WorldWideScience

Sample records for deficit disorders add

  1. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  2. Adult Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Disorder in Finland--Project DyAdd: WAIS-III Cognitive Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The project Adult Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Disorder in Finland (Project DyAdd) compares adults (n = 119, 18-55 years) with dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia together with ADHD (comorbid), and healthy controls with neuropsychological, psychophysical, and biological methods. The focus of this article is on the…

  3. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Charmaine B. Lo; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods: Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n ...

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these ... children. The main features of ADHD are Inattention Hyperactivity Impulsivity No one knows exactly what causes ADHD. ...

  5. Understanding Attention Deficit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused ...

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD.

  8. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  9. Faking attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2011-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common malady in the general population, with up to 8.1 percent of adults meeting criteria for this syndrome. In the college setting, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may offer specific academic advantages. Once the diagnosis is assigned, the prescription of stimulant medication may provide additional secondary gains through misuse and/or diversion. For example, these drugs may be used by college consumers to increase alertness, energy, academic performance, and athletic performance. Stimulants may also decrease psychological distress, alleviate restlessness and weight concerns, and be used for recreational purposes. According to the findings of five studies, the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be believably faked, particularly when assessed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom checklists. Thus, the faking of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a realistic concern in both psychiatric and primary care settings.

  10. Faking Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common malady in the general population, with up to 8.1 percent of adults meeting criteria for this syndrome. In the college setting, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may offer specific academic advantages. Once the diagnosis is assigned, the prescription of stimulant medication may provide additional secondary gains through misuse and/or diversion. For example, these drugs may be used by college consumers to increase aler...

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  12. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make...... will most likely increase the prevalence of ADHD, especially in adults and adolescents, but maybe also in children. The added examples will also result in necessary revisions and new validations of rating scales and diagnostic interviews. This review will examine each of the proposed DSM-5 changes...

  13. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that ... combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Adult ADHD can lead ...

  14. Disentangling deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, E.M.; Overtoom, C.C.; Kooij, J.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verbaten, M.N.; Kenemans, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: A lack of inhibitory control has been suggested to be the core deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), especially in adults. This means that a primary deficit in inhibition mediates a cascade of secondary deficits in other executive functions, such as attention. Impaired

  15. Methylphenidate, Add, and Classroom Performance

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    The degree to which methylphenidate (MPH) normalized the classroom behavior and academic functioning of 31 children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) was evaluated at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA.

  16. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... visits Number of visits to physician offices with attention deficit disorder as the primary diagnosis: 10.9 ...

  17. Emotional Intelligence in Learners with Attention Deficit Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Carol Anne; Roets, H. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse and evaluate the nature and quality of emotional intelligence in learners with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), and to investigate whether their emotional intelligence was enhanced, and whether the symptoms and behaviour of these learners improved, after exposure to a programme on emotional intelligence.…

  18. Emotional Intelligence in Learners with Attention Deficit Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Carol Anne; Roets, H. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse and evaluate the nature and quality of emotional intelligence in learners with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), and to investigate whether their emotional intelligence was enhanced, and whether the symptoms and behaviour of these learners improved, after exposure to a programme on emotional intelligence.…

  19. Desorden Deficitario de la Atencion. Segunda Edicion. NICHCY Briefing Paper [and] El Desorden Deficitario de la Atencion: Una Bibliografia de Materiales en Ingles y Espanol (Attention Deficit Disorder. Second Edition. NICHCY Briefing Paper [and] Attention Deficit Disorder: A Bibliography of Materials in English and Spanish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Mary

    This briefing paper uses a question-and-answer format to provide basic information about children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Questions address the following concerns: nature and incidence of ADD; causes of ADD; signs of ADD (impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, social skill deficits); the diagnostic ADD assessment; how to…

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Almeida Bolognani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study, stated as Previous Notation, is to demonstrate that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Pathology presents a differentiated condition in carriers where a significant percentage, close to 60%, present a higher level of zinc elimination by kidneys. In this study, a direct relation of Zinc Mettalicum pathogenetic symptoms, this disturbance and the elimination of this element which participates in neurotransmission process were identified, and the relation with elements from regular diet, which can act as zinc chelating agents would be involved in the evolution of this disturbance, justifying the issue of individual susceptibility, essential in homeopathic investigation

  1. Attention Deficit Disorder--A New Age Yuppie Disorder or an Age Old Human Characteristic Essential for Our Survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, Anna A.

    This brief paper suggests that Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) may result from a specific "novelty seeking" gene which has been associated over the history of man's evolution with a biological advantage in situations where energy, risk taking, and creativity are essentials. It reviews research on the genetics of ADD which suggest that novelty…

  2. Response inhibition in Attention deficit disorder and neurofibromatosis type 1 – clinically similar, neurophysiologically different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluschke, Annet; von der Hagen, Maja; Papenhagen, Katharina; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2017-01-01

    There are large overlaps in cognitive deficits occurring in attention deficit disorder (ADD) and neurodevelopmental disorders like neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). This overlap is mostly based on clinical measures and not on in-depth analyses of neuronal mechanisms. However, the consideration of such neuronal underpinnings is crucial when aiming to integrate measures that can lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Inhibitory control deficits, for example, are a hallmark in ADD, but it is unclear how far there are similar deficits in NF1. We thus compared adolescent ADD and NF1 patients to healthy controls in a Go/Nogo task using behavioural and neurophysiological measures. Clinical measures of ADD-symptoms were not different between ADD and NF1. Only patients with ADD showed increased Nogo errors and reductions in components reflecting response inhibition (i.e. Nogo-P3). Early perceptual processes (P1) were changed in ADD and NF1. Clinically, patients with ADD and NF1 thus show strong similarities. This is not the case in regard to underlying cognitive control processes. This shows that in-depth analyses of neurophysiological processes are needed to determine whether the overlap between ADD and NF1 is as strong as assumed and to develop appropriate treatment strategies. PMID:28262833

  3. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis.

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Intervention: Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Intervention: Strategies & Counselling Tips for Primary School Teachers. ... to equip them to enable them give care and support to ADHD pupils in the learning process and make referral when necessary.

  5. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  6. Impulse control disorders and attention deficit disorder in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specker, S M; Carlson, G A; Christenson, G A; Marcotte, M

    1995-12-01

    Little systematic research has been done on psychiatric comorbidity of pathological gambling, an impulse control disorder. This report describes the occurrence of attention deficit disorder and impulse control disorders in 40 pathological gamblers in treatment for gambling problems and 64 controls. Diagnoses were made by structured interviews which utilized operationalized diagnostic criteria. An impulse control disorder other than pathological gambling was noted in 35% of the pathological gamblers, compared to 3% of the controls (p buying (p behavior (p impulse control disorders. Attention deficit disorder was seen in 20% of the pathological gamblers. Rates of impulse control disorders did not differ by gender. Implications of these high rates of comorbidity are discussed.

  7. Neuropsychological Test Performance and the Attention Deficit Disorders: Clinical Utility of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaughency, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision (LNNB-CR) to 54 clinic-referred children aged 8-12 years. Compared children reliably diagnosed as attention deficit disorder (ADD) with hyperactivity, without hyperactivity, and control group with internalizing disorders. Findings failed to support hypothesis that ADD is…

  8. Neuropsychological Test Performance and the Attention Deficit Disorders: Clinical Utility of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaughency, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision (LNNB-CR) to 54 clinic-referred children aged 8-12 years. Compared children reliably diagnosed as attention deficit disorder (ADD) with hyperactivity, without hyperactivity, and control group with internalizing disorders. Findings failed to support hypothesis that ADD is…

  9. Dyscalculia and Attention Deficit Subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The association of specific academic deficits with attention deficit disorder (ADD) subtypes was determined in 20 students (ages 8-12) with ADD with hyperactivity (ADD/H) compared to 20 with ADD without hyperactivity (ADD/noH), at the Department of Educational Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, TX.

  10. Use of Digital Console Game for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tsung-Yen; Lee, I-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chih

    2010-01-01

    ADHD or ADD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) is one of the most frequently diagnosed mental and behavioral disorders of children. Children with ADHD are characterized by poor attention and distractibility and/or hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Although there is no "cure" for ADHD, there are accepted treatments that…

  11. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  12. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of

  13. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  14. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of t

  15. Readings on Attention Deficit Disorder or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. ERIC Mini-Bib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Barbara, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography identifies 17 readings, 3 videotapes, and 8 children's books concerned with attention deficit disorder or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Items include guides for parents, teachers, and students; analyses of issues in the field; practical teaching guides; investigations into etiology; and resource guides.…

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in prison inmates

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an inherited developmental disorder with early onset, chronically persisting in the vast majority of cases. ADHD is associated with pervasive cognitive, emotional and functional impairments, as well as an increased rate of coexisting disorders. ADHD in the presence of early disruptive behaviours increase the risk for later delinquency. ADHD is estimated to be present in about 25-45% of adult prison inmates, thus 10-times increased...

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and TSC What is ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder. It is ...

  18. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Yalug

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is known to accompany subtle physical anomalies, allergic and neurologic disorders, obesity and eating disorders, traumatic injuries, risky sexual behavior, sleep disorders, substance and alcohol use, axis I and II disorders, occupational, legal and academic problems and increased treatment expenditures. Though the effects of this disorder continue throughout life, create burdens to the society along with its treatment as well as disabling the affected patients through their lives, and receive increasing attention in recent years, reviews focusing on problems associated with it are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the results of previous studies conducted about medical comorbidities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  19. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Anna K Mueller; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children wit...

  20. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of undetec

  1. Written expression in boys with attention deficit disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resta, S P; Eliot, J

    1994-12-01

    32 boys, between the ages of 8 and 13 years, were identified on four teachers' and parents' rating scales (including the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-III for ADD) as showing attention deficits and hyperactivity (ADD + H; n = 10), attention deficits without hyperactivity (ADD-H; n = 11), or without ADD (attention deficits controls; n = 11). All subjects were administered Bender's Visual-motor Gestalt test and the Written Language Assessment. The ADD + H children produced significantly more errors on the Bender-Gestalt test, and both groups with attention deficits had lower (poorer) scores on most of the written language subtests. Results were interpreted as providing evidence that these children possessed significant limitations in their writing, copying, and composition.

  2. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or bipolar disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, D; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The attention deficit disorder and the bipolar disorder maintain a complex relation. Indeed, these two syndromes share numerous symptoms that engender numerous diagnostic difficulties. According to several studies, it seems that these two disorders are really different with significant differences at the functional and anatomical level. However, there are common cognitive deficits as well as relatively frequent co-morbidity which is necessary to know in order to adjust the treatment. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  3. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... claims to understand diagnosis and treatment patterns for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). On this page you ...

  4. Special Education for Children with Attention Deficit Disorder: Current Issues. CRS Report for Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This paper examines issues concerning the eligibility of children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) for special education and related services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). A policy memorandum was issued by the Department of Education in September 1991, identifying those circumstances under which such children…

  5. Adaptive will: the evolution of attention deficit disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoff, A

    2000-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of attention-deficit disorder among American school children was a source of significant controversy in the 1990s. This paper looks at the social and historical contexts in which ADD evolved in order to understand its emergence as a coherent and widespread entity. Changes in expert models of child behavior interacted with the formation of new identities around disability to shape a milieu in which the disorder could thrive. The pattern of affect control, of what must and what must not be restrained, regulated, and transformed, is certainly not the same in this stage as in the preceding one of court aristocracy. In keeping with its different interdependencies, bourgeois society applies stronger restrictions to certain impulses, while in the case of others aristocratic restrictions are simply continued and transformed to suit the changed situation (Elias, 1994, p. 125). Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD.

  7. [Treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane

    2006-02-28

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic and invalidating condition, whose negative consequences on psychosocial functioning calls for efficacious treatment plans. Several treatments have been proven to be effective: some parent and children treatment programs, psychostimulants, atomoxetine. Most of these therapeutic options are not easily available to patients and families (psychoeducational programs are rarely used in France). Primary care professionals can help families to access valid information, discuss treatment plans and monitor treatment.

  8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Anxiety in İstanbul Heavy Metal Bar Patrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özalp Ekinci

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to examine the heavy metal bar patrons in Istanbul by means of self-reported questionnaires for psychiatric disorder symptoms.Material and Methods: Seventy-one volunteers from 4 popular heavy metal bars were included to the study. The Beck Depression Inventory, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, the Adult Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD Scale and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST were administered to the participants. Results: One fourth of the participants (25.4% were under high risk for a depressive episode (BDI>17, 22 (32.3% reported significant social anxiety (LSAS>30, and 41 (57.7% showed moderate ADHD symptoms (Adult ADD/ADHD scale: 20-59. According to BDI score participants who were under the risk for depression showed higher scores in Adult ADD/ADHD scale scores than that of participants who were not under a risk for depression (p=0.001 for attention deficit; p=0.003 for hyperactivity; p=0.002 for impulsivity; p=0.001 for total score. In the study group, ADD/ADHD scale attention deficit score was positively correlated with the total fear, total avoidence and the total scores of LSAS (r=.359 p<0.01; r=.332 p<0.01; r=.358 p<0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Heavy metal bar patrons appear to be a particular social group with an increased risk of psychopathology.

  9. Updates on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Bledsoe, Jesse

    2011-10-01

    The relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to learning disorders was reviewed and included reading disability, mathematics learning disability, and nonverbal learning disability. Genetic, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological functioning were examined for each disorder, along with a discussion of any existing literature when ADHD co-occurred with the disorder. All the disorders were found to frequently co-occur with ADHD. A review of the underlying neuroanatomic and neurofunctional data found specific structures that frequently co-occur in these disorders with others that are specific to the individual diagnosis. Aberrations in structure and/or function were found for the caudate, corpus callosum, and cerebellum, making these structures sensitive for the disorder but not specific. Suggestions for future research, particularly in relation to intervention, are provided.

  10. Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder features in adult mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Kyu Young; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Kim, Se Hyun; Song, Joo Youn; Bang, Yang Weon; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2012-04-01

    A significant overlap between childhood mood disorders and many aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been established. High rates of co-occurrence, familial aggregation, and more severe clinical manifestations of the illnesses when they are comorbid suggest that common genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the development of both disorders. Research on the co-occurrence of childhood ADHD and mood disorders in childhood has been conducted. We retrospectively investigated childhood ADHD features in adults with mood disorders. Childhood ADHD features were measured with the Korean version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). The sample consisted of 1305 subjects: 108 subjects were diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, 41 with bipolar disorder type II, 101 with major depressive disorder, and 1055 served as normal controls. We compared total WURS scores as well as scores on 3 factors (impulsivity, inattention, and mood instability and anxiety) among the 4 different diagnostic groups. The 4 groups differed significantly from one another on all scores. The group with bipolar disorder type II obtained the highest total scores on the WURS. The impulsivity and inattention associated with childhood ADHD were more significantly related to bipolar disorder type II than with bipolar disorder type I. The mood instability and anxiety associated with childhood ADHD seem to be significantly related to major depressive disorder in adulthood. In conclusion, multifactorial childhood ADHD features were associated with mood disorders of adulthood.

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: diagnostic imperatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-07

    May 7, 2003 ... Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) constitutes the ..... ness of bipolar disorder and in particular the conceptualization of bipolar II ... bipolar disorder stabilized on the traditional three mood stabilizers ( lithium,.

  12. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder outcome in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bange, F

    2011-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood. Although some symptoms of ADHD may diminish this does not mean that functioning is unimpaired in adults. Follow-up studies of children with ADHD show that it persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. Due to genetic factors high rates of ADHD exist among the parents of children with ADHD. More females are identified and become diagnosed in adulthood. There is a greater persistence of inattentive than of hyperactive/impulsive childhood symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. Some experts conceptualise ADHD as primarily a deficit of executive functions impairing planification, time perception and emotional regulation. ADHD often presents as a lifelong condition in adults associated with a range of clinical and psychosocial impairments. Young adults with comorbid antisocial or substance use disorder in adolescence are at significantly increased risk for criminal behaviors. Some predictors of the outcome have been identified such as childhood symptom profile and severity, comorbidity and childhood family adversities.

  13. Cognitive deficits in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob; Knorr, Ulla; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers

    2012-01-01

    Patients with unipolar depressive disorder may present with cognitive deficits in the remitted state, and the aim of the present study was to investigate whether cognitive deficits within specific cognitive domains are present....

  14. Atypical outcome in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Freidson, S

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the course of psychiatric illness in two boys. Both presented with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in midchildhood; after puberty, one boy developed a schizophrenic illness while the other boy developed a major affective illness. Although the major ADHD outcome studies have found no link between the childhood occurrence of ADHD and psychosis in adulthood, occasionally such a link may exist. The theoretical and practical implications of this finding are discussed. It should be noted, however, that such outcome is highly atypical and very rare.

  15. What causes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam; Jefferies, Rachel; Stergiakouli, Evangelia

    2012-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects around 1-3% of children. There is a high level of comorbidity with developmental and learning problems as well as with a variety of psychiatric disorders. ADHD is highly heritable, although there is no single causal risk factor and non-inherited factors also contribute to its aetiology. The genetic and environmental risk factors that have been implicated appear to be associated with a range of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric outcomes, not just ADHD. The evidence to date suggests that both rare and multiple common genetic variants likely contribute to ADHD and modify its phenotype. ADHD or a similar phenotype also appears to be more common in extreme low birth weight and premature children and those exposed to exceptional early adversity. In this review, the authors consider recent developments in the understanding of risk factors that influence ADHD.

  16. Inattentiveness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ariane Sroubek; Mary Kelly; Xiaobo Li

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a long-term impact on functioning,productivity and quality of life of patients.This impact is largely due to the symptoms of inattentiveness.However,despite its impairing role in the lives of ADHD patients,inattentiveness has been studied relatively less frequently than have symptoms of impulsivity/hyperactivity and problems with executive function.This review therefore seeks to integrate the neuropsychological theories and current findings in the research fields of neuropsychology,neurophysiology,and neuroimaging,in an attempt to gain a more complete understanding of the role that inattentiveness plays in ADHD,as well as to suggest directions for future studies.The need for a more comprehensive understanding of inattentiveness and ADHD,which integrates findings from each of the three disciplines mentioned above,is emphasized.

  17. Collicular dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by (inter alia) an increase in distractibility. The current front-line pharmacotherapies for the treatment of ADHD, namely the psychostimulants methylphenidate and amphetamines, have clear abuse potential, hence there is a strong need to develop new drug treatments for this disorder. Central to this process is the identification of the pathophysiological changes which underlie ADHD. Given the heterogeneity of the disorder, multiple loci are probably involved, providing multiple potential therapeutic targets. Here, we hypothesise (Hypothesis 1) that one such locus is the superior colliculus (SC), a sensory structure intimately linked with distractibility and the production of eye and head movements. It is proposed that in ADHD, the colliculus is hyper-responsive, leading to the core symptom of increased distractibility. Hypothesis 1 is supported by: 1. ADHD patients show increased distractibility in tasks which are sensitive to collicular function; 2. ADHD patients have a general problem inhibiting saccades, the generation of which involves the SC; 3. Saccadic deficits in ADHD include defects in the production of saccadic types (anti-saccades and express saccades) which are particularly associated with the colliculus; 4. Covert shifts in attention (which also have been argued to involve the SC) are also impaired in ADHD; 5. Reading disorders are frequently co-morbid with ADHD; dyslexia (which is associated with eye movement problems) is linked to a specific visual perceptual deficit in the M pathway, a major recipient of which is the colliculus. Whether or not the SC is indeed hyper-responsive in ADHD as Hypothesis 1 suggests, the SC may well represent an important therapeutic target for drugs. In fact current psychostimulant therapies, which reduce distractibility, may already work at that level (Hypothesis 2), a contention which is supported by: 1. The

  18. Social communication deficits: specific associations with Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder.\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communicati...

  19. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  20. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90 and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of the origin of this disorder. Its manifestations may be a reason for family conflicts, poor peer relationships, social and school maladjustment, learning problems, lower academic performance, accidents and injuries, smoking, psychoactive substance abuse (toxicomania, narcomania, delinquencies, deviant social behavior, thus having a negative impact on all spheres of a patient’s life. The manifestations of ADHD may continue in adulthood, resulting in work and family life problems, low self-evaluation, alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse, and other unfavorable consequences. The authors describe the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic principles (diagnostic scales and tests, differential diagnosis (by setting out a large group of different diseases, the manifestations of which can mimic ADHD, treatment, and prognosis of the disorder. Within its therapeutic correction framework, the authors present the definition and general principles of Montessori therapy, including recommendations for parents and relatives to deal with children with ADHD. 

  1. [Prevention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, J; Martin, M; Alcindor, P; Perez-Templado, J

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins at an early age and can be present until adulthood. Subjects with ADHD not only have symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity or hyperactivity but also have their social and emotional areas affected. In addition, they have an associated increased risk for presenting comorbilities with other psychiatric disorders, overshadowing the development. Considering ADHD as a evolutionary risk factor, prevention should be considered as a primary goal. Most preventive actions on ADHD have been focused on tertiary prevention. The present review aims to study the factors involved in the development of ADHD in order to form a prevention model beyond tertiary prevention. This research focuses on models of primary prevention (early detection of disease) and secondary prevention (to prevent or delay the disease), trying to incorporate them into daily practice. This study reviews risk factors that affect ADHD. Through actions aimed to pursue an early detection, development of the disorder could be improved, and by identifying population at risk, efforts could be concentrated on developing a true primary prevention (perinatal period and early childhood) that eventually could contribute to reduce the incidence of ADHD.

  2. [A survey on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiviger, S; Caci, H

    2014-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in international classifications and thought to affect about 5% of school-aged children and 3% of adults in the general population. In France, most clinicians are not formally trained in assessing and treating ADHD, leading to underdiagnosis of the disorder. ADHD impacts all the aspects of these children's daily life (school performance, family and social life) and later their adult life. We invited all the private-practice pediatricians in the east of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region (southeast France) to participate in a survey: 57 out of 81 accepted. The results show that their knowledge on ADHD could be improved, and that their a priori conception of the etiology of the disorder (neurodevelopmental syndrome versus societal syndrome) guides their clinical approach. We recommend pediatricians be trained to improve screening, diagnosis, and ADHD treatment monitoring in children. This recommendation might also apply to general practitioners for children and parents/adults.

  3. Neurobiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Ramoz, Nicolas; Lepagnol-Bestel, Aude-Marie; Gorwood, Philip; Simonneau, Michel

    2011-05-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, has been associated with various structural and functional CNS abnormalities but findings about neurobiological mechanisms linking genes to brain phenotypes are just beginning to emerge. Despite the high heritability of the disorder and its main symptom dimensions, common individual genetic variants are likely to account for a small proportion of the phenotype's variance. Recent findings have drawn attention to the involvement of rare genetic variants in the pathophysiology of ADHD, some being shared with other neurodevelopmental disorders. Traditionally, neurobiological research on ADHD has focused on catecholaminergic pathways, the main target of pharmacological treatments. However, more distal and basic neuronal processes in relation with cell architecture and function might also play a role, possibly accounting for the coexistence of both diffuse and specific alterations of brain structure and activation patterns. This article aims to provide an overview of recent findings in the rapidly evolving field of ADHD neurobiology with a focus on novel strategies regarding pathophysiological analyses.

  4. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  5. Executive Function Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining Profiles across Domains and Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Francesca; Booth, Rhonda; Charlton, Rebecca; Hughes, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Deficits in "executive function" (EF) are characteristic of several clinical disorders, most notably Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In this study, age-and IQ-matched groups with ASD, ADHD, or typical development (TD) were compared on a battery of EF tasks tapping three core domains:…

  6. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) : Evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Rubia, Katya

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat

  7. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) : Evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat n

  8. Long-term prognosis in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannuzza, S; Klein, R G

    2000-07-01

    The authors have traced the developmental course of ADHD from childhood to adulthood, showing that it is a bumpy road for many. In early and middle adolescence, relative deficits are seen in academic and social functioning, ADHD symptoms remain problematic in two thirds to three quarters of these children, and antisocial behaviors, in some cases amounting to CD, are common. Many of these same difficulties persist into the late teenage years. Deficits continue to be observed in academic and social domains (compared with controls, probands exhibit lower grades, more courses failed, worse performance on standardized tests, have fewer friends, and are rated less adequate in psychosocial adjustment). About two fifths continue to experience ADHD symptoms to a clinically significant degree. One quarter to one third have a diagnosed antisocial disorder, and two thirds of these individuals are arrested. Also, drug abuse is observed in a significant minority of these youths. Importantly, the greatest risk factor for the development of antisocial behavior and substance abuse by the late teenage years is the maintenance of ADD symptoms. When evaluated in their mid-twenties, dysfunctions are apparent in these same areas. Compared with controls, probands complete less schooling, hold lower-ranking occupations, and continue to suffer from poor self-esteem and social skills deficits. In addition, significantly more probands than controls exhibit an antisocial personality and, perhaps, a substance use disorder in adulthood. Furthermore, many do not outgrow all facets of their childhood syndrome. These relative deficits, however, do not tell the whole story of the ADHD child's adult fate. Indeed, nearly all probands were gainfully employed. Furthermore, some had achieved a higher-level education (e.g., completed Master's degree, enrolled in medical school) and occupation (e.g., accountant, stock broker). In addition, a full two thirds of these children showed no evidence of any

  9. [Emotional dysfunctions in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Franc, N

    2011-06-01

    Inattention, motor instability, and impulsivity, associated in varying degrees of severity depending on the clinical subtype, constitute the key symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, emotional symptoms are frequent in patients with ADHD and may, in some cases, be responsible for a major part of the negative impact on functioning and outcome. Emotional problems have been described in ADHD even in the absence of characterized comorbid conditions such as depressive or anxiety disorders. They can manifest acutely in the form of severe tantrums and aggressive behaviour, generally in reaction to an environmental trigger, or show a more chronic course of irritable or labile mood. Symptoms of emotional undercontrol seem to occur more frequently when ADHD is associated with oppositional defiant behaviour, but they are not specific and may contribute to difficulties in making a differential diagnosis, especially with bipolar disorder and prodromal symptoms of personality disorders. The frequency and negative impact of emotional symptoms and the need to differentiate them from bipolar disorder has led some authors to the description of a novel clinical entity called "severe mood dysregulation" or "temper dysregulation with dysphoria." This article aims to review the recent literature on emotional symptoms associated with ADHD and to discuss relevant clinical and biological issues. Current research highlights the links between emotional self-regulation and executive functions and possible involvement of motivational systems. The role of environmental factors in the development of emotional regulation and self-control is another important issue, especially because environmental modification is the major focus of current preventive and therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Attention deficit disorders--drugs or nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Toshiko

    2007-01-01

    3-9% of schoolchildren in the U.K. suffer Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Since the 1950s stimulants have been used. particularly methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine, with some 75% response rate. The first non-stimulant medication--atmoxetine hydrochloride, has also been used. However, side effects have included: growth retardation; appetite loss: headache: stomachache: heart problem: insomnia: seizure; change of character: addiction or even suicidal thoughts. Alternative treatments have been used including omega-3s, yet the way they benefit in ADHD is uncertain. They may be important in remodelling dendrites and synapses, and/or sustaining: blood brain barrier, neuronal membrane. neurotransmitter channel, receptors and ion channel. Stevens in 2003 found long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) effective for oppositional defiant disorder, whereas Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) specifically was helpful with disruptive behaviour. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important during gestation and early infancy, particularly for neurodevelopment. The Durham Trial by Richardson published in 2005, tested omega-3s with omega-6s on schoolchildren with developmental coordination disorder (many of them had ADHD symptoms), improving scores in co-ordination and short term memory.

  11. Stigmatization in teachers towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Müller, Kathi; Koerts, Janneke; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is understood as a developmental disorder which shares common characteristics between childhood, adolescence and adulthood. However, ADHD is widely associated with misconceptions and misbeliefs which can lead to stigmatization. Teachers hav

  12. Pemoline in attention deficit disorder and alcoholism: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnquist, K; Frances, R; Rosenfeld, W; Mobarak, A

    1983-05-01

    Diagnosis of attention deficit disorder in a 35-year-old man and treatment with pemoline substantially improved his response to alcoholism treatment and aftercare. The authors conclude that treatment of attention deficit disorder may aid in rehabilitation of alcoholic patients.

