Sample records for deficit nursing theory

  1. Demystifying Nursing Theory: A Christian Nursing Perspective. (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A; Sandau, Kristin; Missal, Bernita

    How does nursing theory apply to nursing practice? Nursing theory can explain the why and how of nursing practice, guide nursing interventions, and provide a framework for measuring outcomes. This article briefly explains nursing theory, provides examples for applying theory to nursing practice, and proposes questions for examining the consistency of nursing theories with Christian perspectives. A helpful table illustrating grand, middle-range, and situation-specific theories and their application to nursing practice and research, along with references, is provided online as supplemental digital content. Three caring theories are analyzed from biblical beliefs.

  2. Examining Self-Care Behaviors and Their Associated Factors Among Adolescent Girls With Dysmenorrhea: An Application of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory. (United States)

    Wong, Cho Lee; Ip, Wan Yim; Choi, Kai Chow; Lam, Lai Wah


    To test a hypothesized model that examines the relationship between selected basic conditioning factors, self-care agency, and self-care behaviors among adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea using Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory as a framework. This was a predictive correlational study conducted with a total of 531 secondary school girls. Self-care agency, self-care behaviors, and 11 variables that have been theoretically or empirically justified in previous studies as relevant to basic conditioning factors were selected and collected by means of structured questionnaires. Path analyses were performed to test the hypothesized linkages among variables. Path analysis revealed that age and received menstrual education had both direct and indirect effects through self-care agency on self-care behaviors. Mother's and father's educational level, pain intensity, and self-medication used when experiencing dysmenorrhea only affected the self-care behaviors directly. This is the first study that provided information about the relationship between basic conditioning factors, self-care agency, and self-care behaviors among adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea. Knowledge of the factors influencing self-care behaviors in these adolescent girls will assist healthcare professionals in developing effective interventions to promote self-care and ameliorate the adverse impact of this condition. Interventional strategies that aim at promoting self-care behaviors among adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea should strengthen girls' self-care agency and should target those with a younger age, higher pain intensity, mother with a higher educational level, father with a lower educational level, and those who do not take self-medication for dysmenorrhea. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Current trends in nursing theories. (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju


    To explore current trends in nursing theories through an integrated literature review. The literature related to nursing theories during the past 10 years was searched through multiple databases and reviewed to determine themes reflecting current trends in nursing theories. The trends can be categorized into six themes: (a) foci on specifics; (b) coexistence of various types of theories; (c) close links to research; (d) international collaborative works; (e) integration to practice; and (f) selective evolution. We need to make our continuous efforts to link research and practice to theories, to identify specifics of our theories, to develop diverse types of theories, and to conduct international collaborative works. Our paper gives implications for future theoretical development in diverse clinical areas of nursing research and practice. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  4. Emancipatory Nursing Praxis: A Theory of Social Justice in Nursing. (United States)

    Walter, Robin R

    Emancipatory nursing praxis (ENP) is a middle-range nursing theory of social justice developed from an international, grounded theory study of the critical factors influencing nurses' perceptions of their role in social justice. The ENPs implementing processes (becoming, awakening, engaging, and transforming) and 2 conditional contexts (relational and reflexive) provide an in-depth understanding of the transformative learning process that determines nurse engagement in social justice. Interpretive findings include the voice of Privilege primarily informed ENP theory, the lack of nursing educational and organizational support in social justice role development, and the advocate role should expand to include the role of an ally.

  5. Nursing intellectual capital theory: testing selected propositions. (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya


    To test the selected propositions of the middle-range theory of nursing intellectual capital. The nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes nursing knowledge's influence on patient and organizational outcomes. The theory proposes nursing human capital, nurses' knowledge, skills and experience, is related to the quality of patient care and nurse recruitment and retention of an inpatient care unit. Two factors in the work environment, nurse staffing and employer support for nurse continuing professional development, are proposed to influence nursing human capital's association with patient and organizational outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design. The study took place in 2008 in six Canadian acute care hospitals. Financial, human resource and risk data were collected from hospital departments and unit managers. Clearly specified empirical indicators quantified the study variables. The propositions of the theory were tested with data from 91 inpatient care units using structural equation modelling. The propositions associated with the nursing human capital concept were supported. The propositions associated with the employer support for nurse continuing professional development concept were not. The proposition that nurse staffing's influences on patient outcomes was mediated by the nursing human capital of an inpatient unit, was partially supported. Some of the theory's propositions were empirically validated. Additional theoretical work is needed to refine the operationalization and measurement of some of the theory's concepts. Further research with larger samples of data from different geographical settings and types of hospitals is required to determine if the theory can withstand empirical scrutiny. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Vocation in theology-based nursing theories. (United States)

    Lundmark, Mikael


    By using the concepts of intrinsicality/extrinsicality as analytic tools, the theology-based nursing theories of Ann Bradshaw and Katie Eriksson are analyzed regarding their explicit and/or implicit understanding of vocation as a motivational factor for nursing. The results show that both theories view intrinsic values as guarantees against reducing nursing practice to mechanistic applications of techniques and as being a way of reinforcing a high ethical standard. The theories explicitly (Bradshaw) or implicitly (Eriksson) advocate a vocational understanding of nursing as being essential for nursing theories. Eriksson's theory has a potential for conceptualizing an understanding of extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors for nursing but one weakness in the theory could be the risk of slipping over to moral judgments where intrinsic factors are valued as being superior to extrinsic. Bradshaw's theory is more complex and explicit in understanding the concept of vocation and is theologically more plausible, although also more confessional.

  7. Human error theory: relevance to nurse management. (United States)

    Armitage, Gerry


    Describe, discuss and critically appraise human error theory and consider its relevance for nurse managers. Healthcare errors are a persistent threat to patient safety. Effective risk management and clinical governance depends on understanding the nature of error. This paper draws upon a wide literature from published works, largely from the field of cognitive psychology and human factors. Although the content of this paper is pertinent to any healthcare professional; it is written primarily for nurse managers. Error is inevitable. Causation is often attributed to individuals, yet causation in complex environments such as healthcare is predominantly multi-factorial. Individual performance is affected by the tendency to develop prepacked solutions and attention deficits, which can in turn be related to local conditions and systems or latent failures. Blame is often inappropriate. Defences should be constructed in the light of these considerations and to promote error wisdom and organizational resilience. Managing and learning from error is seen as a priority in the British National Health Service (NHS), this can be better achieved with an understanding of the roots, nature and consequences of error. Such an understanding can provide a helpful framework for a range of risk management activities.

  8. Grounded theory: building a middle-range theory in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Fernandes


    Full Text Available The development of nursing as a discipline results from a boom of investigations underway for nearly a century, and of the construction of theories that have arisen during the 1950’s, with greater relevance since the 1960’s. Giving continuation to the production of knowledge in nursing and seeking to contribute to the increase in the number of explanatory theories of the functional content of nurses, there is interest in answering the question: how can a middle-range theory in nursing be built that explains the nurse-elderly interaction in a successful aging process? As well, we address the goal of describing the process of building a middle-range theory in nursing. Middle-range theory refers to a qualitative paradigm study of inductive thinking, developed in the context of primary health care. The information was collected through participant observation and interviews. Method of analysis grounded theory by Corbin and Strauss(1 was followed, utilizing the triangulation of data and theoretical sampling. Grounded theory has become a method of analysis which facilitates the understanding and explanation of the phenomenon under study. By making clear the nature and process of the nurse-elderly interaction in the selected context and within the context of successful aging, a middle-range theory proposal emerged.

  9. Nursing in Malawi: nursing theory in the movement to professionalize nursing. (United States)

    Bultemeier, Kaye I


    Nursing in Malawi has been predominately a technical trade and only recently has begun the transition to a profession with autonomy and advanced degree preparation. Nursing theories provide a framework for the evolution of nursing to an independent profession. Theories provide a means for the articulation of the nursing role to other members of the healthcare team including consumers. Healthcare and human needs are basic and the guidance provided by nursing theories, including Nightingale's, gives language and structure to the education of nurses as the profession moves into advanced practice in a developing country.

  10. Seeking Connectivity in Nurses' Work Environments: Advancing Nurse Empowerment Theory. (United States)

    Udod, Sonia


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how staff nurses and their managers exercise power in a hospital setting in order to better understand what fosters or constrains staff nurses' empowerment and to extend nurse empowerment theory. Power is integral to empowerment, and attention to the challenges in nurses' work environment and nurse outcomes by administrators, researchers, and policy-makers has created an imperative to advance a theoretical understanding of power in the nurse-manager relationship. A sample of 26 staff nurses on 3 units of a tertiary hospital in western Canada were observed and interviewed about how the manager affected their ability to do their work. Grounded theory methodology was used. The process of seeking connectivity was the basic social process, indicating that the manager plays a critical role in the work environment and nurses need the manager to share power with them in the provision of safe, quality patient care. Copyright© by Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University.

  11. Understanding nursing units with data and theory. (United States)

    Diers, Donna; Hendrickson, Karrie; Rimar, Joan; Donovan, Donna


    Nursing units are social systems whose function depends on many variables. Available nursing data, combined with a theory of organizational diagnosis, can be used to understand nursing unit performance. One troubled unit served as a case study in organizational diagnosis and treatment using modern methods of data mining and performance improvement. Systems theory did not prescribe how to fix an underbounded system. The theory did suggest, however, that addressing the characteristics of overbounded and underbounded systems can provide some order and structure and identify helpful resources. In this instance, the data analysis served to help define the unit's problems in conjunction with information gained from talking with the nurses and touring the unit, but it was the theory that gave hints for direction for change.

  12. Theory of Mind Deficits in Children with Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Cornish, K.; Burack, J. A.; Rahman, A.; Munir, F.; Russo, N.; Grant, C.


    Given the consistent findings of theory of mind deficits in children with autism, it would be extremely beneficial to examine the profile of theory of mind abilities in other clinical groups such as fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Down syndrome (DS). The aim of the present study was to assess whether boys with FXS are impaired in simple social…

  13. Empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory: Advancing nurse empowerment theory for nurses' practice. (United States)

    Udod, Sonia A; Racine, Louise


    To draw on the findings of a grounded theory study aimed at exploring how power is exercised in nurse-manager relationships in the hospital setting, this paper examines the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory as a methodology to advance the concept of empowerment in the area of nursing leadership and management. The evidence on staff nurse empowerment has highlighted the magnitude of individual and organisational outcomes, but has not fully explicated the micro-level processes underlying how power is exercised, shared or created within the nurse-manager relationship. Although grounded theory is a widely adopted nursing research methodology, it remains less used in nursing leadership because of the dominance of quantitative approaches to research. Grounded theory methodology provides the empirical and pragmatic relevance to inform nursing practice and policy. Grounded theory is a relevant qualitative approach to use in leadership research as it provides a fine and detailed analysis of the process underlying complexity and bureaucracy. Discursive paper. A critical examination of the empirical and pragmatic relevance of grounded theory by (Corbin & Strauss, , ) as a method for analysing and solving problems in nurses' practice is provided. This paper provides evidence to support the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory methodology. Although the application of the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions of grounded theory is challenging, this methodology is useful to address real-life problems in nursing practice by developing theoretical explanations of nurse empowerment, or lack thereof, in the workplace. Grounded theory represents a relevant methodology to inform nursing leadership research. Grounded theory is anchored in the reality of practice. The strength of grounded theory is to provide results that can be readily applied to clinical practice and policy as they arise from problems that affect practice and that

  14. Using chaos theory: the implications for nursing. (United States)

    Haigh, Carol


    The purpose of this paper is to review chaos theory and to examine the role that it may have in the discipline of nursing. In this paper, the fundamental ingredients of chaotic thinking are outlined. The earlier days of chaos thinking were characterized by an almost exclusively physiological focus. By the 21st century, nurse theorists were applying its principles to the organization and evaluation of care delivery with varying levels of success. Whilst the biological use of chaos has focused on pragmatic approaches to knowledge enhancement, nursing has often focused on the mystical aspects of chaos as a concept. The contention that chaos theory has yet to find a niche within nursing theory and practice is examined. The application of chaotic thinking across nursing practice, nursing research and statistical modelling is reviewed. The use of chaos theory as a way of identifying the attractor state of specific systems is considered and the suggestion is made that it is within statistical modelling of services that chaos theory is most effective.

  15. Theory of Mind Abilities and Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Kimhi, Yael


    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurobiological disorder that significantly impairs children's social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and behaviors. Questions about theory of mind (ToM) deficits in ASD have generated a large number of empirical studies. This article reviews current studies of the relationship between ToM and…

  16. Theory and Theorizing in Nursing Science: Commentary from the Nursing Research Special Issue Editorial Team. (United States)

    Jairath, Nalini N; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia J; Sullivan, Mary C; Vessey, Judith A; Henly, Susan J

    Articles from three landmark symposia on theory for nursing-published in Nursing Research in 1968-1969-served as a key underpinning for the development of nursing as an academic discipline. The current special issue on Theory and Theorizing in Nursing Science celebrates the 50th anniversary of publication of these seminal works in nursing theory. The purpose of this commentary is to consider the future of nursing theory development in light of articles published in the anniversary issue. The Editorial Team for the special issue identified core questions about continued nursing theory development, as related to the nursing metaparadigm, practice theory, big data, and doctoral education. Using a dialogue format, the editors discussed these core questions. The classic nursing metaparadigm (health, person, environment, nursing) was viewed as a continuing unifying element for the discipline but is in need of revision in today's scientific and practice climates. Practice theory and precision healthcare jointly arise from an emphasis on individualization. Big data and the methods of e-science are challenging the assumptions on which nursing theory development was originally based. Doctoral education for nursing scholarship requires changes to ensure that tomorrow's scholars are prepared to steward the discipline by advancing (not reifying) past approaches to nursing theory. Ongoing reexamination of theory is needed to clarify the domain of nursing, guide nursing science and practice, and direct and communicate the unique and essential contributions of nursing science to the broader health research effort and of nursing to healthcare.

  17. Empowerment in School Nursing Practice: A Grounded Theory Approach (United States)

    Broussard, Lisa


    Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment,…

  18. Learning theories application in nursing education


    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Parvin, Neda; Heidari, Mohammad; Haghani, Fariba


    Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including socia...

  19. Developing perspectives on Korean nursing theory: the influences of Taoism. (United States)

    Shin, K R


    Nursing theory provides a systematic explanation and description of nursing phenomena. Western nursing theories have widely influenced Korean nursing. And yet, although nursing theory has universal aspects, the differences in philosophy and culture that are unique to each country need to be considered. This inquiry seeks to investigate the Korean cultural heritage, which integrates Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, and how it provides a unique worldview of human beings, the universe, health, and nursing. Essential principles and therapies consistent with Taoist philosophy are also identified. This framework is proffered as the basis for establishing understanding between Korean nurses and patients.

  20. University management nurse: a grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamylla Santos da Cunha


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to understand the meaning of the university management performed by nurses managers of the nursing undergraduate course of a public university. Method: this is a qualitative research, based on the grounded theory. Data collection took place between May and September 2016, with open interviews, in the scenario of a federal public university. The technique of constant comparative analysis of the data was followed, obtaining a theoretical sample with 19 nurses, in two sample groups. Results: there were three categories emerged that shaped the phenomenon: Articulating complex collectives through university management for the qualified training of new nurses. The categories included: a conditions, defined by perceiving the commitment to the collective, previous experiences, and training for health management, as motivations to be a teacher manager; b actions/interactions, delimited by Knowing and recognizing, in practice, the university management process, limits and possibilities in the coordination of complex collective subjects; and, c consequences, such as Improving teaching work and taking responsibility for university education. Conclusion: the nurses teaching managers to explain university management as a set of individual and collective actions that, articulated in a complex social environment, promote conditions for the training of critical and reflexive nurses with the demands of society.

  1. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe


    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  2. Learning theories application in nursing education (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Parvin, Neda; Heidari, Mohammad; Haghani, Fariba


    Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including social cognitive learning, learning theory, behavioral theory, cognitive theory, constructive theory, and nursing education. The search period was considered from 1990 to 2012. Some related books were also studied about each method, its original vision, the founders, practical application of the training theory, especially training of nursing and its strengths and weaknesses. Behaviorists believe that learning is a change in an observable behavior and it happens when the communication occurs between the two events, a stimulus and a response. Among the applications of this approach is the influence on the learner's emotional reactions. Among the theories of this approach, Thorndike and Skinner works are subject to review and critique. Cognitive psychologists unlike the behaviorists believe that learning is an internal process objective and they focus on thinking, understanding, organizing, and consciousness. Fundamentalists believe that learners should be equipped with the skills of inquiry and problem solving in order to learn by the discovery and process of information. Among this group, we will pay attention to analyze Wertheimer, Brunner, Ausubel theories, Ganyeh information processing model, in addition to its applications in nursing education. Humanists in learning pay attention to the feelings and experiences. Carl Rogers support the retention of learning-centered approach and he is believed to a semantic continuum. At the other end of the continuum, experiential learning is

  3. Learning theories application in nursing education. (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Parvin, Neda; Heidari, Mohammad; Haghani, Fariba


    Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including social cognitive learning, learning theory, behavioral theory, cognitive theory, constructive theory, and nursing education. The search period was considered from 1990 to 2012. Some related books were also studied about each method, its original vision, the founders, practical application of the training theory, especially training of nursing and its strengths and weaknesses. Behaviorists believe that learning is a change in an observable behavior and it happens when the communication occurs between the two events, a stimulus and a response. Among the applications of this approach is the influence on the learner's emotional reactions. Among the theories of this approach, Thorndike and Skinner works are subject to review and critique. Cognitive psychologists unlike the behaviorists believe that learning is an internal process objective and they focus on thinking, understanding, organizing, and consciousness. Fundamentalists believe that learners should be equipped with the skills of inquiry and problem solving in order to learn by the discovery and process of information. Among this group, we will pay attention to analyze Wertheimer, Brunner, Ausubel theories, Ganyeh information processing model, in addition to its applications in nursing education. Humanists in learning pay attention to the feelings and experiences. Carl Rogers support the retention of learning-centered approach and he is believed to a semantic continuum. At the other end of the continuum, experiential learning is

  4. Learning Styles of Baccalaureate Nursing Students and Attitudes toward Theory-Based Nursing. (United States)

    Laschinger, Heather K.; Boss, Marvin K.


    The personal and environmental factors related to undergraduate and post-RN nursing students' attitudes toward theory-based nursing from Kolb's experiential learning theory perspective were investigated. Learning style and environmental press perceptions were found to be related to attitudes toward theory-based nursing. (Author/MLW)

  5. Depression: a psychiatric nursing theory of connectivity. (United States)

    Feely, M; Long, A


    This paper presents a theory of connectivity, which was formulated from the findings of a Classical Grounded Theory study that was designed to capture a sample of people's perceptions of living with depression or caring for individuals with depression. Data were collected from: (1) a focus group consisting of people with depression (n = 7), of which five were patients in the community and two were nurses; (2) one-to-one interviews with patients in the community (n = 5) and nurses (n = 5), three of whom had experienced depression from both sides of the caring process; and (3) two 'happy accident' focus groups (n = 25; n = 18) comprising of healthcare workers with a shared understanding of depression. Purposeful sampling was used initially. Thereafter, in keeping with one of the key tenets of grounded theory, theoretical sampling was used until theoretical saturation occurred. Data were analysed using the constant comparative approach together with the NVivo qualitative analysis software package. The core category that emerged was 'connectivity' relating to the connections and disconnections, which people make in their lives. Six key categories emerged all of which were integrated with the core category. Hence, connectivity provided a significant platform for understanding and responding to the life experience of depression. They were: (1) life encounters on the journey to naming; (2) depression: What's in a name? The silent thief; (3) tentative steps to health care; (4) connective encounters and challenges; (5) connecting with self; and (6) self-connection maintenance. Subsequently, a theory, 'Depression: a psychiatric nursing theory of connectivity', surfaced from the overall findings. We argue that this theory of connectivity provides a framework that people working in the field of holistic treatment and care could use to better understand and respond to the life experience of people living with depression.

  6. Incorporating political socialization theory into baccalaureate nursing education. (United States)

    Brown, S G


    Political socialization theory explains how an individual develops a political belief system. As the health care system undergoes dramatic changes, nursing faculty should use political socialization theory to enhance the education of student nurses. A political thread can be woven through the nursing curricula, and students can be socialized to the political role. The new generation of nurses must incorporate a political component into their professional role identity. Political socialization theory can guide nursing faculty as knowledge of the political system and political skills are incorporated into nursing curricula.

  7. Application of a model of social information processing to nursing theory: how nurses respond to patients. (United States)

    Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Ellington, Lee


    This paper is a report of a study to assess the applicability of a theoretical model of social information processing in expanding a nursing theory addressing how nurses respond to patients. Nursing communication affects patient outcomes such as anxiety, adherence to treatments and satisfaction with care. Orlando's theory of nursing process describes nurses' reactions to patients' behaviour as generating a perception, thought and feeling in the nurse and then action by the nurse. A model of social information processing describes the sequential steps in the cognitive processes used to respond to social cues and may be useful in describing the nursing process. Cognitive interviews were conducted in 2006 with a convenience sample of 5 nurses in the United States of America. The data were interpreted using the Crick and Dodge model of social information processing. Themes arising from cognitive interviews validated concepts of the nursing theory and the constructs of the model of social information processing. The interviews revealed that the support of peers was an additional construct involved in the development of communication skills, creation of a database and enhancement of self-efficacy. Models of social information processing enhance understanding of the process of how nurses respond to patients and further develop nursing theories further. In combination, the theories are useful in developing research into nurse-patient communication. Future research based on the expansion of nursing theory may identify effective and culturally appropriate nurse response patterns to specific patient interactions with implications for nursing care and patient outcomes.

  8. Nursing theory: everything the artist spits is art? (United States)

    Timpson, J


    This paper explores the concept and utility of nursing theory in and for the practice of nursing. Working from the premise that many nurse practitioners appear uncertain as to the value of theory in relation to their everyday working experience, the paper investigates the contribution nursing theory makes in terms of sustaining and developing nursing as a practice discipline. The fact that nursing theory remains at once poorly evaluated, articulated or understood appears to be compounded by a general perception of nurse theorists as being removed from the realities of the practice setting and by the confusion precipitated, not least, by the semantic ambiguity engendered by their writings. The paper reviews the complex relationships extant between the development of nursing theory in regard to its utility for nursing practice, and concludes by suggesting a practice-led perspective by which nursing theory may be better articulated and assimilated within the discipline. In order to facilitate the study, it has been necessary to investigate the historical, theoretical and philosophical imperatives pertaining not only to the development of nursing theory but to nursing research and nursing practice per se.

  9. Nursing Services Delivery Theory: an open system approach. (United States)

    Meyer, Raquel M; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda L


    This paper is a discussion of the derivation of the Nursing Services Delivery Theory from the application of open system theory to large-scale organizations. The underlying mechanisms by which staffing indicators influence outcomes remain under-theorized and unmeasured, resulting in a 'black box' that masks the nature and organization of nursing work. Theory linking nursing work, staffing, work environments, and outcomes in different settings is urgently needed to inform management decisions about the allocation of nurse staffing resources in organizations. A search of CINAHL and Business Source Premier for the years 1980-2008 was conducted using the following terms: theory, models, organization, organizational structure, management, administration, nursing units, and nursing. Seminal works were included. The healthcare organization is conceptualized as an open system characterized by energy transformation, a dynamic steady state, negative entropy, event cycles, negative feedback, differentiation, integration and coordination, and equifinality. The Nursing Services Delivery Theory proposes that input, throughput, and output factors interact dynamically to influence the global work demands placed on nursing work groups at the point of care in production subsystems. THE Nursing Services Delivery Theory can be applied to varied settings, cultures, and countries and supports the study of multi-level phenomena and cross-level effects. The Nursing Services Delivery Theory gives a relational structure for reconciling disparate streams of research related to nursing work, staffing, and work environments. The theory can guide future research and the management of nursing services in large-scale healthcare organizations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Nursing's Boundary Work: Theory Development and the Making of Nursing Science, ca. 1950-1980. (United States)

    Tobbell, Dominique A

    Beginning in the late 1950s and intensifying through the 1960s and 1970s, nurse educators, researchers, and scholars worked to establish nursing as an academic discipline. These nursing leaders argued that the development of nursing theory was not only critical to nursing's academic project but also to improving nursing practice and patient care. The purpose of the article is to examine the context for the development of nursing theory and the characteristics of early theory development from the 1950s through the early 1980s. The methods used were historical research and analysis of the social, cultural, and political context of nursing theory development from the 1950s through the early 1980s. How this context influenced the work of nurse theorists and researchers in these decades was addressed. The development of nursing theory was influenced by a context that included the increasing complexity of patient care, the relocation of nursing education from hospital-based diploma schools to colleges and universities, and the ongoing efforts of nurses to secure more professional autonomy and authority in the decades after World War II. In particular, from the 1960s through the early 1980s, nurse theorists, researchers, and educators viewed the establishment of nursing science, underpinned by nursing theory, as critical to establishing nursing as an academic discipline. To define nursing science, nurse theorists and researchers engaged in critical boundary work in order to draw epistemic boundaries between nursing science and the existing biomedical and behavioral sciences. By the early 1980s, the boundary work of nurse theorists and researchers was incomplete. Their efforts to define nursing science and establish nursing as an academic discipline were constrained by generational and intraprofessional politics, limited resources, the gendered and hierarchical politics, and the complexity of drawing disciplinary boundaries for a discipline that is inherently

  11. Conservation of resources theory in nurse burnout and patient safety. (United States)

    Prapanjaroensin, Aoyjai; Patrician, Patricia A; Vance, David E


    To examine how the Conservation of Resources theory explains burnout in the nursing profession. Burnout, which is an accumulation of work-related mental stress in people-oriented occupations, has been an issue of concern for decades for healthcare workers, especially nurses. Yet, few studies have examined a unified theory that explains the aetiology, progression and consequences of nurse burnout. This discussion article integrates current knowledge on nurse burnout using Conservation of Resources theory, which focuses on four resources (i.e., objects, conditions, personal characteristics and energy). The databases that were used in this study included CINAHL, PubMed and PsycINFO. All reviewed articles were published between January 2006 - June 2016. The Conservation of Resources theory explains that burnout will occur as a result of perceived or actual loss of these four resources. Furthermore, nurse burnout could affect work performance, leading to lower alertness and overall quality of care. Healthcare organizations and nursing administration should develop strategies to protect nurses from the threat of resource loss to decrease nurse burnout, which may improve nurse and patient safety. The Conservation of Resources theory can guide interventions to decrease burnout and future research that examines the relationship between professional nurse burnout and patient safety. The Conservation of Resources theory explains the aetiology, progression and consequences of nurse burnout. Future studies must explore whether nurse performance is a mediating factor between nurse burnout and patient safety. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nursing intellectual capital theory: implications for research and practice. (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya


    Due to rising costs of healthcare, determining how registered nurses and knowledge resources influence the quality of patient care is critical. Studies that have investigated the relationship between nursing knowledge and outcomes have been plagued with conceptual and methodological issues. This has resulted in limited empirical evidence of the impact of nursing knowledge on patient or organizational outcomes. The nursing intellectual capital theory was developed to assist with this area of inquiry. Nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes the sources of nursing knowledge available within an organization and delineates its relationship to patient and organizational outcomes. In this article, we review the nursing intellectual capital theory and discuss its implications for research and practice. We explain why the theory shows promise for guiding research on quality work environments and how it may assist with administrative decision-making related to nursing human resource management and continuing professional development.

  13. Models of misbelief: Integrating motivational and deficit theories of delusions. (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max


    The impact of our desires and preferences upon our ordinary, everyday beliefs is well-documented [Gilovich, T. (1991). How we know what isn't so: The fallibility of human reason in everyday life. New York: The Free Press.]. The influence of such motivational factors on delusions, which are instances of pathological misbelief, has tended however to be neglected by certain prevailing models of delusion formation and maintenance. This paper explores a distinction between two general classes of theoretical explanation for delusions; the motivational and the deficit. Motivational approaches view delusions as extreme instances of self-deception; as defensive attempts to relieve pain and distress. Deficit approaches, in contrast, view delusions as the consequence of defects in the normal functioning of belief mechanisms, underpinned by neuroanatomical or neurophysiological abnormalities. It is argued that although there are good reasons to be sceptical of motivational theories (particularly in their more floridly psychodynamic manifestations), recent experiments confirm that motives are important causal forces where delusions are concerned. It is therefore concluded that the most comprehensive account of delusions will involve a theoretical unification of both motivational and deficit approaches.


    Luna Delgado, Laura; Moriones Jiménez, Olalla


    This review aims to know the role of the nurse in ADHD treatment, identifying the most appropriate therapeutic options between nursing interventions and pharmacological treatment. In ADHD, the role of the nurse is to respond family needs about the effectiveness of medication, behavior modification treatment and other alternatives. There are family interventions of psychoeducation that assist the child in the recovery process. Through the education for health, the nurse should promote the combination of behavioral therapy and pharmacological as the only one able to improve child's quality of life. Nurses have a privileged role due to its experience in education for health; this contributes to being a competent agent that provides families essential information about the disease treatment. Spanish schools are lacking a figure that represent health as a relevant subject in the vital process, hence the need of the school nurse.

  15. Nursing Services Delivery Theory: an open system approach (United States)

    Meyer, Raquel M; O’Brien-Pallas, Linda L


    meyer r.m. & o’brien-pallas l.l. (2010)Nursing services delivery theory: an open system approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(12), 2828–2838. Aim This paper is a discussion of the derivation of the Nursing Services Delivery Theory from the application of open system theory to large-scale organizations. Background The underlying mechanisms by which staffing indicators influence outcomes remain under-theorized and unmeasured, resulting in a ‘black box’ that masks the nature and organization of nursing work. Theory linking nursing work, staffing, work environments, and outcomes in different settings is urgently needed to inform management decisions about the allocation of nurse staffing resources in organizations. Data sources A search of CINAHL and Business Source Premier for the years 1980–2008 was conducted using the following terms: theory, models, organization, organizational structure, management, administration, nursing units, and nursing. Seminal works were included. Discussion The healthcare organization is conceptualized as an open system characterized by energy transformation, a dynamic steady state, negative entropy, event cycles, negative feedback, differentiation, integration and coordination, and equifinality. The Nursing Services Delivery Theory proposes that input, throughput, and output factors interact dynamically to influence the global work demands placed on nursing work groups at the point of care in production subsystems. Implications for nursing The Nursing Services Delivery Theory can be applied to varied settings, cultures, and countries and supports the study of multi-level phenomena and cross-level effects. Conclusion The Nursing Services Delivery Theory gives a relational structure for reconciling disparate streams of research related to nursing work, staffing, and work environments. The theory can guide future research and the management of nursing services in large-scale healthcare organizations. PMID:20831573

  16. Nursing intellectual capital theory: operationalization and empirical validation of concepts. (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya


    To present the operationalization of concepts in the nursing intellectual capital theory and the results of a methodological study aimed at empirically validating the concepts. The nursing intellectual capital theory proposes that the stocks of nursing knowledge in an organization are embedded in two concepts, nursing human capital and nursing structural capital. The theory also proposes that two concepts in the work environment, nurse staffing and employer support for nursing continuing professional development, influence nursing human capital. A cross-sectional design. A systematic three-step process was used to operationalize the concepts of the theory. In 2008, data were collected for 147 inpatient units from administrative departments and unit managers in 6 Canadian hospitals. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted to determine if the indicator variables accurately reflect their respective concepts. The proposed indicator variables collectively measured the nurse staffing concept. Three indicators were retained to construct nursing human capital: clinical expertise and experience concept. The nursing structural capital and employer support for nursing continuing professional development concepts were not validated empirically. The nurse staffing and the nursing human capital: clinical expertise and experience concepts will be brought forward for further model testing. Refinement for some of the indicator variables of the concepts is indicated. Additional research is required with different sources of data to confirm the findings. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The current status of theory evaluation in nursing. (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok


    To identify the current status of theory evaluation in nursing and provide directions for theory evaluation for future development of theoretical bases of nursing discipline. Theory evaluation is an essential component in development of nursing knowledge, which is a critical element in development of nursing discipline. Despite earlier significant efforts for theory evaluation in nursing, a recent decline in the number of theory evaluation articles was noted and there have been few updates on theory evaluation in nursing. Discussion paper. A total of 58 articles published from 2003-2014 were retrieved through searches using the PUBMED, PsyInfo and CINAHL. The articles were sorted by the area of evaluation and analysed to identify themes reflecting the theory evaluation process. Diverse ways of theory evaluation need to be continuously used in future theory evaluation efforts. Six themes reflecting the theory evaluation process were identified: (a) rarely using existing theory evaluation criteria; (b) evaluating specifics; (c) using various statistical analysis methods; (d) developing instruments; (e) adopting in practice and education; and (f) evaluating mainly middle-range theories and situation-specific theories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Rules of performance in the nursing home: A grounded theory of nurse-CNA communication. (United States)

    Madden, Connie; Clayton, Margaret; Canary, Heather E; Towsley, Gail; Cloyes, Kristin; Lund, Dale

    This study offers an initial theoretical understanding of nurse-CNA communication processes from the perspectives of nurses and CNAs who are providing direct care to residents in nursing homes. A grounded theory approach provided an understanding of nurse-CNA communication process within the complexities of the nursing home setting. Four themes (maintaining information flow, following procedure, fostering collegiality, and showing respect) describe the "rules of performance" that intertwine in nuanced relationships to guide nurse-CNA communication processes. Understanding how these rules of performance guide nurse-CNA communication processes, and how they are positively and negatively influenced, suggests that nurse-CNA communication during direct care of nursing home residents could be improved through policy and education that is specifically designed to be relevant and applicable to direct care providers in the nursing home environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders


    Romero-Munguía, Miguel Ángel


    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity, and behavioral flexibility (core triad). Three major cognitive theories (theory of mind deficit, weak central coherence, and executive dysfunction) seem to explain many of these impairments. Currently, however, the empathizing-systemizing (a newer version of the theory of mind deficit account) and mnesic imbalance theories are the only ones that attempt to explain all these core tr...

  20. A square peg in a round hole: Theory-practice gap from the lens of Filipino student nurses. (United States)

    Factor, Elisa Monette R; Matienzo, Evangeline T; de Guzman, Allan B


    Previous studies suggest that theory-practice gap has remained to be a formidable task and a challenge to the nursing profession. While efforts to understand the nature and dynamics of theory-practice gap have been undertaken across the globe, a dearth in literature exists in the context of a developing country like the Philippines. Seemingly, no research has ventured yet to explore the theory-practice gap experiences of Filipino student nurses. Hence, the major intent of this qualitative investigation is to describe and capture how theory-practice gap is viewed by a select group of senior nursing students (n=10) in a comprehensive university in the Philippines. From the thickness and richness of the descriptions of the field text gathered in this study, an interesting conceptualization labeled as the Theory-Practice Gap Deficit Triad which consists of (a) structural, (b) pedagogical, and (c) relational deficits was emerged. Interestingly, the said model describes a clear intersection of the various concerns and dilemmas encountered by student nurses in their clinical exposures. Findings of this paper are valuable inputs to nursing educators, practitioners, and administrators in initiating realignment efforts geared toward developing nurses whose knowledge, skills and attitudes are responsive to the ever changing professional practice landscape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Flight nursing expertise: towards a middle-range theory (United States)

    Reimer, Andrew P.; Moore, Shirley M.


    Aim This paper presents a middle-range Theory of Flight Nursing Expertise. Background Rotary-wing (helicopter) medical transport has grown rapidly in the USA since its introduction, particularly during the past 5 years. Patients once considered too sick to transport are now being transported more frequently and over longer distances. Many limitations are imposed by the air medical transport environment and these require nurses to alter their practice. Data sources A literature search was conducted using Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, secondary referencing and an Internet search from 1960 to 2008 for studies related to the focal concepts in flight nursing. Discussion The middle-range Theory of Flight Nursing Expertise is composed of nine concepts (experience, training, transport environment of care, psychomotor skills, flight nursing knowledge, cue recognition, pattern recognition, decision-making and action) and their relationships. Five propositions describe the relationships between those concepts and how they apply to flight nursing expertise. Implications for nursing After empirical testing, this theory may be a useful tool to assist novice flight nurses to attain the skills necessary to provide safe and competent care more efficiently, and may aid in designing curricula and programmes of research. Conclusion Research is needed to determine the usefulness of this theory in both rotary and fixed-wing medical transport settings, and to examine the similarities and differences related to expertise needed for different flight nurse team compositions. Curriculum and training innovations can result from increased understanding of the concepts and relationships proposed in this theory. PMID:20337803

  2. Concept maps and nursing theory: a pedagogical approach. (United States)

    Hunter Revell, Susan M


    Faculty seek to teach nursing students how to link clinical and theoretical knowledge with the intent of improving patient outcomes. The author discusses an innovative 9-week concept mapping activity as a pedagogical approach to teach nursing theory in a graduate theory course. Weekly concept map building increased student engagement and fostered theoretical thinking. Unexpectedly, this activity also benefited students through group work and its ability to enhance theory-practice knowledge.

  3. Rationing nurses: Realities, practicalities, and nursing leadership theories. (United States)

    Fast, Olive; Rankin, Janet


    In this paper, we examine the practicalities of nurse managers' work. We expose how managers' commitments to transformational leadership are undermined by the rationing practices and informatics of hospital reform underpinned by the ideas of new public management. Using institutional ethnography, we gathered data in a Canadian hospital. We began by interviewing and observing frontline leaders, nurse managers, and expanded our inquiry to include interviews with other nurses, staffing clerks, and administrators whose work intersected with that of nurse managers. We learned how nurse managers' responsibility for staffing is accomplished within tightening budgets and a burgeoning suite of technologies that direct decisions about whether or not there are enough nurses. Our inquiry explicates how technologies organize nurse managers to put aside their professional knowledge. We describe professionally committed nurse leaders attempting to activate transformational leadership and show how their intentions are subsumed within information systems. Seen in light of our analysis, transformational leadership is an idealized concept within which managers' responsibilities are shaped to conform to institutional purposes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Nursing communication in nursing care to mastectomized women: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    de Almeida Araújo, Iliana Maria; da Silva, Raimunda Magalhães; Bonfim, Isabela Melo; Fernandes, Ana Fátima Carvalho


    The goal was to understand the nurse/patient communication process, emphasizing nursing care to mastectomized women. Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory were used to interview eight nurses from a referral institution in cancer treatment, using the guiding question: how do nurses perceive their communication process with mastectomized women? Data analysis allowed for the creation of a central theory: the meaning of communication in nursing care to women, constituted by three distinct but inter-related phenomena: perceiving communication, the relationship nurse/mastectomized woman and rethinking the communication nurse/mastectomized woman. With a view to satisfactory communication, professionals need to get involved and believe that their presence is as important as the performance of technical procedures that relieve situations of stress.

  5. Constructing nurses' professional identity through social identity theory. (United States)

    Willetts, Georgina; Clarke, David


    The profession of nursing continues to struggle with defining and clarifying its professional identity. The definitive recognition of nursing as a profession was the moving of training from the hospital apprentice model to the tertiary sector. However, this is only part of the story of professional identity in nursing. Once training finishes and enculturation into the workplace commences, professional identity becomes a complicated social activity. This paper proposes social identity theory as a valuable research framework to assist with clarifying and describing the professional identity of nurses. The paper outlines the key elements of a profession and then goes on to describe the main concepts of social identity theory. Lastly, a connection is made between the usefulness of using social identity theory in researching professional identity in nursing, recognizing the contextual nature of the social activity of the profession within its workplace environment. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Simulation Methodology in Nursing Education and Adult Learning Theory (United States)

    Rutherford-Hemming, Tonya


    Simulation is often used in nursing education as a teaching methodology. Simulation is rooted in adult learning theory. Three learning theories, cognitive, social, and constructivist, explain how learners gain knowledge with simulation experiences. This article takes an in-depth look at each of these three theories as each relates to simulation.…

  7. Depression in adolescence:testing a social skills deficit theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107292300


    C145. DEPRESSION IN ADOLESCENCE:TESTING A SOCIAL SKILLS DEFICIT THEORYVan Beek, Y. Utrecht University, NetherlandsThe Social Skill Deficit Model for depression suggeststhat less optimal social skills lead to negativefeedback of others, which in turn results in negativeself-views and depression.

  8. Patterns of knowing: proposing a theory for nursing leadership. (United States)

    Jackson, Janet R; Clements, Paul T; Averill, Jennifer B; Zimbro, Kathie


    In a time of chaotic and unpredictable health care, it is vital for nursing to employ a nursing leadership theory that is specifically applicable to nurses and will holistically, and comprehensively address and support both the science and art of this honored profession. The authors propose that Nursing Leadership Knowing can address and impact the myriad issues confronting managers and administrators within the turbulent health care industry, with the ultimate goals of quality comprehensive patient care and improved employee satisfaction. They believe that Nursing Leadership Knowing, grounded in the realties of nursing experience, is a logical theoretical extension that can be translated into nursing leadership practice particular and specific focus on empirics and evidence-based practice will not attend to the robust and multidimensional underpinnings of the lived experience that is so vital to nursing as a caring profession. The ideal of nursing leadership theory is not a single-focused shadow of its history, but a rich, inclusive, multi-faceted network of knowing. As such, Nursing Leadership Knowing provides a forum for leaders to enhance their practice, as well as their relationship with their employees, which ultimately translates into optimal care for the patients we serve.

  9. Incorporating Political Socialization Theory into Baccalaureate Nursing Education. (United States)

    Brown, Sandra Godman


    Nurses must incorporate a political component into their professional role identity to meet the future challenges of the health care system. Political socialization theory can assist faculty in adding a political thread to the curriculum. (SK)

  10. Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders. (United States)

    Romero-Munguía, Miguel Ángel


    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity, and behavioral flexibility (core triad). Three major cognitive theories (theory of mind deficit, weak central coherence, and executive dysfunction) seem to explain many of these impairments. Currently, however, the empathizing-systemizing (a newer version of the theory of mind deficit account) and mnesic imbalance theories are the only ones that attempt to explain all these core triadic symptoms of ASD On the other hand, theory of mind deficit in empathizing-systemizing theory is the most influential account for ASD, but its counterpart in the mnesic imbalance theory, faulty procedural memory, seems to occur earlier in development; consequently, this might be a better solution to the problem of the etiology of ASD, if it truly meets the precedence criterion. Hence, in the present paper I review the reasoning in favor of the theory of mind deficit but with a new interpretation based on the mnesic imbalance theory, which posits that faulty procedural memory causes deficits in several cognitive skills, resulting in poor performance in theory of mind tasks.

  11. Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Romero-Munguía


    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD have impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity, and behavioral flexibility (core triad. Three major cognitive theories (theory of mind deficit, weak central coherence, and executive dysfunction seem to explain many of these impairments. Currently, however, the empathizing-systemizing (a newer version of the theory of mind deficit account and mnesic imbalance theories are the only ones that attempt to explain all these core triadic symptoms of ASD On the other hand, theory of mind deficit in empathizing-systemizing theory is the most influential account for ASD, but its counterpart in the mnesic imbalance theory, faulty procedural memory, seems to occur earlier in development; consequently, this might be a better solution to the problem of the etiology of ASD, if it truly meets the precedence criterion. Hence, in the present paper I review the reasoning in favor of the theory of mind deficit but with a new interpretation based on the mnesic imbalance theory, which posits that faulty procedural memory causes deficits in several cognitive skills, resulting in poor performance in theory of mind tasks.

  12. Assertiveness process of Iranian nurse leaders: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Mahmoudirad, Gholamhossein; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Vanaki, Zohreh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim


    The purpose of this study was to explore the assertiveness process in Iranian nursing leaders. A qualitative design based on the grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyze the assertiveness experiences of 12 nurse managers working in four hospitals in Iran. Purposeful and theoretical sampling methods were employed for the data collection and selection of the participants, and semistructured interviews were held. During the data analysis, 17 categories emerged and these were categorized into three themes: "task generation", "assertiveness behavior", and "executive agents". From the participants' experiences, assertiveness theory emerged as being fundamental to the development of a schematic model describing nursing leadership behaviors. From another aspect, religious beliefs also played a fundamental role in Iranian nursing leadership assertiveness. It was concluded that bringing a change in the current support from top managers and improving self-learning are required in order to enhance the assertiveness of the nursing leaders in Iran.

  13. Cognition and the compassion deficit: the social psychology of helping behaviour in nursing. (United States)

    Paley, John


    This paper discusses compassion failure and compassion deficits in health care, using two major reports by Robert Francis in the UK as a point of reference. Francis enquired into events at the Mid Staffordshire Hospital between 2005 and 2009, events that unequivocally warrant the description 'appalling care'. These events prompted an intense national debate, along with proposals for significant changes in the regulation of nursing and nurse education. The circumstances are specific to the UK, but the issues are international. I suggest that social psychology provides numerous hints about the mechanisms that might have been involved at Mid Staffs and about the reasons why outsiders are blind to these mechanisms. However, there have been few references to social psychology in the post-Francis debate (the Francis Report itself makes no reference to it at all). It is an enormously valuable resource, and it has been overlooked. Drawing on the social psychology literature, I express scepticism about the idea that there was a compassion deficit among the Mid Staff nurses - the assumption that the appalling care had something to do with the character, attitudes, and values of nurses - and argue that the Francis Report's emphasis on a 'culture of compassion and caring in nurse recruitment, training and education' is misconceived. It was not a 'failure of compassion' that led to the events in Mid Staffs but an interlocking set of contextual factors that are known to affect social cognition. These factors cannot be corrected or compensated for by teaching ethics, empathy, and compassion to student nurses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Nursing Challenges in Motivating Nursing Students through Clinical Education: A Grounded Theory Study. (United States)

    Nasrin, Hanifi; Soroor, Parvizy; Soodabeh, Joolaee


    Nurses are the first role models for students in clinical settings. They can have a significant role on students' motivation. The purpose of this study was to explore the understanding of nursing students and instructors concerning the role of nurses in motivating nursing students through clinical education. The sampling was first started purposefully and continued with theoretical sampling. The study collected qualitative data through semistructured and interactive interviews with 16 nursing students and 4 nursing instructors. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory approach. One important pattern emerged in this study was the "concerns of becoming a nurse," which itself consisted of three categories: "nurses clinical competency," "nurses as full-scale mirror of the future," and "Monitoring and modeling through clinical education" (as the core variable). The findings showed that the nurses' manners of performance as well as the profession's prospect have a fundamental role in the process of formation of motivation through clinical education. Students find an insight into the nursing profession by substituting themselves in the place of a nurse, and as result, are or are not motivated towards the clinical education.

  15. A Grounded Theory of Moral Reckoning in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvita K. Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC


    Full Text Available Moral distress is a pervasive problem in nursing, contributing to nurses’ emotional and physical health problems, loss of nurses’ ethical integrity,dissatisfaction with the work of nursing, and loss of nurses from the workforce. The purpose of this research was twofold: 1 to further elucidate the experiences and consequences of professional nurses’ moral distress and 2 to formulate a logical, systematic, and explanatory theory of moral distress and its consequences. METHOD: This Glaserian grounded theory study utilizedvolunteer and purposive sampling to recruit 21 registered nurses. Analysis of the data resulted in an original substantive theory of moral reckoning in nursing, which reaches further than the concept of moral distress, identifying a critical juncture in nurses’ lives and better explaining a process that affects nurses and the health care that they deliver. Results: Moral reckoning in nursing consists of a three-stage process. After a novice period, the nurse experiences a Stage of Ease in which there is comfort in the workplace and congruence of internal and external values. Unexpectedly, a situational bind occurs in which the nurse’s core beliefs come into irreconcilable conflict with social norms. This forces the nurse out of the Stage of Ease into the Stage of Resolution, in which the nurseeither gives up or makes a stand. The nurse then moves into the Stage of Reflection in which beliefs, values, and actions are iteratively examined. The nurse tries to make sense of experiences through remembering, telling the story, examining conflicts, and living with the consequences. Implications: In today’s complex health care system, nurses find themselves faced with morally troubling situations which if not resolved can lead to serious consequences for nurses, patients, and the health care system as a whole. This study sets the stage for further investigation on the human consequences of moral distress. Further, since moral

  16. [The grounded theory as a methodological alternative for nursing research]. (United States)

    dos Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro; da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam


    This study presents a method of interpretative and systematic research with appliance to the development of studies in nursing called "the grounded theory", whose theoretical support is the symbolic interactionism. The purpose of the paper is to describe the grounded theory as an alternative methodology for the construction of knowledge in nursing. The study highlights four topics: the basic principle, the basic concepts, the trajectory of the method and the process of analysis of the data. We conclude that the systematization of data and its interpretation, based on social actors' experience, constitute strong subsidies to generate theories through this research tool.

  17. Bourdieu's theory of practice and its potential in nursing research. (United States)

    Rhynas, Sarah J


    This paper seeks to consider the utility of Bourdieu's "Theory of Practice" in nursing, and considers specifically its use as a framework for research exploring nurses' conceptualizations of illness and the patients in their care. Bourdieu's work uses the concepts of field, capital and habitus to explain interactions within the social world. This paper describes these concepts and their relationship with nursing is discussed using dementia care as an example. The work of French scholar Pierre Bourdieu has contributed to debates throughout the social sciences, but has had relatively little attention in the nursing literature. Pierre Bourdieu's work developed against a backdrop of change in the academic world. The emergence of the social sciences and the debate around objective and subjective styles of research were influential in the development of his "Theory of Practice". The importance of the conceptualization process is discussed, and the considerable potential influence of conceptualization on patient care is highlighted. Reflexivity is a cornerstone of Bourdieu's work, and is an important feature of nursing research. Examples of health care research using his work as a framework are discussed, and some of the challenges of the approach are outlined. The use of Bourdieu's "Theory of Practice" as a research framework could allow nurse researchers to explore the interactions of nurses with the structures, agents and symbols of illness within the field of care. This work could enhance understanding of how nurses view and react to patients in their care, and promote the development of practice innovations and policy change. The theory may, therefore, have much to offer future nursing research.

  18. Vaccination learning experiences of nursing students: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Ildarabadi, Eshagh; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Taghipour, Ali; Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani


    This study aimed to explore the experiences of nursing students being trained to perform vaccinations. The grounded theory method was applied to gather information through semi-structured interviews. The participants included 14 undergraduate nursing students in their fifth and eighth semesters of study in a nursing school in Iran. The information was analyzed according to Strauss and Corbin's method of grounded theory. A core category of experiential learning was identified, and the following eight subcategories were extracted: students' enthusiasm, vaccination sensitivity, stress, proper educational environment, absence of prerequisites, students' responsibility for learning, providing services, and learning outcomes. The vaccination training of nursing students was found to be in an acceptable state. However, some barriers to effective learning were identified. As such, the results of this study may provide empirical support for attempts to reform vaccination education by removing these barriers.

  19. The understanding of theory and practice in nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Nielsen, Gitte

    This project deals with the matter of nursing education on professional bachelor level in Denmark. It is a fact that opinions differ in the matter of what can and must be learned in respectively clinical practice and in theoretical practice in a professional nursing training. The aim...... of this project is to investigate the understandings of clinical as well as theoretical training in nursing education, and to discuss which implications and problems these opinions can have for the nursing students’ competences to develop the profession. The method of this project consists of three qualitative...... focus group interviews. The informants are nursing students, teachers from a university college and clinical instructors from a university hospital. The three focus group interviews are conducted from a theoretical frame of reference regarding the matter of theory and practice. The method of data...

  20. Nursing theory and the delivery of compassionate care. (United States)

    Power, Louisa


    Compassionate care is a priority in current healthcare policy. However, its definition is amorphous, leading to difficulties standardising it in practice. This article discusses how nursing theory is central to the delivery of compassionate care. It emphasises the need to develop a theoretical framework that reflects the eclectic and pragmatic nature of nursing practice, and the importance of using patient feedback as an indicator of the quality of care and as a basis for adapting theoretical hypotheses.

  1. Using constructive alignment theory to develop nursing skills curricula. (United States)

    Joseph, Sundari; Juwah, Charles


    Constructive alignment theory has been used to underpin the development of curricula in higher education for some time (Biggs and Tang, 2007), however, its use to inform and determine skills curricula in nursing is less well documented. This paper explores the use of constructive alignment theory within a study of undergraduate student nurses undertaking clinical skill acquisition in the final year of a BSc (Hons) Nursing course. Students were followed up as newly qualified nurses (NQN) (n = 58) to ascertain the impact of skill acquisition in this way. Comparisons were made with newly qualified nurses who did not participate in a constructively aligned curriculum. This mixed methods study reported skill identification within the immediate post-registration period and evaluated the constructively aligned curriculum as having positive benefits for NQNs in terms of confidence to practice. This was supported by preceptors' views. The study recommends two process models for nursing skills curriculum development and reports that constructive alignment is a useful theoretical framework for nurse educators. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Working Memory - Theory, Deficits, Diagnosis, and Vision Therapy


    Sidney Groffman, OD, MA


    Working memory (WM) is one of the most significant psychological ideas developed in the last forty years. WM is the cognitive function responsible for storing information, manipulating it, and using it in thinking. WM is a multidimensional system comprising three separable yet interactive domains. They are an executive domain and verbal and visual domains. Working memory affects many perceptuo-cognitive activities, and WM deficits can create a variety of problems, many of which fa...

  3. Academic learning for specialist nurses: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Millberg, Lena German; Berg, Linda; Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Nordström, Gun; Ohlén, Joakim


    The aim was to explore the major concerns of specialist nurses pertaining to academic learning during their education and initial professional career. Specialist nursing education changed in tandem with the European educational reform in 2007. At the same time, greater demands were made on the healthcare services to provide evidence-based and safe patient-care. These changes have influenced specialist nursing programmes and consequently the profession. Grounded Theory guided the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions distributed at the end of specialist nursing programmes in 2009 and 2010. Five universities were included. Further, individual, pair and group interviews were used to collect data from 12 specialist nurses, 5-14 months after graduation. A major concern for specialist nurses was that academic learning should be "meaningful" for their professional future. The specialist nurses' "meaningful academic learning process" was characterised by an ambivalence of partly believing in and partly being hesitant about the significance of academic learning and partly receiving but also lacking support. Specialist nurses were influenced by factors in two areas: curriculum and healthcare context. They felt that the outcome of contribution to professional confidence was critical in making academic learning meaningful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mixing methodology, nursing theory and research design for a practice model of district nursing advocacy. (United States)

    Reed, Frances M; Fitzgerald, Les; Rae, Melanie


    To highlight philosophical and theoretical considerations for planning a mixed methods research design that can inform a practice model to guide rural district nursing end of life care. Conceptual models of nursing in the community are general and lack guidance for rural district nursing care. A combination of pragmatism and nurse agency theory can provide a framework for ethical considerations in mixed methods research in the private world of rural district end of life care. Reflection on experience gathered in a two-stage qualitative research phase, involving rural district nurses who use advocacy successfully, can inform a quantitative phase for testing and complementing the data. Ongoing data analysis and integration result in generalisable inferences to achieve the research objective. Mixed methods research that creatively combines philosophical and theoretical elements to guide design in the particular ethical situation of community end of life care can be used to explore an emerging field of interest and test the findings for evidence to guide quality nursing practice. Combining philosophy and nursing theory to guide mixed methods research design increases the opportunity for sound research outcomes that can inform a nursing model of care.

  5. The creative élan of nursing theory: indispensable to leadership. (United States)

    Donohue-Porter, Patricia


    The author discusses how nursing theoretical knowledge contributes to nursing leadership and how the use of nursing theory can build confidence in nurse leaders in all settings, drawing on examples from selected theorists' work. It is suggested that when nursing theory is not fully valued by the profession, not only knowledge is lost but also the language that helps nurses to lead. However, the vision and the voice of nursing theory will allow nurses to lead with creativity and to tap into innovation that facilitates contributions to healthcare. To be firmly, intellectually, and enthusiastically grounded in one's disciplinary knowledge sets the stage to being able to lead effectively. Four aspects of leadership are addressed: clinical, interdisciplinary, nursing education, and interpersonal nursing. Our accumulated nursing theories can help nurse leaders to meet contemporary healthcare challenges by providing answers that help to focus on improvement, patient-centered care, critical reflection, and caring. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Managing the professional nurse. Part I. The organizational theories. (United States)

    McClure, M L


    How do employment organizations outside the hospital field deal with issues such as staff productivity, motivation, burnout, and high turnover? In Part I of this two-part article, the author presents an overview of modern management theory and practice, drawn from the literature on organizational behavior. She shows how nursing administrators can use this scholarly foundation to better understand the organizing principles and problems of their departments. In Part II (to be published in March 1984), the author applies these classic and relevant theories to the specific challenges that face the manager of professional nurses.

  7. Abnormal cerebral functional connectivity in esophageal cancer patients with theory of mind deficits in resting state. (United States)

    Cao, Yin; Xiang, JianBo; Qian, Nong; Sun, SuPing; Hu, LiJun; Yuan, YongGui


    To explore the function of the default mode network (DMN) in the psychopathological mechanisms of theory of mind deficits in patients with an esophageal cancer concomitant with depression in resting the state. Twenty-five cases of esophageal cancer with theory of mind deficits (test group) that meet the diagnostic criteria of esophageal cancer and neuropsychological tests, including Beck depression inventory, reading the mind in the eyes, and Faux pas, were included, Another 25 cases of esophageal cancer patients but without theory of mind deficits (control group) were enrolled. Each patient completed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity intensities within the cerebral regions in the DMN of all the enrolled patients were analyzed. The results of each group were compared. The functional connectivity of the bilateral prefrontal central region with the precuneus, bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral ventral anterior cingulate gyrus in the patients of the test group were all reduced significantly (P theory of mind deficits. The theory of mind deficits might have an important function in the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer.

  8. Critical theory and its contribution to the nursing discipline. (United States)

    Mosqueda-Díaz, Angélica; Vílchez-Barboza, Vivian; Valenzuela-Suazo, Sandra; Sanhueza-Alvarado, Olivia


    This article reflects on the Critical theory, stemming from the most important philosophical concepts and the modifications it has endured over time. Thereafter, we expose the contribution of the Critical theory to Nursing. This emphasizes on the contextual analysis of the phenomena and it is a self-critique to prevent dogmatisms and totalitarianisms. It postulates that in order to establish a truth, we must consider the historical conditions within which said truth emerges. Jürgen Habermas, with his Theory of Communicative Action, reorients the original postulates of the Critical theory, making it more coherent from the social point of view, through the Guiding Interests of Knowledge. Nursing professionals who follow the Critical theory highlight the need to improve the description of the construction of knowledge with an emancipating and liberating purpose, which permits Nursing to provide responses to approach reality through a global and dialectic vision and from a democratic position of knowledge, construct research from the social situational reality that is part of its daily experience; everything that can be unified as a "Philosophy of Nursing Care", which should be incorporated onto the professional formation of the discipline and onto the research area.

