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The HANDS project is designed for Helping Autism-diagnosed Navigate and Develop Socially (HANDS) and combines studies within pedagogy and psychology with the more technological field of Persuasive Design (PD). Functional deficits in social ability are considered in teenagers diagnosed with autism...

  3. Motivation, Interest, and Attention: Re-Defining Learning in the Autism Spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequia, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    In "The Passionate Mind: How People with Autism Learn", Wendy Lawson presents readers with various cognitive theories of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this book, Lawson makes reference to the medical and social models of disability, urging readers to consider disability from a social rather than a medical or deficit-driven perspective. Each…

  4. Motivation, Interest, and Attention: Re-Defining Learning in the Autism Spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequia, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    In "The Passionate Mind: How People with Autism Learn", Wendy Lawson presents readers with various cognitive theories of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this book, Lawson makes reference to the medical and social models of disability, urging readers to consider disability from a social rather than a medical or deficit-driven perspective. Each…

  5. An Investigation of Narrative Ability in Boys with Autism and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan-Brown, Abigail L.; Losh, Molly; Martin, Gary E.; Mueffelmann, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas pragmatic language difficulties are characteristic of both autism and Fragile X syndrome, it is unclear whether such deficits are qualitatively similar or whether certain skills are differentially affected. This study compared narrative competence in boys with autism, Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, and typical development. Results…

  6. Group Social Skills Interventions for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…

  7. Semantic, Factual, and Social Language Comprehension in Adolescents with Autism: An FMRI Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.B.; Tesink, C.M.J.Y.; Petersson, K.M.; Berkum, J.J.A. van; Gaag, R.J. van der; Hagoort, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Language in high-functioning autism is characterized by pragmatic and semantic deficits, and people with autism have a reduced tendency to integrate information. Because the left and right inferior frontal (LIE and RIF) regions are implicated with integration of speaker information, world knowledge,

  8. Semantic, factual, and social language comprehension in adolescents with autism : an FMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.B.; Tesink, C.M.J.Y.; Petersson, K.M.; Berkum, J. van; Gaag, R.J. van der; Hagoort, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Language in high-functioning autism is characterized by pragmatic and semantic deficits, and people with autism have a reduced tendency to integrate information. Because the left and right inferior frontal (LIF and RIF) regions are implicated with integration of speaker information, world knowledge,

  9. Semantic, factual, and social language comprehension in adolescents with autism: an FMRI study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.B.; Tesink, C.M.J.Y.; Petersson, K.M.; Berkum, J.J.A. van; Gaag, R.J. van der; Hagoort, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Language in high-functioning autism is characterized by pragmatic and semantic deficits, and people with autism have a reduced tendency to integrate information. Because the left and right inferior frontal (LIF and RIF) regions are implicated with integration of speaker information, world knowledge,

  10. Differential Olfactory Identification in Children with Autism and Asperger's Disorder: A Comparative and Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Tamara; Brewer, Warrick J.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Enticott, Peter G.; Brereton, Avril V.; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    Key theories of autism implicate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compromise, while olfactory identification (OI) deficits are associated with OFC dysfunction. This study aimed to complete a 5-year follow-up of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) who previously lacked the normal age-OI association; and compare unirhinal-OI in children with HFA,…

  11. Reading Comprehension Intervention for High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of children with autism spectrum disorders appears to be on the increase and educators are becoming more aware of their educational and social needs. In particular, many students with high-functioning autism have a deficit in reading comprehension. As a consequence, there is now a greater determination by educators to design the…

  12. A Programmatic Description of a Social Skills Group for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Dotson, Wesley H.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Sherman, James A.; Sheldon, Jan B.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in social skills are a common problem for children with autism. One method of developing appropriate social skills in children with autism has been group instruction. To date, however, group instruction has produced mixed results. The purpose of this article is to describe a promising method of teaching social skills to children in small…

  13. Group Social Skills Interventions for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…

  14. A Programmatic Description of a Social Skills Group for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Dotson, Wesley H.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Sherman, James A.; Sheldon, Jan B.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in social skills are a common problem for children with autism. One method of developing appropriate social skills in children with autism has been group instruction. To date, however, group instruction has produced mixed results. The purpose of this article is to describe a promising method of teaching social skills to children in small…

  15. The Use of Grammatical Morphemes by Mandarin-Speaking Children with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Tang, Ye; Jia, Meixiang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the production of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Previous research found that a subgroup of English-speaking children with autism exhibit deficits in the use of grammatical morphemes that mark tense. In order to see whether this impairment in grammatical morphology…

  16. Behavioural and neural basis of anomalous motor learning in children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Marko (Mollie K.); D. Crocetti (Deana); T. Hulst (Thomas); O. Donchin (Opher); R. Shadmehr (Reza); S.H. Mostofsky (Stewart H.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAutism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social and communication skills and repetitive and stereotyped interests and behaviours. Although not part of the diagnostic criteria, individuals with autism experience a host of motor impairments, potenti

  17. Learning through Seeing and Doing: Visual Supports for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shaila M.; Gagie, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a life-long, complex developmental disorder that causes impairment in the way individuals process information. Autism belongs to heterogeneous categories of developmental disabilities where neurological disorders lead to deficits in a child's ability to communicate, understand language, play, develop social skills, and relate to others.…