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Scientific Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Thurber

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD continues to be controversial with arguments for and against its veracity being waged by individuals representing a variety of disciplines from behavioral scientists to philosophers. Our perspective focuses on the epistemological underpinnings of what is now commonly known as ADHD. Its ignominious history and current disputes may stem from a "pessimistic" epistemology, meaning that truth is only the province of persons in authority and power. The authoritative organizations that govern the diagnostic labels and criteria are the American Psychiatric Association and their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the World Health Organization that sponsors the International Classification of Disease. We contrast the pessimistic epistemology with criteria for truth from the scientific method. Although scientific scrutiny has been and is being applied subsequent to "authoritarian edicts" of the disorder, we opine that ADHD currently does not have status beyond that of the "hypothetical construct." Moreover, current brain-based causal models have failed to provide rigorous supporting data that comes from testing falsifiable hypotheses.

  14. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Susan L.; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and personality, using the Tridimensional Character Inventory. Individuals with ADHD report themselves as less mindful than non-ADHD controls and more novelty-seeking, less self-directed, and more self-transcendent. Mindfulness is negatively associated with ADHD and positively associated with self-directedness and self-transcendence. Analyses of subscales of mindfulness suggest that ADHD is associated most with the ‘Acting in Awareness’ dimension perhaps due to shared items reflecting attentional variability. The current findings support that a large portion of variability in trait mindfulness can be explained by ADHD status and personality traits of self-directedness and self-transcendence. It further suggests that interventions that increase mindfulness might improve symptoms of ADHD and increase self-directedness and/or self-transcendence. PMID:19681107

  15. A Multiple Deficit Model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Shared Cognitive Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shanahan, Michelle A.; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E.; Barnard, Holly D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. Methods: A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique…

  16. [Neurobiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Lepagnol-Bestel, Aude-Marie; Grosbellet, Edith; Gorwood, Philip; Simonneau, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent and disabling condition in school children, with cognitive and behavioral symptoms persisting into adulthood in a majority of patients. Etiology of ADHD is considered multifactorial and heterogenous, with an important contribution of genetic factors. Apart from genetic risk factors, emphasis has been put on the early environment, and prenatal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with subsequent ADHD symptoms. This article reviews recent findings in neurobiology, genetics and neuroimaging of ADHD. Despite their clinical heterogeneity and frequent comorbidities, key symptoms of ADHD, such as impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention are regularly improved by dopaminergic agonists, leading to consider dopaminergic dysfunction a possibly contributing factor in ADHD. Norepinephrine agonists also have clinical efficacy on ADHD symptoms and several other neurotransmission systems are likely involved in the etiology of ADHD. Dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems have been related to impairments of sustained attention, inhibitory control and working memory. Cognitive tasks focusing on reaction time and verbal working memory fit certain criteria for ADHD endophenotypes, offering a pathway to bridge the gap between observed traits and genetic vulnerability. Despite ADHD being a highly heritable disorder, most candidate genes with replicated findings across association studies only account for a small proportion of genetic variance. Neuroimaging studies using treatment effect or cognitive tasks show differential activation patterns in ADHD patients, with trends towards normalization under treatment. Further insight into neurobiological mechanisms involved in ADHD will arise from collaborative networks and combination of imaging, genetic and neurobiological techniques with consideration of the developmental aspects of ADHD.

  17. A controlled study of Tourette syndrome. I. Attention-deficit disorder, learning disorders, and school problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comings, D E; Comings, B G

    1987-11-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common, hereditary, neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. To determine the frequency of various behavioral manifestations, we have compared 47 random normal controls to 246 patients with TS, 17 with attention-deficit disorder (ADD), and 15 with ADD secondary to a TS gene (ADD 2(0) TS). All subjects were examined prospectively with a 425-item questionnaire based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III). The TS patients were divided into grade 1 (too mild to treat [17.5%]), grade 2 (requiring treatment [58.9%]), and grade 3 (severe [23.6%]). Patients in all three grades of TS were significantly different from controls for DSM III symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Sixty-two percent of TS patients had ADD, compared with 6.3% of controls; and 48.8% had ADD with hyperactivity (ADDH), compared with 4.2% of controls. In the majority of TS patients, the natural history of the disease was to start with ADDH and 2.4 years later develop motor and vocal tics. Among TS patients, 39% had previously received medication for ADDH or behavior problems, compared with 2% of the controls. Although stimulants can occasionally exacerbate tics, there was no evidence that stimulants cause TS and they are often a valuable adjunct to the treatment of TS. It is estimated that 10%-30% of ADDH is due to or associated with the presence of a TS gene. TS patients had a significantly increased frequency of (1) attending classes for the educationally handicapped, (2) placement in classes for the severely emotionally disturbed, (3) attending any special classes, (4) severe test anxiety, (5) stuttering, (6) letter, number, or word reversal, (7) reading very slowly, and (8) poor retention of material read. A reading-problem score (dyslexia) greater than or equal to 3 was present in 26.8% of TS patients, compared with 4.2% of controls. Number reversal, word reversal, and poor retention

  18. Story Comprehension and Academic Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…

  19. Oculomotor Performance Identifies Underlying Cognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Yasui, Enami; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the cognitive control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder through the use of oculomotor tests reveal that this group showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. All subjects were found to have intact sensorimotor function and working memory.

  20. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  1. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  2. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  3. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  4. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls ADHD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... for developmental level: Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, ...

  5. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...

  6. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Signs Treating ADHD Reprints For More Information Share Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics Download PDF ... Overview Do you find it hard to pay attention? Do you feel the need to move constantly ...

  7. Communication issues in Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddan, J J

    1991-01-01

    Children with Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) evidence a variety of pragmatic deficits and are particularly at risk for other speech and language disorders. Speech and language pathologists in educational settings have the special expertise needed for interpretation and treatment of communication issues associated with ADHD. They should contribute more directly to the multi-modality treatment team in creating management programs for these children.

  8. Response Inhibition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K.; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with…

  9. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Halder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  10. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  11. Measurement of Stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop

  12. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Susmita Halder; Akash Kumar Mahato

    2009-01-01

    Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  13. Living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Britt; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet; Jørgensen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This systematic review is aimed to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on parenting experiences of living with a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, including their experiences of healthcare and other services. METHODS: A meta-synthesis was conducted following...... multiple challenges, it is not all bad. CONCLUSION: The findings illustrate the complexity of parental experiences that are influenced by guilt, hope, blame, stigmatization, exhaustion, reconciliation, and professional collaboration. The findings address the impact that attention-deficit hyperactivity...... disorder has on everyday family life, and how parents seem to adapt to their life situation in the process of accepting their child's disorder....

  14. Diagnosing and treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Antshel, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a valid and impairing psychiatric disorder. In this article, we review the diagnosis of ADHD in adults, focusing on symptom presentation differences between pediatric and adult ADHD as well as the importance of assessing functional impairments. Differentiating ADHD from other clinical disorders is often the most difficult part of making an ADHD diagnosis in adults. Psychiatric comorbidities are also described and discussed as potential ...

  15. Can attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder be differentiated by motor and balance deficits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Ramage, Barbara; Crawford, Susan; Cantell, Marja; Wormsbecker, Shirley; Gibbard, Ben; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the diagnostic overlap between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Differential diagnosis is important because of treatment implications. Children aged 7-10years (47 ADHD, 30 FASD, 39 controls) participated.

  16. Comparison of motor deficits in autism spectrum disorder and developmental coordination disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an umbrella term for disorders involving deficits in social interaction, stereotyped behaviours and communication dificulties. A growing area of research has recently focused on motor deficits in ASD, which have been noted in clinical observations and diagnostic criteria since autism was first described. However, motor deficits have traditionally carried little weight in the diagnostic procedure. Until recent changes to diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Sta...

  17. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat neglected in the literature and mostly omitted from reviews on ADHD. There is therefore a lack of integrative reviews on the up-to-date evidence on neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits of timing in ADHD and their significance with respect to other behavioural and cognitive deficits. The present review provides a synthetic overview of the evidence for neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits in ADHD in timing functions, and integrates this evidence with the cognitive neuroscience literature of the neural substrates of timing. The review demonstrates that ADHD patients are consistently impaired in three major timing domains, in motor timing, perceptual timing and temporal foresight, comprising several timeframes spanning milliseconds, seconds, minutes and longer intervals up to years. The most consistent impairments in ADHD are found in sensorimotor synchronisation, duration discrimination, reproduction and delay discounting. These neurocognitive findings of timing deficits in ADHD are furthermore supported by functional neuroimaging studies that show dysfunctions in the key inferior fronto-striato-cerebellar and fronto-parietal networks that mediate the timing functions. Although there is evidence that these timing functions are inter-correlated with other executive functions that are well established to be impaired in the disorder, in particular working memory, attention, and to a lesser degree inhibitory control, the key timing deficits appear to survive when these functions are controlled for, suggesting independent cognitive deficits in the temporal domain. There is furthermore strong evidence for an association between timing deficits and behavioural

  18. Identification of neuromotor deficits common to autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and imitation deficits specific to autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaldi, Monica; Rauh, Reinhold; Müller, Cora; Irion, Lisa; Saville, Christopher W N; Schulz, Eberhard; Klein, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in motor and imitation abilities are a core finding in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but impaired motor functions are also found in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given recent theorising about potential aetiological overlap between the two disorders, the present study aimed to assess difficulties in motor performance and imitation of facial movements and meaningless gestures in a sample of 24 ADHD patients, 22 patients with ASD, and 20 typically developing children, matched for age (6-13 years) and similar in IQ (>80). Furthermore, we explored the impact of comorbid ADHD symptoms on motor and imitation performance in the ASD sample and the interrelationships between the two groups of variables in the clinical groups separately. The results show motor dysfunction was common to both disorders, but imitation deficits were specific to ASD. Together with the pattern of interrelated motor and imitation abilities, which we found exclusively in the ASD group, our findings suggest complex phenotypic, and possibly aetiological, relationships between the two neurodevelopmental conditions.

  19. Brain differences between persistent and remitted attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Gabrieli, John D E; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Kotte, Amelia; Kagan, Elana; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Previous resting state studies examining the brain basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have not distinguished between patients who persist versus those who remit from the diagnosis as adults. To characterize the neurobiological differences and similarities of persistence and remittance, we performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals who had been longitudinally and uniformly characterized as having or not having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and again in adulthood (16 years after baseline assessment). Intrinsic functional brain organization was measured in patients who had a persistent diagnosis in childhood and adulthood (n = 13), in patients who met diagnosis in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 22), and in control participants who never had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17). A positive functional correlation between posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, major components of the default-mode network, was reduced only in patients whose diagnosis persisted into adulthood. A negative functional correlation between medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was reduced in both persistent and remitted patients. The neurobiological dissociation between the persistence and remittance of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may provide a framework for the relation between the clinical diagnosis, which indicates the need for treatment, and additional deficits that are common, such as executive dysfunctions.

  20. Quality of life of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Anne F

    2005-02-01

    To review the results of studies of quality of life in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, three databases were searched and quality of life findings were reviewed. Comparisons were made with population norms for four studies that used the 50-item parent-reported Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50). Effect sizes were computed to estimate the clinical importance of differences in quality of life. In total, ten publications were identified representing 1382 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Five different quality of life measures were used and compared with norms for the CHQ-PF50. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had more problems in all psychosocial domains and family activities. Effect sizes for aspects of physical health domains were small in size. Pooled effect sizes for the CHQ-PF50 psychosocial domains and family activities were as follows: mental health = -0.55; self-esteem = -0.75; parental impact - time = -0.85; role emotional/behavioral = -1.22; behavior = -1.44; parental impact - emotions = -1.45 and family activities = -1.67. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have a poorer quality of life than children in the general population. Quality of life is an important outcome that is starting to receive attention in studies of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The use of tools such as the CHQ-PF50 shows how additional and useful information can be obtained that is relevant to a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their family.

  1. How Can Comorbidity with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Aid Understanding of Language and Speech Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Mueller, Kathyrn L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a background for the topic of comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and spoken and written language and speech disorders that extends through this issue of "Topics in Language Disorders." Comorbidity is common within developmental disorders and may be explained by many possible reasons. Some of these can be…

  2. Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Franke, Barbara; Geurts, Hilde M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders. Evidence indicates both disorders co-occur with a high frequency, in 20-50% of children with ADHD meeting criteria for ASD and in 30-80% of ASD children meeting

  3. How Can Comorbidity with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Aid Understanding of Language and Speech Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Mueller, Kathyrn L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a background for the topic of comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and spoken and written language and speech disorders that extends through this issue of "Topics in Language Disorders." Comorbidity is common within developmental disorders and may be explained by many possible reasons. Some of these can be…

  4. Social communication deficits: Specific associations with Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-02-01

    Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder. Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ; Rutter, M., Bailey, A., Lord, C., 2003. The Social Communication Questionnaire - Manual. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA). Children with a diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder (n=262) and anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder (n=142) were compared on SCQ total and subscale scores and the frequency of participants scoring above clinical cut-offs. Children with Social Anxiety Disorder scored significantly higher than anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder on the SCQ total (t(352)=4.85, pcommunication (t(344)=3.62, pDisorder were three times more likely to score above clinical cut-offs. The participants were a relatively affluent group of predominantly non-minority status. The social communication difficulties measure relied on parental report which could be influenced by extraneous factors. Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder may benefit from a specific focus on developing social communication skills. Future research using objective assessments of underlying social communication skills is required. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  6. Restraint and Cancellation: Multiple Inhibition Deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachar, Russell; Logan, Gordon D.; Robaey, Philippe; Chen, Shirley; Ickowicz, Abel; Barr, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    We used variations of the stop signal task to study two components of motor response inhibition--the ability to withhold a strong response tendency (restraint) and the ability to cancel an ongoing action (cancellation)--in children with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in non-ADHD controls of similar age (ages…

  7. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  8. Cognitive control deficits associated with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Joshua D; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Hiatt Racer, Kristina D; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-07-01

    Antisociality has been linked to a variety of executive functioning deficits, including poor cognitive control. Surprisingly, cognitive control deficits are rarely found in psychopathic individuals, despite their notoriously severe and persistent antisocial behavior. In fact, primary (low-anxious) psychopathic individuals display superior performance on cognitive control-type tasks under certain circumstances. To clarify these seemingly contradictory findings, we administered a response competition (i.e., flanker) task to incarcerated offenders, who were assessed for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) symptoms and psychopathy. As hypothesized, APD related to poorer accuracy, especially on incongruent trials. Contrary to expectation, however, the same pattern of results was found in psychopathy. Additional analyses indicated that these effects of APD and psychopathy were associated with overlapping variance. The findings suggest that psychopathy and APD symptoms are both associated with deficits in cognitive control, and that this deficit relates to general antisociality as opposed to a specific antisocial syndrome.

  9. Playfulness in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, Elizabeth E.; Bundy, Anita C.

    2000-01-01

    Scores on the Test of Playfulness for 25 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were significantly lower than those of 25 children without, especially on internal control, intrinsic motivation, and framing. Three items (mischief, teasing/joking, clowning) yielded unexpectedly higher scores for ADHD children. (SK)

  10. Professor Perceptions of College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Teresa Ann; Weyandt, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: From April to June 2005, the authors investigated professor perceptions of college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants: 253 participants completed the ADHD Beliefs Survey-Revised, a 40-question survey measuring professor perceptions of ADHD. Methods: Analysis of variance measured false and…

  11. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found t

  12. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  13. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  14. Central Timing Deficits in Subtypes of Primary Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a proposed speech disorder subtype that interferes with motor planning and/or programming, affecting prosody in many cases. Pilot data (Peter & Stoel-Gammon, 2005) were consistent with the notion that deficits in timing accuracy in speech and music-related tasks may be associated with CAS. This study…

  15. Addressing Nature Deficit Disorder through Primitive Camping Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kevin; Varner, Keegan; Sallee, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Today's youth suffer from Nature Deficit Disorder, a condition that has been connected to ADHD, shortage of creativity, and general lack of knowledge about the outdoors. A team of educators and specialists are addressing this issue with primitive camping. County educators were trained using experiential learning and train-the-trainer techniques.…

  16. InforMatrix for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janknegt, Robert; Faber, Adrianne; Pereira, Rob Rodrigues; Kalverdijk, Luuk J.

    The purpose of this review is to facilitate discussion on drug selection for the treatment of ADHD by using only clinically relevant selection criteria and providing an up-to-date overview. The InforMatrix method was used to select drugs to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The

  17. From Single to Multiple Deficit Models of Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2006-01-01

    The emerging etiological model for developmental disorders, like dyslexia, is probabilistic and multifactorial while the prevailing cognitive model has been deterministic and often focused on a single cognitive cause, such as a phonological deficit as the cause of dyslexia. So there is a potential contradiction in our explanatory frameworks for…

  18. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  19. DSM-5 Further Inflates Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible harmf

  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Mediate Early-Onset Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Lier, P.A.C. van; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized c

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized c

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based,

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mulligan, Aisling; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have co

  4. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  5. Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Benefit from Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany M.; Quintino, Olga; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Koslovsky, Gabrielle

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-eight adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were provided either massage therapy or relaxation therapy for 10 consecutive school days. The massage therapy group, but not the relaxation therapy group, self-rated as happier, and observers rated them as fidgeting less following the sessions. Teachers reported more time on…

  6. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  7. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention: strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    learning process. The need for teachers' intervention strategies has been ... incapacitating disorder, which may have impact on many aspects of the ... of the many distractions, yet pupils are told to 'sit still',' don't talk”,. “don't ... reliable laboratory tests that can accurately diagnose the symptoms nor is .... For a high score the.

  8. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  9. Add-on topiramate reduces weight in overweight patients with affective disorders: a clinical case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tredget John

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight-gain caused by many psychotropic drugs is a major cause for poor compliance with such medications and could also increase cardio-vascular morbidity among psychiatric patients. Recent reports have shown that the anticonvulsant topiramate causes weight loss in various patient groups. The drug has also shown effectiveness in open trials as a mood stabilizer in patients with affective disorders, but not in controlled trials in the acute treatment of mania. We used topiramate to treat 12 patients with affective disorders who had a body-mass index >30 kg/m2. Methods Topiramate was prescribed as part of our routine clinical practice, as an add-on medication, or as a replacement of a mood stabilizer. Patients' weight was recorded in 1 to 2 monthly intervals. Patients were followed up for between 6 and 12 months. The final dose of topiramate varied from 200 to 600 mg/day. Results Topiramate was effective in reducing the weight in 10 out of the 12 patients. At six months the 12 patients had lost a mean of 7.75 kg (SD = 6.9 kg, p Conclusion The evidence of a strong weight-reducing potential of topiramate is indisputable and clinically significant. Topiramate could be considered in the treatment of bipolar patients who are overweight, or whose concerns about weight gain compromise their compliance with long-term prophylactic medication. So far there is no evidence that topiramate has anti-manic effect and it should not be used as monotherapy.

  10. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adoption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; Fernández-Perrone, Ana L; López-Arribas, Sonia; Pelaz-Antolín, Antonio; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. Se entiende por adopcion o filiacion adoptiva el acto juridico mediante el cual se crea un vinculo de parentesco entre dos personas, de tal forma que se establece entre ellas una relacion de paternidad o maternidad. Objetivos. Tratar de exponer los problemas derivados de la exposicion prenatal al alcohol y otros factores de riesgo, de la hipoestimulacion durante el 'periodo critico' en pacientes institucionalizados (especialmente aquellos adoptados de paises del este de Europa) y su relacion con el trastorno de deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH). Realizar una aproximacion al diagnostico, prevencion y tratamiento de estos problemas. Desarrollo. Estos niños presentan problemas de relacion psicosocial, problemas conductuales, retraso del desarrollo del lenguaje o de la lectura y, sobre todo, TDAH. Existe una enorme dificultad practica a la hora de separar ambos factores durante la evaluacion de niños adoptados de paises del este de Europa en las consultas de neuropediatria. La interrelacion de todos estos factores no es bien conocida. Conclusiones. Existe una intima relacion entre la exposicion prenatal al alcohol y las consecuencias de la adopcion. Se necesitan estudios aleatorizados controlados con placebo, con mayores muestras poblacionales, que comprueben el beneficio y perfil de efectos secundarios, tanto con psicoestimulantes como con la atomoxetina en este grupo de pacientes.

  11. Adenotonsillectomy and neurocognitive deficits in children with Sleep Disordered Breathing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Kohler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB is a common childhood disorder that encompasses a range of sleep-related upper airway obstruction. Children with SDB demonstrate significant neurocognitive deficits. Adenotonsillectomy is the first line of treatment for SDB and whilst this improves respiratory disturbance, it remains to be established whether neurocognitive gains also result. METHODS: A total of 44 healthy snoring children aged 3-12 years awaiting adenotonsillectomy (SDB group, and 48 age and gender matched non-snoring controls from the general community, completed the study. All children underwent polysomnography and neurocognitive assessment at baseline and after a 6-month follow-up (after surgery in the snoring group. Our primary aim was to determine whether neurocognitive deficits in snoring children were significantly improved following adenotonsillectomy. RESULTS: Wide ranging neurocognitive deficits were found at baseline in SDB children compared to controls, most notably a 10 point IQ difference (P<.001 and similar deficits in language and executive function. Whilst adenotonsillectomy improved respiratory parameters and snoring frequency at 6 months post surgery, neurocognitive performance did not improve relative to controls. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy successfully treated the respiratory effects of SDB in children. However, neurocognitive deficits did not improve 6-months post-operatively.

  12. Stimulant treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and risk of developing substance use disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman, Annabeth P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Franke, Barbara; Greven, Corina U.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Luman, Marjolein; Roeyers, Herbert; Oades, Robert D.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to increased risk for substance use disorders and nicotine dependence. Aims To examine the effects of stimulant treatment on subsequent risk for substance use disorder and nicotine dependence in a prospective longitudinal ADHD case

  13. Test of Alternative Hypotheses Explaining the Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Willcutt, Erik G.; Hartman, Christie A.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

    2008-01-01

    There is significant comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). The conclusions of studies that examined the causes of comorbidity between ADHD and CD conflict, with some researchers finding support for the three independent disorders model and others finding support for the correlated risk…

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  15. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  16. Test of Alternative Hypotheses Explaining the Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Willcutt, Erik G.; Hartman, Christie A.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

    2008-01-01

    There is significant comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). The conclusions of studies that examined the causes of comorbidity between ADHD and CD conflict, with some researchers finding support for the three independent disorders model and others finding support for the correlated risk…

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Erroneously Diagnosed and Treated as Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Ozler, Sinan; Topuz, Mehtap; Goldstein, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of literature on patients erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder. Method: The authors report a case of an adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder for 6 years. At that point, methylphenidate was initiated. The patient was judged to be a…

  18. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  19. Stimulant treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and risk of developing substance use disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman, A.P.; Oosterlaan, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Franke, B.; Greven, C.U.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Hartman, C.A.; Luman, M.; Roeyers, H.; Oades, R.D.; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Faraone, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to increased risk for substance use disorders and nicotine dependence. AIMS: To examine the effects of stimulant treatment on subsequent risk for substance use disorder and nicotine dependence in a prospective longitudinal ADHD ca

  20. [Psychopedagogical intervention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Mas, Luis; Ruiz-Andrés, Rosalía; Moreno-Madrid, Francisca; Herrero, Raquel; Suay, Enrique

    2013-09-06

    Introduccion. Los niños con trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) presentan alteraciones en los mecanismos atencionales y en los procesos de control inhibitorio (impulsividad e hiperactividad), que afectan de distinta manera a su rendimiento academico, socioemocional y conductual, por lo que es fundamental la consideracion de estrategias de intervencion en el ambito psicopedagogico que puedan incidir de forma favorable en el curso evolutivo de los afectados. Objetivo. Revisar las bases psicopedagogicas en la intervencion sobre el TDAH, considerando la relacion de la anatomia funcional con la sintomatologia clinica y los correspondientes programas de intervencion. Desarrollo. Se destacan los tres sindromes preferentes: orbitofrontal, dorsolateral y en el cingulo a nivel medial. Las fases de la intervencion psicopedagogica deben abarcar tanto al niño como a la familia y el colegio. El entrenamiento neurocognitivo se centra en el niño, basado en programas de entrenamiento de las funciones ejecutivas y en las actuaciones sobre el ambito academico, conductual y socioafectivo. Los programas de modificacion de conducta son complementarios y en muchas ocasiones mejoran el comportamiento comprometido en los niños con TDAH. Las orientaciones psicopedagogicas en la escuela deben considerarse necesarias para una intervencion eficaz en el entorno academico. Conclusiones. La intervencion psicopedagogica de los niños con TDAH debe contemplar la individualizacion del tratamiento dentro de una metodologia multidisciplinar, teniendo en cuenta todos los contextos en los que se desarrolla el niño, su rendimiento cognitivo y las intervenciones farmacologicas apropiadas en cada caso.

  1. Motor Timing Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelaznik, Howard N.; Vaughn, Aaron J.; Green, John T.; Smith, Alan L.; Hoza, Betsy; Linnea, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are thought to have fundamental deficits in the allocation of attention for information processing. Furthermore, it is believed that these children possess a fundamental difficulty in motoric timing, an assertion that has been explored recently in adults and children. In the present study we extend this recent work by fully exploring the classic Wing and Kristofferson (1973) analysis of timing with typically developing children (n = 24) and children with ADHD (n = 27). We provide clear evidence that not only do children with ADHD have an overall timing deficit, they also time less consistently when using a similar strategy to typically developing children. The use of the Wing and Kristofferson approach to timing, we argue, will result in the discovery of robust ADHD-related timing differences across a variety of situations. PMID:21852012

  2. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  3. Right hemisphere dysfunction in subjects with attention-deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, C; Estévez-González, A; Suárez-Romero, E; Junqué, C

    1997-02-01

    The attention-deficit disorder, with and without hyperactivity, is associated with defective attention, response inhibition and, in attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity, with motor restlessness. In adults, inattention, defective response inhibition, and impersistence are more commonly seen in right hemisphere lesions. In the present study, we investigate possible right hemisphere dysfunctions in attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity and attention-deficit disorder without hyperactivity. The right hemisphere performance of 60 teenagers, 16 having attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity, 9 having attention-deficit disorder without hyperactivity, and 35 controls, selected clinically (DSM-III) and experimentally (through Continuous Performance Test and Paced Auditory Addition Task), with normal IQ was assessed using a wide-ranging battery of visuospatial, visuoperceptive, and visuoconstructive functions (Benton's Line Orientation, Benton's Visual Retention, Raven's Progressive Matrices, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale [WAIS] Block-Design, Rey's Complex Figure). Teenagers with attention-deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity performed significantly worse than controls. Greater differences were found between subjects with attention-deficit disorder without hyperactivity and control than between subjects with attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity and control subjects. Our results seem to be consistent with right-hemisphere dysfunction, especially in subjects with attention-deficit disorder without hyperactivity. Additionally, WAIS Block-Design and Benton's Line Orientation are the visuospatial tests with the highest discriminant power to differentiate between controls, subjects with attention-deficit disorder without hyperactivity, and subjects with attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity.

  4. Helping Children and Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Systems of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Human Services. Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder www.chadd.org Tel: 301.306.7070 Federation ... information, contact: 4 Helping Children and Youth With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Systems of Care Attention -Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder Helping ...