  9. Critical theory and its contribution to the nursing discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Mosqueda-Díaz


    Full Text Available This article reflects on the Critical theory, stemming from the most important philosophical concepts and the modifications it has endured over time. Thereafter, we expose the contribution of the Critical theory to Nursing. This emphasizes on the contextual analysis of the phenomena and it is a self-critique to prevent dogmatisms and totalitarianisms. It postulates that in order to establish a truth, we must consider the historical conditions within which said truth emerges. Jürgen Habermas, with his Theory of Communicative Action, reorients the original postulates of the Critical theory, making it more coherent from the social point of view, through the Guiding Interests of Knowledge. Nursing professionals who follow the Critical theory highlight the need to improve the description of the construction of knowledge with an emancipating and liberating purpose, which permits Nursing to provide responses to approach reality through a global and dialectic vision and from a democratic position of knowledge, construct research from the social situational reality that is part of its daily experience; everything that can be unified as a "Philosophy of Nursing Care", which should be incorporated onto the professional formation of the discipline and onto the research area.

  10. Culture Care Theory: a proposed practice theory guide for nurse practitioners in primary care settings. (United States)

    McFarland, Marilyn M; Eipperle, Marilyn K


    Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality is presented as a foundational basis for the educational preparation, primary care contextual practice, and outcomes-focused research endeavours of advanced practice nursing. Discussion emphasises the value of care and caring as the essence of advanced practice nursing through the use of three modes of care, use of the Sunrise and other enablers, and the ethnonursing method. Education, research, practice, and key concepts of the theory are connected as essential components toward the provision of culturally congruent care to meet the healthcare needs of diverse individuals, families, groups, and communities by family nurse practitioners.

  11. Economic theory and nursing administration research--is this a good combination? (United States)

    Jones, Terry L; Yoder, Linda


    Economic theory is used to describe and explain decision making in the context of scarce resources. This paper presents two applications of economic theory to the delivery of nursing services in acute care hospitals and evaluates its usefulness in guiding nursing administration research. The description of economic theory and the proposed applications for nursing are based on current nursing, healthcare, and economic literature. Evaluation of the potential usefulness of economic theory in guiding nursing administration research is based on the criteria of significance and testability as described by Fawcett and Downs. While economic theory can be very useful in explaining how decisions about nursing time allocation and nursing care production are made, it will not address the issue of how they should be made. Normative theories and ethical frameworks also must be incorporated in the decision-making process around these issues. Economic theory and nursing administration are a good fit when balanced with the values and goals of nursing.

  12. A Critical Perspective on Relations between Staff Nurses and their Nurse Manager: Advancing Nurse Empowerment Theory. (United States)

    Udod, Sonia; Racine, Louise


    This study considers empowerment in nurse-manager relations by examining how conflict is handled on both sides and how the critical social perspective has influenced these relations. The authors use inductive analysis of empirical data to explain how (1) nursing work is organized, structured, and circumscribed by centrally determined policies and practices that downplay nurses' professional judgement about patient care; (2) power is held over nurses in their relationship with their manager; and (3) nurses' response to power is to engage in strategies of resistance. The authors illustrate how power influences relations between staff nurses and managers and provide a critical analysis of the strategies of resistance that result in personal, relational, and critical empowerment among staff nurses. Through resistance, staff nurses engage in alternative discourses to counteract the prevailing neoliberal organizational and managerial discourses of efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Copyright© by Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University.

  13. Theories in action and how nursing practice changed. (United States)

    Jasovsky, Deborah A; Morrow, Mary R; Clementi, Pamela S; Hindle, Paula A


    Rogers' theoretical framework of diffusion of innovation guided the successful infusion of the educational training and implementation of the Magis model of care at a 570 bed hospital in the Chicagoland area. The Magis model of care was derived from several nursing theories along with information from the Institute of Family-Centered Care. By incorporating the components that relate to the institution's values and Magnet theme, the stages of innovation were readily adopted and sustained over the first year of implementation. The model has spread beyond the original and sister units as demonstrated by another department creating the Magnet poster with the various elements that they have incorporated into daily care delivery. What is so invigorating to the nursing administration is hearing how nursing staff articulates the care they give to the various components of the model and the theory that supports this practice.

  14. Rethinking presence: a grounded theory of nurses and teleconsultation. (United States)

    Barrett, David


    To develop a theory that offered an evidence-based insight into the use of teleconsultation by nurses. Teleconsultation is the use of video to facilitate real-time, remote interaction between healthcare practitioners and patients. Although its popularity is growing, there is little understanding of how teleconsultation impacts on the role of nurses. The study adopted a constructivist grounded theory method, supplemented by the use of Straussian analytical approaches. Using selective and theoretical approaches, registered nurses with experience of using video in health care were sampled. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews exploring experiences, knowledge and feelings surrounding teleconsultation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and subjected to three-stage, nonlinear manual analysis (open, axial and selective coding). Theoretical saturation occurred after 17 interviews. The core category identified from the data was 'nursing presence' Four subcategories of nursing presence were identified: operational, clinical, therapeutic and social. The degree to which presence could be achieved was dependent upon three influencing factors - enablers, constraints and compensation. Nurses provide different types of presence during teleconsultation, with the degree of presence dependent on specific characteristics of video-mediated communication. Where the use of video constrains the delivery of presence, nurses use a range of compensatory mechanisms to enhance patient care. Teleconsultation provides an innovative approach to enhancing the delivery of health care. This study provides nurses with insight into the impact of teleconsultation on their professional role, and an understanding of how best to use video-mediated communication to support patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Nursing rounds as a pedagogical strategy: anchoring theory to practice in gerontological nursing. (United States)

    Perry, J; Paterson, B L


    There is considerable concern among nursing educators that baccalaureate nursing students' ageist attitudes about the elderly and the lack of understanding of the praxis of nursing care of older adults is not significantly changed by classroom lectures or discussions. Although there is general agreement that working with an experienced practitioner may positively impact on nursing students' perceptions and knowledge about the nursing care of older adults, the clinical learning experiences in this field are often uneven and problematic. In the paper, the authors present a strategy, an adaptation of traditional bedside rounds, in which students are invited to become members of a learning community in the nursing care of older adults. Based on the theory of situated learning by Lave and Wenger, the strategy entails nursing students' active involvement with skilled practitioners in the three phases of the strategy, i.e., orientation, adaptation, and integration. The authors describe how the strategy was implemented in one school of nursing. They conclude with an invitation for faculty and practitioners to further refine and assess this strategy.

  16. Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations: application in emergency and rural nursing. (United States)

    Senn, Joanne F


    The author in this column highlights aspects of Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations and its use both in emergency nursing and rural nursing. Long and Weinert identified the concepts of rural nursing. Some differences between Peplau's theory and rural nursing can be identified through definitions of theory and conceptual models. Despite these differences, there are some common themes between both theories that are described and compared.

  17. Content Validity and Psychometric Characteristics of the "Knowledge about Older Patients Quiz" for Nurses Using Item Response Theory. (United States)

    Dikken, Jeroen; Hoogerduijn, Jita G; Kruitwagen, Cas; Schuurmans, Marieke J


    To assess the content validity and psychometric characteristics of the Knowledge about Older Patients Quiz (KOP-Q), which measures nurses' knowledge regarding older hospitalized adults and their certainty regarding this knowledge. Cross-sectional. Content validity: general hospitals. Psychometric characteristics: nursing school and general hospitals in the Netherlands. Content validity: 12 nurse specialists in geriatrics. Psychometric characteristics: 107 first-year and 78 final-year bachelor of nursing students, 148 registered nurses, and 20 nurse specialists in geriatrics. Content validity: The nurse specialists rated each item of the initial KOP-Q (52 items) on relevance. Ratings were used to calculate Item-Content Validity Index and average Scale-Content Validity Index (S-CVI/ave) scores. Items with insufficient content validity were removed. Psychometric characteristics: Ratings of students, nurses, and nurse specialists were used to test for different item functioning (DIF) and unidimensionality before item characteristics (discrimination and difficulty) were examined using Item Response Theory. Finally, norm references were calculated and nomological validity was assessed. Content validity: Forty-three items remained after assessing content validity (S-CVI/ave = 0.90). Psychometric characteristics: Of the 43 items, two demonstrating ceiling effects and 11 distorting ability estimates (DIF) were subsequently excluded. Item characteristics were assessed for the remaining 30 items, all of which demonstrated good discrimination and difficulty parameters. Knowledge was positively correlated with certainty about this knowledge. The final 30-item KOP-Q is a valid, psychometrically sound, comprehensive instrument that can be used to assess the knowledge of nursing students, hospital nurses, and nurse specialists in geriatrics regarding older hospitalized adults. It can identify knowledge and certainty deficits for research purposes or serve as a tool in educational

  18. My belief or yours? Differential theory of mind deficits in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Le Bouc, Raphaël; Lenfant, Pierre; Delbeuck, Xavier; Ravasi, Laura; Lebert, Florence; Semah, Franck; Pasquier, Florence


    Theory of mind reasoning-the ability to understand someone else's mental states, such as beliefs, intentions and desires-is crucial in social interaction. It has been suggested that a theory of mind deficit may account for some of the abnormalities in interpersonal behaviour that characterize patients affected by behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. However, there are conflicting reports as to whether understanding someone else's mind is a key difference between behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and other neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Literature data on the relationship between theory of mind abilities and executive functions are also contradictory. These disparities may be due to underestimation of the fractionation within theory of mind components. A recent theoretical framework suggests that taking someone else's mental perspective requires two distinct processes: inferring someone else's belief and inhibiting one's own belief, with involvement of the temporoparietal and right frontal cortices, respectively. Therefore, we performed a neuropsychological and neuroimaging study to investigate the hypothesis whereby distinct cognitive deficits could impair theory of mind reasoning in patients with Alzheimer's disease and patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. We used a three-option false belief task to assess theory of mind components in 11 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, 12 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 20 healthy elderly control subjects. The patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and those with Alzheimer's disease were matched for age, gender, education and global cognitive impairment. [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging was used to investigate neural correlates of theory of mind reasoning deficits. Performance in the three-option false belief task revealed differential impairments in the components of theory of mind

  19. The Impact of the Photocopier on Peer Review and Nursing Theory. (United States)

    Nicoll, Leslie H

    Two influential publications in nursing, Nursing Research and Perspectives on Nursing Theory, are used to illustrate how a specific technology change-the invention and marketing of the photocopier-influenced knowledge dissemination and information utilization in nursing, perhaps in ways not immediately apparent. Content analysis and historical comparison, using editorials from Nursing Research, historical reports on technology development, and personal reflections on the genesis of Perspectives on Nursing Theory are used to create an argument for the role of technology in peer review, information utilization, and knowledge development in nursing. Multiple forces influence nursing science. Scholars should be alert to data inputs from many sources and respond accordingly.

  20. Judith Butler's theories: reflections for nursing research and practice. (United States)

    Nagington, Maurice G


    Judith Butler is one of the most influential late 20th and early 21st century philosophers in regard to left wing politics, as well as an active campaigner for social justice within the United States and worldwide. Her academic work has been foundational to the academic discipline of queer theory and has been extensively critiqued and applied across a hugely wide range of disciplines. In addition, Butler's work itself is extensive covering topics such as gender, sexuality, race, literary theory, and warfare. This article can only serve as a taster for the potential application of her work in relation to nursing, which is in its infancy. This introduction covers three of the potentially most productive themes in Butler's work, namely power, performativity, and ethics. Each of these themes are critically explored in turn, sometimes in relation to their actual application in nursing literature, but also in relation to their potential for producing novel critiques of nursing practice. Suggestions are made about how Butler's work can develop nursing research and practice. The article concludes with a short summary of Butler's key works as well as suggested reading for people interested in examining how her theories have been applied across different academic settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Articulating nurse practitioner practice using King's theory of goal attainment. (United States)

    de Leon-Demare, Kathleen; MacDonald, Jane; Gregory, David M; Katz, Alan; Halas, Gayle


    To further understand the interactions between nurse practitioners (NPs) and patients, King's nursing theory of goal attainment was applied as the conceptual framework to describe the interactions between NPs and patients in the primary care setting. Six dyads of NPs and their patients were video- and audio-taped over three consecutive clinic visits. For the purposes of this arm of the study, the audio-taped interactions were transcribed and then coded using King's concepts in her theory of goal attainment. King's theory was applicable to describe NP practice. King's concepts and processes of nurse-patient interactions, such as disturbances, mutual goal setting, and transactions, were observed in NP-patient interactions. Disturbances during clinical encounters were essential in the progression toward goal attainment. Elements, such as social exchange, symptom reporting, role explanation, and information around clinical processes facilitated relationship building. NPs as practitioners need to be reflective of their own practice, embrace disturbances in the clinical encounter, and attend to these as opportunities for mutual goal setting. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  2. Theory of "Own" Mind in Autism: Evidence of a Specific Deficit in Self-Awareness? (United States)

    Williams, David


    Assuming that self-awareness is not a unitary phenomenon, and that one can be aware of different aspects of self at any one time, it follows that selective impairments in self-awareness can occur. This article explores the idea that autism involves a particular deficit in awareness of the "psychological self", or "theory of "own" mind". This…

  3. [Specificity hypothesis of a theory of mind deficit in early childhood autism]. (United States)

    Kissgen, R; Schleiffer, R


    In order to test the hypothesis that a theory of mind deficit is specific for autism, the present study presents the first replication of the Sally-Anne test (Baron-Cohen, Leslie & Frith, 1985) in the German-speaking countries. The Sally-Anne test was administered to 16 autistic, 24 probands with Down's syndrome and 20 normal preschool prosands. The intelligence of the autistic group and that with Down's syndrome was measured by the CPM/SPM. In addition, the ADI-R was used with the principal caregivers of the autistic and Down's syndrome subjects. With regard to the clinical diagnosis, theory of mind deficit turned out to be not specific for autism. Six of 16 (37.5%) autistic subjects passed the theory of mind tasks. Thus performance in the autistic group surpassed that of both control groups. Out of 16 autistic subjects, autism could be confirmed in only 8 on the basis of the ADI-R diagnostic criteria, only one of whom showed a theory of mind. The autistic individuals with a theory of mind differed significantly in their mean IQ from those without this ability. Spectrum and specificity of a theory of mind deficit in autism remain controversial. For further research it seems important to administer the ADI-R during the diagnostic process. The findings suggest that the clinical diagnosis of autism is not precise enough to distinguish between autism and nonautistic mental handicap.

  4. [Nursing managerial approach: a study based on general management theories]. (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcia Simoni; Spagnol, Carla Aparecida; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Hayashida, Miyeko


    The purpose of this study was to identify nurses managerial conduct in a private maternity hospital located in the interior of the São Paulo state, Brazil. In order to collect data, authors used a questionnaire with 20 propositions related to the work of nurses in the different units of the hospital. Following, authors performed a descriptive statistical analysis of the data. Results showed a tendency toward democratization in the conduct of the nurses investigated as the majority of the responses privileged questions on team work, workers' participation and group development. Also, authors evidenced that great part of the responses did not agree with the propositions about the principles of the Classical Administration Theory.

  5. [Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity. Relationship among nurses, parents and school]. (United States)

    Vallejo, Raúl García; Sanabria, Sheila García; Ramos, Paula García


    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a series of behaviors which interfere with the optimal evolutionary development of a child, at the cognitive level as well as in his/her relations with his/her family and integration with other children in his/her age group. An estimated 7% of children have this disorder. 80% of these children will continue to have problems during adolescence while 30 to 65% show symptoms as adults. Correct diagnosis requires, besides an exploration, an interview/s with teachers, family and the child and an evaluation of diverse tests designed for each of the implicated parties. For difficult cases, it is recommended there be a combined evaluation by pediatric, neurologist, child psychiatrist, clinical psychologist or neuropsychologist, and psycho-pedagogue. A multi-modal treatment has proven more effective; this combines pharmacological, psychological and psycho-pedagogical aspects and in this approach, the role of family and educators is fundamental. Primary Health Care Services Protocol contemplates periodical revisions, included in the Program to Attend to Healthy Children, which covers all children and teenagers. The role of nurses in these revisions is quite relevant to develop an exhaustive evaluation which enables collaboration in precocious detection and follow-up for this pathology This article hopes to facilitate this activity to all nurses involved in Primary Health Care, especially in pediatrics.

  6. Using simplified Chaos Theory to manage nursing services. (United States)

    Haigh, Carol A


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the part simplified chaos theory could play in the management of nursing services. As nursing care becomes more complex, practitioners need to become familiar with business planning and objective time management. There are many time-limited methods that facilitate this type of planning but few that can help practitioners to forecast the end-point outcome of the service they deliver. A growth model was applied to a specialist service to plot service trajectory. Components of chaos theory can play a role in forecasting service outcomes and consequently the impact upon the management of such services. The ability to (1) track the trajectory of a service and (2) manipulate that trajectory by introducing new variables can allow managers to forward plan for service development and to evaluate the effectiveness of a service by plotting its end-point state.

  7. The 'realities' of part-time nursing: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Jamieson, Lynn N; Williams, Leonie Mosel; Lauder, William; Dwyer, Trudy


    To develop a theory that explains the 'realities' of part-time nursing. While little is known about the phenomenon of part-time nursing, increasing numbers of nurses work in part-time employment. Grounded theory. The problem that part-time nurses shared was an inability to achieve their personal optimal nursing potential. Motivators to work part-time, employment hours, specialty, individual and organizational factors formed contextual conditions that led to this problem. Part-time nurses responded to the challenges through a process of adaptation and adjustment. Harnessing the full productive potential of part-time nurses requires support to limit the difficulties that they encounter. The developed theory provides a valuable guide to managerial action. Nurse Managers need to consider the developed substantive theory when planning and managing nursing workforces.

  8. Culture care theory: a framework for expanding awareness of diversity and racism in nursing education. (United States)

    Lancellotti, Katherine


    As American society becomes increasingly diverse, and the nursing profession does not, there has been a focus on promoting both cultural competence and diversity within the profession. Although culture and diversity are widely discussed in nursing education, the issue of racism may be avoided or suppressed. Institutionalized racism within nursing education must be acknowledged and discussed before nursing education may be transformed. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care Theory is an established nursing theory that emphasizes culture and care as essential concepts in nursing. Theoretical frameworks abound in nursing, and Culture Care Theory may be underutilized and misunderstood within nursing education. This article examines the issue of racism in nursing education and recommends Culture Care Theory as a relevant framework for enhancing both cultural competence and diversity.

  9. Who uses nursing theory? A univariate descriptive analysis of five years' research articles. (United States)

    Bond, A Elaine; Eshah, Nidal Farid; Bani-Khaled, Mohammed; Hamad, Atef Omar; Habashneh, Samira; Kataua', Hussein; al-Jarrah, Imad; Abu Kamal, Andaleeb; Hamdan, Falastine Rafic; Maabreh, Roqia


    Since the early 1950s, nursing leaders have worked diligently to build the Scientific Discipline of Nursing, integrating Theory, Research and Practice. Recently, the role of theory has again come into question, with some scientists claiming nurses are not using theory to guide their research, with which to improve practice. The purposes of this descriptive study were to determine: (i) Were nursing scientists' research articles in leading nursing journals based on theory? (ii) If so, were the theories nursing theories or borrowed theories? (iii) Were the theories integrated into the studies, or were they used as organizing frameworks? Research articles from seven top ISI journals were analysed, excluding regularly featured columns, meta-analyses, secondary analysis, case studies and literature reviews. The authors used King's dynamic Interacting system and Goal Attainment Theory as an organizing framework. They developed consensus on how to identify the integration of theory, searching the Title, Abstract, Aims, Methods, Discussion and Conclusion sections of each research article, whether quantitative or qualitative. Of 2857 articles published in the seven journals from 2002 to, and including, 2006, 2184 (76%) were research articles. Of the 837 (38%) authors who used theories, 460 (55%) used nursing theories, 377 (45%) used other theories: 776 (93%) of those who used theory integrated it into their studies, including qualitative studies, while 51 (7%) reported they used theory as an organizing framework for their studies. Closer analysis revealed theory principles were implicitly implied, even in research reports that did not explicitly report theory usage. Increasing numbers of nursing research articles (though not percentagewise) continue to be guided by theory, and not always by nursing theory. Newer nursing research methods may not explicitly state the use of nursing theory, though it is implicitly implied. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring

  10. Humanist ideology and nurse education. I. Humanist educational theory. (United States)

    Purdy, M


    Nurse education is dominated by the humanist perspective and the educational theory that it generates. Following a brief description of the perspective's phenomenological foundations and definition of humanist ideology, humanist educational theory is illustrated in an outline of the key contributions of John Dewey, Carl Rogers, Malcolm Knowles and Paulo Freire. The article concludes by noting Freire's sociological challenge to the individualism of the humanist perspective. This challenge recognizes the ideological and social control role of education in securing the reproduction of power relations and leads to questioning the function of individualism and the interests that humanist ideology may serve.

  11. Theory of own mind in autism: Evidence of a specific deficit in self-awareness? (United States)

    Williams, David


    Assuming that self-awareness is not a unitary phenomenon, and that one can be aware of different aspects of self at any one time, it follows that selective impairments in self-awareness can occur. This article explores the idea that autism involves a particular deficit in awareness of the 'psychological self', or 'theory of own mind'. This hypothesised deficit renders individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at least as impaired at recognising their own mental states as at recognising mental states in other people. This deficit, it is argued, stands in contrast to an apparently typical awareness of the 'physical self' amongst people with autism. Theoretical implications of the empirical evidence are discussed.

  12. [Dialogue as a pressuposition in the humanistic nursing theory: relationship mother-nurse-newborn]. (United States)

    Lúcio, Ingrid Martins Leite; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão


    This is a critical-reflective study carried out in 2005 aiming at analyzing dialogue as a presupposition in Peterson and Zderad's Humanistic Theory. Using as a starting point two Master's degree theses, the authors adopted the Meleis Model of Analysis, in the scope of theory description, focusing on the unit of analysis named theory presuppositions. The authors clearly perceive the quest for and the construction of the dialogue in the stages of the theory's methodological process: Preparation in order to get to know, Knowing the other intuitively, Knowing the other scientifically, Complementary synthesis of the others' knowledge, Succession within the nurse from the many to the paradoxical one. The presupposition of dialogue was brought up in an explicit manner in the theory, grounded on the philosophical bases of existentialism, humanism, and phenomenology. There was a distinct behavior in each experience, in spite of the common aspects, such as having been experienced with neonates and in the same institution.

  13. Spatial deficits in an amnesic patient with hippocampal damage: questioning the multiple trace theory. (United States)

    Gomez, A; Rousset, S; Charnallet, A


    Mediotemporal lobe structures are involved in both spatial processing and long-term memory. Patient M.R. suffers from amnesia, due to bilateral hippocampal lesion and temporoparietal atrophy following carbon monoxide poisoning. We compared his performance in immediate spatial memory tasks with the performance of ten healthy matched participants. Using an immediate reproduction of path, we observed a dissociation between his performance in three allocentric tasks and in five egocentric-updating tasks. His performance was always impaired on tasks requiring the use of an egocentric-updating representation but remained preserved on allocentric tasks. These results fit with the hypothesis that the hippocampus plays a role in spatial memory, but they also suggest that allocentric deficits previously observed in amnesia might actually reflect deficits in egocentric-updating processes. Furthermore, the co-occurrence of deficits in episodic long-term memory and short-term egocentric-updating representation without any short-term allocentric deficit suggests a new link between the mnemonic and navigational roles of the hippocampus. The Cognitive Map theory, the Multiple Trace theory, as well as further models linking spatial and nonspatial functions of the hippocampus are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [A Grounded Theory Approach on Nurses' Experience with Workplace Bullying]. (United States)

    Kang, Jiyeon; Yun, Seonyoung


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the workplace bullying experience of Korean nurses. Participants were twenty current or former hospital nurses who had experienced workplace bullying. Data were collected through focus group and individual in-depth interviews from February to May, 2015. Theoretical sampling method was applied to the point of theoretical saturation. Transcribed interview contents were analyzed using Corbin and Strauss's grounded theory method. A total of 110 concepts, 48 sub-categories, and 17 categories were identified through the open coding process. As a result of axial coding based on the paradigm model, the central phenomenon of nurses' workplace bullying experience was revealed as 'teaching that has become bullying', and the core category was extracted as 'surviving in love-hate teaching' consisting of a four-step process: confronting reality, trial and error, relationship formation, and settlement. The relationship formation was considered to be the key phase to proceed to the positive settlement phase, and the participants utilized various strategies such as having an open mind, developing human relationships, understanding each other in this phase. The in-depth understanding of the workplace bullying experience has highlighted the importance of effective communication for cultivating desirable human relationships between nurses.

  15. Theory of mind deficits partly mediate impaired social decision-making in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Yang, Liuqing; Li, Peifu; Mao, Haiying; Wang, Huiling; Shu, Chang; Bliksted, Vibeke; Zhou, Yuan


    Using paradigms from game theory, researchers have reported abnormal decision-making in social context in patients with schizophrenia. However, less is known about the underpinnings of the impairment. This study aimed to test whether theory of mind (ToM) deficits and/or neurocognitive dysfunctions mediate impaired social decision-making in patients with schizophrenia. We compared thirty-five patients with schizophrenia to thirty-eight matched healthy controls with regard to social decision-making using the mini Ultimatum Game (mini UG), a paradigm from game theory. Additionally, we assessed ToM using the Theory of Mind Picture Stories Task, a mental state attribution task, and assessed neurocognition using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. Mediation analyses were performed on the data. In contrast to the behavioral pattern of healthy controls in the mini UG, the patients with schizophrenia significantly accepted more disadvantageous offers and rejected more advantageous offers, and showed reduced sensitivity to the fairness-related context changes in the mini UG. Impaired ToM and neurocognition were also found in the patients. Mediation analyses indicated that ToM but not neurocognition partially mediated the group differences on the disadvantageous and advantageous offers in the mini UG. Patients with schizophrenia exhibited impaired social decision-making. This impairment can be partly explained by their ToM deficits rather than neurocognitive deficits. However, the exact nature of the ToM deficits that mediate impaired social decision-making needs to be identified in future.

  16. Unlocking the Mystery of Social Deficits in Autism: Theory of Mind as Key (United States)

    Blacher, Jan


    Theory of mind (ToM) is key to the development of one's social skills. Without ToM, children (or adults) cannot understand or infer the thoughts, feelings, or intentions of others. A lack of ToM skills is considered by some to be a core deficit in autism. ToM affects all interpersonal interactions as well as academics, daily living, following…

  17. Using Pollination Deficits to Infer Pollinator Declines: Can Theory Guide Us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Thomson


    Full Text Available Authors examining pollinator declines frequently discuss pollination deficits, either as contemporary evidence that declines have occurred or as a possible negative consequence of future declines. Because pollination deficits can be measured in short-term studies, it would be useful if such studies could somehow replace painstaking documentation of insect population trends. I examine the legitimacy of this type of substitution with reference to evolutionary theory and natural plant populations. Operationally, pollination deficits are detected through pollen supplementation experiments. Although simple, these experiments are subject to subtleties of interpretation because of biases and nonlinear responses, which I discuss. Although it has been found that, in 62% of the natural populations studied, fruit or seed sets are at least sometimes limited by insufficient pollen, other research suggests that intact natural systems ought to arrive at an evolutionary equilibrium in which reproduction is limited equally by pollination and by maternal resources. Therefore, chronic severe pollination deficits may indicate that the pollinator service of a plant population has declined from some higher level in the past. However, there is no evidence of widespread declines, and, because of stochastic factors in nature, occasional shortfalls of pollination should be expected even at equilibrium. Although the effects of pollination deficits on plant population dynamics have been little studied, moderate declines in seed production may have relatively little effect on population growth rates because resources not expended on fruits and seeds may be reallocated to vegetative persistence or spread. It is therefore premature to conclude that pollinator declines are having strong effects on natural plant populations, but this mostly reflects a lack of data and is no cause for complacency. Theory must be supplemented by case studies; I give one example and

  18. Principle-based concept analysis: intentionality in holistic nursing theories. (United States)

    Aghebati, Nahid; Mohammadi, Eesa; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Noaparast, Khosrow Bagheri


    This is a report of a principle-based concept analysis of intentionality in holistic nursing theories. A principle-based concept analysis method was used to analyze seven holistic theories. The data included eight books and 31 articles (1998-2011), which were retrieved through MEDLINE and CINAHL. Erickson, Kriger, Parse, Watson, and Zahourek define intentionality as a capacity, a focused consciousness, and a pattern of human being. Rogers and Newman do not explicitly mention intentionality; however, they do explain pattern and consciousness (epistemology). Intentionality has been operationalized as a core concept of nurse-client relationships (pragmatic). The theories are consistent on intentionality as a noun and as an attribute of the person-intentionality is different from intent and intention (linguistic). There is ambiguity concerning the boundaries between intentionality and consciousness (logic). Theoretically, intentionality is an evolutionary capacity to integrate human awareness and experience. Because intentionality is an individualized concept, we introduced it as "a matrix of continuous known changes" that emerges in two forms: as a capacity of human being and as a capacity of transpersonal caring. This study has produced a theoretical definition of intentionality and provides a foundation for future research to further investigate intentionality to better delineate its boundaries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. 'Implementation deficit' and 'street-level bureaucracy': policy, practice and change in the development of community nursing issues. (United States)

    Bergen, Ann; While, Alison


    The present paper examines the mechanisms by which health and social care policies put forward by the Government may be translated into community nursing practice. Data from a research project on community nurse case managers were re-examined in the light of two classic theories often cited by policy analysts (i.e. implementation theory and 'street-level bureaucracy'). It was found that the extent to which nurses adopted the case management role, and the model of choice, depended on four major interrelated variables, namely: (1) the clarity of policy guidance; (2) the extent to which it coincided with professional (nursing) values; (3) local practices and policies; and (4) the personal vision of the community nurse. It is argued that this framework may have wider relevance, and this was tested out in two ways. First, major change in one of these variables (Government policy) over time was analysed for its effect on case management practice via the remaining variables. Secondly, an unrelated, but policy-initiated, nursing issue (nurse prescribing) was briefly examined in the light of the framework. It is suggested that this framework may be of some use when considering the likely practice response to policy-related changes in community nursing.

  20. Thinking outside the executive functions box: theory of mind and pragmatic abilities in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; Broeders, M.; Nieuwland, M.S.


    An endophenotype for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is executive functioning. In the autism and developmental literature executive dysfunctions has also been linked to theory of mind (ToM) and pragmatic language use. The central question of this review is whether deficits in ToM

  1. Differential Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Means of Inhibitory Control and "Theory of Mind" (United States)

    Buhler, Eva; Bachmann, Christian; Goyert, Hannah; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge


    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) are both associated with deficits in executive control and with problems in social contexts. This study analyses the variables inhibitory control and theory of mind (ToM), including a developmental aspect in the case of the latter, to differentiate between the…

  2. [Autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: similarities and differences in executive functioning and theory of mind]. (United States)

    Miranda-Casas, Ana; Baixauli-Fortea, Immaculada; Colomer-Diago, Carla; Roselló-Miranda, Belén


    Although the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria do not overlap, the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in individuals with a clinical diagnosis of autism is quite high. At the same time, children with ADHD can have autistic traits, the most prevalent being social and communication difficulties. The analysis of the combination of executive functions and theory of mind (ToM) deficits could help to explain the overlap and differentiation between the two disorders. To review the findings of empirical studies in which children with ADHD and autism have been compared on indicators of executive functions and ToM. The literature review suggests the existence of distinct patterns in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and ADHD when the executive functioning is segmented by components. Children with ADHD experience deficits in inhibitory control, while children with ASD have problems with cognitive flexibility and planning. Regarding the domain of the mentalist skills, there are developmental differences, as well as differences in their severity. Younger children with ASD have greater deficiencies in the ToM compared to children with ADHD, and a primary deficit in social orientation. Although important progress has been made, some issues remain to be clarified, among which we can highlight the analysis of how ToM development affects poor executive functions development, using longitudinal studies that analyze the developmental paths of children with ASD and children with ADHD.

  3. Users' participation in nursing care: an element of the Theory of Goal Attainment. (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Nogueira; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção


    Users' participation in care has been acknowledged as a key factor to improve health services. To analyze the Theory of Goal Attainment and to discuss the explicit and implicit relations between the Theory and the phenomenon of users' participation in nursing care. Theoretical analysis of the Theory of Goal Attainment. The analysis phase of the Framework for Analysis and Evaluation of Nursing Theories was applied. Then, the explicit and implicit relations between the Theory and the phenomenon of users' participation were analyzed. Users' participation in nursing care is an element of the Theory of Goal Attainment, although limited to the goal setting and the means to achieve them. The choice for users' participation in care is a right defended in health policies around the world. The Theory of Goal Attainment is an appropriate guide to nurses in defense of users' participation in nursing care.

  4. The Historical Evolution of Theories and Conceptual Models for Nursing. (United States)

    Hawkins, Joellen W.

    The development of nursing models can be traced to the inception of nursing as a profession. Florence Nightingale laid the foundation for current nursing practice and differentiated nursing from medicine. The late 19th and early 20th centuries contributed a number of important nurse theorists, better known for other contributions to the neophyte…

  5. The motivation to care: application and extension of motivation theory to professional nursing work. (United States)

    Moody, Roseanne C; Pesut, Daniel J


    The purpose of this research is to describe a model of nurses' work motivation relevant to the human caring stance of professional nursing work. The model was derived from selected theories of behavioral motivation and work motivation. Evidence-based theory addressing nurses' work motivation and nurses' motivational states and traits in relation to characteristics of organizational culture and patient health outcomes is suggested in an effort to make a distinct contribution to health services research. An integrated review of selected theories of motivation is presented, including conceptual analyses, theory-building techniques, and the evidence supporting the theoretical propositions and linkages among variables intrinsic to nurses' work motivation. The model of the Motivation to Care for Professional Nursing Work is a framework intended for empirical testing and theory building. The model proposes specific leadership and management strategies to support a culture of motivational caring and competence in health care organizations. Attention to motivation theory and research provides insights and suggests relationships among nurses' motivation to care, motivational states and traits, individual differences that influence nurses' work motivation, and the special effects of nurses' work motivation on patient care outcomes. Suggestions for nursing administrative direction and research are proposed.

  6. A grounded theory study of 'turning into a strong nurse': Earthquake experiences and perspectives on disaster nursing education. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia


    While Asia has the dubious distinction of being the world's most natural disaster-prone area, disaster nursing education and training are sparse in many Asian countries, especially China where this study took place. To explore the earthquake disaster experiences of Chinese nurses and develop a substantive theory of earthquake disaster nursing that will help inform future development of disaster nursing education. A qualitative study employing grounded theory, informed by symbolic interactionism. Fifteen Chinese registered nurses from five hospitals in Jiangxi Province who undertook relief efforts after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. Data were collected in 2012-2013 in digitally-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews and reflective field notes, and analyzed using Glaser's grounded theory method. Participants were unprepared educationally and psychologically for their disaster work. Supporting the emergent theory of "working in that terrible environment", was the core category of "turning into a strong nurse", a process of three stages: "going to the disaster"; "immersing in the disaster"; and "trying to let disaster experiences fade away". The participants found themselves thrust in "terrible" scenes of destruction, experienced personal dangers and ethical dilemmas, and tried the best they could to help survivors, communities and themselves, with limited resources and confronting professional work. Our rich findings confirm those of other studies in China and elsewhere, that attention must be paid to disaster education and training for nurses, as well as the mental health of nurses who work in disaster areas. Emergent theory helps to inform nurse educators, researchers, leaders and policy makers in China, and elsewhere in developing strategies to better prepare nurses for future disasters, and assist communities to prepare for and recover after earthquake disasters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Can theory of mind deficits be measured reliably in people with mild and moderate Alzheimer's dementia? (United States)

    Choong, Caroline Sm; Doody, Gillian A


    Patients suffering from Alzheimer's dementia develop difficulties in social functioning. This has led to an interest in the study of "theory of mind" in this population. However, difficulty has arisen because the associated cognitive demands of traditional short story theory of mind assessments result in failure per se in this population, making it challenging to test pure theory of mind ability. Simplified, traditional 1st and 2nd order theory of mind short story tasks and a battery of alternative theory of mind cartoon jokes and control slapstick cartoon jokes, without memory components, were administered to 16 participants with mild-moderate Alzheimer's dementia, and 11 age-matched healthy controls. No significant differences were detected between participants with Alzheimer's dementia and controls on the 1st or 2nd order traditional short story theory of mind tasks (p = 0.155 and p = 0.154 respectively). However, in the cartoon joke tasks there were significant differences in performance between the Alzheimer participants and the control group, this was evident for both theory of mind cartoons and the control 'slapstick' jokes. It remains very difficult to assess theory of mind as an isolated phenomenon in populations with global cognitive impairment, such as Alzheimer's dementia, as the tasks used to assess this cognition invariably depend on other cognitive functions. Although a limitation of this study is the small sample size, the results suggest that there is no measurable specific theory of mind deficit in people with Alzheimer's dementia, and that the use of theory of mind representational models to measure social cognitive ability may not be appropriate in this population.

  8. Attention and memory deficits in breast cancer survivors: implications for nursing practice and research. (United States)

    Frank, Jennifer Sandson; Vance, David E; Jukkala, Angela; Meneses, Karen M


    Breast cancer survivors (BCSs) commonly report deficits in attention and memory, cognitive functions crucial for daily optimal functioning. Perceived deficits are reported before, during, and after adjuvant therapy and affect quality of life throughout survivorship. Deficits of attention and memory are particularly disruptive for BCSs working or attending school who report that subtle impairment diminishes their confidence and their performance at all levels of occupation. Chemotherapy and endocrine therapy contribute to attention and memory deficits, but research findings have not fully established the extent or timing of that influence. Fortunately, potential interventions for attention and memory deficits in BCSs are promising. These include cognitive remediation therapies aimed at training for specific areas of deficit, cognitive behavioral therapies aimed at developing compensatory strategies for areas of deficit, complementary therapies, and pharmacologic therapies.

  9. [Analysis of expectations on the nurse's leadership in the light of Grid's theories]. (United States)

    Trevizan, M A; Mendes, I A; Hayashida, M; Galvão, C M; Cury, S R


    Based on the understanding that leadership is a fundamental resource for nurses in health institutions, the aim of the authors was to analyze, under the light of Blake & Mouton's Grid Theories, the expectations of the Nursing team regarding nurse's leadership. The analysis was based on four investigations performed in different contexts of Brazilian Nursing and data were collected through the application of the "Grid & Leadership in Nursing Instrument" developed by Trevizan. Results show that the subjects prefer the Grid style 9.9. The authors discuss the results and emphasize the need for the development of leadership in Nursing.

  10. Theory of mind and verbal working memory deficits in parents of autistic children. (United States)

    Gokcen, Sezen; Bora, Emre; Erermis, Serpil; Kesikci, Hande; Aydin, Cahide


    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential values of executive function and social cognition deficits as endophenotypes of autism. While theory of mind (ToM) is generally accepted as a unitary concept, some have suggested that ToM may be separated into two components (mental state reasoning and decoding). In this study, both aspects of ToM and verbal working memory abilities were investigated with relatively demanding tasks. The authors used a neurocognitive battery to compare the executive function and social cognition skills of 76 parents of autistic probands with 41 parents of healthy children. Both groups were matched for IQ, age and gender. Index parents had verbal working memory deficits. They had also low performance on a mental state reasoning task. Index parents had difficulties in reasoning about others' emotions. In contrast to findings in the control group, low performance of mental state reasoning ability was not associated with working memory deficit in index parents. Social cognition and working memory impairments may represent potential endophenotypes, related to an underlying vulnerability for autistic spectrum disorders.

  11. Stimulants improve theory of mind in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (United States)

    Maoz, Hagai; Tsviban, Lior; Gvirts, Hila Z; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Watemberg, Nathan; Bloch, Yuval


    Impairments in 'theory of mind' (ToM) were linked to social cognition and reciprocal relationships deficits in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty-four children with ADHD (13 with inattentive type and 11 with combined type, mean age 10.2 years) completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), a self-reported empathy questionnaire. All children performed the 'faux pas' task and a computerized ToM task in two different sessions either with or without administration of methylphenidate (MPH). Administration of MPH was associated with an improvement in cognitive and affective ToM. Children with ADHD-combined type had significantly lower scores in total IRI and the fantasy scale compared to children with ADHD-inattentive type. We conclude that deficits in empathy and ToM may play an important role in the impairments in social cognition and peer relationship in children with ADHD, especially children a hyperactive component. Stimulants may improve ToM and empathic functions. Future studies including larger samples and additional cognitive tasks are warranted in order to generalize these results and to identify possible underlying mechanisms for improvement in ToM following the administration of MPH.

  12. Deficits in theory of mind and social anxiety as independent paths to paranoid features in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Grant, Megan L A; Procacci, Michele; Olesek, Kyle L; Buck, Kelly D; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Dimaggio, Giancarlo


    Research suggests paranoia among persons with schizophrenia may be the result of a number of different psychological processes including deficits in theory of mind (ToM) and social anxiety. To test this hypothesis, this study sought to determine whether a group of highly paranoid persons with and without a ToM deficit could be detected and whether the group with paranoia and better ToM might have high levels of social anxiety. To explore this, a cluster analysis was performed on a group of 102 adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in a non-acute phase of illness on the basis of ratings of paranoid features using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and levels of ToM deficit using a factor score which summarized four different ToM assessments. Four groups were produced: High Paranoia/Poor ToM (n = 14); Low Paranoia/Good ToM (n = 22); Low Paranoia/Low Middle ToM (n=29); and High Paranoia/High Middle ToM (n = 23). Groups were then compared on self report of social anxiety. As predicted, the group with levels of high paranoid features and relatively better ToM performance had significantly higher levels of social anxiety than all other groups. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Optimizing staffing, quality, and cost in home healthcare nursing: theory synthesis. (United States)

    Park, Claire Su-Yeon


    To propose a new theory pinpointing the optimal nurse staffing threshold delivering the maximum quality of care relative to attendant costs in home health care. Little knowledge exists on the theoretical foundation addressing the inter-relationship among quality of care, nurse staffing, and cost. Theory synthesis. Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOhost Web and Web of Science (25 February - 26 April 2013; 20 January - 22 March 2015). Most of the existing theories/models lacked the detail necessary to explain the relationship among quality of care, nurse staffing and cost. Two notable exceptions are: 'Production Function for Staffing and Quality in Nursing Homes,' which describes an S-shaped trajectory between quality of care and nurse staffing and 'Thirty-day Survival Isoquant and Estimated Costs According to the Nurse Staff Mix,' which depicts a positive quadric relationship between nurse staffing and cost according to quality of care. A synthesis of these theories led to an innovative multi-dimensional econometric theory helping to determine the maximum quality of care for patients while simultaneously delivering nurse staffing in the most cost-effective way. The theory-driven threshold, navigated by Mathematical Programming based on the Duality Theorem in Mathematical Economics, will help nurse executives defend sufficient nurse staffing with scientific justification to ensure optimal patient care; help stakeholders set an evidence-based reasonable economical goal; and facilitate patient-centred decision-making in choosing the institution which delivers the best quality of care. A new theory to determine the optimum nurse staffing maximizing quality of care relative to cost was proposed. © 2017 The Author. Journal of Advanced Nursing © John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Culture care theory: a major contribution to advance transcultural nursing knowledge and practices. (United States)

    Leininger, Madeleine


    This article is focused on the major features of the Culture Care Diversity and Universality theory as a central contributing theory to advance transcultural nursing knowledge and to use the findings in teaching, research, practice, and consultation. It remains one of the oldest, most holistic, and most comprehensive theories to generate knowledge of diverse and similar cultures worldwide. The theory has been a powerful means to discover largely unknown knowledge in nursing and the health fields. It provides a new mode to assure culturally competent, safe, and congruent transcultural nursing care. The purpose, goal, assumptive premises, ethnonursing research method, criteria, and some findings are highlighted.

  15. Reconciling professional identity: A grounded theory of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students. (United States)

    Baldwin, A; Mills, J; Birks, M; Budden, L


    Role modelling by experienced nurses, including nurse academics, is a key factor in the process of preparing undergraduate nursing students for practice, and may contribute to longevity in the workforce. A grounded theory study was undertaken to investigate the phenomenon of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students. The study sought to answer the research question: how do nurse academics role model positive professional behaviours for undergraduate students? The aims of this study were to: theorise a process of nurse academic role modelling for undergraduate students; describe the elements that support positive role modelling by nurse academics; and explain the factors that influence the implementation of academic role modelling. The study sample included five second year nursing students and sixteen nurse academics from Australia and the United Kingdom. Data was collected from observation, focus groups and individual interviews. This study found that in order for nurse academics to role model professional behaviours for nursing students, they must reconcile their own professional identity. This paper introduces the theory of reconciling professional identity and discusses the three categories that comprise the theory, creating a context for learning, creating a context for authentic rehearsal and mirroring identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Insights on compassion and patient-centred nursing in intensive care: A constructivist grounded theory. (United States)

    Jakimowicz, Samantha; Perry, Lin; Lewis, Joanne


    To explore patient-centred nursing, compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue from intensive care nurses' perspectives. Compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue can influence critical care nurses' decisions to either continue or leave the profession, and could impact the compassionate patient-centred nursing care patients receive during their ICU admission. This qualitative research design was informed by Charmaz's Grounded Theory Constructivist methodology. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 critical care nurses of two ICUs in Australia during 2016. Interview data were analysed using grounded theory processes. Findings reflected positive and negative impacts on critical care nurses' ability to deal compassionately with their patients. Effects on patient-centred nursing and critical care nurses' own well-being were revealed. A core category of "Expectations" emerged, explaining the tension between critical care nurses' biomedical, clinical skills and knowledge versus compassionate, patient-centred nursing care. This tension was clarified and expanded in subcategories of "Life in the Balance," "Passion and Pressure," "Understanding and Advocacy" and "Tenacity and Fragility". Providing patient-centred nursing may enhance critical care nurses' experience of compassion satisfaction, in turn impacting delivery of compassionate patient-centred nursing to generate a virtuous circle. Critical care nurses who feel respected and supported by their management team and colleagues experience feelings of compassion satisfaction, leading to greater engagement and care towards their patient. Systematically addressing critical care nurses' needs to successfully balance biomedical with compassionate nursing care may lead to greater well-being in the critical care nursing workforce and improve patient experience of intensive care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Recognizing and responding to uncertainty: a grounded theory of nurses' uncertainty. (United States)

    Cranley, Lisa A; Doran, Diane M; Tourangeau, Ann E; Kushniruk, Andre; Nagle, Lynn


    There has been little research to date exploring nurses' uncertainty in their practice. Understanding nurses' uncertainty is important because it has potential implications for how care is delivered. The purpose of this study is to develop a substantive theory to explain how staff nurses experience and respond to uncertainty in their practice. Between 2006 and 2008, a grounded theory study was conducted that included in-depth semi-structured interviews. Fourteen staff nurses working in adult medical-surgical intensive care units at two teaching hospitals in Ontario, Canada, participated in the study. The theory recognizing and responding to uncertainty characterizes the processes through which nurses' uncertainty manifested and how it was managed. Recognizing uncertainty involved the processes of assessing, reflecting, questioning, and/or being unable to predict aspects of the patient situation. Nurses' responses to uncertainty highlighted the cognitive-affective strategies used to manage uncertainty. Study findings highlight the importance of acknowledging uncertainty and having collegial support to manage uncertainty. The theory adds to our understanding the processes involved in recognizing uncertainty, strategies and outcomes of managing uncertainty, and influencing factors. Tailored nursing education programs should be developed to assist nurses in developing skills in articulating and managing their uncertainty. Further research is needed to extend, test and refine the theory of recognizing and responding to uncertainty to develop strategies for managing uncertainty. This theory advances the nursing perspective of uncertainty in clinical practice. The theory is relevant to nurses who are faced with uncertainty and complex clinical decisions, to managers who support nurses in their clinical decision-making, and to researchers who investigate ways to improve decision-making and care delivery. ©2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  18. Testing the social cognitive career theory in Thai nurses' interest to become nurse educators: A structural equation modeling analysis. (United States)

    Thungjaroenkul, Petsunee; G Cummings, Greta; Tate, Kaitlyn


    A shortage of nurse educators generates a systemic problem in nursing education. A model to develop interventions directed at enhancing graduate nursing student interest in assuming a future faculty role is needed. This study used a social cognitive career theory perspective to examine the effects of past performance in teaching and supervision, social influence, observing others teaching, perceived task demands for nurse educators, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations on Thai graduate nursing students' (n=236) interest to become a nurse educator. Results of structural equation modeling analyses revealed that social influence and past performance in teaching and supervision had significant effects on interest to become a nurse educator when mediated by self-efficacy and outcome expectations. Observing others teaching and perceived task demands for nurse educators did not significantly predict interest in faculty roles. These findings provide new knowledge about factors and their influence on the development of interest to assume faculty roles. Implications for nursing education include the design of feasible graduate curricula that enhance students' abilities in faculty role and increases valuation of teaching careers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-transcendence: Lonergan's key to integration of nursing theory, research, and practice. (United States)

    Perry, Donna J


    This paper proposes that the philosophy of Bernard Lonergan can provide insight into the challenge of integrating nursing theory, research and practice. The author discusses Lonergan's work in regard to reflective understanding, authenticity and the human person as a subject of consciously developing unity. This is followed by a discussion of two key elements in Lonergan's work that relate to nursing: the subject-object challenge of nursing inquiry and common sense vs. scientific knowledge. The author suggests that integration of nursing theory, science and practice may be achieved through self-transcendence.

  20. Emergency Nursing Experiences in Assisting People With Suicidal Behavior: A Grounded Theory Study. (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Magrini, Daniel Fernando; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi; de Souza, Jacqueline; Borges, Tatiana Longo


    To understand emergency nursing experiences in assisting people with suicidal behavior. Grounded theory study with symbolic interactionism conducted in 2015 to 2016 in Brazil with 19 nurses. Assistance for people with suicidal behavior is critical, challenging, evokes different feelings and requires knowledge, skills and emotional control. Nurses did not feel prepared or supported, and identified recurrent gaps and problems. Nurses occupied a limited role, restricted to attending to physical needs. They predominantly manifested opposition, judgments and incomprehension about patients. This study presents key elements to be addressed in interventions and investigations regarding nursing support, training and supervision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A synthesis of Vroom's model with other social theories: an application to nursing education. (United States)

    Gyurko, Charlene C


    In 2009, the National League for Nursing reported that there are over 3.4 million persons in the United States employed in nursing in the roles of Registered Nurses (RNs) and Advanced Practice Nurses (APRNs). In 2007, the Bureau of Labor Statistics also reported that in 2006, there were over 749,000 Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) working in the United States with a projected increase of 14% by 2016. Buerhaus et al, in 2009, stated that between 2016 and 2025, it is estimated that the U.S. will need over 260,000 registered nurses (RNs) Using the conceptual framework of Vroom's expectancy theory on motivation as well as theories addressing student and career development, this paper demonstrates a synthesis of Vroom's model with other educational theories and its application to nursing education, specifically the prediction of motivation to advance one's nursing education. By putting Vroom's theory into a context, Vroom's fairly simple model could help nurse educators predict the factors that make for success in midcareer educational advancement--and even possibly manipulate those factors to increase that success. In today's economy, that practical part seems too good to lose. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Theory of mind in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder compared to controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Saeedi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have serious social skill deficits and problems in relation with peers. This study aimed to compare theory of mind (ToM in drug-naïve children with ADHD with those with no psychiatric disorders at the same age. Methods: This cross-sectional study was established in child and adolescent psychiatry clinic of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Tabriz, Iran. Drug naïve, male children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ADHD were enrolled as well as age and intelligence quotient (IQ matched healthy controls. Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version ‎(K-SADS-PL‎, Child Symptom Inventory-4 ‎(CSI-4‎, and Conner’s Parents Rating Scales-Revised ‎(CPRS‎ were used to measure psychiatric disorders and Sally-Anne False Belief Task, and The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task (child for components of ToM. Results: A total of 30 children completed the study in each group. Half of children with ADHD could not give the expected answer in Sally-Anne False Belief Task, which was significantly lower than controls. They also showed a significantly lower performance in The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task. Severity of ADHD was not correlated with a score of The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task. Conclusion: Children with ADHD have deficits in ToM compared with age and IQ matched controls in terms of social cognition and social sensitivity.

  3. An Emerging Integrated Middle-Range Theory on Asian Women's Leadership in Nursing. (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Broome, Marion E; Inouye, Jillian; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Oh, Eui Geum; Sakashita, Reiko; Yi, Myungsun; Huang, Lian-Hua; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Wang, Hsiu-Hung


    Asian cultures reflect patriarchal cultural values and attitudes, which likely have influenced women leaders in their countries differently from women in Western cultures. However, virtually no leadership theories have been developed to reflect the experiences and development of nursing leaders from Asian cultures. The purpose of this article is to present an emerging integrated middle-range theory on Asian women's leadership in nursing. Using an integrative approach, the theory was developed based on three major sources: the leadership frames of Bolman and Deal, literature reviews, and exemplars/cases from five different countries. The theory includes two main domains (leadership frames and leadership contexts). The domain of leadership frames includes human resources/networks, structure/organization, national/international politics, and symbols. The domain of leadership contexts includes cultural contexts, sociopolitical contexts, and gendered contexts. This theory will help understand nursing leadership in Asian cultures and provide directions for future nurse leaders in this ever-changing globalized world.

  4. A test of the magnocellular deficit theory of dyslexia in an adult sample. (United States)

    Stuart, Geoffrey W; McAnally, Ken I; McKay, Adam; Johnston, Michael; Castles, Anne


    An influential theory of dyslexia is based on the premise that individuals with the disorder have impaired sensitivity to rapidly changing stimuli in the visual and auditory modalities, due to a dysfunction in the magnocellular channel of the visual system and its analogue in the auditory pathway. The deficit in the auditory system is thought to cause difficulties in the segmentation of speech and the formation of accurate phonological representations, leading to problems in making the grapheme-phoneme correspondences necessary for reading. In a sample of 13 adults with a history of severe reading difficulty and 18 controls, visual contrast thresholds were measured in response to an 8-Hz flickering Gaussian blob as well as a slowly modulated 8 cycles/deg Gaussian windowed grating. Auditory thresholds were measured in response to a 4-s burst of white noise, the 2nd or 3rd second of which was amplitude modulated at 100 Hz or 1 Hz. The adult reading difficulty group exhibited normal thresholds to rapidly changing stimuli in both modalities and to the slowly modulated visual stimulus, but some showed reduced sensitivity to the 1-Hz amplitude-modulated auditory stimulus. Sensitivity to amplitude modulation at slower rates has been shown to be important for segmentation of the speech stream and so may be implicated in the reading difficulty of the affected individuals. A magnocellular deficit cannot explain this impaired sensitivity, which may be the result of a reduced echoic memory span.

  5. Theory of mind deficits for processing counterfactual information in persons with chronic schizophrenia. (United States)

    Kern, R S; Green, M F; Fiske, A P; Kee, K S; Lee, J; Sergi, M J; Horan, W P; Subotnik, K L; Sugar, C A; Nuechterlein, K H


    Interpersonal communication problems are common among persons with schizophrenia and may be linked, in part, to deficits in theory of mind (ToM), the ability to accurately perceive the attitudes, beliefs and intentions of others. Particular difficulties might be expected in the processing of counterfactual information such as sarcasm or lies. The present study included 50 schizophrenia or schizo-affective out-patients and 44 demographically comparable healthy adults who were administered Part III of The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; a measure assessing comprehension of sarcasm versus lies) as well as measures of positive and negative symptoms and community functioning. TASIT data were analyzed using a 2 (group: patients versus healthy adults) x 2 (condition: sarcasm versus lie) repeated-measures ANOVA. The results show significant effects for group, condition, and the group x condition interaction. Compared to controls, patients performed significantly worse on sarcasm but not lie scenes. Within-group contrasts showed that patients performed significantly worse on sarcasm versus lie scenes; controls performed comparably on both. In patients, performance on TASIT showed a significant correlation with positive, but not negative, symptoms. The group and interaction effects remained significant when rerun with a subset of patients with low-level positive symptoms. The findings for a relationship between TASIT performance and community functioning were essentially negative. The findings replicate a prior demonstration of difficulty in the comprehension of sarcasm using a different test, but are not consistent with previous studies showing global ToM deficits in schizophrenia.

  6. New graduate nurses as knowledge brokers in general practice in New Zealand: a constructivist grounded theory. (United States)

    Hoare, Karen J; Mills, Jane; Francis, Karen


    Practice nursing in New Zealand is not well described in the literature. One survey illustrated that most of the New Zealand practice nurses sampled did not know of the country's two premier evidence-based health websites. A recent review compared general practice in the UK, New Zealand and Australia and found that whereas there had been significant developments in empowering the practice nurse workforce to run nurse-led clinics in the UK, New Zealand and Australia lagged behind. The aim of this reported constructivist grounded theory study was to investigate practice nurses' use of information. Conducted in Auckland, New Zealand, data were collected through ethnographic techniques in one general practice between September 2009 and January 2010 to enhance theoretical sensitivity to the area of information use. Subsequently, six experienced practice nurses (one twice after moving jobs) and five new graduate nurses from five different general practices were interviewed, using open-ended questions, between January 2010 and August 2011. Concurrent data collection and analysis occurred throughout the study period. The use of memos, the constant comparative method, data categorisation and finally, data abstraction resulted in the final theory of reciprocal role modelling. Experienced practice nurses role modelled clinical skills to new graduate nurses. Unexpectedly, new graduate nurses were unconscious experts at sourcing information and role modelled this skill to experienced practice nurses. Once this attribute was acknowledged by the experienced practice nurse, mutual learning occurred that enabled both groups of nurses to become better practitioners. Graduate nurses of the millennial generation were identified as a resource for experienced practice nurses who belong to the baby boomer generation and generation X. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Homelessness as culture: How transcultural nursing theory can assist caring for the homeless. (United States)

    Law, Kate; John, William


    The concepts of culture and homelessness are both complex and contested. This paper examines homelessness through the lens of transcultural nursing theory, increasing understanding of both homelessness and transcultural theory. We argue that homelessness can be usefully conceptualised as a culture and that the application of transcultural theory to caring for homeless people will add further to the utility of these theories. The application of transcultural theory can add to the repertoire of skills the nurse needs to care for not only homeless clients, but, for a diverse range of client groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role theory: a framework to investigate the community nurse role in contemporary health care systems. (United States)

    Brookes, Kim; Davidson, Patricia M; Daly, John; Halcomb, Elizabeth J


    Nurses' perceptions of their role are influenced by societal attitudes, government policies and trends in professional issues. Dynamic factors in contemporary health environments challenge traditional nursing roles, in particular those of community nurses. Role theory is a conceptual framework that defines how individuals behave in social situations and how these behaviours are perceived by external observers. This paper reviews the role theory literature as a conceptual framework to explore community nurses' perceptions of their role. Three theoretical perspectives of role theory have emerged from the literature review: 1. social structuralism 2. symbolic interactionism and 3. the dramaturgical perspective. These philosophical perspectives provide a useful framework to investigate the role of community nurses in the contemporary health care system.