  18. "Why Single Me Out?" Peer Mentoring, Autism and Inclusion in Mainstream Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen an increase in the number of students with autism attending mainstream educational provision. Improving outcomes for this group is a complex issue given the deficit of evidence-based practice. A new peer mentoring programme developed for students with autism in mainstream secondary schools was evaluated using a combination…

  19. The Use of Grammatical Morphemes by Mandarin-Speaking Children with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Tang, Ye; Jia, Meixiang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the production of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Previous research found that a subgroup of English-speaking children with autism exhibit deficits in the use of grammatical morphemes that mark tense. In order to see whether this impairment in grammatical morphology…

  20. Motor Planning and Control in Autism. A Kinematic Analysis of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Sara; Valli, Angela; Perego, Paolo; Nobile, Maria; Crippa, Alessandro; Molteni, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic recordings in a reach and drop task were compared between 12 preschool children with autism without mental retardation and 12 gender and age-matched normally developing children. Our aim was to investigate whether motor anomalies in autism may depend more on a planning ability dysfunction or on a motor control deficit. Planning and…

  1. Does Central Coherence Relate to the Cognitive Performance of Children with Autism in Dynamic Assessments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljunied, Mariam; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    Central coherence refers to an in-built propensity to form meaningful links over a wide range of stimuli and to generalize over as wide a range of contexts as possible. In children with autism this ability is diminished, and the impact of central coherence deficits in children with autism have previously been observed using static measures of…

  2. Event Related Potentials in the Understanding of Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Analytical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Shafali S.; Nelson, Charles A., III

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we critically review the literature on the use of event related potentials (ERPs) to elucidate the neural sources of the core deficits in autism. We review auditory and visual ERP studies, and then review the use of ERPs in the investigation of executive function. We conclude that, in autism, impairments likely exist in both low and…

  3. What can autism and dyslexia tell us about intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that understanding developmental disorders requires developing theories and models that explicitly represent the role of general intelligence in the cognitive phenotype of the disorder. In the case of autism it is argued that the low-IQ scores of people with autism are not likely to be due to a deficit in the cognitive process that is arguably the major cause of mental retardation - namely, speed of processing - but rather low IQ reflects the pervasive and cascading effects of the deficit in the information-processing module that causes autism. In the case of dyslexia, two radically different models of reading disorder (ability = disability and a modular deficit model) are likely to be influenced by the effect of general intelligence on reading performance in ways that will remain unclear without an explicit model of how general intelligence influences reading.

  4. Theory of Mind Deficits in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, K.; Burack, J. A.; Rahman, A.; Munir, F.; Russo, N.; Grant, C.

    2005-01-01

    Given the consistent findings of theory of mind deficits in children with autism, it would be extremely beneficial to examine the profile of theory of mind abilities in other clinical groups such as fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Down syndrome (DS). The aim of the present study was to assess whether boys with FXS are impaired in simple social…

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Community-based Sample with Neurodevelopmental Problems in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagunju, Andrew T.; Oyelohunnu, Motunrayo. A.; Campbell, Elizabeth A.; Umeh, Charles S.; Aina, Olatunji F.; Oyibo, Wellington; Lesi, Folusho E.A.; Adeyemi, Joseph D.

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a globally prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder for which early diagnosis and intervention is the mainstay of management. In the African continent, limited data is available regarding the non-clinic based samples. Lack of information available to caregivers and inadequate skilled manpower often limit early detection and access to the few available though under resourced services in the community. Community based screening can be an important drive to create awareness and improve information dissemination regarding services available for those living with this disorder. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study utilizing data obtained from participants of a community-based autism screening exercise. The surveillance exercise was part of the annual Orange Ribbon initiative for autism awareness and screening held in 2014. Data was obtained from 85 participants involved in the Autism Surveillance screening exercise within the Lagos community. Community public service radio announcements state wide and word of mouth were used to invite and enroll eligible participants to the screening and consultation exercise. A second stage screening and a brief sociodemographic questionnaire followed by a third stage clinical interview and evaluation using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 5 Edition (DSM 5) were used. Appropriate consultation and referrals to services in the community were given. Participants had a mean age of 7.53 years (SD 4.35). Twenty-nine (34.5%) met the diagnosis of ASD. Other diagnosis included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), language and speech disorder, intellectual disability (8.3%) and learning disorders (9.5%). Main health concerns to caregivers were poor language development in all (100%), of which 11 (40.7%) were non-verbal; gaze avoidance was seen in 14 (48.3%) and challenging behavior in 12 (42.9%). Comorbidities included seizure disorders (3.4%) and ADHD (6.9%). Persons