  5. Metacognition deficits as a risk factor for prospective motivation deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; Minor, Kyle S; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Benjamin; Buck, Kelly D; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-11-30

    Although motivation deficits are key determinants of functional outcomes, little is known about factors that contribute to prospective motivation in people with schizophrenia. One candidate factor is metacognition, or the ability to form complex representations about oneself, others, and the world. This study aimed to assess whether metacognition deficits were a significant predictor of reduced prospective motivation, after controlling for the effects of baseline motivation, anticipatory pleasure, and antipsychotic medication dose. Fifty-one participants with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder completed measures of metacognition and anticipatory pleasure at baseline; participants also completed a measure of motivation at baseline and six months after the initial assessment. Baseline antipsychotic dose was obtained from medical charts. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that lower levels of baseline metacognition significantly predicted reduced levels of motivation assessed six months later, after controlling for baseline levels of motivation, anticipatory pleasure, and antipsychotic dose. Higher baseline antipsychotic dose was also a significant predictor of reduced six month motivation. Results suggest that metacognition deficits and higher antipsychotic dose may be risk factors for the development of motivation deficits in schizophrenia. Implications include utilizing interventions to improve metacognition in conjunction with evaluating and possibly lowering antipsychotic dose for people struggling with motivation deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Melatonin effects on sleep disorders in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahremand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. Around 25-50% of these children suffered from some kind of sleep disorder especially with chronic form of insomnia. The physicians usually have a plan for improving hyperactivity and attention deficit of this disease but unfortunately, they forget to manage the sleep disorders, which are a major part of patients’ problems.Nowadays, we know that there is a noticeable relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep disorders and by improving these children's sleep, not only the daily functions improve, but also the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  maybe become better. Thus, it is needed to avoid the administration of psychostimulants, which have recognized side effects. Moreover, having better sleep, we will see a better relationship between children and their parents and finally a rise in the standard of life of family members, which is a very important goal in our treatment. This review article evaluates available evidence on sleep medication in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to present an appropriate guidance for this high prevalence problem.

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the behavior of "Che" Guevara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Zavala, Jorge A; Munhoz, Renato P; Lara, Diogo R; Lima, Pedro; Palmini, André

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD is related to several co-morbidities, such as opposition defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mood and anxiety disturbances, as well as tics and Tourette's syndrome. The objective of this report is to shed an alternative light on the personality of Ernesto "Che" Guevara, discussing whether he might have had ADHD. Several published biographies of Che Guevara were reviewed. Established ADHD criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), were used as a framework to evaluate Che's behaviour. In addition, we compared the main features of Che's reported behaviour to the set of abnormalities leading to the diagnosis of ADHD in adults proposed by Wender and colleagues and known as the UTAH ADHD criteria. Analysis of the most renowned biographies of Ernesto "Che" Guevara suggests that he may have had ADHD.

  8. Suicidal behaviours in affective disorders: a deficit of cognitive inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Gorwood, Philip; Annweiler, Cédric; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Le Gall, Didier; Beauchet, Olivier

    2012-04-01

    Suicide has been related to affective disorders. We hypothesized that suicide could be associated with cognitive inhibition deficit. Our study aimed to systematically review all published articles that examined the relation between cognitive inhibition deficit and suicidal behaviours (that is, suicide attempt or suicidal ideation) in patients with affective disorders. We performed an English and French MEDLINE and EMBASE search, ranging from 1970 to 2010, indexed under the MeSH terms of suicide, neuropsychology, neuropsychological tests, and executive function, combined with the following title and abstract terms: neuropsychological functions, executive functioning, and executive performance. Among the 164 selected studies, 9 observational studies met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. The number of participants ranged from 57 to 244 (28% to 66%, respectively, were men). Executive dysfunction was more frequently found among patients with suicidal behaviours. In particular, higher cognitive inhibition deficit was observed in depressed subjects with suicide behaviours, compared with depressed subjects without any suicidal behaviour. The results of the meta-analysis showed a higher impairment in inhibition score, according to the number of perseverations in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Cohen d = 0.68) than in inhibition according to the time needed to perform the Trail-Making Test part B (d = 0.01) among patients with suicidal behaviour, compared with patients with no suicidal behaviour. This systematic review and meta-analysis showed a positive association between cognitive inhibition deficit and suicide attempts in patients with affective disorders. Future research should examine whether cognitive inhibition deficit precedes the suicidal behaviour.

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Kevin Nugent,1 Wallace Smart2,3 1Kinark Child and Family Services, Trent University and Sir Sanford Fleming College, Peterborough, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 3University of Lethbridge Health Centre, Lethbridge, AB, Canada Abstract: A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determ...

  10. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    of disturbances in the perception of time, temporal processing (eg, delay aversion), and stimulus seeking associated with ADHD. Disrupted connections between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex may contribute to behavioral disinhibition. Our findings suggest involvement of the limbic system......CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...

  11. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicide: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Judit; Kereszteny, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate suicidality and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this paper aims to systematically review the literature as an extension of previous reviews. METHODS We searched five databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Psychinfo, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) with two categories of search terms: (1) suicide; suicidal; suicide behavior; suicide attempt; suicidal thought; and (2) ADHD. RESULTS The search resulted 26 articles. There is a positive association between ADHD and suicidality in both sexes and in all age groups. Comorbid disorders mediate between suicidality and ADHD. CONCLUSION Recognizing ADHD, comorbid conditions and suicidality is important in prevention. PMID:28401048

  12. MAKING SENSE OF ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Lensch, Carol

    1998-01-01

    In recent years there has been a notable increase in the number of students being identified with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in American schools. Although there is a tremendous amount of research being done in the area of AD/HD, parents, educators and individuals with AD/HD are ill-equipped to deal with the demands of the disorder. Only through extensive research and a better understanding of what AD/HD is can we expect to develop more effective mean...

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-19

    Jun 19, 2009 ... aspects of this disorder, including its diagnosis, co-morbidities, longitudinal .... narcissistic personality constructs may also present with an inflated self-esteem ... of time and are often ultraradian (multiple cycles occurring within.

  14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in imprisoned individuals--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein

    2011-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders with lifelong impact of the affected individuals. It is usually co-morbid with other psychiatric disorders. This paper aims to review current knowledge about ADHD in imprisoned individuals. The rate of ADHD in prisoners ranges from 10% to 70% and it has been suggested that ADHD, even without co-morbidity with conduct disorder, is a risk factor for imprisonment. Based on these findings, it may be wise to include the assessment of ADHD symptoms in all adult and adolescent prisoners. This is while available psychiatric resources for the adequate management of ADHD in prisoners are limited. Most of current knowledge on the topic comes from western countries. There is an urgent need for studies that will explore the effect of other cultures on the interactions between ADHD and imprisonment, especially in developing countries worldwide. At this point, ADHD seems to be an ignored research area in developing countries.

  15. Temperament and character as endophenotype in adults with autism spectrum disorders or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, B.B.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Brink, W. van den

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  16. Temperament and Character as Endophenotype in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Bram B.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in cognitive and brain domains. They found that…

  17. Temperament and Character as Endophenotype in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Bram B.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in cognitive and brain domains. They found that…

  18. Discrimination between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Reactive Attachment Disorder in School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follan, Michael; Anderson, Seonaid; Huline-Dickens, Sarah; Lidstone, Emma; Young, David; Brown, Gordon; Minnis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether it is possible to discriminate between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) using standardized assessment tools for RAD. The study involved 107 children: 38 with a diagnosis of RAD and 30 with ADHD were recruited through community child and…

  19. Having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorder: A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eich, D.; Figner, B.

    2005-01-01

    The co-occurence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) is a relatively new topic in the field of psychiatric comorbidity. Accordingly, the ADHD syndrome is a relatively new diagnostic category: the category was first introduced in ICD-8 (1968) [1] as

  20. Fine Motor Skills in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The manual dexterity subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and handwriting and computerized graphomotor tasks were used to investigate motor skills of a group of 12 children (11 males, 1 female; mean age 9 years 7 months with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD and 12 controls at University Medical Centre Groningen, the Netherlands.

  1. Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Future Substance Use Disorders: Comparative Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charach, Alice; Yeung, Emanuela; Climans, Troy; Lillie, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In recent years cohort studies have examined childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence and young adulthood. The long-term risk is estimated for development of alcohol, cannabis, combined alcohol and psychoactive SUDs, combined SUDs (nonalcohol), and…

  2. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  3. Emotional Face Identification in Youths with Primary Bipolar Disorder or Primary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Young, Matthew; Dickstein, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid or confounded; therefore, we evaluated emotional face identification to better understand brain/behavior interactions in children and adolescents with either primary BD, primary ADHD, or typically developing controls (TDC). Method: Participants…

  4. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  5. Emotional Face Identification in Youths with Primary Bipolar Disorder or Primary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Young, Matthew; Dickstein, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid or confounded; therefore, we evaluated emotional face identification to better understand brain/behavior interactions in children and adolescents with either primary BD, primary ADHD, or typically developing controls (TDC). Method: Participants…

  6. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  7. Speech-Sound Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Short, Elizabeth J.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Freebairn, Lisa; Tag, Jessica; Avrich, Allison A.; Stein, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of speech-sound disorders (SSD) with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the severity of the SSD and the mode of transmission of SSD within the pedigrees of children with SSD. Participants and Methods: The participants were 412 children who were enrolled…

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A review for family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande Sunil

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic behavioral disorder characterized by persistent hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention that impairs educational achievement and/or social functioning. Its diagnosis is made by ascertaining whether the child′s specific behaviors meet the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-revised criteria. Its etiology is still unclear but recent studies suggest that genetics plays a major role in conferring susceptibility. Comorbidity with psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorder, depression, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder; and with specific learning disability is not uncommon. Although medication works well in most cases of ADHD, optimal treatment requires integrated medical and behavioral treatment. Methylphenidate (MPH and atomoxetine are the two drugs being currently prescribed and their efficacy in decreasing the symptoms of ADHD is well documented. Pyschoeducational interventions in school can help increase the successful functioning of affected children and improve their academic performance. Almost half of affected children continue to show significant symptoms of the disorder into adolescence and young adulthood. The family physician can play an important role in detecting this condition early, coordinating its assessment and treatment, counseling the parents and classroom teacher, and monitoring the child′s academic and psychosocial progress on a long-term basis.

  9. Neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome in bipolar disorder with psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueda S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Ueda,1 Takeshi Sakayori,1 Ataru Omori,2 Hajime Fukuta,3 Takashi Kobayashi,3 Kousuke Ishizaka,1 Tomoyuki Saijo,4 Yoshiro Okubo1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; 2Tamachuo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 3Kurumegaoka Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 4Saijo Clinic, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Neuroleptics can induce not only physical adverse effects but also mental effects that produce deficit status in thought, affect, cognition, and behavior. This condition is known as neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS, which includes apathy, lack of initiative, anhedonia, indifference, blunted affect, and reduced insight into disease. Although this old concept now appears almost forgotten, neuroleptics, whether typical or atypical, can make depression or bipolar disorder resemble other more refractory conditions, readily leading to mistaken diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. The authors describe three cases of NIDS superimposed on depressive phase in bipolar disorder with psychosis, where the attending psychiatrist’s failure to recognize NIDS prevented patients from receiving effective treatment and achieving remission. All cases achieved remission after reduction of neuroleptics and intensive therapy, including electroconvulsive therapy, for bipolar depression. The concept of NIDS was originally introduced for schizophrenia, and it has rarely been highlighted in other diseases. In recent years, however, atypical antipsychotics are being more often administered to patients with bipolar disorder. Psychiatrists, therefore, should also remember and exercise caution regarding NIDS in the pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder with and without psychosis. The authors believe that the concept of NIDS needs to be reappraised in current psychiatry. Keywords: neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS, bipolar disorder, psychosis, atypical antipsychotics, electroconvulsive therapy

  10. A Genetic Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Reading Disability: Aetiological Overlaps and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence; Pieka, Jan; Hay, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occurs with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Reading Disability. Twin studies are an important approach to understanding and modelling potential causes of such comorbidity. Univariate and bivariate genetic models were fitted to maternal report data from 2040 families of…

  11. Double-blind, randomized sham controlled study of deep-TMS add-on treatment for negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabany, Liron; Deutsch, Lisa; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-07-01

    Negative symptoms and cognitive deficits are considered core symptoms of schizophrenia, yet treatment for them remains inadequate. Deep-transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a novel technology that enables non-invasive stimulation of deep layers of the prefrontal cortex. Preliminary evidence suggests that deep-TMS could be effective in the treatment of negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The current study is the first double-blind, randomized sham-controlled study to examine the feasibility of deep-TMS add-on treatment for negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Twenty daily H1 deep-TMS treatments (20Hz, 120% MT) were delivered, in a double-blind, randomized sham-controlled design (n=30). Extensive clinical and cognitive assessments were carried out throughout the study and for an additional one month follow-up period. The results indicate that at the end of the treatment period, negative symptoms (as indicated by the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS)) significantly reduced in the TMS group (-7.7), but not in the sham group (-1.9). Differences between the groups were not statistically significant.

  12. Prevalence of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Amani; Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Langley, Kate; Thapar, Anita

    2011-03-01

    Some research suggests that children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a higher than expected risk of bipolar affective disorder. No study has examined the prevalence of bipolar disorder in a UK sample of children with ADHD. To examine the prevalence of bipolar disorder in children diagnosed with ADHD or hyperkinetic disorder. Psychopathology symptoms and diagnoses of bipolar disorder were assessed in 200 young people with ADHD (170 male, 30 female; age 6-18 years, mean 11.15, s.d. = 2.95). Rates of current bipolar disorder symptoms and diagnoses are reported. A family history of bipolar disorder in parents and siblings was also recorded. Only one child, a 9-year-old boy, met diagnostic criteria for both ICD-10 hypomania and DSM-IV bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. In a UK sample of children with ADHD a current diagnosis of bipolar disorder was uncommon.

  13. [Attention deficit - hyperactivity disorder and enuresis in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadenko, N N; Kolobova, N M; Suvorinova, N Iu

    2010-01-01

    Frequency of comorbid disorders and neuropsychological state, executive functions (EF), were studied in two groups of patients aged from 5 to 14 years: 53 patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the association with enuresis and 71 patients with ADHD without enuresis. The most cases of enuresis (50 out of 53 patients) were represented by primary nocturnal enuresis. The significant increase of total number of ADHD cases with comorbidity for oppositional-defiant disorder, anxiety disorder, tics or encopresis (77.7%) was found in the first group compared to the second one (60.6%). The presence of enuresis in ADHD was associated with the significant increase of frequency of anxiety disorders (54.7% versus 39.4%). Moreover, in the group of patients with ADHD and enuresis, the frequency of oppositional-defiant disorder and encopresis was higher in the age of 5-9 years while the frequency of obsessive-compulsive disorder and tics increased in the period of 10-14 years as compared to patients without enuresis. The assessment of executive functions with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test did not reveal any differences between patients of two groups.

  14. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R; Taylor, Michele M; Shalat, Stuart L; Guillot, Thomas S; Caudle, W Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M; Mathews, Tiffany A; Jones, Sara R; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Miller, Gary W

    2015-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8-12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6-15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.

  15. Parental perceptions of academic performance and attainment of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Wei, Tianlan; Parker, Sonia L; Attai, Shanna L

    2013-07-01

    We examined parental perceptions of academic performance and attainment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to both parent and child gender along with the interaction of parent and child gender. The current study adds to the body of research by examining the perceptions of parents of children with ADHD according to both parent and child gender. The results indicate that fathers, on the whole, seemed less likely to consider ADHD to have negative academic implications for their children as compared with mothers. With regard to child gender, the fathers seemed less likely to consider ADHD to have negative academic implications for their sons over their daughters. The results suggest that interventions for parents of children with ADHD should be targeted to fathers with sons with ADHD.

  16. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and telemental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Nancy B; Myers, Kathleen M; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCarty, Carolyn A; Geyer, John R; Desalvo, Amy

    2010-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders diagnosed in children and adolescents (youth). ADHD is equally distributed geographically, but services are not. Access to expert evaluation and treatment remains limited for youth with ADHD living in rural areas, as well as for ethnic and racial minority youth. Telepsychiatry is a service delivery model with the potential to reach these youth and to develop collaborative models of care among local primary care physicians, remote telepsychiatrists, and local families. Care delivered through telepsychiatry can readily adhere to the practice parameters of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Work to date indicates that ADHD is the most common disorder treated through telepsychiatry. This article reviews the status of child and adolescent telepsychiatry, with particular focus on its potential to improve the care and outcomes of underserved populations of youth diagnosed with ADHD.

  17. Addiction in developmental perspective: influence of conduct disorder severity, subtype, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on problem severity and comorbidity in adults with opioid dependence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, P.J.; Knapen, L.J.; Gogh, M.T. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study examines whether conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are associated with problem severity and psychiatric comorbidity in 193 middle-aged, opioid-dependent patients. Conduct disorder history, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,

  18. Addiction in developmental perspective: influence of conduct disorder severity, subtype, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on problem severity and comorbidity in adults with opioid dependence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, P.J.; Knapen, L.J.; Gogh, M.T. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study examines whether conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are associated with problem severity and psychiatric comorbidity in 193 middle-aged, opioid-dependent patients. Conduct disorder history, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,

  19. Contraction of time in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilden, David L; Marusich, Laura R

    2009-03-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with anomalies in dopamine systems. Recent advances in the understanding of the core cognitive deficits in ADHD suggest that dopamine dysfunction might be expressed through shortened time scales in reward-based learning. Here this perspective is extended by the conjecture that temporal span in working memory systems might generally be shortened. As a test of this conjecture the authors focus on the implicit memory system involved in rhythmic movement, assessing the minimum tempo at which rhythmic feeling can be sustained in adults with diagnosed ADHD and in a control group of normal adults. The authors found that people with ADHD do in fact have a rhythm cut-off that is faster in tempo than those without ADHD. This finding is consistent with the idea that impaired dopamine dynamics have systemic consequences for cognitive function, essentially recalibrating the clock that sets the time scale for the subjective experience of temporal events.

  20. [Developmental coordination disorder: relations between deficits in movement and cognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Julia; Petermann, F

    2010-01-01

    Different studies confirm that children with developmental coordination disorders (DCD) feature additionally cognitive deficits in areas of visual perception, memory and processing speed. The aim of the present study was to explore, whether or not children suffering from DCD have specific performance profiles in the WISC-IV. For this purpose, the WISC-IV results of 40 children with DCD (diagnosed using the Movement ABC-2), mean age 7,60, were compared with a control group matched according to age und gender. The children in the clinical group offered a homogenous performance profile, scoring below average in each of the four indices (verbal comprehension, perception reasoning, working memory and processing speed) and general IQ. Therefore, in clinical practice the WISC-IV is an appropriate instrument to detect cognitive deficits that can appear in conjunction with DCD.

  1. Effects of erythropoietin on depressive symptoms and neurocognitive deficits in depression and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulson Olaf B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and bipolar disorder are associated with reduced neural plasticity and deficits in memory, attention and executive function. Drug treatments for these affective disorders have insufficient clinical effects in a large group and fail to reverse cognitive deficits. There is thus a need for more effective treatments which aid cognitive function. Erythropoietin (Epo is involved in neuroplasticity and is a candidate for future treatment of affective disorders. The investigators have demonstrated that a single dose of Epo improves cognitive function and reduces neurocognitive processing of negative emotional information in healthy and depressed individuals similar to effects seen with conventional antidepressants. The current study adds to the previous findings by investigating whether repeated Epo administration has antidepressant effects in patients with treatment resistant depression and reverses cognitive impairments in these patients and in patients with bipolar disorder in remission. Methods/design The trial has a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. 40 patients with treatment-resistant major depression and 40 patients with bipolar disorder in remission are recruited and randomised to receive weekly infusions of Epo (Eprex; 40,000 IU or saline (NaCl 0.9% for 8 weeks. Randomisation is stratified for age and gender. The primary outcome parameters for the two studies are: depression severity measured with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17 items (HDRS-17 1 in study 1 and, in study 2, verbal memory measured with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT 23. With inclusion of 40 patients in each study we obtain 86% power to detect clinically relevant differences between intervention and placebo groups on these primary outcomes. Trial registration The trial is approved by the Local Ethics Committee: H-C-2008-092, Danish Medicines Agency: 2612-4020, EudraCT: 2008-04857-14, Danish Data Agency

  2. Socio-emotional intervention in attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Cardoso-Moreno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neuro-behavioural disorder with onset in childhood. These children have impaired emotional self-control, self-regulation of drive and motivation. Numerous studies have reported cognitive disabilities in memory, executive functions, spatial abilities and language skills. The main objective of this work is to determine whether a socio-emotional intervention programme could improve executive functions in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The sample of this study consisted of 25 children (8 female and 17 male aged between 8 and 12 years, diagnosed with ADHD and who were not taking any psychopharmacological treatment at the time of the study, and had not taken medication previously. Executive functioning was assessed through the Zoo Map test and Tower of Hanoi puzzle in pre-/post-test design. A socio-emotional intervention programme was implemented. The training consisted of 8 one-hour weekly sessions, on an individual basis. Results indicate that such a programme does lead to improved performance in the execution of tasks that evaluate executive functions. After the intervention, the children took less time to resolve the Zoo Map test. Results for the Hanoi Tower puzzle were also improved after intervention. The children needed a lower number of movements to complete the task.

  3. [Prognostic heterogeneity of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slachevsky Ch, Andrea; Pérez J, Carolina; Silva, Jaime R; Ruiz-Tagle, Amparo; Mayol, Rocío; Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; Núñez-Huasaf, Javier

    2012-03-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by an onset in early life. More than 65% of patients persist with manifestations of ADHD in adulthood. These symptoms may interfere in activities of daily-living, interpersonal relationships and professional and academic achievement. Nevertheless, the observation of an important group of adults with ADHD who do not show significant difficulties in the areas mentioned before puts into evidence the prognostic heterogeneity of this disorder. One of the current, most accepted explanations is the Double-Pathway Model: two double-dissociated deficits (Executive Disorders and Delayed-Reward Processing impairments) are involved in the genesis of ADHD, which explains the existence of different behavioral phenotypes. Moreover, personality traits like tenacity or perseverance are associated with higher levels of achievement in adults. On these grounds, we propose the hypothesis that the neurobiological correlate of tenacity/perseverance is a preserved Delayed-Reward Processing capacity, although further studies are needed to verify this idea.

  4. Abnormal amygdala functional connectivity associated with emotional lability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulvershorn, L.A.; Mennes, M.; Castellanos, F.X.; Martino, A. Di; Milham, M.P.; Hummer, T.A.; Roy, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A substantial proportion of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also display emotion regulation deficits manifesting as chronic irritability, severe temper outbursts, and aggression. The amygdala is implicated in emotion regulation, but its connectivity and relat

  5. Association between Severity of Behavioral Phenotype and Comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Patricia A.; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association," 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity…

  6. Executive Functioning Differences between Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Initiation, Planning and Strategy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramham, Jessica; Ambery, Fiona; Young, Susan; Morris, Robin; Russell, Ailsa; Xenitidis, Kiriakos; Asherson, Philip; Murphy, Declan

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning deficits characterize the neuropsychological profiles of the childhood neurodevelopmental disorders of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This study sought to determine whether similar impairments exist in adults with ADHD (N = 53) and ASD (N = 45) in comparison with a…

  7. Association between childhood dimensions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adulthood clinical severity of bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etain, Bruno; Lajnef, M; Loftus, J; Henry, C; Raust, A; Gard, S; Kahn, J P; Leboyer, M; Scott, J; Bellivier, F

    2017-04-01

    Clinical features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be frequently observed in cases with bipolar disorders and associated with greater severity of bipolar disorders. Although designed as a screening tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Wender Utah Rating Scale could, given its factorial structure, be useful in investigating the early history of impulsive, inattentive or mood-related symptoms among patients with bipolar disorders. We rated the Wender Utah Rating Scale in 276 adult bipolar disorder cases and 228 healthy controls and tested its factorial structure and any associations with bipolar disorder phenomenology. We confirmed a three-factor structure for the Wender Utah Rating Scale (' impulsivity/temper', ' inattentiveness' and ' mood/self-esteem'). Cases and controls differed significantly on Wender Utah Rating Scale total score and sub-scale scores ( p-values bipolar disorder cases versus 5% of controls were classified as ' WURS positive' (odds ratio = 5.21 [2.73-9.95]). In bipolar disorders, higher Wender Utah Rating Scale score was associated with earlier age at onset, severity of suicidal behaviors and polysubstance misuse; multivariate analyses, controlling for age and gender, confirmed the associations with age at onset ( p = 0.001) and alcohol and substance misuse ( p = 0.001). Adults with bipolar disorders who reported higher levels of childhood symptoms on the Wender Utah Rating Scale presented a more severe expression of bipolar disorders in terms of age at onset and comorbidity. The Wender Utah Rating Scale could be employed to screen for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder but also for ' at-risk behaviors' in adult bipolar disorder cases and possibly for prodromal signs of early onset in high-risk subjects.

  8. [Motor coordination function of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Cheng, Jia; Wang, Yu-feng

    2007-06-18

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are both childhood disorders identified in the DSM-IV. Studies investigating ADHD have found that around half of ADHD cases also have motor problems severe enough to be diagnosed as DCD. Further, children initially diagnosed as DCD have also been found to meet moderate to severe diagnosis for ADHD. Both disorders have been linked to a lot of psychosocial problems. Furthermore, when ADHD and DCD are co-morbid, the outcome tends to be more severe than when either disorder occurs alone. In the past decade, many studies identified shown that ADHD children experienced difficulties with both fine motor movements and gross motor movements. Notably, most of these foregoing studies found balance functions of ADHD were impaired. In order to maintain balance under a verity of environmental conditions, sensory information from somatosensory, visual, and vestibular origins must be integrated by the central nervous system. But there are rich evidences suggesting that children with ADHD can not organize the motor information effectively. The maintenance and control of posture and balance, whether in static or dynamic conditions, are essential requirements for daily activity. The balance function has been closely associated not only with both gross motor movements, such as sitting, standing, walking and fine motor movements, but also with human behaviors. There are increasing evidences suggesting that balance deficit correlates with symptoms of ADHD. Therefore, motor coordination difficulties co-occurring with ADHD should be given emphasis in clinical practice; the training of balance may be one of the possible methods to improve the motor coordination function in ADHD children.

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids decreased irritability of patients with bipolar disorder in an add-on, open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassano Claudia F

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report on a 37-patient continuation study of the open ended, Omega-3 Fatty Acid (O-3FA add-on study. Subjects consisted of the original 19 patients, along with 18 new patients recruited and followed in the same fashion as the first nineteen. Subjects carried a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder and were visiting a Mood Disorder Clinic regularly through the length of the study. At each visit, patients' clinical status was monitored using the Clinical Monitoring Form. Subjects reported on the frequency and severity of irritability experienced during the preceding ten days; frequency was measured by way of percentage of days in which subjects experienced irritability, while severity of that irritability was rated on a Likert scale of 1 – 4 (if present. The irritability component of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS was also recorded quarterly on 13 of the 39 patients consistently. Patients had persistent irritability despite their ongoing pharmacologic and psychotherapy. Omega-3 Fatty Acid intake helped with the irritability component of patients suffering from bipolar disorder with a significant presenting sign of irritability. Low dose (1 to 2 grams per day, add-on O-3FA may also help with the irritability component of different clinical conditions, such as schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and other psychiatric conditions with a common presenting sign of irritability.

  10. Drug holidays and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher P. SZABO

    2011-01-01

    The concept of ‘drug holidays’ (defined as "...the structured interruption of pharmacological treatment..."[1]) in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established,but poorly researched[1].The question is whether there is indeed a justifiable basis for the practice.In the opinion piece by Professors Du and Wang[2],they argue that on the balance of available evidence it is not justified.Herein lies the issue-the evidence.In reality significant numbers of parents both report side effects[3] and stop medication intermittently[1],and many sufferers stop treatment prematurely[4] (generally due to adverse effects).

  11. The nursing student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Martha J; Salzer, Judith Schurr

    2003-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in college-age students presents a complex challenge of coping with academic coursework, refining life skills, and addressing self-limitations. Behaviors that characterize ADHD are particularly problematic for nursing students, especially when the student has difficulty with behaviors that exemplify executive functioning. The authors discuss symptoms and treatments associated with the diagnosis of ADHD and evaluation and interventions for college students, based on guidelines from the Americans With Disabilities Act. Nursing faculty can facilitate academic success by recognizing the problem in nursing students and implementing strategies useful for self-management of ADHD.