  9. Taking Root: a grounded theory on evidence-based nursing implementation in China. (United States)

    Cheng, L; Broome, M E; Feng, S; Hu, Y


    Evidence-based nursing is widely recognized as the critical foundation for quality care. To develop a middle-range theory on the process of evidence-based nursing implementation in Chinese context. A grounded theory study using unstructured in-depth individual interviews was conducted with 56 participants who were involved in 24 evidence-based nursing implementation projects in Mainland China from September 2015 to September 2016. A middle-range grounded theory of 'Taking Root' was developed. The theory describes the evidence implementation process consisting of four components (driving forces, process, outcome, sustainment/regression), three approaches (top-down, bottom-up and outside-in), four implementation strategies (patient-centred, nurses at the heart of change, reaching agreement, collaboration) and two patterns (transformational and adaptive implementation). Certain perspectives may have not been captured, as the retrospective nature of the interviewing technique did not allow for 'real-time' assessment of the actual implementation process. The transferability of the findings requires further exploration as few participants with negative experiences were recruited. This is the first study that explored evidence-based implementation process, strategies, approaches and patterns in the Chinese nursing practice context to inform international nursing and health policymaking. The theory of Taking Root described various approaches to evidence implementation and how the implementation can be transformational for the nurses and the setting in which they work. Nursing educators, managers and researchers should work together to improve nurses' readiness for evidence implementation. Healthcare systems need to optimize internal mechanisms and external collaborations to promote nursing practice in line with evidence and achieve clinical outcomes and sustainability. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  10. Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses. (United States)

    Kim, MinYoung; Oh, Seieun


    The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. "Assimilating to the hierarchical culture" emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses' perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members' satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression.

  11. A strategy for implementing genomics into nursing practice informed by three behaviour change theories. (United States)

    Leach, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie


    Genomics is an ever increasing aspect of nursing practice, with focus being directed towards improving health. The authors present an implementation strategy for the incorporation of genomics into nursing practice within the UK, based on three behaviour change theories and the identification of individuals who are likely to provide support for change. Individuals identified as Opinion Leaders and Adopters of genomics illustrate how changes in behaviour might occur among the nursing profession. The core philosophy of the strategy is that genomic nurse Adopters and Opinion Leaders who have direct interaction with their peers in practice will be best placed to highlight the importance of genomics within the nursing role. The strategy discussed in this paper provides scope for continued nursing education and development of genomics within nursing practice on a larger scale. The recommendations might be of particular relevance for senior staff and management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Opting in and opting out: a grounded theory of nursing's contribution to inpatient rehabilitation. (United States)

    Pryor, Julie; Walker, Annette; O'Connell, Beverly; Worrall-Carter, Linda


    To develop a grounded theory of nursing's contribution to patient rehabilitation from the perspective of nurses working in inpatient rehabilitation. Grounded theory method, informed by the theoretical perspective of symbolic interactionism, was used to guide data collection and analysis, and the development of a grounded theory. Five inpatient rehabilitation units in Australia. Thirty-five registered and 18 enrolled nurses participated in audio-taped interviews and/or were observed during periods of their everyday practice. The analysis revealed a situation whereby nurses made decisions about when to 'opt in' and when to 'opt out' of inpatient rehabilitation. This occurred on two levels: with their interaction with patients and allied health professionals, and when faced with negative system issues that impacted on their ability to contribute to patient rehabilitation. The primary contribution nurses made to inpatient rehabilitation was working directly with patients, enabling them to self-care. Nurses coached patients when their decisions about 'opting in' and 'opting out' were based on assessment of the person in their particular context. In contrast, the nurses mostly distanced themselves from system-based problems, 'opting out' of addressing them. They did this not to make their working lives easier, but more manageable. System-based problems impacted negatively on the nurses' ability to deliver comprehensive rehabilitation care. As a consequence, some nurses felt unable to influence the care and they withdrew professionally to make their work lives more manageable.

  13. Learning theories and tools for the assessment of core nursing competencies in simulation: A theoretical review. (United States)

    Lavoie, Patrick; Michaud, Cécile; Bélisle, Marilou; Boyer, Louise; Gosselin, Émilie; Grondin, Myrian; Larue, Caroline; Lavoie, Stéphan; Pepin, Jacinthe


    To identify the theories used to explain learning in simulation and to examine how these theories guided the assessment of learning outcomes related to core competencies in undergraduate nursing students. Nurse educators face the challenge of making explicit the outcomes of competency-based education, especially when competencies are conceptualized as holistic and context dependent. Theoretical review. Research papers (N = 182) published between 1999-2015 describing simulation in nursing education. Two members of the research team extracted data from the papers, including theories used to explain how simulation could engender learning and tools used to assess simulation outcomes. Contingency tables were created to examine the associations between theories, outcomes and tools. Some papers (N = 79) did not provide an explicit theory. The 103 remaining papers identified one or more learning or teaching theories; the most frequent were the National League for Nursing/Jeffries Simulation Framework, Kolb's theory of experiential learning and Bandura's social cognitive theory and concept of self-efficacy. Students' perceptions of simulation, knowledge and self-confidence were the most frequently assessed, mainly via scales designed for the study where they were used. Core competencies were mostly assessed with an observational approach. This review highlighted the fact that few studies examined the use of simulation in nursing education through learning theories and via assessment of core competencies. It also identified observational tools used to assess competencies in action, as holistic and context-dependent constructs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A Proposed Middle-Range Theory of Nursing in Hypertension Care

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    Eva Drevenhorn


    Full Text Available Nursing in hypertension care comprises counselling about lifestyle changes, blood pressure measurement, and being a translator for the physician. For the patient, changing lifestyle means performing self-care. As not much in the form of research and guidelines for nurses is available, a middle-range theory of nursing in hypertension care was developed to guide nurses in their practice, in order to improve the nursing of patients and design studies for investigating nursing in hypertension care. Concepts are presented related to the patient (attitude and beliefs regarding health and sickness, autonomy, personality and traits, level of perceived vulnerability, hardiness, sense of coherence, locus of control, self-efficacy, and access to social support and network and the nursing (applying theories and models for behavioural change in the consultation and using counselling skills, patient advocacy, empowerment, professional knowledge and health education, and supporting the patient. Then the concepts related to the consultation (communication, shared decision-making, concordance, coping, adherence, and self-care are integrated with Orem’s theory of nursing. Clinical and research implications of the theory are discussed.

  15. An International Collaboration in Nursing Education Viewed through the Lens of Critical Social Theory. (United States)

    Ekstrom, David N.; Sigurdsson, Hrafn Oli


    An international educational exchange program involving nursing students was examined using Habermas' theory of communicative action. Politics and economics were found to inhibit active communication and the potential benefits of shared understanding through interaction. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

  16. Nurses' intention to leave: critically analyse the theory of reasoned action and organizational commitment model. (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru


    To systematically analyse the Organizational Commitment model and Theory of Reasoned Action and determine concepts that can better explain nurses' intention to leave their job. The Organizational Commitment model and Theory of Reasoned Action have been proposed and applied to understand intention to leave and turnover behaviour, which are major contributors to nursing shortage. However, the appropriateness of applying these two models in nursing was not analysed. Three main criteria of a useful model were used for the analysis: consistency in the use of concepts, testability and predictability. Both theories use concepts consistently. Concepts in the Theory of Reasoned Action are defined broadly whereas they are operationally defined in the Organizational Commitment model. Predictability of the Theory of Reasoned Action is questionable whereas the Organizational Commitment model can be applied to predict intention to leave. A model was proposed based on this analysis. Organizational commitment, intention to leave, work experiences, job characteristics and personal characteristics can be concepts for predicting nurses' intention to leave. Nursing managers may consider nurses' personal characteristics and experiences to increase their organizational commitment and enhance their intention to stay. Empirical studies are needed to test and cross-validate the re-synthesized model for nurses' intention to leave their job.

  17. Growing up and Role Modeling: A Theory in Iranian Nursing Students? Education


    Nouri, Jamileh Mokhtari; Ebadi, Abbas; Alhani, Fatemeh; Rejeh, Nahid


    One of the key strategies in students? learning is being affected by models. Understanding the role-modeling process in education will help to make greater use of this training strategy. The aim of this grounded theory study was to explore Iranian nursing students and instructors? experiences about role modeling process. Data was analyzed by Glaserian?s Grounded Theory methodology through semi-structured interviews with 7 faculty members, 2 nursing students; the three focus group discussions ...

  18. Practical ethical theory for nurses responding to complexity in care. (United States)

    Fairchild, Roseanne Moody


    In the context of health care system complexity, nurses need responsive leadership and organizational support to maintain intrinsic motivation, moral sensitivity and a caring stance in the delivery of patient care. The current complexity of nurses' work environment promotes decreases in work motivation and moral satisfaction, thus creating motivational and ethical dissonance in practice. These and other work-related factors increase emotional stress and burnout for nurses, prompting both new and seasoned nurse professionals to leave their current position, or even the profession. This article presents a theoretical conceptual model for professional nurses to review and make sense of the ethical reasoning skills needed to maintain a caring stance in relation to the competing values that must coexist among nurses, health care administrators, patients and families in the context of the complex health care work environments in which nurses are expected to practice. A model, Nurses' Ethical Reasoning Skills, is presented as a framework for nurses' thinking through and problem solving ethical issues in clinical practice in the context of complexity in health care.

  19. An exploratory study of the relationship between neurological soft signs and theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Romeo, Stefano; Chiandetti, Alessio; Siracusano, Alberto; Troisi, Alfonso


    Indirect evidence suggests partially common pathogenetic mechanisms for Neurological Soft Signs (NSS), neurocognition, and social cognition in schizophrenia. However, the possible association between NSS and mentalizing impairments has not yet been examined. In the present study, we assessed the ability to attribute mental states to others in patients with schizophrenia and predicted that the presence of theory of mind deficits would be significantly related to NSS. Participants were 90 clinically stable patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia. NSS were assessed using the Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES). Theory of mind deficits were assessed using short verbal stories designed to measure false belief understanding. The findings of the study confirmed our hypothesis. Impaired sequencing of complex motor acts was the only neurological abnormality correlated with theory of mind deficits. By contrast, sensory integration, motor coordination and the NES Others subscale had no association with patients׳ ability to pass first- or second-order false belief tasks. If confirmed by future studies, the current findings provide the first preliminary evidence for the claim that specific NSS and theory of mind deficits may reflect overlapping neural substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The process of community health nursing clinical clerkship: A grounded theory. (United States)

    Ildarabadi, Eshagh; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Taghipour, Ali


    The performance of the community health nurse depends on a combination of scientific and practical competencies acquired by educational experiences during the nursing course. Curriculum planners of nursing education need to understand nursing education to train professional and community-oriented nurses. The aim of this article is to explore the experiences of nursing students during their community health nursing clinical clerkship courses. A grounded theory approach was used to conduct this study. Twelve nursing students, 13 health-care staff members, and 10 nursing instructors were interviewed individually in 2011-2012. The interviews were tape-recorded and later transcribed verbatim. The transcriptions were analyzed using the method of Strauss and Corbin. AMBIVALENCE OF MOTIVATION WAS THE MAIN CATEGORY AND INCLUDED FIVE SUBCATEGORIES: Professional identity, educational atmosphere, educational management, motivation-based approaches, and inadequate productivity. This paper presents the aspects of the community health nursing clerkship course from the viewpoint of students in areas such as the role of the community health nurse, attitude toward the course, medical orientation, prerequisite skills/knowledge, poor administrative planning, rotation of students, insufficient activity for students, passiveness, providing service to clients, responsibility, and inproductivity. These categories could explain the nature of the community health nursing clerkship of the Mashhad Faculty of Nursing and probably others in Iran. The findings revealed inadequate productivity of the community health nursing education; so, it is suggested to define a position for nurses in this setting and remove barriers and provide conditions for them to play more important roles in the promotion of community health.

  1. Utilizing Rogers' Theory of Self-Concept in mental health nursing. (United States)

    Hosking, P


    The work of mental health nurse is interactive in nature, the priority of which is the effective development and maintenance of a therapeutic relationship with clients. This field of nursing bases its practice on theories from many schools of thought in order to provide clients with the highest quality of care. One such theory is that of Carl Rogers whose practice as a psychotherapist was based on his Theory of Self-Concept. This paper examines the development of the Theory of Self-Concept from the works of Cooley, Mead, Allport and Rogers and relates to the therapeutic alliance between a primary nurse and a client who has been medically diagnosed as being 'depressed'. The implications for practice are considered and some of the difficulties of utilizing Rogers' theory on an in-patient unit are explored. The paper emphasizes the need for nurses to be aware of the use of such theories in order to enrich the care that clients receive. It also highlights the need for nurses to be aware of their own 'self' when working with clients, a state that can only be achieved if the nurses themselves have adequate clinical supervision and an environment which is supportive of such work.

  2. Nurses' perceptions of leadership style in hospitals: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Su, Shu-Fen; Jenkins, Mary; Liu, Po-Erh


    This paper explores the leadership style of hospital managers. Leadership has been widely studied in nursing from the perspective of nurses' psychological strain caused by nursing leadership. There is, however, little contained in the Western and Eastern literatures on the leadership style of hospital managers and certainly no study has explored managers' leadership style in Taiwanese hospitals from the nurses' stance. Grounded theory. A sample of 28 nurses from seven teaching hospitals in Taiwan, Republic of China was selected through theoretical sampling. A multi-step analytic procedure based on the grounded theory approach was used to analyse the qualitative data. The Chinese culture was found to affect the leadership style of Taiwanese hospital managers. They had extreme power and led nurses in a hierarchical manner. Nurse managers followed the autocratic leadership style of their hospital managers. The main category found in this study was thus hierarchical leadership. The Confucian principles of authoritarianism and obedience were found to be part of the Taiwanese hospitals' organisational cultures and strongly impacted on the managers' leadership style. Hospital managers' treatment of doctors and nurses was dependent on their social rankings. Nurses' lowly ranking fed into these enculturated managerial tendencies of using power and obedience thus increasing psychological strain on nurses. Managers of the hospitals demonstrate power and misuse obedience through their leadership style, resulting in deterioration of nurses' work environment. Nurses' managers are not given enough power by the hospitals in Taiwan. Subsequently, nurses feel themselves the lowest and most powerless subordinates. This study reveals that the Chinese cultural burdens are embedded in the leadership of Taiwanese hospitals. These findings enhance the knowledge of leadership and add to the understanding of managerial attitudes in Chinese hospitals located worldwide. © 2011 Blackwell

  3. How Could Nurse Researchers Apply Theory to Generate Knowledge More Efficiently? (United States)

    Lor, Maichou; Backonja, Uba; Lauver, Diane R


    Reports of nursing research often do not provide adequate information about whether, and how, researchers applied theory when conducting their studies. Unfortunately, the lack of adequate application and explication of theory in research impedes development of knowledge to guide nursing practice. To clarify and exemplify how to apply theory in research. First we describe how researchers can apply theory in phases of research. Then we share examples of how three research teams applied one theory to these phases of research in three different studies of preventive behaviors. Nurse researchers can review and refine ways in which they apply theory in guiding research and writing publications. Scholars can appreciate how one theory can guide researchers in building knowledge about a given condition such as preventive behaviors. Clinicians and researchers can collaborate to apply and examine the usefulness of theory. If nurses had improved understanding of theory-guided research, they could better assess, select, and apply theory-guided interventions in their practices. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  4. Correlations of theory of mind deficits with clinical patterns and quality of life in schizophrenia

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    Mathieu eUrbach


    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated the existence of theory of mind (ToM impairments in patients with schizophrenia. The clinical consequences of these impairments are currently under debate. Accumulated evidence suggests that ToM deficits are linked to negative and disorganization symptoms, but direct correlations are lacking. Moreover, it is unclear whether ToM deficits are related to reduced quality of life (QoL. Methods: To extend the understanding of objective (i.e., clinical symptoms and subjective (QoL correlates of impaired ToM, we assessed 206 patients with schizophrenia based on performance of an ecological task (Versailles-Situational Intention Reading, V-SIR, a Communication Disorders Scale (SCD, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Clinical Global Impression rating, and a QoL questionnaire (S-QoL. Statistical inferences were drawn from correlations analyses considering both factors/subscales aggregates and single items.Results: ToM performance was negatively correlated to disorganization and negative PANSS factors. Poor V-SIR performance was correlated with conceptual disorganization, difficulties in abstract thinking and apathy/social withdrawal. The SCD was correlated with negative, disorganization, and anxiety/depression PANSS factors. The S-QoL total score was not significantly correlated with ToM performance. Only the item difficulties in expressing feelings was significantly correlated with poorer V-SIR performance. Conclusions: We discuss the intriguing paucity of the results and what they reveal about the difficulties faced by psychiatrists with patients not expressing complaints about lack of social skills.

  5. Functional and structural brain correlates of theory of mind and empathy deficits in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Benedetti, Francesco; Bernasconi, Alessandro; Bosia, Marta; Cavallaro, Roberto; Dallaspezia, Sara; Falini, Andrea; Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Riccaboni, Roberta; Scotti, Giuseppe; Smeraldi, Enrico


    Patients affected by schizophrenia show deficits in social cognition, with abnormal performance on tasks targeting theory of mind (ToM) and empathy (Emp). Brain imaging studies suggested that ToM and Emp depend on the activation of brain networks mainly localized at the superior temporal lobe and temporo-parietal junction. Participants included 24 schizophrenia patients and 20 control subjects. We used brain blood oxygen level dependent fMRI to study the neural responses to tasks targeting ToM and Emp. We then studied voxel-based morphometry of grey matter in areas where diagnosis influenced functional activation to both tasks. Outcomes were analyzed in the context of the general linear model, with global grey matter volume as nuisance covariate for structural MRI. Patients showed worse performance on both tasks. We found significant effects of diagnosis on neural responses to the tasks in a wide cluster in right posterior superior temporal lobe (encompassing BA 22-42), in smaller clusters in left temporo-parietal junction and temporal pole (BA 38 and 39), and in a white matter region adjacent to medial prefrontal cortex (BA 10). A pattern of double dissociation of the effects of diagnosis and task on neural responses emerged. Among these areas, grey matter volume was found to be reduced in right superior temporal lobe regions of patients. Functional and structural abnormalities were observed in areas affected by the schizophrenic process early in the illness course, and known to be crucial for social cognition, suggesting a biological basis for social cognition deficits in schizophrenia.

  6. Incorporating Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations to Promote Holistic Communication Between Older Adults and Nursing Students. (United States)

    Deane, William H; Fain, James A


    With the increased life expectancy, older adults will interact with multiple health care providers to manage acute and chronic conditions. These interactions include nursing students who use various health care settings to meet the clinical practicum requirements of their programs. Nursing faculty are charged with facilitating students' learning throughout the program from basic human needs, to holistic communication, to advanced medical surgical concepts. Despite educating students on holistic communication, there remains a lack of a reliable framework to undertake the task of teaching holistic communication skills. Nursing students preparing to function as licensed practitioners need to develop appropriate knowledge to holistically care for older adults. The purpose of this article is to examine Hildegard Peplau's interpersonal relations theory as a framework to assist nursing students to understand holistic communication skills during their encounters with older adults. Peplau's theory provides nursing a useful set of three interlocking and oftentimes overlapping working phases for nurses' interaction with patients in the form of the nurse-patient relationship. Nursing education could adopt the three phases of Peplau's interpersonal relations theory to educate students on holistically communicating with older adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Making Things Right: Nurses' Experiences with Workplace Bullying—A Grounded Theory (United States)

    Gaffney, Donna A.; DeMarco, Rosanna F.; Hofmeyer, Anne; Vessey, Judith A.; Budin, Wendy C.


    While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace. PMID:22567223

  8. Making Things Right: Nurses' Experiences with Workplace Bullying—A Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna A. Gaffney


    Full Text Available While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace.

  9. "Theory Becoming Alive": The Learning Transition Process of Newly Graduated Nurses in Canada. (United States)

    Nour, Violet; Williams, Anne M


    Background Newly graduated nurses often encounter a gap between theory and practice in clinical settings. Although this has been the focus of considerable research, little is known about the learning transition process. Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of newly graduated nurses in acute healthcare settings within Canada. This study was conducted to gain a greater understanding of the experiences and challenges faced by graduates. Methods Grounded theory method was utilized with a sample of 14 registered nurses who were employed in acute-care settings. Data were collected using in-depth interviews. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze data. Results Findings revealed a core category, "Theory Becoming Alive," and four supporting categories: Entry into Practice, Immersion, Committing, and Evolving. Theory Becoming Alive described the process of new graduate nurses' clinical learning experiences as well as the challenges that they encountered in clinical settings after graduating. Conclusions This research provides a greater understanding of learning process of new graduate nurses in Canada. It highlights the importance of providing supportive environments to assist new graduate nurses to develop confidence as independent registered nurses in clinical areas. Future research directions as well as supportive educational strategies are described.

  10. A grounded theory of humanistic nursing in acute care work environments. (United States)

    Khademi, Mojgan; Mohammadi, Eesa; Vanaki, Zohreh


    Humanistic nursing practice which is dominated by technological advancement, outcome measurement, reduced resources, and staff shortages is challenging in the present work environment. To examine the main concern in humanistic nursing area and how the way it is solved and resolved by Iranian nurses in acute care setting. Data were collected from interviews and observations in 2009-2011 and analyzed using classic grounded theory. Memos were written during the analysis, and they were sorted once theoretical saturation occurred. Participants and research context: In total, 22 nurses, 18 patients, and 12 families from two teaching hospitals in Tehran were selected by purposeful and theoretical sampling. Ethical considerations: The research was approved by the Ethics Committee of the university and hospitals. The main concern for the nurses is the violation of their rights. They overcome this concern when there is a synergy of situation-education/learning, that is, a positive interaction between education and learning of values and sensitivity of the situation or existence of care promotion elements. They turn to professional values and seeking and meeting others' needs, resulting in "success and accomplishment" of nurse/nursing manager and patient/family. This theory shows that professional values, elements of care promotion, and sensitivity of the situation have a key role in activation of humanistic approach in nursing. Violation of the nurses' professional rights often leads to a decrease in care, but these factors make the nurses practice in an unsparing response approach. It is necessary to focus on development of professional values and provide essential elements of care promotion as changeable factors for realization of humanistic nursing although there is a context in which the nurses' rights are violated.

  11. How Do the Nurses Cope with Job Stress? A Study with Grounded Theory Approach

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    Rasool Eslami Akbar


    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the adverse effects of job stress on health of nurses and the importance of coping process of nurses in management of job stress, the present study was carried out with the aim of exploring the experiences of the nurses in order to reveal the original coping process of the nurses in the case of encountering occupational stress. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with grounded theory approach. Research participants were 15 clinical nurses and four directors of nursing. Sampling method of study were purposive and theoretical sampling. Data collection done with unstructured interviews and field notes and continued until data saturation. Data analysis was performed using the Strauss and Corbin 1998 constant comparative method. Results: The results of the analysis led to four axial concepts: "feeling stress at nursing work", "situational coping", "and the effect of personal and environmental factors in coping with job stress" and "Grey outcome of coping". The core variable in the nurse’s process of coping with job stress was "comprehensive effort to calm stressed condition". Conclusion: Explaining the basic and original psychosocial process of nurses to cope with job stress, revealed context-based nature of the coping processes that nurses adopt, which that can help in taking appropriate measures to lighten up the grey consequences of coping of nurses.

  12. [Threats to Identity: A Grounded Theory Approach on Student Nurses' Experience of Incivility during Clinical Placement]. (United States)

    Kang, Jiyeon; Jeong, Yeon Jin; Kong, Kyoung Ran


    This qualitative study aimed to explore the experience of incivility among nursing students. Sixteen nursing students who had experienced incivility during their clinical placement were invited for one-on-one interviews until the point of theoretical saturation. The grounded theory approach of Corbin and Strauss was adopted to analyze transcribed interview contents. Incivility occurred in the context of a hierarchical organizational culture, due to nursing students' position as outsiders, non-systematic clinical education, and poor nursing work environment. The experience of incivility was identified as "being mistreated as a marginal person," and nursing students responded to this phenomenon in the following three steps: reality shock, passive action, and submissive acceptance. This process caused students to lose self-esteem and undergo role conflict. Furthermore, nursing students' experience of incivility could eventually lead to workplace bullying in nurses. The results of this study suggest that nursing students' experience of incivility can be a process that threatens their identity. It is necessary to develop educational programs and provide appropriate counseling services so that nursing students can actively cope with the incivility. In addition, institutional plans are needed to ensure safe and supportive clinical learning environments. © 2018 Korean Society of Nursing Science.

  13. Using a nursing theory or a model in nursing PhD dissertations: a qualitative study from Turkey. (United States)

    Mete, Samiye; Gokçe İsbir, Gozde


    The aim of this study was to reveal experiences of nursing students and their advisors using theories and models in their PhD dissertations. The study adopted a descriptive qualitative approach. This study was performed with 10 PhD candidates and their five advisors from nursing faculty. The results of the study were categorized into four. These are reasons for using a theory/model in a PhD dissertation, reasons for preferring a given model, causes of difficulties in using models in PhD dissertations, and facilitating factors of using theories and models in PhD of dissertations. It was also reported to contribute to the methodology of research and professional development of the students and advisors. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  14. Seeking empowerment to comfort patients in severe pain: a grounded theory study of the nurse's perspective. (United States)

    Slatyer, Susan; Williams, Anne M; Michael, Rene


    Hospital patients experience significant pain, which can delay healing and increase the risk of developing chronic pain. Nurses are affected by patients' ongoing pain and may cope with consequent anxiety and helplessness by distancing themselves from such patients. Understanding nurses' responses to patients in severe pain will inform strategies to support their coping, their patients and, ultimately, their retention in the nursing workforce. The aim of the study was to develop a substantive theory explaining the hospital nurse's perspective of caring for patients in severe pain. The study used grounded theory method. Data were collected on four acute care wards in a 610 bed Australian hospital. The sample included 33 nurse participants and 11 patient participants. Selection criteria for nurse participants were those who worked in the four study wards, cared for patients who experienced severe pain, and consented to be included. Selection criteria for patient participants were those who self-reported pain at intensity of seven or more on a scale of 0-10, were aged 18 years or older, could speak and read English, and consented to be included. Theoretical sampling directed the collection of data using semi-structured interviews with nurses and participant observation, including structured observations of nurses who cared for patients in pain. Data were analysed using constant comparison method. Nurse participants encountered a basic psychosocial problem of feelings of disempowerment when their patients experienced persisting severe pain. In response, they used a basic psychosocial process of seeking empowerment to provide comfort in order to resolve distress and exhaustion associated with disempowerment. This coping process comprised three stages: building connections; finding alternative ways to comfort; and quelling emotional turmoil. The substantive theory proposed a link between the stress of nurses' disempowerment and a coping response that provides direction to

  15. Becoming willing to role model. Reciprocity between new graduate nurses and experienced practice nurses in general practice in New Zealand: a constructivist grounded theory. (United States)

    Hoarea, Karen J; Millsc, Jane; Francis, Karen


    Graduate nurses in general practice became a feature of New Zealand's health care system in 2008 following an expansion of the New Entrant to Practice Programme. General practice in New Zealand comprises general practitioner business owners who employ nursing and administration staff. Practice nurses are an ageing workforce in New Zealand, it is imperative therefore to attract younger nurses into general practice. This paper reports a section of the findings from a constructivist grounded theory study which examines the use of information by practice nurses in New Zealand. Initially data were collected using the ethnographic technique of observation and field notations in one general practice. Theoretical sensitivity to the value of role models was heightened by this first phase of data collection. A total of eleven practice nurses were interviewed from six general practices. One practice nurse agreed to a second interview; five of the interviewees were new graduate nurses and the other six were experienced practice nurses. The grounded theory constructed from this research was reciprocal role modelling which comprises the following three categories, becoming willing, realising potential and becoming a better practitioner. Graduate nurses and experienced practice nurses enter into a relationship of reciprocal role modelling. Becoming willing, the first core category of this grounded theory features three sub-categories: building respectful relationships, proving yourself and discerning decision making which are reported in this paper. Findings from this study may address the reported phenomenon of 'transition shock' of newly graduated nurses in the work place.

  16. Working Together Toward a Common Goal: A Grounded Theory of Nurse-Physician Collaboration. (United States)

    Fewster-Thuente, Lori


    Working together toward a common goal is an empirically derived theory that can guide education and practice to improve patient outcomes while saving money and lives. Grounded theory was used to explore nurses' and physicians' experiences with collaboration in order to understand the process intrinsically.

  17. Random matrix theory for analyzing the brain functional network in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Wang, Li; Yang, Yong; Li, Jiajia; Wu, Ying; Lin, Pan


    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder and affects approximately 6 -7 % of children worldwide. Here, we investigate the statistical properties of undirected and directed brain functional networks in ADHD patients based on random matrix theory (RMT), in which the undirected functional connectivity is constructed based on correlation coefficient and the directed functional connectivity is measured based on cross-correlation coefficient and mutual information. We first analyze the functional connectivity and the eigenvalues of the brain functional network. We find that ADHD patients have increased undirected functional connectivity, reflecting a higher degree of linear dependence between regions, and increased directed functional connectivity, indicating stronger causality and more transmission of information among brain regions. More importantly, we explore the randomness of the undirected and directed functional networks using RMT. We find that for ADHD patients, the undirected functional network is more orderly than that for normal subjects, which indicates an abnormal increase in undirected functional connectivity. In addition, we find that the directed functional networks are more random, which reveals greater disorder in causality and more chaotic information flow among brain regions in ADHD patients. Our results not only further confirm the efficacy of RMT in characterizing the intrinsic properties of brain functional networks but also provide insights into the possibilities RMT offers for improving clinical diagnoses and treatment evaluations for ADHD patients.

  18. Growing up and role modeling: a theory in Iranian nursing students' education. (United States)

    Mokhtari Nouri, Jamileh; Ebadi, Abbas; Alhani, Fatemeh; Rejeh, Nahid


    One of the key strategies in students' learning is being affected by models. Understanding the role-modeling process in education will help to make greater use of this training strategy. The aim of this grounded theory study was to explore Iranian nursing students and instructors' experiences about role modeling process. Data was analyzed by Glaserian's Grounded Theory methodology through semi-structured interviews with 7 faculty members, 2 nursing students; the three focus group discussions with 20 nursing students based on purposive and theoretical sampling was done for explaining role modeling process from four nursing faculties in Tehran. Through basic coding, an effort to comprehensive growth and excellence was made with the basic social process consisting the core category and through selective coding three phases were identified as: realizing and exposure to inadequate human and professional growth, facilitating human and professional growth and evolution. The role modeling process is taking place unconscious, involuntary, dynamic and with positive progressive process in order to facilitate overall growth in nursing student. Accordingly, the design and implementation of the designed model can be used to make this unconscious to conscious, active and voluntarily processes a process to help education administrators of nursing colleges and supra organization to prevent threats to human and professional in nursing students' education and promote nursing students' growth.

  19. Finessing incivility: The professional socialisation experiences of student nurses' first clinical placement, a grounded theory. (United States)

    Thomas, Juliet; Jinks, Annette; Jack, Barbara


    Clinical practice is where student nurses are socialised into a professional role and acquire the distinct behaviour, attitudes and values of the nursing profession. Getting it right at the outset can maximise the development of a professional identity and the transmission of robust value systems. To explore the impact of the first clinical placement on the professional socialisation of adult undergraduate student nurses in the United Kingdom. Data of a longitudinal qualitative nature were collected and analysed using grounded theory. First year student nurses in hospital ward placements comprising a rural District General Hospital and a large inner city Hospital kept daily unstructured diaries for six weeks. A total of 26 undergraduate adult student nurses were purposefully sampled between 2008 and 2010 before undertaking their initial clinical placement. Data collection and analysis used grounded theory and the key question asked of the diarists 'tell me what it is like to be a first year nurse on a first placement' was theoretically adjusted during constant comparison and as the theory emerged. Ethical approval and consent was obtained. The theory of finessing incivility comprises a conceptual framework depicting how student nurses deal with professional incivility during their initial clinical placement and sustain a student identity. Being disillusioned with their role as worker rather than learner yields a sense of 'status dislocation'. Despite needing professional benevolence, they remain altruistic and seek recompense from significant others to negotiate for learning opportunities and relocate their student status. Despite the stressful transition into clinical practice rather than 'fit in', the student nurses want to belong as learners. His or her own resilience to learn nursing and be a professional student maintains their resolve, their altruism and strengthens their existing values to be benevolent towards an indifferent profession. This behaviour

  20. Degree of value alignment - a grounded theory of rural nurse resignations. (United States)

    Bragg, S M; Bonner, A


    The shortage of nurses willing to work in rural Australian healthcare settings continues to worsen. Australian rural areas have a lower retention rate of nurses than metropolitan counterparts, with more remote communities experiencing an even higher turnover of nursing staff. When retention rates are lower, patient outcomes are known to be poorer. This article reports a study that sought to explore the reasons why registered nurses resign from rural hospitals in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Using grounded theory methods, this study explored the reasons why registered nurses resigned from New South Wales rural hospitals. Data were collected from 12 participants using semi-structured interviews; each participant was a registered nurse who had resigned from a rural hospital. Nurses who had resigned due to retirement, relocation or maternity leave were excluded. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and imported into NVivo software. The constant comparative method of data collection and analysis was followed until a core category emerged. Nurses resigned from rural hospitals when their personal value of how nursing should occur conflicted with the hospital's organisational values driving the practice of nursing. These conflicting values led to a change in the degree of value alignment between the nurse and hospital. The degree of value alignment occurred in three dynamic stages that nurses moved through prior to resigning. The first stage, sharing values, was a time when a nurse and a hospital shared similar values. The second stage was conceding values where, due to perceived changes in a hospital's values, a nurse felt that patient care became compromised and this led to a divergence of values. The final stage was resigning, a stage where a nurse 'gave up' as they felt that their professional integrity was severely compromised. The findings revealed that when a nurse and organisational values were not aligned, conflict was created for a nurse about how

  1. Theory of mind deficit in bipolar disorder: is it related to a previous history of psychotic symptoms? (United States)

    Lahera, Guillermo; Montes, José Manuel; Benito, Adolfo; Valdivia, María; Medina, Elena; Mirapeix, Isabel; Sáiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo


    It has been hypothesized that a Theory of Mind (ToM) deficit could be a vulnerability marker for psychosis. Recent studies, however, have shown ToM deficits in affective relapses of bipolar disorder as well as in the euthymic phase. This study analyzes the relationship between ToM and a previous history of psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder. ToM, sustained attention and executive functions were analyzed in 75 bipolar euthymic patients with three or more previous relapses (42 of them had a history of psychotic symptoms and 33 did not) and 48 healthy subjects. ToM was assessed with the Advanced Test by Happé. ToM performance was similar in bipolar patients with or without a history of psychotic symptoms, and in both cases it was significantly reduced as compared with the healthy control group. Similarly, both bipolar groups showed impaired sustained attention and executive functions. This general cognitive deficit partially explains the differences obtained in ToM. The ToM instrument used shows low sensitivity for assessing ToM in bipolar patients and it could partially reflect general cognitive functioning rather than a specific deficit in psychosis. ToM deficit is not a trait marker for psychosis, given that it is present in bipolar disorder regardless of a previous history of psychotic symptoms.

  2. Becoming a nurse as a moral journey: A constructivist grounded theory. (United States)

    Ranjbar, Hadi; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Vedadhir, Abouali; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Bernstein, Colleen


    Nursing students, during their study, experience significant changes on their journey to become nurses. A major change that they experience is the development of their moral competency. The purpose of this study is to explore the process of moral development in Iranian nursing students. A constructivist grounded theory method was adopted. Twenty-five in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face intensive interviews with 22 participants were conducted from September 2013 to October 2014. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed using writing memos and the constant comparative method. Participants and research context: The setting was three major nursing schools within Tehran, the capital of Iran. Nineteen nursing students and three lecturers participated in the study. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Tehran University of Medical Sciences Committee for Medical Research Ethics (92/D/130/1781). It was explained to all participants that their responses would be treated with confidentiality and that they would not be identified in any way in the research and any publication ensuing from the research. All participants agreed to be interviewed and signed written consent forms agreeing to the recording and analyses of the interview data gathered. Findings indicated three levels of moral development along with the formation of professional identity. The three levels of moral development, getting to know the identity of nursing (moral transition), accepting nursing identity (moral reconstruction), and professional identity internalization (professional morality), were connected to the levels of professional identity formation. The proposed model added a new insight to professionalism in nursing. From the findings, it was concluded that to enhance higher moral practice, nursing instructors should promote the professional identity of nursing students. Reinforcement of moral characteristics and professional identity within registered nurses

  3. Factors involved in nurses' responses to burnout: a grounded theory study

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    Nikravesh Mansoure


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intense and long-standing problems in burn centers in Tehran have led nurses to burnout. This phenomenon has provoked serious responses and has put the nurses, patients and the organization under pressure. The challenge for managers and nurse executives is to understand the factors which would reduce or increase the nurses' responses to burnout and develop delivery systems that promote positive adaptation and facilitate quality care. This study, as a part of more extensive research, aims to explore and describe the nurses' perceptions of the factors affecting their responses to burnout. Methods Grounded theory was used as the method. Thirty- eight participants were recruited. Data were generated by unstructured interviews and 21 sessions of participant observations. Constant comparison was used for data analysis. Results Nurses' and patients' personal characteristics and social support influenced nurses' responses to burnout. Personal characteristics of the nurses and patients, especially when interacting, had a more powerful effect. They altered emotional, attitudinal, behavioral and organizational responses to burnout and determined the kind of caring behavior. Social support had a palliative effect and altered emotional responses and some aspects of attitudinal responses. Conclusions The powerful effect of positive personal characteristics and its sensitivity to long standing and intense organizational pressures suggests approaches to executing stress reduction programs and refreshing the nurses' morale by giving more importance to ethical aspects of caring. Moreover, regarding palliative effect of social support and its importance for the nurses' wellbeing, nurse executives are responsible for promoting a work environment that supports nurses and motivates them.

  4. Nursing's ways of knowing and dual process theories of cognition. (United States)

    Paley, John; Cheyne, Helen; Dalgleish, Len; Duncan, Edward A S; Niven, Catherine A


    This paper is a comparison of nursing's patterns of knowing with the systems identified by cognitive science, and evaluates claims about the equal-status relation between scientific and non-scientific knowledge. Ever since Carper's seminal paper in 1978, it has been taken for granted in the nursing literature that there are ways of knowing, or patterns of knowing, that are not scientific. This idea has recently been used to argue that the concept of evidence, typically associated with evidence-based practice, is inappropriately restricted because it is identified exclusively with scientific research. The paper reviews literature in psychology which appears to draw a comparable distinction between rule-based, analytical cognitive processes and other forms of cognitive processing which are unconscious, holistic and intuitive. There is a convincing parallel between the 'patterns of knowing' distinction in nursing and the 'cognitive processing' distinction in psychology. However, there is an important difference in the way the relation between different forms of knowing (or cognitive processing) is depicted. In nursing, it is argued that the different patterns of knowing have equal status and weight. In cognitive science, it is suggested that the rule-based, analytical form of cognition has a supervisory and corrective function with respect to the other forms. Scientific reasoning and evidence-based knowledge have epistemological priority over the other forms of nursing knowledge. The implications of this claim for healthcare practice are briefly indicated.

  5. The Impact of Financing Surpluses and Large Financing Deficits on Tests of the Pecking Order Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Abe; Verbeek, Marno; Verwijmeren, Patrick


    This paper extends the basic pecking order model of Shyam-Sunder and Myers by separating the effects of financing surpluses, normal deficits, and large deficits. Using a panel of US firms over the period 1971-2005, we find that the estimated pecking order coefficient is highest for surpluses (0.90),

  6. Diagnoses and nursing Interventions in hypertensive and diabetic individuals according to Orem’s Theory

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    Priscila Camara de Moura


    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the most prevalent nursing diagnoses in hypertensive and diabetic patients in the Family Health Care Unit, according to Orem’s conceptual model. A descriptive study was conducted from April to November 2013, using a nursing assessment based on Orem’s theory and NANDA-I taxonomy. 16 nursing diagnoses were identified on Universal self-care requisites, nine on Health deviation requisites and two on Developmental self-care requisites, the most prevalent being: “Risk for unstable blood glucose level” (60%, “Ineffective self-care management” (50% and “Disposition for improved knowledge” (36.6%. Teaching (83.3% and support/instruction (100% actions were implemented in nursing care planning. It can be concluded that there is a need to implement nursing activities directed to offering education on Family Health practices.

  7. Australian perioperative nurses' experiences of assisting in multi-organ procurement surgery: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Smith, Zaneta; Leslie, Gavin; Wynaden, Dianne


    Multi-organ procurement surgical procedures through the generosity of deceased organ donors, have made an enormous impact on extending the lives of recipients. There is a dearth of in-depth knowledge relating to the experiences of perioperative nurses working closely with organ donors undergoing multi-organ procurement surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to address this gap by describing the perioperative nurses experiences of participating in multi-organ procurement surgical procedures and interpreting these findings as a substantive theory. This qualitative study used grounded theory methodology to generate a substantive theory of the experiences of perioperative nurses participating in multi-organ procurement surgery. Recruitment of participants took place after the study was advertised via a professional newsletter and journal. The study was conducted with participants from metropolitan, rural and regional areas of two Australian states; New South Wales and Western Australia. Thirty five perioperative nurse participants with three to 39 years of professional nursing experience informed the study. Semi structured in-depth interviews were undertaken from July 2009 to April 2010 with a mean interview time of 60 min. Interview data was transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method. The study results draw attention to the complexities that exist for perioperative nurses when participating in multi-organ procurement surgical procedures reporting a basic social psychological problem articulated as hiding behind a mask and how they resolved this problem by the basic social psychological process of finding meaning. This study provides a greater understanding of how these surgical procedures impact on perioperative nurses by providing a substantive theory of this experience. The findings have the potential to guide further research into this challenging area of nursing practice with implications for clinical initiatives, management

  8. Nursing care in patients with cardiovascular risk based on the theory of Nola J. Pender


    Cadena Estrada, Julio César; Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez; González Ortega, Yariela; Universidad de Panamá


    Introduction: chronic degenerative diseases such as coronary heart disease are caused by various risk factors, habits and styles of unhealthy life, so that prevention and health promotion based on theories or models of nursing, play an essential role in solving public health problems. Objective: To develop a proposal for implementation of nursing care to patients with cardiovascular risk supported by the Health Promotion Model (HPM) of Nola J Pender. Proposal: The care of people is proposed b...

  9. Caring as emancipatory nursing praxis: the theory of relational caring complexity. (United States)

    Ray, Marilyn A; Turkel, Marian C


    In the culture of health care, nurses are challenged to understand their values and beliefs as humanistic within complex technical and economically driven bureaucratic systems. This article outlines the language of social justice and human rights and the advance of a Theory of Relational Caring Complexity, which offers insights into caring as emancipatory nursing praxis. Recommendations provide knowledge of the struggle to balance economics, technology, and caring. As nurses practice from a value-driven, philosophical, and ethical social justice framework, they will find "their voice" and realize the full potential that the power of caring has on patient and organizational outcomes.

  10. Organizational culture shapes the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Taplay, Karyn; Jack, Susan M; Baxter, Pamela; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn


    Purpose. To create a substantive mid-range theory explaining how the organizational cultures of undergraduate nursing programs shape the adoption and incorporation of mid-to high-level technical fidelity simulators as a teaching strategy within curricula. Method. A constructivist grounded theory was used to guide this study which was conducted in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-12. Semistructured interviews (n = 43) with participants that included nursing administrators, nursing faculty, and simulation leaders across multiple programs (n = 13) informed this study. Additionally, key documents (n = 67) were reviewed. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was used and data were collected and analyzed simultaneously. Data were compared among and between sites. Findings. The organizational elements that shape simulation in nursing (OESSN) model depicts five key organizational factors at the nursing program level that shaped the adoption and incorporation of simulation: (1) leaders working in tandem, (2) information exchange, (3) physical locale, (4) shared motivators, and (5) scaffolding to manage change. Conclusions. The OESSN model provides an explanation of the organizational factors that contributed to the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula. Nursing programs that use the OESSN model may experience a more rapid or broad uptake of simulation when organizational factors that impact adoption and incorporation are considered and planned for.

  11. [The Effects of Violence Coping Program Based on Middle-Range Theory of Resilience on Emergency Room Nurses' Resilience, Violence Coping, Nursing Competency and Burnout]. (United States)

    Lee, Seung Min; Sung, Kyung Mi


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a violence coping program (VCP) based on Polk's middle-range theory of resilience on nursing competency, resilience, burnout, and the ability to cope with violence in nurses working in emergency rooms. A quasi-experimental study, with a nonequivalent control group and a pretest-posttest design, was conducted. Participants were 36 nurses who worked in emergency rooms and had experienced violence; 18 nurses from D hospital and 18 nurses from C hospital were assigned to the experimental and control groups, respectively. The experimental group received the VCP twice per week for 8 weeks. Levels of resilience, F=59.41, pnursing competency, F=59.41 pburnout, F=52.74, pburnout and improving resilience, active coping behavior, and nursing competency. Therefore, it would be a useful intervention for improving the quality of nursing care provided in emergency rooms. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  12. Using self-determination theory to understand motivation deficits in schizophrenia: the 'why' of motivated behavior. (United States)

    Gard, David E; Sanchez, Amy H; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia


    Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect-disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or 'passing time'. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: (1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; (2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; (3) more disconnected-disengaged. Higher disconnected-disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Intimate partner violence against pregnant women: the environment according to Levine's nursing theory]. (United States)

    Teixeira, Selma Villas Boas; Moura, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos; Silva, Leila Rangel da; Queiroz, Ana Beatriz Azevedo; Souza, Kleyde Ventura de; Albuquerque, Leônidas Netto


    Analyzing the elements that compose the environment of pregnant women who have experienced intimate partner violence in the light of Levine's Nursing Theory. A qualitative, descriptive study conducted from September to January 2012, with nine pregnant women in a Municipal Health Center in Rio de Janeiro. The interviews were semi-structured and individual. The theoretical framework was based on Levine's Nursing Theory. Thematic analysis evidenced the elements that composed the external environment, such as violence perpetrated by intimate partners before and during pregnancy, violence in childhood and adolescence, alcohol consumption and drug use by the partner, unemployment, low education and economic dependency, which affected health and posed risks to the pregnancy. Violence perpetrated by an intimate partner was the main external factor that influenced the internal environment with repercussions on health. This theory represents a tool in nursing care which will aid in detecting cases and the fight against violence.

  14. Intimate partner violence against pregnant women: the environment according to Levine's nursing theory

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    Selma Villas Boas Teixeira


    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Analyzing the elements that compose the environment of pregnant women who have experienced intimate partner violence in the light of Levine's Nursing Theory. METHOD A qualitative, descriptive study conducted from September to January 2012, with nine pregnant women in a Municipal Health Center in Rio de Janeiro. The interviews were semi-structured and individual. The theoretical framework was based on Levine's Nursing Theory. RESULTS Thematic analysis evidenced the elements that composed the external environment, such as violence perpetrated by intimate partners before and during pregnancy, violence in childhood and adolescence, alcohol consumption and drug use by the partner, unemployment, low education and economic dependency, which affected health and posed risks to the pregnancy. CONCLUSION Violence perpetrated by an intimate partner was the main external factor that influenced the internal environment with repercussions on health. This theory represents a tool in nursing care which will aid in detecting cases and the fight against violence.

  15. Putting Leininger's nursing theory "culture care diversity and universality" into operation in the curriculum--Part 1. (United States)

    de Villiers, L; van der Wal, D


    The culturally diverse South African society necessitates inclusion of transcultural nursing in the curriculum. This article focuses on research regarding the putting of Leininger's nursing theory into operation in the curriculum to provide a scientific base for the inclusion of such nursing. The research process and results are discussed.

  16. Statistical testing of the full-range leadership theory in nursing. (United States)

    Kanste, Outi; Kääriäinen, Maria; Kyngäs, Helvi


    The aim of this study is to test statistically the structure of the full-range leadership theory in nursing. The data were gathered by postal questionnaires from nurses and nurse leaders working in healthcare organizations in Finland. A follow-up study was performed 1 year later. The sample consisted of 601 nurses and nurse leaders, and the follow-up study had 78 respondents. Theory was tested through structural equation modelling, standard regression analysis and two-way anova. Rewarding transformational leadership seems to promote and passive laissez-faire leadership to reduce willingness to exert extra effort, perceptions of leader effectiveness and satisfaction with the leader. Active management-by-exception seems to reduce willingness to exert extra effort and perception of leader effectiveness. Rewarding transformational leadership remained as a strong explanatory factor of all outcome variables measured 1 year later. The data supported the main structure of the full-range leadership theory, lending support to the universal nature of the theory.

  17. Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses (United States)


    The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. “Assimilating to the hierarchical culture” emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses’ perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members’ satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression. PMID:27253389

  18. The use of grounded theory in studies of nurses and midwives' coping processes: a systematic literature search. (United States)

    Cheer, Karen; MacLaren, David; Tsey, Komla


    Researchers are increasingly using grounded theory methodologies to study the professional experience of nurses and midwives. To review common grounded theory characteristics and research design quality as described in grounded theory studies of coping strategies used by nurses and midwives. A systematic database search for 2005-2015 identified and assessed grounded theory characteristics from 16 studies. Study quality was assessed using a modified Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Grounded theory was considered a methodology or a set of methods, able to be used within different nursing and midwifery contexts. Specific research requirements determined the common grounded theory characteristics used in different studies. Most researchers did not clarify their epistemological and theoretical perspectives. To improve research design and trustworthiness of grounded theory studies in nursing and midwifery, researchers need to state their theoretical stance and clearly articulate their use of grounded theory methodology and characteristics in research reporting.

  19. Nurses experience of using scientific knowledge in clinical practice: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Renolen, Åste; Hjälmhult, Esther


    Guidelines recommend the use of evidence-based practice in nursing. Nurses are expected to give patients care and treatment based on the best knowledge available. They may have knowledge and positive attitudes, but this does not mean that they are basing their work on evidence-based practice. Knowledge is still lacking about what is needed to successfully implement evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about what nurses perceive as the most important challenge in implementing evidence-based practice and to explain how they act to face and overcome this challenge. We used classical grounded theory methodology and collected data through four focus groups and one individual interview in different geographical locations in one large hospital trust in Norway. Fourteen registered clinical practice nurses participated. We analysed the data in accordance with grounded theory, using the constant comparative method. Contextual balancing of knowledge emerged as the core category and explains how the nurses dealt with their main concern, how to determine what types of knowledge they could trust. The nurses' main strategies were an inquiring approach, examining knowledge and maintaining control while taking care of patients. They combined their own experienced-based knowledge and the guidelines of evidence-based practice with a sense of control in the actual situation. The grounded theory contextual balancing of knowledge may help us to understand how nurses detect what types of knowledge they can trust in clinical practice. The nurses needed to rely on what they did, and they seemed to rely on their own experience rather than on research. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  20. Neurological soft signs, but not theory of mind and emotion recognition deficit distinguished children with ADHD from healthy control. (United States)

    Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Grelloni, Clementina; Casarelli, Livia; D'Agati, Elisa; Spiridigliozzi, Simonetta; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto


    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with social cognition impairment, executive dysfunction and motor abnormalities, consisting in the persistence of neurological soft signs (NSS). Theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition (ER) deficit of children with ADHD have been interpreted as a consequence of their executive dysfunction, particularly inhibitory control deficit. To our knowledge, there are not studies that evaluate the possible correlation between the ToM and ER deficit and NSS in the population with ADHD, while this association has been studied in other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate ToM and ER and NSS in a sample of 23 drug-naïve children with ADHD and a sample of 20 healthy children and the possible correlation between social cognition dysfunction and NSS in ADHD. Our findings suggest that ToM and ER dysfunction is not a constant feature in the population with ADHD, while NSS confirmed as a markers of atypical neurodevelopment and predictors of the severity of functional impairment in children with ADHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Job satisfaction among Swedish mental health nursing personnel: Revisiting the two-factor theory. (United States)

    Holmberg, Christopher; Caro, Jino; Sobis, Iwona


    Swedish mental health-care services are experiencing a critical shortage of nursing personnel. Researchers suggest that this shortage is due to low levels of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is frequently studied with the assistance of Herzberg's two-factor theory, and this theory has foremost been explored with studies using quantitative methods. The purpose of the present study was to provide a better understanding of Herzberg's theory in relation to job satisfaction among Swedish mental health nursing personnel within inpatient psychiatric care while using qualitative methodology. This explorative study was based on semistructured interviews with 25 nursing personnel. Qualitative content analysis of interview transcripts identified three main categories: (i) respondents' perception of their work duties, which was perceived as important, meaningful, and demanding; (ii) respondents' relations with colleagues and supervisors, which provided valuable support in everyday work; and (iii) the way the respondents experienced their professional role as mental health nurses, which was described as unclear and vague. Job satisfaction primarily stemmed from working for patients and with other professionals, but their perceived limited progression of responsibilities discouraged a career in the profession. Herzberg's theory proved useful in exploring job satisfaction in this setting, but the findings partly contradict the basic tenets of the theory. Career advancements and incentives, such as salary and compensation, were perceived as lacking, which negatively influenced job satisfaction. Ward managers should establish clinical ladder programmes to recognize and motivate the continuing professional development of nurses. This needs to be coupled with monetary incentives, and linked with increased clinical authority. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  2. From expert generalists to ambiguity masters: using ambiguity tolerance theory to redefine the practice of rural nurses. (United States)

    Knight, Kaye; Kenny, Amanda; Endacott, Ruth


    To redefine the practice of rural nurses and describe a model that conceptualises the capabilities and characteristics required in the rural environment. The way in which the practice of rural nurses has been conceptualised is problematic. Definitions of rural nursing have been identified primarily through the functional context of rural health service delivery. The expert generalist term has provided a foundation theory for rural nurses with understandings informed by the scope of practice needed to meet service delivery requirements. However, authors exploring intrinsic characteristics of rural nurses have challenged this definition, as it does not adequately address the deeper, intangible complexities of practice required in the rural context. Despite this discourse, an alternative way to articulate the distinctive nature of rural nursing practice has eluded authors in Australia and internationally. A theoretical paper based on primary research. The development of the model was informed by the findings of a study that explored the nursing practice of managing telephone presentations in rural health services in Victoria, Australia. The study involved policy review from State and Federal governments, nursing and medical professional bodies, and five rural health services; semi-structured interviews with eight Directors of Nursing, seven registered nurses and focus group interviews with eight registered nurses. An ambiguity tolerance model drawn from corporate global entrepreneurship theory was adapted to explain the findings of the study. The adapted model presents capabilities and characteristics used by nurses to successfully manage the ambiguity of providing care in the rural context. Redefining the practice of rural nurses, through an adapted theory of ambiguity tolerance, highlights nursing characteristics and capabilities required in the rural context. This perspective offers new ways of thinking about the work of rural nurses, rural nurse policy, education

  3. Interactional nursing--a practice-theory in the dynamic field between the natural, human and social sciences. (United States)

    Scheel, Merry Elisabeth; Pedersen, Birthe D; Rosenkrands, Vibeke


    Nursing is often described from the point of view of either the natural or the human sciences. In contrast to this, the value foundation in Interactional nursing practice is understood from the point of view of the natural sciences as well as that of the human and social sciences. This article presents many-faceted practice-theory of nursing, which is situated in the dynamic field between these three sciences. The focus of the theory is on interaction and practice resulting in a caring practice. Here practice is based on Taylor's and MacIntyre's interpretation of this concept. Action in nursing is based on Habermas' three varied modes of action seen in the light of an understanding of the world as a system world and a life world. Nursing as an interactional practice-theory is presented with examples of interpretative nursing science, seen in the ethical action-oriented, socio-cultural framework of Taylor and Habermas. It is concluded that phenomenologic and socio-cultural research into caring practice as well as an in-depth, comprehensive interpretation of nursing practice are both highly suited to forming the fundamental theoretical framework in nursing, here seen as an interpretative nursing science. Finally, a comparison is drawn between Interactional nursing practice and Benner's theory of nursing practice.