  6. Autism spectrum disorder in a community-based sample with neurodevelopmental problems in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewande O. Oshodi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a globally prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder for which early diagnosis and intervention is the mainstay of management. In the African continent, limited data is available regarding the non-clinic based samples. Lack of information available to caregivers and inadequate skilled manpower often limit early detection and access to the few available though under resourced services in the community. Community based screening can be an important drive to create awareness and improve information dissemination regarding services available for those living with this disorder. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study utilizing data obtained from participants of a community-based autism screening exercise. The surveillance exercise was part of the annual Orange Ribbon initiative for autism awareness and screening held in 2014. Data was obtained from 85 participants involved in the Autism Surveillance screening exercise within the Lagos community. Community public service radio announcements state wide and word of mouth were used to invite and enroll eligible participants to the screening and consultation exercise. A second stage screening and a brief sociodemographic questionnaire followed by a third stage clinical interview and evaluation using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 5 Edition (DSM 5 were used. Appropriate consultation and referrals to services in the community were given. Participants had a mean age of 7.53 years (SD 4.35. Twenty-nine (34.5% met the diagnosis of ASD. Other diagnosis included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, language and speech disorder, intellectual disability (8.3% and learning disorders (9.5%. Main health concerns to caregivers were poor language development in all (100%, of which 11 (40.7% were non-verbal; gaze avoidance was seen in 14 (48.3% and challenging behavior in 12 (42.9%. Comorbidities included seizure disorders (3.4% and ADHD (6

  7. Pragmatic Communication Deficits in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are related to general intellectual functioning. Both…

  8. Pragmatic Communication Deficits in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are related to general intellectual functioning. Both…

  9. Autism As a Disorder of High Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-01-01

    A suite of recent studies has reported positive genetic correlations between autism risk and measures of mental ability. These findings indicate that alleles for autism overlap broadly with alleles for high intelligence, which appears paradoxical given that autism is characterized, overall, by below-average IQ. This paradox can be resolved under the hypothesis that autism etiology commonly involves enhanced, but imbalanced, components of intelligence. This hypothesis is supported by convergent evidence showing that autism and high IQ share a diverse set of convergent correlates, including large brain size, fast brain growth, increased sensory and visual-spatial abilities, enhanced synaptic functions, increased attentional focus, high socioeconomic status, more deliberative decision-making, profession and occupational interests in engineering and physical sciences, and high levels of positive assortative mating. These findings help to provide an evolutionary basis to understanding autism risk as underlain in part by dysregulation of intelligence, a core human-specific adaptation. In turn, integration of studies on intelligence with studies of autism should provide novel insights into the neurological and genetic causes of high mental abilities, with important implications for cognitive enhancement, artificial intelligence, the relationship of autism with schizophrenia, and the treatment of both autism and intellectual disability.

  10. Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summary – Sept. 23, 2014 Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Formats View PDF (PDF) 692 kB Help with ... Web page Understanding Your Child's Condition What is autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? ASD includes a range of behavioral symptoms. ...

  11. Cultural Beliefs about Autism in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riany, Yulina Eva; Cuskelly, Monica; Meredith, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Cultural beliefs about parenting have an important influence on parenting behaviours, including considerations about appropriate ways to parent children with autism. Although Indonesia has one of the largest and most ethnically diverse populations in the world, little is known about cultural beliefs regarding children with autism within Indonesian…

  12. Use of Gilliam Asperger's disorder scale in differentiating high and low functioning autism and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L; Murray, Michael J; Morrow, Jill D; Yurich, Kirsten K L; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about the validity of Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale (GADS), although it is widely used. This study of 199 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder, 195 with low functioning autism, and 83 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed high classification accuracy (autism vs. ADHD) for clinicians' GADS Quotients (92%), and somewhat lower accuracy (77%) for parents' Quotients. Both children with high and low functioning autism had clinicians' Quotients (M=99 and 101, respectively) similar to the Asperger's Disorder mean of 100 for the GADS normative sample. Children with high functioning autism scored significantly higher on the cognitive patterns subscale than children with low functioning autism, and the latter had higher scores on the remaining subscales: social interaction, restricted patterns of behavior, and pragmatic skills. Using the clinicians' Quotient and Cognitive Patterns score, 70% of children were correctly identified as having high or low functioning autism or ADHD.

  13. Examining social competence, self-perception, quality of life, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescent females with and without autism spectrum disorder: a quantitative design including between-groups and correlational analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, T Rene; Schuttler, Jessica Oeth

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent females with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are an understudied population, yet are also quite vulnerable, due to the increased complexities of social interaction and increased risk for internalizing symptoms in adolescence. Most research literature currently focuses on males with ASD, limiting our understanding of social experiences for females with ASD, and thus the potential to better inform supports and intervention to promote social-emotional functioning. This study examined similarities and differences in selected indicators of social-emotional health (social competence, self-perception, quality of life) and problematic behaviors such as externalizing and internalizing symptoms for adolescent females with and without ASD. This study employed a quantitative design utilizing correlational analysis as well as t test comparisons to examine selected indicators of social-emotional health and problematic symptoms using the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS), Youth Quality of Life Instrument (YQOL), and the Self-Perceptions Profile for Adolescents (SPPA) for adolescent females with ASD in relation to their typically developing peers. Significant differences were found between females with and without ASD in terms of their self-ratings of social-emotional health and problematic behaviors. The no-ASD group rated themselves higher across all areas of social-emotional health. Findings also suggest strong relationships between these constructs, especially for females without ASD. Parent reports of autism symptoms and social-emotional health indicated that as symptoms of autism are more severe, so too was the impact on individuals' social competence. Adolescent females with ASD perceive themselves as having lower social competence, self-worth, and quality of life and higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms as compared to their typically developing peers. Parent ratings indicate that higher levels of autism symptoms relate to lower