  12. No objectively measured sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, Catharina E; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to gain more insight into sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, using objective measures of sleep quality and quantity. The evidence for sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder thus far is inconsistent, which might be explained by confounding influences of comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems and low socio-economic status. We therefore investigated the mediating and moderating role of these factors in the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep problems. To control for the effects of stimulant medication use, all participants were tested free of medication. Sixty-three children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 61 typically developing children, aged 6-13 years, participated. Sleep was monitored for one to three school nights using actigraphy. Parent and teacher questionnaires assessed symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, internalizing behaviour, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Results showed no differences between the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing group in any sleep parameter. Within the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was not related to sleep quality or quantity. Moderation analyses in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group showed an interaction effect between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and internalizing and externalizing behaviour on total sleep time, time in bed and average sleep bout duration. The results of our study suggest that having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not a risk factor for sleep problems. Internalizing and externalizing behaviour moderate the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep, indicating a complex interplay between psychiatric symptoms and sleep.

  13. Personality Disorder in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Attrition and Change During Long-term Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, Thomas E; Reimherr, Frederick W; Marchant, Barrie K; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2016-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are commonly found in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are associated with increased ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. To assess the impact of PDs or personality traits on retention rates in ADHD trials and whether treating ADHD affects the expression of PD, data were analyzed from 2 methylphenidate trials. Assessment of PDs and personality traits included using the Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Personality Disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were evaluated using the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale. Major findings were that subjects with cluster A, cluster B, passive-aggressive, or more than 1 PD showed more attrition. Subjects dropping out also had more schizoid and narcissistic traits. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (p Disorders Inventory IV items that improved most, 8 resembled ADHD or oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

  14. Sensorimotor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: Programming and execution deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Zazo Ortiz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Dysfunction in the basal ganglia circuits is a determining factor in the physiopathology of the classic signs of Parkinson's disease (PD and hypokinetic dysarthria is commonly related to PD. Regarding speech disorders associated with PD, the latest four-level framework of speech complicates the traditional view of dysarthria as a motor execution disorder. Based on findings that dysfunctions in basal ganglia can cause speech disorders, and on the premise that the speech deficits seen in PD are not related to an execution motor disorder alone but also to a disorder at the motor programming level, the main objective of this study was to investigate the presence of sensorimotor disorders of programming (besides the execution disorders previously described in PD patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 60 adults matched for gender, age and education: 30 adult patients diagnosed with idiopathic PD (PDG and 30 healthy adults (CG. All types of articulation errors were reanalyzed to investigate the nature of these errors. Interjections, hesitations and repetitions of words or sentences (during discourse were considered typical disfluencies; blocking, episodes of palilalia (words or syllables were analyzed as atypical disfluencies. We analysed features including successive self-initiated trial, phoneme distortions, self-correction, repetition of sounds and syllables, prolonged movement transitions, additions or omissions of sounds and syllables, in order to identify programming and/or execution failures. Orofacial agility was also investigated. Results: The PDG had worse performance on all sensorimotor speech tasks. All PD patients had hypokinetic dysarthria. Conclusion: The clinical characteristics found suggest both execution and programming sensorimotor speech disorders in PD patients.

  15. Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Cognitive Deficits and Affective Disorder in Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark I. Ransome

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a tandem repeat expansion encoding a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. HD involves progressive psychiatric, cognitive, and motor symptoms, the selective pathogenesis of which remains to be mechanistically elucidated. There are a range of different brain regions, including the cerebral cortex and striatum, known to be affected in HD, with evidence for hippocampal dysfunction accumulating in recent years. In this review we will focus on hippocampal abnormalities, in particular, deficits of adult neurogenesis. We will discuss potential molecular mechanisms mediating disrupted hippocampal neurogenesis, and how this deficit of cellular plasticity may in turn contribute to specific cognitive and affective symptoms that are prominent in HD. The generation of transgenic animal models of HD has greatly facilitated our understanding of disease mechanisms at molecular, cellular, and systems levels. Transgenic HD mice have been found to show progressive behavioral changes, including affective, cognitive, and motor abnormalities. The discovery, in multiple transgenic lines of HD mice, that adult hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity is disrupted, may help explain specific aspects of cognitive and affective dysfunction. Furthermore, these mouse models have provided insight into potential molecular mediators of adult neurogenesis deficits, such as disrupted serotonergic and neurotrophin signaling. Finally, a number of environmental and pharmacological interventions which are known to enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been found to have beneficial affective and cognitive effects in mouse models, suggesting common molecular targets which may have therapeutic utility for HD and related diseases.

  16. The Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in Children and Arabic Speech Sound Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruaa Osama Hariri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with Attention-Deficiency/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD often have co-existing learning disabilities and developmental weaknesses or delays in some areas including speech (Rief, 2005. Seeing that phonological disorders include articulation errors and other forms of speech disorders, studies pertaining to children with ADHD symptoms who demonstrate signs of phonological disorders in their native Arabic language are lacking. The purpose of this study is to provide a description of Arabic language deficits and to present a theoretical model of potential associations between phonological language deficits and ADHD. Dodd and McCormack’s (1995 four subgroups classification of speech disorder and the phonological disorders pertaining to the Arabic language provided by a Saudi Institute for Speech and Hearing are examined within the theoretical framework. Since intervention may improve articulation and focuses a child’s attention on the sound structure of words, findings in this study are based on the assumption that children with ADHD may acquire phonology for their Arabic language in the same way, and following the same developmental stages as intelligible children. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses have proven that the ADHD group analyzed in this study had indeed failed to acquire most of their Arabic consonants as they should have. Keywords: speech sound disorder, attention-deficiency/hyperactive, developmental disorder, phonological disorder, language disorder/delay, language impairment

  17. Drug therapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash De Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a developmental disorder with an age onset prior to 7 years. Children with ADHD have significantly lower ability to focus and sustain attention and also score higher on impulsivity and hyperactivity. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate, have remained the mainstay of ADHD treatment for decades with evidence supporting their use. However, recent years have seen emergence of newer drugs and drug delivery systems, like osmotic release oral systems and transdermal patches, to mention a few. The use of nonstimulant drugs like atomoxetine and various other drugs, such as a-agonists, and a few antidepressants, being used in an off-label manner, have added to the pharmacotherapy of ADHD. This review discusses current trends in drug therapy of ADHD and highlights the promise pharmacogenomics may hold in the future.

  18. Internet Addiction and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Yaacov, Yafa; Manning, Michal; Danon, Pinhas; Weizman, Abraham

    2015-12-01

    Use of the internet and videogames by children and adolescents has risen dramatically over the last decade. Increasing evidence of internet and videogame addiction among children is causing concern due to its harmful physical, emotional and social consequences. There is also emerging evidence for an association between computer and videogame addiction and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To investigate the relationship between ADHD and internet addiction. We compared 50 male schoolchildren, mean age 13 years, diagnosed with ADHD to 50 male schoolchildren without ADHD on measures of internet addiction, internet use and sleep patterns. Children with ADHD had higher scores on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), used the internet for longer hours, and went to sleep later than those without ADHD. These findings indicate an association of ADHD, sleep disorders and internet/videogame addiction.

  19. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder genomics: update for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Josephine; Sackett, Jillan; Turner, Terri; Schardt, Martin; Tang, Shih-Ching; Kurtz, Nicole; Dunfey, Maura; McFarlane, Nadia A; Susi, Aita; Danish, David; Li, Alice; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Borgmann-Winter, Karin

    2012-10-01

    Attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is familial and highly heritable. Several candidate genes involved in neurotransmission have been identified, however these confer minimal risk, suggesting that for the most part, ADHD is not caused by single common genetic variants. Advances in genotyping enabling investigation at the level of the genome have led to the discovery of rare structural variants suggesting that ADHD is a genomic disorder, with potentially thousands of variants, and common neuronal pathways disrupted by numerous rare variants resulting in similar ADHD phenotypes. Heritability studies in humans also indicate the importance of epigenetic factors, and animal studies are deciphering some of the processes that confer risk during gestation and throughout the post-natal period. These and future discoveries will lead to improved diagnosis, individualized treatment, cures, and prevention. These advances also highlight ethical and legal issues requiring management and interpretation of genetic data and ensuring privacy and protection from misuse.

  20. [Psychotherapy in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gisèle

    2002-11-15

    Alone or used with psychostimulants, psychotherapy is the keystone of the treatment in children attention deficit disorder hyperactivity (ADHD). This article explains in which matter psychotherapy is essential. To be well done, it's necessary before starting the treatment to analyze precisely the disorder and how it interferes with the child's environment. It describes how this functional analysis must be done in order to be more precise in the choice of the treatment objectives. This article explains why in children ADHD treatment, the individual therapy must be associated with a family training and describes briefly the more studied and recognized psychotherapy techniques in those children ADHD and how other partners (teacher, speech or motor therapist) are also useful.

  1. Brain Regions and Neuropsychological Deficits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Murat Erdem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological factors had been shown to play an important role in the emergence of obsessive-compulsive disorder by the information obtained from the methods developed over the years. According to the neuropsychological perspective, the defects had been detected mainly in executive functions, in attention, memory, visual-spatial functions; and abnormalities had been described in the frontal lobe, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus regions of the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The main and the most repeated abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are dysfunctions in executive function and visual memory. Dysfunctions of the inhibitory processes associated with the dominant frontal area lead to an insufficiency on the inhibition of verbal functions. Excessive activation of the orbitofrontal cortex that mediate the behavioral response suppression function in obsessive-compulsive disorder demonstrated by functional imaging techniques. Repeated-resistant behaviors (eg: compulsions are composed by the deteriorations of the inhibitions of motor or cognitive programs in basal ganglions provided through cycles of frontal lobe. The findings of clinical observations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder could be considered as a reflection of excessive work in 'error detection system' which is the cause of the thoughts that something goes wrong and efforts to achieve perfection. As neurobiological, this finding is observed as excessive activity in orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex representing the ability of humans to provide and detect errors. It is is expected to develop the vehicles that are more sensitive to the characteristics of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to the neuropsychological tests, using electrophysiological and advanced functional imaging techniques will put forward a better underlying the physiopathology of this disorder in order to

  2. Attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity disorder: the medicalization and the coercion in moral development

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which concern the increasing number of referrals. Backed by a hegemonic vision and medicalized, such pathology conquered space currently and directly affects education, it transfers to the field of health issues from the field of education. In the quest for solving the problems of indiscipline and learning moves from a political- pedagogical discussion and uses the administration of ...

  3. Neuroimaging of tic disorders with co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Royal, Jason M; Peterson, Bradley S

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are common and debilitating neuropsychiatric illnesses that typically onset in the preschool years. Recently, both conditions have been subject to neuroimaging studies, with the aim of understanding...... contrast these findings with those in ADHD without comorbid tic disorders. RESULTS: The frequent comorbidity of TS and ADHD may reflect a common underlying neurobiological substrate, and studies confirm the hypothesized involvement of fronto-striatal circuits in both TS and ADHD. However, poor inhibitory...

  4. Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Comorbod Tic Disorders

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    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate appears to provide the greatest and most immediate improvement of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and does not appear to worsen tic symptoms based on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis included nine studies with 477 subjects.

  5. QUANTITATIVE EEG COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD AND ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD

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    Plamen D. Dimitrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a mental developmental disorder, manifested in the early childhood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is another psychiatric condition of the neurodevelopmental type. Both disorders affect information processing in the nervous system, altering the mechanisms which control how neurons and their synapses are connected and organized. Purpose: To examine if quantitative EEG assessment is sensitive and simple enough to differentiate autism from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and neurologically typical children. Material and methods: Quantitative EEG is a type of electrophysiological assessment that uses computerized mathematical analysis to convert the raw waveform data into different frequency ranges. Each frequency range is averaged across a sample of data and quantified into mean amplitude (voltage in microvolts mV. We performed quantitative EEG analysis and compared 4 cohorts of children (aged from 3 to 7 years: with autism (high [n=27] and low [n=52] functioning, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [n=34], and with typical behavior [n75]. Results: Our preliminary results show that there are significant qEEG differences between the groups of patients and the control cohort. The changes affect the potential levels of delta-, theta-, alpha-, and beta- frequency spectrums. Conclusion: The present study shows some significant quantitative EEG findings in autistic patients. This is a step forward in our efforts, aimed at defining specific neurophysiologic changes, in order to develop and refine strategies for early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders, differentiation from other development conditions in childhood, detection of specific biomarkers and early initiation of treatment.

  6. Overview of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young children

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    Ajay Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a complex disorder, which can be seen as a disorder of life time, developing in preschool years and manifesting symptoms (full and/or partial throughout the adulthood; therefore, it is not surprising that there are no simple solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder. This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan. If pre-school teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD. By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD.

  7. When Is EEG Indicated in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

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    Zaimoğlu, Sennur; Türkdoğan, Dilşad; Mazlum, Betül; Bekiroğlu, Nural; Tetik-Kabil, Aylin; Eyilikeder, Seda

    2015-11-01

    The authors investigated the parameters for predicting epileptiform abnormalities in a group of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample consisted of 148 subjects aged between 6 and 13 (8.76 ± 1.26; 25.7% female) years. Subtypes of ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised was applied to all patients. Most of the subjects (89.2%) had wakefulness and sleep electroencephalography examinations lasting about one hour. The authors found out that the coexistence of speech sound disorder (odds ratio [OR] 3.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-9.48) and higher Digit Span test performance (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.44) predicted the presence of accompanying epileptiform abnormalities. The prevalence of epileptiform abnormalities was 26.4%, and they were frequently localized in the frontal (41%) and centrotemporal (28.2%) regions. Higher percentage of speech sound disorder co-occurrence (64%) in subjects with rolandic spikes suggests that epileptiform abnormalities associated with ADHD can be determined genetically at least in some cases. Pathophysiology of epileptiform abnormalities in ADHD might have complex genetic and maturational background.

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder: Two separate disorders or do they share a common etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Rigoli, Daniela; Licari, Melissa; Piek, Jan P; Hasue, Renata H; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Oliveira, Jorge A

    2015-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been described as the most prevalent behavioral disorder in children. Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is one of the most prevalent childhood movement disorders. The overlap between the two conditions is estimated to be around 50%, with both substantially interfering with functioning and development, and leading to poorer psychosocial outcomes. This review provides an overview of the relationship between ADHD and DCD, discussing the common presenting features, etiology, neural basis, as well as associated deficits in motor functioning, attention and executive functioning. It is currently unclear which specific motor and cognitive difficulties are intrinsic to each disorder as many studies of ADHD have not been screened for DCD and vice-versa. The evidence supporting common brain underpinnings is still very limited, but studies using well defined samples have pointed to non-shared underpinnings for ADHD and DCD. The current paper suggests that ADHD and DCD are separate disorders that may require different treatment approaches.

  9. Prevalence of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Riahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often associated with other psychological problems. Objectives The present study aimed to study the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD who admitted to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a descriptive/analytic cross-sectional study carried out on 118 outpatient children and adolescents who were selected by convenient sampling. The data were collected using the questionnaire, designed by authors, and were analyzed through descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results The prevalence of comorbid disorders were as follows: anxiety disorders (48.3%; depression (20.33%; bipolar disorder (17.79%; obsessive-compulsive (47.45%; tic and tourette (35.59%, oppositional defiant disorder (43.22%; conduct disorder (11.01%; urinary incontinence (58.47%; communication disorder (9.32%; and learning disorder (21.18%. There was no significant difference between females and males with respect to the prevalence of comorbid disorders. Conclusions Similar to previous studies, we found some comorbid psychiatric disorders with ADHD. The treatment of the disorder can be improved, by more attention to comorbid psychiatric disorders, early diagnosis of them, and using distinct and specific treatment for everyone.

  10. Neural correlates of reactive aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubenzer-Busch, Sarah; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Kuzmanovic, B

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often linked with impulsive and aggressive behaviour, indexed by high comorbidity rates between ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). The present study aimed to investigate underlying neural activity of reactive aggression...

  11. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

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    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.

  12. Color naming deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A retinal dopaminergic hypothesis

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    Tannock Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD have unexplained difficulties on tasks requiring speeded processing of colored stimuli. Color vision mechanisms, particularly short-wavelength (blue-yellow pathways, are highly sensitive to various diseases, toxins and drugs that alter dopaminergic neurotransmission. Thus, slow color processing might reflect subtle impairments in the perceptual encoding stage of stimulus color, which arise from hypodopaminergic functioning. Presentation of hypotheses 1 Color perception of blue-yellow (but not red-green stimuli is impaired in ADHD as a result of deficient retinal dopamine; 2 Impairments in the blue-yellow color mechanism in ADHD contribute to poor performance on speeded color naming tasks that include a substantial proportion of blue-yellow stimuli; and 3 Methylphenidate increases central dopamine and is also believed to increase retinal dopamine, thereby normalizing blue-yellow color perception, which in turn improves performance on the speeded color naming tasks. Testing the hypothesis Requires three approaches, including:1 direct assessment of color perception in individuals with ADHD to determine whether blue-yellow color perception is selectively impaired; 2 determination of relationship between performance on neuropsychological tasks requiring speeded color processing and color perception; and 3 randomized, controlled pharmacological intervention with stimulant medication to examine the effects of enhancing central dopamine on color perception and task performance Implications of hypothesis If substantiated, the findings of color perception problems would necessitate a re-consideration of current neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, guide psycho-education, academic instruction, and require consideration of stimulus color in many of the widely used neuropsychological tests.

  13. Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and co-morbid disorders among students of Cumhuriyet University

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    Onder Kavakci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Most of the previous studies investigated prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD among university students with self report measures. Present study investigated actual prevalence of ADHD and co-morbid disorders among university students in Cumhuriyet University of Sivas in Turkey. Methods: In the first stage, 980 university students filled in the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale and socio-demographic form, 79 of whom were above the cut-off score of Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, considered as possible ADHD. They were evaluated in the second stage via structured interview SCID I, SCID II, Adult ADHD Module of MINI Plus. In addition, subjects filled in the self report Adult ADD/ADHD DSM IV-Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale. Results: The self report ADHD prevalence rate was 10.1% and the actual prevalence rate of ADHD among the university students was calculated 6.1%. The prevalence of ADHD was greater among male than female (7.0% vs. 5.5%. Among the male students inattentive subtype was 1.6%, hyperactive-impulsive 0.24%, combined 5.1%. Female students were found to be inattentive by 1.45%, hyperactive-impulsive by 0.56% and combined type by 3.48%. Most of the students with ADHD had Axis I (especially depressive disorders and Axis II disorders (especially cluster B personality disorders. ADHD diagnosis was associated with more cigarette and alcohol use, academic failure, legal problems, somatic complaints and suicide attempts. Students with ADHD were spending more time on the Internet than students without ADHD. Only one student diagnosed with ADHD reported to have had previous ADHD diagnosis. Conclusions: ADHD is common among university students. Having a diagnosis of ADHD in early adulthood seems to be associated with psychological, social, and academic problems.

  14. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions…

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: how much responsibility are pediatricians taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ruth E K; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Heneghan, Amy M; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Kelleher, Kelly J; O'Connor, Karen G; Olson, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the most common childhood behavioral condition, is one that pediatricians think they should identify and treat/manage. Our goals were to explore the relationships between pediatricians' self-reports of their practice behaviors concerning usually inquiring about and treating/managing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and (1) attitudes regarding perceived responsibility for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and (2) personal and practice characteristics. We analyzed data from the 59th Periodic Survey of the American Academy of Pediatrics for the 447 respondents who practice exclusively in general pediatrics. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were used to identify attitudes and personal and practice characteristics associated with usually identifying and treating/managing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A total of 67% reported that they usually inquire about and 65% reported that they usually treat/manage attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Factors positively associated with usually inquiring about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adjusted multivariable analyses include perceived high prevalence among current patients, attendance at a lecture/conference on child mental health in the past 2 years, having patients who are assigned or can select a specific pediatrician, practicing in suburban communities, practicing for > or =10 years, and being female. Pediatricians' attitudes about responsibility for identification of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were not associated with usually inquiring about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Attitudes about treating/managing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with usually treating/managing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Those who perceived that pediatricians should be responsible for treating

  16. Executive Function Associated to Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Paediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Angelina Araujo Jiménez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the differences of the neurocognitive functioning of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Paediatric Bipolar Disorder (PBD, since current studies do not agree on a differentiation of Executive Function (EF between the two disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the EF deficits associated with symptomatology of ADHD and the PBD phenotype. Participants were 76 children/adolescents aged 6-17 years and their parents, submitted to a diagnostic interview and a tool for assessing EF, Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine associations between symptoms of ADHD and the PBD phenotype, and the EF. A model for parents and a model for children/adolescents were performed. The model indexes showed a satisfactory fit. ADHD was found to be associated with deficits in all areas of EF, especially when the predominant symptom is inattention. The presence of symptoms of PBD phenotype was associated only with difficulties in finding new strategies to solve problems and inhibiting new behaviour. The article concluded that the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with cognitive deficits different from those that may occur with PBD symptoms. It is advisable that professionals consider patients' neurocognitive profiles in order to achieve an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  17. [Neurotrophic factors and their importance in attention deficit hyperactivity disorde].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Corominas, Margarida; Martínez, Iris; Barrau, Víctor; Prats, Laura; Casas, Miguel; Ribasés, Marta

    2014-02-24

    The existing literature that reports findings linked with the involvement of neurotrophic factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reviewed. Neurotrophins, a family of neurotrophic factors, are a kind of proteins that are specific to the nervous system and play an essential role in neuron survival, differentiation and proliferation during the development of the central and peripheral nervous system. These molecules stimulate axonal growth and exert an influence on the connections with the target tissue in order to establish the synaptic connections. The study of neurotrophins in ADHD, a neurodevelopmental disorder, is of interest mainly due to the functions that these proteins perform in the central nervous system. Studies on animal, pharmacological and molecular genetic models yield evidence that relates neurotrophins with the disorder. This work reviews the results from the studies conducted to date on ADHD and neurotrophic factors, especially brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, although pharmacological studies suggest that the response to atomoxetine in adults with ADHD is not directly mediated by the effect on the BDNF, reductions in BDNF levels in the plasma of adult patients with ADHD have been reported. Further studies with broader samples and greater control of environmental factors that can regulate neurotrophin expression, such as diet, physical exercise and situations of social risk, are needed to be able to determine the role they play in the aetiology of ADHD.

  18. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with asthma

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    Halmøy Anne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is increasingly recognized as a common disorder not only in children, but also in the adult population. Similarly, asthma also has a substantial prevalence among adults. Previous studies concerning a potential relationship between ADHD and asthma have not presented consistent results. Methods A cross-sectional study of 594 adult patients diagnosed with ADHD, compared with 719 persons from the general population. Information was collected between 1997 and 2005 using auto-questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, co-morbid conditions, including asthma, and work status. Results The prevalence of asthma was significantly higher in the ADHD patient group compared to the controls, 24.4% vs. 11.3% respectively (OR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.89-3.44, and controls with asthma scored higher on ratings of both past and present symptoms of ADHD. Female ADHD patients had a significantly higher prevalence of asthma compared to male ADHD patients (30.9% vs. 18.2%, OR = 2.01, CI 1.36-2.95, but in controls a slight female preponderance was not statistically significant. In both ADHD patients and controls, having asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of symptoms of mood- and anxiety disorders. Conclusions The present findings point to a co-morbidity of ADHD and asthma, and these patients may represent a clinical and biological subgroup of adult patients with ADHD.

  19. Pediatric Integrative Medicine Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

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    Anna Esparham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in children and is increasing in prevalence. There has also been a related increase in prescribing stimulant medication despite some controversy whether ADHD medication makes a lasting difference in school performance or achievement. Families who are apprehensive about side effects and with concerns for efficacy of medication pursue integrative medicine as an alternative or adjunct to pharmacologic and cognitive behavioral treatment approaches. Integrative medicine incorporates evidence-based medicine, both conventional and complementary and alternative therapies, to deliver personalized care to the patient, emphasizing diet, nutrients, gut health, and environmental influences as a means to decrease symptoms associated with chronic disorders. Pediatric integrative medicine practitioners are increasing in number throughout the United States because of improvement in patient health outcomes. However, limited funding and poor research design interfere with generalizable treatment approaches utilizing integrative medicine. The use of research designs originally intended for drugs and procedures are not suitable for many integrative medicine approaches. This article serves to highlight integrative medicine approaches in use today for children with ADHD, including dietary therapies, nutritional supplements, environmental hygiene, and neurofeedback.

  20. Differential Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Means of Inhibitory Control and "Theory of Mind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Eva; Bachmann, Christian; Goyert, Hannah; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) are both associated with deficits in executive control and with problems in social contexts. This study analyses the variables inhibitory control and theory of mind (ToM), including a developmental aspect in the case of the latter, to differentiate between the…

  1. Altered brain structural networks in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children revealed by cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Chen, Yanni; Li, Chenxi; Li, Youjun; Wang, Jue

    2017-01-18

    This study investigated the cortical thickness and topological features of human brain anatomical networks related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Data were collected from 40 attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and 40 normal control children. Interregional correlation matrices were established by calculating the correlations of cortical thickness between all pairs of cortical regions (68 regions) of the whole brain. Further thresholds were applied to create binary matrices to construct a series of undirected and unweighted graphs, and global, local, and nodal efficiencies were computed as a function of the network cost. These experimental results revealed abnormal cortical thickness and correlations in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and showed that the brain structural networks of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects had inefficient small-world topological features. Furthermore, their topological properties were altered abnormally. In particular, decreased global efficiency combined with increased local efficiency in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children led to a disorder-related shift of the network topological structure toward regular networks. In addition, nodal efficiency, cortical thickness, and correlation analyses revealed that several brain regions were altered in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients. These findings are in accordance with a hypothesis of dysfunctional integration and segregation of the brain in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide further evidence of brain dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients by observing cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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    Francisco Rosa Neto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with that of typically developing children.Methods:Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls, aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial and temporal organization.Results:Between-group testing revealed statistically significant differences between the ADHD and control groups for all domains. The results also revealed a deficit of nearly two years in the motor development of children with ADHD compared with the normative sample.Conclusion:The current study shows that ADHD is associated with a delay in motor development when compared to typically developing children. The results also suggested difficulties in certain motor areas for those with ADHD. These results may point to plausible mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and motor difficulties.

  3. Source discrimination in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were shown to have inefficient item memory, little is known about the context of memory experiences. METHODS: The present study compared 37 adult patients with a diagnosed ADHD with 40 matched healthy participants on a word list paradigm. Memory functions of encoding, retention and source discrimination were assessed. Furthermore, standardized measures of memory and executive control were applied in order to explore a qualitative differentiation of memory components. RESULTS: Adult patients with ADHD showed impaired performance in encoding of new information whereas the retention of encoded items was found to be preserved. The most pronounced impairment of patients with ADHD was observed in source discrimination. Regression models of cognitive functions on memory components supported some qualitative differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Data analysis suggests a differential pattern of memory impairment in adults suffering from ADHD with a particular deficit in source discrimination. Inefficient source discrimination in adults with ADHD can affect daily functioning by limiting biographic awareness and disturbing general cognitive processes.

  4. A specific deficit of imitation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hannah J; McIntosh, Rob D; Williams, Justin H G

    2013-12-01

    Imitation is a potentially crucial aspect of social cognitive development. Although deficits in imitation ability have been widely demonstrated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the specificity and significance of the findings is unclear, due largely to methodological limitations. We developed a novel assessment of imitation ability, using objective movement parameters (path length and action duration) derived from a touch-sensitive tablet laptop during drawing actions on an identical tablet. By direct comparison of the kinematics of a model's actions with those of the participant who observed them, measures of imitation accuracy were obtained. By replaying the end-point of the movement as a spot on the screen, imitation accuracy was compared against a "ghost control" condition, with no human actor but only the end-point of the movement seen [object movement reenactment (OMR)]. Hence, demands of the control task were closely matched to the experimental task with respect to motor, memory, and attentional abilities. Adolescents with ASD showed poorer accuracy for copying object size and action duration on both the imitation and OMR tasks, but were significantly more impaired for imitation of object size. Our results provide evidence that some of the imitation deficit in ASD is specific to a self-other mapping problem, and cannot be explained by general factors such as memory, spatial reasoning, motor control, or attention, nor related to the social demands of the testing situation.