  4. Ethical theory, ethnography, and differences between doctors and nurses in approaches to patient care. (United States)

    Robertson, D W


    OBJECTIVES: To study empirically whether ethical theory (from the mainstream principles-based, virtue-based, and feminist schools) usefully describes the approaches doctors and nurses take in everyday patient care. DESIGN: Ethnographic methods: participant observation and interviews, the transcripts of which were analysed to identify themes in ethical approaches. SETTING: A British old-age psychiatry ward. PARTICIPANTS: The more than 20 doctors and nurses on the ward. RESULTS: Doctors and nurses on the ward differed in their conceptions of the principles of beneficence and respect for patient autonomy. Nurses shared with doctors a commitment to liberal and utilitarian conceptions of these principles, but also placed much greater weight on relationships and character virtues when expressing the same principles. Nurses also emphasised patient autonomy, while doctors were more likely to advocate beneficence, when the two principles conflicted. CONCLUSION: The study indicates that ethical theory can, contrary to the charges of certain critics, be relevant to everyday health care-if it (a) attends to social context and (b) is flexible enough to draw on various schools of theory. PMID:8910782

  5. Two theories/a sharper lens: the staff nurse voice in the workplace. (United States)

    DeMarco, Rosanna


    This paper (1) introduces the two theoretical frameworks, Silencing the Self and the Framework of Systemic Organization (2) describes the design and findings briefly of a study exploring spillover in nurses utilizing the frameworks, and (3) discusses the process and value of theory triangulation when conducting research in the context of complex nursing systems phenomena where gender, professional work, and gender identity merge. A research study was designed to analyse the actual workplace behaviours of nurses in the context of their lives at work and outside work. An exploration of theoretical frameworks that could direct the measurement of the phenomena in question led to the use of two frameworks, the Framework of Systemic Organization (Friedemann 1995) and the Silencing the Self Theory (Jack 1991), and the creation of a valid and reliable summative rating instrument (the Staff Nurse Workplace Behaviours Scale, SNWBS). A descriptive correlational design was used to measure behaviours between work and home. There were statistically significant relationships found between workplace behaviours, family behaviours, and silencing behaviours as measured by the two separate scales measuring framework concepts. Although both theories had different origins and philosophical tenets, the findings of a research study created an opportunity to integrate the concepts of each and unexpectedly increase and broaden the understanding of spillover for women who are often nurses.

  6. Student nurse dyads create a community of learning: proposing a holistic clinical education theory. (United States)

    Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A


    This paper is a report of a qualitative study of students' experiences of cooperative learning in the clinical setting. Although cooperative learning is often used successfully in the classroom, it has not been documented in the clinical setting with sophomore nursing students being paired with other sophomore nursing students. Using a grounded theory methodology a sample of 64 participants (32 student nurse dyads, eight clinical groups, in two different acute care institutions) were observed on their first day in the clinical setting while working as cooperative partners. Interviews were also conducted with students, patients and staff preceptors. Data were collected in the fall of 2008, spring and fall of 2009 and the spring of 2010 using semi-structured interviews and reflective surveys. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. A holistic clinical education theory for student nurses was identified from the data. This theory includes a reciprocal relationship among five categories relevant to a community of learning: supportive clinical experience; improved transition into practice; enhanced socialization into the profession; increased accountability and responsibility; and emergence of self-confidence as a beginning student nurse. The use of student dyads creates a supportive learning environment while students were able to meet the clinical learning objectives. Cooperative learning in the clinical setting creates a community of learning while instilling very early in the education process the importance of teamwork. This approach to clinical instruction eases the transition from the classroom to the clinical learning environment, and improves patient outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Intentionality: evolutionary development in healing: a grounded theory study for holistic nursing. (United States)

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P


    Although intentionality has been implicated as a causal variable in healing research, its definition has been inconsistent and vague. The objective of this grounded theory study is to develop a substantive theory of intentionality in a naturalistic encounter between nurse-healers and their healee-clients, and to consider the implications for practice and research. Six expert nurse-healers and six healee-clients were interviewed as individuals and in dyads before and after treatments. Interviews and observational data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and synthesized analysis. Participants described their experience of intentionality in healing as an evolutionary process characterized by distinctive shifts. The theory of intentionality: the matrix for healing (IMH) includes definitions of intentionality and a conceptual framework of three developmental phases of intentionality (generic, healing, and transforming intentionalities). The predominant attribute, development, is described. The theory contributes to knowledge about healing and intentionality and has implications for practice and future research.

  8. Can Social Cognitive Theories Help Us Understand Nurses' Use of Electronic Health Records? (United States)

    Strudwick, Gillian; Booth, Richard; Mistry, Kartini


    Electronic health record implementations have accelerated in clinical settings around the world in an effort to improve patient safety and enhance efficiencies related to care delivery. As the largest group of healthcare professionals globally, nurses play an important role in the use of these records and ensuring their benefits are realized. Social cognitive theories such as the Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behaviour, and the Technology Acceptance Model have been developed to explain behavior. Given that variation in nurses' electronic health record utilization may influence the degree to which benefits are realized, the aim of this article is to explore how the use of these social cognitive theories may assist organizations implementing electronic health records to facilitate deeper-level adoption of this type of clinical technology.

  9. Motivational journey of Iranian bachelor of nursing students during clinical education: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Hanifi, Nasrin; Parvizy, Soroor; Joolaee, Soodabeh


    This study explored how nursing students can be kept motivated throughout their clinical education. Motivation is a key issue in nursing clinical education for student retention. The study was conducted using grounded theory methods, which are appropriate when studying process in a social context. Sixteen students and four instructors, who were purposefully selected, participated in semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Students' motivational journey occurred in three steps: (i) social condition; (ii) encountering the clinical education challenges; and (iii) looking for an escape from nursing, or simply tolerating nursing. Struggling with professional identity emerged as the core variable. Iran's social context and many other conditions in the clinical education setting affect students' motivation. Identifying motivational process might assist educational authorities in offering solutions to promote motivation among students. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Men in Nursing: Intention, Intentionality, Caring, and Healing: Emphasis on the Results of a Grounded Theory Study. (United States)

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P


    The purpose of this article is to amplify the results section of a grounded theory study on how men in nursing view and experience intention, intentionality, caring, and healing. This is the second grounded theory study addressing intentionality in healing. The first study included a female population. The theory that was generated-Intentionality: The Matrix of Healing (IMH)-is examined with these new data. The results are compared with issues generally faced by men in nursing and how they described their beliefs and experiences with intentionality and healing. The theory (IMH) is supported; the importance of action in this cohort was an additional emphasis. This article provides an expanded view of men in nursing and their experiences as nurses and with intentionality, caring, and healing and has implications for the development of holistic nursing theory as well.

  11. Nursing students' understanding and enactment of resilience: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Reyes, Andrew Thomas; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Iwasiw, Carroll; Forchuk, Cheryl; Babenko-Mould, Yolanda


    The aim of this study was to explore nursing students' understanding and enactment of resilience. Stress is considered to be a major factor affecting the health, well-being and academic performance of nursing students. Resilience has been extensively researched as a process that allows individuals to successfully adapt to adversity and develop positive outcomes as a result. However, relatively little is known about the resilience of nursing students. A constructivist, grounded theory qualitative design was used for this study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with 38 nursing students enrolled in a four-year, integrated baccalaureate nursing degree programme at a university in Ontario, Canada. Face-to-face interviews were conducted from January to April 2012 using a semi-structured interview guide. The basic social process of 'pushing through' emerged as nursing students' understanding and enactment of resilience. Participants employed this process to withstand challenges in their academic lives. This process was comprised of three main phases: 'stepping into', 'staying the course' and 'acknowledging'. 'Pushing through' also included a transient 'disengaging' process where students were temporarily unable to push through their adversities. The process of 'pushing through' was based on a progressive trajectory, which implied that nursing students enacted the process to make progress in their academic lives and to attain goals. Study findings provide important evidence for understanding the phenomenon of resilience as a dynamic, contextual process that can be learnt and developed, rather than a static trait or personality characteristic. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Models versus theories as a primary carrier of nursing knowledge: A philosophical argument. (United States)

    Bender, Miriam


    Theories and models are not equivalent. I argue that an orientation towards models as a primary carrier of nursing knowledge overcomes many ongoing challenges in philosophy of nursing science, including the theory-practice divide and the paradoxical pursuit of predictive theories in a discipline that is defined by process and a commitment to the non-reducibility of the health/care experience. Scientific models describe and explain the dynamics of specific phenomenon. This is distinct from theory, which is traditionally defined as propositions that explain and/or predict the world. The philosophical case has been made against theoretical universalism, showing that a theory can be true in its domain, but that no domain is universal. Subsequently, philosophers focused on scientific models argued that they do the work of defining the boundary conditions-the domain(s)-of a theory. Further analysis has shown the ways models can be constructed and function independent of theory, meaning models can comprise distinct, autonomous "carriers of scientific knowledge." Models are viewed as representations of the active dynamics, or mechanisms, of a phenomenon. Mechanisms are entities and activities organized such that they are productive of regular changes. Importantly, mechanisms are by definition not static: change may alter the mechanism and thereby alter or create entirely new phenomena. Orienting away from theory, and towards models, focuses scholarly activity on dynamics and change. This makes models arguably critical to nursing science, enabling the production of actionable knowledge about the dynamics of process and change in health/care. I briefly explore the implications for nursing-and health/care-knowledge and practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Theory and practice in the construction of professional identity in nursing students: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Arreciado Marañón, Antonia; Isla Pera, Ma Pilar


    The problem of nurses' professional identity continues to be seen in the disjunction between theoretical training and clinical placements. Moreover, it is not known how nursing students perceive these contradictions or how this discrepancy influences the construction of professional identity. To gain insight into nursing students' perception of their theoretical and practical training and how this training influences the process of constructing their professional identity. Qualitative, ethnographic study. Third-year nursing students at the l'Escola Universitària d'Infermeria Vall d'Hebron de Barcelona. Participant observation was conducted in the hospital setting and primary care. Discussion groups were held. The constant comparative method was used for the analysis. The study adhered to the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Students believed that both theoretical and practical trainings were indispensable. Nevertheless, clinical placements were considered essential to confer sense to the theory and to shape their identity, as they helped student nurses to experience their future professional reality and to compare it with what they had been taught in theoretical and academic classes. The role of the clinical placement mentor was essential. With regard to theory, the skills developed in problem-based learning gave novice nurses' confidence to approach the problems of daily practice and new situations. Equally, this approach taught them to reflect on what they did and what they were taught and this ability was transferred to the clinical setting. For students, both strategies (theory and practice) are vital to nursing education and the construction of a professional identity, although pride of place is given to clinical placements and mentors. The skills developed with problem-based learning favor active and reflective learning and are transferred to learning in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. Poor work environments and nurse inexperience are associated with burnout, job dissatisfaction and quality deficits in Japanese hospitals. (United States)

    Kanai-Pak, Masako; Aiken, Linda H; Sloane, Douglas M; Poghosyan, Lusine


    To describe nurse burnout, job dissatisfaction and quality of care in Japanese hospitals and to determine how these outcomes are associated with work environment factors. Nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction are associated with poor nurse retention and uneven quality of care in other countries but comprehensive data have been lacking on Japan. Cross-sectional survey of 5956 staff nurses on 302 units in 19 acute hospitals in Japan. Nurses were provided information about years of experience, completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and reported on resource adequacy and working relations with doctors using the Nursing Work Index-Revised. Fifty-six per cent of nurses scored high on burnout, 60% were dissatisfied with their jobs and 59% ranked quality of care as only fair or poor. About one-third had fewer than four years of experience and more than two-thirds had less than 10. Only one in five nurses reported there were enough registered nurses to provide quality care and more than half reported that teamwork between nurses and physicians was lacking. The odds on high burnout, job dissatisfaction and poor-fair quality of care were twice as high in hospitals with 50% inexperienced nurses than with 20% inexperienced nurses and 40% higher in hospitals where nurses had less satisfactory relations with physicians. Nurses in poorly staffed hospitals were 50% more likely to exhibit burnout, twice as likely to be dissatisfied and 75% more likely to report poor or fair quality care than nurses in better staffed hospitals. Improved nurse staffing and working relationships with physicians may reduce nurse burnout, job dissatisfaction and low nurse-assessed quality of care. Staff nurses should engage supervisors and medical staff in discussions about retaining more experienced nurses at the bedside, implementing strategies to enhance clinical staffing and identifying ways to improve nurse-physician working relations.

  15. Use of the Culture Care Theory and ethnonursing method to discover how nursing faculty teach culture care. (United States)

    Mixer, Sandra J


    As the world becomes increasingly multicultural, transcultural nursing education is critical to ensuring a culturally competent workforce. This paper presents a comprehensive review of literature and results of an ethnonursing pilot study using the Culture Care Theory (CCT) to discover how nursing faculty teach culture care. The literature revealed that despite 50 years of transcultural nursing knowledge development through theory, research and practice, there remains a lack of formal, integrated culture education in nursing. The importance of faculty providing generic and professional care to nursing students and using an organising framework to teach culture care was discovered. Additionally, care was essential for faculty health and well-being to enable faculty to teach culture care. This unique use of the theory and method demonstrates its usefulness in discovering and describing the complex nature of teaching culture care. Larger scale studies are predicted to further substantiate the CCT, building the discipline of nursing.

  16. Interactional nursing - a practice-theory in the dynamic field between the natural, human and social sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Merry Elisabeth; Pedersen, Birthe D.; Rosenkrands, Vibeke


    Nursing is often described from the point of view of either the natural or the human sciences. In contrast to this, the value foundation in Interactional nursing practice is understood from the point of view of the natural sciences as well as that of the human and social sciences. This article...... presents many-faceted practice-theory of nursing, which is situated in the dynamic field between these three sciences. The focus of the theory is on interaction and practice resulting in a caring practice. Here practice is based on Taylor's and MacIntyre's interpretation of this concept. Action in nursing...... is based on Habermas' three varied modes of action seen in the light of an understanding of the world as a system world and a life world. Nursing as an interactional practice-theory is presented with examples of interpretative nursing science, seen in the ethical action-oriented, socio-cultural framework...

  17. [Low level auditory skills compared to writing skills in school children attending third and fourth grade: evidence for the rapid auditory processing deficit theory?]. (United States)

    Ptok, M; Meisen, R


    The rapid auditory processing defi-cit theory holds that impaired reading/writing skills are not caused exclusively by a cognitive deficit specific to representation and processing of speech sounds but arise due to sensory, mainly auditory, deficits. To further explore this theory we compared different measures of auditory low level skills to writing skills in school children. prospective study. School children attending third and fourth grade. just noticeable differences for intensity and frequency (JNDI, JNDF), gap detection (GD) monaural and binaural temporal order judgement (TOJb and TOJm); grade in writing, language and mathematics. correlation analysis. No relevant correlation was found between any auditory low level processing variable and writing skills. These data do not support the rapid auditory processing deficit theory.

  18. The subject of pedagogy from theory to practice--the view of newly registered nurses. (United States)

    Ivarsson, Bodil; Nilsson, Gunilla


    The aim was to describe, from the newly registered nurses' perspective, specific events when using their pedagogical knowledge in their everyday clinical practice. The design was qualitative and the critical incident technique was used. Data was collected via interviews with ten newly registered nurses who graduated from the same University program 10 months earlier and are now employed at a university hospital. Two categories emerged in the analyses. The first category was "Pedagogical methods in theory" with the sub-categories Theory and the application of the course in practice, Knowledge of pedagogy and Information as a professional competence. The second category was "Pedagogical methods in everyday clinical practice" with sub-categories Factual knowledge versus pedagogical knowledge, Information and relatives, Difficulties when giving information, Understanding information received, Pedagogical tools, Collaboration in teams in pedagogical situations, and Time and giving information. By identifying specific events regarding pedagogical methods the findings can be useful for everyone from teachers and health-care managers to nurse students and newly registered nurses, to improve teaching methods in nurse education.

  19. The process of patient enablement in general practice nurse consultations: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Desborough, Jane; Banfield, Michelle; Phillips, Christine; Mills, Jane


    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the process of patient enablement in general practice nursing consultations. Enhanced roles for general practice nurses may benefit patients through a range of mechanisms, one of which may be increasing patient enablement. In studies with general practitioners enhanced patient enablement has been associated with increases in self-efficacy and skill development. This study used a constructivist grounded theory design. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 general practice nurses and 23 patients from 21 general practices between September 2013 - March 2014. Data generation and analysis were conducted concurrently using constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling focussing on the process and outcomes of patient enablement. Use of the storyline technique supported theoretical coding and integration of the data into a theoretical model. A clearly defined social process that fostered and optimised patient enablement was constructed. The theory of 'developing enabling healthcare partnerships between nurses and patients in general practice' incorporates three stages: triggering enabling healthcare partnerships, tailoring care and the manifestation of patient enablement. Patient enablement was evidenced through: 1. Patients' understanding of their unique healthcare requirements informing their health seeking behaviours and choices; 2. Patients taking an increased lead in their partnership with a nurse and seeking choices in their care and 3. Patients getting health care that reflected their needs, preferences and goals. This theoretical model is in line with a patient-centred model of health care and is particularly suited to patients with chronic disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Competence in providing mental health care: a grounded theory analysis of nurses' experiences. (United States)

    Sharrock, Julie; Happell, Brenda

    In view of the evidence that general nurses have difficulty in caring for patients experiencing mental health problems, the aim of this study was to explore and describe the subjective experience of nurses in providing care for this client group. A grounded theory approach was used. The data were collected via semi-structured individual interviews and analysed using the constant comparative method. The study was conducted with nurses from general health care settings that provide medical and surgical care and treatment. Four nurses who were completing their second year post graduation participated in the study. The experiences of providing care for people experiencing a mental illness as described by participants. The findings indicated the nurses were striving for competence in the provision of mental health care. They acknowledged the mental health needs of patients and their right to quality care. This study supports the notion that general nurses lack confidence when caring for patients with mental health problems in medical and surgical settings. It also highlights a discrepancy between the holistic framework encouraged at undergraduate level and what is experienced in practice.

  1. From conflict to collaboration? Contrasts and convergence in the development of nursing and management theory. (United States)

    Hewison, Alistair; Stanton, Angela


    This is the first of two papers which examine the development of theory in the occupations of management and nursing, in order to determine where the similarities and differences lie. The need for the Health Service to be effectively managed was a prominent feature of UK health policy in the 1980s and early 1990s and accounts of the introduction of 'management methods' into health care tend to focus on the conflict between management and nursing. More recently, however, the policy emphasis has shifted towards collaborative and co-operative approaches to the provision of health care. An examination of the development of nursing is conducted as the first step in identifying areas of contrast and convergence in the development of nursing and managerial ideologies. In the second paper a similar approach is taken to the history of management. Nursing has been subject to a succession of ideologies aimed at advancing practice, however, many of these approaches have been accepted in an uncritical way. In the second paper the similarities in the development of management thought are examined and the implications this has for nursing management explored.

  2. Can nurse teachers manage student incivility by guided democracy? A grounded theory study. (United States)

    Rad, Mostafa; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ildarabadi, Eshagh


    Managing incivility in academic settings is among the basic concerns and challenges of most educational systems, including nursing education. Incivility management cannot be considered devoid of disruptive behaviors. However, incivility management is a complexphenomenon upon which few studies are conducted. The present study aims at discovering teachers and students' experiences regarding incivility and developing an approach to manage nursing students' incivility. The present study was conducted based on the qualitative research design of the grounded theory methodology. This study was conducted at schools of nursing in academic settings in Iran. Study participants in the present study include nurse teachers (N=20) and nursing students (N=9). In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted using theoretical and purposive sampling. Constant comparative analysis was used for data analysis. The results include four main categories; (1) deterioration of learning; (2) dominant individual and organisational culture; (3) guided democracy; and (4) movement toward professionalism. Guided democracy is recognised as the main basic psychosocial process for incivility management. Incivility management is pursued to help learners develop professional performance. As indicated by the results of the present study, guided democracy is an effective strategy for incivility management in nursing education. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes using item response theory. (United States)

    Backman, Annica; Sjögren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Lövheim, Hugo; Edvardsson, David


    To identify characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes. An ageing population entails fundamental social, economic and organizational challenges for future aged care. Knowledge is limited of both specific leadership behaviours and organizational and managerial characteristics which have an impact on the leadership of contemporary nursing home care. Cross-sectional. From 290 municipalities, 60 were randomly selected and 35 agreed to participate, providing a sample of 3605 direct-care staff employed in 169 Swedish nursing homes. The staff assessed their managers' (n = 191) leadership behaviours using the Leadership Behaviour Questionnaire. Data were collected from November 2013 - September 2014, and the study was completed in November 2016. A two-parameter item response theory approach and regression analyses were used to identify specific characteristics of highly rated leadership. Five specific behaviours of highly rated nursing home leadership were identified; that the manager: experiments with new ideas; controls work closely; relies on subordinates; coaches and gives direct feedback; and handles conflicts constructively. The regression analyses revealed that managers with social work backgrounds and privately run homes were significantly associated with higher leadership ratings. This study highlights the five most important leadership behaviours that characterize those nursing home managers rated highest in terms of leadership. Managers in privately run nursing homes and managers with social work backgrounds were associated with higher leadership ratings. Further work is needed to explore these behaviours and factors predictive of higher leadership ratings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Intentionality in Healing--The Voices of Men in Nursing: A Grounded Theory Investigation. (United States)

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and potentially modify or expand a previously developed theory: Intentionality: The Matrix of Healing (IMH) using a sample of men in nursing. A modified grounded theory approach described by Chen and Boore (2009) and by Amsteus (2014). Twelve men in nursing were recruited. Each was interviewed at least once and their feedback solicited to determine accuracy of interpretation. Results were compared and contrasted to those obtained from the earlier research with six female nurses and their patients. Both groups viewed intentionality as different from, and greater than, intention. Intentionality reflects the whole person's values, goals, and experiences. The men emphasized the importance of reflective spiritual practices, developing self-awareness, being aware of the stress experienced by males in a female profession, and the role of action in manifesting intentionality in healing. The theory is substantiated with minor changes in emphases. Further study is warranted to expand the understanding of this basic concept in nursing and healing. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Authentic leadership: a new theory for nursing or back to basics? (United States)

    Wong, Carol; Cummings, Greta


    Authentic leadership is an emerging theoretical model purported to focus on the root component of effective leadership. The purpose of this paper is to describe the relevance of authentic leadership to the advancement of nursing leadership practice and research and address the question of whether this is a new theory for leadership or an old one in new packaging. The paper outlines the origins and key elements of the model, assesses the theoretical, conceptual and measurement issues associated with authentic leadership and compares it with other leadership theories frequently reported in the nursing literature. The emerging authentic leadership theory holds promise for explaining the underlying processes by which authentic leaders and followers influence work outcomes and organizational performance. Construct validity of authentic leadership has preliminary documentation and a few studies have shown positive relationships between authenticity and trust. Furthermore, the clarity of the authenticity construct and comprehensiveness of the overall theoretical framework provide a fruitful base for future research examining the relationship between authentic leadership and the creation of healthier work environments. A clear focus on the relational aspects of leadership, the foundational moral/ethical component, a potential linkage of positive psychological capital to work engagement and the emphasis on leader and follower development in the authentic leadership framework are closely aligned to current and future nursing leadership practice and research priorities for the creation of sustainable changes in nursing work environments.

  6. Nurses' behaviour regarding CPR and the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour. (United States)

    Dwyer, Trudy; Mosel Williams, Leonie


    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been used in hospitals for approximately 40 years. Nurses are generally the first responders to a cardiac arrest and initiate basic life support while waiting for the advanced cardiac life support team to arrive. Speed and competence of the first responder are factors contributing to the initial survival of a person following a cardiac arrest. Attitudes of individual nurses may influence the speed and level of involvement in true emergency situations. This paper uses the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour to examine some behavioural issues with CPR involvement.

  7. Critical social theory as a model for the informatics curriculum for nursing. (United States)

    Wainwright, P; Jones, P G


    It is widely acknowledged that the education and training of nurses in information management and technology is problematic. Drawing from recent research this paper presents a theoretical framework within which the nature of the problems faced by nurses in the use of information may be analyzed. This framework, based on the critical social theory of Habermas, also provides a model for the informatics curriculum. The advantages of problem based learning and multi-media web-based technologies for the delivery of learning materials within this area are also discussed.

  8. Using King's interacting systems theory to link emotional intelligence and nursing practice. (United States)

    Shanta, Linda L; Connolly, Maria


    King's theory is a broad theory designed to provide a framework for nursing (I.M. King, 1981), whereas emotional intelligence (EI; J.D. Mayer & P. Salovey, 2004) is a theory that is specific for addressing potential competency in dealing with emotions and emotional information. J.D. Mayer, P. Salovey, D.R. Caruso, and G. Sitarenios (2001) defined EI as the "ability to recognize the meaning of emotions and their relationships and to use them as a basis for reasoning and problem solving" (p. 234). These researchers believed that EI is related to cognitive intellect through the ability to use reasoning by way of information to find meaning. J.D. Mayer and P. Salovey (2004) argued that the skills that comprise EI were likely enhanced through obtaining a liberal education infused with values exploration. J.D. Mayer, P. Salovey, D.R. Caruso, and G. Sitarenios (2001) contended that there are 4 branches of abilities that create EI: (a) the skill of perceiving emotion within oneself and others, (b) assimilation of an emotion to facilitate thinking, (c) understanding and knowledge of emotion, and (d) conscious regulation of emotion. Each level or branch builds upon the previous one, and awareness of what each branch offers the individual in enhancing relationships with others is a key component of healthy emotional interactions. This article will provide a theoretic foundation based upon King's interacting systems theory (IST; 1981) that embraces EI as a crucial component in the nurse's ability to provide holistic care for patients, peers, and themselves. King's IST underscores the necessity of nurses possessing abilities of EI as they care for others but does not fully describe a mechanism to understand and incorporate emotions within the complex nurse-patient interactions and communications that are part of the nursing process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Actor-Network Theory as a sociotechnical lens to explore the relationship of nurses and technology in practice: methodological considerations for nursing research. (United States)

    Booth, Richard G; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Iwasiw, Carroll; Donelle, Lorie; Compeau, Deborah


    Actor-Network Theory is a research lens that has gained popularity in the nursing and health sciences domains. The perspective allows a researcher to describe the interaction of actors (both human and non-human) within networked sociomaterial contexts, including complex practice environments where nurses and health technology operate. This study will describe Actor-Network Theory and provide methodological considerations for researchers who are interested in using this sociotechnical lens within nursing and informatics-related research. Considerations related to technology conceptualization, levels of analysis, and sampling procedures in Actor-Network Theory based research are addressed. Finally, implications for future nursing research within complex environments are highlighted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Theory of mind deficit in adult patients with congenital heart disease. (United States)

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Bianchino, Claudia; Brach-Prever, Silvia; Riggi, Chiara; Palumbo, Luigi; Bara, Bruno G; Bosco, Francesca M


    This article provides the first assessment of theory of mind, that is, the ability to reason about mental states, in adult patients with congenital heart disease. Patients with congenital heart disease and matched healthy controls were administered classical theory of mind tasks and a semi-structured interview which provides a multidimensional evaluation of theory of mind (Theory of Mind Assessment Scale). The patients with congenital heart disease performed worse than the controls on the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale, whereas they did as well as the control group on the classical theory-of-mind tasks. These findings provide the first evidence that adults with congenital heart disease may display specific impairments in theory of mind. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Nursing staff intentions towards managing deteriorating health in nursing homes: A convergent parallel mixed-methods study using the theory of planned behaviour. (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara J; Dwyer, Trudy; Reid-Searl, Kerry; Parkinson, Lynne


    To predict the factors that are most important in explaining nursing staff intentions towards early detection of the deteriorating health of a resident and providing subacute care in the nursing home setting. Nursing staff play a pivotal role in managing the deteriorating resident and determining whether the resident needs to be transferred to hospital or remain in the nursing home; however, there is a dearth of literature that explains the factors that influence their intentions. This information is needed to underpin hospital avoidance programs that aim to enhance nursing confidence and skills in this area. A convergent parallel mixed-methods study, using the theory of planned behaviour as a framework. Surveys and focus groups were conducted with nursing staff (n = 75) at a 94-bed nursing home at two points in time, prior to and following the implementation of a hospital avoidance program. The quantitative and qualitative data were analysed separately and merged during final analysis. Nursing staff had strong intentions, a positive attitude that became significantly more positive with the hospital avoidance program in place, and a reasonable sense of control; however, the influence of important referents was the strongest predictor of intention towards managing residents with deteriorating health. Support from a hospital avoidance program empowered staff and increased confidence to intervene. The theory of planned behaviour served as an effective framework for identifying the strong influence referents had on nursing staff intentions around managing residents with deteriorating health. Although nursing staff had a reasonable sense of control over this area of their work, they believed they benefitted from a hospital avoidance program initiated by the nursing home. Managers implementing hospital avoidance programs should consider the role of referents, appraise the known barriers and facilitators and take steps to identify those unique to their local situation

  12. Social cognitive theory, metacognition, and simulation learning in nursing education. (United States)

    Burke, Helen; Mancuso, Lorraine


    Simulation learning encompasses simple, introductory scenarios requiring response to patients' needs during basic hygienic care and during situations demanding complex decision making. Simulation integrates principles of social cognitive theory (SCT) into an interactive approach to learning that encompasses the core principles of intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness. Effective simulation requires an environment conducive to learning and introduces activities that foster symbolic coding operations and mastery of new skills; debriefing builds self-efficacy and supports self-regulation of behavior. Tailoring the level of difficulty to students' mastery level supports successful outcomes and motivation to set higher standards. Mindful selection of simulation complexity and structure matches course learning objectives and supports progressive development of metacognition. Theory-based facilitation of simulated learning optimizes efficacy of this learning method to foster maturation of cognitive processes of SCT, metacognition, and self-directedness. Examples of metacognition that are supported through mindful, theory-based implementation of simulation learning are provided. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Pragmatic Ability Deficit in Schizophrenia and Associated Theory of Mind and Executive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Li


    Full Text Available Deficits in pragmatic abilities have frequently been observed in patients with schizophrenia. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between pragmatic deficits, ToM deficits and executive dysfunctions in schizophrenia. A group of 42 schizophrenic patients and 42 healthy controls were assessed on irony task (one type of pragmatic language, two subcomponents of ToM (cognitive and affective, and three subcomponents of EF (inhibition, updating, and switching. The clinical symptoms in schizophrenia were assessed using the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The schizophrenia group exhibited significant impairments in all above tasks compared to the control group. Correlation results found that irony scores were correlated with the two subcomponents of ToM and two of the three subcomponents of EF (inhibition and updating. The regression analysis revealed that the cognitive ToM and inhibition predicted 9.2% and 29.9% of the variance of irony comprehension in the patient group, and inhibition was the best predictor for performance on irony task. Irony understanding was related to positive symptoms, but not to negative symptoms. The results suggest that the ability to interpret pragmatic language depends on schizophrenic patients’ ability to infer mental states and the ability of inhibition. It provides empirical evidence for a particular target of inhibition for rehabilitation and intervention programs developed for schizophrenic patients.

  14. A Practice-Based Theory of Healing Through Therapeutic Touch: Advancing Holistic Nursing Practice. (United States)

    Hanley, Mary Anne; Coppa, Denise; Shields, Deborah


    For nearly 50 years, Therapeutic Touch (TT) has contributed to advancing holistic nursing practice and has been recognized as a uniquely human approach to healing. This narrative explores the development of a practice-based theory of healing through TT, which occurred between 2010 and 2016. Through the in-depth self-inquiry of participatory reflective dialogue in concert with constant narrative analysis, TT practitioners revealed the meaning of healing within the context of their TT practice. As the community of TT experts participated in an iterative process of small group and community dialogues with analysis and synthesis of emerging themes, the assumptions and concepts central to a theory of healing emerged, were clarified and verified. Exemplars of practice illustrate the concepts. A model of the theory of healing illuminates the movement and relationship among concepts and evolved over time. Feedback from nursing and inter-professional practitioners indicate that the theory of healing, while situated within the context of TT, may be useful in advancing holistic nursing practice, informing healing and caring approaches, stimulating research and education, and contributing to future transformations in health care.

  15. What constitutes successful nurse leadership?: A qualitative approach utilizing Kanter's theory of organizational behavior. (United States)

    Upenieks, Valda V


    What constitutes successful leadership in today's healthcare environment and what are the principal components of an organization that supports the role of the nurse leader? To answer these questions, 16 nurse leaders from four acute care hospitals were interviewed for their perception of leadership traits that are effective in the inpatient hospital setting and types of organizational infrastructures that create conditions for job effectiveness. Kanter's theory of organizational behavior provided the conceptual framework for this study. Leadership effectiveness is linked to having access to opportunity, resources, information, and formal and informal power in the work setting. Nurse leaders with access to these structures are empowered and successful, which leads to enhanced worth and overall organizational achievement. Also, strong central beliefs and business astuteness are considered vital attributes in today's economically oriented environment.

  16. Nurses' perception of the quality of care they provide to hospitalized drug addicts: testing the theory of reasoned action. (United States)

    Natan, Merav Ben; Beyil, Valery; Neta, Okev


    A correlational design was used to examine nursing staff attitudes and subjective norms manifested in intended and actual care of drug users based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. One hundred and thirty-five nursing staff from three central Israeli hospitals completed a questionnaire examining theory-based variables as well as sociodemographic and professional characteristics. Most respondents reported a high to very high level of actual or intended care of drug users. Nurses' stronger intentions to provide quality care to drug users were associated with more positive attitudes. Nursing staff members had moderately negative attitudes towards drug users. Nurses were found to hold negative stereotypes of drug addict patients and most considered the management of this group difficult. Positive attitudes towards drug users, perceived expectations of others and perceived correctness of the behaviour are important in their effect on the intention of nurses to provide high-quality care to hospitalized patients addicted to drugs.

  17. The process of adopting and incorporating simulation into undergraduate nursing curricula: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Taplay, Karyn; Jack, Susan M; Baxter, Pamela; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn


    The aim of this study is to explain the process of adopting and incorporating simulation as a teaching strategy in undergraduate nursing programs, define uptake, and discuss potential outcomes. In many countries, simulation is increasingly adopted as a common teaching strategy. However, there is a dearth of knowledge related to the process of adoption and incorporation. We used an interpretive, constructivist approach to grounded theory to guide this research study. We conducted the study was in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-2012. Using multiple data sources, we informed the development of this theory including in-depth interviews (n = 43) and a review of key organizational documents, such as mission and vision statements (n = 67) from multiple nursing programs (n = 13). The adoption and uptake of mid- to high-fidelity simulation equipment is a multistep iterative process involving various organizational levels within the institution that entails a seven-phase process: (a) securing resources, (b) nursing leaders working in tandem, (c) getting it out of the box, (d) learning about simulation and its potential for teaching, (e) finding a fit, (f) trialing the equipment, and (g) integrating into the curriculum. These findings could assist nursing programs in Canada and internationally that wish to adopt or further incorporate simulation into their curricula and highlight potential organizational and program level outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Interprofessional collaboration in nursing homes (interprof): a grounded theory study of general practitioner experiences and strategies to perform nursing home visits. (United States)

    Fleischmann, Nina; Tetzlaff, Britta; Werle, Jochen; Geister, Christina; Scherer, Martin; Weyerer, Siegfried; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Mueller, Christiane A


    Interprofessionalism, considered as collaboration between medical professionals, has gained prominence over recent decades and evidence for its impact has grown. The steadily increasing number of residents in nursing homes will challenge medical care and the interaction across professions, especially nurses and general practitioners (GPs). The nursing home visit, a key element of medical care, has been underrepresented in research. This study explores GP perspectives on interprofessional collaboration with a focus on their visits to nursing homes in order to understand their experiences and expectations. This research represents an aspect of the interprof study, which explores medical care needs as well as the perceived collaboration and communication by nursing home residents, their families, GPs and nurses. This paper focusses on GPs' views, investigating in particular their visits to nursing homes in order to understand their experiences. Open guideline-interviews covering interprofessional collaboration and the visit process were conducted with 30 GPs in three study centers and analyzed with grounded theory methodology. GPs were recruited via postal request and existing networks of the research partners. Four different types of nursing home visits were found: visits on demand, periodical visits, nursing home rounds and ad-hoc-decision based visits. We identified the core category "productive performance" of home visits in nursing homes which stands for the balance of GPs´ individual efforts and rewards. GPs used different strategies to perform a productive home visit: preparing strategies, on-site strategies and investing strategies. We compiled a theory of GPs home visits in nursing homes in Germany. The findings will be useful for research, and scientific and management purposes to generate a deeper understanding of GP perspectives and thereby improve interprofessional collaboration to ensure a high quality of care.

  19. Nursing students' time management, reducing stress and gaining satisfaction: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Rafii, Forough


    In the course of their studies, nursing students must learn many skills and acquire the knowledge required for their future profession. This study investigates how Iranian nursing students manage their time according to the circumstances and obstacles of their academic field. Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Twenty-one nursing students were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the method suggested by Corbin and Strauss. One of the three processes that the nursing students used was "unidirectional time management." This pattern consists of accepting the nursing field, overcoming uncertainty, assessing conditions, feeling stress, and trying to reduce stress and create satisfaction. It was found that students allotted most of their time to academic tasks in an attempt to overcome their stress. The findings of this study indicate the need for these students to have time for the extra-curricular activities and responsibilities that are appropriate to their age. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. [We do not create values, but uphold them--a contribution to nursing's value theory]. (United States)

    Nortvedt, P


    This article argues how the nature of nursing is anchored in a realist conception of moral value. This moral ontology claims that phenomena like suffering, pain and human distress have a distinct moral character that is independent of individual human perception and empathic responsiveness. This position of moral realism is evident in the ethics of KE. Løgstrup, Kari Martinsen and Nel Noddings. However, these influential theories are in need of a philosophical theory of moral agency which establish a role for moral sensitivity. Moreover, and trying to bridge the gap between analytical moral philosophy and fenomenologist analysis in ethics, the article's final part illuminates how the encounter with the moral realities of immediate human suffering inhabits a significant normative claim. This normative claim of compassion and mercy restricts an impartial, justice-based morality and has significant implications on nurse's perceptions of prioritizing dilemmas.

  1. Episodic and working memory deficits in alcoholic Korsakoff patients: the continuity theory revisited. (United States)

    Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène; Witkowski, Thomas; Vabret, François; de la Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis


    The exact nature of episodic and working memory impairments in alcoholic Korsakoff patients (KS) remains unclear, as does the specificity of these neuropsychological deficits compared with those of non-Korsakoff alcoholics (AL). The goals of the present study were therefore to (1) specify the nature of episodic and working memory impairments in KS, (2) determine the specificity of the KS neuropsychological profile compared with the AL profile, and (3) observe the distribution of individual performances within the 2 patient groups. We investigated episodic memory (encoding and retrieval abilities, contextual memory and state of consciousness associated with memories), the slave systems of working memory (phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad and episodic buffer) and executive functions (inhibition, flexibility, updating and integration abilities) in 14 strictly selected KS, 40 AL and 55 control subjects (CS). Compared with CS, KS displayed impairments of episodic memory encoding and retrieval, contextual memory, recollection, the slave systems of working memory and executive functions. Although episodic memory was more severely impaired in KS than in AL, the single specificity of the KS profile was a disproportionately large encoding deficit. Apart from organizational and updating abilities, the slave systems of working memory and inhibition, flexibility and integration abilities were impaired to the same extent in both alcoholic groups. However, some KS were unable to complete the most difficult executive tasks. There was only a partial overlap of individual performances by KS and AL for episodic memory and a total mixture of the 2 groups for working memory. Korsakoff's syndrome encompasses impairments of the different episodic and working memory components. AL and KS displayed similar profiles of episodic and working memory deficits, in accordance with neuroimaging investigations showing similar patterns of brain damage in both alcoholic groups.

  2. [Objective assessment of transfusion-related knowledge of nurses using modern test theory]. (United States)

    Rajki, Veronika; Deutsch, Tibor; Csóka, Mária; Mészáros, Judit


    Clinical practice requires knowledge of health professionals for the application of problem solving of different tasks in various clinical settings. Therefore, a set of reliable measurement tools is required to assess various components of the professional knowledge including factual knowledge, skills and competence as outcomes of nursing education and training. Traditional questionnaires and test methods do not allow the measurement of these characteristics properly, as these tools typically provide overall scores without relevant insight into areas in which nurses perform well, and those where their knowledge and/or skills should be improved substantially. The aim of this nationwide survey conducted among nurses between November 2014 and February 2015 was to determine how the teaching/training objectives have been achieved in the nurses' transfusion practice. The authors attempted to exceed the capabilities of classical test theory and acquire a detailed picture about what the nurses know about transfusion therapy and how they are involved and behave in routine clinical practice. The knowledge and skills of 657 participants were assessed using a validated instrument consisting of a set of questions covering every aspects of transfusion therapy. The answers to these items were evaluated on a binary (good or bad) scale. Recorded answers of the participants were analysed using hierarchical cluster analysis and item response theory tools such as the one-parametric Rasch model suitable for dichotomous data. Data analysis was performed with the SPSS program and the ltm module of the R statistical program. The paper presents the distribution of correct and incorrect answers to various questions about transfusion therapy along with the corresponding logit values and odds ratios, respectively. The characteristic curves of each item were determined on the basis of the number of correct answers that have been recorded. These curves highlight which questions were answered

  3. Relational regulation theory and the role of social support and organisational fairness for nurses in a general acute context. (United States)

    Rodwell, John; Munro, Louise


    To present a novel approach to nurse stress by exploring the demand-control-support model with organisational justice through the lens of relational regulation theory. Nursing is often stressful due to high demands and dissatisfaction with pay, which impacts the mental well-being and productivity of nurses. A cross-sectional design. A validated questionnaire was sent to the work addresses of all nursing and midwifery staff in a medium-sized general acute hospital in Australia. A total of 190 nurses and midwives returned completed questionnaires for the analyses. The multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the model applies to the prototypical context of a general acute hospital and that job control, supervisor support and outside work support improve the job satisfaction and mental health of nurses. Most importantly, supervisor support was found to buffer the impact of excessive work demands. Fairness of procedures, distribution of resources and the quality and consistency of information are also beneficial. Relational regulation theory is applied to these findings as a novel way to conceptualise the mechanisms of support and fairness in nursing. The importance of nurses' well-being and job satisfaction is a priority for improving clinical outcomes. Practically, this means nurse managers should be encouraging nurses in the pursuit of diverse relational activities both at work and outside work. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Theories of risk and safety: what is their relevance to nursing? (United States)

    Cooke, Hannah


    The aim of this paper is to review key theories of risk and safety and their implications for nursing. The concept of of patient safety has only recently risen to prominence as an organising principle in healthcare. The paper considers the wider social context in which contemporary concepts of risk and safety have developed. In particular it looks at sociological debates about the rise of risk culture and the risk society and their influence on the patient safety movement. The paper discusses three bodies of theory which have attempted to explain the management of risk and safety in organisations: normal accident theory, high reliability theory, and grid-group cultural theory. It examine debates between these theories and their implications for healthcare. It discusses reasons for the dominance of high reliability theory in healthcare and its strengths and limitations. The paper suggest that high reliability theory has particular difficulties in explaining some aspects of organisational culture. It also suggest that the implementation of high reliability theory in healthcare has involved over reliance on numerical indicators. It suggests that patient safety could be improved by openness to a wider range of theoretical perspectives.

  5. A theory for aftercare of human trafficking survivors for nursing practice in low resource settings. (United States)

    Curran, R L; Naidoo, J R; Mchunu, G


    Research on aftercare for human trafficking survivors highlights the limited knowledge of the needs of survivors; the evaluation of current aftercare; and the process of recovery navigated by the survivor in aftercare (Oram et al., 2012; Locke, 2010; Hacker & Cohen, 2012). Furthermore there has been a transition in aftercare where the victim or survivor, who before was seen as a passive victim of circumstance of their life and in need of therapeutic intervention, is now seen as having an active role in their recovery, thus facilitating recovery (Hacker & Cohen, 2012). The need for a theory grounded in survivor's voices therefore motivated this grounded theory study underpinned by Freire's (1970) Pedagogy of the oppressed. The aim of the theory is to inform nursing care of human trafficking survivors in low resource settings. The findings elicit a theoretical model of the renewed self, and the conditions that facilitate this process in care of human trafficking survivors. The recommendations of this paper may improve the nursing care provided to human trafficking survivors and equip nurses and other health professionals with the knowledge and skills to promote the renewing of human trafficking survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Social Learning Theory: its application in the context of nurse education. (United States)

    Bahn, D


    Cognitive theories are fundamental to enable problem solving and the ability to understand and apply principles in a variety of situations. This article looks at Social Learning Theory, critically analysing its principles, which are based on observational learning and modelling, and considering its value and application in the context of nurse education. It also considers the component processes that will determine the outcome of observed behaviour, other than reinforcement, as identified by Bandura, namely: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  7. Utility of the theory of planned behavior to predict nursing staff blood pressure monitoring behaviours. (United States)

    Nelson, Joan M; Cook, Paul F; Ingram, Jennifer C


    To evaluate constructs from the theory of planned behavior (TPB, Ajzen 2002) - attitudes, sense of control, subjective norms and intentions - as predictors of accuracy in blood pressure monitoring. Despite numerous initiatives aimed at teaching blood pressure measurement techniques, many healthcare providers measure blood pressures incorrectly. Descriptive, cohort design. Medical assistants and licensed practical nurses were asked to complete a questionnaire on TPB variables. These nursing staff's patients had their blood pressures measured and completed a survey about techniques used to measure their blood pressure. We correlated nursing staff's responses on the TBP questionnaire with their intention to measure an accurate blood pressure and with the difference between their actual blood pressure measurement and a second measurement taken by a researcher immediately after the clinic visit. Patients' perceptions of MAs' and LPNs' blood pressure measurement techniques were examined descriptively. Perceived control and social norm predicted intention to measure an accurate blood pressure, with a negative relationship between knowledge and intention. Consistent with the TPB, intention was the only significant predictor of blood pressure measurement accuracy. Theory of planned behavior constructs predicted the healthcare providers' intention to measure blood pressure accurately and intention predicted the actual accuracy of systolic blood pressure measurement. However, participants' knowledge about blood pressure measurement had an unexpected negative relationship with their intentions. These findings have important implications for nursing education departments and organisations which traditionally invest significant time and effort in annual competency training focused on knowledge enhancement by staff. This study suggests that a better strategy might involve efforts to enhance providers' intention to change, particularly by changing social norms or increasing

  8. Is the Theory of Mind deficit observed in visual paradigms in schizophrenia explained by an impaired attention toward gaze orientation? (United States)

    Roux, Paul; Forgeot d'Arc, Baudoin; Passerieux, Christine; Ramus, Franck


    Schizophrenia is associated with poor Theory of Mind (ToM), particularly in goal and belief attribution to others. It is also associated with abnormal gaze behaviors toward others: individuals with schizophrenia usually look less to others' face and gaze, which are crucial epistemic cues that contribute to correct mental states inferences. This study tests the hypothesis that impaired ToM in schizophrenia might be related to a deficit in visual attention toward gaze orientation. We adapted a previous non-verbal ToM paradigm consisting of animated cartoons allowing the assessment of goal and belief attribution. In the true and false belief conditions, an object was displaced while an agent was either looking at it or away, respectively. Eye movements were recorded to quantify visual attention to gaze orientation (proportion of time participants spent looking at the head of the agent while the target object changed locations). 29 patients with schizophrenia and 29 matched controls were tested. Compared to controls, patients looked significantly less at the agent's head and had lower performance in belief and goal attribution. Performance in belief and goal attribution significantly increased with the head looking percentage. When the head looking percentage was entered as a covariate, the group effect on belief and goal attribution performance was not significant anymore. Patients' deficit on this visual ToM paradigm is thus entirely explained by a decreased visual attention toward gaze. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Legitimacy Deficit in the Political Process Brazilian . Democracy Theory of Violation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Lôbo


    Full Text Available This article seeks to reflect on the legitimacy deficit of the Brazilian political pro- cess, in that it withdraws control over the elections and political terms from the people, refusing protection and concretion of the fundamental right of participation, backbone of the democratic state governed by the rule of law. It also seeks to identify activation mechanisms of public pools as measurement methods of the popular will, which cannot be replaced by what is read in the printed review. To achieve its objectives a slight expla- nation of the Brazilian electoral judicial bodies was made, identifying the control actions of the elections that can only be filed by for legitimates (candidate, political party, party coalitions and prosecutors office, and a justification of the application discourse for the minimal participation and excess jurisdiction (activism versus minimalism was presented as well.

  10. Integrating transition theory and bioecological theory: a theoretical perspective for nurses supporting the transition to adulthood for young people with medical complexity. (United States)

    Joly, Elizabeth


    To present a discussion of a theoretical perspective developed through integrating Meleis' Transition Theory and Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Theory of Human Development to inform nursing and advanced nursing practice supporting the transition to adulthood for young people with medical complexity. Theoretical perspectives to inform nursing practice in supporting successful transition are limited, yet nurses frequently encounter young people with medical complexity during the transition to adulthood. Discussion paper. A literature search of CINAHL and Medline was conducted in 2014 and included articles from 2003-2014; informal discussions with families; the author's experiences in a transition program. The integrated theoretical perspective described in this paper can inform nurses and advanced practice nurses on contextual influences, program and intervention development across spheres of influence and outcomes for the transition to adulthood for young people with medical complexity. Young people and their families require effective reciprocal interactions with individuals and services across sectors to successfully transition to adulthood and become situated in the adult world. Intervention must also extend beyond the young person to include providers, services and health and social policy. Nurses can take a leadership role in supporting the transition to adulthood for young people with medical complexity through direct care, case management, education and research. It is integral that nurses holistically consider developmental processes, complexity and contextual conditions that promote positive outcomes during and beyond the transition to adulthood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The theory-practice relationship: reflective skills and theoretical knowledge as key factors in bridging the gap between theory and practice in initial nursing education. (United States)

    Hatlevik, Ida Katrine Riksaasen


    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of nursing students' acquired reflective skills, practical skills and theoretical knowledge on their perception of coherence between theory and practice. Reflection is considered a key factor in bridging the gap between theory and practice. However, it is not evident whether reflective skills are primarily generic in nature or whether they develop from a theoretical knowledge base or the acquisition of practical skills. This study is a secondary analysis of existing data. The data are part of a student survey that was conducted among third-year nursing students in Norway during the spring of 2007. A total of 446 nursing students participated in this study and the response rate was 71%. Structural equation modelling analyses were performed. The results indicate that students' perception of coherence between theory and practice during initial nursing education is directly influenced by reflective skills and theoretical knowledge. The results also reveal that reflective skills have mediating effects and that practical skills have a fully mediated and theoretical knowledge a partially mediated influence on students' perception of coherence. The findings imply that helping students perceive coherence between theory and practice in nursing education, developing students' reflective skills and strengthening the theoretical components of the initial nursing education programme might be beneficial. The results suggest that reflective thinking is not merely a generic skill but rather a skill that depends on the acquisition of relevant professional knowledge and experience. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Shaping a valued learning journey: Student satisfaction with learning in undergraduate nursing programs, a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Smith, Morgan R; Grealish, Laurie; Henderson, Saras


    Student satisfaction is a quality measure of increasing importance in undergraduate programs, including nursing programs. To date theories of student satisfaction have focused primarily on students' perceptions of the educational environment rather than their perceptions of learning. Understanding how students determine satisfaction with learning is necessary to facilitate student learning across a range of educational contexts and meet the expectations of diverse stakeholders. To understand undergraduate nursing students' satisfaction with learning. Constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to identify how nursing students determined satisfaction with learning. Two large, multi-campus, nursing schools in Australia. Seventeen demographically diverse undergraduate nursing students studying different stages of a three year program participated in the study. Twenty nine semi-structured interviews were conducted. Students were invited to describe situations where they had been satisfied or dissatisfied with their learning. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyse the data. Students are satisfied with learning when they shape a valued learning journey that accommodates social contexts of self, university and nursing workplace. The theory has three phases. Phase 1 - orienting self to valued learning in the pedagogical landscape; phase 2 - engaging with valued learning experiences across diverse pedagogical terrain; and phase 3 - recognising valued achievement along the way. When students experience a valued learning journey they are satisfied with their learning. Student satisfaction with learning is unique to the individual, changes over time and maybe transient or sustained, mild or intense. Finding from the research indicate areas where nurse academics may facilitate satisfaction with learning in undergraduate nursing programs while mindful of the expectations of other stakeholders such as the university, nurse registering authorities

  13. District nurses' experiences of caring for leg ulcers in accordance with clinical guidelines: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Lagerin, Annica; Hylander, Ingrid; Törnkvist, Lena


    This qualitative study used the grounded theory method to investigate district nurses' experiences of caring for leg ulcers in accordance with clinical guidelines at seven primary health care centres in Stockholm, Sweden. Group interviews were conducted with 30 nurses. The results describe how district nurses strive to stay on track in order to follow clinical guidelines and remain motivated despite prolonged wound treatment and feelings of hopelessness. Three main obstacles to following the guidelines were found. District nurses used compensating strategies so the obstacles would not lead to negative consequences. If the compensating strategies were insufficient, perceived prolonged wound treatment and feelings of hopelessness could result. District nurses then used motivating strategies to overcome these feelings of hopelessness. Sometimes, despite the motivating strategies, treatment in accordance with guidelines could not be achieved. With some patients, district nurses had to compromise and follow the guidelines as far as possible.

  14. [Social intelligence deficits in autistic children and adolescents--subjective theories of psychosocial health care professionals]. (United States)

    Krech, M; Probst, P


    The paper is concerned with personal theories of health care professionals about deficiencies in social intelligence of autistic persons. In the component-model of social intelligence means the ability of individuals or groups, to interact with each other in social situations. This contains social perception, social behavior as well as social conceptions and refers to emotional, cognitive and normative aspects. 33 interviewees, working as psychologists or teachers in kindergartens, schools or therapy institutions, are questioned by a half-standardized single interview concerning their beliefs about nonverbal social abilities, social perspective taking, and construction of a theory of mind in autistic persons. The major finding is: The impairments can be found in all aspects of social intelligence. Especially emotional handicaps, which are quoted by more than 80% of the interviewees, and low cognitive preconditions of mastering social stimuli, which are quoted by nearly all interviewees, are relevant. The subjective theories of the interviewees are in accordance to the models of parents as well as the models of the leading experts. The professional relationship to autistic persons and the practical experiences of the health care professionals lead to their specific personal theories of deficiencies in social intelligence of autistic people with wide consequences in respect to the professional contact with the autistic children and young adults.

  15. Evidence for Deficits on Different Components of Theory of Mind in Huntington's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allain, P.; Havel-Thomassin, V.; Verny, C.; Gohier, B.; Lancelot, C.; Besnard, J.; Fasotti, L.; Le Gall, D.


    Objective: The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Huntington's disease (HD) on cognitive and affective Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities. The relation of ToM performance and executive functions was also examined. Method: Eighteen HD patients, early in the course of the disease,

  16. From Racial Stereotyping and Deficit Discourse toward a Critical Race Theory in Teacher Education. (United States)

    Solorzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J.


    Examines connections between critical race theory (CRT) and its application to the concepts of race, racial bias, and racial stereotyping in teacher education. Defines CRT, then discusses racism and stereotyping, racial stereotypes in the media, and racial stereotypes in professional environments, noting the effects on minority students. Presents…

  17. Momentary fitting in a fluid environment: A grounded theory of triage nurse decision making. (United States)

    Reay, Gudrun; Rankin, James A; Then, Karen L


    Triage nurses control access to the Emergency Department (ED) and make decisions about patient acuity, patient priority, and placement of the patient in the ED. Understanding the processes and strategies that triage nurses use to make decisions is therefore vital for patient safety and the operation of the ED. The aim of the current study was to generate a substantive grounded theory (GT) of decision making by emergency triage Registered Nurses (RNs). Data collection consisted of seven observations of the triage environment at three tertiary care hospitals where RNs conducted triage and twelve interviews with triage RNs. The data were analyzed by constant comparison in accordance with the classical GT method. In the resultant theory, Momentary Fitting in a Fluid Environment, triage is conceptualized as a process consisting of four categories, determining acuity, anticipating needs, managing space, and creating space. The findings indicate that triage RNs continually strive to achieve fit, while simultaneously considering the individual patient and the ED as a whole entity. Triage RNs require appropriately designed triage environments and computer technology that enable them to secure real time knowledge of the ED to maintain situation awareness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Applying new science leadership theory in planning an international nursing student practice experience in Nepal. (United States)

    Doyle, Rose Marie


    Planning an international practice experience for nursing students is a challenging, but rewarding, opportunity. Kwantlen University College faculty members' experience of planning for 8 Bachelor of Science in Nursing students to study abroad was no exception. Faculty members' and students' interest prompted a request for a placement in Nepal. The faculty members involved in the planning were dedicated to using a process that would enable them to remain true to the program philosophy and theoretical underpinnings throughout the entire experience, from the planning phase to the follow-up presentation. Using Wheatley's theory, the students and faculty members reexamined their personal leadership styles to ensure they remained relationship focused, rather than task focused. Wheatley maintained that because the potentiality lies in building strong relationships, it is important to support the creative power that lies in those involved in a project. This article describes new science leadership and relates it to the planning phase for the practice experience in Nepal. Then, reflections on how the philosophy of the program may have influenced the experience are shared. Finally, critical reflection on using this theory in nursing education is presented.

  19. Utilizing constructivism learning theory in collaborative testing as a creative strategy to promote essential nursing skills. (United States)

    Duane, Barbara T; Satre, Maria E


    In nursing education, students participate in individual learner testing. This process follows the instructionist learning theory of a system model. However, in the practice of nursing, success depends upon collaboration with numerous people in different capacities, critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and the ability to communicate with others. Research has shown that collaborative testing, a constructivism learning activity and a form of collaborative learning, enhances students' abilities to master these areas. Collaborative testing is a clear, creative strategy which constructivists would say supports the socio-linguistic base of their learning theory. The test becomes an active implementation of peer-mediated learning where individual knowledge is enhanced through problem solving or defense of an individual position with the collaborative method. There is criticism for the testing method's potential of grade inflation and for students to receive grade benefits with little effort. After a review of various collaborative testing methods, this nursing faculty implemented a collaborative testing format that addresses both the positive and negative aspects of the process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of nurses' cross-cultural competence on nursing intellectual capital from a social cognitive theory perspective. (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Cheng


    To understand the relationships among certain key factors such as organizational climate, self-efficacy and outcome expectation on registered nurses, with regard to the development of registered nurses' cross-cultural competence. The focus is specifically on the use of a social cognitive framework for nurses for providing intercultural nursing care to international patients. This study also aims to examine the relationship between nurses' cross-cultural competence and nursing intellectual capital. Given the influence of globalization on healthcare services, healthcare providers need to have enough cross-cultural competence to effectively care for patients from different cultures. Thus, the development of cross-cultural competence in nursing care has become an important issue. A quantitative method and a cross-sectional design were employed in this study. Data were collected from 309 RN working in 16 healthcare institutions in Taiwan from May to August 2013. Structural equation modelling, in combination with the smart partial least squares method, was used to measure the relationships in the research model. The results show that outcome expectation has a stronger impact on nurses' cross-cultural competence than self-efficacy. In addition, it was found that the cross-cultural competence of nurses has a positive impact on nursing intellectual capital. Nursing supervisors should promote a higher level of outcome expectation on nurses to enhance the improvement of their cross-cultural competence. Raising the cross-cultural competence of nurses will aid in the accumulation of nursing intellectual capital. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Visual temporal processing in dyslexia and the magnocellular deficit theory: the need for speed? (United States)

    McLean, Gregor M T; Stuart, Geoffrey W; Coltheart, Veronika; Castles, Anne


    A controversial question in reading research is whether dyslexia is associated with impairments in the magnocellular system and, if so, how these low-level visual impairments might affect reading acquisition. This study used a novel chromatic flicker perception task to specifically explore temporal aspects of magnocellular functioning in 40 children with dyslexia and 42 age-matched controls (aged 7-11). The relationship between magnocellular temporal resolution and higher-level aspects of visual temporal processing including inspection time, single and dual-target (attentional blink) RSVP performance, go/no-go reaction time, and rapid naming was also assessed. The Dyslexia group exhibited significant deficits in magnocellular temporal resolution compared with controls, but the two groups did not differ in parvocellular temporal resolution. Despite the significant group differences, associations between magnocellular temporal resolution and reading ability were relatively weak, and links between low-level temporal resolution and reading ability did not appear specific to the magnocellular system. Factor analyses revealed that a collective Perceptual Speed factor, involving both low-level and higher-level visual temporal processing measures, accounted for unique variance in reading ability independently of phonological processing, rapid naming, and general ability.