  14. Facial emotion recognition in paranoid schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Michael; Schlitt, Sabine; Hainz, Daniela; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Walter, Henrik; Poustka, Fritz; Bölte, Sven; Freitag, Christine M

    2014-11-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share deficits in emotion processing. In order to identify convergent and divergent mechanisms, we investigated facial emotion recognition in SZ, high-functioning ASD (HFASD), and typically developed controls (TD). Different degrees of task difficulty and emotion complexity (face, eyes; basic emotions, complex emotions) were used. Two Benton tests were implemented in order to elicit potentially confounding visuo-perceptual functioning and facial processing. Nineteen participants with paranoid SZ, 22 with HFASD and 20 TD were included, aged between 14 and 33 years. Individuals with SZ were comparable to TD in all obtained emotion recognition measures, but showed reduced basic visuo-perceptual abilities. The HFASD group was impaired in the recognition of basic and complex emotions compared to both, SZ and TD. When facial identity recognition was adjusted for, group differences remained for the recognition of complex emotions only. Our results suggest that there is a SZ subgroup with predominantly paranoid symptoms that does not show problems in face processing and emotion recognition, but visuo-perceptual impairments. They also confirm the notion of a general facial and emotion recognition deficit in HFASD. No shared emotion recognition deficit was found for paranoid SZ and HFASD, emphasizing the differential cognitive underpinnings of both disorders.

  15. Mood Stabilizers in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified as to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All these categories are grouped together in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, classification under the category of Autism Spectrum Disorders.Behavioral disorders including irritability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and aggression are additional symptoms found in up to 20% of children and adolescents with ASD and require careful evaluation for appropriate treatment. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is defined by impaired attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, whereas ASD is defined by social dysfunction, communicative impairment, and restricted/repetitive behaviors. They should be distinctly evaluated in children and adolescents with ASD and intellectual disability in contrast to individuals without intellectual disability, because significant differences between these conditions exist. Mood disorders are also common in ASD and should be systematically investigated in this population of children and adolescents. Approximately 50% of children and adolescents with ASD receive medication for comorbid behavioral/ADHD and mood symptoms, mostly stimulants, antiepileptics and antipsychotics. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment including medications for ADHD-like symptoms have recently been provided and should be carefully considered. Antiepileptic drugs are commonly used in ASDs with epilepsy, because seizures are associated with ASD in 10% to 30% of young patients, and as mood stabilizers. Lithium is another option for children and adolescents with ASD who present with symptoms of a mood disorder, such as elevated moods/euphoria, mania, and paranoia, whether accompanied or not by irritability. Experimental treatments are under

  16. Why Does Music Therapy Help in Autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Khetrapal

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Music therapy is shown to be an effective intervention for emotional recognition deficits in autism. However, researchers to date have yet to propose a model that accounts for the neurobiological and cognitive components that are responsible for such improvements. The current paper outlines a model whereby the encoding of tonal pitch is proposed as the underlying mechanism. Accurate tonal pitch perception is important for recognizing emotions like happiness and sadness in the auditory domain. Once acquired, the ability to perceive tonal pitch functions as a domain-specific module that proves beneficial for music cognition. There is biological preparedness for the development of such a module and it is hypothesized to be preserved in autism. The current paper reinforces the need to build intervention programs based on this preserved module in autism, and proposes that this module may form the basis for a range of benefits related to music therapy. Possible brain areas associated with this module are suggested.

  17. Autism: transient in utero hypothyroxinemia related to maternal flavonoid ingestion during pregnancy and to other environmental antithyroid agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Gustavo C

    2007-11-15

    The incidence and prevalence of autism have increased during the past two decades. Despite comprehensive genetic studies the cause of autism remains unknown. This review emphasizes the potential importance of environmental factors in its causation. Alterations of cortical neuronal migration and cerebellar Purkinje cells have been observed in autism. Neuronal migration, via reelin regulation, requires triiodothyronine (T3) produced by deiodination of thyroxine (T4) by fetal brain deiodinases. Experimental animal models have shown that transient intrauterine deficits of thyroid hormones (as brief as 3 days) result in permanent alterations of cerebral cortical architecture reminiscent of those observed in brains of patients with autism. I postulate that early maternal hypothyroxinemia resulting in low T3 in the fetal brain during the period of neuronal cell migration (weeks 8-12 of pregnancy) may produce morphological brain changes leading to autism. Insufficient dietary iodine intake and a number of environmental antithyroid and goitrogenic agents can affect maternal thyroid function during pregnancy. The most common causes could include inhibition of deiodinases D2 or D3 from maternal ingestion of dietary flavonoids or from antithyroid environmental contaminants. Some plant isoflavonoids have profound effects on thyroid hormones and on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. Genistein and daidzein from soy (Glycine max) inhibit thyroperoxidase that catalyzes iodination and thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Other plants with hypothyroid effects include pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and fonio millet (Digitaria exilis); thiocyanate is found in Brassicae plants including cabbage, cauliflower, kale, rutabaga, and kohlrabi, as well as in tropical plants such as cassava, lima beans, linseed, bamboo shoots, and sweet potatoes. Tobacco smoke is also a source of thiocyanate. Environmental contaminants interfere with thyroid function including 60% of all herbicides, in particular 2