  5. Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Felipe Salles Neves; Caetano, Sheila Cavalcante; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Scivoletto, Sandra; Muszkat, Mauro; Gattás, Ivete Gianfaldoni; Casella, Erasmo Barbante; de Andrade, Ênio Roberto; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; do Rosário, Maria Conceição

    2015-01-01

    A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS) article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate. PMID:26061456

  6. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Amanda; Dias, Natália Martins; Trevisan, Bruna Tonietti; Carreiro, Luiz Renato R; Seabra, Alessandra Gotuzo

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF) intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8) and control (CG, N = 10) groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  7. Living with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Merete Bender; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Larsen, Palle

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to four dimensions of behavior: inattentiveness, restlessness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms affect multiple areas of daily life such as academic performance and social functioning. Despite the negative effects of ADHD...... daily life with ADHD are personal strategies such as reminders and performing tasks within a given structure. Others close to them can assist by coaching, reminding them of appointments and so on. Superiors can assist by structuring the work tasks and setting up clear rules and limits for the tasks...... see them as persons who have a problem and not as problem persons, emphasize strategies adults themselves can apply such as structuring everyday tasks and informing them about positive effects and possible side effects of medication. Policy-makers could launch campaigns targeted at employers...

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Kevin; Smart, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determine the prevalence and symptomatology of ADHD in postsecondary students, to examine its effects on academic achievement, and discuss appropriate management. The prevalence of ADHD symptoms among postsecondary students ranges from 2% to 12%. Students with ADHD have lower grade point averages and are more likely to withdraw from courses, to indulge in risky behaviors, and to have other psychiatric comorbidities than their non-ADHD peers. Ensuring that students with ADHD receive appropriate support requires documented evidence of impairment to academic and day-to-day functioning. In adults with ADHD, stimulants improve concentration and attention, although improved academic productivity remains to be demonstrated. ADHD negatively impacts academic performance in students and increases the likelihood of drug and alcohol problems. Affected students may therefore benefit from disability support services, academic accommodations, and pharmacological treatment.

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a practical scale for pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktem, F; Semerci, Z B

    1998-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disturbance causing school failure and social problems. Early diagnosis and intervention allow ADHD children to adjust and succeed at school and in daily life. To identify these patients, we designed a practical questionnaire for parents. When tested on children with ADHD (n = 100), children with psychiatric problems (n = 35), and on age- and sex-mached control children (n = 100), this scale was found to be highly useful in distinguishing these three groups from each other, especially after the identification and elimination of items with lower specificity. The use of the Hacettepe ADHD scale is recommended for pediatricians, general practitioners and teachers to allow earlier diagnosis of this condition.

  10. Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Salles Neves Machado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate.

  11. Cognitive control in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Westerhausen, René; Haavik, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to direct their attention and exert cognitive control in a forced instruction dichotic listening (DL) task. The performance of 29 adults with ADHD was compared with 58......-forced condition), or to focus and report either the right- or left-ear syllable (forced-right and forced-left condition). This procedure is presumed to tap distinct cognitive processes: perception (non-forced condition), orienting of attention (forced-right condition), and cognitive control (forced-left condition......). Adults with ADHD did not show significant impairment in the conditions tapping perception and attention orientation, but were significantly impaired in their ability to report the left-ear syllable during the forced-left instruction condition, whereas the control group showed the expected left...

  12. Handwriting performance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Marie Brossard; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie

    2008-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. Consequences are multifaceted and include activity limitations in daily-living skills, academic challenges, diminished socialization skills, and motor difficulties. Poor handwriting performance is an example of an affected life skill that has been anecdotally observed by educators and clinicians for this population and can negatively impact academic performance and self-esteem. To guide health and educational service delivery needs, the authors reviewed the evidence in the literature on handwriting difficulties in children with ADHD. Existing evidence would suggest that children with ADHD have impaired handwriting performance, characterized by illegible written material and/or inappropriate speed of execution compared to children without ADHD. Studies with larger sample sizes using standardized measures of handwriting performance are needed to evaluate the prevalence of the problem and to better understand the nature of handwriting difficulties and their impact in this population.

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined by extreme levels of inattention–disorganization and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. In DSM-IV, the diagnostic criteria required impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. With DSM-5 publication imminent in 2013, further evaluation of impairment in ADHD is timely. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on health-related impairments of ADHD, including smoking, drug abuse, accidental injury, sleep, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and suicidal behavior. It concludes by suggesting the need for new avenues of research on mechanisms of association and the potential for ADHD to be an early warning sign for secondary prevention of some poor health outcomes. PMID:23298633

  14. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Menezes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8 and control (CG, N = 10 groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  15. Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, H.C.; Henriksen, L.; Bruhn, P.; Borner, H.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported that periventricular structures are hypoperfused in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study has expanded the number of patients, who were divided into two groups: six patients with pure ADHD, and 13 patients with ADHD in combination with other neurologic symptoms. By using xenon 133 inhalation and emission tomography, the regional cerebral blood flow distribution was determined and compared with a control group. Striatal regions were found to be hypoperfused and, by inference, hypofunctional in both groups. This hypoperfusion was statistically significant in the right striatum in ADHD, and in both striatal regions in ADHD with other neuropsychologic and neurologic symptoms. The primary sensory and sensorimotor cortical regions were highly perfused. Methylphenidate increased flow to striatal and posterior periventricular regions, and tended to decrease flow to primary sensory regions. Low striatal activity, partially reversible with methylphenidate, appears to be a cardinal feature in ADHD.

  16. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: associations with overeating and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline

    2010-10-01

    In the past decade, we have become increasingly aware of strong associations between overweight/obesity and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. This review addresses the prevalence of the comorbidity and discusses some of the mechanisms that could account for their relationship. It is suggested that the inattentive and impulsive behaviors that characterize ADHD could contribute to overeating in our current food environment, with its emphasis on fast food consumption and its many food temptations. It is also proposed-based on the compelling evidence that foods high in fat, sugar, and salt are as addictive as some drugs of abuse-that excessive food consumption could be a form of self-medication. This view conforms with the well-established evidence that drug use and abuse are substantially higher among those with ADHD than among the general population.

  17. Predicting borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescents from childhood physical and relational aggression, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Boylan, Khrista; Duku, Eric; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-08-01

    Developmental cascade models linking childhood physical and relational aggression with symptoms of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; assessed at ages 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14) to borderline personality disorder (BPD) features (assessed at age 14) were examined in a community sample of 484 youth. Results indicated that, when controlling for within-time covariance and across-time stability in the examination of cross-lagged relations among study variables, BPD features at age 14 were predicted by childhood relational aggression and symptoms of depression for boys, and physical and relational aggression, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of ADHD for girls. Moreover, for boys BPD features were predicted from age 10 ADHD through age 12 depression, whereas for girls the pathway to elevated BPD features at age 14 was from depression at age 10 through physical aggression symptoms at age 12. Controlling for earlier associations among variables, we found that for girls the strongest predictor of BPD features at age 14 was physical aggression, whereas for boys all the risk indicators shared a similar predictive impact. This study adds to the growing literature showing that physical and relational aggression ought to be considered when examining early precursors of BPD features.

  18. Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, McKenzie L.; Guo, Wei; Samuels, Jack F.; Wang, Ying; Nestadt, Paul S.; Krasnow, Janice; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Fyer, Abby J.; McCracken, James T.; Geller, Daniel A.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Knowles, James A.; Grados, Marco A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; McLaughlin, Nicole C.; Nurmi, Erika L.; Askland, Kathleen D.; Cullen, Bernadette; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L.; Bienvenu, Joseph; Stewart, Evelyn; Goes, Fernando S.; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Qian, Ji; Nestadt, Gerald; Shugart, Yin Yao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify any potential genetic overlap between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that since these disorders share a sub-phenotype, they may share common risk alleles. In this manuscript, we report the overlap found between these two disorders. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted between ADHD and OCD, and polygenic risk scores (PRS) were calculated for both disorders. In addition, a protein-protein analysis was completed in order to examine the interactions between proteins; p-values for the protein-protein interaction analysis was calculated using permutation. Conclusion: None of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reached genome wide significance and there was little evidence of genetic overlap between ADHD and OCD. PMID:28386217

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  20. Treatment Programs for Students With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mihandoost, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Context: The aim of this study was to determine the experimental evidence of treatment/intervention programs for deficits in social skills, attention, and behavioral disorder in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence Acquisition: Meta-analysis procedures were employed to investigate whether children and adolescents with ADHD exhibit deficits in attention and social skills. A total of 17 empirical research studies published between 2000 and 2013...

  1. Social deficits in children with chronic tic disorders: phenomenology, clinical correlates and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joseph F; Hanks, Camille; Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A; Murphy, Tanya K

    2013-10-01

    Youth with chronic tic disorders (CTD) experience social problems that have been associated with functional impairment and a diminished quality of life. Previous examinations have attributed social difficulties to either tic severity or the symptom severity of coexisting conditions, but have not directly explored performance deficits in social functioning. This report examined the presence and characteristics of social deficits in youth with CTD and explored the relationship between social deficits, social problems, and quality of life. Ninety-nine youth (8-17years) and their parents completed a battery of assessments to determine diagnoses, tic severity, severity of coexisting conditions, social responsiveness, and quality of life. Parents reported that youth with CTD had increased social deficits, with 19% reported to have severe social deficits. The magnitude of social deficits was more strongly associated with inattention, hyperactivity, and oppositionality than with tic severity. Social deficits predicted internalizing and social problems, and quality of life above and beyond tic severity. Social deficits partially mediated the relationship between tic severity and social problems, as well as tic severity and quality of life. Findings suggest that youth with CTD have social deficits, which are greater in the presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. These social deficits play an influential role in social problems and quality of life. Future research is needed to develop interventions to address social performance deficits among youth with CTD.

  2. Fluoxetine Monotherapy in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Non-Bipolar Mood Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Humberto; Butterbaugh, Grant J.; Purnell, William; Layman, Ann K.

    2007-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for developing comorbid non-bipolar mood disorders. Fluoxetine monotherapy is an established treatment for pediatric mood disorders; however its efficacy in ADHD and comorbid mood disorder is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated 30 children who met DSM-IV criteria for…

  3. Fluoxetine Monotherapy in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Non-Bipolar Mood Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Humberto; Butterbaugh, Grant J.; Purnell, William; Layman, Ann K.

    2007-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for developing comorbid non-bipolar mood disorders. Fluoxetine monotherapy is an established treatment for pediatric mood disorders; however its efficacy in ADHD and comorbid mood disorder is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated 30 children who met DSM-IV criteria for…

  4. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  5. Social skills deficits and their association with Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Min; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims The aims of this study were to examine the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the moderators for this association. Methods A total of 300 adolescents, aged between 11 and 18 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their Internet addiction levels, social skills deficits, ADHD, parental characteristics, and comorbidities were assessed. The various Internet activities that the participants engaged in were also examined. Results The associations between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities and the moderators of these associations were examined using logistic regression analyses. Social skills deficits were significantly associated with an increased risk of Internet addiction after adjustment for the effects of other factors [odds ratio (OR) = 1.049, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.030-1.070]. Social skills deficits were also significantly associated with Internet gaming and watching movies. The maternal occupational socioeconomic levels of the participants moderated the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction. Conclusions Social skills deficits should be considered targets in prevention and intervention programs for treating Internet addiction among adolescents with ADHD.

  6. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parisa namdari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most prevalent psychiadric disorders starting from Childhood and is considered as an important mental health problem of a society. Behavioral disorders including ADHD may have distractive effects on peoples social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationship in their childhood and adulthood. Therefore, we decided to conduct the present research for ADHD in elementary school students of Khoramabad year 2004. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studing in grades one to five at elementary school in Khorramabad (N=945. Some 16 state and private schools (8 girls and 8 boys schools were selected in a cluster and multi-stage method. The standardized questionnaire Child symptom inventories – 4 (CSI4 has been used to collect data, which was a means for the prevalens of children’s psychiatric disorders. Owing to their scoring. The cases which showed ADHD were undergone clinical examination by psychiatrist. Then, the results were analyzed using descriptive statistic and X2 test. Results: The total sample was 945 children There were 50.7% and 49.3% girls and boys respectively. Some 3.17 per cent of them were reported to suffer from ADHD the most percentages of which were of inattention (40%, overactivens (33.3%, and mixed type (26.6%. ADHD was reported to be more prevalent in boys than girls (4.9% VS. 1.5%. The students in grade 5 showed the lowest, and those in grade 2 and 3 showed the highest prevalence rate of suffering from ADHD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s sex and ADHD (P<0.005. However, there seemed no significant relationship between parents age, education, job, income, grade, and the family psychiatric problems. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of the disorder including ADHD, and lack of enough attention to their consequences in children and

  7. Addressing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Although generally considered a childhood disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood and impede achievement in the workplace. Core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity can be associated with poor organization, time management, and interpersonal relationships. Employment levels, earning power, and productivity are reduced among individuals with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Furthermore, the costs of employing individuals with ADHD are higher because of work absences and lost productivity. The primary care provider plays an integral role in managing ADHD symptoms and providing the necessary resources that will help individuals with ADHD succeed in the workplace. Pharmacotherapy can reduce ADHD symptoms and improve functioning; however, it is also important to consider how positive traits associated with ADHD, such as creative thinking, can be used in the workplace. Workplace accommodations and behavioral therapies, such as coaching, can also enhance time management and organizational skills. This review describes how ADHD symptoms affect workplace behaviors, the effect of ADHD on employment and workplace performance, and the management of ADHD in working adults.

  8. Evaluation of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Golmirzaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for ADHD in children. Method. In this case-control study, 404 children between 4 and 11 years old were selected by cluster sampling method from preschool children (208 patients as cases and 196 controls. All the participants were interviewed by a child and adolescent psychiatrist to survey risk factors of ADHD. Results. Among cases, 59.3% of children were boys and 38.4% were girls, which is different to that in control group with 40.7% boys and 61.6% girls. The chi-square showed statistically significance (P value < 0.0001. The other significant factors by chi-square were fathers' somatic or psychiatric disease (P value < 0.0001, history of trauma and accident during pregnancy (P value = 0.039, abortion proceeds (P value < 0.0001, unintended pregnancy (P value < 0.0001, and history of head trauma (P value < 0.0001. Conclusions. Findings of our study suggest that maternal and paternal adverse events were associated with ADHD symptoms, but breast feeding is a protective factor.

  9. Sleep Structure in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Gulcin; Oztura, Ibrahim; Hiz, Semra; Akdogan, Ozlem; Karaarslan, Dilay; Ozek, Handan; Akay, Aynur

    2015-10-01

    The authors evaluated basic sleep architecture and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep alterations in drug-naïve attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without psychiatric or other comorbidities. This cross-sectional case-control study included 28 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 15 healthy controls. This subjective studies revealed that children with ADHD had a worse sleep quality and increased daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography data showed that the sleep macrostructure was not significantly different in children with ADHD. Sleep microstructure was altered in ADHD children by means of reduced total cyclic alternating pattern rate and duration of cyclic alternating pattern sequences. This reduction was associated with a selective decrease of A1 index during stage 2 NREM. SpO2 in total sleep was slightly decreased; however, the incidence of sleep disordered breathing showed no significant difference. The authors suggest that cyclic alternating pattern scoring would provide a further insight to obtain a better understanding of the sleep structure in children with ADHD.

  10. Medication for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; Zetterqvist, Johan; Sjölander, Arvid; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik

    2012-11-22

    Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder that has been associated with criminal behavior in some studies. Pharmacologic treatment is available for ADHD and may reduce the risk of criminality. Using Swedish national registers, we gathered information on 25,656 patients with a diagnosis of ADHD, their pharmacologic treatment, and subsequent criminal convictions in Sweden from 2006 through 2009. We used stratified Cox regression analyses to compare the rate of criminality while the patients were receiving ADHD medication, as compared with the rate for the same patients while not receiving medication. As compared with nonmedication periods, among patients receiving ADHD medication, there was a significant reduction of 32% in the criminality rate for men (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 0.73) and 41% for women (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.70). The rate reduction remained between 17% and 46% in sensitivity analyses among men, with factors that included different types of drugs (e.g., stimulant vs. nonstimulant) and outcomes (e.g., type of crime). Among patients with ADHD, rates of criminality were lower during periods when they were receiving ADHD medication. These findings raise the possibility that the use of medication reduces the risk of criminality among patients with ADHD. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others.).

  11. Combined methylphenidate and atomoxetine pharmacotherapy in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaran, Burcu; Kose, Sezen; Yuzuguldu, Onur; Atar, Burcu; Aydin, Cahide

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) includes stimulant and non-stimulant medications. Our purpose in this study is to investigate efficacy, safety and tolerability of combined methylphenidate and atomoxetine pharmacotherapy. We included 12 patients of the 824 patients with ADHD using methylphenidate and atomoxetine combined therapy between the years 2010 and 2014. Kiddie-SADS, Turgay DSM-IV Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale, Child Behavior Checklist, Clinic Global Impression Scale Severity and Impression (CGIS-S-I) scales were used. Patients were between the ages of 7 and 17 years. Before combined pharmacotherapy the CGIS-S score mean was 5.08. Mean CGIS-S score after the combined pharmacotherapy was 3.08 (P = 0.03; -2,980). The most common side effects were irritability (n = 5, 41.6%), appetite reduction (n = 3, 25%), palpitations (n = 2, 16.7%), headache (n = 1, 8.3%). Nine of these 12 patients showed significant improvement in their symptoms, combined therapy enhanced the effectiveness of monotherapy.

  12. Measurement of stigmatization towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring stigma in adults with ADHD and to demonstrate its sensitivity. METHODS: A questionnaire initially containing 64 items associated with stigma in adults with ADHD was developed. A total number of 1261 respondents were included in the analyses. The psychometric properties were investigated on a sample of 1033 participants. The sensitivity of the questionnaire was explored on 228 participants consisting of teachers, physicians and control participants. RESULTS: Thirty-seven items were extracted due to exploratory factor analysis (EFA and the internal consistency of items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA revealed good psychometric properties of a 6-factor structure. Teachers and physicians differed significantly in their stigmatizing attitudes from control participants. CONCLUSIONS: The present data shed light on various dimensions of stigma in adult ADHD. Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication, Ability to Take Responsibility, Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior, Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure and Etiology represent critical aspects associated with stigmatization.

  13. Does MRI add to ultrasound in the assessment of disorders of sex development?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, S.M., E-mail: sahar_mnsr@yahoo.com [Radiology Department (Women' s imaging unit), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University,Egypt (Egypt); Hamed, S.T., E-mail: sohathamed@yahoo.com [Radiology Department (Women' s imaging unit), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University,Egypt (Egypt); Adel, L., E-mail: lamiaadel73@yahoo.com [Radiology Department (Women' s imaging unit), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University,Egypt (Egypt); Kamal, R.M., E-mail: rashaakamal@hotmail.com [Radiology Department (Women' s imaging unit), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University,Egypt (Egypt); Ahmed, D.M., E-mail: sahar_mnsr@yahoo.com [National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the need of magnetic resonance imaging and using different approaches (transabdominal, endoluminal and transperineal) in the proper assessment of disorders of sex development regarding gonadal detection and gender differentiation. Subjects and methods: Twenty five patients with abnormalities of sex disorders were included. They were classified into two groups according to the time of clinical presentation: Group 1 (early onset) included eight cases. Their age ranged from one month to 12 years (mean age = 3.0). They presented with overt genital ambiguity of clitoral hypertrophy in a phenotypic female, non palpable testes or micropenis in a phenotypic male. Group 2 (late onset) included 17 cases. Their age ranged from 16 to 33 years (mean age 18.1). This group presented by distressing puberty symptoms of primary amenorrhea in a female phenotype or undescended testis and behaving as a male. Cases were subjected to Ultrasound and MR imaging examinations. Imaging results were correlated results of chromosomal and hormonal assays as well as laparoscopy findings. Results: The study included: 10/25 cases (40%) of female pseudo-hermaphroditism, 13/25 cases (52%) of male pseudo-hermaphroditism, one case (4%) of true hermaphroditism and one case (4%) of pure gonadal dysgenesis. The accuracy of multi approach ultrasound was 89.8% compared to 85.7% in MR imaging. Conclusion: Ultrasound should be considered the initial screening modality in the assessment of developmental sex disorders. MRI examination could be reserved for gonad identification when ultrasound examination fails to do so and for corrective surgery guidance.

  14. Speech Perception and Short-Term Memory Deficits in Persistent Developmental Speech Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Barac-Cikoja, Dragana; Finnegan, Kimberly; Jeffries, Neal; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with developmental speech disorders may have additional deficits in speech perception and/or short-term memory. To determine whether these are only transient developmental delays that can accompany the disorder in childhood or persist as part of the speech disorder, adults with a persistent familial speech disorder were tested on speech…

  15. Response inhibition in adults with autism spectrum disorder compared to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J

    2011-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with children. No studies have directly compared the stable cognitive profile of adults. It was hypothesised that adults with ASD would show generally intact response inhibition whereas those with ADHD would show more global impairment. Participants were 24 adults aged 18-55 with high functioning ASD, 24 with ADHD, and 14 age and IQ matched controls. Participants completed three standardised measures of response inhibition. Participants with ASD had generally intact response inhibition but slow response latencies, possibly due to deficits in response initiation. Adults with ADHD did not show the more global impairments hypothesised. There were some significant differences between the clinical groups across measures of inhibition. In terms of performance style, adults with ASD were slow and accurate whilst those with ADHD showed an impulsive style.

  16. Correlates of incident bipolar disorder in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrell, Jeanette M; McIntyre, Roger S; Park, Yong-Moon Mark

    2014-11-01

    The greater severity and chronicity of illness in youths with co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder deserve further investigation as to the risk imparted by comorbid conditions and the pharmacotherapies employed. A retrospective cohort design was employed, using South Carolina's Medicaid claims dataset covering outpatient and inpatient medical and psychiatric service claims with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnoses and medication prescriptions between January 1996 and December 2006 for patients ≤ 17 years of age. The cohort included 22,797 cases diagnosed with ADHD at a mean age of 7.8 years; 1,604 (7.0%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder at a mean age of 12.2 years. The bipolar disorder group developed conduct disorder (CD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety disorder, and a substance use disorder later than the ADHD-only group. The odds of a child with ADHD developing bipolar disorder were significantly and positively associated with a comorbid diagnosis of CD/ODD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.01), anxiety disorder (aOR = 2.39), or substance use disorder (aOR = 1.88); longer treatment with methylphenidate, mixed amphetamine salts, or atomoxetine (aOR = 1.01); not being African American (aOR = 1.61); and being treated with certain antidepressant medications, most notably fluoxetine (aOR = 2.00), sertraline (aOR = 2.29), bupropion (aOR = 2.22), trazodone (aOR = 2.15), or venlafaxine (aOR = 2.37) prior to the first diagnosis of mania. Controlling for pharmacotherapy differences, incident bipolar disorder was more likely in individuals clustering specific patterns of comorbid psychiatric disorders, suggesting that there are different pathways to bipolarity and providing a clinical impetus for prioritizing prevention and preemptive strategies to reduce their hazardous influence. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Children Aged 5-17 Years in the United States, 1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Aged 5–17 ... 2009 The percentage of children ever diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased from 7% to ...

  18. Evaluating reading and metacognitive deficits in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Jesús Ma; Puente, Aníbal; Jiménez, Virginia; Arrebillaga, Lorena

    2011-05-01

    The reading achievement of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has scarcely been explored in research conducted in the Spanish language and when it has, the results have been contradictory. The focus of the present research is to analyze participants' reading competency and metacognitive strategies as they carry out reading comprehension tasks. The sample was comprised of 187 Argentine schoolchildren aged 9 to 13 years old. 94 constituted the control group and the clinical group consisted of 93 schoolchildren diagnosed with ADHD. The metacognitive assessment was made up of two metacognitive tests, the Reading Awareness Scale (ESCOLA; acronym in Spanish) and a Spanish adaptation of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), and one test of reading comprehension, the Evaluation of Reading Processes for Secondary Education Students (PROLEC-SE; acronym in Spanish). Students with ADHD had lower achievement on tests o reading comprehension compared to the control group. Nevertheless, our results suggest their difficulties did not stem from readin comprehension problems, but rather from alterations in their Executive Functions, because when subjects' reading comprehensio was equalized, students with ADHD still exhibited a lower level of Metacognition, particularly when it came to planning.

  19. Development of Planning in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and/or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrainer, Josef M; Rauh, Reinhold; Rahm, Benjamin; Hardt, Jochen; Kaller, Christoph P; Klein, Christoph; Paschke-Müller, Mirjam; Biscaldi, Monica

    2016-07-01

    Planning impairment is often observed in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but attempts to differentiate planning in ASD from children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing children (TD) have yielded inconsistent results. This study examined differences between these groups by focusing on development and analyzing performance in searching ahead several steps ("search depth") in addition to commonly used global performance measures in planning. A cross-sectional consecutive sample of 83 male patients (6-13 years), subgrouped as ASD without (ASD-, n = 18) or with comorbid ADHD (ASD+, n = 23), ADHD only (n = 42) and n = 42 TD children (6-13 years) were tested with the Tower-of-London-task. For global performance, ASD+ showed the lowest accuracy in younger children, but similar performance as TD at older ages, suggesting delayed development. Typically, a prolongation of planning time with increasing problem difficulty is observed in older children as compared to younger children. Here, this was most pronounced in ASD-, but under-expressed in ADHD. In contrast to global performance, effects of search depth were independent of age. ASD-, but not ASD+, showed increased susceptibility to raised demands on mentally searching ahead, along with the longest planning times. Thus, examining both global and search depth performance across ages revealed discernible patterns of planning between groups. Notably, the potentially detrimental impact of two diagnosed disorders does not add up in ASD+ in this task. Rather, our results suggest paradoxical enhancement of performance, ostensibly attributable to disruption of behavioral rigidity through increased impulsivity, which did not take place in ASD-. Autism Res 2016, 9: 739-751. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A Neuropsychological Examination of the Underlying Deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Frontal Lobe Versus Right Parietal Lobe Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Christine J.; Roberts, Ralph J., Jr.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    1998-01-01

    Examined front and right parietal lobe theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); subjects were 10- to 14-year-old boys with or without ADHD. Found that non-ADHD boys performed better on frontal- and parietal-domain tasks than unmedicated ADHD boys, unmedicated AHDH boys had greater impairments on frontal than parietal tasks, and…

  1. Quantitative EEG neurofeedback for the treatment of pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, learning disorders, and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Elizabeth; Arnold, L Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas

    2014-07-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) using surface electroencephalographic signals has been used to treat various child psychiatric disorders by providing patients with video/audio information about their brain's electrical activity in real-time. Research data are reviewed and clinical recommendations are made regarding NF treatment of youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, learning disorders, and epilepsy. Most NF studies are limited by methodological issues, such as failure to use or test the validity of a full-blind or sham NF. The safety of NF treatment has not been thoroughly investigated in youth or adults, although clinical experience suggests reasonable safety.

  2. A Comparative Study on the Visual Perceptions of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman; Butun Ayhan, Aynur

    This study was conducted in order to (a) compare the visual perceptions of seven-year-old children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with those of normally developing children of the same age and development level and (b) determine whether the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vary with respect to gender, having received preschool education and parents` educational level. A total of 60 children, 30 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 30 with normal development, were assigned to the study. Data about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their families was collected by using a General Information Form and the visual perception of children was examined through the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to determine whether there was a difference of between the visual perceptions of children with normal development and those diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and to discover whether the variables of gender, preschool education and parents` educational status affected the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results showed that there was a statistically meaningful difference between the visual perceptions of the two groups and that the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were affected meaningfully by gender, preschool education and parents` educational status.