  2. A dynamic developmental theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly hyperactive/impulsive and combined subtypes. (United States)

    Sagvolden, Terje; Johansen, Espen Borgå; Aase, Heidi; Russell, Vivienne Ann


    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. Inattentiveness, overactivity, and impulsiveness are presently regarded as the main clinical symptoms. The dynamic developmental behavioral theory is based on the hypothesis that altered dopaminergic function plays a pivotal role by failing to modulate nondopaminergic (primarily glutamate and GABA) signal transmission appropriately. A hypofunctioning mesolimbic dopamine branch produces altered reinforcement of behavior and deficient extinction of previously reinforced behavior. This gives rise to delay aversion, development of hyperactivity in novel situations, impulsiveness, deficient sustained attention, increased behavioral variability, and failure to "inhibit" responses ("disinhibition"). A hypofunctioning mesocortical dopamine branch will cause attention response deficiencies (deficient orienting responses, impaired saccadic eye movements, and poorer attention responses toward a target) and poor behavioral planning (poor executive functions). A hypofunctioning nigrostriatal dopamine branch will cause impaired modulation of motor functions and deficient nondeclarative habit learning and memory. These impairments will give rise to apparent developmental delay, clumsiness, neurological "soft signs," and a "failure to inhibit" responses when quick reactions are required. Hypofunctioning dopamine branches represent the main individual predispositions in the present theory. The theory predicts that behavior and symptoms in ADHD result from the interplay between individual predispositions and the surroundings. The exact ADHD symptoms at a particular time in life will vary and be influenced by factors having positive or negative effects on symptom development. Altered or deficient learning and motor functions will produce special needs for optimal parenting and societal styles. Medication will to some degree

  3. Teaching Theory of Science and Research Methodology to Nursing Students: A Practice-Developing Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievert, Anne; Chaiklin, Seth

    , in a principled way, to select subject-matter content for a course for nursing students on theory of science and research methodology. At the same time, the practical organisation of the project was motivated by a practice-developing research perspective. The purpose of the presentation is to illustrate how...... the idea of practice-developing research was realised in this concrete project. A short introduction is first given to explain the practical situation that motivated the need and interest to select subject matter for teaching. Then, the main part of the presentation explains the considerations involved...... developed. On the basis of this presentation, it should be possible to get a concrete image of one form for practice-developing research. The presentation concludes with a discussion that problematises the sense in which general knowledge about development of nursing school teaching practice has been...

  4. Theory of Planned Behavior Predicts Graduation Intentions of Canadian and Israeli Postsecondary Students with and without Learning Disabilities/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (United States)

    Fichten, Catherine S.; Heiman, Tali; Jorgensen, Mary; Nguyen, Mai Nhu; Havel, Alice; King, Laura; Budd, Jillian; Amsel, Rhonda


    We tested the ability of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model to predict intention to graduate among Canadian and Israeli students with and without a learning disability/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (LD/ADHD). Results based on 1486 postsecondary students show that the model's predictors (i.e., attitude, subjective norms,…

  5. Do Theory of Mind and Executive Function Deficits Underlie the Adverse Outcomes Associated with Profound Early Deprivation?: Findings from the English and Romanian Adoptees Study (United States)

    Colvert, Emma; Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.


    Theory of Mind (ToM) and Executive Function (EF) have been associated with autism and with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and hence might play a role in similar syndromes found following profound early institutional deprivation. In order to examine this possibility the current study included a group of 165 Romanian adoptees, of…

  6. Tracking the footsteps: a constructivist grounded theory of the clinical reasoning processes that registered nurses use to recognise delirium. (United States)

    El Hussein, Mohamed; Hirst, Sandra


    To construct a grounded theory that explains the clinical reasoning processes that registered nurses use to recognise delirium while caring for older adults in acute care settings. Delirium is often under-recognised in acute care settings; this may stem from underdeveloped clinical reasoning processes. Little is known about registered nurses' clinical reasoning processes in complex situations such as delirium recognition. Seventeen registered nurses working in acute care settings were interviewed. Concurrent data collection and analysis, constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling were conducted in 2013-2014. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse interview data about the clinical reasoning processes of registered nurse in acute hospital settings. The core category that emerged from data was 'Tracking the footsteps'. This refers to the common clinical reasoning processes that registered nurses in this study used to recognise delirium in older adults in acute care settings. It depicted the process of continuously trying to catch the state of delirium in older adults. Understanding the clinical reasoning processes that contribute to delirium under-recognition provides a strategy by which this problem can be brought to the forefront of awareness and intervention by registered nurses. Registered nurses could draw from the various processes identified in this research to develop their clinical reasoning practice to enhance their effective assessment strategies. Delirium recognition by registered nurses will contribute to quality care to older adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Maintaining the balance: New Zealand secondary school nurses' perceptions of skin infections in young people--a grounded theory. (United States)

    Lambe, Catherine I; Hoare, Karen J


    The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions of New Zealand secondary school nurses regarding skin infections in young people aged 14-18 years. A constructivist grounded theory method was adopted. Ten non-structured interviews were conducted with secondary school nurses working in Auckland, New Zealand, between January and July 2013. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using all tenets of grounded theory that included writing memos, theoretical sampling and the constant comparative method. Analysis revealed the core category Maintaining the balance, which is presented as a grounded theory model. It represents the constant state of balancing the school nurse undergoes in trying to counter the risk to the student. The nurse attempts to tip the balance in favour of action, by reducing barriers to healthcare, providing youth-friendly, affordable and accessible healthcare, and following up until resolution is achieved. The nurse is aware that failing to monitor until resolution can again tip the fulcrum back to inaction, placing the young person at risk again. It is concluded that nurses are knowledgeable about the risks present in the communities they serve and are innovative in the methods they employ to ensure satisfactory outcomes for young people experiencing skin infections. School nursing is an evolving model for delivering primary healthcare to young people in New Zealand. The grounded theory model 'Maintaining the balance' describes a model of care where nursing services are delivered where young people spend time, and the nurse is immersed in the community. This model of care may be transferable to other healthcare situations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The theory-practice gap: impact of professional-bureaucratic work conflict on newly-qualified nurses. (United States)

    Maben, Jill; Latter, Sue; Clark, Jill Macleod


    This paper reports the findings from a naturalistic enquiry undertaken in the United Kingdom into the extent to which the ideals and values of the preregistration nursing course are adopted by individual newly educated Registered Nurses. Research in several countries provides consistent evidence of the existence of a theory-practice gap in nursing. Clear disparities have been demonstrated between the best practice ideals and values that are taught and those actually encountered in everyday practice. Nurse education 'Project 2000' reforms in the United Kingdom were designed, in part, to address this issue. Few studies to date have examined the impact of these reforms on newly qualified Registered Nurses' ability to translate theory into practice. A longitudinal study was carried out in three educational institutions in the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2000. Final year nursing students (n = 72) in three colleges of nursing completed questionnaires to elicit views on their ideals and values for practice. In-depth interviews with a purposive subsample of 26 participants (at 4-6 and 11-15 months postqualification) indicated the extent to which these ideals and values were adopted in practice. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed, and data were analysed using constant comparison and negative case analysis. Although new nurses emerged from their programmes with a strong set of nursing values, a number of professional and organizational factors effectively sabotaged implementation. Professional sabotage includes obeying covert rules, lack of support and poor nursing role models. Organizational sabotage includes structural and organizational constraints such as time pressures, role constraints, staff shortages and work overload. The disparity between nursing as taught and as practised may have profound implications for the future of the profession both in the United Kingdom and internationally, in terms of morale, job satisfaction and retention. Measures to improve

  9. Forced genital cutting in North America: feminist theory and nursing considerations. (United States)

    Antinuk, Kira


    This article will examine forced nontherapeutic genital cutting (FNGC) through the lens of feminist theory and in relation to the concept of social justice in nursing. I will address the underlying assumptions of feminism and how they apply to the two currently legal forms of FNGC in North America: male infant circumcision and intersex infant/child genital cutting. Through a literature review and critical analysis of these practices, I will illustrate the challenges they present when considering the role of nurses in promoting social justice. If feminism asserts that bodily integrity, autonomy, and fundamental human rights are essential components of gender equality, it follows that these must be afforded to all genders without discrimination. Historically, there have been few feminists who have made this connection, yet a growing and diverse movement of people is challenging the frameworks in which we consider genital cutting in our society. Nurses are positioned well to be at the forefront of this cause and have a clear ethical duty to advocate for the elimination of all forms of FNGC.

  10. Clinical Nurse Leader Integration Into Practice: Developing Theory To Guide Best Practice. (United States)

    Bender, Miriam


    Numerous policy bodies have identified the clinical nurse leader (CNL) as an innovative new role for meeting higher health care quality standards. Although there is growing evidence of improved care environment and patient safety and quality outcomes after redesigning care delivery microsystems to integrate CNL practice, significant variation in CNL implementation has been noted across reports, making it difficult to causally link CNL practice to reported outcomes. This variability reflects the overall absence in the literature of a well-defined CNL theoretical framework to help guide standardized application in practice. To address this knowledge gap, an interpretive synthesis with a grounded theory analysis of CNL narratives was conducted to develop a theoretical model for CNL practice. The model clarifies CNL practice domains and proposes mechanisms by which CNL-integrated care delivery microsystems improve health care quality. The model highlights the need for a systematic approach to CNL implementation including a well-thought out strategy for care delivery redesign; a consistent, competency-based CNL workflow; and sustained macro-to-micro system leadership support. CNL practice can be considered an effective approach to organizing nursing care that maximizes the scope of nursing to influence the ways care is delivered by all professions within a clinical microsystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding Influence within the Context of Nursing: Development of the Adams Influence Model Using Practice, Research, and Theory. (United States)

    Adams, Jeffrey M; Natarajan, Sudha


    Acquiring influence, and knowing how to use it, is a required competency for nurse leaders, yet the concept of influence and how it works is not well described in the nursing literature. In this article, the authors examine what is known about influence and present an influence model specific to nurse leaders. The Adams Influence Model was developed through an iterative process and is based on a comprehensive review of the influence literature, expert commentary, multiple pilot studies, evaluation of nursing theories, and validation by an external data source. Rather than defining "how to" influence, the model serves as a guide for personal reflection, helping nurse leaders understand and reflect on the influence process and factors, tactics, and strategies they can use when seeking to influence others.

  12. In discourse: Bourdieu's theory of practice and habitus in the context of a communication-oriented nursing interaction model. (United States)

    Sieger, Margot; Fritz, Elfriede; Them, Christa


    This paper presents a discussion on the potential of the theories of practice and habitus as espoused by the sociologist Bourdieu. The interaction between nurses and patients is a constitutive element in the nursing process and a central aspect in the theories developed by Paterson and Zderad, and Orlando. Bourdieu's theory of habitus and practices assists in understanding and explaining differentiated results concerning nurse-patient interaction. In a study on interactions with paraplegic patients, distinguished levels of interactions, which show considerable diversity among one another, could be identified. The data were collected over a period of 20 months in 2004-2006. The results present the central topics of interaction and show that understanding-oriented interaction is rare. Communicative acting in nursing always takes place in a social context. In the interaction with patients, nurses assign a higher distinctive value to the standardized concepts of care facilities than to the actually perceived need of care. An understanding-oriented interaction assumes that the nurses with their own contributions, themes and authorities, prove themselves in the eyes of the patient. It is expected from nurses that they habitualize their own concepts so that they can be represented in a convincing manner. If an understanding-oriented interaction is to extend into the practice of nursing, it is of crucial importance that both interaction partners assure each other how and with what capital their interaction is to be realized. Nurses need professional habitus to become agents in the social field of health. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Conflict management styles, emotional intelligence and implicit theories of personality of nursing students: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Chan, Joanne C Y; Sit, Emily N M; Lau, W M


    Conflict management is an essential skill that nursing students need to master as conflict is unavoidable in clinical settings. Examining nursing students' conflict management styles and the associating factors can inform nurse educators on how to equip nursing students for effective conflict management. This study aimed at examining undergraduate nursing students conflict management styles in managing conflict with their supervisors in clinical placement. The associations of emotional intelligence and implicit theories of personality with conflict management styles were also investigated. This is a cross-sectional quantitative survey. This study took place at a nursing school at a university in Hong Kong. 568 undergraduate nursing students participated in the study. Students completed a questionnaire which consisted of demographics, Measure of Implicit Theories of Personality, The Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) and The Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II (ROCI-II) and received a HKD 20 book coupon as compensation. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, reliability analyses, t-tests, correlational and linear regression analyses. For managing conflict with clinical supervisors, students used obliging and integrating most frequently whereas used dominating least. Emotional intelligence was a significant predictor of all five conflict management styles. The higher the emotional intelligence, the more students used integrating, obliging, compromising and dominating. The lower the emotional intelligence, the more students used avoiding. There was a significant association between implicit theories of personality and compromising. The less malleable students perceived personality to be, the more they used compromising. Emotional intelligence was significantly associated with all five conflict management styles while implicit theories of personality were significantly associated with compromising style only. Efforts of nurse educators to

  14. Applicability of Item Response Theory to the Korean Nurses' Licensing Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geum-Hee Jeong


    Full Text Available To test the applicability of item response theory (IRT to the Korean Nurses' Licensing Examination (KNLE, item analysis was performed after testing the unidimensionality and goodness-of-fit. The results were compared with those based on classical test theory. The results of the 330-item KNLE administered to 12,024 examinees in January 2004 were analyzed. Unidimensionality was tested using DETECT and the goodness-of-fit was tested using WINSTEPS for the Rasch model and Bilog-MG for the two-parameter logistic model. Item analysis and ability estimation were done using WINSTEPS. Using DETECT, Dmax ranged from 0.1 to 0.23 for each subject. The mean square value of the infit and outfit values of all items using WINSTEPS ranged from 0.1 to 1.5, except for one item in pediatric nursing, which scored 1.53. Of the 330 items, 218 (42.7% were misfit using the two-parameter logistic model of Bilog-MG. The correlation coefficients between the difficulty parameter using the Rasch model and the difficulty index from classical test theory ranged from 0.9039 to 0.9699. The correlation between the ability parameter using the Rasch model and the total score from classical test theory ranged from 0.9776 to 0.9984. Therefore, the results of the KNLE fit unidimensionality and goodness-of-fit for the Rasch model. The KNLE should be a good sample for analysis according to the IRT Rasch model, so further research using IRT is possible.

  15. Theory of Mind deficits and social emotional functioning in preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Vissers


    Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI often experience emotional and social difficulties. In general, problems in social emotional functioning can be cognitively explained in terms of Theory of Mind (ToM. In this mini-review, an overview is provided of studies on social-emotional functioning and ToM in preschoolers (average age from 2.3 to 6.2 years with SLI. It is concluded that, similar to school-aged children with SLI, preschoolers with SLI have several social-emotional problems and that both cognitive and affective aspects of ToM are impaired in those children. Based hereon, three possible causal models for the interrelation between language, ToM and social emotional functioning are put forward. It is proposed that future research on the construct and measurement of early ToM, social emotional functioning and language development in preschoolers with SLI is needed to achieve early detection, tailored treatment, and ultimately insight into the pathogenesis of SLI.

  16. How nursing home residents develop relationships with peers and staff: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Roberts, Tonya; Bowers, Barbara


    Social support and social relationships have been repeatedly identified as essential to nursing home resident quality of life. However, little is known about ways residents develop relationships with peers or staff. This study was conducted to explore the ways resident develop relationships with peers and staff in nursing homes. Fifteen cognitively intact nursing home residents from two facilities were interviewed for this grounded theory study. Sampling, interviewing, and analysis occurred in a cyclical process with results at each stage of the study informing decisions about data collection and analysis in the next. Unstructured interviews and field observations were conducted. Data were analyzed with open, axial, and selective coding. Residents developed relationships with peers and staff largely as an unintended consequence of trying to have a life in the nursing home. Having a life was a two-step process. First, life motivations (Being Self and Creating a Positive Atmosphere) influenced resident preferences for daily activities and interaction goals and subsequently their strategies for achieving and establishing both. Second, the strategies residents used for achieving their required daily activities (Passing Time and Getting Needs Met) and interaction goals then influenced the nature of interaction and the subsequent peer or staff response to these interactions. Residents defined relationships as friendly or unfriendly depending on whether peers or staff responded positively or negatively. There was considerable overlap in the ways peer and staff relationships developed and the results highlight the role of peer and staff responsiveness in relationship development. The results provide possible explanations for the success of interventions in the literature designed to improve staff responsiveness to residents. The results suggest that adapting these kinds of interventions for use with peers may also be successful. The conceptual model also presents a number

  17. Putting Leininger’s nursing theory ‘culture care diversity and universality’ into operation in the curriculum – Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Villiers


    Full Text Available The culturally diverse South African society necessitates inclusion of transcultural nursing in the curriculum. This article focuses on research regarding the putting of Leininger's nursing theory into operation in the curriculum to provide a scientific base for the inclusion of such nursing. The research process and results are discussed.

  18. Performances on a cognitive theory of mind task: specific decline or general cognitive deficits? Evidence from normal aging. (United States)

    Fliss, Rafika; Lemerre, Marion; Mollard, Audrey


    Compromised theory of mind (ToM) can be explained either by a failure to implement specific representational capacities (mental state representations) or by more general executive selection demands. In older adult populations, evidence supporting affected executive functioning and cognitive ToM in normal aging are reported. However, links between these two functions remain unclear. In the present paper, we address these shortcomings by using a specific task of ToM and classical executive tasks. We studied, using an original cognitive ToM task, the effect of age on ToM performances, in link with the progressive executive decline. 96 elderly participants were recruited. They were asked to perform a cognitive ToM task, and 5 executive tests (Stroop test and Hayling Sentence Completion Test to appreciate inhibitory process, Trail Making Test and Verbal Fluency for shifting assessment and backward span dedicated to estimate working memory capacity). The results show changes in cognitive ToM performance according to executive demands. Correlational studies indicate a significant relationship between ToM performance and the selected executive measures. Regression analyzes demonstrates that level of vocabulary and age as the best predictors of ToM performance. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ToM deficits are related to age-related domain-general decline rather than as to a breakdown in specialized representational system. The implications of these findings for the nature of social cognition tests in normal aging are also discussed.

  19. Burnout Study of Clinical Nurses in Vietnam: Development of Job Burnout Model Based on Leiter and Maslach's Theory. (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Thu; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Sukigara, Masune; Thai, Anh Lan


    This study aimed to create a Vietnamese version of both the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS) to assess the burnout state of Vietnamese clinical nurses and to develop a causal model of burnout of clinical nurses. We conducted a descriptive design using a cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire was hand divided directly by nursing departments to 500 clinical nurses in three hospitals. Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were then examined for reliability and validity. We used the revised exhaustion +1 burnout classification to access burnout state. We performed path analysis to develop a Vietnamese causal model based on the original model by Leiter and Maslach's theory. We found that both scales were reliable and valid for assessing burnout. Among nurse participants, the percentage of severe burnout was 0.7% and burnout was 15.8%, and 17.2% of nurses were exhausted. The best predictor of burnout was "on-duty work schedule" that clinical nurses have to work for 24 hours. In the causal model, we also found similarity and difference pathways in comparison with the original model. Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were applicable to research on occupational stress. Nearly one-fifth of Vietnamese clinical nurses were working in burnout state. The causal model suggested a range of factors resulting in burnout, and it is necessary to consider the specific solution to prevent burnout problem. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Community transformation through culturally competent nursing leadership: application of theory of culture care diversity and universality and tri-dimensional leader effectiveness model. (United States)

    Shapiro, Mina L; Miller, June; White, Kathleen


    Transcultural knowledge and competency have become a critical need for nurses to accommodate the global trends in cultural diversity and health care disparities. Today, nurses are increasingly taking on leadership roles in community settings. This article addresses the application of Leininger's culture care theory with the sunrise model and Hersey and Blanchard's tri-dimensional leader effectiveness model as potential collaborating theories for capacity building and community transformation from a global, transcultural nursing perspective. The two theories, used in collaboration, view the provision of competent leadership as the delivery of effective, culturally congruent nursing care in promoting health and health equity at the community level.

  1. Integration of Parent and Nurse Perspectives of Communication to Plan Care for Technology Dependent Children: The Theory of Shared Communication. (United States)

    Giambra, Barbara K; Broome, Marion E; Sabourin, Teresa; Buelow, Janice; Stiffler, Deborah

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to expand our understanding of the process of communication between parents of hospitalized technology dependent children and their nurses originally detailed in the Theory of Shared Communication (TSC). This grounded theory study was conducted with five parents of technology dependent children hospitalized in a large Midwestern children's hospital and nine nurses who care for technology dependent children admitted to the same hospital during July and August 2013. Semi-structured interviews and journals (parents only), field notes and a demographic survey were used to collect data which was analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Parents verified the concepts of the TSC and relationships among them. Nurses' perceptions of communication with parents reflected the same parent identified and verified concepts upon which the TSC was originally grounded including respect for own and other's expertise, asking, listening, explaining, advocating, verifying understanding and negotiating roles to achieve mutual understanding of the child's plan of care. The nurses' perceptions differed stylistically but not categorically from those of the parents. The addition of the nurse's perspectives to the verified TSC expands our understanding of this process of communication. With the integration of nurse and parent perspectives, the TSC can be used to enhance communication and care for hospitalized technology dependent children and their families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Recognition of facial emotions and theory of mind in schizophrenia: could the theory of mind deficit be due to the non-recognition of facial emotions?]. (United States)

    Besche-Richard, C; Bourrin-Tisseron, A; Olivier, M; Cuervo-Lombard, C-V; Limosin, F


    The deficits of recognition of facial emotions and attribution of mental states are now well-documented in schizophrenic patients. However, we don't clearly know about the link between these two complex cognitive functions, especially in schizophrenia. In this study, we attempted to test the link between the recognition of facial emotions and the capacities of mentalization, notably the attribution of beliefs, in health and schizophrenic participants. We supposed that the level of performance of recognition of facial emotions, compared to the working memory and executive functioning, was the best predictor of the capacities to attribute a belief. Twenty schizophrenic participants according to DSM-IVTR (mean age: 35.9 years, S.D. 9.07; mean education level: 11.15 years, S.D. 2.58) clinically stabilized, receiving neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication participated in the study. They were matched on age (mean age: 36.3 years, S.D. 10.9) and educational level (mean educational level: 12.10, S.D. 2.25) with 30 matched healthy participants. All the participants were evaluated with a pool of tasks testing the recognition of facial emotions (the faces of Baron-Cohen), the attribution of beliefs (two stories of first order and two stories of second order), the working memory (the digit span of the WAIS-III and the Corsi test) and the executive functioning (Trail Making Test A et B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test brief version). Comparing schizophrenic and healthy participants, our results confirmed a difference between the performances of the recognition of facial emotions and those of the attribution of beliefs. The result of the simple linear regression showed that the recognition of facial emotions, compared to the performances of working memory and executive functioning, was the best predictor of the performances in the theory of mind stories. Our results confirmed, in a sample of schizophrenic patients, the deficits in the recognition of facial emotions and in the

  3. Theory of planned behavior and knowledge sharing among nurses in patient computer management system: The role of distributive justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarminah Samad


    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between Theory of Planned Behavior and knowledge sharing among nurses in Patient Computer Management System. Consequently, it determined the moderating effect of distributive justice on the relationship between Theory Planned Behavior and knowledge sharing. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. The research was based on a correlational and cross-sectional study which involved a total of 336 nurses. Data was collected based on random sampling via self-administered questionnaires. Partial Least Squares (PLS (Version 3.0 analysis was used to analyze the data. The study revealed that Theory of Plan Behavior components were significantly related to knowledge sharing. These components were also found to have a significant and positive influence on knowledge sharing. The study revealed that distributive justice had significantly moderated the relationship between two components of Theory Planned Behavior (attitude and subjective norm and knowledge sharing.

  4. A comparative study of deficit pattern in theory of mind and emotion regulation methods in evaluating patients with bipolar disorder and normal individuals


    Ali Fakhari; Khalegh Minashiri; Abolfazl Fallahi; Mohammad Taher Panah


    BACKGROUND: This study compared patterns of deficit in "theory of mind" and "emotion regulation" in patientswith bipolar disorder and normal individuals. METHODS: In this causal-comparative study, subjects were 20 patients with bipolar disorder and 20 normalindividuals. Patients were selected via convenience sampling method among hospitalized patients at Razi hospital ofTabriz, Iran. The data was collected through two scales: Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and Emotion RegulationQuestionnai...

  5. Promoting self-care through symptom management: a theory-based approach for nurse practitioners. (United States)

    Fowler, Christopher; Kirschner, Michelle; Van Kuiken, Debra; Baas, Linda


    To present a theory of illness representation useful in clinical practice along with two case studies as examples of theory implementation. Literature review of relevant theory and associated literature, case studies from clinical practice. An individual asks several questions when experiencing a physical sensation: "Am I sick, stressed, or is this a sign of aging? If I'm sick, is the symptom connected with a disease label?" After asking these questions, the individual develops a cognitive and emotional illness representation that includes the dimensions of identity, cause, consequences, control, and timeline. This representation is guided by personal, cultural, and environmental contexts and determines coping strategies. By assessing the individual's cognitive and emotional representations of the illness, the nurse practitioner (NP) can use the common sense model of illness representation (CSM) to establish interventions and action plans helpful in decreasing distress in the management of symptoms. NPs frequently care for patients who present with very severe symptoms related to their health problem. This becomes a major challenge in effective disease management. Leventhal's CSM can be used as a framework to identify the cognitive and emotional illness representations individuals develop when acute and chronic symptoms are presented. By assessing the individual's cognitive and emotional representations of the illness, the NP will be able to use the CSM to establish interventions and action plans that will be helpful in decreasing the patient's distress in the management of symptoms.

  6. Applying the theory of planned behavior: nursing students' intention to seek clinical experiences using the essential clinical behavior database. (United States)

    Meyer, Linda


    This study examined the antecedents and determinants predictive of whether nursing students (N = 92) intend to ask for assignments to perform nursing behaviors after using a database to record essential clinical behaviors. The results of applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to behavioral intention using multivariant path analysis suggested that the endogenous variables, attitude and subjective norms, had a significant effect on the intention to ask for assignments to perform nursing behaviors. In addition, it was primarily through attitudes and subjective norms that the respective antecedents or exogenous variables, behavioral beliefs and normative beliefs, affected the intention to ask for assignments to perform nursing behaviors. The lack of direct influence of perceived behavioral control on intention and the direct negative impact of control belief on intention were contrary to expectations, given the tenets of the TPB.

  7. Nursing staff members' intentions to use physical restraints with older people: testing the theory of reasoned action. (United States)

    Werner, P; Mendelsson, G


    To examine nursing staff members' attitudes, subjective norms, moral obligations and intentions to use physical restraints, using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). During the last two decades an extensive body of research has examined nurses' attitudes as one of the main factors affecting the decision to use or not to use physical restraints with older persons. However, no studies have examined empirically the antecedents to nurses' intentions to use physical restraints within a theoretically based framework. A correlational design was used with 303 nursing staff members from an 800-bed elder care hospital in central Israel. Participants completed a questionnaire including questions based on the TRA as well as socio-demographic and professional characteristics. Regression analyses found attitudes, subjective norms and moral considerations to be significantly associated to intention to use physical restraints with older people. The TRA explained 48% of the variance in nurses' intentions. The TRA proved to be a useful framework for examining nurses' intentions to use physical restraints. Nurses' attitudes, beliefs and expectations of significant others should be examined before implementing educational programmes regarding the use of physical restraints.

  8. Nursing opinion leadership: a preliminary model derived from philosophic theories of rational belief. (United States)

    Anderson, Christine A; Whall, Ann L


    Opinion leaders are informal leaders who have the ability to influence others' decisions about adopting new products, practices or ideas. In the healthcare setting, the importance of translating new research evidence into practice has led to interest in understanding how opinion leaders could be used to speed this process. Despite continued interest, gaps in understanding opinion leadership remain. Agent-based models are computer models that have proven to be useful for representing dynamic and contextual phenomena such as opinion leadership. The purpose of this paper is to describe the work conducted in preparation for the development of an agent-based model of nursing opinion leadership. The aim of this phase of the model development project was to clarify basic assumptions about opinions, the individual attributes of opinion leaders and characteristics of the context in which they are effective. The process used to clarify these assumptions was the construction of a preliminary nursing opinion leader model, derived from philosophical theories about belief formation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. International Nursing: Research on the Correlation Between Empathy and China's Big Five Personality Theory: Implications for Nursing Leaders. (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Wu, Qin; Feng, Mei; Wan, Qunfang; Wu, Xiaoling

    To investigate the characteristics of nurses' empathy and explore the correlation between nurses' empathy and personality, a cross-sectional study with 250 nurses from a general hospital in China was conducted using the Chinese Big Five Personality Inventory (CBF-PI) and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Professionals (JSE-HP). The total score of the JSE-HP was 110.60 (SD = 11.71). Employment forms and child-rearing situations were the significant predictors of the JSE-HP score. Multiple hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the JSE-HP score was positively correlated with conscientiousness and agreeableness and the contribution of CBF-PI to JSE-HP scale variances was 15.1%. The results demonstrated that nurses' empathy is on the high level. The Big Five Personality model is a significant predictor of nurses' empathy. The findings of the study provide reference for nurses' humanistic care training and education. In addition, training programs emphasizing emotions, psychology, humanistic quality, and healthy personality should be strengthened to promote nurses' empathy.

  10. Using Self-Determination Theory to Understand Motivation Deficits in Schizophrenia: The ‘Why’ of Motivated Behavior (United States)

    Gard, David E.; Sanchez, Amy H.; Starr, Jessica; Cooper, Shanna; Fisher, Melissa; Rowlands, Abby; Vinogradov, Sophia


    Self-Determination Theory (SDT) provides a model for understanding motivation deficits in schizophrenia, and recent research has focused on problems with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT emphasizes that motivated behavior results from three different factors: intrinsic motivators (facilitated by needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness), extrinsic motivators (towards reward or away from punishment), or when intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are absent or thwarted a disconnect/disengagement occurs resulting in behavior driven by boredom or ‘passing time’. Using a novel approach to Ecological Momentary Assessment, we assessed the degree to which people with schizophrenia were motivated by these factors relative to healthy control participants. Forty-seven people with and 41 people without schizophrenia were provided with cell phones and were called four times a day for one week. On each call participants were asked about their goals, and about the most important reason motivating each goal. All responses were coded by independent raters (blind to group and hypotheses) on all SDT motivating factors, and ratings were correlated to patient functioning and symptoms. We found that, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported goals that were: 1) less motivated by filling autonomy and competency needs, but equivalently motivated by relatedness; 2) less extrinsically rewarding, but equivalently motivated by punishment; 3) more disconnected/disengaged. Higher disconnected/disengaged goals were significantly associated with higher negative symptoms and lower functioning. These findings indicate several important leverage points for behavioral treatments and suggest the need for vigorous psychosocial intervention focusing on autonomy, competence, and reward early in the course of illness. PMID:24853060

  11. Category-Specific Visual Recognition and Aging from the PACE Theory Perspective: Evidence for a Presemantic Deficit in Aging Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordaberry, Pierre; Gerlach, Christian; Lenoble, Quentin


    Background/Study Context: The objective of this study was to investigate the object recognition deficit in aging. Age-related declines were examined from the presemantic account of category effects (PACE) theory perspective (Gerlach, 2009, Cognition, 111, 281–301). This view assumes that the stru......Background/Study Context: The objective of this study was to investigate the object recognition deficit in aging. Age-related declines were examined from the presemantic account of category effects (PACE) theory perspective (Gerlach, 2009, Cognition, 111, 281–301). This view assumes...... that the structural similarity/dissimilarity inherent in living and nonliving objects, respectively, can account for a wide range of category-specific effects. Methods: In two experiments on object recognition, young (36 participants, 18–27 years) and older (36 participants, 53–69 years) adult participants...... in the selection stage of the PACE theory (visual long-term memory matching) could be responsible for these impairments. Indeed, the older group showed a deficit when this stage was most relevant. This article emphasize on the critical need for taking into account structural component of the stimuli and type...

  12. Triage of the autistic spectrum child utilizing the congruence of case management concepts and Orem's Nursing Theories. (United States)

    Oliver, Catherine J


    The purpose of this project was to design and implement a case management framework for the benefit of children diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). The process consisted of selecting two children exhibiting symptoms of an ASD and managing them across a continuum of care. Methodological structure was derived from case management standards of practice and Orem's Nursing Theories. Although some objectives sustained a slight delay because of variances, findings revealed successful outcomes based on progression toward measurable case management goals. The children were directed to appropriate school placements and habilitative therapies in an efficient manner. Their parents received support and education related to special needs children. The process yielded assurance that Orem's Nursing Theories and case management concepts articulate seamlessly within nursing care boundaries.

  13. Factors affecting nursing students' intention to report medication errors: An application of the theory of planned behavior. (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Sharon, Ira; Mahajna, Marlen; Mahajna, Sara


    Medication errors are common among nursing students. Nonetheless, these errors are often underreported. To examine factors related to nursing students' intention to report medication errors, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, and to examine whether the theory is useful in predicting students' intention to report errors. This study has a descriptive cross-sectional design. Study population was recruited in a university and a large nursing school in central and northern Israel. A convenience sample of 250 nursing students took part in the study. The students completed a self-report questionnaire, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The findings indicate that students' intention to report medication errors was high. The Theory of Planned Behavior constructs explained 38% of variance in students' intention to report medication errors. The constructs of behavioral beliefs, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were found as affecting this intention, while the most significant factor was behavioral beliefs. The findings also reveal that students' fear of the reaction to disclosure of the error from superiors and colleagues may impede them from reporting the error. Understanding factors related to reporting medication errors is crucial to designing interventions that foster error reporting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interventions to address deficits of pharmacological pain management in nursing home residents--A cluster-randomized trial. (United States)

    Könner, F; Budnick, A; Kuhnert, R; Wulff, I; Kalinowski, S; Martus, P; Dräger, D; Kreutz, R


    To evaluate the effect of interventions for general practitioners and nursing home staff to improve pain severity and appropriateness of pain medication in nursing home residents (NHR). This cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in six nursing homes in the intervention and control group, respectively. Pain management was analysed before (T0) and after (T1, T2) an educational intervention in 239 NHR, aged ≥65 years, without moderate or severe cognitive impairment. Primary and secondary outcomes were average pain severity and appropriateness of pain medication as determined with the Numeric Rating Scale and Pain Medication Appropriateness Scale (PMASD ), respectively. At T0, 72.2% and 73.7% of NHR (mean age 83 years) reported pain (average pain severity 2.4) in the intervention and control group, respectively. The PMASD at T0 was 53.9 in the intervention group and 60.8 in the control group (p = 0.12), while 20.6% compared to 6.9% (p = 0.009) received no pain medication in the two groups. At T2, non-significant improvements in the average pain severity (1.59) and PMASD (61.07) were observed in the intervention group. Moreover, the mean individual PMASD increased by 8.09 (p = 0.03) and the proportion of NHR without pain medication decreased by 50% (p = 0.03) in the intervention group. No appreciable changes were found in the control group at T2. NHR exhibited a high prevalence of pain with overall low severity, while a high proportion of individuals received inappropriate pain medications. Both findings were not significantly improved by the intervention, although some aspects of drug treatment were meaningful improved. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  15. Burnout Study of Clinical Nurses in Vietnam: Development of Job Burnout Model Based on Leiter and Maslach's Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Thi Thu Nguyen, RN, MPH


    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to create a Vietnamese version of both the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS and Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS to assess the burnout state of Vietnamese clinical nurses and to develop a causal model of burnout of clinical nurses. Methods: We conducted a descriptive design using a cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire was hand divided directly by nursing departments to 500 clinical nurses in three hospitals. Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were then examined for reliability and validity. We used the revised exhaustion +1 burnout classification to access burnout state. We performed path analysis to develop a Vietnamese causal model based on the original model by Leiter and Maslach's theory. Results: We found that both scales were reliable and valid for assessing burnout. Among nurse participants, the percentage of severe burnout was 0.7% and burnout was 15.8%, and 17.2% of nurses were exhausted. The best predictor of burnout was “on-duty work schedule” that clinical nurses have to work for 24 hours. In the causal model, we also found similarity and difference pathways in comparison with the original model. Conclusion: Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were applicable to research on occupational stress. Nearly one-fifth of Vietnamese clinical nurses were working in burnout state. The causal model suggested a range of factors resulting in burnout, and it is necessary to consider the specific solution to prevent burnout problem. Keywords: burnout, nurses, Vietnam

  16. Nursing students' attitudes about home health nursing. (United States)

    Prestia, Mindy; Murphy, Susan; Yoder, Marian


    In an effort to address the home care nursing shortage, this pilot study was designed to measure nursing students' attitudes toward home health nursing and to test the Home Health Attitude Questionnaire developed specifically for this study based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Senior undergraduate nursing students and registered nursing to bachelor of science in nursing students completed the questionnaire.

  17. The structure of contraceptive education and instruction within nurse led family planning clinics: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Hayter, Mark


    This study aimed to explore and analyse how nurses instruct women in contraceptive use during consultations in family planning clinics to produce a grounded theory of contraceptive education. Nurses play a key role in instructing women how to use contraception in family planning clinic consultations. These one-to-one situations are encounters where women are taught how to use contraceptive methods effectively. However, very little is known about the nature of these consultations. A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach was used. Three linked 'core categories' emerged from the data analysis. Firstly, women are educated about their body and how it responds to contraception: 'reproductive education'. This core category is closely linked to 'surveillance' where women are taught to monitor their reproductive health and to 'contraceptive regimen' where women are instructed in techniques to successfully use a contraceptive method. Together these three core categories present a grounded theory of 'contraceptive education'. Nursing practice in this important area of women's health care is complex and requires skilled practitioners. This study presents unique empirical data into how nurses conduct one-to-one consultations with women - providing a novel insight into how contraception is explained in clinical situations. Key issues for practice from the data were the lack of a balance when discussing side effects, the rigidity of some instructions and the lack of recognition of risk from sexually transmitted infection. Nurses working in sexual health need to ensure that women understand the often complex instructions they provide and that rigid instruction be occasionally amended to enable some flexibility. The manner in which side-effects are discussed should also be balanced. Nurses need to address the risk of sexually transmitted infections more substantially in contraceptive discussions.

  18. Perception of quality of care among residents of public nursing-homes in Spain: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Martínez-Andrés, María; Cervera-Monteagudo, Beatriz; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente


    The quality of care in nursing homes is weakly defined, and has traditionally focused on quantify nursing homes outputs and on comparison of nursing homes' resources. Rarely the point of view of clients has been taken into account. The aim of this study was to ascertain what means "quality of care" for residents of nursing homes. Grounded theory was used to design and analyze a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with a theoretical sampling including 20 persons aged over 65 years with no cognitive impairment and eight proxy informants of residents with cognitive impairment, institutionalized at a public nursing home in Spain. Our analysis revealed that participants perceived the quality of care in two ways, as aspects related to the persons providing care and as institutional aspects of the care's process. All participants agreed that aspects related to the persons providing care was a pillar of quality, something that, in turn, embodied a series of emotional and technical professional competences. Regarding the institutional aspects of the care's process, participants laid emphasis on round-the-clock access to health care services and on professional's job stability. This paper includes perspectives of the nursing homes residents, which are largely absent. Incorporating residents' standpoints as a complement to traditional institutional criteria would furnish health providers and funding agencies with key information when it came to designing action plans and interventions aimed at achieving excellence in health care.

  19. Social meanings and understandings in patient-nurse interaction in the community practice setting: a grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoddart Kathleen M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patient-nurse relationship is a traditional concern of healthcare research. However, patient-nurse interaction is under examined from a social perspective. Current research focuses mostly on specific contexts of care delivery and experience related to medical condition or illness, or to nurses’ speciality. Consequentially, this paper is about the social meanings and understandings at play within situated patient-nurse interaction in the community practice setting in a transforming healthcare service. Methods Grounded theory methodology was used and the research process was characterised by principles of theoretical sensitivity and constant comparative analysis. The field of study was four health centres in the community. The participants were patients and nurses representative of those attending or working in the health centres and meeting there by scheduled appointment. Data collection methods were observations, informal interviews and semi-structured interviews. Results Key properties of ‘Being a good patient, being a good nurse’, ‘Institutional experiences’ and ‘Expectations about healthcare’ were associated with the construction of a category entitled ‘Experience’. Those key properties captured that in an evolving healthcare environment individuals continually re-constructed their reality of being a patient or nurse as they endeavoured to perform appropriately; articulation of past and present healthcare experiences was important in that process. Modus operandi in role as patient was influenced by past experiences in healthcare and by those in non-healthcare institutions in terms of engagement and involvement (or not in interaction. Patients’ expectations about interaction in healthcare included some uncertainly as they strived to make sense of the changing roles and expertise of nurses and, differentiating between the roles and expertise of nurses and doctors. Conclusions The importance of social

  20. Negotiated reorienting: a grounded theory of nurses' end-of-life decision-making in the intensive care unit. (United States)

    Gallagher, Ann; Bousso, Regina Szylit; McCarthy, Joan; Kohlen, Helen; Andrews, Tom; Paganini, Maria Cristina; Abu-El-Noor, Nasser Ibrahim; Cox, Anna; Haas, Margit; Arber, Anne; Abu-El-Noor, Mysoon Khalil; Baliza, Michelle Freire; Padilha, Katia Grillo


    Intensive care units (ICUs) focus on treatment for those who are critically ill and interventions to prolong life. Ethical issues arise when decisions have to be made regarding the withdrawal and withholding of life-sustaining treatment and the shift to comfort and palliative care. These issues are particularly challenging for nurses when there are varying degrees of uncertainty regarding prognosis. Little is known about nurses' end-of-life (EoL) decision-making practice across cultures. To understand nurses' EoL decision-making practices in ICUs in different cultural contexts. We collected and analysed qualitative data using Grounded Theory. Interviews were conducted with experienced ICU nurses in university or hospital premises in five countries: Brazil, England, Germany, Ireland and Palestine. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 51 nurses (10 in Brazil, 9 in England, 10 in Germany, 10 in Ireland and 12 nurses in Palestine). They were purposefully and theoretically selected to include nurses having a variety of characteristics and experiences concerning end-of-life (EoL) decision-making. The study used grounded theory to inform data collection and analysis. Interviews were facilitated by using key questions. The comparative analysis of the data within and across data generated by the different research teams enabled researchers to develop a deeper understanding of EoL decision-making practices in the ICU. Ethical approval was granted in each of the participating countries and voluntary informed consent obtained from each participant. The core category that emerged was 'negotiated reorienting'. Whilst nurses do not make the 'ultimate' EoL decisions, they engage in two core practices: consensus seeking (involving coaxing, information cuing and voice enabling); and emotional holding (creating time-space and comfort giving). There was consensus regarding the core concept and core practices employed by nurses in the ICUs in the five countries. However

  1. Nurse plant theory and its application in ecological restoration in lower subtropics of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Ren; Long Yang; Nan Liu


    Nurse plants are those that facilitate the growth and development of other plant species (target species) beneath their canopy because they offer benign microhabitats that are more favorable for seed germination and/or seedling recruitment than their surrounding envi-ronment. Nurse plants have been mainly used to restore vegetation in arid and sub-arid zones in recent years. Based on summarizing the definition of nurse plant and target plant, we review the nursing effect mechanisms, ecological factors that influence nursing effect, relationships between nurse plant and ecological restoration. This review also brings forward possible pairs of nurse and target species at lower subtropical areas. Furthermore, we provide the potential tendency in nurse plant research and application.

  2. Toward a Middle-Range Theory of Weight Management. (United States)

    Pickett, Stephanie; Peters, Rosalind M; Jarosz, Patricia A


    The authors of this paper present the middle-range theory of weight management that focuses on cultural, environmental, and psychosocial factors that influence behaviors needed for weight control. The theory of weight management was developed deductively from Orem's theory of self-care, a constituent theory within the broader self-care deficit nursing theory and from research literature. Linkages between the conceptual and middle-range theory concepts are illustrated using a substruction model. The development of the theory of weight management serves to build nursing science by integrating extant nursing theory and empirical knowledge. This theory may help predict weight management in populations at risk for obesity-related disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Developing skills learning in obstetric nursing: approaches between theory and practice. (United States)

    Lima, Maria de Fátima Gomes; Pequeno, Alice Maria Correia; Rodrigues, Dafne Paiva; Carneiro, Cleide; Morais, Ana Patrícia Pereira; Negreiros, Francisca Diana da Silva


    To analyze the development of professional skills in an obstetric nursing graduate course. Qualitative research, applying semi-structured interviews with 11 students in the obstetric nursing specialization at the State University of Ceará. Data was submitted to thematic review. According to the subjects, the course offers the development of skills to strengthen and expand the range of activities in obstetric nursing. Despite relying on previous knowledge and experience acquired by the students, there is a gap between the content taught and internship practice, presented as challenges and difficulties faced by the students. The findings suggest a need for curricular revision, incorporating active teaching-learning methodologies, to overcome the disjunction between theory and practice. Students are part of a corpus that is potentially implicated in the construction and transformation of thoughts and values set forth by educational and health institutions, and it is necessary to make changes in political and social organizations, with a focus on providing comprehensive and egalitarian care to the population. Analisar o desenvolvimento de competências profissionais em curso de pós-graduação em Enfermagem Obstétrica. Pesquisa qualitativa, utilizando entrevista semiestruturada com 11 egressos da especialização em Enfermagem Obstétrica da Universidade Estadual do Ceará. Dados submetidos à análise temática. Na ótica dos sujeitos, o curso confere o desenvolvimento de competências que fortalecem e ampliam o campo de atuação da enfermagem obstétrica. Embora resgate o conhecimento prévio dos discentes e as experiências vivenciadas, há distanciamento entre conteúdos ministrados e a prática de estágios, apresentados como desafios e dificuldades enfrentadas pelos egressos. Os achados sugerem revisão curricular, incorporando as metodologias ativas de ensino-aprendizagem, superando a fragmentação entre teoria e prática. Os egressos se constituem em um

  4. A Grounded theory study of the intention of nurses to leave the profession. (United States)

    Alilu, Leyla; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Habibzadeh, Hosein; Gillespie, Mark


    this study explores the process of the development of an intention to leave bedside nursing. the process was studied from the perspective of 21 nurses using the grounded theory method. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and the constant comparative method of Corbin and Strauss was used for data analysis. according to the participants, the two main categories, "social image of nursing", and "culture and structure of the bedside", were the contextual factors that influence why nurses are leaving bedside care provision. Disappointment with a perceived lack of progress or improvement in the clinical experience formed primary psychosocial concerns for the participants. Competence and a process of self-control were steps taken by the participants. These, associated with interventional conditions produced the outcomes of the loss of professional commitment and desire to leave bedside nursing. "Failure to integrate personal expectations with organizational expectations: in search of escape" was the central category of the study that linked the categories together. the findings of this study provide useful information about the needs of nurses for overcoming the intention to leave bedside care. The identification of this process can help in recognizing emerging problems and providing solutions for them. este estudo explora o processo de desenvolvimento da intenção de deixar a enfermagem de cabeceira. o processo foi estudado desde a perspectiva de 21 enfermeiras utilizando o método da Grounded Theory (Teoria Fundamentada). Os dados foram coletados utilizando entrevistas semi-estruturadas e o método comparativo constante de Corbin e Strauss se utilizou para analisar os dados. segundo os participantes, duas categorias principais, "imagem social da enfermagem" e "cultura e estrutura de cabeceira", foram os fatores contextuais que influenciam as razões para que as enfermeiras estejam deixando o cuidado de cabeceira. A decepção com a percepção de falta

  5. Examining Harasim's Online Collaborative Learning Theory for Nursing Education (United States)

    Breen, Henny


    Online nursing education has been evolving at a rapid pace as it is recognized as offering the flexibility needed for practicing associate degree (ADN) and diploma prepared Registered Nurses to return to school to earn their BSN. At the same time, there is a paradigm shift in how nursing education is delivered. The focus has shifted from content…

  6. Behavioral and multimodal neuroimaging evidence for a deficit in brain timing networks in stuttering: A hypothesis and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Etchell


    Full Text Available The fluent production of speech requires accurately timed movements. In this article, we propose that a deficit in brain timing networks is the core neurophysiological deficit in stuttering. We first discuss the experimental evidence supporting the involvement of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area in stuttering and the involvement of the cerebellum as a mechanism for compensating for the neural deficits that underlie stuttering. Next, we outline the involvement of the right inferior frontal gyrus as another putative compensatory locus in stuttering and suggest a role for this structure in an expanded core timing-network. Subsequently, we review behavioral studies of timing in people who stutter and examine their behavioral performance as compared to people who do not stutter. Finally, we highlight challenges to existing research and provide avenues for future research with specific hypotheses.

  7. Using theory and evidence to drive measurement of patient, nurse and organizational outcomes of professional nursing practice. (United States)

    Jeffs, Lianne; Sidani, Souraya; Rose, Donald; Espin, Sherry; Smith, Orla; Martin, Kirsten; Byer, Charlie; Fu, Kaiyan; Ferris, Ella


    An evolving body of literature suggests that the implementation of evidence based clinical and professional guidelines and strategies can improve patient care. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the effect of implementation of guidelines on outcomes, particularly patient outcomes. To address this gap, a measurement framework was developed to assess the impact of an organization-wide implementation of two nursing-centric best-practice guidelines on patient, nurse and organizational level outcomes. From an implementation standpoint, we anticipate that our data will show improvements in the following: (i) patient satisfaction scores and safety outcomes; (ii) nurses ability to value and engage in evidence based practice; and (iii) organizational support for evidence-informed nursing care that results in quality patient outcomes. Our measurement framework and multifaceted methodological approach outlined in this paper might serve as a blueprint for other organizations in their efforts to evaluate the impacts associated with implementation of clinical and professional guidelines and best practices. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. How do nurse academics value and engage with evidence-based practice across Australia: Findings from a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Malik, Gulzar; McKenna, Lisa; Griffiths, Debra


    Integrating evidence-based practice (EBP) into undergraduate education and preparing future nurses to embrace EBP in clinical practice becomes paramount in today's complex and evolving healthcare environment. The role that EBP plays in the practical lives of nursing students will depend on the degree to which it is promoted by academics, how it is incorporated into courses and its application to clinical setting. Hence, nursing academics play a crucial role in influencing its integration into curricula. Drawn from a larger doctoral study, this paper presents findings discussing how nurse academics value and engage with EBP. Grounded theory was employed to explore processes used by nursing academics while incorporating EBP into teaching and learning practices. Twenty-three academics across Australian universities were interviewed. Nine were also observed while teaching undergraduate students. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation. In keeping with the tenets of grounded theory, data collection and analysis continued until theoretical saturation was reached. In total, four categories emerged. This paper focuses on the category conceptualised as Valuing and Engaging with EBP. How nursing academics valued and engaged with EBP was closely associated with meanings they constructed around understanding it, attitudes and commitment to implementation while teaching and working clinically. Different opinions also existed in regard to what actually constituted EBP. However, they engaged with and valued EBP by keeping themselves up-to-date, being involved in research activities, using evidence in teaching, therefore leading by example. Participants identified a number of barriers influencing their engagement with EBP including heavy workloads, limited time, lack of commitment within their schools, lack of confidence with teaching EBP, and complexity of EBP application. Faculty clinical practice, committed academics, workload

  9. Nursing Theory, Terminology, and Big Data: Data-Driven Discovery of Novel Patterns in Archival Randomized Clinical Trial Data. (United States)

    Monsen, Karen A; Kelechi, Teresa J; McRae, Marion E; Mathiason, Michelle A; Martin, Karen S

    The growth and diversification of nursing theory, nursing terminology, and nursing data enable a convergence of theory- and data-driven discovery in the era of big data research. Existing datasets can be viewed through theoretical and terminology perspectives using visualization techniques in order to reveal new patterns and generate hypotheses. The Omaha System is a standardized terminology and metamodel that makes explicit the theoretical perspective of the nursing discipline and enables terminology-theory testing research. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the approach by exploring a large research dataset consisting of 95 variables (demographics, temperature measures, anthropometrics, and standardized instruments measuring quality of life and self-efficacy) from a theory-based perspective using the Omaha System. Aims were to (a) examine the Omaha System dataset to understand the sample at baseline relative to Omaha System problem terms and outcome measures, (b) examine relationships within the normalized Omaha System dataset at baseline in predicting adherence, and (c) examine relationships within the normalized Omaha System dataset at baseline in predicting incident venous ulcer. Variables from a randomized clinical trial of a cryotherapy intervention for the prevention of venous ulcers were mapped onto Omaha System terms and measures to derive a theoretical framework for the terminology-theory testing study. The original dataset was recoded using the mapping to create an Omaha System dataset, which was then examined using visualization to generate hypotheses. The hypotheses were tested using standard inferential statistics. Logistic regression was used to predict adherence and incident venous ulcer. Findings revealed novel patterns in the psychosocial characteristics of the sample that were discovered to be drivers of both adherence (Mental health Behavior: OR = 1.28, 95% CI [1.02, 1.60]; AUC = .56) and incident venous ulcer (Mental health Behavior

  10. How to achieve the desired outcomes of advance care planning in nursing homes: a theory of change. (United States)

    Gilissen, J; Pivodic, L; Gastmans, C; Vander Stichele, R; Deliens, L; Breuer, E; Van den Block, L


    Advance care planning (ACP) has been identified as particularly relevant for nursing home residents, but it remains unclear how or under what circumstances ACP works and can best be implemented in such settings. We aimed to develop a theory that outlines the hypothetical causal pathway of ACP in nursing homes, i.e. what changes are expected, by means of which processes and under what circumstances. The Theory of Change approach is a participatory method of programme design and evaluation whose underlying intention is to improve understanding of how and why a programme works. It results in a Theory of Change map that visually represents how, why and under what circumstances ACP is expected to work in nursing home settings in Belgium. Using this approach, we integrated the results of two workshops with stakeholders (n = 27) with the results of a contextual analysis and a systematic literature review. We identified two long-term outcomes that ACP can achieve: to improve the correspondence between residents’ wishes and the care/treatment they receive and to make sure residents and their family feel involved in planning their future care and are confident their care will be according to their wishes. Besides willingness on the part of nursing home management to implement ACP and act accordingly, other necessary preconditions are identified and put in chronological order. These preconditions serve as precursors to, or requirements for, accomplishing successful ACP. Nine original key intervention components with specific rationales are identified at several levels (resident/family, staff or nursing home) to target the preconditions: selection of a trainer, ensuring engagement by management, training ACP reference persons, in-service education for healthcare staff, information for staff, general practitioners, residents and their family, ACP conversations and documentation, regular reflection sessions, multidisciplinary meetings, and formal monitoring. The Theory of

  11. Exploration of the affordances of mobile devices in integrating theory and clinical practice in an undergraduate nursing programme. (United States)

    Willemse, Juliana J; Bozalek, Vivienne


    Promoting the quality and effectiveness of nursing education is an important factor, given the increased demand for nursing professionals. It is important to establish learning environments that provide personalised guidance and feedback to students about their practical skills and application of their theoretical knowledge. To explore and describe the knowledge and points of view of students and educators about introduction of new technologies into an undergraduate nursing programme. The qualitative design used Tesch's (1990) steps of descriptive data analysis to complete thematic analysis of the data collected in focus group discussions (FGDs) and individual interviews to identify themes. Themes identified from the students’ FGDs and individual interviews included: mobile devices as a communication tool; email, WhatsApp and Facebook as methods of communication; WhatsApp as a method of communication; nurses as role-models in the clinical setting; setting personal boundaries; and impact of mobile devices in clinical practice on professionalism. Themes identified from the FGD, individual interviews and a discussion session held with educators included: peer learning via mobile devices; email, WhatsApp and Facebook as methods of communication; the mobile device as a positive learning method; students need practical guidance; and ethical concerns in clinical facilities about Internet access and use of mobile devices. The research project established an understanding of the knowledge and points of view of students and educators regarding introduction of new technologies into an undergraduate nursing programme with the aim of enhancing integration of theory and clinical practice through use of mobile devices.