  18. The social motivation theory of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Coralie; Kohls, Gregor; Troiani, Vanessa; Brodkin, Edward S; Schultz, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    The idea that social motivation deficits play a central role in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has recently gained increased interest. This constitutes a shift in autism research, which has traditionally focused more intensely on cognitive impairments, such as theory-of-mind deficits or executive dysfunction, and has granted comparatively less attention to motivational factors. This review delineates the concept of social motivation and capitalizes on recent findings in several research areas to provide an integrated account of social motivation at the behavioral, biological and evolutionary levels. We conclude that ASD can be construed as an extreme case of diminished social motivation and, as such, provides a powerful model to understand humans' intrinsic drive to seek acceptance and avoid rejection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnosis and management of autism in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkanova, Vyara; Rhodes, Fiona; Allan, Charlotte L

    2013-05-01

    Autism affects 1.1% of the adult population. The spectrum of symptoms is wide; some individuals have above average intelligence and are fully independent, while others have limited independence because of a learning disability. Developmental delay is a core feature, and autism is usually diagnosed in childhood. High-functioning individuals with autism, Asperger's syndrome, may remain undiagnosed until adulthood. Autism is a life-long condition characterised by problems in two core dimensions: difficulties with social communication and strongly repetitive behaviour, resistance to change or restricted interests.The history should identify early developmental and behavioural problems in different settings e.g. at home, in education or employment. Sensory and GI problems are very common, and should be asked about. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ-10) is a 10-item questionnaire for people with suspected autism. The advantage of using this in primary care is that it provides a time-efficient, structured way of ascertaining key symptoms and clearly signals those who should be referred for further assessment. Patients should be referred if autism is suspected clinically and a diagnosis of autism should be confirmed by a specialist multidisciplinary team. If a diagnosis of autism is made, clinicians should do a risk assessment and formulate risk and crisis management plans. These should include details of the roles and responsibilities of both the specialist team and primary care team in managing crisis situations. For adults with autism a group-based or an individual learning programme to improve social interaction is recommended. Adults with autism have high rates of unemployment, and employment programmes have been successfully used to support people

  20. Environmental factors in autism

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Martin Grabrucker

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an im...

  1. Environmental Factors in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas M. Grabrucker

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an im...

  2. Evidence-Based Social Communication Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Laci; Kuhn, Michelle; Ledbetter-Cho, Katherine; Gevarter, Cindy; O'Reilly, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Impairments in social communication skills are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and include deficits in social-emotional reciprocity, non-verbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction, and developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships. In order to improve outcomes for children with ASD, much research has been focused on developing effective interventions to treat these social communication deficits. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the evidence-based practices found within the intervention literature that specifically targets social communication impairments and provide an overview of these strategies. Four relevant themes regarding evidence-based social communication interventions are considered and discussed: (a) social communication outcomes and practices relevant to different stages of development, (b) practices that both reduce interfering behaviors and improve social communication skills, (c) practices that utilize an eclectic combination of intervention strategies, and (d) considerations for practice and research.

  3. Reward circuitry function in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Felder, Jennifer N.; Green, Steven R.; Rittenberg, Alison M.; Sasson, Noah J.; Bodfish, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Social interaction deficits and restricted repetitive behaviors and interests that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may both reflect aberrant functioning of brain reward circuits. However, no neuroimaging study to date has investigated the integrity of reward circuits using an incentive delay paradigm in individuals with ASDs. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess blood-oxygen level-dependent activation during reward anticipation and outcom...

  4. Perceptual metrics of individuals with autism provide evidence for disinhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Tannan, Vinay; Holden, Jameson K; Zhang, Zheng; Baranek, Grace T.; Tommerdahl, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Adults with autism exhibit inhibitory deficits that are often manifested in behavioral modifications, such as repetitive behaviors, and/or sensory hyper-responsiveness. If such behaviors are the result of a generalized deficiency in inhibitory neurotransmission, then it stands to reason that deficits involving localized cortical-cortical interactions – such as in sensory discrimination tasks – could be detected and quantified. This study exemplifies a newly developed method for quantifying se...