  3. Baseline omega-3 index correlates with aggressive and attention deficit disorder behaviours in adult prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J Meyer

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments.To determine if the variance of the omega-3 index is correlated with aggressive and attention deficit behaviour in a prison population.136 adult male prisoners were recruited from South Coast Correctional Centre (SCCC, NSW Australia. A 7 point categorisation was used to quantify levels of aggressive behaviour (4 weeks from individual SCCC case notes, whereby higher scores correspond to increasingly aggressive behaviour. Study participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ and the Brown's Attention Deficit Disorder Scales (BADDS, provided a blood sample for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and the omega-3 index was calculated.The baseline omega-3 index ranged from 2.3% to 10.3%, indicating that some participants already had substantial omega-3 intake, however a median of 4.7% indicated a lower overall omega-3 intake than the general Australian population. Assessment of aggressive and attention deficit behaviour shows that there were negative correlations between baseline omega-3 index and baseline aggression categorisation scores (r = -0.21, P = 0.016; total AQ score (r = -0.234, P = 0.011; Anger (r = -0.222 p = 0.016; Hostility AQ (r = -0.239, P = 0.009; indirect aggression (r = -0.188 p = 0.042; total BADDS (r = -0.263, p = 0.005; Activation (r = -0.224, p = 0.016; Attention (r = -0.192, p = 0.043; Effort (r = -0.253, p = 0.007; Affect (r = -0.330, p = 0.000 and Memory (r = -0.240, p = 0.010.There is a high variability in omega-3 status of a NSW prison

  4. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Blum

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth Blum1,6,7,8,9,10, Amanda Lih-Chuan Chen2, Eric R Braverman3,9, David E Comings4, Thomas JH Chen5, Vanessa Arcuri9, Seth H Blum6, Bernard W Downs7,8, Roger L Waite7, Alison Notaro9, Joel Lubar10, Lonna Williams7, Thomas J Prihoda11, Tomas Palomo12, Marlene Oscar-Berman131Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; 2Department of Engineering and Management of Advanced Technology, Chang Jung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Neurosurgery, Weill College of Medicine, New York, NY; 4Department of Medical Genetics, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA; 5Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chang Jung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 6Department of Psychoneurogenetics, Synapatamine, Inc., San Antonio, TX; 7LifeGen, Inc., La Jolla, CA; 8Allied Nutraceutical Research, Lederach, PA; 9PATH Research Foundation, New York, NY; 10Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; 11Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX; 12Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; 13Boston University School of Medicine, and Boston VA Healthcare System, Boston, MAParts of this manuscript have been published in Theor Biol Med Model (Comings et al 2005, which is an open access journalAbstract: Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes that may mediate susceptibility to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the “brain reward cascade,” especially in the dopamine system, causing a low or hypo-dopaminergic trait, the brain may require dopamine for individuals to avoid unpleasant feelings. This high-risk genetic trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behaviors, because the drugs activate release of dopamine, which can diminish abnormal cravings. Moreover, this genetic trait is due in part to a

  5. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  6. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  7. Concordance of actigraphy with polysomnography in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldon, Jessica; Begum, Esmot; Gendron, Melissa; Rusak, Benjamin; Andreou, Pantelis; Rajda, Malgorzata; Corkum, Penny

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to: (1) compare actigraphy-derived estimated sleep variables to the same variables based on the gold-standard of sleep assessment, polysomnography; (2) examine whether the correlations between the measures differ between children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children; and (3) determine whether these correlations are altered when children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are treated with medication. Participants (24 attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; 24 typically developing), aged 6-12 years, completed a 1-week baseline assessment of typical sleep and daytime functioning. Following the baseline week, participants in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group completed a 4-week blinded randomized control trial of methylphenidate hydrochloride, including a 2-week placebo and 2-week methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment period. At the end of each observation (typically developing: baseline; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: baseline, placebo and methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment), all participants were invited to a sleep research laboratory, where overnight polysomnography and actigraphy were recorded concurrently. Findings from intra-class correlations and Bland-Altman plots were consistent. Actigraphy was found to provide good estimates (e.g. intra-class correlations >0.61) of polysomnography results for sleep duration for all groups and conditions, as well as for sleep-onset latency and sleep efficiency for the typically developing group and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group while on medication, but not for the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group during baseline or placebo. Based on the Bland-Altman plots, actigraphy tended to underestimate for sleep duration (8.6-18.5 min), sleep efficiency (5.6-9.3%) and sleep-onset latency, except for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during placebo in which actigraphy overestimated (-2.1 to 6

  8. Understanding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as a continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review research findings that consider whether attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a discrete entity or whether it is more consistent with an extreme end-of-trait distribution in the population and to then grapple with the potential clinical implications. Quality of evidence Peer-reviewed publications in the past 5 years, drawing from diverse fields (taxonomy, epidemiology, genetics, neurobiology, and neuropsychology), were identified through searches in MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Main message Accumulating research findings are most consistent with a predominately dimensional rather than a qualitatively distinct existence for ADHD. This does not negate the clinical needs of those who have substantial ADHD symptom clusters, nor the risks that such symptoms entail. However, the lack of discontinuity in the distribution of such traits in the population creates great uncertainty as to what thresholds should prompt explicit intervention. Conclusion The implications of this pattern of findings might include the need to de-emphasize categorical conceptualizations of ADHD, produce evidence to better inform risk-benefit ratios of interventions along a spectrum of symptom and functional severity, and more coherently triage and arrange service delivery on the basis of symptom and functional severity rather than artificial diagnostic categorizations. PMID:27965331

  9. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves.

  10. Pathway analysis in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: An ensemble approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Michael A; McWeeney, Shannon K; Faraone, Stephen V; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Nigg, Joel T; Wilmot, Beth

    2016-09-01

    Despite a wealth of evidence for the role of genetics in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), specific and definitive genetic mechanisms have not been identified. Pathway analyses, a subset of gene-set analyses, extend the knowledge gained from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) by providing functional context for genetic associations. However, there are numerous methods for association testing of gene sets and no real consensus regarding the best approach. The present study applied six pathway analysis methods to identify pathways associated with ADHD in two GWAS datasets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Methods that utilize genotypes to model pathway-level effects identified more replicable pathway associations than methods using summary statistics. In addition, pathways implicated by more than one method were significantly more likely to replicate. A number of brain-relevant pathways, such as RhoA signaling, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, fibroblast growth factor receptor activity, and pathways containing potassium channel genes, were nominally significant by multiple methods in both datasets. These results support previous hypotheses about the role of regulation of neurotransmitter release, neurite outgrowth and axon guidance in contributing to the ADHD phenotype and suggest the value of cross-method convergence in evaluating pathway analysis results. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Mean platelet volume in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorbik, Ozgur; Mutlu, Caner; Tanju, Ilhan Asya; Celik, Dincer; Ozcan, Omer

    2014-03-01

    The mean platelet volume (MPV), the accurate measure of platelet size, is considered a marker and determinant of platelet function. MPV can be a potentially useful prognostic biomarker in patients with cardiovascular disease. After reviewing literature, we hypothesized that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) in adulthood. The aim of this study was investigation of MPV and platelet count (PLT) in children with ADHD and healthy subjects. The MPV and the PLT were measured in 70 children with ADHD (aged 6-16 years), and compared with 41 healthy controls. The MPV was found to be significantly increased in ADHD group compared to control group (p=.006). There was no significant difference in the PLT between groups (p>.05). To our knowledge, this was the first study of investigating the levels of MPV and PLT in children with ADHD. Although significance and cause of increased MPV level in ADHD remain unclear in present study, further studies are warranted to investigate relationships among MPV, ADHD in childhood and CHD in adulthood.

  12. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugent K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kevin Nugent,1 Wallace Smart2,3 1Kinark Child and Family Services, Trent University and Sir Sanford Fleming College, Peterborough, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 3University of Lethbridge Health Centre, Lethbridge, AB, Canada Abstract: A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determine the prevalence and symptomatology of ADHD in postsecondary students, to examine its effects on academic achievement, and discuss appropriate management. The prevalence of ADHD symptoms among postsecondary students ranges from 2% to 12%. Students with ADHD have lower grade point averages and are more likely to withdraw from courses, to indulge in risky behaviors, and to have other psychiatric comorbidities than their non-ADHD peers. Ensuring that students with ADHD receive appropriate support requires documented evidence of impairment to academic and day-to-day functioning. In adults with ADHD, stimulants improve concentration and attention, although improved academic productivity remains to be demonstrated. ADHD negatively impacts academic performance in students and increases the likelihood of drug and alcohol problems. Affected students may therefore benefit from disability support services, academic accommodations, and pharmacological treatment. Keywords: adults, academic performance, stimulants, treatment

  13. Complex prospective memory in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults has been associated with disturbances of attention and executive functions. Furthermore, impairments of verbal and figural retrospective memory were reported. However, little is known about the effects of ADHD on prospective memory, the execution of delayed intentions in the future. METHODS: The present study compared the performance of 45 adult patients with ADHD not treated with stimulant medication with the performance of 45 matched healthy individuals on a paradigm of complex prospective memory which measured task planning, plan recall, self-initiation and execution. Furthermore, the contribution of other cognitive functions to prospective memory functioning was assessed, including measures of attention, executive functions and memory. RESULTS: A large-scale impairment could be observed in task planning abilities in patients with ADHD. Only negligible to small effects were found for plan recall, self-initiation and execution. Inhibition was identified to contribute significantly to performance on task planning. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that four cognitive components contribute to the performance of prospective memory. Impairments of prospective memory mainly emerged from deficient planning abilities in adults with ADHD. Implications on behavioral based intervention strategies are discussed.

  14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: parents' and professionals' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Tanya; Davis, Monica; Johnson, Ursula; Brooks, Hoplyn; Humbi, Annette

    2008-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent childhood psychiatric condition. This study was a qualitative investigation with parents and professionals conducted in two north London boroughs, using focus groups as well as semi-structured and narrative interviews. The aim was to explore parents' and professionals' beliefs regarding the causes of ADHD and their perceptions of service provision. The sample was drawn purposively from GP practices and voluntary support groups. Professionals were recruited via professional networks. Analysis was thematic. It was found that the views of parents and professionals differed. Professionals were more likely to see ADHD as a medical condition, while parents were more likely to see ADHD in association with socio-environmental causes. Delayed diagnosis, inadequate access to information and a lack of co-ordinated care are stated as some of the reasons for parental dissatisfaction with services. Professionals emphasised the need for multidisciplinary input into the management of ADHD. The implications of these findings were that parents often battled with professionals to encourage them to see their viewpoint, access to treatment was influenced by the views of parents and professionals, and noncompliance occurred when parents had different views from professionals.

  15. Dietary Patterns and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Iranian Children

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    Leila Azadbakht

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: : To evaluate the association of major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in a group of Iranian school aged children.Materials and Method: : This cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 school-aged children in Tehran, Iran. Usual dietary intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. DSM-IV questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of ADHD. Major dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Results: The prevalence of ADHD was 9.7% in this population. We identified 4 major dietary patterns: "healthy", "western", "sweet" and "fast foods" dietary patterns. Children in top quintile of "sweet dietary pattern” score had greater odds for having ADHD as compared with those in the lowest quintile (Odds ratio: 3.95; 95% CI: 1.16, 15.31; p=0.03. Greater adherence to "fast food" dietary pattern was significantly associated with higher risk of having ADHD (Odds ratio: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 10.90; p=0.03. No overall significant associations were seen between either healthy or western dietary patterns with ADHD. All these analysis were done in the controlled model for confounders.Conclusion: We found significant independent associations between "sweet" and "fast foods" dietary patterns and prevalence of ADHD. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings

  16. Hyperfocusing as a dimension of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel-Kizil, Erguvan Tugba; Kokurcan, Ahmet; Aksoy, Umut Mert; Kanat, Bilgen Bicer; Sakarya, Direnc; Bastug, Gulbahar; Colak, Burcin; Altunoz, Umut; Kirici, Sevinc; Demirbas, Hatice; Oncu, Bedriye

    2016-12-01

    Patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suffer not only from inability to focus but also from inability to shift attention for events that trigger their interests. This phenomenon is called "hyperfocusing". Previous literature about hyperfocusing is scarce and relies mainly on case reports. The study aimed to investigate and compare the severity of hyperfocusing in adult ADHD with and without psycho-stimulant use. ADHD (DSM-IV-TR) patients either psycho-stimulant naive (n=53) or on psycho-stimulants (n=79) from two ADHD clinics were recruited. The control group (n=65) consisted of healthy university students. A socio-demographic form, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Wender-Utah Rating Scale, the Adult ADHD Self- Report Scale and the Hyperfocusing Scale were applied to the participants. There was no difference between total Hyperfocusing Scale and Adult ADHD Self- Report Scale scores of two patient groups, but both have higher scores than controls (p<0.001). Hyperfocusing is higher in adult ADHD and there was no difference between stimulant-naive patients or patients on stimulants. Hyperfocusing can be defined as a separate dimension of adult ADHD.

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ferreira; Dornelles, Tarcísio Fanha; Barszcz, Karin; Martins, Eduardo Antunes

    2016-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ADHD and drug dependence. The presence and severity of ADHD and substance use were evaluated through questionnaires in 80 adult patients in therapeutic communities. No difference in drug use or dependence prevalence between ADHD and non-ADHD patients was found. However, ADHD patients had lower ages on admission (p = 0.004) and at first contact with cocaine (p = 0.033). In ADHD patients, there was a negative correlation between the age at first use of cannabis and the subsequent severity of cannabis use (p = 0.017) and cocaine use (p = 0.033). Though there was no difference in prevalence of drug use among groups, results show that ADHD in patients in therapeutic communities may cause different addiction patterns, such as earlier use of cocaine and admission, and a more severe use of cocaine correlated to earlier contact with cannabis.

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction rehabilitation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ADHD and drug dependence. Methods The presence and severity of ADHD and substance use were evaluated through questionnaires in 80 adult patients in therapeutic communities. Results No difference in drug use or dependence prevalence between ADHD and non-ADHD patients was found. However, ADHD patients had lower ages on admission (p = 0.004 and at first contact with cocaine (p = 0.033. In ADHD patients, there was a negative correlation between the age at first use of cannabis and the subsequent severity of cannabis use (p = 0.017 and cocaine use (p = 0.033. Conclusions Though there was no difference in prevalence of drug use among groups, results show that ADHD in patients in therapeutic communities may cause different addiction patterns, such as earlier use of cocaine and admission, and a more severe use of cocaine correlated to earlier contact with cannabis.

  19. The Relationship between Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Adulthood Borderline Personality Disorder

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    Ali Mashhadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a risk factor for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD during adulthood. Studying the relationship between childhood ADHD disorder symptoms and depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms among students was the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 291 students, who were studying in Shiraz and Tabriz universities inThe academic year of 2010-2011, were selected from three groups of Humanities, Basic Sciences, and Technical-Engineering Sciences using simple sampling method. They participated in the study through completing Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS, Borderline Personality Scale (STB and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. Pearsons correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between childhood ADHD and borderline Personality Disorder (BPD in adulthood and childhood ADHD is able to predict BPD in adulthood (p<0.01. Similarly, the relationship between symptoms of childhood ADHD and depression was positive and significant (p<0.01. Conclusion: There is a relationship between symptoms of childhood ADHD, BPD and depression in students. It is recommended to pay due attention to the comorbidity disorders such as BPD and depression in the treatment of ADHD disorder.

  20. Attention and Executive Function in Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Stepanian, Mariam; Grizenko, Natalie; Cornish, Kim; Talwar, Victoria; Mbekou, Valentin; Schmitz, Norbert; Joober, Ridha

    2017-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between comorbid disorders and executive function (EF) in children diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods Three hundred and fifty-five, 6–12 year old children clinically diagnosed with ADHD were included in the study. Comorbid anxiety disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) were examined. The EF domains were assessed using the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Tower of London (ToL), Finger Windows (FW) and Self Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Results The findings indicate that children with comorbid anxiety disorders performed worse in domains measured by CPT and prior to controlling for age and sex, by FW. However, once sex was controlled for the results for FW were no longer significant. Children with CD obtained lower scores on WCST. Furthermore, a significant sex by CD interaction was observed. Conclusion These results indicate that comorbid disorders should be carefully examined as they play a significant role in EF performance and subsequently in day-to-day functioning of children with ADHD.

  1. Attention Mechanisms in Children with Anxiety Disorders and in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Adam S.; Chu, Brian C.; Reddy, Linda A.; Mohlman, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Inattention is among the most commonly referred problems for school-aged youth. Research suggests distinct mechanisms may contribute to attention problems in youth with anxiety disorders versus youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compared children (8-17 years) with anxiety disorders (n = 24) and children (8-16…

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorder, and Allergy: Is There a Link? A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder usually co-occur in the same individuals, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Previous evidence has shown that a frequent coexistence of allergic diseases was noted in patients with ADHD or tic disorder. We attempted to investigate the possible link among ADHD,…

  3. Attention Mechanisms in Children with Anxiety Disorders and in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Adam S.; Chu, Brian C.; Reddy, Linda A.; Mohlman, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Inattention is among the most commonly referred problems for school-aged youth. Research suggests distinct mechanisms may contribute to attention problems in youth with anxiety disorders versus youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compared children (8-17 years) with anxiety disorders (n = 24) and children (8-16…

  4. The influence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder on white matter microstructure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, Hanneke; Noordermeer, Siri D. S.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Luman, Marjolein; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are highly comorbid disorders. ADHD has been associated with altered white matter (WM) microstructure, though the literature is inconsistent, which may be due to differences in the in- or exclusion of participant

  5. Exercise as an add-on strategy for the treatment of major depressive disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Gioia; Moro, Maria Francesca; Patten, Scott B; Carta, Mauro G

    2014-12-01

    Antidepressants are currently the treatment of choice for major depressive disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, a high percentage of patients do not respond to a first-line antidepressant drug, and combination treatments and augmentation strategies increase the risk of side effects. Moreover, a significant proportion of patients are treatment-resistant. In the last 30 years, a number of studies have sought to establish whether exercise could be regarded as an alternative to antidepressants, but so far no specific analysis has examined the efficacy of exercise as an adjunctive treatment in combination with antidepressants. We carried out a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise as an adjunctive treatment with antidepressants on depression. A search of relevant papers was carried out in PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, and Scopus with the following keywords: "exercise," "physical activity," "physical fitness," "depressive disorder," "depression," "depressive symptoms," "add-on," "augmentation," "adjunction," and "combined therapy." Twenty-two full-text articles were retrieved by the search. Among the 13 papers that fulfilled our inclusion criteria, we found methodological weaknesses in the majority. However, the included studies showed a strong effectiveness of exercise combined with antidepressants. Further analyses and higher quality studies are needed; nevertheless, as we have focused on a particular intervention (exercise in adjunction to antidepressants) that better reflects clinical practice, we can hypothesize that this strategy could be appropriately and safely translated into real-world practice.

  6. Parenting experiences of living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Britt; Grønkjær, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the most prevalent mental disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging and parents find it difficult to raise the child and struggle to get professional...... support. Research has shown how living with a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder influences the families' daily life. This includes how the parents manage to maintain a bearable family life, supportive or not supportive factors as well as parents' experiences of collaboration...... with professionals in diverse settings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on parenting experiences of living with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, including their experiences of health care and other services. INCLUSION...

  7. Attention network functioning in children with anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and non-clinical anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogg, K; Salum, G A; Bradley, B P; Gadelha, A; Pan, P; Alvarenga, P; Rohde, L A; Pine, D S; Manfro, G G

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults suggests that anxiety is associated with poor control of executive attention. However, in children, it is unclear (a) whether anxiety disorders and non-clinical anxiety are associated with deficits in executive attention, (b) whether such deficits are specific to anxiety versus other psychiatric disorders, and (c) whether there is heterogeneity among anxiety disorders (in particular, specific phobia versus other anxiety disorders). We examined executive attention in 860 children classified into three groups: anxiety disorders (n = 67), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 67) and no psychiatric disorder (n = 726). Anxiety disorders were subdivided into: anxiety disorders excluding specific phobia (n = 43) and specific phobia (n = 21). The Attention Network Task was used to assess executive attention, alerting and orienting. Findings indicated heterogeneity among anxiety disorders, as children with anxiety disorders (excluding specific phobia) showed impaired executive attention, compared with disorder-free children, whereas children with specific phobia showed no executive attention deficit. Among disorder-free children, executive attention was less efficient in those with high, relative to low, levels of anxiety. There were no anxiety-related deficits in orienting or alerting. Children with ADHD not only had poorer executive attention than disorder-free children, but also higher orienting scores, less accurate responses and more variable response times. Impaired executive attention in children (reflected by difficulty inhibiting processing of task-irrelevant information) was not fully explained by general psychopathology, but instead showed specific associations with anxiety disorders (other than specific phobia) and ADHD, as well as with high levels of anxiety symptoms in disorder-free children.

  8. Agrammatism in a case of formal thought disorder: Beyond intellectual decline and working memory deficit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semkovska, Maria

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that naming and syntactic deficits in formal thought disorder may be related to global cognitive decline. This article reports the case of a patient, FM, with formal thought disorder schizophrenia who presents disproportionate deficits in receptive and expressive grammar with respect to his intellectual level of functioning. Syntactic and morphologic components of expressive grammar appeared equally impaired. Deficits in language comprehension were observed independently from working memory limitations. FM showed preserved grammaticality judgment, but defective sentence comprehension where semantic context does not provide heuristics for assigning thematic roles, but syntactic knowledge is essential. These atypical results are discussed within a neurodevelopmental aetiological model of formal thought disorder.

  9. Shared and Disorder-Specific Prefrontal Abnormalities in Boys with Pure Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Compared to Boys with Pure CD during Interference Inhibition and Attention Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, Katya; Halari, Rozmin; Smith, Anna B.; Mohammad, Majeed; Scott, Stephen; Brammer, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inhibitory and attention deficits have been suggested to be shared problems of disruptive behaviour disorders. Patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and patients with conduct disorder (CD) show deficits in tasks of attention allocation and interference inhibition. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging…

  10. Cognitive Deficits as a Mediator of Poor Occupational Function in Remitted Major Depressive Disorder Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Young Sup; Rosenblat, Joshua D.; Kakar, Ron; Bahk, Won-Myong; McIntyre, Roger S.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients have been described in numerous studies. However, few reports have aimed to describe cognitive deficits in the remitted state of MDD and the mediational effect of cognitive deficits on occupational outcome. The aim of the current review is to synthesize the literature on the mediating and moderating effects of specific domains of cognition on occupational impairment among people with remitted MDD. In addition, predictors of cognit...

  11. LPHN3 and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Interaction with Maternal Stress during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Zia; Sengupta, Sarojini M.; Grizenko, Natalie; Fortier, Marie-Eve; Thakur, Geeta A.; Bellingham, Johanne; Joober, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous behavioral disorder, complex both in etiology and clinical expression. Both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated, and it has been suggested that gene-environment interactions may play a pivotal role in the disorder. Recently, a significant association…

  12. The Effects of Physical Activity on Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Matthew Jonathan; Bailey, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder among children. Despite the noted positive aspects of the disorder, it is often associated with a range of negative outcomes for that are detrimental to children's education and wider well-being. This comprehensive scoping review examined…

  13. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Chi-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Yen-Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and epilepsy in clinical settings. We assessed 64 children with ASD, 64 with ADHD, 64 with epilepsy, and 64 typically developing children without any neuropsychiatric disorders by using a sex-and age-matched…

  14. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Chi-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Yen-Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and epilepsy in clinical settings. We assessed 64 children with ASD, 64 with ADHD, 64 with epilepsy, and 64 typically developing children without any neuropsychiatric disorders by using a sex-and age-matched…

  15. Decision-making deficits in alcohol-dependent patients with and without comorbid personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Dom; B. de Wilde; W. Hulstijn; W. van den Brink; B. Sabbe

    2006-01-01

    Background: Impairments in decision making are a consistent finding in substance use disorder (SUD) populations. However, decision-making deficits are not specific for SUDs and are also reported in the context of other psychiatric disorders such as antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PD

  16. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Children with and without Intellectual Disability: An Examination across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, C. L.; Baker, B. L.; Blacher, J.; Crnic, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at heightened risk for mental disorders, and disruptive behaviour disorders appear to be the most prevalent. The current study is a longitudinal examination of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children with and without intellectual disability (ID) across…

  17. Neuropsychological Functioning in Childhood-Onset Psychosis and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Kimberly; Willcutt, Erik G.; Davalos, Deana B.; Ross, Randal G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset psychosis (COP) are chronic, heterogeneous disorders with symptoms that frequently co-occur, but the etiology of their comorbidity is unknown. Studies of each disorder indicate that both ADHD and COP are associated with a range of neuropsychological weaknesses, but few…

  18. Executive Functioning among Finnish Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Sandra K.; Humphrey, Lorie A.; Tapio, Terttu; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Yang, May H.; Dang, Jeff; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine cognitive functioning in a sample of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) from the North Finnish Birth Cohort 1986. The results conclude that executive function deficit (EFD) was more frequent in ADHD groups than in those without ADHD.

  19. Striatal Sensitivity during Reward Processing in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Mehta, Mitul A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to deficits in the dopaminergic reward-processing circuitry; yet, existing evidence is limited, and the influence of genetic variation affecting dopamine signaling remains unknown. We investigated striatal responsivity to rewards in ADHD combined type (ADHD-CT) using…

  20. Neural correlates of visuospatial working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, Hanneke; Weeda, Wouter D.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Luman, Marjolein; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Impaired visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is suggested to be a core neurocognitive deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the underlying neural activation patterns are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent age and gender effects may play a role in VS

  1. Risk for Bipolar Disorder is Associated with Face-Processing Deficits across Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Melissa A.; Skup, Martha; Rich, Brendan A.; Blair, Karina S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, James R.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the risks for face-emotion labeling deficits and bipolar disorder (BD) among youths is examined. Findings show that youths at risk for BD did not show specific face-emotion recognition deficits. The need to provide more intense emotional information for face-emotion labeling of patients and at-risk youths is also discussed.

  2. Deficits of hot executive function in developmental coordination disorder: Sensitivity to positive social cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, S.; Steenbergen, B.; Piek, J.P.; Wilson, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that children with motor coordination problems (or developmental coordination disorder – DCD) show deficits in not only cool executive function (EF), but also hot EF. We aimed to determine whether this deficit of hot EF is due to heightened sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, spe

  3. Deficits of hot executive function in developmental coordination disorder: Sensitivity to positive social cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, S.; Steenbergen, B.; Piek, J.P.; Wilson, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that children with motor coordination problems (or developmental coordination disorder - DCD) show deficits in not only cool executive function (EF), but also hot EF. We aimed to determine whether this deficit of hot EF is due to heightened sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, spe

  4. Risk for Bipolar Disorder is Associated with Face-Processing Deficits across Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Melissa A.; Skup, Martha; Rich, Brendan A.; Blair, Karina S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, James R.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the risks for face-emotion labeling deficits and bipolar disorder (BD) among youths is examined. Findings show that youths at risk for BD did not show specific face-emotion recognition deficits. The need to provide more intense emotional information for face-emotion labeling of patients and at-risk youths is also discussed.

  5. Perspective-taking deficits in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Lam, Cecilia W; Jiwatram, Tina

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined data from a Danish prospective longitudinal project in attempt to address the state/trait controversy regarding theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia. Deficits in perspective-taking--a component of theory of mind--were investigated prospectively among children who......-psychotic disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Deficits in perspective-taking among children who later developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders suggest that a facet of theory of mind is impaired prior to development of schizophrenia. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia...... developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders as adults in comparison to children who did not develop schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHOD: A total of 265 high risk and control subjects were studied in 1972. At the time of initial assessment, the Role-Taking Task (RTT) was administered. Two hundred...

  6. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  7. Gendering attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a discursive analysis of UK newspaper stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton-Salway, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Discursive psychology is used to study the gendering of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK national newspapers in the period of 2009-2011. The analysis examines how gendering is embedded in causal attributions and identity constructions. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is portrayed as a predominantly male phenomenon with representations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder being gendered through extreme stories about victims, villains or heroes that depict boys and men as marginalised, exceptional or dangerous. There is also a focus on mothers as the spokespersons and caretakers for parenting and family health while fathers are rendered more invisible. This contributes to our understanding of how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is constructed in the media using a range of gendered representations that draw on cultural stereotypes familiar in Western societies.

  8. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, J.C.; Onnink, A.M.H.; Klein, M.; Dammers, J.; Harneit, A.; Schulten, T.; Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Kan, C.C.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Buitelaar, J.; Franke, B.; Hoogman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsycholog

  9. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Krogh, Helle B; Ramstad, Erica

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidat...