  12. [Nursing care of a school-age child with asthma: an ecological system theory approach]. (United States)

    Tzeng, Yu-Fen; Gau, Bih-Shya


    This research applied the Ecological System Theory of Dr. Bronfenbrenner (1979) to evaluate and analyze the impact of a school-age asthmatic child's ecological environment on the child's development. This project ran from March 16th to April 16th, 2010. A full range of data was collected during clinical care, outpatient follow-up services, telephone interviews, home visits, and school visits and then identified and analyzed. Results indicated that the family, household environment, campus, teachers, classmates, physical education program, and medical staffs comprised the most immediate microsystem and that parents, school nurses, teachers, and classmates formed the child's mesosystem. Researchers found a lack of understanding and appreciation in the mesosystem regarding asthmatic patient care needs. Hidden factors in the environment induced asthma, which eventually caused the child to be unable to obtain necessary medical care assistance. The exosystem reflected adequacy of the family social economy. The father's flexible working hours allowed him to allocate more time to childcare responsibilities. The government Asthma Medical Payment program also facilitated effective care. The macrosystem demonstrated parental cognition related to asthma treatment and caring to be deeply influenced by local customs. Thus, rather than using advanced medical treatments, parents preferred to follow traditional Chinese medicinal practices. Evaluation using the Ecological of Human Development Theory showed the subject's ecology environment relationships as based upon a foundation of family and school. Therefore, active family and school support for an asthma management plan appropriate to the subject's needs was critical. Asthma symptoms were better controlled after the child and his parents invested greater effort in mastering asthma management protocols.

  13. Understanding cancer patients' reflections on good nursing care in light of Antonovsky's theory. (United States)

    Kvåle, Kirsti; Synnes, Oddgeir


    Data from an empirical study about cancer patients' perception of good caring are analysed in the light of Antonovsky's theory. The aim was to reflect on whether and how health personnel by giving good care, can function as vital resources at cancer patients disposal in activating their General Resistance Resources (GRRs) in a stressful life situation, and by that contribute to promotion and maintenance of their sense of coherence. A hermeneutical approach was chosen for analysing the data. The informants were cancer patients in an oncology ward in a regional hospital in Norway. Twenty patients were interviewed, ten women and ten men. The patients had various cancer diagnoses at different stages and had different prognoses. The findings indicate that most of the patients succeeded in activating their GRRs in dealing with the stressor. Nurses, doctors, family and friends can be seen to function as vital resources at their disposal when needed. Most likely good caring supported the patient's promotion and maintenance of the components of meaningfulness, comprehensibility and manageability which form the concept sense of coherence (SOC). Health personnel can support the patients' meaningfulness by listening to the patients' stories about what still gives them meaning in life and their comprehensibility by giving good information. Alleviation of physical suffering may promote and maintain their manageability. Because all three components are intertwined, it is important to focus on all of them when caring for cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of community mental health nurses caring for people with schizophrenia in Taiwan: a substantive grounded theory. (United States)

    Huang, Xuan-Yi; Yen, Wen-Jiuan; Liu, Shwu-Jiuan; Lin, Chouh-Jiuan


    The aim was to develop a practice theory that can be used to guide the direction of community nursing practice to help clients with schizophrenia and those who care for them. Substantive grounded theory was developed through use of grounded theory method of Strauss and Corbin. Two groups of participants in Taiwan were selected using theoretical sampling: one group consisted of community mental health nurses and the other group was clients with schizophrenia and those who cared for them. The number of participants in each group was determined by theoretical saturation. Semi-structured one-to-one in-depth interviews and unstructured non-participant observation were utilized for data collection. Data analysis involved three stages: open, axial and selective coding. During the process of coding and analysis, both inductive and deductive thinking were utilized and the constant comparative analysis process continued until data saturation occurred. To establish trustworthiness, the four criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability were followed along with field trial, audit trial, member check and peer debriefing for reliability and validity. A substantive grounded theory, the role of community mental health nurses caring for people with schizophrenia in Taiwan, was developed through utilization of grounded theory method of Strauss and Corbin. In this paper, results and discussion focus on causal conditions, context, intervening conditions, consequences and phenomenon. The theory is the first to contribute knowledge about the field of mental health home visiting services in Taiwan to provide guidance for the delivery of quality care to assist people in the community with schizophrenia and their carers.

  15. [Applying the human dignity ideals of Confucianism and Kant to psychiatric nursing: from theory to practice]. (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Hsiu; Lee, Shui-Chuen; Lee, Shu-Chen


    Literature articles and clinical observation suggest disease and environmental factors as primary causes of the low self-esteem and stigmatization that typify most psychiatric patients. These patients are at risk of injury when subjected to inappropriate physical restraint. Hospital staffs, including nurses, are in immediate and close contact with psychiatric patients. Mencius's and Kant's thoughts on human dignity can enhance reflections on clinical nursing practices. Mencius's belief that preserving life is not the most desirable thing and death is not the most hated thing can help nurses realize the human dignity of psychiatric patients by understanding that, as an unrighteous act is more detestable than death, the meaning and value of righteousness are greater than life itself. In light of Kant's views on human dignity, nurses should treat patients as goals rather than means. Exploring such ideas can raise nursing quality, restore a positive sense of humanity to psychiatric patients, and develop nursing values and meaning to a higher plane.

  16. Using Systems Theory to Examine Patient and Nurse Structures, Processes, and Outcomes in Centralized and Decentralized Units. (United States)

    Real, Kevin; Fay, Lindsey; Isaacs, Kathy; Carll-White, Allison; Schadler, Aric


    This study utilizes systems theory to understand how changes to physical design structures impact communication processes and patient and staff design-related outcomes. Many scholars and researchers have noted the importance of communication and teamwork for patient care quality. Few studies have examined changes to nursing station design within a systems theory framework. This study employed a multimethod, before-and-after, quasi-experimental research design. Nurses completed surveys in centralized units and later in decentralized units ( N = 26 pre , N = 51 post ). Patients completed surveys ( N = 62 pre ) in centralized units and later in decentralized units ( N = 49 post ). Surveys included quantitative measures and qualitative open-ended responses. Patients preferred the decentralized units because of larger single-occupancy rooms, greater privacy/confidentiality, and overall satisfaction with design. Nurses had a more complex response. Nurses approved the patient rooms, unit environment, and noise levels in decentralized units. However, they reported reduced access to support spaces, lower levels of team/mentoring communication, and less satisfaction with design than in centralized units. Qualitative findings supported these results. Nurses were more positive about centralized units and patients were more positive toward decentralized units. The results of this study suggest a need to understand how system components operate in concert. A major contribution of this study is the inclusion of patient satisfaction with design, an important yet overlooked fact in patient satisfaction. Healthcare design researchers and practitioners may consider how changing system interdependencies can lead to unexpected changes to communication processes and system outcomes in complex systems.

  17. Deficits of cognitive theory of mind and its relationship with functioning in individuals with an at-risk mental state and first-episode psychosis. (United States)

    Ohmuro, Noriyuki; Katsura, Masahiro; Obara, Chika; Kikuchi, Tatsuo; Sakuma, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Hamaie, Yumiko; Ito, Fumiaki; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori


    Disturbance of theory of mind (ToM) and its relationship with functioning in schizophrenia is well documented; however, this is unclear in spectrum disorders like at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP). To assess mental state reasoning ability, the total score of the Theory of Mind Picture Stories Task questionnaire was compared among 36 Japanese individuals with ARMS, 40 with FEP, and 25 healthy controls (HC). Pearson's correlations between ToM performance and global and social functioning indices were examined. ToM performance for FEP and ARMS subjects was significantly lower than that for HC, though the significance of the difference between the ARMS and HC disappeared when controlling for premorbid IQ. ToM deficits in ARMS subjects were confirmed only in the comprehension of higher-order false belief. Only among FEP subjects were ToM performance and global functioning significantly correlated, though the significance disappeared when controlling for neurocognitive performance or dose of antipsychotics. No significant correlation between ToM performance and social functioning was observed in the FEP and ARMS groups. The current findings suggest that ToM deficits emerge in ARMS subjects confined within a higher-order domain, and that the relationship between ToM impairment and functional deterioration might be established after psychosis onset. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The critical factors that influence faculty attitudes and perceptions of teaching English as Second Language nursing students: A grounded theory research study. (United States)

    Starkey, Traci J


    As the demographics of the United States change, nursing will need to become more ethnically diverse in order to provide culturally responsive healthcare. Enrollment of English as Second Language nursing students is increasing; however, these students often encounter academic difficulties. The increase in English as Second Language nursing students in the classroom and clinical setting has posed challenges for nurse faculty. To explore the critical factors that influence faculty attitudes and perceptions of teaching English as Second Language nursing students. A grounded theory method based on the philosophical underpinnings of symbolic interactionism and pragmatism was used to explore the critical factors that influence faculty attitudes and perceptions of teaching English as Second Language nursing students. The study took place at various schools of nursing in the Southeast Florida area. Educators teaching in an associate, baccalaureate, and/or graduate nursing program at an accredited school of nursing. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group were conducted to collect data from nurse faculty. Data segments from interviews were coded, categorized, and analyzed. Theoretical sampling and a focus group interview were used to validate the concepts, themes, and categories identified during the individual interviews. A substantive level theory was developed. The core category that developed was conscientization. The three dominant categories that emerged from the data were overcoming, coming to know, and facilitating. The theoretical framework of conscientization provided an explanation of the social processes involved in teaching English as Second Language nursing students. The theoretical framework developed from this study can be used to increase the effectiveness of teaching English as Second Language nursing students, improve their chances of success, and enhance diversity in the nursing profession. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of Nurse's Clinical Education Performance based on Work Theory and The Indicator of Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinalesti Mahanani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical Learning is a process of transformation of the student to become a professional nurse. Clinical Nurse Educator contributes to improve the quality of clinical learning because of variety of roles ranging from planning, implementing and evaluating learning clinical practice. Improving the quality of clinical practice learning, can be reached by improving the performance of Clinical Nurse Educator. The aim of this study was to know the effect of psychological variables and organizational variables to the competence and performance of Clinical Nurse Educators. Sample was Clinical Nurse Educators who work inpatient wards at Kediri Baptist Hospital inpatient wards. Method: This study was conducted in two stages. Phase I measure the competence and performance of Clinical Nurse Educator by Supervisor and students, as well as psychological variables and organizational variables by using questionnaires. Phase II was done by Focused Group Discussion to discuss about the variables that affect Clinical Nurse Educator performance. Data processed using Partial Least Square with α = 0.05, path coefficient = 0.5 and t table = 1.96. Result: The results of this research is showed that Performance Nurse Educator can be improved by increasing Individual Competence with path coefficient= 0.600 and t = 6.741. The individual competence will be increase by improving pscychological aspect nurse educator such as perception, personal aspect, motivation, learning skill and attitude with path coefficient = 0.518 and t = 2.715. Psycological Aspect can be increasing by improving Organization Variable such as Organization Resource, Salary, Organization Structure and Job Description with path coefficient = 0.825 and t = 19.658. Discussion: The conclusion of this result that increase of nurse educator competence and performance can be effort by improving psycological aspect and organizational variable Keywords: competence, performance, clinical nurse

  20. The applied philosopher-scientist: Intersections among phenomenological research, nursing science, and theory as a basis for practice aimed at facilitating boys' healing from being bullied. (United States)

    Willis, Danny G; Grace, Pamela J


    This article uses an exemplar of phenomenological research of middle school boys, experiences of being bullied as applied philosophy and science to illuminate the intersection of the moral and scientific realms for theory-oriented research and practice. As a consequence, a clear foundation for advancing nursing science and envisioning innovative nursing practice with boys who experience being bullied is provided. Included is a weaving together of phenomenological perspective for research and practice, Roger's (nursing) Science of Unitary Human Beings (SUHB), and SUHB-derived middle range theories of self-transcendence and power.

  1. A Multiple Case Study Approach to Explore Generational Theory to Enhance Online Continuing Nursing Education (United States)

    Foecke, Jan


    Nurses are expected to participate in ongoing professional development, whether that is higher education to obtain another degree or continuing nursing education (CNE) to enhance knowledge or skills, maintain licensure, and/or maintain certification. Because there are generational differences that can affect adult education, learning preferences…

  2. Pierre Bourdieu's Theory of Practice offers nurses a framework to uncover embodied knowledge of patients living with disabilities or illnesses: A discussion paper. (United States)

    Oerther, Sarah; Oerther, Daniel B


    To discuss how Bourdieu's theory of practice can be used by nurse researchers to better uncover the embodied knowledge of patients living with disability and illness. Bourdieu's theory of practice has been used in social and healthcare researches. This theory emphasizes that an individual's everyday practices are not always explicit and mediated by language, but instead an individual's everyday practices are often are tacit and embodied. Discussion paper. Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS were searched for concepts from Bourdieu's theory that was used to understand embodied knowledge of patients living with disability and illness. The literature search included articles from 2003 - 2017. Nurse researchers should use Bourdieu's theory of practice to uncover the embodied knowledge of patients living with disability and illness, and nurse researchers should translate these discoveries into policy recommendations and improved evidence-based best practice. The practice of nursing should incorporate an understanding of embodied knowledge to support disabled and ill patients as these patients modify "everyday practices" in the light of their disabilities and illnesses. Bourdieu's theory enriches nursing because the theory allows for consideration of both the objective and the subjective through the conceptualization of capital, habitus and field. Uncovering individuals embodied knowledge is critical to implement best practices that assist patients as they adapt to bodily changes during disability and illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Factors influencing how senior nurses and midwives acquire and integrate coaching skills into routine practice: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Rafferty, Rae; Fairbrother, Greg


    To introduce a theory which describes the process of and explicates the factors moderating, the acquisition and integration of leadership coaching skills into the routine practice of senior nurses and midwives. Organizations invest significant resources in leadership coaching programs to ensure that coaching is embedded as a core function of the manager's role. However, even after training, many managers remain unable to undertake this role successfully. The process by which health professionals translate 'manager as coach' training into successful practice outcomes, has remained largely unexplored. A grounded theory study design. Data, collected between February 2012-May 2013, included in-depth interviews with 20 senior nurses and midwives who had attended a leadership coaching program and analysis of nine reflective practice journals. Multiple researchers coded and analysed the data using constant comparative techniques. The outcomes of coaching training ranged from inappropriate use of the coaching skills through to transformed managerial practice. These outcomes were influenced by the dynamic interaction of three central domains of the emergent theoretical model: pre-existing individual perceptions, program elements and contemporaneous experiences. Interactions occurred within the domains and between them, impacting on activators such as courage, motivation, commitment and confidence. The study offers new insights into how senior nurses and midwives acquire and integrate coaching skills into their routine practice. The process is described as multifactorial and dynamic and has implications for the training design, delivery and organizational support of future leadership coaching programs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Towards an understanding of the attributes of simulation that enable learning in undergraduate nurse education: A grounded theory study. (United States)

    Bland, Andrew J; Tobbell, Jane


    Simulation has become an established feature of nurse education yet little is understood about the mechanisms that lead to learning. To explore the attributes of simulation-based education that enable student learning in undergraduate nurse education. Final year students drawn from one UK University (n=46) participated in a grounded theory study. First, nonparticipant observation and video recording of student activity was undertaken. Following initial analysis, recordings and observations were deconstructed during focus group interviews that enabled both the researcher and participants to unpack meaning. Lastly emergent findings were verified with final year students drawn from a second UK University (n=6). A staged approach to learning emerged from engagement in simulation. This began with initial hesitation as students moved through nonlinear stages to making connections and thinking like a nurse. Core findings suggest that simulation enables curiosity and intellect (main concern) through doing (core category) and interaction with others identified as social collaboration (category). This study offers a theoretical basis for understanding simulation-based education and integration of strategies that maximise the potential for learning. Additionally it offers direction for further research, particularly with regards to how the application of theory to practice is accelerated through learning by doing and working collaboratively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conceptualization of competency based curricula in pre-service nursing and midwifery education: A grounded theory approach. (United States)

    Muraraneza, Claudine; Mtshali, Gloria Ntombifikile


    In health professional education, the competency-based curriculum concept has been an important driver of reform in the training of competent graduates for the 21st century. In African countries, although there has been implementing it in pre-service nursing and midwifery education and the literature reports a lack of understanding of what is it on the part of the implementers. This article explores the meaning of competency based curriculum in pre-service nursing and midwifery education in Rwanda. A grounded theory approach, following Corbin and Strauss, was used. Following ethical clearance by the university ethical committee, data was collected from 17 participants through in-depth individual interviews of staff. Four categories emerged: (a) transformation, (b) tool for primary health care philosophy, (c) technological approach to education, (d) and modular system. Competency-based curriculum is confirmed as an appropriate educational tool in producing competent graduates for today and the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing nursing care plans. (United States)

    Ballantyne, Helen


    This article aims to enhance nurses' understanding of nursing care plans, reflecting on the past, present and future use of care planning. This involves consideration of the central theories of nursing and discussion of nursing models and the nursing process. An explanation is provided of how theories of nursing may be applied to care planning, in combination with clinical assessment tools, to ensure that care plans are context specific and patient centred.

  7. A performative and poetical narrative of critical social theory in nursing education: an ending and threshold of social justice. (United States)

    Lapum, Jennifer; Hamzavi, Neda; Veljkovic, Katarina; Mohamed, Zubaida; Pettinato, Adriana; Silver, Sarabeth; Taylor, Elizabeth


    In this article, a poetical and performative narrative is shared to examine how the use of stories to critically self-reflect on oppression facilitates an understanding of critical social theory in nursing education and impacts social justice. A fusion of prose with a poetical narrative is employed; the latter is reserved to capture the immediacy of personal, emotive, and embodied storied experiences. This deeply intimate and dialogical story begins with a pedagogical experiment created to facilitate nursing students' understanding of critical social theory. Drawing upon Paulo Freire's work, the nursing teacher in a professional development course attempted to deconstruct power relations and cultivate an open and safe learning environment by sharing a poem that depicts her oppression. Students then anonymously wrote a word/statement about their oppression. The teacher created a composite poem from students' words and shared it with the class; it was a powerful moment that highlighted their shared humanity. As a way to further explore stories and consider how to preserve these words, a small group of students and the teacher formed the 'the oppression group'. Towards the end, we conclude an unfinished story by realizing that the chains of oppression are loosening and humanity is surfacing. There is still a camouflaging of an authentic self. There are still stories to be told. The group is not yet certain if a social representation of an authentic self is possible and if all stories can be told. It has become apparent that the personal can play out in social justice as enacted in the classroom between teacher and students and provides an entry point into the development of the capacity to be social agents in nursing. The group simultaneously concludes the story with both an ending and a threshold of social justice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. "Keeping on track"-Hospital nurses' struggles with maintaining workflow while seeking to integrate evidence-based practice into their daily work: A grounded theory study. (United States)

    Renolen, Åste; Høye, Sevald; Hjälmhult, Esther; Danbolt, Lars Johan; Kirkevold, Marit


    Evidence-based practice is considered a foundation for the provision of quality care and one way to integrate scientific knowledge into clinical problem-solving. Despite the extensive amount of research that has been conducted to evaluate evidence-based practice implementation and research utilization, these practices have not been sufficiently incorporated into nursing practice. Thus, additional research regarding the challenges clinical nurses face when integrating evidence-based practice into their daily work and the manner in which these challenges are approached is needed. The aim of this study was to generate a theory about the general patterns of behaviour that are discovered when clinical nurses attempt to integrate evidence-based practice into their daily work. We used Glaser's classical grounded theory methodology to generate a substantive theory. The study was conducted in two different medical wards in a large Norwegian hospital. In one ward, nurses and nursing assistants were developing and implementing new evidence-based procedures, and in the other ward, evidence-based huddle boards for risk assessment were being implemented. A total of 54 registered nurses and 9 assistant nurses were observed during their patient care and daily activities. Of these individuals, thirteen registered nurses and five assistant nurses participated in focus groups. These participants were selected through theoretical sampling. Data were collected during 90h of observation and 4 focus groups conducted from 2014 to 2015. Each focus group session included four to five participants and lasted between 55 and 65min. Data collection and analysis were performed concurrently, and the data were analysed using the constant comparative method. "Keeping on track" emerged as an explanatory theory for the processes through which the nurses handled their main concern: the risk of losing the workflow. The following three strategies were used by nurses when attempting to integrate evidence

  9. Exploration of the affordances of mobile devices in integrating theory and clinical practice in an undergraduate nursing programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana J. Willemse


    Full Text Available Background: Promoting the quality and effectiveness of nursing education is an important factor, given the increased demand for nursing professionals. It is important to establish learning environments that provide personalised guidance and feedback to students about their practical skills and application of their theoretical knowledge. Objective: To explore and describe the knowledge and points of view of students and educators about introduction of new technologies into an undergraduate nursing programme. Method: The qualitative design used Tesch’s (1990 steps of descriptive data analysis to complete thematic analysis of the data collected in focus group discussions (FGDs andindividual interviews to identify themes. Results: Themes identified from the students’ FGDs and individual interviews included:mobile devices as a communication tool; email, WhatsApp and Facebook as methods of communication; WhatsApp as a method of communication; nurses as role-models in the clinical setting; setting personal boundaries; and impact of mobile devices in clinical practiceon professionalism. Themes identified from the FGD, individual interviews and a discussion session held with educators included: peer learning via mobile devices; email, WhatsApp and Facebook as methods of communication; the mobile device as a positive learning method; students need practical guidance; and ethical concerns in clinical facilities about Internet access and use of mobile devices. Conclusion: The research project established an understanding of the knowledge and points of view of students and educators regarding introduction of new technologies into an undergraduate nursing programme with the aim of enhancing integration of theory and clinical practice through use of mobile devices.

  10. Correlates of hepatitis B virus health-related behaviors of Korean Americans: a situation-specific nursing theory. (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Yang, Jin Hyang; Hann, Hie-Won


    The purpose of this article is to explain the evolution of a situation-specific theory developed to enhance understanding of health-related behaviors of Korean Americans (KAs) who have or are at risk for a chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The situation-specific theory evolved from an integration of the Network Episode Model, studies of health-related behaviors of people with HBV infection, and our studies of and practice experiences with Asian American individuals with HBV infection. The major concepts of the theory are sociocultural context, social network, individual-level factors, illness experience, and health-related behaviors. The major propositions of the theory are that sociocultural context, social network, and individual-level factors influence the illness experience, and that sociocultural context, social network, individual-level factors, and the illness experience influence health-related behaviors of KAs who have or are at risk for HBV infection. This situation-specific theory represents a translation of abstract concepts into clinical reality. The theory is an explanation of correlates of health-related HBV behaviors of KAs. The next step is to develop and test the effectiveness of a nursing intervention designed to promote behaviors that will enhance the health of KAs who have or are at risk for HBV infection, and that takes into account sociocultural context, social network, individual-level factors, and illness experience. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study of lexical decision task supports the dual route model and the phonological deficit theory of dyslexia. (United States)

    Sela, Itamar; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Izzetoglu, Kurtulus; Onaral, Banu


    The dual route model (DRM) of reading suggests two routes of reading development: the phonological and the orthographic routes. It was proposed that although the two routes are active in the process of reading; the first is more involved at the initial stages of reading acquisition, whereas the latter needs more reading training to mature. A number of studies have shown that deficient phonological processing is a core deficit in developmental dyslexia. According to the DRM, when the Lexical Decision Task (LDT) is performed, the orthographic route should also be involved when decoding words, whereas it is clear that when decoding pseudowords the phonological route should be activated. Previous functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) studies have suggested that the upper left frontal lobe is involved in decision making in the LDT. The current study used fNIR to compare left frontal lobe activity during LDT performance among three reading-level groups: 12-year-old children, young adult dyslexic readers, and young adult typical readers. Compared to typical readers, the children demonstrated lower activity under the word condition only, whereas the dyslexic readers showed lower activity under the pseudoword condition only. The results provide evidence for upper left frontal lobe involvement in LDT and support the DRM and the phonological deficit theory of dyslexia.

  12. Multiple cognitive capabilities/deficits in children with an autism spectrum disorder: "weak" central coherence and its relationship to theory of mind and executive control. (United States)

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Maybery, Murray; Durkin, Kevin; Maley, Alana


    This study examined the validity of "weak" central coherence (CC) in the context of multiple cognitive capabilities/deficits in autism. Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and matched typically developing children were administered tasks tapping visuospatial coherence, false-belief understanding and aspects of executive control. Significant group differences were found in all three cognitive domains. Evidence of local processing on coherence tasks was widespread in the ASD group, but difficulties in attributing false beliefs and in components of executive functioning were present in fewer of the children with ASD. This cognitive profile was generally similar for younger and older children with ASD. Furthermore, weak CC was unrelated to false-belief understanding, but aspects of coherence (related to integration) were associated with aspects of executive control. Few associations were found between cognitive variables and indices of autistic symptomatology. Implications for CC theory are discussed.

  13. Application of the life cycle theory of leadership in nursing field%领导生命周期理论在护理领域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明月; 程云


    This paper reviewed the concepts, the development process and maturity classification of life cycle theory of leadership, and summarized the present application situation of this theory in clinical nursing,nursing management and nursing education in the domestic and foreign area,and put forward some suggestions in nursing field.%文章从概念、发展过程和成熟度分类方面对领导生命周期理论进行概述,归纳了国内外领导生命周期理论在临床护理、护理管理、护理教育方面的应用现状,并围绕以上方面提出相应建议.

  14. [Dying well seen in the light of self-transcendence and transition : two theories of care helpful to nurses]. (United States)

    Laporte, Pauline; Vonarx, Nicolas


    Accompanying a dying person up to and at the actual moment of death is a duty that often leaves carers at a loss. We shall show how far theoretical nursing knowledge can help practitioners who accompany the end of life by applying two theories of care : Reed’s theory of self-transcendence and Meleis’s theory of transition. Our interpretation of the theory of self-transcendence designates three points of reference in the concept of dying well. The first relates to the overtures prompted by the vulnerability that the context of dying inspires. The second concerns the capacity of the patient to summon up intrapersonal, interpersonal and transpersonal strategies, and the third considers the benefits when self-transcendence is achieved. The theory of transition similarly presents three points of reference. The first is based on informing the patient about palliative care and telling him or her the truth about the prognosis. The second relates to coordinating the interprofessional team that is looking after the dying person. The last criterion is that the palliative care should be started at a suitable moment. This makes it possible to educate a patient who wishes to die at home and thus create an environment favourable to the transition.

  15. An attribution theory perspective on emotional labour in nurse-patient encounters: a nested cross-sectional study in paediatric settings. (United States)

    Golfenshtein, Nadya; Drach-Zahavy, Anat


    To understand the role of patients' attributions under the attribution theory framework (locus, controllability, stability) in nurses' performance of surface or deep acting, as they unfold in interactions with different patients. Regulation of emotions at work, or emotional labour, has been conceptualized in terms of two main strategies: surface acting and deep acting. Most prior research tested for between-subject variation in the search for the factors evoking these strategies in nurses, assuming them to be trait-like characteristics. Only scant research has examined how nurses modify their emotional labour strategies in different patient-nurse encounters. A nested cross-sectional design (patients within nurses). Data were collected during 2011-2012 through validated questionnaires from the nursing staff (N = 41) of two paediatric hospital wards and their randomly selected patients (N = 239). Questionnaires were administered to nurses multiple times after encounters with different patients. Analyses were conducted using mixed effects models. In accordance with attribution theory, different combinations of locus, controllability and stability attributions were related to the choice of surface or deep acting. Nurses' perceptions of patients' controllability were associated positively with surface acting and negatively with deep acting. Interaction terms of stability and locus and of controllability and stability, were distinctively associated with deep and surface acting. Findings innovatively introduce the attribution process as an explanatory perspective to nurses' emotional labour and highlight its situational nature, providing a potential tool for emotional labour strategy prediction. Raising nurses' awareness of how they perceive patients may increase control of the strategies employed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A critical analysis of the literature and theoretical perspectives on theory-practice gap amongst newly qualified nurses within the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Monaghan, Thomas


    This critical analysis of the literature examines the factors and theoretical perspectives contributing to the theory-practice gap for newly qualified nurses within the United Kingdom. This article aspires to inform, guide and promote effective nursing education both academically and practically. A systematic search strategy was conducted to identify relevant literature covering the period of 2000-2014, to include only contemporary theoretical perspectives coinciding with the dearth of contemporary literature post Project 2000. The literature was systematically investigated utilising nursing research databases, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine, the U.S. National Library of Medicine and Internurse. To satisfy the search criteria only articles conducted within the United Kingdom and written in the English language were included. Only literature including nurses and newly qualified nurses were included. To identify relevant literature a series of key words were utilised. Systematic review of the literature revealed that newly qualified nurses feel unprepared for practice, lacking confidence in their own abilities. It was also felt by newly qualified nurses that not enough time was dedicated to the production of clinical skills during their training. The use of preceptorship programmes was found to reduce the transitional stress associated with becoming a qualified nursing practitioner. Despite the increasing research being undertaken in the area of theory-practice gap there is still a need for nursing educators, practice areas and regulatory bodies to invest further in research. The effects of preceptorship and simulation exercises in particular require more research to provide regulatory bodies with enough evidence to make an informed decision as to whether their use should be mandatory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Outcomes of newly practicing nurses who applied principles of holistic comfort theory during the transition from school to practice: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Goodwin, Miki; Candela, Lori


    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore if newly practicing nurses benefited from learning holistic comfort theory during their baccalaureate education, and to provide a conceptual framework to support the transition from school to practice. The study was conducted among graduates of an accelerated baccalaureate nursing program where holistic comfort theory was embedded as a learner-centered philosophy across the curriculum. A phenomenological process using van Manen's qualitative methodology in education involving semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis was used. The nurses recalled what holistic comfort meant to them in school, and described the lived experience of assimilating holistic comfort into their attitudes and behaviors in practice. Themes were established and a conceptual framework was developed to better understand the nurses' lived experiences. Results showed that holistic comfort was experienced as a constructive approach to transcend unavoidable difficulties during the transition from school to practice. Participants described meaningful learning and acquisition of self-strengthening behaviors using holistic comfort theory. Holistic comfort principles were credited for easing nurses into the realities of work and advocating for best patient outcomes. Patient safety and pride in patient care were incidental positive outcomes. The study offers new insights about applying holistic comfort to prepare nurses for the realities of practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Processing deficits in monitoring analog and digital displays: Implications for attentional theory and mental-state estimation research (United States)

    Payne, David G.; Gunther, Virginia A. L.


    Subjects performed short term memory tasks, involving both spatial and verbal components, and a visual monitoring task involving either analog or digital display formats. These two tasks (memory vs. monitoring) were performed both singly and in conjunction. Contrary to expectations derived from multiple resource theories of attentional processes, there was no evidence that when the two tasks involved the same cognitive codes (i.e., either both spatial or both verbal/linguistics) there was more of a dual task performance decrement than when the two tasks employed different cognitive codes/processes. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for theories of attentional processes and also for research in mental state estimation.

  19. Early weaning food for infants (0-6 months old) in madurese people based on transcultural nursing theory (United States)

    Has, Eka Mishbahatul M.; Syaltut, M.; Kusumaningrum, Tiyas; Efendi, Ferry


    The World Health Organization recommend weaning food is given to infants aged 624 months. In Madura culture still exist the practice of giving weaning food before infants reach six months old. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors of giving weaning food for infants (0-6 months old) based on transcultural nursing theory. Design used was descriptive with cross-sectional approach. Population was Madurese mothers who have infants (0-6 months old) who has been given early weaning food. A total of 61 respondents were chosen by cluster sampling method. Variables in this study were education, economic, political and legal, cultural values and lifestyles, kinship and social, religious and philosophical, and technology. Data were collected by using structured interview and described by using frequency and percentage distribution. The results had showed educational mostly were primary and middle education (92%). Economic mostly come from low economic status (70%). Political and legal mostly positive (54%). Cultural values and lifestyles mostly negative (62%). Kinship and social mostly negative (64%). Religious and philosophical mostly positive (64%). Technology factor dominantly low (56%). Based on transcultural nursing theory it is shown a diversity in positive and negative values. Further research was suggested to reduce the practice of giving weaning food behavior of Madurese mothers which suits with local culture.

  20. Chasing the Mirage: a grounded theory of the clinical reasoning processes that Registered Nurses use to recognize delirium. (United States)

    El Hussein, Mohamed; Hirst, Sandra


    The aim of this study was to construct a grounded theory that explains the clinical reasoning processes that registered nurses use to recognize delirium in older adults in acute care hospitals. Delirium is under-recognized in acute hospital settings, this may stem from underdeveloped clinical reasoning processes. Little is known about registered nurses' (RNs) clinical reasoning processes in complex situations such as delirium recognition. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse interview data about the clinical reasoning processes of RNs in acute hospital settings. Seventeen RNs were recruited. Concurrent data collection and comparative analysis and theoretical sampling were conducted in 2013-2014. The core category to emerge from the data was 'chasing the mirage', which describes RNs' clinical reasoning processes to recognize delirium during their interaction with older adults. Understanding the reasoning that contributes to delirium under-recognition provides a strategy by which, this problem can be brought to the forefront of RNs' awareness and intervention. Delirium recognition will contribute to quality care for older adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Intention to comply with post-exposure management among nurses exposed to blood and body fluids in Taiwan: application of the theory of planned behaviour. (United States)

    Ko, N-Y; Yeh, S-H; Tsay, S-L; Ma, H-J; Chen, C-H; Pan, S-M; Feng, M-C; Chiang, M-C; Lee, Y-W; Chang, L-H; Jang, J-F


    Nurses are at significant risk from occupationally acquired bloodborne virus infections following a needlestick and sharps injury. This study aimed to apply the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict nurses' intention to comply with occupational post-exposure management. A cross-sectional survey was applied to select registered nurses who worked in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-designated hospitals. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire based on the TPB was distributed to 1630 nurses and 1134 (69.5%) questionnaires were returned. From these, a total of 802 nurses (71%) reported blood and body fluid exposure incidents during 2003-2005 and this group was used for analysis. Only 44.6% of the 121 exposed nurses who were prescribed post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) by infectious disease doctors returned to the clinic for interim monitoring, and only 56.6% of exposed nurses confirmed their final serology status. Structural equation modelling was used to test the TPB indicating perceived behavioural control (the perception of the difficulty or ease of PEP management, β=0.58), subjective norm (the perception of social pressure to adhere to PEP, β=0.15), and attitudes (β=0.12) were significant direct effects on nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. The hypothesised model test indicated that the model fitted with the expected relationships and directions of theoretical constructs [χ(2) (14, N=802)=23.14, P=0.057, GFI=0.987, RMSEA=0.039]. The TPB model constructs accounted for 54% of the variance in nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. The TPB is an appropriate model for predicting nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. Healthcare facilities should have policies to decrease the inconvenience of follow-up to encourage nurses to comply with post-exposure management. Copyright © 2010 the Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nurses' behavioural intentions towards self-poisoning patients: a theory of reasoned action, comparison of attitudes and subjective norms as predictive variables. (United States)

    McKinlay, A; Couston, M; Cowan, S


    The incidence of self-poisoning is on the increase. Most patients who self-poison are dealt with initially in the general hospital. Therefore, the type and quality of care self-poisoning patients receive will depend, in part, on how they are viewed by nursing staff within the general hospital setting. A knowledge and understanding of the attitudes held by nurses towards self-poisoning patients is therefore important to those involved in the planning and delivery of care towards this client group. Previous studies have examined health care professionals' attitudes towards people who self-poison. Usually, however, these have not focused specifically on nurses' attitudes, and they have ignored the relationship between the attitudes expressed by staff and their intentions to engage in subsequent caring behaviour of one sort or another. It is hence unclear how the findings of such studies are relevant or applicable to nursing policy and practice. The present study aims to address these limitations using a methodology informed by the theory of reasoned action. The study aims to separate out the distinctive roles played by nurses' own attitudes, and the social pressures represented by other people's attitudes, in determining the types of caring behaviour in which nurses intend to engage when dealing with self-poisoning patients. The study adopts a questionnaire-based approach incorporating two specially designed vignettes. The results show that nurses' own attitudes, and what they believe about the attitudes of others, predict their behavioural intentions towards self-poisoning patients. The study also shows that nurses with a more positive orientation towards self-poisoning patients differ in behavioural and normative beliefs from nurses who have a less positive orientation. The implications for future attempts to explore the relationship between nurses' attitudes and subsequent caring behaviour are considered, along with implications for nursing policy and practice.

  3. General intellectual functioning as a buffer against theory-of-mind deficits in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis. (United States)

    Hur, Ji-Won; Byun, Min Soo; Shin, Na Young; Shin, Ye Seul; Kim, Sung Nyun; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kwon, Jun Soo


    The influence of neurocognition, including general intelligence, on theory of mind (ToM) among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder is controversial. The purpose of the present study was to identify the influences of the non-ToM cognition and general intelligence on ToM performance in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Fifty-five UHR subjects and 58 healthy controls (HCs) completed neurocognitive, verbal, and nonverbal ToM tasks. UHR individuals showed poorer performance in the two verbal ToM tasks, the false-belief task and the strange-story tasks. Moreover, the UHR subjects displayed poorer recall on the interference list of the verbal learning test. Linear regression analysis revealed that neurocognitive functioning, including executive functioning, working memory, and general intelligence, accounted for significant amounts of the variance in the results for UHR individuals: 20.4% in the false-belief task, 44.0% in the strange-story task, and 49.0% in the nonverbal cartoon task. Neurocognition, including general intelligence, was not a significant contributor to performance on ToM tasks in HCs. ToM deficits were not noted in UHR individuals with above-average IQ scores (≥ 110) compared with UHR subjects with IQ scores less than 110, who displayed significant differences on all ToM tasks compared with HCs. The present results suggest that ToM deficits in UHR individuals are complex and may be influenced by non-ToM cognition. Our findings are discussed in relation to the role of neurocognitive abilities in ToM-related impairments in UHR individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between social-cognitive and social-perceptual aspects of theory of mind and neurocognitive deficits, insight level and schizotypal traits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. (United States)

    Mısır, Emre; Bora, Emre; Akdede, Berna Binnur


    The primary aim of the current study was to investigate different aspects of theory of mind (ToM), including social-cognitive (ToM-reasoning) and social-perceptual (ToM-decoding) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We also aimed to investigate the relationship between ToM, neurocognition and a number of clinical variables including overvalued ideas, schizotypal personality traits, level of insight, and disease severity. Thirty-four patients who have been diagnosed with OCD according to DSM-IV and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. All participants were given a neuropsychological battery including tasks measuring ToM-reasoning, ToM-decoding and other neurocognitive functions. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), Yale Brown Obsession and Compulsion Scale (YBOC-S) and Overvalued Ideas Scale (OVIS) were also administered to the participants. Patients with OCD showed significant deficits in both aspects of ToM. ToM performances of patients showed a significant positive correlation with neurocognitive functions. When controlled for general cognition factor, patient-control difference for ToM-reasoning (F = 3,917; p = 0,05), but not ToM-decoding, remained statistically significant. ToM-reasoning impairment of patients was significantly related to the severity of OCD symptoms and poor insight (p = 0,026 and p = 0,045, respectively). On the other hand, general cognitive factor (β = 0,778; t = 3,146; p = 0,04) was found to be the only significant predictor of ToM-reasoning in OCD patients in the multiple linear regression model. OCD is associated with ToM impairment, which is related to schizotypal traits, disease severity and poor insight, yet neurocognitive deficits also significantly contribute to this finding. However, ToM-reasoning impairment could be considered as a relatively distinct feature of OCD, which is partly separate from general cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The impact of stroke aphasia on health and well-being and appropriate nursing interventions: an exploration using the Theory of Human Scale Development. (United States)

    Thompson, Juliana; McKeever, Margo


    This paper considers the impact of aphasia on health and well-being and provides suggestions for appropriate nursing interventions. Background.  Effective communication is essential to holistic care and positive outcomes for individuals affected by aphasia. When verbal communication is absent, nurses fail to adequately use alternative strategies so that the standard of nurse/patient communication is frequently poor. This is a discursive paper which reviews relevant literature and uses the Theory of Human Scale Development as a framework for discussion. The Theory of Human Scale Development is introduced. This theory emphasises that quality of life depends as much upon self-actualisation and relation building as on physical health. The theory is used within the discussion to highlight the significance of communication to quality of life and how its loss has profound psychological and social consequences. Aphasia results in 'loss of self'. The situation is exacerbated by inadequate healthcare communication strategies. Suggestions are offered regarding more appropriate strategies. Efficacy of family input is considered; nursing competence regarding language practice therapies is discussed, and the 'quest approach' is explored. Aphasia has a negative impact on relationships by denying access to support networks, which results in isolation. The individual's predicament is worsened by negative nursing responses. Positive nursing strategies, which alleviate effects of aphasia on individuals' social health, are investigated. Concept analysis and self-awareness exercises as methods of enhancing compassion skills are explored. The social model of disability is discussed to highlight the benefits to individuals of environmental adaptations. The social benefits of aphasia-group affiliation are discussed. The paper concludes by emphasising that fundamental human needs involve social and psychological as well as physical aspects. Nursing interventions must address all needs to

  6. Evaluating a Skills Centre: The Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Nursing--A Review of the Literature. [and] Evaluating a Skills Centre: The Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Nursing--A Review of the Theory. (United States)

    Knight, Carolyn M.


    Article 1 reviews literature on psychomotor skill acquisition, finding inconclusive research based on a positivist approach. Article 2 reviews theories of skill acquisition. Both reviews will be used to evaluate a skills center for nurses that is based on a constructivist approach. (SK)

  7. Applying Theory to Understand and Modify Nurse Intention to Adhere to Recommendations regarding the Use of Filter Needles: An Intervention Mapping Approach. (United States)

    Cassista, Julianne; Payne-Gagnon, Julie; Martel, Brigitte; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre


    The manipulation of glass ampoules involves risk of particle contamination of parenteral medication, and the use of filter needles has often been recommended in order to reduce the number of particles in these solutions. This study aims to develop a theory-based intervention to increase nurse intention to use filter needles according to clinical guideline recommendations produced by a large university medical centre in Quebec (Canada). Using the Intervention Mapping framework, we first identified the psychosocial determinants of nurse intention to use filter needles according to these recommendations. Second, we developed and implemented an intervention targeting nurses from five care units in order to increase their intention to adhere to recommendations on the use of filter needles. We also assessed nurse satisfaction with the intervention. In total, 270 nurses received the intervention and 169 completed the posttest questionnaire. The two determinants of intention, that is, attitude and perceived behavioral control, were significantly higher after the intervention, but only perceived behavioral control remained a predictor of intention. In general, nurses were highly satisfied with the intervention. This study provides support for the use of Intervention Mapping to develop, implement, and evaluate theory-based interventions in order to improve healthcare professional adherence to clinical recommendations.

  8. Applying Theory to Understand and Modify Nurse Intention to Adhere to Recommendations regarding the Use of Filter Needles: An Intervention Mapping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Cassista


    Full Text Available The manipulation of glass ampoules involves risk of particle contamination of parenteral medication, and the use of filter needles has often been recommended in order to reduce the number of particles in these solutions. This study aims to develop a theory-based intervention to increase nurse intention to use filter needles according to clinical guideline recommendations produced by a large university medical centre in Quebec (Canada. Using the Intervention Mapping framework, we first identified the psychosocial determinants of nurse intention to use filter needles according to these recommendations. Second, we developed and implemented an intervention targeting nurses from five care units in order to increase their intention to adhere to recommendations on the use of filter needles. We also assessed nurse satisfaction with the intervention. In total, 270 nurses received the intervention and 169 completed the posttest questionnaire. The two determinants of intention, that is, attitude and perceived behavioral control, were significantly higher after the intervention, but only perceived behavioral control remained a predictor of intention. In general, nurses were highly satisfied with the intervention. This study provides support for the use of Intervention Mapping to develop, implement, and evaluate theory-based interventions in order to improve healthcare professional adherence to clinical recommendations.

  9. Validation of self-directed learning instrument and establishment of normative data for nursing students in taiwan: using polytomous item response theory. (United States)

    Cheng, Su-Fen; Lee-Hsieh, Jane; Turton, Michael A; Lin, Kuan-Chia


    Little research has investigated the establishment of norms for nursing students' self-directed learning (SDL) ability, recognized as an important capability for professional nurses. An item response theory (IRT) approach was used to establish norms for SDL abilities valid for the different nursing programs in Taiwan. The purposes of this study were (a) to use IRT with a graded response model to reexamine the SDL instrument, or the SDLI, originally developed by this research team using confirmatory factor analysis and (b) to establish SDL ability norms for the four different nursing education programs in Taiwan. Stratified random sampling with probability proportional to size was used. A minimum of 15% of students from the four different nursing education degree programs across Taiwan was selected. A total of 7,879 nursing students from 13 schools were recruited. The research instrument was the 20-item SDLI developed by Cheng, Kuo, Lin, and Lee-Hsieh (2010). IRT with the graded response model was used with a two-parameter logistic model (discrimination and difficulty) for the data analysis, calculated using MULTILOG. Norms were established using percentile rank. Analysis of item information and test information functions revealed that 18 items exhibited very high discrimination and two items had high discrimination. The test information function was higher in this range of scores, indicating greater precision in the estimate of nursing student SDL. Reliability fell between .80 and .94 for each domain and the SDLI as a whole. The total information function shows that the SDLI is appropriate for all nursing students, except for the top 2.5%. SDL ability norms were established for each nursing education program and for the nation as a whole. IRT is shown to be a potent and useful methodology for scale evaluation. The norms for SDL established in this research will provide practical standards for nursing educators and students in Taiwan.

  10. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to explore hospital-based nurses' intention to use peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC): a survey study. (United States)

    Bertani, Laura; Carone, Maria; Caricati, Luca; Demaria, Serena; Fantuzzi, Silvia; Guarasci, Alessandro; Pirazzoli, Luca


    The peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) have become an alternative to the traditional CVC. PICCs are usually inserted by trained nurses who decided to attend and complete a special training on PICC insertion and management. The present work aimed to investigate the intention of using PICC in a sample of hospital-based nurses using the theory of planned behavior as theoretical framework. A cross-sectional design was used in which a questionnaire was delivered to 199 nurses. According to the theory of planned behavior, the attitude toward the use of PICC, subjective norms and perceived self-efficacy predicted the intention to use PICC. Contrary to the expectations, the effect of subjective norms on intention to use PICC was mediated by attitude and self-efficacy. Finally, age of participants was negatively related to the intention to use the PICC. The theory of planned behavior offers a useful framework to explain nurses' intention to use PICC. Shared norms favoring the use of PICC seem to increase both nurse's positive attitudes and self-efficacy whit respect to the use of these devices. Thus, it appears that to train professionals individually does not necessarily results in an increased use of PICC.

  11. Factors that influence nursing and midwifery students' intentions to study abroad: A qualitative study using the theory of planned behaviour. (United States)

    Kelleher, Seán; FitzGerald, Serena; Hegarty, Josephine


    Future health care professionals need to be broadly-educated, adaptable individuals who have significant experience in the world beyond the classroom. Study abroad is an ideal means of developing some of the skills and attitudes that are not only valued among health professionals, but also have global applicability. Although internationalisation through study abroad is widely publicised as a preferred means of developing globally competent third level graduates very little is known about the factors that influence students' predisposition to study abroad, students decision making process and how various factors influence that process. To explore the motivating factors that influence nursing and midwifery student's intentions to study abroad. Qualitative descriptive. A third level institution in Ireland. A purposive sample (n=25) of undergraduate nursing and midwifery students. Data were obtained individually and in a free response format by means of an open ended belief elicitation questionnaire. The theory of planned behaviour was used a theoretical framework to guide both the structure of the questionnaire and the content analysis. The study's findings support earlier works in identifying the main behavioural, normative and control factors that influence a student's decision to study abroad and is the first study to recognise enhanced professional identity as a potential benefit of study abroad. Factors such as cultural sensitivity, employability, language and cost emerged as important issues in need of further investigation. The findings of this study have implications for administrators, academics, and others involved in the development of third level study abroad programmes for nursing and midwifery students. New methods which promote the perceived benefits of study abroad, address the perceived barriers and ultimately increase student participation are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors of aggression on the psychiatric inpatient service: self-esteem, narcissism, and theory of mind deficits. (United States)

    Goldberg, Brett R; Serper, Mark R; Sheets, Michelle; Beech, Danielle; Dill, Charles; Duffy, Kristine G


    Aggressive behavior committed by inpatients has significant negative effects on patients, clinical staff, the therapeutic milieu, and inpatient community as whole. Past research examining nonpsychiatric patient groups has suggested that elevated self-esteem and narcissism levels as well as self-serving theory of mind (ToM) biases may be robust predictors of aggressive behavior. In the present study, we examined whether these constructs were useful in predicting aggressive acts committed by psychiatric inpatients. Severity of psychiatric symptoms, demographic variables and patients' anger, and hostility severity were also examined. We found patients who committed acts of aggression were differentiated from their nonaggressive counterparts by exhibiting significantly higher levels of self-esteem and narcissistic superiority. In addition, aggressors demonstrated self-serving ToM biases, attributing more positive attributes to themselves, relative to their perceptions of how others viewed them. Aggressors also showed increased psychosis, fewer depressive symptoms, and had significantly fewer years of formal education than their nonaggressive peers. These results support and extend the view that in addition to clinical variables, specific personality traits and self-serving attributions are linked to aggressive behavior in acutely ill psychiatric patients.

  13. Using conflict theory to explore the role of nursing home social workers in home- and community-based service utilization. (United States)

    Fogler, Sarah


    Nursing home social work (NHSW) practitioners are central to home- and community-based service (HCBS) utilization. They assist residents with long-term care (LTC) decision-making and coordinate community-based LTC supports and services for older adults transitioning back into the community after a rehabilitative nursing home (NH) stay. As members of multiple groups, they must simultaneously balance the needs of NH residents, the NH organization, and social policies related to LTC. To date, policy research on HCBS has been atheoretical in that it has not accounted for the possible inherent conflicts that adversely affect the discharge planning practices of NHSW practitioners. This article applies the Conflict Theory to (a) explore the competing interests of the NH industry and the nation's government, (b) examine the potential effect of these competing interests on the effectiveness of NHSW discharge planning practices, and (c) present a conceptual framework to further investigate the relationship between NHSW and both individual LTC outcomes and national policy initiatives aimed at increasing HCBS utilization.

  14. Intentional partnering: a grounded theory study on developing effective partnerships among nurse and physician managers as they co-lead in an evolving healthcare system. (United States)

    Clausen, Christina; Lavoie-Tremblay, Melanie; Purden, Margaret; Lamothe, Lise; Ezer, Héléne; McVey, Lynne


    The aim of this study was to describe the process of how nurse and physician managers in formalized dyads work together to address clinical management issues in the surgical division of one hospital setting. Nurse and physician managers are uniquely positioned to co-lead and transform healthcare delivery. However, little is known about how this management dyad functions in the healthcare setting. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to investigate the process of how nurse and physician managers work together in formalized dyads in an urban Canadian university affiliated teaching hospital. Data collection occurred from September 2013-August 2014. Data included participant observation (n = 142 hours) and intensive interviews (n = 36) with nurse-physician manager dyads (12 nurses, 9 physicians) collected in a surgical department. Theoretical sampling was used to elaborate on properties of emerging concepts and categories. A substantive theory on 'intentional partnering' was generated. Nurses' and physicians' professional agendas, which included their interests and purposes for working with each other served as the starting point of 'intentional partnering'. The theory explains how nurse and physician managers align their professional agendas through the processes of 'accepting mutual necessity', 'daring to risk (together)' and 'constructing a shared responsibility'. Being credible, earning trust and safeguarding respect were fundamental to communicating effectively. Intentional partnering elucidates the relational components of working together and the strategizing that occurs as each partner deliberates on what he or she is willing to accept, risk and put into place to reap the benefits of collaborating. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [The rationalist-critical thought and the theory of social systems: possible approach to health and nursing]. (United States)

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Erdmann, Rolf Hermann


    This objective of this paper is to analyze the theoretical and philosophical contributions of Luhmann and Kant, and how they relate the subject of health/nursing It tries to approach Kant's critical rationalism to Luhnmann's social systems theory, illustrating the importance of these thoughts and theoretical abstractions in both the field of social relations and human interactions with users, as well as historical subjects in the communication context. Kant seeks to understand who is man and how to ascend based on the emancipating process, whereas Luhmann wants each individual to acquire its identity as a member of the social networking, supported by interaction and communication. It concludes that communication in health care enables patients to manifest more adhesion, emancipation, and autonomy towards the therapeutical process.

  16. Psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance: theory-driven practice for nurse practitioners. (United States)

    Valek, Rebecca M; Greenwald, Beverly J; Lewis, Carolyn C


    The authors discuss the psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance and the use of Pender's health promotion model as a guide for the construction of clinical interventions to address these factors. The psychological factors include internal drive for weight maintenance, ongoing self-monitoring, long-term flexibility, positive mood and emotions, appropriate goals, and management of external stimuli. Nurse practitioners can help combat obesity trends through caring for patients in a holistic manner. Periodic psychological needs-assessments for patients who desire to maintain weight loss may further promote long-term success in weight management. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Systematization of nursing care to institutionalized elderly based on Virginia Henderson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Wilker Bezerra Clares


    Full Text Available This is an experience report that aims to describe the application of the nursing process to an institutionalized elderly, based on Virginia Henderson’s theory. The case study was developed in a long-stay institution for the elderly in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, from May to August 2010, by filling out a form, physical examination and observation. Identifying the needs of elimination, communication, recreation and learning allowed to raise the nursing diagnoses, respectively: urge urinary incontinence; impaired social interaction; diversional activity deficit; and impaired memory. The nursing interventions were directed to the health and independence of the elderly. The application of systematic nursing care impacted positively on the health of the elderly, demonstrating the applicability of the nursing systematization based on Henderson’s theory in the scenery in which the study was developed.

  18. A nursing theory-guided framework for genetic and epigenetic research. (United States)

    Maki, Katherine A; DeVon, Holli A


    The notion that genetics, through natural selection, determines innate traits has led to much debate and divergence of thought on the impact of innate traits on the human phenotype. The purpose of this synthesis was to examine how innate theory informs genetic research and how understanding innate theory through the lens of Martha Rogers' theory of unitary human beings can offer a contemporary view of how innate traits can inform epigenetic and genetic research. We also propose a new conceptual model for genetic and epigenetic research. The philosophical, theoretical, and research literatures were examined for this synthesis. We have merged philosophical and conceptual phenomena from innate theory with the theory of unitary beings into the University of Illinois at Chicago model for genetic and epigenetic research. Innate traits are the cornerstone of the framework but may be modified epigenetically by biological, physiological, psychological, and social determinants as they are transcribed. These modifiers serve as important links between the concept of innate traits and epigenetic modifications, and, like the theory of unitary human beings, the process is understood in the context of individual and environmental interaction that has the potential to evolve as the determinants change. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ethics and Transcultural Nursing Care. (United States)

    Eliason, Michele J.


    Argues that nursing practice and theory cannot be ethical unless cultural factors are taken into consideration and that ethical/transcultural nursing is central to the philosophy and practice of nursing. (Author)

  20. A theory-based educational intervention targeting nurses' attitudes and knowledge concerning cancer-related pain management: A study protocol of a quasi-experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Markus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is one of the most frequent problems among patients diagnosed with cancer. Despite the availability of effective pharmacological treatments, this group of patients often receives less than optimal treatment. Research into nurses' pain management highlights certain factors, such as lack of knowledge and attitudes and inadequate procedures for systematic pain assessment, as common barriers to effective pain management. However, educational interventions targeting nurses' pain management have shown promise. As cancer-related pain is also known to have a negative effect on vital aspects of the patient's life, as well as being commonly associated with problems such as sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety, further development of knowledge within this area is warranted. Methods/design A quasi-experimental study design will be used to investigate whether the implementation of guidelines for systematic daily pain assessments following a theory-based educational intervention will result in an improvement in knowledge and attitude among nurses. A further aim is to investigate whether the intervention that targets nurses' behaviour will improve hospital patients' perception of pain. Data regarding nurses' knowledge and attitudes to pain (primary outcome, patient perception regarding pain (secondary outcome, together with socio-demographic variables, will be collected at baseline and at four weeks and 12 weeks following the intervention. Discussion Nursing care is nowadays acknowledged as an increasingly complicated activity and "nursing complexity is such that it can be seen as the quintessential complex intervention." To be able to change and improve clinical practice thus requires multiple points of attack appropriate to meet complex challenges. Consequently, we expect the theory-based intervention used in our quasi-experimental study to improve care as well as quality of life for this group of patients and we also envisage that

  1. A theory-based educational intervention targeting nurses' attitudes and knowledge concerning cancer-related pain management: a study protocol of a quasi-experimental design. (United States)

    Borglin, Gunilla; Gustafsson, Markus; Krona, Hans


    Pain is one of the most frequent problems among patients diagnosed with cancer. Despite the availability of effective pharmacological treatments, this group of patients often receives less than optimal treatment. Research into nurses' pain management highlights certain factors, such as lack of knowledge and attitudes and inadequate procedures for systematic pain assessment, as common barriers to effective pain management. However, educational interventions targeting nurses' pain management have shown promise. As cancer-related pain is also known to have a negative effect on vital aspects of the patient's life, as well as being commonly associated with problems such as sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety, further development of knowledge within this area is warranted. A quasi-experimental study design will be used to investigate whether the implementation of guidelines for systematic daily pain assessments following a theory-based educational intervention will result in an improvement in knowledge and attitude among nurses. A further aim is to investigate whether the intervention that targets nurses' behaviour will improve hospital patients' perception of pain. Data regarding nurses' knowledge and attitudes to pain (primary outcome), patient perception regarding pain (secondary outcome), together with socio-demographic variables, will be collected at baseline and at four weeks and 12 weeks following the intervention. Nursing care is nowadays acknowledged as an increasingly complicated activity and "nursing complexity is such that it can be seen as the quintessential complex intervention." To be able to change and improve clinical practice thus requires multiple points of attack appropriate to meet complex challenges. Consequently, we expect the theory-based intervention used in our quasi-experimental study to improve care as well as quality of life for this group of patients and we also envisage that evidence-based guidelines targeting this patient group's pain

  2. Exploring Japanese nurses' perceptions of the relevance and use of assertive communication in healthcare: A qualitative study informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour. (United States)

    Omura, Mieko; Stone, Teresa E; Maguire, Jane; Levett-Jones, Tracy


    The hierarchical nature of healthcare environments presents a key risk factor for effective interprofessional communication. Power differentials evident in traditional healthcare cultures can make it difficult for healthcare professionals to raise concerns and be assertive when they have concerns about patient safety. This issue is of particular concern in Japan where inherent cultural and social norms discourage assertive communication. The aim of this study was to (a) explore nurses' perceptions of the relevance and use of assertive communication in Japanese healthcare environments; and (b) identify the factors that facilitate or impede assertive communication by Japanese nurses. A belief elicitation qualitative study informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour was conducted and reported according to the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research. Twenty-three practicing Japanese registered nurses were recruited by snowball sampling from October 2016 to January 2017. Individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcribed in Japanese and then translated into English. Two researchers independently conducted a directed content analysis informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Participants' responses were labelled in order of frequency for behavioural beliefs about the consequences of assertive communication, sources of social pressure, and factors that facilitate or impede assertive communication in Japanese healthcare environments. Although person-centred care and patient advocacy were core values for many of the participants, strict hierarchies, age-based seniority, and concerns about offending a colleague or causing team disharmony impeded their use of assertive communication. Novice nurses were particularly reluctant to speak up because of their perception of having limited knowledge and experience. This study identified Japanese nurses' behavioural, normative, and control beliefs in relation to assertive

  3. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to examine enrolled nursing students' intention to care for patients with alcohol dependence: A survey study. (United States)

    Talbot, Anna-Lisa; Dorrian, Jillian; Chapman, Janine


    Nurses are often the first point of contact for patients hospitalized due to alcohol-related causes. Alcohol dependence is highly stigmatized and as a result healthcare professionals often have low behavioural intentions, meaning low willingness to care for these patients. This can have a direct influence on quality of care. The purpose of this study was to explore enrolled nursing students' intention to care for patients with alcohol dependence and the antecedents, preliminary factors, that predict this within the Theory of Planned Behaviour; specifically attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and controllability. The study was a cross-sectional survey using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Two Technical and Further Education South Australia campuses across metropolitan Adelaide. n=86 enrolled nursing students completed the survey (62% response rate). Enrolled nursing students' intention, attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and controllability were measured using a Theory of Planned Behaviour Questionnaire. The Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire investigated attitudes in more detail and a short knowledge scale assessed alcohol-related knowledge. Subjective norms and attitudes had a significant, positive effect on intention to care within the final model, accounting for 22.6% of the variance, F2,83=12.12, pbehavioural change, in order to improve the quality of care for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nursing informatics and nursing ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer


    All healthcare visions, including that of The TIGER (Technology-Informatics-Guiding-Educational-Reform) Initiative envisage a crucial role for nursing. However, its 7 descriptive pillars do not address the disconnect between Nursing Informatics and Nursing Ethics and their distinct communities......-of-(care)-decision. Increased pressure for translating 'evidence-based' research findings into 'ethically-sound', 'value-based' and 'patient-centered' practice requires rethinking the model implicit in conventional knowledge translation and informatics practice in all disciplines, including nursing. The aim is to aid 'how...... nurses and other health care scientists more clearly identify clinical and other relevant data that can be captured to inform future comparative effectiveness research. 'A prescriptive, theory-based discipline of '(Nursing) Decisionics' expands the Grid for Volunteer Development of TIGER's newly launched...