  5. Risk factors in autism: Thinking outside the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matelski, Lauren; Van de Water, Judy

    2016-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental conditions that have been rising markedly in prevalence for the past 30 years, now thought to affect 1 in 68 in the United States. This has prompted the search for possible explanations, and has even resulted in some controversy regarding the "true" prevalence of autism. ASD are influenced by a variety of genetic, environmental, and possibly immunological factors that act during critical periods to alter key developmental processes. This can affect multiple systems and manifests as the social and behavioral deficits that define these disorders. The interaction of environmental exposures in the context of an individual's genetic susceptibilities manifests differently in each case, leading to heterogeneous phenotypes and varied comorbid symptoms within the disorder. This has also made it very difficult to elucidate underlying genes and exposure profiles, but progress is being made in this area. Some pharmaceutical drugs, toxicants, and metabolic and nutritional factors have been identified in epidemiological studies as increasing autism risk, especially during the prenatal period. Immunologic risk factors, including maternal infection during pregnancy, autoantibodies to fetal brain proteins, and familial autoimmune disease, have consistently been observed across multiple studies, as have immune abnormalities in individuals with ASD. Mechanistic research using animal models and patient-derived stem cells will help researchers to understand the complex etiology of these neurodevelopmental disorders, which will lead to more effective therapies and preventative strategies. Proposed therapies that need more investigation include special diets, probiotics, immune modulation, oxytocin, and personalized pharmacogenomic targets. The ongoing search for biomarkers and better treatments will result in earlier identification of ASD and provide much needed help and relief for afflicted families.

  6. The Effects of Imitative Vs. Cognitive Methods on The Speech Development of Children With Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh JALILI*

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Jalili M, Jahangiri N, Yazdi Aa, Ashrafzadeh F. The Effects of Imitative Vs. Cognitive Methods on The Speech Development of Children With Autism. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:37-46.ObjectiveThe present study was performed to examine the effects of two speech therapy methods on six verbal behaviors of autistic children, including oral speech, listening, organizing, speaking, semantics, and syntax.Materials & MethodsIn this study, thirty 6-8 years old children with autism were assigned to one of two groups: imitative and cognitive groups. Before starting the main procedures of the study, the children of both groups were homogenized concerning their autism level. In the first phase of the study, the speech development level of the two groups was measured in a pre-test, in which both groups showed similar results. Then, both groups of children received 6 months of speech therapy instruction, during which one group was taught using an imitative method, while the other group was being worked with cognitive method.ResultsAfter 6-month treatment period, a post-test was done, and the t-tests based on the data of the two groups revealed a significant difference between the results.ConclusionThe statistics showed that after the teaching period, autistic that worked with cognitive method gained a better development in their speech abilities, comparing to those worked with the imitative method.Reference:Samadi SA, Mahmoodizadeh A, McConkey R. A national study of the prevalence of Autism among five year old children in Iran. Autism 2012;16(1:5-14.Fombonne E, Simmons H, Ford T, Meltzer H, Goodman R. Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders in the British nationwide survey of child mental health. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001;40(7:820-7.Fombonne, E. The changing epidemiology of Autism. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2005,18(4:281-94.Filipek PA, Accardo PJ, Ashwal S, Baranek GT, Cook EH Jr, Dawson G

  7. Temporal Discounting of Monetary Rewards in Children and Adolescents with ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert; Baeyens, Dieter; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    It has been difficult to differentiate attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in terms of some aspects of their cognitive profile. While both show deficits in executive functions, it has been suggested that they may differ in their response to monetary reward. For instance, children with ADHD prefer…

  8. Motor Coordination in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Synthesis and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Kimberly A.; Hass, Chris J.; Naik, Sagar K.; Lodha, Neha; Cauraugh, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Are motor coordination deficits an underlying cardinal feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? Database searches identified 83 ASD studies focused on motor coordination, arm movements, gait, or postural stability deficits. Data extraction involved between-group comparisons for ASD and typically developing controls (N = 51). Rigorous…

  9. An Evaluation of "Miranda" Rights and Interrogation in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salseda, Lindsay M.; Dixon, Dennis R.; Fass, Tracy; Miora, Deborah; Leark, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary deficits present in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may lead to increased susceptibility to involvement in the criminal justice system. The same deficits may also cause individuals with ASD to be more vulnerable to interrogation techniques and other aspects of the legal system. Due to the increased level of vulnerability as well as…

  10. Social Stories to Increase Verbal Initiation in Children with Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley-Hochdorfer, Kathleen; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Elinoff, Mahri J.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders experience pervasive social and communication skill deficits. One of the most popular treatment recommendations to address these deficits is the use of social stories. Although social stories are beneficial at reducing many disruptive behaviors, empirical evidence for their use to increase social and…

  11. Neurorehabilitation of Social Dysfunctions: A Model-based Neurofeedback Approach for Low and High-Functioning Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Pineda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is an increasingly prevalent condition with core deficits in the social domain. Understanding its neuroetiology is critical to providing insights into the relationship between neuroanatomy, physiology and social behaviors, including imitation learning, language, empathy, theory of mind, and even self-awareness. Equally important is the need to find ways to arrest its increasing prevalence and to ameliorate its symptoms. In this perspective, we highlight neurofeedback studies as viable treatment options for high-functioning as well as low-functioning children with ASD. Specifically, we focus on neurofeedback interventions combined with other kinds of behavioral conditioning to induce neuroplastic changes that can address the full spectrum of the autism phenotype.