  10. Baroreflex sensitivity during rest and executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The TRAILS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A.; Althaus, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mindera, R.B.; Hoofdakker, B.J. van den; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show executive function (EF) problems and neurophysiological hypoarousal. Baroreceptor activation, as part of the baroreflex short-term blood pressure regulatory mechanism, has been linked to cortical inhibition and attenuated cogni

  11. Dopamine Transporter Genotype Conveys Familial Risk of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder through Striatal Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, Sarah; Fossella, John A.; Mulder, Martijn J.; Casey B. J.; Ziermans, Tim B.; Vessaz, M. Nathalie; Van Engeland, Herman

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the effect of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) genotype in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results confirm that DAT1 translates the genetic risk of ADHD through striatal activation.

  12. Baroreflex sensitivity during rest and executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A.; Althaus, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Minderaa, R.B.; van den Hoofdakker, B.J.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show executive function (EF) problems and neurophysiological hypoarousal. Baroreceptor activation, as part of the baroreflex short-term blood pressure regulatory mechanism, has been linked to cortical inhibition and attenuated cogni

  13. Statistical Evidence Suggests that Inattention Drives Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolova, E; Groot, P.; Claassen, T.; Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Glennon, J.C.; Franke, B.; Heskes, T.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each othe

  14. Dopamine Transporter Genotype Conveys Familial Risk of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder through Striatal Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, Sarah; Fossella, John A.; Mulder, Martijn J.; Casey B. J.; Ziermans, Tim B.; Vessaz, M. Nathalie; Van Engeland, Herman

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the effect of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) genotype in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results confirm that DAT1 translates the genetic risk of ADHD through striatal activation.

  15. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Pedersen, Nadia; Ramstad, Erica

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies....

  16. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, J.C.; Onnink, A.M.H.; Klein, M.; Dammers, J.; Harneit, A.; Schulten, T.; Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Kan, C.C.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Buitelaar, J.; Franke, B.; Hoogman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of

  17. Methylphenidate for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole J; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    CLINICAL QUESTION: Is treatment with methylphenidate associated with benefits or harms for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? BOTTOM LINE: Methylphenidate is associated with improvement in ADHD symptoms, general behavior, and quality of life; however, due...

  18. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  19. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of AD

  20. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogman, Martine; Bralten, Janita; Hibar, Derrek P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies...

  1. [Narrative review of scales assessing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrán Paz, María Evangelina; Ortiz Monasterio, Raúl; Herrán Ramírez, María Amparo; Rodríguez-Díaz, Antonio; García Villalpando, Ana Karen

    2014-01-20

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral disorder in school-age population and is a major driver of mental health consultation. Diagnosis is hindered by the difficulty of objectively assessing subjective aspects such as inattention or impulsivity. To briefly describe the most widely used rating scales as tools for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, subtypes and comorbidities, based on a review of information available in MEDLINE, Medic America, Academic Search Complete and Mendeley databases. This disorder is poorly understood in the family and school environment, which hampers detection and timely treatment. Rating scales have advantages and disadvantages, but they are undoubtedly important for an initial approach to the clinical manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. There is a need for better diagnostic tools or scales that take into account the stage of neurodevelopment, other developmental stages, gender differences, sociocultural aspects and diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition.

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications in children with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Stuart

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is quite common in the general pediatric population, Its incidence is thought to be even higher in the population of patients with congenital heart disease, especially in those patients with complex disease and who have had cardiac surgical interventions early in life. There has been controversy as to the safety of ADHD medications, especially in the latter population of patients. This compendium is meant to review the effects of the ADHD medications and the safety of these medications in patients with either known or undiagnosed congenital heart disease. The concern with regard to the use of ADHD medications has been as a result of the reports of sudden unexpected deaths among patients taking stimulant drugs for ADHD. Therefore, the question of whether or not stimulant drugs increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events has led to a discussion of the appropriate use of these drugs in patients with known cardiovascular disease, as well as a discussion as to the appropriate evaluation in order to identify undiagnosed 'at-risk' patients with congenital heart disease or arrhythmias. This article will review and amplify these discussions, as well as the conclusions that have come forth as a result of these discussions. Currently available data suggest that there is no evidence for serious adverse cardiovascular complications in children with known cardiovascular diseases including patients of congenital heart disease who are treated with stimulant medications. Despite this, if the patient does have known cardiac disease, or if the history and physical examination is suggestive of cardiac disease, it is suggested that consultation/evaluation with a pediatric cardiologist occur. It is extremely unlikely that stimulant medications would be contraindicated in almost any condition that falls under this category. However, a few specific cardiac conditions might tailor the choice of the specific ADHD medication. Therefore

  3. [Dietary patterns in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá Travé, T; Diez Bayona, V; Yoldi Petri, M E; Aguilera Albesa, S

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the dietary patterns in a group of patients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and under treatment with extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-ER). A nutrition survey (food intake recall for three consecutive days) was carried out on 100 patients diagnosed with ADHD and under treatment with MPH-ER, and in 150 healthy children (control group). Calorie and nutrient intake, as well as nutrition status, were evaluated and compared in both groups. The mean MPH-ER dose was 1.02 mg/kg/day. Nutritional status in the ADHD group was significantly lower (P < .05) than in control group. The consumption of cereals, meat, pulses and fruits in the control group was significantly higher (P < .05) than in ADHD group. Calorie intake in the mid-morning snack, lunch and afternoon snack was significantly higher (P < .05) in the control group. Calorie intake at supper was significantly higher (P < .05) in the ADHD group. Total calorie intake, as well as protein, carbohydrates, fat, fibre, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, selenium and phosphorous, thiamine, niacin, vitamin B6 and folate intake in the control group was significantly higher than in ADHD group. Treatment with MPH-ER substantially modifies the percentage distribution of calorie intake of the different meals. The daily calorie and nutrients intake in patients under treatment with MPH-ER is, generally, lower than in the healthy population of a similar age. Nutrition education should be provided, along with multimodal treatment, to the patients and/or their families. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Familial aggregation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Brikell, Isabell; Lichtenstein, Paul; Serlachius, Eva; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Sandin, Sven; Larsson, Henrik

    2017-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) aggregates in families. To date, the strength, pattern, and characteristics of the familial aggregation have not been thoroughly assessed in a population-based family sample. In this cohort study, we identified relative pairs of twins, full and half-siblings, and full and half cousins from 1,656,943 unique individuals born in Sweden between 1985 and 2006. The relatives of index persons were followed from their third birthday to 31 December 2009 for ADHD diagnosis. Birth year adjusted hazard ratio (HR), that is, the rate of ADHD in relatives of ADHD-affected index persons compared with the rate of ADHD in relatives of unaffected index persons, was estimated in the different types of relatives using Cox proportional hazards model. During the follow-up, 31,865 individuals were diagnosed with ADHD (male to female ratio was 3.7). The birth year adjusted HRs were as follows: 70.45 for monozygotic twins; 8.44 for dizygotic twins; 8.27 for full siblings; 2.86 for maternal half-siblings; 2.31 for paternal half-siblings; 2.24 for full cousins; 1.47 for half cousins. Maternal half-siblings had significantly higher HR than in paternal half-siblings. The HR did not seem to be affected by index person's sex. Full siblings of index persons with ADHD diagnosis present at age 18 or older had a higher rate of ADHD (HR: 11.49) than full siblings of index persons with ADHD diagnosis only before age 18 (HR: 4.68). Familial aggregation of ADHD increases with increasing genetic relatedness. The familial aggregation is driven by not only genetic factors but also a small amount of shared environmental factors. Persistence of ADHD into adulthood indexes stronger familial aggregation of ADHD. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Electroencephalography signatures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guzmán Alba,1 Ernesto Pereda,2 Soledad Mañas,3 Leopoldo D Méndez,3 Almudena González,1 Julián J González1 1Physiology Unit, Health Sciences Faculty (S Medicine, 2Department of Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering and Technology, University of La Laguna, 3Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, University Hospital La Candelaria, Tenerife, Spain Abstract: The techniques and the most important results on the use of electroencephalography (EEG to extract different measures are reviewed in this work, which can be clinically useful to study subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. First, we discuss briefly and in simple terms the EEG analysis and processing techniques most used in the context of ADHD. We review techniques that both analyze individual EEG channels (univariate measures and study the statistical interdependence between different EEG channels (multivariate measures, the so-called functional brain connectivity. Among the former ones, we review the classical indices of absolute and relative spectral power and estimations of the complexity of the channels, such as the approximate entropy and the Lempel-Ziv complexity. Among the latter ones, we focus on the magnitude square coherence and on different measures based on the concept of generalized synchronization and its estimation in the state space. Second, from a historical point of view, we present the most important results achieved with these techniques and their clinical utility (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to diagnose ADHD. Finally, we propose future research lines based on these results. Keywords: EEG, ADHD, power spectrum, functional connectivity, clinical assessment

  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence predicts onset of major depressive disorder through early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Michael C; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Seeley, John R; Gau, Jeff M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waxmonsky, James G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed in mid-adolescence and the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) through early adulthood in a large school-based sample. A secondary aim was to examine whether this relationship was robust after accounting for comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial impairment. One thousand five hundred seven participants from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project completed rating scales in adolescence and structured diagnostic interviews up to four times from adolescence to age 30. Adolescents with a lifetime history of ADHD were at significantly higher risk of MDD through early adulthood relative to those with no history of ADHD. ADHD remained a significant predictor of MDD after controlling for gender, lifetime history of other psychiatric disorders in adolescence, social and academic impairment in adolescence, stress and coping in adolescence, and new onset of other psychiatric disorders through early adulthood (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.04, 3.06). Additional significant, robust predictors of MDD included female gender, a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder, and poor coping skills in mid-adolescence, as well as the onset of anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and substance-use disorder after mid-adolescence. A history of ADHD in adolescence was associated with elevated risk of MDD through early adulthood and this relationship remained significant after controlling for psychosocial impairment in adolescence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Additional work is needed to identify the mechanisms of risk and to inform depression prevention programs for adolescents with ADHD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case study and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel CS; Chaim-Avancini TM; Silva MA; Louzã MR

    2015-01-01

    Carmen Sílvia Miguel, Tiffany M Chaim-Avancini, Maria Aparecida Silva, Mario Rodrigues LouzãAdult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Program (PRODATH), Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: The cognitive profile of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been well characterized, but few studies have evaluated the cognitive abilities o...

  8. Characteristics of children of younger school age with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Abshilava E.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers different approaches to the definition of the syndrome of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder: hyperkinetic syndrome, hyperkinetic disorders, minimal brain dysfunction. Examines the principal causes and the main symptoms of ADHD: clinical manifestations of attention deficit in children, prenatal pathology, complications, psycho–social reasons. A scheme of the integrated multi–level therapeutic and remedial assistance to children with ADHD: first level — metaboli...

  9. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Pedersen, Nadia; Ramstad, Erica

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies.......This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies....

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders across the lifespan: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Rivka L; Rawana, Jennine S

    2016-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders are common and concerning mental health disorders. There is both empirical and theoretical support for an association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. This systematic review aims to summarize the extant literature on the comorbidity of ADHD and eating disorders across the lifespan, including the influences of sex, age, eating disorder diagnosis, and potential mediators. A total of 37 peer-reviewed studies on diagnosed ADHD and eating disturbances were identified through key research databases. Twenty-six studies supported a strong empirical association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. The systematic review findings suggest that children with ADHD are at risk for disordered eating, while adolescents, emerging adults, and adults are at risk for both eating disorders and disordered eating. Methodological considerations, future research, and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Personality characteristics of adults with autism spectrum disorders or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with and without substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Bram; van den Brink, Wim; Gorissen van Eenige, Marielle; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2009-06-01

    We examined temperament and character profiles of 128 adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants completed the abbreviated Temperament and Character Inventory. The ASD and ADHD groups showed distinct temperament profiles (ADHD: high novelty seeking, ASD: low reward dependence, high harm avoidance) and low character scores in both groups. We then stratified ASD and ADHD into current substance use disorder (SUD+), former (SUD;), or no history of Substance Use Disorder (SUD-). Novelty seeking and reward dependence were only significantly lower for ASD/SUD-, but normal for ASD/SUD; and ASD/SUD+ subgroups. Persistence scores were highest in both SUD; subgroups. We concluded that temperament profiles of ASD and ADHD patients differ significantly, and are similar to profiles reported in earlier studies, but appear to depend on the SUD status. Surprisingly, normal social orientation is found in ASD patients with former or current SUD. High persistence scores characterize patients who overcome SUD.

  12. Understanding the Covariation among Childhood Externalizing Symptoms: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Danielle M.; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common childhood externalizing disorders that frequently co-occur. However, the causes of their comorbidity are not well understood. To address that question, we analyzed data from >600 Finnish twin pairs, who completed standardized…

  13. Atomoxetine Induced Hypomania in a Patient with Bipolar Disorder and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijaya; Varambally, Shivarama

    2017-01-01

    Comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BD) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequent. The management of comorbid ADHD and BD is complicated by the risk of induction of (hypo) mania by the medications used for ADHD treatment. Earlier reports in children and adolescents with ADHD-BD suggest that the possibility of (hypo) mania induction is low when atomoxetine is used along mood stabilizers or antipsychotics. Here, we report induction of hypomania by atomoxetine when used for the treatment of comorbid ADHD in a BD patient while on prophylactic treatment with mood stabilizers. This report indicates that atomoxetine carries the risk of induction of (hypo) mania even in stabilized BD patients. Clinicians should closely monitor such patients for (hypo) mania symptoms.

  14. Atomoxetine induced hypomania in a patient with bipolar disorder and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BD with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is frequent. The management of comorbid ADHD and BD is complicated by the risk of induction of (hypo mania by the medications used for ADHD treatment. Earlier reports in children and adolescents with ADHD-BD suggest that the possibility of (hypo mania induction is low when atomoxetine is used along mood stabilizers or antipsychotics. Here, we report induction of hypomania by atomoxetine when used for the treatment of comorbid ADHD in a BD patient while on prophylactic treatment with mood stabilizers. This report indicates that atomoxetine carries the risk of induction of (hypo mania even in stabilized BD patients. Clinicians should closely monitor such patients for (hypo mania symptoms.

  15. Atomoxetine Induced Hypomania in a Patient with Bipolar Disorder and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijaya; Varambally, Shivarama

    2017-01-01

    Comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BD) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequent. The management of comorbid ADHD and BD is complicated by the risk of induction of (hypo) mania by the medications used for ADHD treatment. Earlier reports in children and adolescents with ADHD-BD suggest that the possibility of (hypo) mania induction is low when atomoxetine is used along mood stabilizers or antipsychotics. Here, we report induction of hypomania by atomoxetine when used for the treatment of comorbid ADHD in a BD patient while on prophylactic treatment with mood stabilizers. This report indicates that atomoxetine carries the risk of induction of (hypo) mania even in stabilized BD patients. Clinicians should closely monitor such patients for (hypo) mania symptoms.

  16. Deficit

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    UCL's former provost, Sir Derek Roberts, has been drafted in for a year to run the college. UCL is expected to have a 6 million pounds deficit this year and up to a 10 million pounds deficit next year. Sir Christopher Llewellyn-Smith took over at UCL nearly 4 years ago and decided then that the finanical situation was serious enough to warrant a reduction in the vast expansion policy undertaken by his predecessor (1 page).

  17. Critical exploration of co-occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, mood disorder and Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnart, Judith; Truter, Ilse; Meyer, Anneke

    2017-06-01

    Co-occurring disorders (CODs) describe a Substance Use Disorder (SUD) accompanied by a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and mood disorders are common CODs with high prevalence rates in SUD populations. It is proposed that literature on a tri-condition presentation of ADHD, mood disorder and SUD is limited. Areas covered: A literature search was conducted using a keyword search on EBSCOhost. Initially 2 799 records were identified, however, only two articles included all three conditions occurring concurrently in individuals. CODs constitute a major concern due to their overarching burden on society as a whole. Diagnosis and treatment of such patients is challenging. There is evidence that dysfunction of dopamine in the brain reward circuitry impacts the development or symptomology of all three disorders. Disparity exists regarding whether ADHD or mood disorders are greater modifiers for increased SUD severity. However, it has been reported that poor functional capacity may have a greater influence than comorbidities on SUD development. Expert commentary: Challenges exist which confound the clear distinction of CODs, however, with greater emergence of adult ADHD its screening in SUD populations should become standard practice to establish data on multi-condition presentations with the ultimate goal of improving clinical outcomes.

  18. Disordered cortical connectivity underlies the executive function deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yvonne M Y; Chan, Agnes S

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined the executive function and cortical connectivity of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and investigated whether the executive function deficits exhibited by these children were differentially affected and associated with the cortical connectivity. The present study compared high-functioning (HFA) and low-functioning (LFA) children with typically developing children (TDC) on their executive functions as measured by the Hong Kong List Learning Test, D2 Test of Concentration, Five Point Test, Children's Color Trail Test, Tower of California Test, and Go/No-Go task and neural connectivity as measured by theta coherence in the distributed fronto-parietal network. Thirty-eight children with ASD (19 HFA and 19 LFA) and 28 TDC children, aged 8-17 years, participated voluntarily in the study. The results on executive function showed that the LFA group demonstrated the poorest performance as exhibited by their Executive Composite and individual executive function scores, while the TDC group exhibited the highest. These results have extended the findings of previous studies in demonstrating that HFA and LFA children have significant differences in their degree of executive function deficits. The results on neural connectivity also showed that children with ASD demonstrated a different pattern of electroencephalography (EEG) coherence from TDC children, as demonstrated by the significantly elevated theta coherence in the fronto-parietal network, and that the severity of executive dysfunction between high- and low-functioning children with ASD was found to be associated with the disordered neural connectivity in these children.

  19. Comorbidity and confounding factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang YS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Wen Jan1,2, Chien-Ming Yang1,3, Yu-Shu Huang4,51Department of Psychology, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei; 2Sleep Center of Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei; 3The Research Center for Mind Brain and Learning, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei; 4Department of Child Psychiatry and Sleep Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan; 5College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, TaiwanAbstract: Sleep problems are commonly reported in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms. Research data regarding the complex and reciprocal relationship between ADHD and sleep disturbances has now accumulated. This paper is focused on the types of sleep problems that are associated with ADHD symptomatology, and attempts to untangle confounding factors and overlapping symptoms. The goal is also to present an updated overview of the pathophysiology of and treatment strategies for sleep problems in children with ADHD. The review also points out that future research will be needed to clarify further the other psychiatric comorbidities and side effects of medication in order to improve treatment outcomes and prevent misdiagnosis in clinical practice.Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, sleep, children 

  20. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder: Associations With Childhood Trauma and Dimensions of Personality Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Marianne S; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean; Mathiesen, Birgit B; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-09-12

    The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination.

  1. Executive Function Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Lan; Daley, David; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Jin-Song; Kong, Yan-Ting; Tan, Xin; Ji, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with core deficits in executive function (EF) which predicts poorer academic and occupational functioning. This makes early intervention targeting EF impairments important to prevent long-term negative outcomes. Cognitive training is a potential ADHD treatment target. The present study aimed to explore the efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of a cognitive training program (targeting child's multiple EF components and involving parent support in daily life), as a nonpharmacological intervention for children with ADHD. Methods: Forty-four school -age children with ADHD and their parents participated in 12 sessions of EF training (last for 12 weeks) and 88 health controls (HC) were also recruited. Training effects were explored using both neuropsychological tests (Stroop color-word test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, trail making test, tower of Hanoi, and false-belief task) and reports of daily life (ADHD rating scale-IV, Conners’ parent rating scale, and behavior rating inventory of executive function [BRIEF]) by analysis of paired sample t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences on EF performances between children with ADHD after training and HC were explored using multivariate analysis. Results: The results (before vs. after EF training) showed that after intervention, the children with ADHD presented better performances of EF both in neuropsychological tests (word interference of Stroop: 36.1 ± 14.6 vs. 27.1 ± 11.1, t = 4.731, P < 0.001; shift time of TMT: 194.9 ± 115.4 vs. 124.8 ± 72.4, Z = –4.639, P < 0.001; false-belief task: χ2 = 6.932, P = 0.008) and reports of daily life (global executive composite of BRIEF: 148.9 ± 17.5 vs. 127.8 ± 17.5, t = 6.433, P < 0.001). The performances on EF tasks for children with ADHD after EF training could match with the level of HC children. The ADHD symptoms (ADHD rating scale total

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and disorder (ADHD) among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    epidemiology of ADHD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity ... effective healthcare policy further studies are needed to define the magnitude and burden of ADHD and other childhood ... carried out among sub-Saharan African children in primary.

  3. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  4. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  5. Emotion Perception or Social Cognitive Complexity: What Drives Face Processing Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer A; Creighton, Sarah E; Rutherford, M D

    2016-02-01

    Some, but not all, relevant studies have revealed face processing deficits among those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, deficits are revealed in face processing tasks that involve emotion perception. The current study examined whether either deficits in processing emotional expression or deficits in processing social cognitive complexity drive face processing deficits in ASD. We tested adults with and without ASD on a battery of face processing tasks that varied with respect to emotional expression processing and social cognitive complexity. Results revealed significant group differences on tasks involving emotional expression processing, but typical performance on a non-emotional but socially complex task. These results support an emotion processing rather than a social complexity explanation for face processing deficits in ASD.

  6. Comorbidity of Learning Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Sample of Omani Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watfa S. Al-Mamari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The estimated worldwide prevalence of learning disorders (LDs is approximately 2‒10% among school-aged children. LDs have variable clinical features and are often associated with other disorders. This study aimed to examine the comorbidity of LDs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD among a sample of schoolchildren in Oman. Methods: This study was conducted between January 2014 and January 2015 at the Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. The Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI and the 28- item version of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale was completed by classroom teachers to determine the existence of LD and ADHD symptoms in 321 children in grades 1‒4 who had been referred to a learning support unit for LDs from elementary schools in Muscat. Results: The mean age of the students was 8.5 years. Among the cohort, 30% were reported to have symptoms of ADHD, including conduct problems (24%, hyperactivity (24% and inattentivepassive behaviours (41%. Male students reportedly exhibited greater conduct problems and hyperactivity than females. However, there were no gender differences noted between LDDI scores. Conclusion: This study suggests that Omani schoolchildren with LDs are likely to exhibit signs of ADHD. The early identification of this disorder is essential considering the chronic nature of ADHD. For interventional purposes, multidisciplinary teams are recommended, including general and special educators, clinical psychologists, school counsellors, developmental or experienced general paediatricians and child psychiatrists.

  7. Differentiation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder by the social communication questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenck, Christina; Freitag, Christine M

    2014-09-01

    The differentiation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) poses a clinical challenge. In children, overlap of psychopathological and cognitive findings has been found for both disorders. In addition, some children suffer from both disorders. The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a screening instrument for ASD symptoms which indicates the presence of ASD in a rapid and economic way. However, validity to differentiate ASD and ADHD as differential or comorbid diagnoses has not been studied. Here, the differential validity was compared in groups of children with ASD, ADHD, ASD + ADHD, and typically developing (TD) children and IQ > 70. ROC analyses indicated an excellent differentiation between ASD and TD with ROC-AUC = .941 and between ASD + ADHD with ROC-AUC = .993. The optimal cutoff was below the originally recommended one of 15. The differentiation between children with ASD with (ROC-AUC = .982) or without ADHD (ROC-AUC = .864) and ADHD alone also showed acceptable differential validity, and here, the optimal cutoff corresponded to the recommended. Taken together, the SCQ can be recommended as a screening instrument for a first differentiation between children with ASD and typically developing children as well as children with ADHD.

  8. Atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, P.W.; Steenhuis, M.P.; Tuynman-Qua, H.G.; Kalverdijk, L.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This pilot study examined the effects of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic features in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). METHOD: Twelve children (aged 6-14 years) with PDD accompanied by ADHD symptoms entered a 10-wee

  9. Atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, Pieter W.; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Tuynman-Qua, Hanneke G.; Kalverdijk, Luuk J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effects of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic features in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Twelve children (aged 6-14 years) with PDD accompanied by ADHD symptoms entered a 10-wee

  10. A Comparison of Neuropsychological Test Profiles of Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and/or Learning Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Marit; Pesonen, Aino-Elina

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of eight-year-old children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=21), learning disorder (LD) (n=12), or both (n=27) on neuropsychological measures found that ADHD children were impaired in control and inhibition of impulses; children with LD in phonological awareness, verbal memory span, storytelling, and verbal IQ;…

  11. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  12. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  13. Atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, P.W.; Steenhuis, M.P.; Tuynman-Qua, H.G.; Kalverdijk, L.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This pilot study examined the effects of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic features in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). METHOD: Twelve children (aged 6-14 years) with PDD accompanied by ADHD symptoms entered a 10-wee

  14. Evaluation of Planning Dysfunction in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorders Using the Zoo Map Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Marin, M. D.; Moreno-Granados, J. M.; Ruiz-Veguilla, M.; Ferrin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorders (ADHD) and Autistic-Spectrum-Disorders (ASD) share overlapping clinical and cognitive features that may confuse the diagnosis. Evaluation of executive problems and planning dysfunction may aid the clinical diagnostic process and help disentangle the neurobiological process underlying these conditions. This…

  15. Atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, Pieter W.; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Tuynman-Qua, Hanneke G.; Kalverdijk, Luuk J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effects of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic features in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Twelve children (aged 6-14 years) with PDD accompanied by ADHD symptoms entered a 10-wee

  16. A Causal and Mediation Analysis of the Comorbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Elena; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Rommelse, Nanda N.; Groot, Perry; Hartman, Catharina A.; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Claassen, Tom; Heskes, Tom; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between ASD and ADHD symptoms by applying causal modeling. We used a large phenotypic data set of 417 children with ASD and/or ADHD, 562 affected and unaffected siblings, and 414 controls,…

  17. Support for Learning Goes beyond Academic Support: Voices of Students with Asperger's Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the experiences of support at school among young adults with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and also to examine what support they, in retrospect, described as influencing learning. Purposive sampling was used to enroll participants. Data were collected through…

  18. Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L.; Short, Elizabeth J.; McNamara, Nora K.; Demeter, Christine A.; Stansbrey, Robert J.; Gracious, Barbara L.; Whipkey, Resaca; Manos, Michael J.; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2007-01-01

    The short-term efficacy of methylphenidate in the treatment of youths aged 5 to 17 years with bipolar disorder (BD) and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was investigated. The trial observation showed that euthymic youths with BD and ADHD might benefit from short-term concomitant treatment with methylphenidate.