  5. Reduced mirror neuron activity in schizophrenia and its association with theory of mind deficits: evidence from a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. (United States)

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Basavaraju, Rakshathi; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro


    The "mirror-neuron system" has been proposed to be a neurophysiological substrate for social cognition (SC) ability. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms to compare putative mirror neuron activity (MNA) in 3 groups: antipsychotic-naive, medicated schizophrenia patients, and healthy comparison subjects. We also explored the association between MNA and SC ability in patients. Fifty-four consenting right-handed schizophrenia patients (33 antipsychotic naive) and 45 matched healthy comparison subjects completed a TMS experiment to assess putative premotor MNA. We used 4 TMS paradigms of eliciting motor-evoked potentials (MEP) in the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. These were applied while the subjects observed a goal-directed action involving the FDI (actual action and its video) and a static image. The difference in the amplitude of the MEP while they observed the static image and the action provided a measure of MNA. Subjects also underwent SC assessments (theory of mind [ToM], emotion processing, and social perception). Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant group × occasion interaction effect in 3 TMS paradigms, indicating deficient motor facilitation during action observation relative to rest state in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients as compared with the other two groups. Among patients, there were significant direct correlations between measures of MNA and ToM performance. Antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients have poorer MNA than medicated patients and healthy controls. Measures of putative MNA had significant and consistent associations with ToM abilities. These findings suggest a possibility of deficient mirror neuron system underlying SC deficits in schizophrenia. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  6. Identification of nursing management diagnoses. (United States)

    Morrison, R S


    Theories from nursing and management provide frameworks for enhancing effectiveness of nursing management practice. The concept nursing management diagnosis has been developed by integrating nursing diagnosis and organizational diagnosis as a basis for nurse manager decision-making. Method triangulation was used to identify problems of managing nursing units, to validate those problems for relevancy to practice, to generate nursing management diagnoses, and to validate the diagnoses. Diagnoses were validated according to a definition of nursing management diagnosis provided. Of the 72 nursing management diagnoses identified, 66 were validated at a 70% level of agreement by nurse managers participating in the study.

  7. Nursing in Turkey. (United States)

    Baumann, Steven L


    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada.

  8. Envisaging the use of evidence-based practice (EBP): how nurse academics facilitate EBP use in theory and practice across Australian undergraduate programmes. (United States)

    Malik, Gulzar; McKenna, Lisa; Griffiths, Debra


    This paper is drawn from a grounded theory study that aimed to investigate processes undertaken by academics when integrating evidence-based practice into undergraduate curricula. This paper focuses on how nurse academics facilitated students to apply evidence-based practice in theory and practice. Facilitating undergraduate nursing students to develop skills within an evidence-based practice framework is vital to achieving evidence-based care. Studies on evidence-based practice conducted globally suggests that there is a need to investigate approaches used by nurse academics in facilitating students' understanding and use of evidence-based practice during their nurse education. Employing constructivist grounded theory approach, 23 nurse academics across Australian universities were interviewed and nine observed during their teaching. Some study participants shared their unit guides to enrich analysis. Data analysis was performed by following Charmaz's approach of coding procedures; as a result, four categories were constructed. This paper focuses on the category conceptualised as Envisaging the use of evidence-based practice. Findings revealed that most academics-assisted students to use evidence in academic-related activities. Recognising the importance of evidence-based practice in practice, some also expected students to apply evidence-based practice during clinical experiences. However, the level of students' appreciation for evidence-based practice during clinical experiences was unknown to participants and was influenced by practice-related barriers. Acknowledging these challenges, academics were engaged in dialogue with students and suggested the need for academia-practice collaboration in combating the cited barriers. Ensuring academics are supported to emphasise clinical application of evidence-based practice requires strategies at school and practice levels. Faculty development, engagement of clinical nurses with evidence-based practice, supportive

  9. The theory of bureaucratic caring for nursing practice in the organizational culture. (United States)

    Ray, M A


    Changes in the health care environment have raised many questions related to patient care. How are political, economic, legal, and technological caring decisions made? How is spiritual caring fostered? How can ethical caring be the grounds on which moral decisions are made? What new policies must be designed to enhance the human perspective in corporate policy, and how will these principles and policies guide actions? The impact of the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring on the corporate enterprise will necessitate a system shift from a narrow to a broad focus where management and caring views can exist side by side and realistically represent the transformation of health care organizations to benefit humankind.

  10. 'Seeking authorization': a grounded theory exploration of mentors' experiences of assessing nursing students on the borderline of achievement of competence in clinical practice. (United States)

    Cassidy, Simon; Coffey, Michael; Murphy, Fiona


    To develop a substantive theoretical explanation of how mentors make sense of their experiences where nursing students are on the borderline of achievement of competence in clinical practice. The reluctance of Registered Nurse mentors to fail nursing students in clinical practice despite concerns about competence remains a contemporary issue in international healthcare education. Mentors' assessment decisions have considerable impact for a variety of key stakeholders, not least for students in these circumstances. Grounded theory qualitative study. Phase one involved 20 individual semi-structured interviews with nurse mentors in one United Kingdom National Health Service Health Board (July-October 2009). Phase two included eight individual semi-structured interviews and seven focus groups with mentors and practice educators (n = 38) in four further Health Boards (June 2011-February 2012). Data were analysed using open, axial and selective coding consistent with grounded theory method. Three categories 'the conundrum of practice competence,' 'the intensity of nurturing hopefulness,' and 'managing assessment impasse,' led to the study's substantive theoretical explanation - 'Seeking authorization: Establishing collective accountability for mentorship.' This demonstrates how mentors are dependent on key sources of support and feedback to validate their assessment decision-making, notwithstanding substantial personal, professional and organizational pressures. We conclude that management of borderline assessment situations is considerably developed by recognition of the authorizing effects of a wider community of assessors. Consequently, we identify the personal, professional and organizational implications involved in the preparation, support and regulation of mentors specifically during borderline assessment circumstances. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [A nurse's experience using the super-link system theory to help a T6 spinal cord injury patient return to school]. (United States)

    Li, Pei-Yeh; Wu, Tzu-Jung; Sung, Shi-Hui; Chen, Hsiao-Yu


    The subject of this article is a 20 year-old female with thoracic spinal cord injury with paraplegia suffered during a car accident. The article reports on the nursing experience in helping the patient manage her autonomic dysreflexia (AD), training the patient in self-catheterization, and using relevant social resources in order to achieve a successful return to her studies at school. The authors collected data using interviews, observations, and physical assessments between November 20 and December 30, 2008. The two nursing diagnoses of AD and inadequate preparation for a successful return to school during rehabilitation hospitalization were made during caring procedures. Holistic nursing assessment was employed and the Super-Link System Theory was applied to establish a link between the hospital and school. Individual nursing interventions used included understanding the inducement and treatment of AD, performing self-catheterization, and enhancing the support system by introducing successful clients and relevant social resources in order to transition the patient successfully to her new post-injury life. The patient consequently transitioned smoothly from rehabilitation hospital to school. The authors hope this case report will provide a useful reference for nurses charged with caring for patients with spinal cord injuries while still enrolled at school.

  12. Specificity of executive function and theory of mind performance in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms in autism spectrum disorders. (United States)

    Lukito, Steve; Jones, Catherine R G; Pickles, Andrew; Baird, Gillian; Happé, Francesca; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily


    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently demonstrate symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous findings in children with ASD have suggested that these symptoms are associated with an impairment in executive function (EF) abilities. However, studies rarely considered this association within a single framework that controls for other related factors such as Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities and ASD symptoms. We used structural equation modeling to explore the relations among EF, ToM, and symptoms of ASD and ADHD, using data from a population-based sample of 100 adolescents with ASD and full-scale IQ ≥ 50 (the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP) cohort). The study used a multi-measure and multi-informant approach, where performance of inhibition, planning, switching, and working memory tasks indexed EF and performance on tasks involving mentalizing indexed ToM. Measures of ASD and ADHD symptoms included parent and teacher reports and direct observation of the children. Shared source of symptom reporting was accounted for with a parental rating latent factor indexed by symptom measures reported by parents. Impairments in EF abilities were specifically associated with ADHD symptoms while impaired ToM was specifically associated with ASD symptoms, when accounting for the associations of each cognitive domain with the other factors. ASD and ADHD symptom latent factors were also correlated, but this association became nonsignificant once the shared source of reporting from parents was accounted for and within a model that also controlled for the correlated pathway between EF and ToM factors. The specific relations between the cognitive domains and behavioral symptoms remained even after controlling for IQ. In this ASD sample, symptoms of ADHD and ASD are underpinned by separate cognitive domains. The association between EF and ToM impairments is a likely partial explanation for the co-occurrence of ADHD symptoms in ASD

  13. Tests of the DRYAD theory of the age-related deficit in memory for context: Not about context, and not about aging (United States)

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Diaz, Michael; Matzen, Laura E.; Johnson, Benjamin


    Older adults exhibit a disproportionate deficit in their ability to recover contextual elements or source information about prior encounters with stimuli. A recent theoretical account, DRYAD (Benjamin, 2010), attributes this selective deficit to a global decrease in memory fidelity with age, moderated by weak representation of contextual information. The predictions of DRYAD are tested here in three experiments. We show that an age-related deficit obtains for whichever aspect of the stimulus subjects’ attention is directed away from during encoding (Experiment 1), suggesting a central role for attention in producing the age-related deficit in context. We also show that an analogous deficit can be elicited within young subjects with a manipulation of study time (Experiment 2), suggesting that any means of reducing memory fidelity yields an interaction of the same form as the age-related effect. Experiment 3 evaluates the critical prediction of DRYAD that endorsement probability in an exclusion task should vary nonmonotonically with memory strength. This prediction was confirmed by assessing the shape of the forgetting function in a continuous exclusion task. The results are consistent with the DRYAD account of aging and memory judgments and do not support the widely held view that aging entails the selective disruption of processes involved in encoding, storing, or retrieving contextual information. PMID:21875219

  14. Burnout Study of Clinical Nurses in Vietnam: Development of Job Burnout Model Based on Leiter and Maslach's Theory


    Huong Thi Thu Nguyen, RN, MPH; Kazuyo Kitaoka, PhD; Masune Sukigara, PhD; Anh Lan Thai, PhD


    Purpose: This study aimed to create a Vietnamese version of both the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS) to assess the burnout state of Vietnamese clinical nurses and to develop a causal model of burnout of clinical nurses. Methods: We conducted a descriptive design using a cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire was hand divided directly by nursing departments to 500 clinical nurses in three hospitals. Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were then exam...

  15. Nursing communication in nursing care to mastectomized women: a grounded theory study La comunicación de la enfermera em la asistencia de enfermería a la mujer mastectomizada: um estudio de Grounded Theory A comunicação da enfermeira na assistência de enfermagem à mulher mastectomizada: um estudo de Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Maria de Almeida Araújo


    Full Text Available The goal was to understand the nurse / patient communication process, emphasizing nursing care to mastectomized women. Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory were used to interview eight nurses from a referral institution in cancer treatment, using the guiding question: how do nurses perceive their communication process with mastectomized women? Data analysis allowed for the creation of a central theory: the meaning of communication in nursing care to women, constituted by three distinct but inter-related phenomena: perceiving communication, the relationship nurse / mastectomized woman and rethinking the communication nurse / mastectomized woman. With a view to satisfactory communication, professionals need to get involved and believe that their presence is as important as the performance of technical procedures that relieve situations of stress.El objetivo fue comprender el proceso de comunicación enfermera/ paciente, con énfasis en la asistencia de enfermería a la mujer mastectomizada. Se utilizó el Interaccionismo Simbólico y la Grounded Theory, para entrevistar ocho enfermeras de una institución con reconocido prestigio en el tratamiento de cáncer, utilizándose la siguiente pregunta: ¿Cómo la enfermera percibe su proceso de comunicación con la mujer mastectomizada? El análisis de los datos permitió la creación de la teoría central: el significado de la comunicación en la atención de enfermería a la mujer; esta se constituye de tres fenómenos diferentes que se interrelacionan: percibiendo la comunicación, la relación enfermera/mujer mastectomizada y repensando la comunicación enfermera/mujer mastectomizada. Así, se comprende que, para que la comunicación se torne satisfactoria, la profesional precisa envolverse y creer que su presencia es tan importante como la realización de procedimientos técnicos y que disminuye situaciones de estrés.Objetivou-se, aqui, compreender o processo de comunicação enfermeira

  16. Task-shifting Using a Pain Management Protocol in an Emergency Care Service: Nurses' Perception through the Eye of the Rogers's Diffusion of Innovation Theory. (United States)

    Hadorn, Fabienne; Comte, Pascal; Foucault, Eliane; Morin, Diane; Hugli, Olivier


    It has been shown that over 70% of patients waiting in emergency departments (EDs) do not receive analgesics, despite the fact that more than 78% complain of pain. A clinical innovation in the form of a pain management protocol that includes task-shifting has been implemented in the ED of a university hospital in Switzerland in order to improve pain-related outcomes in patients. This innovation involves a change in clinical practice for physicians and nurses. The aim of this study is to explore nurses' perceptions on how well this innovation is adopted. This descriptive correlational study took place in the ED of a Swiss university hospital; the hospital provides healthcare for the city, the canton, and adjoining cantons. A convenience sample of 37 ED nurses participated. They were asked to complete a questionnaire comprising 56 statements based on Rogers's "Diffusion of Innovation" theory. Nurses' opinions (on a 1-10 Likert scale) indicate that the new protocol benefits the ED (mean [M] = 7.4, standard deviation [SD] = 1.21), is compatible with nursing roles (M = 8.0, SD = 1.9), is not too complicated to apply (M = 2.7, SD = 1.7), provides observable positive effects in patients (M = 7.0, SD = 1.28), and is relatively easy to introduce into daily practice (M = 6.5, SD = 1.0). Further studies are now needed to examine patients' experiences of this innovation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intensive care unit nurses' information needs and recommendations for integrated displays to improve nurses' situation awareness. (United States)

    Koch, Sven H; Weir, Charlene; Haar, Maral; Staggers, Nancy; Agutter, Jim; Görges, Matthias; Westenskow, Dwayne


    Fatal errors can occur in intensive care units (ICUs). Researchers claim that information integration at the bedside may improve nurses' situation awareness (SA) of patients and decrease errors. However, it is unclear which information should be integrated and in what form. Our research uses the theory of SA to analyze the type of tasks, and their associated information gaps. We aimed to provide recommendations for integrated, consolidated information displays to improve nurses' SA. Systematic observations methods were used to follow 19 ICU nurses for 38 hours in 3 clinical practice settings. Storyboard methods and concept mapping helped to categorize the observed tasks, the associated information needs, and the information gaps of the most frequent tasks by SA level. Consensus and discussion of the research team was used to propose recommendations to improve information displays at the bedside based on information deficits. Nurses performed 46 different tasks at a rate of 23.4 tasks per hour. The information needed to perform the most common tasks was often inaccessible, difficult to see at a distance or located on multiple monitoring devices. Current devices at the ICU bedside do not adequately support a nurse's information-gathering activities. Medication management was the most frequent category of tasks. Information gaps were present at all levels of SA and across most of the tasks. Using a theoretical model to understand information gaps can aid in designing functional requirements. Integrated information that enhances nurses' Situation Awareness may decrease errors and improve patient safety in the future.

  18. Nurses' response to parents' 'speaking-up' efforts to ensure their hospitalized child's safety: an attribution theory perspective. (United States)

    Bsharat, Sondos; Drach-Zahavy, Anat


    To understand how attribution processes (control and stability), which the nurse attributes to parental involvement in maintaining child safety, determine the nurse's response to a safety alert. Participation of parents in maintaining their child's safety is shown to reduce the incidence of and risk of clinical errors. Unless nurses respond appropriately to parents' safety alerts, this potential source of support could diminish. A 2 (controllability: high vs. low) × 2 (consistency: high vs. low) factorial design. Data were collected during the period 2013-2014 in paediatric wards. Four variants of scenarios were created corresponding to the different combinations of these variables. A total of 126 nurses read a scenario and completed self-report questionnaires measuring their response to the parent's safety alert. Additional data were collected about the manipulation check, safety norms in the ward and demographic variables. Data were analysed using analysis of variance. Results showed a main effect of stability and a significant two-way interaction effect of stability and controllability, on a nurse's tendency to help the parent and fix the safety problem. Furthermore, safety norms were significantly related to nurses' response. These findings contribute to the understanding of antecedents that affect nurses' responses to parents' speaking-up initiatives: whether nurses will reject or heed the alert. Theoretical and practical implications for promoting parents' engagement in their safety are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Use of Grounded Theory to Develop a Framework for Understanding Student Retention in Community College Nursing Programs (United States)

    Priode, Kimberly S.


    Gaining admission into pre-licensure nursing programs has proven to be quite difficult for the average college student. Topping the list of crucial priorities for many academic institutions is the retention of these nursing students. Yet, the reality is that many students decide not to complete their course of study for reasons other than academic…

  20. Factors influencing nurses' acceptance of hospital information systems in Iran: application of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. (United States)

    Sharifian, Roxana; Askarian, Fatemeh; Nematolahi, Mohtaram; Farhadi, Payam

    User acceptance is a precondition for successful implementation of hospital information systems (HISs). Increasing investment in information technology by healthcare organisations internationally has made user acceptance an important issue in technology implementation and management. Despite the increased focus on hospital information systems, there continues to be user resistance. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting hospital information systems nurse-user acceptance of HISs, based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), in the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences teaching hospitals. A descriptive-analytical research design was employed to study nurses' adoption and use of HISs. Data collection was undertaken using a cross-sectional survey of nurses (n=303). The research model was examined using the LISREL path confirmatory modeling. The results demonstrated that the nurses' behavioural intention (BI) to use hospital information systems was predicted by Performance Expectancy (PE) (β= 2.34, pExpectancy (EE) (β= 2.21, pexpectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions, with performance expectancy having the strongest effect on user intention.

  1. [Habermas' and Giddens' modernization theories applied to homes for the aged and to somatic nursing homes. The long road toward greater equivalence between residents and staff]. (United States)

    Belderok, J J


    The situation in homes for the elderly and nursing homes is for the residents both alarming and tragic. Recent Dutch legislation supports the movement towards more self-determination and autonomy for the residents. The staff are dedicated to making the living situation as good as possible for the residents. Nevertheless many publications describe how the dependence and helplessness of the residents stil continue. In this paper this helplessness is placed within the broader framework of modern society by application of Habermas' theory of communicative action and Giddens' structuration theory. Both theories show that the key to improve dependent making structures should be sought principally in the behaviour of both staff and residents. Habermas offers a perspective to more equivalent communicative action between residents and staff. Giddens draws attention to the knowledgeability of residents, with which they should be able to interact on an equal basis with professionals. This presupposes much dedication of both staff and residents.

  2. The development and psychometric testing of a theory-based instrument to evaluate nurses' perception of clinical reasoning competence. (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Liu, Hsiu-Chen; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Lin, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chia-Hao; Cheng, Ching-Yu


    The purpose of the study was to develop and psychometrically test the Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale. Clinical reasoning is an essential skill for providing safe and quality patient care. Identifying pre-graduates' and nurses' needs and designing training courses to improve their clinical reasoning competence becomes a critical task. However, there is no instrument focusing on clinical reasoning in the nursing profession. Cross-sectional design was used. This study included the development of the scale, a pilot study that preliminary tested the readability and reliability of the developed scale and a main study that implemented and tested the psychometric properties of the developed scale. The Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale was developed based on the Clinical Reasoning Model. The scale includes 15 items using a Likert five-point scale. Data were collected from 2013-2014. Two hundred and fifty-one participants comprising clinical nurses and nursing pre-graduates completed and returned the questionnaires in the main study. The instrument was tested for internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Its validity was tested with content, construct and known-groups validity. One factor emerged from the factor analysis. The known-groups validity was confirmed. The Cronbach's alpha for the entire instrument was 0·9. The reliability and validity of the Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale were supported. The scale is a useful tool and can be easily administered for the self-assessment of clinical reasoning competence of clinical nurses and future baccalaureate nursing graduates. Study limitations and further recommendations are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Nursing as concrete philosophy, Part I: Risjord on nursing knowledge. (United States)

    Theodoridis, Kyriakos


    This essay addresses the problem of the essentiality of nursing knowledge and what kind of theory, if any, is essential to nursing practice. The overarching aim of the essay was to argue for the thesis that nursing may be described as a kind of philosophical activity, and, consequently, that philosophy is the kind of "theory" that is essential to nursing practice and to the nursing discipline at large. The essay consists of two papers. The present paper, Part I, is a critical examination of Mark Risjord's discussion of the problem of the theory-practice gap in his Nursing Knowledge: Practice, Science, Philosophy, from 2010. According to Risjord, the cause of the theory-practice gap originates in an erroneous conception of science (logical positivism) which had a decisive influence upon the way nursing scholars appropriated theoretical frameworks for the nursing discipline. This philosophical influence is considered in effect to have generated the theory-practice gap. In order to bridge the gap, Risjord suggests, the nursing discipline needs to adopt a standpoint epistemology conjoined with a postpositivist conception of scientific theory. In this way, a legitimate brand of nursing science may be developed and the theory-practice gap overcome. I will argue that neither Risjord's diagnosis of the problem, nor his recommended cure, may succeed in rescuing the nursing discipline from the theory-practice gap. Rather, the real cause of the theory-practice gap, I will claim, derives from an erroneous conception of nursing (not of science), namely the conception of nursing as a kind of science (roughly speaking). On my view, to overcome the gap, the nursing discipline needs to make salient the inherently philosophical character of nursing. In the second paper (Part II), I will continue the discussion of nursing knowledge and delineate the thesis of nursing as a kind of concrete philosophy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Theory of mind in schizophrenia: correlation with clinical symptomatology, emotional recognition and ward behavior. (United States)

    Lee, Woo Kyeong; Kim, Yong Kyu


    Several studies have suggested the presence of a theory of mind (ToM) deficit in schizophrenic disorders. This study examined the relationship of emotion recognition, theory of mind, and ward behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Fifty-five patients with chronic schizophrenia completed measures of emotion recognition, ToM, intelligence, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE). Theory of mind sum score correlated significantly with IQ, emotion recognition, and ward behavior. Ward behavior was linked to the duration of the illness, and even more so to theory of mind deficits. Theory of mind contributed a significant proportion of the amount of variance to explain social behavior on the ward. Considering our study results, impaired theory of mind contributes significantly to the understanding of social competence in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Multiple cognitive capabilities/deficits in children with an autism spectrum disorder: 'Weak' central coherence and its relationship to theory of mind and executive control


    Pellicano, E.; Maybery, M.; Durkin, K.; Maley, A.


    This study examined the validity of “weak” central coherence (CC) in the context of multiple cognitive capabilities/deficits in autism. Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and matched typically developing children were administered tasks tapping visuospatial coherence, false-belief understanding and aspects of executive control. Significant group differences were found in all three cognitive domains. Evidence of local processing on coherence tasks was widespread in the ASD group, ...

  6. Can a theory-based educational intervention change nurses' knowledge and attitudes concerning cancer pain management? A quasi-experimental design. (United States)

    Gustafsson, Markus; Borglin, Gunilla


    Registered Nurses (RNs) play an important role in caring for patients suffering from cancer pain. A lack of knowledge regarding pain management and the RNs' own perception of cancer pain could act as barriers to effective pain management. Educational interventions that target RNs' knowledge and attitudes have proved promising. However, an intervention consisting of evidence-based practice is a multifaceted process and demands behavioural and cognitive changes to sustain the effects of the intervention. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate if a theory-based educational intervention could change RNs' knowledge and attitudes to cancer pain and pain management, both four and 12 weeks after the start of the intervention. A quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent control groups was used. The primary outcome was measured using a modified version of the instrument Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKAS) at baseline, four weeks and 12 weeks after the start of the intervention to evaluate its persistence. The intervention's educational curriculum was based on the principles of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour and consisted of interactive learning activities conducted in workshops founded on evidence-based knowledge. The RN's own experiences from cancer pain management were used in the learning process. The theory-based educational intervention aimed at changing RNs knowledge and attitudes regarding cancer pain management measured by primary outcome NKAS resulted in a statistical significant (presearched and needs to be evaluated further in larger projects. Clinical Trials. Gov: NCT01313234.

  7. Aggression prevention training for student nurses: differential responses to training and the interaction between theory and practice. (United States)

    Beech, Bernard


    Workplace violence is of great concern to all health care professionals. Nurses are major targets for incidents of violence, with student nurses being clearly recognised as a high-risk sub-group. Training is widely advocated as the appropriate organisational response but the effects and effectiveness of training are inadequately studied. A recently completed Ph.D study used a longitudinal research design to evaluate the effects of a three-day 'aggression prevention and management training programme' on various learning domains of three cohorts of UK student nurses destined for adult, child, mental health and learning disability specialities [N=243] in their first year of nurse training. A purpose-designed questionnaire was used to collect data on knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and self-assessed competence at four time points, two before and two following the educational input. This paper focuses on the differences detected in student nurses' responses to different sections of the questionnaire, at various time points, in relation to recorded demographic variables, namely, their age, gender, destined speciality, and previous relevant training experience. It also considers the 'interaction' between theoretical preparation and clinical practice. These finding may also have wider relevance to skills training and understanding of the reality of student nurse experience in clinical settings.

  8. Towards evidence-based palliative care in nursing homes in Sweden: a qualitative study informed by the organizational readiness to change theory. (United States)

    Nilsen, Per; Wallerstedt, Birgitta; Behm, Lina; Ahlström, Gerd


    Sweden has a policy of supporting older people to live a normal life at home for as long as possible. Therefore, it is often the oldest, most frail people who move into nursing homes. Nursing home staff are expected to meet the existential needs of the residents, yet conversations about death and dying tend to cause emotional strain. This study explores organizational readiness to implement palliative care based on evidence-based guidelines in nursing homes in Sweden. The aim was to identify barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based palliative care in nursing homes. Interviews were carried out with 20 managers from 20 nursing homes in two municipalities who had participated along with staff members in seminars aimed at conveying knowledge and skills of relevance for providing evidence-based palliative care. Two managers responsible for all elderly care in each municipality were also interviewed. The questions were informed by the theory of Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC). ORC was also used as a framework to analyze the data by means of categorizing barriers and facilitators for implementing evidence-based palliative care. Analysis of the data yielded ten factors (i.e., sub-categories) acting as facilitators and/or barriers. Four factors constituted barriers: the staff's beliefs in their capabilities to face dying residents, their attitudes to changes at work as well as the resources and time required. Five factors functioned as either facilitators or barriers because there was considerable variation with regard to the staff's competence and confidence, motivation, and attitudes to work in general, as well as the managers' plans and decisional latitude concerning efforts to develop evidence-based palliative care. Leadership was a facilitator to implementing evidence-based palliative care. There is a limited organizational readiness to develop evidence-based palliative care as a result of variation in the nursing home staff's change efficacy

  9. Grounded theory. (United States)

    Harris, Tina


    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  10. Gilligan's different voice: a perspective for nursing. (United States)

    Cooper, M C


    This article proposes that Carol Gilligan's ethic of care provides for nursing a paradigm for moral deliberation that demonstrates compatibility with nursing's historical and philosophical traditions of relational caring and furnishes empirical support for the value of caring as a moral activity. The appropriateness of Gilligan's theory for nursing is further illustrated by an elucidation of the similarities between Gilligan's theory and nurse theorist Jean Watson's claims that caring constitutes both a necessary and a fundamental component of nursing. It is argued that Gilligan's theory of moral deliberation more faithfully reflects the nursing experience than Kohlberg's contractual, Kantian theory, which currently dominates the nursing literature.

  11. Patient perception of nursing service quality; an applied model of Donabedian's structure-process-outcome approach theory. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Takemura, Yukie; Kanda, Katsuya


    Nursing is a labour-intensive field, and an extensive amount of latent information exists to aid in evaluating the quality of nursing service, with patients' experiences, the primary focus of such evaluations. To effect further improvement in nursing as well as medical care, Donabedian's structure-process-outcome approach has been applied. To classify and confirm patients' specific experiences with regard to nursing service based on Donabedian's structure-process-outcomes model for improving the quality of nursing care. Items were compiled from existing scales and assigned to structure, process or outcomes in Donabedian's model through discussion among expert nurses and pilot data collection. With regard to comfort, surroundings were classified as structure (e.g. accessibility to nurses, disturbance); with regard to patient-practitioner interaction, patient participation was classified as a process (e.g. expertise and skill, patient decision-making); and with regard to changes in patients, satisfaction was classified as an outcome (e.g. information support, overall satisfaction). Patient inquiry was carried out using the finalized questionnaire at general wards in Japanese hospitals in 2005-2006. Reliability and validity were tested using psychometric methods. Data from 1,810 patients (mean age: 59.7 years; mean length of stay: 23.7 days) were analysed. Internal consistency reliability was supported (α = 0.69-0.96), with factor analysis items of structure aggregated to one factor and overall satisfaction under outcome aggregated to one. The remaining items of outcome and process were distributed together in two factors. Inter-scale correlation (r = 0.442-0.807) supported the construct validity of each structure-process-outcome approach. All structure items were represented as negative-worded examples, as they dealt with basic conditions under Japanese universal health care system, and were regarded as representative related to concepts of dissatisfaction and no

  12. When practice precedes theory - A mixed methods evaluation of students' learning experiences in an undergraduate study program in nursing. (United States)

    Falk, Kristin; Falk, Hanna; Jakobsson Ung, Eva


    A key area for consideration is determining how optimal conditions for learning can be created. Higher education in nursing aims to prepare students to develop their capabilities to become independent professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sequencing clinical practice prior to theoretical studies on student's experiences of self-directed learning readiness and students' approach to learning in the second year of a three-year undergraduate study program in nursing. 123 nursing students was included in the study and divided in two groups. In group A (n = 60) clinical practice preceded theoretical studies. In group (n = 63) theoretical studies preceded clinical practice. Learning readiness was measured using the Directed Learning Readiness Scale for Nursing Education (SDLRSNE), and learning process was measured using the revised two-factor version of the Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F). Students were also asked to write down their personal reflections throughout the course. By using a mixed method design, the qualitative component focused on the students' personal experiences in relation to the sequencing of theoretical studies and clinical practice. The quantitative component provided information about learning readiness before and after the intervention. Our findings confirm that students are sensitive and adaptable to their learning contexts, and that the sequencing of courses is subordinate to a pedagogical style enhancing students' deep learning approaches, which needs to be incorporated in the development of undergraduate nursing programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of situational leadership theory training on head nurses' leadership style in nursing management%情境领导理论培训对护士长护理管理领导风格的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祚燕; 倪碧玉; 胡秀英


    Objective To evaluate the effect of situational leadership theory training on head nurses' leadership style in nursing management,and summarize the application methods of situational leadership theory.Methods In December 2013,by means of convenience cluster sampling method,154 head nurses of West China Hospital of Sichuan University were selected for a Leadership Style Self-rating Questionnaire survey,of whom 84 attended the situational leadership theory training one month ago.The questionnaire score was compared between the trained head nurses (the trained group) and the non-trained ones (the non-trained group).Results A total of 154 questionnaires were issued,and 109 valid ones were recovered,in whom 72 were trained by the situational leadership theory while the other 37 were not.The average scores of head nurses' flexibility and efficacy in the trained group (22.35±5.12 and 55.67±7.59) were higher than those in the non-trained group (19.03±4.05 and 50.95±5.30),and the proportions of head nurses with high flexibility and high efficacy in the trained group (61.1% and 31.9%) were higher than those in the non-trained group (32.4% and 8.1%),and the differences above were statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusions The training of the situational leadership theory can improve the application of theory to clinical nursing management and promote the head nurses' flexibility and efficacy to accelerate their work enthusiasm and personal improvement.It can also promote team cohesion and sense of accomplishment by creating a positive team atmosphere to make the efficient usage of limited human resources.%目的 观察情境领导理论培训对护士长护理管理领导风格的影响,并总结情境领导理论在护理管理中的应用方法.方法 2013年11月四川大学华西医院154名护士长中有84名护士长参加了情境领导理论培训.2013年12月即培训1个月后,以领导风格自我问卷为调查工具,采用便利

  14. Clinical Validation of the Nursing Outcome "Swallowing Status" in People with Stroke: Analysis According to the Classical and Item Response Theories. (United States)

    Oliveira-Kumakura, Ana Railka de Souza; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Costa, Alice Gabrielle de Sousa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Carvalho, Emilia Campos


    To validate clinically the nursing outcome "Swallowing status". The adjustment of the nursing outcome was investigated according to the Classical and Item Response Theories. The models were compared regarding information loss, goodness-of-fit, and differential item functioning. Stability and internal consistency were examined. The nursing outcome has the best fit in the generalized partial credit model with different discrimination parameters. Strong correlations among the scores of each indicator were observed. There was no differential item functioning of the outcome indicators. The scale presented high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .954) and stability (and > .800). This study presents a valid nursing outcome. Most accurate monitoring of sensitivity to an intervention. Validar clinicamente o resultado de enefermagem "Estado da Deglutição". MÉTODOS: O ajustamento do resultado foi investigado de acordo com as teorias Clássica e de Resposta ao Item. Os modelos foram comparados assumindo parâmetros de itens cruzados de igual discriminação. Investigaram-se as propriedades de bondade do ajuste, funcionamento diferencial dos itens, estabilidade e consistência interna. O resultado se ajustou melhor a partir do Modelo de crédito parcial generalizado, o qual demonstrou unidimensionalidade do resultado e forte correlação entre os escores de cada indicador. Não houve funcionamento diferencial dos indicadores. A consistência interna para a escala global (Cronbach's α = .954) e a estabilidade (>.800) mantiveram-se elevadas. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo apresenta um resultado de enfermagem válido. RELEVÂNCIA PARA A PRÁTICA CLÍNICA: Maior acurácia para monitorar a sensibilidade da intervenção. © 2017 NANDA International, Inc.

  15. Nursing scholarship: sense and sensibility. (United States)

    Morse, J M


    This paper explores the relationship between nursing theory, research and practice. It suggests that the frequently discussed difficulties in operationalizing, testing and implementing nursing theories are perhaps indicative of their lack of fit with clinical practice. The insistence of fitting theories within the four metaparadigm concepts-person, environment, health and nursing-forces nursing theory to an inappropriate level of abstraction and to a level that dilutes its relevance for clinical application. It is possible that, while these theories are useful as philosophies, they lack the clinical relevance that is a critical criterion for theory. Confounding the status quo, the present practice of teaching theory as fact within education and using theory to drive nursing curricula removes the tentative and guiding contribution that a theory contributes to a profession. A plea is made for research that supports the exploration and identification of nursing concepts and for the development of appropriate theory that will guide both nursing research and nursing practice. Since nursing is an applied discipline, this responsibility necessarily falls on the shoulders of researchers who, in partnership with clinicians, can explore, test and refine theory.

  16. Safety in numbers 7: Veni, vidi, duci: a grounded theory evaluation of nursing students' medication dosage calculation problem-solving schemata construction. (United States)

    Weeks, Keith W; Higginson, Ray; Clochesy, John M; Coben, Diana


    This paper evaluates nursing students' transition through schemata construction and competence development in medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS). We advance a grounded theory from interview data that reflects the experiences and perceptions of two groups of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students: eight students exposed to a prototype authentic MDC-PS environment and didactic transmission methods of education and 15 final year students exposed to the safeMedicate authentic MDC-PS environment. We advance a theory of how classroom-based 'chalk and talk' didactic transmission environments offered multiple barriers to accurate MDC-PS schemata construction among novice students. While conversely it was universally perceived by all students that authentic learning and assessment environments enabled MDC-PS schemata construction through facilitating: 'seeing' the authentic features of medication dosage problems; context-based and situational learning; learning within a scaffolded environment that supported construction of cognitive links between the concrete world of clinical MDC-PS and the abstract world of mathematics; and confidence-building in their cognitive and functional competence ability. Drawing on the principle of veni, vidi, duci (I came, I saw, I calculated), we combined the two sets of evaluations to offer a grounded theoretical basis for schemata construction and competence development within this critical domain of professional practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Nursing Care Based on Watson's Theory of Human Caring on Anxiety, Distress, And Coping, When Infertility Treatment Fails: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Durgun Ozan, Yeter; Okumuş, Hülya


    Introduction: The failure of infertility treatment leads to individual, familial, and social problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the nursing care program based on Watson's "Theory of Human Caring" on anxiety and distress caused by coping when the treatment fails. Methods: This study randomized controlled trial study was conducted from April to November 2012, with 86 Turkish women with infertility (intervention group: 45, control group: 41). Follow-up of 32 infertile women, who failed infertility treatment from intervention group, and 35 infertile women, who failed infertility treatment from control group, continued for another four weeks. Data were collected through Spiel Berger's State/Trait Anxiety Inventory, Distress Scale, and Ways of Coping Questionnaire. The analyses of data were conducted using SPSS ver 13. Results: The intervention and control groups significantly differed in terms of anxiety, distress, and coping levels. The intervention group's mean anxiety score decreased by thirteen points and distress by fourteen points (in a positive direction). The intervention group's mean positive coping style score increased. Whereas a negative increase was observed in the control group's values depending on the failure of the treatment. Conclusion: Watson's theory of human caring is recommended as a guide to nursing patients with infertility treatment to decrease levels of anxiety and distress, and to increase the positive coping style among infertile women.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 3, 2010 ... were vacant throughout South Africa (Health Systems Trust 2008). The provinces with the highest ... monetary rewards), the manager or supervisor (enhancing ... theory is one of nurse retention and not motivation. The shape.

  19. 护士长管理理论培训课程需求调查及其引发的思考%The thoughts from the survey of head nurses' management theory training needs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张含凤; 李秋洁; 孔繁莹


    Objective: To explore the training needs and provide the scientific basis of management theory course for the head nurses. Methods: Using the Delphi method to investigate the head nurses' training needs about management theory course. Results: Nursing management theory course have 5 categories and 23 statements ,and the 5 categories includes management theories, leadership theories, learning theories .incentive theories, and the related theories, among which the management theories are the most needed course, but the learning theories are the least needed course and the motivation theories are controversial course. Conclusion: The coordination degree of experts is higher, thus, this results can be the reference for the following nursing management theory training for the head nurses. At the same time, the different results between this study and the previous researches will enlighten us to examine the importance and necessity of the head nurses' theory training.%目的:探讨护士长对管理理论课程的培训需求,为下一步护士长理论培训提供科学依据.方法:采用德尔菲法就护士长对管理理论课程的培训需求进行两轮函询.结果:管理理论课程包括管理理论、领导理论、学习理论、激励理论、相关理论等5个一级指标和23个二级指标,其中管理理论和学习理论分别是护士长最需要和最不需要培训的理论,而激励理论是最受争议的内容.结论:专家对确定的护士长管理理论课程的协调程度较高,可为以后的护士长理论培训提供参考.需要进一步审视护士长理论培训的重要性和必要性.

  20. Battling the challenges of training nurses to use information systems through theory-based training material design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Galani (Malatsi); P. Yu (Ping); G.W.C. Paas (Fred); P. Chandler (Paul)


    textabstractThe attempts to train nurses to effectively use information systems have had mixed results. One problem is that training materials are not adequately designed to guide trainees to gradually learn to use a system without experiencing a heavy cognitive load. This is because training design

  1. How closely does genetic diversity in finite populations conform to predictions of neutral theory? Large deficits in regions of low recombination. (United States)

    Frankham, R


    Levels of genetic diversity in finite populations are crucial in conservation and evolutionary biology. Genetic diversity is required for populations to evolve and its loss is related to inbreeding in random mating populations, and thus to reduced population fitness and increased extinction risk. Neutral theory is widely used to predict levels of genetic diversity. I review levels of genetic diversity in finite populations in relation to predictions of neutral theory. Positive associations between genetic diversity and population size, as predicted by neutral theory, are observed for microsatellites, allozymes, quantitative genetic variation and usually for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, there are frequently significant deviations from neutral theory owing to indirect selection at linked loci caused by balancing selection, selective sweeps and background selection. Substantially lower genetic diversity than predicted under neutrality was found for chromosomes with low recombination rates and high linkage disequilibrium (compared with 'normally' recombining chromosomes within species and adjusted for different copy numbers and mutation rates), including W (median 100% lower) and Y (89% lower) chromosomes, dot fourth chromosomes in Drosophila (94% lower) and mtDNA (67% lower). Further, microsatellite genetic and allelic diversity were lost at 12 and 33% faster rates than expected in populations adapting to captivity, owing to widespread selective sweeps. Overall, neither neutral theory nor most versions of the genetic draft hypothesis are compatible with all empirical results.

  2. The use of change theory to facilitate the consolidation of two diverse Bachelors of Science in Nursing programs. (United States)

    Pawl, Jean D; Anderson, Lori S

    Consolidation of resources, programs, and even universities are measures that university systems consider for economic reasons. The transformation and restructuring of two diverse nursing programs utilized an organizational change tool to guide the consolidation efforts. Insights on how to use an organizational change model and lessons learned are shared for higher education units that may face consolidation. The ADKAR Change Management Model, one of many organizational change resources, was advantageous in consolidating two diverse nursing programs when two universities were mandated to become one. Change is inevitable yet when faced with transition and transformation, thoughtful and strong, committed leaders who portray open transparent communication are an absolute requirement for sustained change. To guide the process, the ADKAR Change Management Model is an insightful and worthwhile resource. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influencing factors on hand hygiene behavior of nursing students based on theory of planned behavior: A descriptive survey study. (United States)

    Jeong, Sun Young; Kim, Kyung Mi


    Hand hygiene is the single most important measure to prevent transmission of infection, but the compliance rate of healthcare workers is relatively low. This study was conducted to identify the knowledge, beliefs, behavior, and affecting factors about hand hygiene among nursing students. A descriptive survey study. The study was carried out in two South Korean nursing schools. A total 208 nursing students participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to collect data. The percentage of correct answers in the survey section concerning hand hygiene knowledge was 68.1%. No significant difference in the knowledge, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, or control beliefs data was found related to general characteristics. Behavioral beliefs correlated with normative beliefs (r=.25, phand hygiene behavior (r=.17, p=.017), and control beliefs correlated with hand hygiene behavior (r=.18, p=.010). The results suggest that knowledge is not enough to change the beliefs related to hand hygiene; positive behavioral beliefs and strong control beliefs are also needed to increase hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.


    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  5. Factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province as perceived by professional midwives. (United States)

    Malwela, Thivhulawi; Maputle, Sonto M; Lebese, Rachel T


    Professional midwives have an important role to play in midwifery training to produce a competent midwife. According to the social learning theory, professional midwives act as role models for students. When allocated for clinical learning experiences in the training hospitals, students will have the opportunity to observe the well-trained, skilled, and experienced professional midwives. The whole process will enable students to integrate theory with practice and they will become competent. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice as perceived by midwives. The study was conducted at the training hospitals in Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. These hospitals were: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini. A qualitative explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. A Nonprobability, convenient sampling method was used to select 11 midwives from the following hospitals: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini, in Vhembe district. In-depth individual interviews were conducted. Data were analysed through open coding method. One theme and five sub-themes emerged from the analysed data, namely: shortage of midwives, attitudes towards student midwives, reluctance to perform teaching functions, language barriers, and declining midwifery practice standards. Shortage of midwives in the clinical areas led to fewer numbers of mentors whom the students could observe and imitate to acquire clinical skills. Some of the midwives were reluctant to teach students. Recommendations were made for both training institutions and hospitals to employ preceptors for students in the clinical practical.

  6. Nursing on the medical ward. (United States)

    Parker, Judith M


    This paper considers some issues confronting contemporary medical nursing and draws upon psychoanalytic theories to investigate some seemingly straightforward and taken-for-granted areas of medical nursing work. I am arguing that the everyday work of medical nurses in caring for patients is concerned with bringing order to and placing boundaries around inherently unsettled and destabilized circumstances. I am also arguing that how nurses manage and organize their work in this regard stems from traditional practices that tend to be taken for granted and not explicitly thought about. It is therefore difficult for nurses to consider changing these practices that often have negative consequences for the nurses. I want to examine the impact upon nurses of the consequences of three taken-for-granted nursing practices: (i) the tendency of nurses to confine their reactions to what is going on so as to present a caring self; (ii) the tendency of nurses in their everyday talk to patients to confine, limit and minimize meaning; and (iii) the tensions and ambiguities that emerge for nurses in the policing function they perform in confining patients to the bed or the ward. Negative consequences on nurses of these practices potentially include stress and confusion regarding their ability to care for patients; an undervaluing of nursing skills; and a deterioration in the nurse-patient relationship. Clinical supervision for medical nurses is proposed as a means of facilitating greater understanding of the nature of nurses' relationships with patients and the complex dimensions of their medical nursing role.

  7. Nursing education in Norway. (United States)

    Kyrkjebø, Jane Mikkelsen; Mekki, Tone Elin; Hanestad, Berit Rokne


    The aim of this paper is to describe nursing education in Norway and some essential questions and challenges regarding the undergraduate and newly graduated nurses' competencies and functionally preparedness. The first formal training of nurses in Norway started in Oslo in 1886. Since then the education has changed considerably. As long as society is changing, and nurses are going to meet and adapt to societies needs, the education of nurses will also have to change continuously. The present general plan of nursing education has gone through a long process. The discussions have concerned the content of medical and natural science subjects, the practical part of the training and the relation between theory and practice. There are challenges in nursing education in Norway today. We have seen that recruitment has decreased, and that nurses seek jobs where they are better paid. To increase the accessibility distance and part-time education has been established. The theory-practice gap will always exist. Therefore we should aim to prepare the students to minimize this gap in a way that they can combine training of nursing with training in improvement. The demand of a masters degree to be a nursing teacher has reduced the teachers' ability to keep up their practical skills. The government pays nursing teachers who want to practice as nurses for several months to maintain their salary level during that period. There are many possibilities to improve nursing education in Norway. We are on our way with highly qualified teachers and students, and we still have enough good applicants. The new general plan and new law for universities and university colleges offer great opportunities. However, the shortage of nurses is a great challenge for further quality improvement both in clinical practice and in education.

  8. Nursing staff connect libraries with improving patient care but not with achieving organisational objectives: a grounded theory approach. (United States)

    Chamberlain, David; Brook, Richard


    Health organisations are often driven by specific targets defined by mission statements, aims and objectives to improve patient care. Health libraries need to demonstrate that they contribute to organisational objectives, but it is not clear how nurses view that contribution. To investigate ward nursing staff motivations, their awareness of ward and organisational objectives; and their attitudes towards the contribution of health library services to improving patient care. Qualitative research using focus group data was combined with content analysis of literature evidence and library statistics (quantitative data). Data were analysed using thematic coding, divided into five group themes: understanding of Trust, Ward and Personal objectives, use of Library, use of other information sources, quality and Issues. Four basic social-psychological processes were then developed. Behaviour indicates low awareness of organisational objectives despite patient-centric motivation. High awareness of library services is shown with some connection made by ward staff between improved knowledge and improved patient care. There was a two-tiered understanding of ward objectives and library services, based on level of seniority. However, evidence-based culture needs to be intrinsic in the organisation before all staff benefit. Libraries can actively engage in this at ward and board level and improve patient care by supporting organisational objectives. © 2014 The author. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.

  9. The Emotional Freedom Technique: Finally, a Unifying Theory for the Practice of Holistic Nursing, or Too Good to Be True? (United States)

    Rancour, Patrice


    The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is defined and described as a clinical procedure for the relief of psychological and physical distress that patients often bring to the attention of nurses. Frequently referred to as "tapping," this technique combines the cognitive reprocessing benefits of exposure and acceptance therapy with the energetic disturbance releases associated with acupuncture and other energy therapies. More than 60 research articles in peer-reviewed journals report a staggering 98% efficacy rate with the use of this procedure from psychological distress (posttraumatic stress disorder, phobias, anxiety, depression, etc.) to physical conditions (asthma, fibromyalgia, pain, seizure disorders, etc.) to performance issues (athletic, academic). Perhaps because of this, this technique has encountered a fair degree of skepticism within the health care community. Easily taught as a self-help aid that patients can administer to themselves, EFT becomes an efficacious tool in the hands of nurses who are seeking whole person approaches for the healing of a wide variety of psychological and physical conditions. A conceptual framework, mechanisms of action, evidence of safety, literature review, and case studies are also included. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Future directions for nursing administration. (United States)

    Poulin, M A


    As the age of centralization wanes, nurse executives must look ahead. The author, noting a terrain obscured by the increasing complexity of nursing practice, points out the advantages of decentralizing decision making and of providing a distinctive nursing stamp to research and administration theory. Nurse executives, trained in management from early in their professional formation, can provide enlightened direction and flexible support for tomorrow's opportunities.

  11. Nursing interventions for promoting self-care of persons with type 2 diabetes: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Yanne Martins de Oliveira


    Full Text Available This is an integrative review aiming at analyzing and identifying the evidence available in the literature on nursing interventions to promote self-care for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data collection occurred in the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, MEDLINE (via EBSCO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL and SCOPUS. The survey of articles occurred in July and August 2015 by two independent reviewers. The initial search identified 239 articles and eight of them met the selection criteria. Health education has emerged as a strategic field for implementing nursing interventions. Interventions with patient monitoring and that provided more care time were more satisfactory regarding self-care practices. The Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory is indicated as a guide to direct the educator in self-care of diabetic persons.

  12. La Teoría Fundamentada como Metodología de Investigación Cualitativa en Enfermería Grounded theory as a qualitative research methodology in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina G. Vivar


    Full Text Available La teoría fundamentada (TF es un diseño de investigación cualitativa, reconocido a nivel internacional, que ha sido utilizado para desarrollar teorías sobre fenómenos de salud relevantes. Sin embargo, en el ámbito de la enfermería española, la TF ha tenido escasa consideración. Por ello, este artículo se centra en esta metodología cualitativa e ilustra su contribución en la investigación enfermera en España y su utilidad para la Enfermería. También, se presentan brevemente las características metodológicas distintivas de la teoría fundamentada.Grounded theory is a qualitative research design used at an international level. It has been applied as a methodology to develop theories about relevant health phenomena. However, in the Spanish nursing context, grounded theory has received very little attention. This article focuses on this qualitative methodology and illustrates its contribution to nursing research in Spain and its relevance for nursing. Moreover, the main methodological characteristics of grounded theory are briefly presented.

  13. Leadership styles and theories. (United States)

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.

  14. Applying normalization process theory to understand implementation of a family violence screening and care model in maternal and child health nursing practice: a mixed method process evaluation of a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Hooker, Leesa; Small, Rhonda; Humphreys, Cathy; Hegarty, Kelsey; Taft, Angela


    In Victoria, Australia, Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services deliver primary health care to families with children 0-6 years, focusing on health promotion, parenting support and early intervention. Family violence (FV) has been identified as a major public health concern, with increased prevalence in the child-bearing years. Victorian Government policy recommends routine FV screening of all women attending MCH services. Using Normalization Process Theory (NPT), we aimed to understand the barriers and facilitators of implementing an enhanced screening model into MCH nurse clinical practice. NPT informed the process evaluation of a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in eight MCH nurse teams in metropolitan Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Using mixed methods (surveys and interviews), we explored the views of MCH nurses, MCH nurse team leaders, FV liaison workers and FV managers on implementation of the model. Quantitative data were analysed by comparing proportionate group differences and change within trial arm over time between interim and impact nurse surveys. Qualitative data were inductively coded, thematically analysed and mapped to NPT constructs (coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring) to enhance our understanding of the outcome evaluation. MCH nurse participation rates for interim and impact surveys were 79% (127/160) and 71% (114/160), respectively. Twenty-three key stakeholder interviews were completed. FV screening work was meaningful and valued by participants; however, the implementation coincided with a significant (government directed) change in clinical practice which impacted on full engagement with the model (coherence and cognitive participation). The use of MCH nurse-designed FV screening/management tools in focussed women's health consultations and links with FV services enhanced the participants' work (collective action). Monitoring of FV work (reflexive monitoring) was limited. The use of

  15. Intensive care survivors' experiences of ward-based care: Meleis' theory of nursing transitions and role development among critical care outreach services. (United States)

    Ramsay, Pam; Huby, Guro; Thompson, Andrew; Walsh, Tim


    To explore the psychosocial needs of patients discharged from intensive care, the extent to which they are captured using existing theory on transitions in care and the potential role development of critical care outreach, follow-up and liaison services. Intensive care patients are at an increased risk of adverse events, deterioration or death following ward transfer. Nurse-led critical care outreach, follow-up or liaison services have been adopted internationally to prevent these potentially avoidable sequelae. The need to provide patients with psychosocial support during the transition to ward-based care has also been identified, but the evidence base for role development is currently limited. Twenty participants were invited to discuss their experiences of ward-based care as part of a broader study on recovery following prolonged critical illness. Psychosocial distress was a prominent feature of their accounts, prompting secondary data analysis using Meleis et al.'s mid-range theory on experiencing transitions. Participants described a sense of disconnection in relation to profound debilitation and dependency and were often distressed by a perceived lack of understanding, indifference or insensitivity among ward staff to their basic care needs. Negotiating the transition between dependence and independence was identified as a significant source of distress following ward transfer. Participants varied in the extent to which they were able to express their needs and negotiate recovery within professionally mediated boundaries. These data provide new insights into the putative origins of the psychosocial distress that patients experience following ward transfer. Meleis et al.'s work has resonance in terms of explicating intensive care patients' experiences of psychosocial distress throughout the transition to general ward-based care, such that the future role development of critical care outreach, follow-up and liaison services may be more theoretically informed

  16. Using ecological theory to evaluate the effectiveness of an indigenous community intervention: A study of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs. (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina


    In recent years, there has been renewed interest among community psychologists in indigenous interventions, which are programs created by local practitioners (rather than researchers) already rooted in their communities. Indigenous interventions have strong ecological validity, but their effectiveness is often unknown because so few are rigorously evaluated. The goal of this project was to use Kelly and Trickett's ecological theory as a conceptual framework for evaluating an indigenous intervention and its mediating mechanisms of effectiveness. The focal intervention was a midwestern Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program, which provides post-assault medical care, crisis intervention, and medical forensic exams for sexual assault survivors. Prior studies of SANE programs have suggested that these interventions may help increase sexual assault prosecution rates. In this case example, we used a mixed methods design to determine if this program contributed to increased prosecution rates, and if so, why. Based on qualitative interviews with key stakeholders, we found substantial evidence for the Principle of Interdependence such that the SANE program strengthened the interconnections between the legal and medical systems, which contributed to increased prosecution. The intervention was effective in these outcomes because it promoted Cycling of Resources throughout the systems and fostered Adaptation of new roles for legal and medical personnel. Moving beyond this specific case example, this paper also examines cross-cutting advantages and struggles of using an ecological approach in the evaluation of indigenous community interventions.

  17. Rural nurse job satisfaction. (United States)

    Molinari, D L; Monserud, M A


    hiring nurses with rural connections, experience and preferences. Rural nurses considered lifestyle and personal life issues when choosing a job. Concepts like time away from work, rural lifestyle, recreation opportunities, climate and social activities influenced the intention to stay on the job. Rural nurses with the most job satisfaction preferred rural lifestyles and possessed rural backgrounds. Since the generalist nurse role requires autonomy and task variability, recruiting nurses who prefer these job characteristics might enhance nurse retention. Other findings were tied to rural health and nursing theories. It is unknown why the most dissatisfied nurses had 1-3 years of experience. Similar studies with larger samples are suggested.

  18. [The style of leadership idealized by nurses]. (United States)

    Higa, Elza de Fátima Ribeiro; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora


    This study focuses on nursing leadership on the basis of Grid theories. According to the authors, these theories are an alternative that allows for leadership development in nursing. The research aimed to identify and analyze the style of leadership idealized by nurses, according to their own view, and to compare the styles of leadership idealized by nurses between the two research institutions. Study subjects were 13 nurses. The results show that nurses at both institutions equally mention they idealize style 9.9, followed by 5.5 and 1.9, with a tendency to reject styles 9.1 and 1.1.