  12. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legido, Agustín; Jethva, Reena; Goldenthal, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    Using data of the current prevalence of autism as 200:10,000 and a 1:2000 incidence of definite mitochondrial (mt) disease, if there was no linkage of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and mt disease, it would be expected that 1 in 110 subjects with mt disease would have ASD and 1 in 2000 individuals with ASD would have mt disease. The co-occurrence of autism and mt disease is much higher than these figures, suggesting a possible pathogenetic relationship. Such hypothesis was initially suggested by the presence of biochemical markers of abnormal mt metabolic function in patients with ASD, including elevation of lactate, pyruvate, or alanine levels in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or brain; carnitine level in plasma; and level of organic acids in urine, and by demonstrating impaired mt fatty acid β-oxidation. More recently, mtDNA genetic mutations or deletions or mutations of nuclear genes regulating mt function have been associated with ASD in patients or in neuropathologic studies on the brains of patients with autism. In addition, the presence of dysfunction of the complexes of the mt respiratory chain or electron transport chain, indicating abnormal oxidative phosphorylation, has been reported in patients with ASD and in the autopsy samples of brains. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms linking mt dysfunction and ASD include mt activation of the immune system, abnormal mt Ca(2+) handling, and mt-induced oxidative stress. Genetic and epigenetic regulation of brain development may also be disrupted by mt dysfunction, including mt-induced oxidative stress. The role of the purinergic system linking mt dysfunction and ASD is currently under investigation. In summary, there is genetic and biochemical evidence for a mitochondria (mt) role in the pathogenesis of ASD in a subset of children. To determine the prevalence and type of genetic and biochemical mt defects in ASD, there is a need for further research using the latest genetic technology such as next

  13. Demographic and Clinical Correlates of Autism Symptom Domains and Autism Spectrum Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Embacher, Rebecca; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Constantino, John N.; Law, Paul; Findling, Robert L.; Eng, Charis

    2014-01-01

    Demographic and clinical factors may influence assessment of autism symptoms. This study evaluated these correlates and also examined whether social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior provided unique prediction of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. We analyzed data from 7352 siblings included in the Interactive…

  14. An inside job: how endosomal Na(+)/H(+) exchangers link to autism and neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, Kalyan C; Prasad, Hari; Rao, Rajini

    2014-01-01

    Autism imposes a major impediment to childhood development and a huge emotional and financial burden on society. In recent years, there has been rapidly accumulating genetic evidence that links the eNHE, a subset of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers that localize to intracellular vesicles, to a variety of neurological conditions including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability, and epilepsy. By providing a leak pathway for protons pumped by the V-ATPase, eNHE determine luminal pH and regulate cation (Na(+), K(+)) content in early and recycling endosomal compartments. Loss-of-function mutations in eNHE cause hyperacidification of endosomal lumen, as a result of imbalance in pump and leak pathways. Two isoforms, NHE6 and NHE9 are highly expressed in brain, including hippocampus and cortex. Here, we summarize evidence for the importance of luminal cation content and pH on processing, delivery and fate of cargo. Drawing upon insights from model organisms and mammalian cells we show how eNHE affect surface expression and function of membrane receptors and neurotransmitter transporters. These studies lead to cellular models of eNHE activity in pre- and post-synaptic neurons and astrocytes, where they could impact synapse development and plasticity. The study of eNHE has provided new insight on the mechanism of autism and other debilitating neurological disorders and opened up new possibilities for therapeutic intervention.

  15. Language impairment and dyslexia genes influence language skills in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, John D; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2015-04-01

    Language and communication development is a complex process influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors. Many neurodevelopment disorders include deficits in language and communication skills in their diagnostic criteria, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), language impairment (LI), and dyslexia. These disorders are polygenic and complex with a significant genetic component contributing to each. The similarity of language phenotypes and comorbidity of these disorders suggest that they may share genetic contributors. To test this, we examined the association of genes previously implicated in dyslexia, LI, and/or language-related traits with language skills in children with ASD. We used genetic and language data collected in the Autism Genome Research Exchange (AGRE) and Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) cohorts to perform a meta-analysis on performance on a receptive vocabulary task. There were associations with LI risk gene ATP2C2 and dyslexia risk gene MRPL19. Additionally, we found suggestive evidence of association with CMIP, GCFC2, KIAA0319L, the DYX2 locus (ACOT13, GPLD1, and FAM65B), and DRD2. Our results show that LI and dyslexia genes also contribute to language traits in children with ASD. These associations add to the growing literature of generalist genes that contribute to multiple related neurobehavioral traits. Future studies should examine whether other genetic contributors may be shared among these disorders and how risk variants interact with each other and the environment to modify clinical presentations. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. An Inside Job: How Endosomal Na+/H+ Exchangers Link to Autism and Neurological Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan C. Kondapalli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism imposes a major impediment to childhood development and a huge emotional and financial burden on society. In recent years, there has been rapidly accumulating genetic evidence that links the eNHE, a subset of Na+/H+ exchangers that localize to intracellular vesicles, to a variety of neurological conditions including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, intellectual disability and epilepsy. By providing a leak pathway for protons pumped by the V-ATPase, eNHE determine luminal pH and regulate cation (Na+, K+ content in early and recycling endosomal compartments. Loss-of-function mutations in eNHE cause hyperacidification of endosomal lumen, as a result of imbalance in pump and leak pathways. Two isoforms, NHE6 and NHE9 are highly expressed in brain, including hippocampus and cortex. Here, we summarize evidence for the importance of luminal cation content and pH on processing, delivery and fate of cargo and on the surface expression and function of membrane receptors and neurotransmitter transporters, drawing upon insights from model organisms and mammalian cells. These studies lead to cellular models of eNHE activity in pre- and post-synaptic neurons and astrocytes, where they could impact synapse development and plasticity. The study of eNHE has provided new insight on the mechanism of autism and other debilitating neurological disorders and opened up new possibilities for therapeutic intervention.