  19. Student nurses' perceived challenges of nursing in India. (United States)

    Garner, S L; Raj, L; Prater, L S; Putturaj, M


    A profound nursing shortage exists in India. Increasingly nursing students in India are opting to migrate to practise nursing abroad upon graduation. Perceptions and attitudes about nursing are shaped during student experiences. The purpose in conducting this research was to illuminate student nurses' perceived challenges of nursing in India. This study took place at a hospital-based, private mission non-profit school of nursing in Bengaluru, India. Purposive sampling of nursing students yielded 14 participants. Photovoice, a qualitative participatory action research methodology, was used. Data were collected between August 2013 and January 2014. A strong international collaboration between researchers resulted in qualitative thematic interpretation of photographs, critical group dialogue transcripts, individual journal entries and detailed field notes. Two main themes were identified including the perceived challenges of a hierarchal system and challenges related to limited nursing workforce capacity. Subcategories of a hierarchal system included challenges related to image, safety, salary and balance. Subcategories of limited workforce capacity were migration, work overload, physical demand, incongruence between theory and practice, and knowledge. Nursing as a profession in India is still in its infancy when measured against standard criteria. Change in health policy is needed to improve salary, safety for nurses, and nurse to patient ratios to address hierarchal and workforce capacity challenges in India. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  20. Cognitive Theories of Autism (United States)

    Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Mitchell, Peter


    This article considers three theories of autism: The Theory of Mind Deficit, Executive Dysfunction and the Weak Central Coherence accounts. It outlines each along with studies relevant to their emergence, their expansion, their limitations and their possible integration. Furthermore, consideration is given to any implication from the theories in…

  1. Perfil de diagnósticos de enfermagem em pessoas com diabetes segundo modelo conceitual de Orem Perfil de diagnósticos de enfermería en personas con diabetes según el modelo conceptual de Orem Nursing diagnoses in people with diabetes mellitus according to Orem's theory of self-care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina de Souza Teixeira


    enfermería se mostraron como indicadores diferenciados para guiar las acciones educativas del enfermero con énfasis en el desarrollo de las habilidades de autocuidado para personas con diabetes.OBJECTIVE: To identify nursing diagnoses in people with diabetes mellitus according to Orem's theory of self-care. METHODS: The sample consisted of 31 people with diabetes mellitus who received care in 2006 at a University Research and Community Service Center in the state of São Paulo. Data were collected through health assessment and interviews. Nursing diagnoses were made according to NANDA-I Taxonomy II, using critical thinking described by Risner. RESULTS: Among 37 nursing diagnoses, 3 of them were present in more than 50% of the participants: ineffective management of therapeutic regimen (67%, knowledge deficit (51%, and impaired skin integrity (51%. Eighteen nursing diagnoses were related to Orem's requirements for universal self-care. CONCLUSION: Knowing the most common nursing diagnoses in people with diabetes mellitus can guide the educative actions of nurses in promoting the development of self-care agency among people with diabetes mellitus.

  2. Do motivational incentives reduce the inhibition deficit in ADHD? (United States)

    Shanahan, Michelle A; Pennington, Bruce F; Willcutt, Erik W


    The primary goal of this study was to test three competing theories of ADHD: the inhibition theory, the motivational theory, and a dual deficit theory. Previous studies have produced conflicting findings about the effects of incentives on executive processes in ADHD. In the present study of 25 children with ADHD and 30 typically developing controls, motivation was manipulated within the Stop Task. Stop signal reaction time was examined, as well as reaction time, its variability, and the number of errors in the primary choice reaction time task. Overall, the pattern of results supported the inhibition theory over the motivational or dual deficit hypotheses, as main effects of group were found for most key variables (ADHD group was worse), whereas the group by reward interaction predicted by the motivational and dual deficit accounts was not found. Hence, as predicted by the inhibition theory, children with ADHD performed worse than controls irrespective of incentives.

  3. Nursing, Nursing Education, and Anxiety. (United States)

    Biggers, Thompson; And Others

    In response to the current crisis in the field of nursing, a study examined nursing students' perceived work-related stress and differences among associate degree, diploma, and baccalaureate nursing programs in their preparation of nursing students. The 171 subjects, representing the three different nursing programs, completed a questionnaire…

  4. Philosophy and conceptual framework: collectively structuring nursing care systematization. (United States)

    Schmitz, Eudinéia Luz; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; Bruggmann, Mario Sérgio; Luz, Susian Cássia Liz


    To build the Nursing Philosophy and Conceptual Framework that will support the Nursing Care Systematization in a hospital in southern Brazil with the active participation of the institution's nurses. Convergent Care Research Data collection took place from July to October 2014, through two workshops and four meetings, with 42 nurses. As a result, the nursing philosophy and conceptual framework were created and the theory was chosen. Data analysis was performed based on Morse and Field. The philosophy involves the following beliefs: team nursing; team work; holistic care; service excellence; leadership/coordination; interdisciplinary team commitment. The conceptual framework brings concepts such as: human being; nursing; nursing care, safe care. The nursing theory defined was that of Wanda de Aguiar Horta. As a contribution, it brought the construction of the institutions' nursing philosophy and conceptual framework, and the definition of a nursing theory.

  5. The Effect of Clinical Simulation with Debriefing for Meaningful Learning in Courses of Nursing Theory and Practicum on Student Knowledge and Perception of Instruction (United States)

    Shea, Kathleen


    Nursing students are expected to apply knowledge from lectures and laboratories to the clinical setting. One major challenge of nursing educators is facilitating the transfer of knowledge to the clinical-practice setting. Simulation-based education provides students with an experiential-learning activity within the context of a simulated clinical…

  6. Concept mapping to promote meaningful learning, help relate theory to practice and improve learning self-efficacy in Asian mental health nursing students: A mixed-methods pilot study. (United States)

    Bressington, Daniel T; Wong, Wai-Kit; Lam, Kar Kei Claire; Chien, Wai Tong


    Student nurses are provided with a great deal of knowledge within university, but they can find it difficult to relate theory to nursing practice. This study aimed to test the appropriateness and feasibility of assessing Novak's concept mapping as an educational strategy to strengthen the theory-practice link, encourage meaningful learning and enhance learning self-efficacy in nursing students. This pilot study utilised a mixed-methods quasi-experimental design. The study was conducted in a University school of Nursing in Hong Kong. A total of 40 third-year pre-registration Asian mental health nursing students completed the study; 12 in the concept mapping (CM) group and 28 in the usual teaching methods (UTM) group. The impact of concept mapping was evaluated thorough analysis of quantitative changes in students' learning self-efficacy, analysis of the structure and contents of the concept maps (CM group), a quantitative measure of students' opinions about their reflective learning activities and content analysis of qualitative data from reflective written accounts (CM group). There were no significant differences in self-reported learning self-efficacy between the two groups (p=0.38). The concept mapping helped students identify their current level of understanding, but the increased awareness may cause an initial drop in learning self-efficacy. The results highlight that most CM students were able to demonstrate meaningful learning and perceived that concept mapping was a useful reflective learning strategy to help them to link theory and practice. The results provide preliminary evidence that the concept mapping approach can be useful to help mental health nursing students visualise their learning progress and encourage the integration of theoretical knowledge with clinical knowledge. Combining concept mapping data with quantitative measures and qualitative reflective journal data appears to be a useful way of assessing and understanding the effectiveness of

  7. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (United States)

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver


    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  8. La Teoría Fundamentada: un estudio bibliométrico de la enfermería brasileña The Grounded Theory: a bibliometric study of Brasilian nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marcellino de Melo Lanzoni


    Full Text Available El objetivo fue identificar las disertaciones y tesis en enfermería brasileña que usaron el método Teoría Fundamentada en Dados (TFD. Estudio bibliométrico de tesis y disertaciones de enfermería defendidas hasta 2009, disponible en: Banco de las tesis de la Coordinación de Perfeccionamiento de la Educación Superior, Colección de la Asociación Brasileña de Enfermería, Biblioteca Digital Brasileña de Tesis y Disertaciones y sitios institucionales. Para la búsqueda de los datos se utilizaron las palabras clave: "Grounded Theory" y "Teoría fundamentada" de forma individual junto a la "Enfermería". Se encontraron 124 estudios, 63 de maestría y 61 de doctorado, provenientes principalmente del sur y sureste del Brasil. El referencial teórico utilizado predominantemente fue el Interaccionismo Simbólico (71,77%. El uso de la TFD en las tesis y disertaciones de enfermería está creciendo y se demuestra que se puede aplicar en el nivel stricto senso de la formación para la elaboración de constructos teóricos.The aim of this study was to identify brazilian nursing dissertations and theses who used the methodological Grounded Theory (GT. The metodology used was bibliometric study of nursing theses and dissertations defended until 2009, available on theses database of the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education (CAPES, the achievements of the Brazilian Nursing Association (CEPEn, the Brazilian Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (BDTD and institutional sites. For search of the data we used the keywords: "Grounded Theory" and "Grounded Theory" coupled individually to "Nursing". We found 124 studies, 63 (50,81% of masters and 61 (49,19% of doctors, coming mainly from South and Southeast of Brazil. The theoretical framework used was predominantly Symbolic Interaction (71,77%. The use of PDT in theses and dissertations in nursing is growing and it is shown that can be applied at both levels of training in the strict sense

  9. Multisensory Spatial Attention Deficits Are Predictive of Phonological Decoding Skills in Developmental Dyslexia (United States)

    Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Ruffino, Milena; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cattaneo, Carmen; Galli, Raffaella; Molteni, Massimo; Zorzi, Marco


    Although the dominant approach posits that developmental dyslexia arises from deficits in systems that are exclusively linguistic in nature (i.e., phonological deficit theory), dyslexics show a variety of lower level deficits in sensory and attentional processing. Although their link to the reading disorder remains contentious, recent empirical…

  10. Nurses On-Line: Career Mobility for Registered Nurses. (United States)

    O'Brien, Barbara S.; Renner, Alice


    Describes how adult learning theory was used to restructure registered nurse courses for online instruction. Hardware/software needs, technical support, instructional model, teaching-learning considerations, and evaluation are discussed. (SK)

  11. Thoughts About Nursing Curricula: Dark Clouds and Bright Lights. (United States)

    Turkel, Marian C; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Amankwaa, Linda; Clarke, Pamela N; Dee, Vivien; Eustace, Rosemary; Hansell, Phyllis Shanley; Jones, Dorothy A; Smith, Marlaine C; Zahourek, Rothlyn


    In this essay, several nurse scholars who are particularly concerned about the contemporary state of nursing science present their concerns about the inclusion of nursing conceptual models and theories in the curricula of nursing programs (dark clouds) and ways in which the concerns have been addressed (bright lights). This essay is the second of two essays that were catalyzed by Barrett's paper, "Again, What Is Nursing Science?" The first essay was published in the previous issue of Nursing Science Quarterly.

  12. Journaling as a mechanism to facilitate graduate nurses' role transition. (United States)

    Sewell, Erika A


    Staff educators continue to develop creative solutions to improve critical thinking, increase confidence, improve organizational acculturation, and reduce the frustrations that challenge the novice nurse. Traditionally, journal writing is used by nursing faculty as a method to link the student nurses' lived clinical experience to nursing theory. Expanding journaling into new graduate nurse orientation programs may benefit new nurses on their journey to professional practice.

  13. Evaluation of the implementation of a PhD capacity-building program for nurses in South Africa.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheehan, Aisling


    Nursing is experiencing a significant deficit in research capacity needed to meet future global healthcare demands-there is a call to double the number of nurses and healthcare professionals with a doctorate.

  14. Aplicación de algunas Teorías de Enfermería en la Práctica Clínica Application of some Nursing Theories in the Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Eugenia Mejía Lopera


    Full Text Available La práctica de enfermería comprende experiencias y fenómenos que la enfermera encuentra cuando brinda cuidado; éstos se originan en: el paciente, la relación enfermera-paciente, la enfermera y el contexto. Las teorías surgen de la práctica y de la investigación y al validarlas se convierten en explicativas y directivas de la misma; la práctica basada en teoría se realimenta y por refinamiento metodológico, se convierte en autónoma y creativa. El objetivo de este artículo es permitir visualizar que la teoría aplicada, cambia la forma de comprender y procesar información, porque exige profundidad de pensamiento y búsqueda de nuevos instrumentos de análisis para reflexionar las acciones. La teoría validada en la práctica desarrolla sistemáticamente el conocimiento empírico disciplinar y provee conocimiento y comprensión para reforzarla. Aprender a pensar de manera distinta con relación a un problema permite ensayar otros comportamientos para el entendimiento de la realidad. Se relacionan algunos conceptos teóricos con la práctica de enfermería, mediante una situación de enfermería presentada en clase en 2006 por López, Mesa y Arroyave, estudiantes de especialización en Cuidado de Enfermería al niño en estado crítico de salud, Facultad de Enfermería-Universidad de Antioquia.The nursing practice understands experiences and phenomena that the nurse finds when care; these originate in: the patient, the relationship patient nurse, the nurse and the context. The theories arise of the practice and of the investigation and when validating them, they become in explanatory and directive of the same one; the practice based on theory is fed back and for methodological refinement, it becomes in autonomous and creative practice. The objective of this article is to allow to visualize that the applied theory, it changes the form of understanding and processing the information, because it demands depth of thoughts and search of new

  15. Nursing and human freedom. (United States)

    Risjord, Mark


    Debates over how to conceptualize the nursing role were prominent in the nursing literature during the latter part of the twentieth century. There were, broadly, two schools of thought. Writers like Henderson and Orem used the idea of a self-care deficit to understand the nurse as doing for the patient what he or she could not do alone. Later writers found this paternalistic and emphasized the importance of the patient's free will. This essay uses the ideas of positive and negative freedom to explore the differing conceptions of autonomy which are implicit in this debate. The notion of positive freedom has often been criticized as paternalistic, and the criticisms of self-care in the nursing literature echo criticisms from political philosophy. Recent work on relational autonomy and on the relationship between autonomy and identity are used to address these objections. This essay argues for a more nuanced conception of the obligation to support autonomy that includes both positive (freedom to) and negative (freedom from) dimensions. This conception of autonomy provides a moral foundation for conceptualizing nursing in something like Henderson's terms: as involving the duty to expand the patient's capacities. The essay concludes by generalizing the lesson. Respect for autonomy on the part of any health care provider requires both respect for the patient's choices and a commitment to expand the patient's ability to actualize their choices. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Why the history of nursing ethics matters. (United States)

    Fowler, Marsha D


    Modern American nursing has an extensive ethical heritage literature that extends from the 1870s to 1965 when the American Nurses Association issued a policy paper that called for moving nursing education out of hospital diploma programs and into colleges and universities. One consequence of this move was the dispersion of nursing libraries and the loss of nursing ethics textbooks, as they were largely not brought over into the college libraries. In addition to approximately 100 nursing ethics textbooks, the nursing ethics heritage literature also includes hundreds of journal articles that are often made less accessible in modern databases that concentrate on the past 20 or 30 years. A second consequence of nursing's movement into colleges and universities is that ethics was no longer taught by nursing faculty, but becomes separated and placed as a discrete ethics (later bioethics) course in departments of philosophy or theology. These courses were medically identified and rarely incorporated authentic nursing content. This shift in nursing education occurs contemporaneously with the rise of the field of bioethics. Bioethics is rapidly embraced by nursing, and as it develops within nursing, it fails to incorporate the rich ethical heritage, history, and literature of nursing prior to the development of the field of bioethics. This creates a radical disjunction in nursing's ethics; a failure to more adequately explore the moral identity of nursing; the development of an ethics with a lack of fit with nursing's ethical history, literature, and theory; a neglect of nursing's ideal of service; a diminution of the scope and richness of nursing ethics as social ethics; and a loss of nursing ethical heritage of social justice activism and education. We must reclaim nursing's rich and capacious ethics heritage literature; the history of nursing ethics matters profoundly.

  17. Teaching transcultural nursing in a transcultural setting. (United States)

    Baker, S S; Burkhalter, N C


    The application of Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality to the dialogue between students and faculty regarding nursing education and practice provides the theoretical framework for evaluating a transcultural nursing curriculum in a transcultural, transnational setting on the Texas-Mexico border. In evaluating the first semester of this cultural encounter between the nurse-patient-community system and baccalaureate nursing education, faculty and students at Texas A&M International University School of Nursing in Laredo identified some particular challenges and assessed the effectiveness of approaches to meeting these challenges within the context of Leininger's Culture Care Theory and its three modes of action: culture care preservation, accommodation, and repatterning.

  18. Caring behaviour perceptions from nurses of their first-line nurse managers. (United States)

    Peng, Xiao; Liu, Yilan; Zeng, Qingsong


    Nursing is acknowledged as being the art and science of caring. According to the theory of nursing as caring, all persons are caring but not every behaviour of a person is caring. Caring behaviours in the relationship between first-line nurse managers and Registered Nurses have been studied to a lesser extent than those that exist between patients and nurses. Caring behaviour of first-line nurse managers from the perspective of Registered Nurses is as of yet unknown. Identifying caring behaviours may be useful as a reference for first-line nurse managers caring for nurses in a way that nurses prefer. To explore first-line nurse managers' caring behaviours from the perspective of Registered Nurses in mainland China. Qualitative study, using descriptive phenomenological approach. Fifteen Registered Nurses recruited by purposive sampling method took part in in-depth interviews. Data were analysed according to Colaizzi's technique. Three themes of first-line nurse managers' caring behaviours emerged: promoting professional growth, exhibiting democratic leadership and supporting work-life balance. A better understanding of the first-line nurse managers' caring behaviours is recognised. The three kinds of behaviours have significant meaning to nurse managers. Future research is needed to describe what first-line nurse managers can do to promote nurses' professional growth, increase the influence of democratic leadership, as well as support their work-life balance. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  19. Theoretical development in the context of nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeck, Bente; Delmar, Charlotte


    are treated as equals. We suggest a framework for the development of nursing knowledge based on a caring-ethical practice, a theory on life phenomena in suffering and relationship-based nursing, and thereby, we may be able to help patients to be cured, to recover, to be alleviated or comforted when suffering.......This article is about nursing theories, the development of nursing knowledge and the underlying, hidden epistemology. The current technical-economical rationality in society and health care calls for a specific kind of knowledge based on a traditional Western, Socratic view of science. This has...... an immense influence on the development of nursing knowledge. The purpose of the article was therefore to discuss the hidden epistemology of nursing knowledge and theories seen in a broad historical context and point to an alternative epistemology for a future context. It is a question about which nursing...

  20. A systems perspective on nursing productivity. (United States)

    North, Nicola; Hughes, Frances


    Recent New Zealand reports have identified the nursing workforce for its potential to make a significant contribution to increased productivity in health services. The purpose of this paper is to review critically the recent and current labour approaches to improve nursing productivity in New Zealand, in a context of international research and experience. An examination of government documents regarding productivity, and a review of New Zealand and international literature and research on nursing productivity and its measurement form the basis of the paper. It is found that productivity improvement strategies are influenced by theories of labour economics and scientific management that conceptualise a nurse as a labour unit and a cost to the organisation. Nursing productivity rose significantly with the health reforms of the 1990s that reduced nursing input costs but impacts on patient safety and nurses were negative. Current approaches to increasing nursing productivity, including the "productive ward" and reconfiguration of nursing teams, also draw on manufacturing innovations. Emerging thinking considers productivity in the context of the work environment and changing professional roles, and proposes reconceptualising the nurse as an intellectual asset to knowledge-intensive health organisations. Strategies that take a systems approach to nursing productivity, that view nursing as a capital asset, that focus on the interface between nurse and working environment and measure patient and nurse outcomes are advocated. The paper shows that reframing nursing productivity brings into focus management strategies to raise productivity while protecting nursing and patient outcomes.

  1. Marketing nursing as a profession: integrated marketing strategies to address the nursing shortage. (United States)

    Somers, Mark John; Finch, Linda; Birnbaum, Dee


    The nursing shortage in the United States is at a crisis level characterized by critical shortages of highly trained nurses and of nursing faculty. Key issues in addressing these shortages include awareness and image-building, along with enhanced outreach programs. Although these issues are related to marketing theory, most studies in this area are based on a vocational choice model. This study was grounded in marketing theory and the results offer a new perspective for addressing the nursing shortage. In-depth interviews conducted with 31 first-year nursing students indicated that there were two distinct segments among nursing students: traditionals and instrumentals. Traditionals were attracted to nursing as a helping profession while instrumentals were interested in career-related rewards such as variety, mobility, and compensation. These findings were discussed in terms of building awareness and marketing programs for nursing students that are integrated across schools of nursing, private foundations and public agencies.

  2. Acculturation: state of the science in nursing. (United States)

    Buscemi, Charles P


    With the onset of global migration, nurses are faced with dealing with cultures from around the world. Having an understanding of transcultural nursing concepts and translating them to practice will be key to nurses meeting the needs of an ever changing patient population. Acculturation is one example of how transcultural nursing concepts need to be better understood. The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of the science of acculturation in terms of the nursing discipline. It offers a historical review and evolution of acculturation, uses in nursing theory, and clinical implications.

  3. Emergency nurses' knowledge of pain management principles. (United States)

    Tanabe, P; Buschmann, M


    The purpose of this study was to determine areas of emergency nurses' knowledge deficit regarding pain management, and to identify barriers to pain management as perceived by emergency nurses. Data were collected anonymously in a mail survey using a 52-item knowledge questionnaire addressing pain management principles and asking emergency nurses (Illinois Emergency Nurses Association members) to rate various barriers as to how often they affect their practice. Questionnaires were mailed to all Illinois ENA members (n = 1000). Three hundred five emergency nurses' questionnaires were returned. A significant deficit existed on 2 domains of knowledge: understanding of the terms "addiction," "tolerance," and "dependence"; and knowledge of various pharmacologic analgesic principles. Nurses with a master's degree or higher, or those who attended a 1-day seminar on pain management, achieved statistically significantly higher scores. The 2 barriers identified by emergency nurses as the most common were the inability to administer medication until a diagnosis is made (53%), and inadequate assessment of pain and pain relief (48%) (the percentage indicates how often the emergency nurses believed the barrier was present in their practice). The data indicate that emergency nurses may not have a good understanding of the management of pain with drugs, or of such issues as risk of addiction.

  4. Nursing education and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild Stølen, Karen Marie

    Background: Learning professional skills in the clinic is central to the acquisition of professional competences for future nurses. There are no clear vision of how learning takes place in the clinic and the question is how education in the clinic may lead to the professional skills that enable...... future nurses to take care for patients. Design and setting: The project Learning in Practice was accomplished from 2011 to early 2013, in collaboration between educations of nursing and educational theory educations at UCC North Zealand. The results in this paper is related to the examination...... of the nurse education only. The examination is based on four non-participating observations, four participating observations and three focus group interviews, respectively, four students, four clinical supervisors and four teachers . The clinical context was local hospitals. The data were analyzed...

  5. The drama of nursing. (United States)

    Holmes, C A


    This exploratory paper considers a few possibilities for conceiving nursing as a form of aesthetic praxis. More specifically, drawing on the works of Erving Goffman on dramaturgy, and Elizabeth Burns on theatre, it makes some suggestions concerning nursing as a form of dramatic performance, and briefly attempts to relate this to concepts of praxis drawn from the writings of Hannah Arendt and critical social theorists. In contrast to Goffman's dramaturgy, which stresses the artifice of social relations and suggests a cynical view of human interactions, a critical theory of dramatic praxis introduces a normative dimension in which performance may become self-realizing and emancipatory as it aspires to the status of aesthetic praxis. Conceived in such terms, nursing practice becomes a powerful form of self-expression which has the potential to become liberating for the nurse and the patient.

  6. Nursing students' responses to ethical dilemmas in nursing practice. (United States)

    Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Grypdonck, M; Vuylsteke-Wauters, M; Janssen, P J


    In literature as well as in nursing practice a growing concern about nurses' ethical competence can be observed. Based on the cognitive theory of moral development by Kohlberg, this research examined nursing students' ethical behaviour in five nursing dilemmas. Ethical behaviour refers not only to the ethical reasoning of nursing students but also to the relationship between reasoning and behaviour. Kohlberg's definition of morality was refined by adding a care perspective. The results show that the majority of students can be located in the fourth moral stage according to Kohlberg's theory, that is, the conventional level of moral development. This finding implies that students are still guided by professional rules, norms and duties, and have not (yet) succeeded in making personal ethical decisions on the basis of their own principles and acting according to such decisions.

  7. Florence Nightingale and Irish nursing. (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn


    To challenge statements made about 'Careful Nursing' as a 'distinctive system' of nursing established by the Irish Sisters of Mercy, prior to Florence Nightingale, and which is said to have influenced her. Numerous publications have appeared claiming the emergence of a 'distinctive system' of nursing as 'Ireland's legacy to nursing', which, it is claimed, influenced Nightingale's system. One paper argues that the Irish system has its philosophical roots in Thomist philosophy. Several papers argue the ongoing relevance of the Irish system, not Nightingale's, for contemporary nursing theory and practice. Nightingale's influence on and legacy to Irish nursing are not acknowledged. A Discursive paper. Archival and published sources were used to compare the nursing systems of Florence Nightingale and the Irish Sisters of Mercy, with particular attention to nursing during the Crimean War. Claims were challenged of a 'distinctive system' of nursing established by the Irish Sisters of Mercy in the early nineteenth century, and of its stated influence on the nursing system of Florence Nightingale. The contention of great medical satisfaction with the 'distinctive' system is refuted with data showing that the death rate at the Koulali Hospital, where the Irish sisters nursed, was the highest of all the British war hospitals during the Crimean War. Profound differences between the two systems are outlined. Claims for a 'distinctive' Irish system of nursing fail for lack of evidence. Nightingale's principles and methods, as they evolved over the first decade of her school's work, remain central to nursing theory and practice. Nightingale's insistence on respect for patients and high ethical standards remains relevant to practice no less so as specific practices change with advances in medical knowledge and practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Characteristics of quantitative nursing research from 1990 to 2010. (United States)

    Yarcheski, Adela; Mahon, Noreen E


    To assess author credentials of quantitative research in nursing, the composition of the research teams, and the disciplinary focus of the theories tested. Nursing Research, Western Journal of Nursing Research, and Journal of Advanced Nursing were selected for this descriptive study; 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 were included. The final sample consisted of 484 quantitative research articles. From 1990 to 2010, there was an increase in first authors holding doctoral degrees, research from other countries, and funding. Solo authorship decreased; multi-authorship and multidisciplinary teams increased. Theories tested were mostly from psychology; the testing of nursing theory was modest. Multidisciplinary research far outdistanced interdisciplinary research. Quantitative nursing research can be characterized as multidisciplinary (distinct theories from different disciplines) rather than discipline-specific to nursing. Interdisciplinary (theories synthesized from different disciplines) research has been conducted minimally. This study provides information about the growth of the scientific knowledge base of nursing, which has implications for practice. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  9. Aromatherapy and nursing: historical and theoretical conception


    Gnatta, Juliana Rizzo; Kurebayashi, Leonice Fumiko Sato; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes da


    Abstract Aromatherapy is a Practical or Complementary Health Therapy that uses volatile concentrates extracted from plants called essential oils, in order to improve physical, mental and emotional well-being. Aromatherapy has been practiced historically and worldwide by nurses and, as in Brazil is supported by the Federal Nursing Council, it is relevant to discuss this practice in the context of Nursing through Theories of Nursing. This study of theoretical reflection, exploratory and descrip...

  10. [Nurses' Attitudes toward the “Advanced Nursing Process” before and after an educational intervention – a quasi-experimental study]. (United States)

    Leoni-Scheiber, Claudia; Gothe, Raffaella Matteucci; Müller-Staub, Maria


    The attitude of nurses influences their application of the Advanced Nursing Process. Studies reveal deficits in the application of the Advanced Nursing Process that is based on valid assessments and nursing classifications. These deficits affect decision-making and – as a result – nursing care quality. In German speaking countries nurses' attitudes towards nursing diagnoses as part of the Advanced Nursing Process were not yet measured. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an educational intervention on nurses' attitude. A quasi-experimental intervention study was carried out in Austria and Germany. Before and after a standardised educational intervention 51 nurses estimated their attitude with the instrument Positions on Nursing Diagnosis (PND). Analyses were performed by Wilcoxon- and U-tests. Before the educational intervention the average attitude score of the Austrian nurses was more positive than in the German group. After the study intervention both groups regarded nursing diagnostics statistically significant more convincing and better understandable. However, both groups still described the application of the Advanced Nursing Process as difficult and demanding to perform. In the future, more attention should be given to the reflexion and development of nurses' attitude towards the Advanced Nursing Process because attitudes lead nurses' actions. In further studies influencing organizational and structural factors in diverse settings will be analysed.

  11. The Twin Deficits Hypothesis: An Empirical Analysis for Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manamba Epaphra


    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between current account and government budget deficits in Tanzania. The paper tests the validity of the twin deficits hypothesis, using annual time series data for the 1966-2015 period. The paper is thought to be significant because the concept of the twin deficit hypothesis is fraught with controversy. Some researches support the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between current account deficits and fiscal deficits in the economy while others do not. In this paper, the empirical tests fail to reject the twin deficits hypothesis, indicating that rising budget deficits put more strain on the current account deficits in Tanzania. Specifically, the Vector Error Correction Model results support the conventional theory of a positive relationship between fiscal and external balances, with a relatively high speed of adjustment toward the equilibrium position. This evidence is consistent with a small open economy. To address the problem that may result from this kind of relationship, appropriate policy variables for reducing budget deficits such as reduction in non-development expenditure, enhancement of domestic revenue collection and actively fight corruption and tax evasion should be adopted. The government should also target export oriented firms and encourage an import substitution industry by creating favorable business environments.

  12. [Turnover Experience of Male Nurses]. (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsu; Lee, Jeongseop


    The aim of this study was to identify turnover experiences of men in nursing and to derive a substantive theory on the turnover experience of men who are nurses. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 13 men who had worked as a nurse for 1 year or more, and had a turnover experience during that period. Collected data were analyzed on the basis of Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory. The core category in the turnover experiences of the respondents was 'seeking a stable place for me'. In the analysis of the core category, types of 'contentment', 'seeking', 'survival' and 'confusion' were identified. The sequential stages of these nurses' turnover experience were 'confrontation', 'incertitude', 'retrying' and 'realization'. However, when a problem arose in the process, they returned to the stage of confusion. Thus, these stages could occur in a circular fashion. These findings provide a deep understanding of the turnover experience of men in nursing and offers new information about how they adapt to nursing practice. The findings should be useful as foundational data for men who hope to become nurses and also for managers responsible for nurses who are men. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  13. A comparison of the cooperative learning and traditional learning methods in theory classes on nursing students' communication skill with patients at clinical settings. (United States)

    Baghcheghi, Nayereh; Koohestani, Hamid Reza; Rezaei, Koresh


    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of traditional learning and cooperative learning methods on nursing students' communication skill with patients. This was an experimental study in which 34 nursing students in their 2nd semester of program participated. They were divided randomly into two groups, a control group who were taught their medical/surgical nursing course by traditional learning method and an experimental group, who were taught the same material using cooperative learning method. Before and after the teaching intervention, the students' communication skills with patients at clinical settings were examined. The results showed that no significant difference between the two groups in students' communication skills scores before the teaching intervention, but did show a significant difference between the two groups in the interaction skills and problem follow up sub-scales scores after the teaching intervention. This study provides evidence that cooperative learning is an effective method for improving and increasing communication skills of nursing students especially in interactive skills and follow up the problems sub-scale, thereby it is recommended to increase nursing students' participation in arguments by applying active teaching methods which can provide the opportunity for increased communication skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Democratic Deficit and School-Based Management in Australia (United States)

    Kimber, Megan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine


    Purpose: The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the…

  15. Experiences of final year nursing students in their preparedness to become registered nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Carlson


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: firstly, to explore and describe the experiences of final year nursing students relating to how they experience their preparedness to fulfil the role of professional nurse; secondly, to explore and describe the experiences of novice professional nurses in the role of professional nurse; finally, to generate a model which will assist the final year nursing student to become a professional nurse. A theory-generative, qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilized to reach the objectives of the study. Results indicated that final year nursing students experience a lack of confidence to take on the responsibilities of professional nursing. The results are displayed in table form and discussed in the article. This abstract forms part of a bigger study that addresses the professional maturity of the novice professional nurse for the practice of nursing.

  16. Nurses who work outside nursing. (United States)

    Duffield, Christine; Pallas, Linda O'Brien; Aitken, Leanne M


    The desire to care for people, a family history of professional health care work, and security in career choice are documented reasons for entering nursing. Reasons for leaving include workload, unsafe work environments and harassment. The relationship between these factors and the time nurses spend in the profession has not been explored. This paper reports a study with people who have left nursing, to investigate why they became a nurse, how long they stayed in nursing, and their reasons for leaving. A questionnaire was mailed to Registered Nurses currently working outside nursing, seeking respondents' reasons for entering and leaving nursing, and perceptions of the skills gained from nursing and the ease of adjustment to working in a non-nursing environment. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, correlational analysis and linear and multiple regression analysis. A model incorporating the factors 'altruistic reasons', 'default choice' and 'stepping stone' explained 36.2% of the variance in reasons for becoming a nurse. A model incorporating the factors 'legal and employer', 'external values and beliefs about nursing', 'professional practice', 'work life/home life' and 'contract requirements' explained 55.4% of the variance in reasons for leaving nursing. Forty-eight per cent of the variance in tenure in nursing practice was explained through personal characteristics of nurses (36%), reasons for becoming a nurse (7%) and reasons for leaving (6%). The reasons why nurses entered or left the profession were varied and complex. While personal characteristics accounted for a large component of tenure in nursing, those managing the nursing workforce should consider professional practice issues and the balance between work life and home life.

  17. [Postmodernism and the issue of nursing]. (United States)

    Kong, Byung-Hye


    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the main stream of postmodernism which has influenced theory and research in the nursing science, and then to consider the meaning and value ofwhat the postmodern perspective has meant to nursing science in the 21st century. Derrida and Foucaults philosophical thoughts that characterized postmodernism through the interpretation of their major literature was studied. Based on their philosophy, it was shown how Derrida's idea could be applied in deconstructing the core paradigm in modern nursing science. In terms of Foucault's post-structuralism, reinterpretation of the nursing science in relation to power/knowledge was completed. Postmodernism created multiple and diverse paradigms of nursing theory as well as nursing research. This was accomplished by deconstructing the modernism of nursing science which was based on the positivism and medical-cure centralism. Specifically, the post-structuralist perspective revealed issues around the relationship of power and knowledge, which dominated and produced modern nursing science. Contemporary nursing science accepts pluralism and needs no unitary meta-paradigm, which can reintegrate multiple and diverse paradigms. In considering the issue of nursing science in postmodernism, it can be summarized as follows: the postmodern thinking discovers and reveals diverse and potential nursing values which were veiled by the domination of western modern nursing science. These were motivated to create nursing knowledge by conversation in interpersonal relationships, which can contribute to practical utilities for the caring-healing situation.

  18. From bedside to classroom: the nurse educator transition model. (United States)

    Schoening, Anne M


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to generate a theoretical model that describes the social process that occurs during the role transition from nurse to nurse educator. Recruitment and retention of qualified nurse educators is essential in order to remedy the current staff nurse and faculty shortage in the United States, yet nursing schools face many challenges in this area. This grounded theory study utilized purposive, theoretical sampling to identify 20 nurse educators teaching in baccalaureate nursing programs in the Midwest. The Nurse Educator Transition (NET) model was created from these data.This model identifies four phases in the role transition from nurse to nurse educator: a) the Anticipatory/Expectation Phase, b) the Disorientation Phase, c) the Information-Seeking Phase, and d) the Identity Formation Phase. Recommendations include integrating formal pedagogical education into nursing graduate programs and creating evidence-based orientation and mentoring programs for novice nurse faculty.

  19. Nursing Homes (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Nursing Homes Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... Reason For Living in A Nursing Home Some type of disability with activities of daily living (ADLs) ...

  20. Improving Nursing Home Staff Knowledge and Attitudes about Pain (United States)

    Jones, Katherine R.; Fink, Regina; Pepper, Ginny; Hutt, Eveyln; Vojir, Carol P.; Scott, Jill; Clark, Lauren; Mellis, Karen


    Purpose: Effective pain management remains a serious problem in the nursing home setting. Barriers to achieving optimal pain practices include staff knowledge deficits, biases, and attitudes that influence assessment and management of the residents' pain. Design and Methods: Twelve nursing homes participated in this intervention study: six…

  1. Undergraduate nursing students' attitudes toward mental health nursing. (United States)

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; Leuck, Susan E; Powell, Rhonda L; Young, Staci; Schuler, Suzanne G; Hughes, Ronda G


    The purpose of this study was to describe undergraduate nursing students' attitudes toward mental health nursing and how these attitudes influenced their professional career choices in mental health nursing. A descriptive, online survey was utilized to examine students' perceptions of mental health nursing. A total of 229 junior and senior nursing students were recruited from eight nursing colleges in Midwestern United States to participate in this survey. Students of different ages, genders, ethnicities, and nursing programs did not report significantly different perceptions of: (a) knowledge of mental illness; (b) negative stereotypes; (c) interest in mental health nursing as a future career; and (d), and beliefs that psychiatric nurses provide a valuable contribution to consumers and the community. Negative stereotypes were significantly different between students who had mental health nursing preparation either in class (p=0.0147) or in clinical practice (p=0.0018) and students who had not. There were significant differences in anxiety about mental illness between students who had classes on mental health nursing (p=.0005), clinical experience (p=0.0035), and work experience in the mental health field (p=0.0012). Significant differences in an interest in a future career in mental health nursing emerged between students with and without prior mental health experience and between students with and without an interest in an externship program with p-values of 0.0012 and students have to mental health nursing through clinical experiences, theory classes, and previous work in the field, the more prepared they feel about caring for persons with mental health issues. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Reclaiming caring in nursing leadership: a deconstruction of leadership using a Habermasian lens. (United States)

    Stewart, Lee; Holmes, Colin; Usher, Kim


    Nursing leaders function in an environment of increasing demands coupled with decreasing resources. This paper explores the landscape of nursing leadership from a critical theory perspective, particularly Habermas's theory of communicative action. We not only deconstruct contemporary nursing leadership, discussing the potential negative consequences for those who fulfil roles of both 'nurse' and 'leader', but also offer possibilities for a more positive future.

  3. Nursing Reclaims its Role. (United States)

    Diers, Donna


    An attempt is made to explain the nurses' role: what the nurse is, what the nurse does, how the nurse is viewed by society, why nurses suffer burnout, nursing costs, and health care system reform. (CT)

  4. Neonatal Nursing


    Crawford, Doreen; Morris, Maryke


    "Neonatal Nursing" offers a systematic approach to the nursing care of the sick newborn baby. Nursing actions and responsibilities are the focus of the text with relevant research findings, clinical applications, anatomy, physiology and pathology provided where necessary. This comprehensive text covers all areas of neonatal nursing including ethics, continuing care in the community, intranatal care, statistics and pharmokinetics so that holistic care of the infant is described. This book shou...

  5. Nurse's use of power to standardise nursing terminology in electronic health records. (United States)

    Ali, Samira; Sieloff, Christina L


    To describe nurses' use of power to influence the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. Little is known about nurses' potential use of power to influence the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. The theory of group power within organisations informed the design of the descriptive, cross-sectional study used a survey method to assess nurses' use of power to influence the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. The Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Power within Organizations © and Nursing Power Scale was used. A total of 232 nurses responded to the survey. The mean power capability score was moderately high at 134.22 (SD 18.49), suggesting that nurses could use power to achieve the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. The nurses' power capacity was significantly correlated with their power capability (r = 0.96, P power to achieve their goals, such as the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. Nurse administrators may use their power to influence the incorporation of standardised nursing terminology within electronic health records. If nurses lack power, this could decrease nurses' ability to achieve their goals and contribute to the achievement of effective patient outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Experimental Detection of Information Deficit in a Photonic Contextuality Scenario (United States)

    Zhan, Xiang; Kurzyński, Paweł; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Wang, Kunkun; Bian, Zhihao; Zhang, Yongsheng; Xue, Peng


    Contextuality is an essential characteristic of quantum theory, and supplies the power for many quantum information processes. Previous tests of contextuality focus mainly on the probability distribution of measurement results. However, a test of contextuality can be formulated in terms of entropic inequalities whose violations imply information deficit in the studied system. This information deficit has not been observed on a single local system. Here we report the first experimental detection of information deficit in an entropic test of quantum contextuality based on photonic setup. The corresponding inequality is violated with more than 13 standard deviations.

  7. Four generations of nurse theorists in the U.S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Elisabeth


    that all four generations of theories have had importance for nursing as a practice discipline, and that much of nursing's theoretical thinking has been studied during the four generations. It is however, an ebb in nursing knowledge concerning environment. Future studies are suggested to challenge this ebb.......Since the academic era of U.S. nursing started in the mid 1950s different questions and answers regarding nursing as an independent discipline is posed. The first theorists wanted to separate nursing from medicine, later theorists asked questions about nursing theory, and the essence and substance...... of nursing. The aim of this article is to describe the questions and answers directed by four generations of U.S. nurse theorists. The article gives an overview of how the theorists connected to each others' thoughts for the identification and development of nursing domain. The theorists' influence...

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (United States)

    ... this page: // Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by ...

  9. A Feminist Framework for Nurses on Boards. (United States)

    Sundean, Lisa J; Polifroni, E Carol

    Nurses' knowledge, skills, and expertise uniquely situate them to contribute to health care transformation as equal partners in organizational board governance. The Institute of Medicine, the 10,000 Nurses on Boards Coalition, and a growing number of nurse and health care scholars advocate nurse board leadership; however, nurses are rarely appointed as voting board members. When no room is made for nurses to take a seat at the table, the opportunity is lost to harness the power of nursing knowledge for health care transformation and social justice. No philosophical framework underpins the emerging focus on nurse board leadership. The purpose of this article is to add to the extant nursing literature by suggesting feminism as a philosophical framework for nurses on boards. Feminism contributes to the knowledge base of nursing as it relates to the expanding roles of nurses in health care transformation, policy, and social justice. Furthermore, a feminist philosophical framework for nurses on boards sets the foundation for new theory development and validates ongoing advancement of the nursing profession. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Feminism and qualitative nursing research]. (United States)

    Yi, Myungsun; Yih, Bong-Sook


    The purpose of this article was to describe feminism and to propose the integration of a feminist method into qualitative nursing methodology in order to expand the body of nursing knowledge. The world view of feminism including philosophy, epistemology and methodology was outlined, and a feminist grounded theory and feminist ethnography were suggested as a way of strengthening nursing research methodology using literature review. Four different philosophical perspectives of feminism, that is, liberal feminism, radical feminism, Marxist feminism, and social feminism were described. Also epistemological perspectives including feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint, and postmodern feminism, were explained and were related to the methodology and methods of feminism. To enhance the strengths of nursing research within the feminist perspectives, feminist grounded theory and feminist ethnography were exemplified in the paradigm of qualitative nursing research. This paper suggested that incorporation of feminist approaches within nursing is a valuable attempt to expand the body of nursing knowledge and to enhance the quality of nursing care services by rectifying male-oriented knowledge and by empowering women in the care of other people as well as themselves.

  11. Nursing: What's a Nurse Practitioner? (United States)

    ... as advanced practice nurses, or APNs) have a master's degree in nursing (MS or MSN) and board certification ... NP training emphasizes disease prevention, reduction of health risks, and thorough patient education. Like doctors, NPs are ...

  12. Theory to practice: the humanbecoming leading-following model. (United States)

    Ursel, Karen L


    Guided by the humanbecoming leading-following model, the author designed a nursing theories course with the intention of creating a meaningful nursing theory to practice link. The author perceived that with the implementation of Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendations (SBAR) communication, nursing staff had drifted away from using the Kardex™ in shift to shift reporting. Nurse students, faculty, and staff members supported the creation of a theories project which would engage nursing students in the pursuit of clinical excellence. The project chosen was to revise the existing Kardex™ (predominant nursing communication tool). In the project, guided by a nursing theory, nursing students focused on the unique patient's experience, depicting the specific role of nursing knowledge and the contributions of the registered nurse to the patient's healthcare journey. The emphasis of this theoretical learning was the application of a nursing theory to real-life clinical challenges with communication of relevant, timely, and accurate patient information, recognizing that real problems are often complex and require multi-perspective approaches. This project created learning opportunities where a nursing theory would be chosen by the nursing student clinical group and applied in their clinical specialty area. This practice activity served to broaden student understandings of the role of nursing knowledge and nursing theories in their professional practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Generating alternatives in nursing: turning curriculum into a living process. (United States)

    Perry, J; Moss, C

    The transfer of nursing education into higher education institutions is challenging nurses to re-think educational structures and processes. Traditionally, nursing education has used objective curriculum models which tend to reinforce bureaucratic rather than professional values. Critics suggest that these models, by their failure to incorporate social, political and cultural realities, contribute to theory-practice dichotomies. This paper shares the intentions of Deakin University's School of Nursing in developing alternative approaches to curriculum design and to learning and practising nursing.

  14. Clinical Decision Making of Nurses Working in Hospital Settings


    Ida Torunn Bjørk; Glenys A. Hamilton


    This study analyzed nurses' perceptions of clinical decision making (CDM) in their clinical practice and compared differences in decision making related to nurse demographic and contextual variables. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 2095 nurses in four hospitals in Norway. A 24-item Nursing Decision Making Instrument based on cognitive continuum theory was used to explore how nurses perceived their CDM when meeting an elective patient for the first time. Data were analyzed with d...

  15. [Nursing ethics and the access to nursing care]. (United States)

    Monteverde, Settimio


    The increasing number of ethical issues highlighted in everyday nursing care demonstrates the connectedness between nursing ethics and nursing practice. However, what is the role of ethical theories in this context? This question will be examined in this article by analysing the contribution made by the ethics of care, in particular in understandings of gender roles, asymmetries of power, professional knowledge and experience. The adoption and criticism of an emergent nursing ethics is discussed and stated from different viewpoints. The actuality of the caring approach is affirmed by a new reading of the given situation. This article first describes the traditional perception of nurses as marginalised actors in the health sector. By making reference to the current and growing global scarcity of nursing care, it contends that nursing will no longer be marginalised, but instead at the centre of public health attention and reputation. Nevertheless, marginalisation will persist by increasingly affecting the care receivers, especially those groups that are pushed to the fringes by the consequences of the healthcare market, such as persons of extreme old age, suffering from multiple morbidities, or with poor health literacy. Whereas the "classical" understanding of the ethics of care focuses on the nurse-patient relationship and on individual care and understanding of ethics, the new understanding confirms the classical, but adds an understanding of social ethics: caring for the access to care is seen as a main ethical goal of social justice within a nursing ethic.

  16. Ethics and Reverence for the Discipline of Nursing. (United States)

    Milton, Constance L


    Healthcare disciplines, including nursing, are emerging sciences that contain discipline-specific theories that guide the activities of research, practice, and education. The term nursing science calls forth meaning that has long been accepted and referred to as the extant nursing theories undergirded with philosophy of science. Recent writings dispute the purposes and future usage of nursing theoretical frameworks in the science of nursing. The author of this article proposes new thinking about the importance of reverence and ethical implications for the future of formal inquiry in nursing science.

  17. Beyond the knowledge deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus Staffan; Holm, Lotte; Frewer, Lynn


    The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a 'knowledge deficit' among la...... in institutions and experts. It suggests that an interdisciplinary, contextualised and psychologically sound approach to the study of risk is needed.......The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a 'knowledge deficit' among lay...... people. However, much research in psychology and sociology suggests that lay risk assessments are complex, situationally sensitive expressions of personal value systems. The paper is organised around four themes: risk perception, the communication of risk, lay handling of risk, and public trust...

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder


    Jaime O. Oliver


    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as among the most common yet serious brain disorders significant number of children are subjected to; the seriousness of which manifests in the ability of the disorder to continue to show up even after the childhood years, during the period of adolescence as well as adulthood. Considering the findings delivered by Brain Imaging Studies conducted on youth, it is revealed that people suffering from ADHD experiences del...

  19. Extending family nursing: concepts from positive psychology. (United States)

    Skerrett, Karen


    This article identifies the burgeoning field of positive psychology as an important extension to the knowledge base of family nursing. Representing a new emphasis from the traditional social and human sciences, which have largely focused on problem- and deficit-based approaches, positive psychology focuses on optimal functioning and is an ideal complement to the strengths-based orientation of family nursing. Domains of positive psychology are presented and exemplars of supporting research offered. Finally, suggestions are given for ways to apply concepts from positive psychology to family nursing practice, research, and education.

  20. Conflict between nursing student's personal beliefs and professional nursing values. (United States)

    Pickles, David; de Lacey, Sheryl; King, Lindy


    Studies have established that negative perceptions of people living with HIV/AIDS exist among nursing students throughout the world, perceptions which can be detrimental to the delivery of high-quality nursing care. The purpose of this research was to explore socio-cultural influences on the perceptions of nursing students towards caring for people living with HIV/AIDS. The study was guided by stigma theory, a qualitative descriptive research approach was adopted. Data collected via semi-structured interviews were thematically analysed. Participants and research context: Participants were 21 international and Australian undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a Bachelor of Nursing programme at an Australian university. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval was granted by the Social and Behavioural Research Ethics Committee at the study university. Participation was entirely voluntary; informed consent was obtained before the study commenced; confidentiality and anonymity were assured. Three major themes were found: blame, othering and values. Complex and interrelated factors constructed participant perceptions of people living with HIV/AIDS, perceptions underscored by the prevailing culturally construed blame and othering associated with HIV/AIDS. The study found discordance between the negative personal beliefs and perceptions some nursing students have towards people living with HIV/AIDS, and the professional values expected of them as Registered Nurses. There was considerable commonality between this and previous studies on how homosexuality and illicit drug use were perceived and stigmatised, correlating with the blame directed towards people living with HIV/AIDS. These perceptions indicated some nursing students potentially risked not fulfilling the ethical and professional obligations the Registered Nurse. Nursing curriculum should be strengthened in relation to comprehending the meaning of being stigmatised by society. Educational institutions need to

  1. Attention deficits and divorce. (United States)

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean


    Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce.

  2. Ballistic deficit correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, G.; Moszynski, M.; Curien, D.


    The EUROGAM data-acquisition has to handle a large number of events/s. Typical in-beam experiments using heavy-ion fusion reactions assume the production of about 50 000 compound nuclei per second deexciting via particle and γ-ray emissions. The very powerful γ-ray detection of EUROGAM is expected to produce high-fold event rates as large as 10 4 events/s. Such high count rates introduce, in a common dead time mode, large dead times for the whole system associated with the processing of the pulse, its digitization and its readout (from the preamplifier pulse up to the readout of the information). In order to minimize the dead time the shaping time constant τ, usually about 3 μs for large volume Ge detectors has to be reduced. Smaller shaping times, however, will adversely affect the energy resolution due to ballistic deficit. One possible solution is to operate the linear amplifier, with a somewhat smaller shaping time constant (in the present case we choose τ = 1.5 μs), in combination with a ballistic deficit compensator. The ballistic deficit can be corrected in different ways using a Gated Integrator, a hardware correction or even a software correction. In this paper we present a comparative study of the software and hardware corrections as well as gated integration

  3. Developing leadership in nursing: exploring core factors. (United States)

    Curtis, Elizabeth A; de Vries, Jan; Sheerin, Fintan K

    This article provides an introduction to the issue of nursing leadership, addressing definitions and theories underpinning leadership, factors that enhance leadership in nursing, and the nature of leadership content taught in undergraduate programmes. Highlighted are differences between leadership and management, and the notion that leadership can be 'learned'. The authors also point out that there is a discrepancy between how leading undergraduate nursing programmes prepare students primarily in the transition of education to practice, and the suggestion from a number of nursing publications that leadership in nurses should be fostered throughout their education.

  4. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.


    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  5. CEO- CNE relationships: building an evidence-base of chief nursing executive replacement costs. (United States)

    Sredl, Darlene; Peng, Niang-Huei


    Explore professional relationships between Chief Nurse Executives (CNEs) and Chief Executive Officers (CEOs); CNE ethnic diversity; and CNE replacement costs. Theoretical frameworks - Marilyn Ray's Theory of Bureaucratic Caring, and Turkel's Theory of Relational Complexity espousing economic as well as caring variables. Exploratory mixed-method descriptive design using CNE mailed survey. CNE- cited opportunities for maintaining a positive relationship with the CEO: respect for CEO; goal- sharing (r=.782, prelationship (r= .718, pmaintaining specific roles (r= .261, prelationship with CEO (r=.254, prelationships have identified cohesive factors that may contribute to CNE longevity in position; an ethically diverse CNE deficit exists; and, CNE turnover and vacancy rates impact an organization's financial health and quality of care.

  6. Factors Influencing Theoretical Knowledge and Practical Skill Acquisition in Student Nurses: An Empirical Experiment. (United States)

    Corlett, Jo; Palfreyman, J. W.; Staines, H. J.; Marr, H.


    The effect of the following on bridging the theory-practice gap in nursing education was examined: (1) theory taught by preceptors or nurse educators; (2) nurse educator/preceptor collaboration on content; and (3) immediate clinical placements following theory learning. Preceptors were more effective, collaboration was ineffective, and delay was…

  7. Nursing students assess nursing education. (United States)

    Norman, Linda; Buerhaus, Peter I; Donelan, Karen; McCloskey, Barbara; Dittus, Robert


    This study assessed the characteristics of nursing students currently enrolled in nursing education programs, how students finance their nursing education, their plans for clinical practice and graduate education, and the rewards and difficulties of being a nursing student. Data are from a survey administered to a national sample of 496 nursing students. The students relied on financial aid and personal savings and earnings to finance their education. Parents, institutional scholarships, and government loans are also important sources, but less than 15% of the students took out bank loans. Nearly one quarter of the students, particularly younger and minority students, plan to enroll in graduate school immediately after graduation and most want to become advanced nursing practitioners. Most of the nursing students (88%) are satisfied with their nursing education and nearly all (95%) provided written answers to two open-ended questions. Comments collapsed into three major categories reflecting the rewards (helping others, status, and job security) and three categories reflecting the difficulties (problems with balancing demands, quality of nursing education, and the admissions process) of being a nursing student. Implications for public policymaking center on expanding the capacity of nursing education programs, whereas schools themselves should focus on addressing the financial needs of students, helping them strike a balance among their school, work, and personal/family responsibilities and modifying certain aspects of the curriculum.

  8. Transcultural nursing practice described by registered nurses and baccalaureate nursing students. (United States)

    Baldonado, A; Beymer, P L; Barnes, K; Starsiak, D; Nemivant, E B; Anonas-Ternate, A


    Using Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework, this research examined transcultural practices of nurses and students. A survey was administered to a convenience sample of registered nurses and senior baccalaureate students with 767 usable questionnaires returned. Neither group expressed confidence in their ability to care for culturally-diverse patients. Registered nurses (RNs) reported assessing cultural factors and modifying practices more frequently than did students. Respondents reported their beliefs about transcultural nursing were influenced by being with people of other cultures, their own personal values, and education. Analysis of the open-ended questions revealed two major themes. First, both nurses and students perceive an overwhelming need for transcultural nursing. Second, nurses and students respond to cultural challenges by modifying their care. Modifications are based on language and communication, pain perception and relief, religious and spiritual dimensions, gender and family roles, and other values. Results suggest that nurses and students are aware of culture, recognize that culture influences the care they provide, and modify their health teaching and nursing care based on culture. The use of a conceptual framework to help make modifications in care was not mentioned.

  9. Palliative sedation in nursing anesthesia. (United States)

    Wolf, Michael T


    Palliative sedation is a technique of providing a sedative for end-of-life care to patients with intractable pain. The literature discusses the techniques and use of palliative sedation. Numerous articles have been written regarding the issues surrounding its use, but no literature has discussed the prescription or administration of palliative sedation by a nurse anesthetist. By understanding the concept and ethics involved in its use and providing nursing care that is theory based, the author argues that the involvement of nursing anesthesia is appropriate and within the scope of practice. Few other healthcare disciplines can provide the patient care and empirical knowledge that is imperative in the care of the dying patient. This article discusses the concept and ethics of palliative sedation and presents a case of providing palliative sedation to a terminally ill patient by an experienced nurse anesthetist. Palliative sedation should be understood, embraced, and utilized as an area of expertise suited for nursing anesthesia.

  10. Personality Types of Directors of Nursing in Nursing Homes. (United States)


    ISTJ 4 11.8 I SFP 2 5.9 ESFP 2 5.9 INTP 2 5.9 ENTP 0 0 INFJ 1 2.9 ENFJ 0 0 INTJ 1 2.9 ENTJ 0 0 ENFP 1 2.9 INFP 0 0 SSTP 0 0 ESTP 0 0 N 34 E...about them offers nurses opportunities to strengthen 3 the professional working relationship of nurses with nurses. Statement of Problem What are the...simplistic tool. In this section of the study, the researcher will identify the fundamentals of these theories, explain their relationship to the research

  11. Job satisfaction in nursing: a concept analysis study. (United States)

    Liu, Y; Aungsuroch, Y; Yunibhand, J


    This study aims to undertake a concept analysis of job satisfaction in the nursing profession. Around current global shortage of nurses, it is important to stabilize the nursing workforce. Nurses' job satisfaction has been found to be related to intention to leave. In the nursing profession, there is a lack of evidence to support the attributes of nurses' job satisfaction. Walker and Avant's approach of concept analysis was used. The main attributes of job satisfaction from this study are (1) fulfillment of desired needs within the work settings, (2) happiness or gratifying emotional responses towards working conditions, and (3) job value or equity. These attributes are influenced by antecedent conditions like demographic, emotional, work characteristics and environmental variables. Additionally, the consequences of nurses' job satisfaction have a significant impact on both nurses and patients. This study integrated both the content and process of motivational theories to generate the attributes of job satisfaction in nursing that overcome the limitation of the previous studies, which looked only at the definitions of nurses' job satisfaction based on content motivational theories. The findings of this study can facilitate both nursing researchers to develop a cultural adaption instrument and policy makers to improve clinical nursing practice. This analysis provides nurse managers with a new perspective to deal with nurses' job satisfaction by taking into account all the attributes that influence it in the nursing field. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.