  17. Altered modular organization of structural cortical networks in children with autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex developmental disability that characterized by deficits in social interaction, language skills, repetitive stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Although great heterogeneity exists, previous findings suggest that autism has atypical brain connectivity patterns and disrupted small-world network properties. However, the organizational alterations in the autistic brain network are still poorly understood. We explored possible organizational alterations of 49 autistic children and 51 typically developing controls, by investigating their brain network metrics that are constructed upon cortical thickness correlations. Three modules were identified in controls, including cortical regions associated with brain functions of executive strategic, spatial/auditory/visual, and self-reference/episodic memory. There are also three modules found in autistic children with similar patterns. Compared with controls, autism demonstrates significantly reduced gross network modularity, and a larger number of inter-module connections. However, the autistic brain network demonstrates increased intra- and inter-module connectivity in brain regions including middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, and cingulate, suggesting one underlying compensatory mechanism associated with brain functions of self-reference and episodic memory. Results also show that there is increased correlation strength between regions inside frontal lobe, as well as impaired correlation strength between frontotemporal and frontoparietal regions. This alteration of correlation strength may contribute to the organization alteration of network structures in autistic brains.

  18. Patterns of visual sensory and sensorimotor abnormalities in autism vary in relation to history of early language delay

    OpenAIRE

    Takarae, Yukari; Luna, Beatriz; Minshew, Nancy J.; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Visual motion perception and pursuit eye movement deficits have been reported in autism. However, it is unclear whether these impairments are related to each other or toclinical symptoms of the disorder. High-functioning individuals with autism (41 with and 36 without delayed language acquisition) and 46 control subjects participated in the present study. All three subject groups were matched on chronological age and Full-Scale IQ. The autism group with delayed language acquisition had bilate...

  19. Autismo: neuroimagem Autism: neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Zilbovicius

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O autismo é um transtorno de neurodesenvolvimento com diversas apresentações clínicas. Essas apresentações variam em gravidade (leves a graves e são denominadas transtornos do espectro do autismo. O sinal mais comum aos transtornos desse espectro é o déficit de interação social, que está associado a déficits de comunicação verbal e não-verbal e a comportamentos estereotipados e repetitivos. Graças a estudos recentes que utilizam métodos de imagem cerebral, os cientistas obtiveram uma idéia melhor dos circuitos neurais envolvidos nos transtornos do espectro do autismo. De fato, os exames de imagem cerebral funcionais, como tomografia por emissão de pósitrons, tomografia por emissão de fóton único e ressonância magnética funcional abriram uma nova perspectiva para o estudo do funcionamento cerebral normal e patológico. Três estudos independentes encontraram anormalidades da anatomia e do funcionamento em repouso do lobo temporal em pacientes autistas. Essas alterações estão localizadas bilateralmente nos sulcos temporais superiores. Essa região anatômica é de grande importância para a percepção de estímulos sociais essenciais. Além disso, estudos funcionais demonstraram hipoativação da maior parte das áreas envolvidas na percepção social (percepção de faces e voz e cognição social (teoria da mente. Esses dados sugerem um funcionamento anormal da rede de pensamentos do cérebro social no autismo. A compreensão das alterações nesse importante mecanismo pode estimular a elaboração de novas e mais adequadas estratégias sociais de reeducação para pacientes autistas.Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations. These presentations vary from mild to severe and are referred to as autism spectrum disorders. The most common clinical sign of autism spectrum disorders is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits

  20. Studying autism in rodent models: reconciling endophenotypes with comorbidities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eArgyropoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients commonly exhibit a variety of comorbid traits including seizures, anxiety, aggressive behavior, gastrointestinal problems, motor deficits, abnormal sensory processing and sleep disturbances for which the cause is unknown. These features impact negatively on daily life and can exaggerate the effects of the core diagnostic traits (social communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. Studying endophenotypes relevant to both core and comorbid features of ASD in rodent models can provide insight into biological mechanisms underlying these disorders. Here we review the characterization of endophenotypes in a selection of environmental, genetic and behavioural rodent models of ASD. In addition to exhibiting core ASD-like behaviours, each of these animal models display one or more endophenotypes relevant to comorbid features including altered sensory processing, seizure susceptibility, anxiety-like behaviour and disturbed motor functions, suggesting that these traits are indicators of altered biological pathways in ASD. However, the study of behaviours paralleling comorbid traits in animal models of ASD is an emerging field and further research is needed to assess altered gastrointestinal function, aggression and disorders of sleep onset across models. Future studies should include investigation of these endophenotypes in order to advance our understanding of the etiology of this complex disorder.