  19. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  20. A controlled trial of methylphenidate in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, P.J.B.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Verbrugge, C.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common among adult patients with substance use disorders. The benefits of treating ADHD in these patients are uncertain and the prescription of psychostimulants is disputed, because of the risk of abuse. This study examined the short-term effe

  1. A controlled trial of methylphenidate in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, P.J.B.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Verbrugge, C.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common among adult patients with substance use disorders. The benefits of treating ADHD in these patients are uncertain and the prescription of psychostimulants is disputed, because of the risk of abuse. This study examined the short-term

  2. Fine motor skills and effects of methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit - Hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, Boudien C.T.; Houwen, Suzanne; Schoemaker, Marina M.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate fine motor skills of children with both attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those of a control group, and to examine the effects of methylphenidate on these skills. A group of 12 children with AD

  3. A Causal and Mediation Analysis of the Comorbidity Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolova, Elena; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Rommelse, Nanda; Groot, Perry; Hartman, Catharina A.; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Claassen, Tom; Heskes, Tom; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between ASD and ADHD symptoms by applying causal modeling. We used a large phenotypic data set of 417 children with ASD and/or ADHD, 562

  4. The Relationships between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Problematic Drug Use (PDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alastair

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD) and problematic drug use (PDU). The review considers the main debates around the structure and aetiology of ADHD and the main theoretical frameworks offered to explain the…

  5. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  6. The diet factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon; Yee, Michelle M

    2012-02-01

    This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of dietary methods for treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when pharmacotherapy has proven unsatisfactory or unacceptable. Results of recent research and controlled studies, based on a PubMed search, are emphasized and compared with earlier reports. The recent increase of interest in this form of therapy for ADHD, and especially in the use of omega supplements, significance of iron deficiency, and the avoidance of the "Western pattern" diet, make the discussion timely. Diets to reduce symptoms associated with ADHD include sugar-restricted, additive/preservative-free, oligoantigenic/elimination, and fatty acid supplements. Omega-3 supplement is the latest dietary treatment with positive reports of efficacy, and interest in the additive-free diet of the 1970s is occasionally revived. A provocative report draws attention to the ADHD-associated "Western-style" diet, high in fat and refined sugars, and the ADHD-free "healthy" diet, containing fiber, folate, and omega-3 fatty acids. The literature on diets and ADHD, listed by PubMed, is reviewed with emphasis on recent controlled studies. Recommendations for the use of diets are based on current opinion of published reports and our practice experience. Indications for dietary therapy include medication failure, parental or patient preference, iron deficiency, and, when appropriate, change from an ADHD-linked Western diet to an ADHD-free healthy diet. Foods associated with ADHD to be avoided and those not linked with ADHD and preferred are listed. In practice, additive-free and oligoantigenic/elimination diets are time-consuming and disruptive to the household; they are indicated only in selected patients. Iron and zinc are supplemented in patients with known deficiencies; they may also enhance the effectiveness of stimulant therapy. In patients failing to respond or with parents opposed to medication, omega-3

  7. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Patients with Substance Use Disorders: A Study from Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Suhas; Kandasamy, Arun; Sahayaraj, Ubahara S.; Benegal, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Context: Externalizing disorders of childhood characterized by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder are well known to predispose an individual to experiment with substances at an early age and the later lead to the development of substance use disorders (SUD). ADHD, a developmental disorder, persists into adulthood in about two-thirds of the cases. Aims: In the present study, we aimed to explore the prevalence of ADHD and its subtypes in treatment-seeking patients with SUD in an outpatient setting. Secondarily, we also aimed to compare the ADHD scores in the early onset and late onset subtypes of SUD. Subjects and Methods: Adult ADHD self-report scale symptom checklist was administered in 240 patients with SUD. The prevalence of ADHD and the difference in scores in early onset and late onset dependent groups of SUD patients were calculated. Statistical Analysis: Independent sample t-test was used to calculate the mean differences, and Chi-square test was used to calculate the difference in the proportion of cases screening positive across subgroups. Results: Among the 240 patients with SUD, 135 (56.25%) screened positive for “likely ADHD” and 52 (21.7%) for “highly likely ADHD.” The scores on the inattention domain and the prevalence of “likely ADHD” were significantly higher among the early onset group. Conclusions: The results are in agreement with similar studies of larger samples performed worldwide. Routine screening for ADHD in the treatment-seeking patients with SUD will enable the early detection and management of this highly comorbid condition.

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptacek R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radek Ptacek,1,2 George B Stefano,1,3 Simon Weissenberger,1 Devang Akotia,1 Jiri Raboch,1 Hana Papezova,1 Lucie Domkarova,1 Tereza Stepankova,1 Michal Goetz4 1Department of Psychiatry, Charles University 1st Medical Faculty and General Teaching Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychology, University of New York in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3MitoGenetics Research Institute, MitoGenetics, LLC, Farmingdale, NY, USA; 4Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs. In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1 impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2 other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3 poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4 other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from

  9. Social isolation induces deficit of latent learning performance in mice: a putative animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Hirofumi; Ono, Kazuya; Murakami, Yukihisa; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2013-02-01

    Social isolation of rodents (SI) elicits a variety of stress responses such as increased aggressiveness, hyper-locomotion, and reduced susceptibility to pentobarbital. To obtain a better understanding of the relevance of SI-induced behavioral abnormalities to psychiatric disorders, we examined the effect of SI on latent learning as an index of spatial attention, and discussed the availability of SI as an epigenetic model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Except in specially stated cases, 4-week-old male mice were housed in a group or socially isolated for 3-70 days before experiments. The animals socially isolated for 1 week or more exhibited spatial attention deficit in the water-finding test. Re-socialized rearing for 5 weeks after 1-week SI failed to attenuate the spatial attention deficit. The effect of SI on spatial attention showed no gender difference or correlation with increased aggressive behavior. Moreover, SI had no effect on cognitive performance elucidated in a modified Y-maze or an object recognition test, but it significantly impaired contextual and conditional fear memory elucidated in the fear-conditioning test. Drugs used for ADHD therapy, methylphenidate (1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) and caffeine (0.5-1 mg/kg, i.p.), improved SI-induced latent learning deficit in a manner reversible with cholinergic but not dopaminergic antagonists. Considering the behavioral features of SI mice together with their susceptibility to ADHD drugs, the present findings suggest that SI provides an epigenetic animal model of ADHD and that central cholinergic systems play a role in the effect of methylphenidate on SI-induced spatial attention deficit.

  10. Family-genetic study of executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence for an endophenotype?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats-Willemse, D.I.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.J.; Sonneville, L.M. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined familiality of attentional control and mental flexibility in multiplex attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) families. The authors hypothesized that siblings of ADHD probands, although not behaviorally expressing ADHD, have deficits in these executive functions and that

  11. Executive Functions and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications of Two Conflicting Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    While increasing numbers of articles and books refer to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a disorder of "executive function" of the mind, two conflicting views have emerged about how ADHD and executive function are related. In one view it is argued that some, but not all, who meet the fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and…

  12. Family-Based Genome-Wide Association Scan of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Eric; Todorov, Alexandre; Smalley, Susan; Hu, Xiaolan; Loo, Sandra; Todd, Richard D.; Biederman, Joseph; Byrne, Deirdre; Dechairo, Bryan; Guiney, Allan; McCracken, James; McGough, James; Nelson, Stanley F.; Reiersen, Angela M.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Wozniak, Janet; Neale, Benjamin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Genes likely play a substantial role in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the genetic architecture of the disorder is unknown, and prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not identified a genome-wide significant association. We have conducted a third, independent, multisite GWAS of…

  13. Persistence of Sleep Problems in Children with Anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Skirbekk, Benedicte; Oerbeck, Beate; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Kristensen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the persistence of sleep problems over 18 months in 76 referred children with anxiety disorders and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and 31 nonreferred controls, and explores predictors of sleep problems at follow-up (T2) in the referred children. Diagnoses were assessed at initial assessment (T1) using the…

  14. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio, Belen; Boes, Aaron D; Laganiere, Simon; Rotenberg, Alexander; Jeurissen, Danique; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in the pediatric population. The clinical management of ADHD is currently limited by a lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers and inadequate therapy for a minority of patients who do not respond

  15. Barriers to the Identification of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayal, Kapil; Goodman, Robert; Ford, Tamsin

    2006-01-01

    Background: In most countries, the majority of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are undiagnosed. In the United Kingdom, a major barrier to accessing specialist services is the limited recognition of disorders by general practitioners. However, it is unclear whether there are also barriers at other stages of the…

  16. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio, Belen; Boes, Aaron D; Laganiere, Simon; Rotenberg, Alexander; Jeurissen, Danique; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in the pediatric population. The clinical management of ADHD is currently limited by a lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers and inadequate therapy for a minority of patients who do not respond

  17. Consequences of Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Children's Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.; Ash, Andrea C.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and communication disorders represent a frequently encountered challenge for school-based practitioners. The purpose of the present study was to examine in more detail the clinical phenomenology of co-occurring ADHD and language impairments (LIs). Method: Measures of nonword…

  18. White Matter Microstructure Predicts Autistic Traits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Miriam; Thapar, Anita; Jones, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously been found to index clinical severity. This study examined the association of ASD traits with diffusion parameters in adolescent males with ADHD (n = 17), and also compared WM microstructure relative to controls (n = 17).…

  19. Examining the Comorbidity of Language Impairment and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Language impairment (LI) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are 2 relatively common developmental disorders that have been shown to have high rates of co-occurrence in a number of studies, and this phenomenon is also commonplace in the experience of many clinicians. Understanding this comorbidity, therefore, is central to building…

  20. Economic Impact of Childhood and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Jalpa A.; Hodgkins, Paul; Kahle, Jennifer; Sikirica, Vanja; Cangelosi, Michael J.; Setyawan, Juliana; Erder, M. Haim; Neumann, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in children in the United States and often persists into adulthood with associated symptomatology and impairments. This article comprehensively reviews studies reporting ADHD-related incremental (excess) costs for children/adolescents and…

  1. Gene x Environment Interactions in Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.; McGrath, Lauren M.; Rosenberg, Jenni; Barnard, Holly; Smith, Shelley D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Friend, Angela; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines Gene x Environment (G x E) interactions in two comorbid developmental disorders--reading disability (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--as a window on broader issues on G x E interactions in developmental psychology. The authors first briefly review types of G x E interactions, methods for detecting…

  2. Prefrontal Dysfunction in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, Hideki; Sawada, Masayuki; Iida, Junzo; Ota, Toyosaku; Tanaka, Shohei; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders with measurement of hemoglobin concentrations as cerebral blood volume. Twenty medication-naive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control…

  3. Communication Deficits and the Motor System: Exploring Patterns of Associations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, M.; Shui, A. M.; Nowinski, L. A.; Golas, S. B.; Ferrone, C.; O'Rourke, J. A.; McDougle, C. J.

    2017-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have notable difficulties in motor, speech and language domains. The connection between motor skills (oral-motor, manual-motor) and speech and language deficits reported in other developmental disorders raises important questions about a potential relationship between motor skills and…

  4. Motor Profile of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B.; Marques, Juliana C. Bilhar; Casella, Erasmo B.; Nascimento, Roseane O.; Oliveira, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the motor profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined type. Method: The case group consisted of 34 treatment-naive, male patients, aged 7-11 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD, combined type, without comorbidities (except oppositional defiant disorder). The…

  5. Parenting Practices and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: New Findings Suggest Partial Specificity of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Brandi; Nigg, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The relation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and parenting practices is examined by assessing 182 children for ADHD and non ADHD status through parent semistructured clinical interview. Results show that maternal inconsistent discipline and paternal low involvement is associated with the disorder.

  6. Deficits in Metacognitive Monitoring in Mathematics Assessments in Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawemeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Antoniadou, Konstantina; Hollinworth, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Children and adults with autism spectrum disorder have been found to have deficits in metacognition that could impact upon their learning. This study explored metacognitive monitoring in 28 (23 males and 5 females) participants with autism spectrum disorder and 56 (16 males and 40 females) typically developing controls who were being educated at…

  7. Parenting Practices and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: New Findings Suggest Partial Specificity of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Brandi; Nigg, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The relation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and parenting practices is examined by assessing 182 children for ADHD and non ADHD status through parent semistructured clinical interview. Results show that maternal inconsistent discipline and paternal low involvement is associated with the disorder.

  8. The Relevance of the Still Lectures to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2006-01-01

    In his lectures published in 1902, George Still described 43 children in his clinical practice who had serious problems with sustained attention and self-regulation. George Still certainly did not use the current terminology for this disorder, but many historians of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have inferred that the children he…

  9. Gene x Environment Interactions in Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.; McGrath, Lauren M.; Rosenberg, Jenni; Barnard, Holly; Smith, Shelley D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Friend, Angela; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines Gene x Environment (G x E) interactions in two comorbid developmental disorders--reading disability (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--as a window on broader issues on G x E interactions in developmental psychology. The authors first briefly review types of G x E interactions, methods for detecting…

  10. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  11. Prefrontal Dysfunction in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, Hideki; Sawada, Masayuki; Iida, Junzo; Ota, Toyosaku; Tanaka, Shohei; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders with measurement of hemoglobin concentrations as cerebral blood volume. Twenty medication-naive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control…

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Rasch Analysis of the SWAN Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deidra J.; Levy, Florence; Martin, Neilson C.; Hay, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been estimated at 3-7% in the population. Children with this disorder are often characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or impulsivity and hyperactivity, which can significantly impact on many aspects of their behaviour and performance. This study investigated the…

  13. Does Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predict Risk-Taking and Medical Illnesses in Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Olazagasti, Maria A.; Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Belsky, Erica Roizen; Hutchison, Jesse A.; Lashua-Shriftman, Erin C.; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test whether children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), free of conduct disorder (CD) in childhood (mean = 8 years), have elevated risk-taking, accidents, and medical illnesses in adulthood (mean = 41 years); whether development of CD influences risk-taking during adulthood; and whether exposure to…

  14. Language disorders and attention deficit disorders in young children referred for psychiatric services: analysis of prevalence and a conceptual synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, A J; Thompson, M G

    1988-01-01

    Nearly two-thirds of a group of preschool children referred for psychiatric outpatient services were found to have language disorders when assessed by standardized procedures, a higher number than reported in previous studies. Significant interrelationships between language disorders and attention deficit disorders were found. Analyses of prevalence rates, gender ratios, and selected psychosocial factors led to reformulation of approaches to assessment and treatment of young children with severe psychiatric problems.

  15. Neuropsychological Functioning of Girls with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Followed Prospectively into Adolescence: Evidence for Continuing Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Carte, Estol T.; Fan, Catherine; Jassy, Jonathan S.; Owens, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    Prospectively followed girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), along with a matched comparison sample, five years after childhood neuropsychological assessments. Follow-up neuropsychological measures emphasized attentional skills, executive functions, and language abilities. Paralleling childhood findings, the childhood-diagnosed ADHD group displayed moderate to large deficits in executive/attentional performance as well as rapid naming, relative to the comparison group, at follow-up (M age = 14.2 years). ADHD-Inattentive vs. ADHD-Combined contrasts were nonsignificant and of negligible effect size, even when a refined, “sluggish cognitive tempo” subgroup of the Inattentive type was examined. Although ADHD vs. comparison differences largely withstood statistical control of baseline demographics and comorbidities, control of childhood IQ reduced EF differences to nonsignificance. Yet when the subset of girls meeting diagnostic criteria for ADHD in adolescence were compared to the remainder of the participants, neuropsychological deficits emerged even with full statistical control. Overall, childhood ADHD in girls portends neuropsychological and executive deficits that persist for at least 5 years. PMID:17402826

  16. Planning deficit in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a neurocognitive trait independent from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galasso, Cinzia; Lo-Castro, Adriana; Di Carlo, Loredana; Pitzianti, Maria Bernarda; D'Agati, Elisa; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is associated with executive dysfunctions and comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 30% to 50% of children. This study was designed to clarify the neurocognitive phenotype observed in neurofibromatosis type 1 by testing the hypothesis that children with neurofibromatosis type 1 have specific planning deficits independently from intellectual level and ADHD comorbidity. Eighteen children with neurofibromatosis type 1 were pair-matched to 18 children with ADHD and 18 healthy controls. All groups were assessed on the presence of ADHD symptoms (Conners Scales) and planning deficits (Tower of London). Compared with control group, groups with neurofibromatosis type 1 and ADHD demonstrated significant impairment of planning and problem solving. The lack of correlation between Tower of London results and Conners subscale scores in neurofibromatosis type 1 group confirmed that the planning and problem-solving deficit is not directly related to inattention level. These findings suggested that the executive impairment probably represents a peculiar trait of neurofibromatosis type 1 neurocognitive phenotype.

  17. Association of attention-deficit hyperkinetic disorder with alcohol use disorders in fishermen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol use is a widely prevalent problem and poses hazard during work for certain groups such as fishermen. Disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD correlate with early onset and greater severity of alcohol use disorders. Aims: We planned to study the frequency of ADHD among fishermen in a fishing hamlet of southern India using adult ADHD self-reported scale (ASRS and correlated with the severity of alcohol use disorder as evidenced by age at initiation of alcohol use, presence of harmful use, or dependence use as defined by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Subjects and Methods: This was a community-based interview using AUDIT questionnaire for severity of alcohol use and the ASRS to detect ADHD. Results: The prevalence of adult ADHD among fishermen in this study was 25.7% using the critical items of the ASRS. ADHD was about twice as likely in participants with dependence as those without dependence (odds ratio = 2.10. ADHD was also more likely in participants with onset of use before 30 years of age than others (25.1% vs. 15.4% (P = 0.27. Discussion: We found a high frequency of alcohol use among fishermen (79.8%. However, only 9.9% had alcohol dependence which is higher than the general population (2.3% in the region. Fishermen with alcohol dependence were twice as likely to have ADHD as those without alcohol dependence. Conclusion: In a community-based survey of fishermen, the prevalence of alcohol dependence was about 10%. The presence of alcohol dependence predicted a two times higher likelihood of ADHD among fishermen than those without alcohol dependence.

  18. Who says this is a modern disorder? The early history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Badía, Jose; Martinez-Raga, Jose

    2015-12-22

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, heterogeneous and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although the first clinical description of a constellation of symptoms highly resembling to what currently could be diagnosed as ADHD is generally attributed to George F Still in 1902, there are scattered but significant published historical medical, scientific and non-scientific reports, much prior to Still's lectures, of what is currently conceptualized as ADHD. The present report aimed at exploring the early history of ADHD, prior to the 20(th) century in the medical literature and in other historical sources, to provide clinicians, researchers and other professionals with a better understanding of the roots and current conceptualization of this disorder. It is possible to find clues and highly suggestive descriptions of individuals presenting symptoms resembling what is currently defined as ADHD in the literature, in paintings or in the Bible. However, the earliest medical reports of individuals with abnormal degrees of inattention, distractibility and overactivity date from the last quarter of the 18(th) century, included in two of the first textbooks specifically on the subject of mental diseases, published by the German Melchior Adam Weikard and the Scottish Sir Alexander Crichton. During the 19(th) century some eminent physicians from Germany, France or Great Britain, such as Charles West, Thomas C Albutt, Thomas S Clouston, William W, Ireland, John Haslam, Heinrich Neumann, or Désiré-Magloire Bourneville, among others provided clinical depictions of patients that most likely presently would be diagnosed as having ADHD. Whilst some of the children described by Still and his predecessors may have suffered from a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, many of these patients showed clear symptoms of ADHD and may present with comorbid disorders

  19. [Emotional facial recognition difficulties as primary deficit in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ruiz, D; Perez-Gonzalez, J C; Cejudo, J

    2017-08-16

    It has recently been warned that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show a deficit in emotional competence and emotional intelligence, specifically in their ability to emotional recognition. A systematic review of the scientific literature in reference to the emotional recognition of facial expressions in children with ADHD is presented in order to establish or rule the existence of emotional deficits as primary dysfunction in this disorder and, where appropriate, the effect size of the differences against normal development or neurotypical children. The results reveal the recent interest in the issue and the lack of information. Although there is no complete agreement, most of the studies show that emotional recognition of facial expressions is affected in children with ADHD, showing them significantly less accurate than children from control groups in recognizing emotions communicated through facial expressions. A part of these studies make comparisons on the recognition of different discrete emotions; having observed that children with ADHD tend to a greater difficulty recognizing negative emotions, especially anger, fear, and disgust. These results have direct implications for the educational and clinical diagnosis of ADHD; and for the educational intervention for children with ADHD, emotional education might entail an advantageous aid.

  20. Prevention of cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Alan D

    2014-05-01

    This hypothesis states that cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are all caused by an exaggerated central nervous system inflammatory response to a prenatal insult. This prenatal insult may be one or more episodes of ischemia-reperfusion, an infectious disease of the mother or the fetus, or other causes of maternal inflammation such as allergy or autoimmune disease. The resultant fetal inflammatory hyper-response injures susceptible neurons in the developing white matter of the brain in specific areas at specific gestational ages. The exaggerated neuroinflammatory response is theorized to occur between about 19 and 34 post-conception weeks for CP, about 32 and 40 weeks for ADHD, and about 36 and 48 weeks (i.e. 2 months after delivery) for ASD. The exaggerated inflammatory response is hypothesized to occur because present diets limit intake of effective antioxidants and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids while increasing intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oxidation products of the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) limit neuroinflammation while oxidation products of the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid exacerbate inflammation. Preventative treatment should begin in all pregnant women during the first trimester and should include both DHA and an effective antioxidant for prevention of neuroinflammation. The suggested antioxidant would be N-acetylcysteine, though melatonin could be chosen instead. Combined DHA and NAC therapy is theorized to decrease the incidence of the three disorders by more than 75%.

  1. Predictive coding in autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Chennu, Srivas; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Rattazzi, Alexia; Beraudi, Ana; Tripicchio, Paula; Moyano, Beatriz; Soffita, Yamila; Steinberg, Laura; Adolfi, Federico; Sigman, Mariano; Marino, Julian; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2015-11-01

    Predictive coding has been proposed as a framework to understand neural processes in neuropsychiatric disorders. We used this approach to describe mechanisms responsible for attentional abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We monitored brain dynamics of 59 children (8-15 yr old) who had ASD or ADHD or who were control participants via high-density electroencephalography. We performed analysis at the scalp and source-space levels while participants listened to standard and deviant tone sequences. Through task instructions, we manipulated top-down expectation by presenting expected and unexpected deviant sequences. Children with ASD showed reduced superior frontal cortex (FC) responses to unexpected events but increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to expected events. In contrast, children with ADHD exhibited reduced cortical responses in superior FC to expected events but strong PFC activation to unexpected events. Moreover, neural abnormalities were associated with specific control mechanisms, namely, inhibitory control in ASD and set-shifting in ADHD. Based on the predictive coding account, top-down expectation abnormalities could be attributed to a disproportionate reliance (precision) allocated to prior beliefs in ASD and to sensory input in ADHD.

  2. Affective processing bias in youth with primary bipolar disorder or primary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E; Kim, Kerri L; Cushman, Grace K; Puzia, Megan E; Weissman, Alexandra B; Galvan, Thania; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2015-11-01

    High rates of comorbidity and overlapping diagnostic criteria between pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) contribute to diagnostic and treatment confusion. To advance what is known about both disorders, we compared effect of emotional stimuli on response control in children with primary BD, primary ADHD and typically developing controls (TDC). Participants included 7-17 year olds with either "narrow-phenotype" pediatric BD (n = 25), ADHD (n = 25) or TDC (n = 25). Groups were matched on participant age and FSIQ. The effect of emotional stimuli on response control was assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Affective Go/No-Go task (CANTAB AGN). We found a group by target valence interaction on commission errors [F(2,71) = 5.34, p children with ADHD. Our results suggesting a positive affective processing bias in children with ADHD compliment emerging literature show that difficulties with emotional processing and regulation may be core features of ADHD. Further, given the observed pattern of results in children with ADHD compared to BD children, our behavioral results suggest the importance of examining differences in the brain-behavior mechanisms involved in affective processing in children with ADHD compared to BD children.

  3. Visual sensory processing deficits in patients with bipolar disorder revealed through high-density electrical mapping.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yeap, Sherlyn

    2009-11-01

    BACKGROUND: Etiological commonalities are apparent between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. For example, it is becoming clear that both populations show similar electrophysiological deficits in the auditory domain. Recent studies have also shown robust visual sensory processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia using the event-related potential technique, but this has not been formally tested in those with bipolar disorder. Our goal here was to assess whether early visual sensory processing in patients with bipolar disorder, as indexed by decreased amplitude of the P1 component of the visual evoked potential (VEP), would show a similar deficit to that seen in those with schizophrenia. Since the P1 deficit has already been established as an endophenotype in schizophrenia, a finding of commonality between disorders would raise the possibility that it represents a measure of common genetic liability. METHODS: We visually presented isolated-check stimuli to euthymic patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and age-matched healthy controls within a simple go\\/no-go task and recorded VEPs using high-density (72-channel) electroencephalography. RESULTS: The P1 VEP amplitude was substantially reduced in patients with bipolar disorder, with an effect size of f = 0.56 (large according to Cohen\\'s criteria). LIMITATIONS: Our sample size was relatively small and as such, did not allow for an examination of potential relations between the physiologic measures and clinical measures. CONCLUSION: This reduction in P1 amplitude among patients with bipolar disorder represents a dysfunction in early visual processing that is highly similar to that found repeatedly in patients with schizophrenia and their healthy first-degree relatives. Since the P1 deficit has been related to susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, our results raise the possibility that the deficit may in fact be more broadly related to the development of psychosis and that it merits further

  4. Relative contribution of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tic severity to social and behavioral problems in tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Steenhuis, MP; Troost, PW; Korf, J; Kallenberg, CGM; Minderaa, RB

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social and behavioral problems related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessions and compulsions, and tic severity in children with a tic disorder. Parents of 58 children with a tic disorder with and without different forms of ADHD comple

  5. Developmental Coordination Disorder and Other Motor Control Problems in Girls with Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Svenny; Beckung, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Examine the rate, predictors, and effect on daily life skills of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and other motor control difficulties in school age girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in preschool age girls with ASD referred to a neuropsychiatric clinic, and in a community…

  6. Coping styles in substance use disorder (SUD) patients with and without co-occurring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronenberg, Linda M; Goossens, Peter J J; van Busschbach, Jooske; van Achterberg, Theo; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with a substance use disorder (SUD) and co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often start using substances in an attempt to cope with the stress related to their ADHD or ASD. To improve treatment for these patient groups,

  7. Coping styles in substance use disorder (SUD) patients with and without co-occurring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronenberg, Linda M.; Goossens, Peter J. J.; van Busschbach, Jooske; van Achterberg, Theo; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with a substance use disorder (SUD) and co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often start using substances in an attempt to cope with the stress related to their ADHD or ASD. To improve treatment for these patient groups,

  8. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  9. Relative contribution of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tic severity to social and behavioral problems in tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Steenhuis, MP; Troost, PW; Korf, J; Kallenberg, CGM; Minderaa, RB

    The aim of this study was to investigate social and behavioral problems related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessions and compulsions, and tic severity in children with a tic disorder. Parents of 58 children with a tic disorder with and without different forms of ADHD

  10. Developmental Coordination Disorder and Other Motor Control Problems in Girls with Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Svenny; Beckung, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Examine the rate, predictors, and effect on daily life skills of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and other motor control difficulties in school age girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in preschool age girls with ASD referred to a neuropsychiatric clinic, and in a community…

  11. Personal recovery in individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD) and co-occurring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronenberg, L.M.; Verkerk-Tamminga, R.; Goossens, P.J.J.; Brink, W. van den; Achterberg, T. van

    2015-01-01

    The process of personal recovery in people diagnosed with substance use disorder and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was mapped. Four general themes representing four consecutive stages in the recovery process were identified in both client

  12. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  13. Trajectories of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms as Precursors of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists regarding the developmental links between childhood psychopathology and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. The current study addresses this gap by examining symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as potential precursors. ADHD and BPD…

  14. Relative contribution of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tic severity to social and behavioral problems in tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Steenhuis, MP; Troost, PW; Korf, J; Kallenberg, CGM; Minderaa, RB

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social and behavioral problems related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessions and compulsions, and tic severity in children with a tic disorder. Parents of 58 children with a tic disorder with and without different forms of ADHD comple

  15. Serum ferritin and amphetamine response in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calarge, Chadi; Farmer, Cristan; DiSilvestro, Robert; Arnold, L Eugene

    2010-12-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) has been associated with attention and behavioral problems, in general, and with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in particular. The study aim was to explore whether iron stores, as reflected by serum ferritin concentration, predicted response to psychostimulants. Six- to 14-year-old children with ADHD enrolled in a multiphase, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial investigating zinc supplementation in treating ADHD and optimizing response to psychostimulants. The Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham (SNAP) ADHD rating scale was the primary clinical instrument. Serum ferritin concentration was obtained at baseline and 8 weeks later. Partial correlations, adjusting for age and sex, were computed. Fifty-two participants (83% males) had a mean age of 10 years. Their ADHD symptoms were moderately severe at baseline (SNAP item mean = 2.1). Their mean ferritin concentration was 18.4  ng/mL, with 23% of the participants having a level below 7, the assay-defined threshold for ID. Serum ferritin was inversely correlated with baseline inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and total ADHD symptom scores (Partial Spearman's r = -0.31, p = 0.04; r = -0.42, p ferritin concentration and ADHD symptom severity. These findings add to the growing literature implicating ID in ADHD. The prediction of amphetamine optimal dose by ferritin concentration suggests that iron supplementation should be investigated as a potential intervention to optimize response to psychostimulants at a lower dose in individuals with low iron stores and ADHD.

  16. Executive Function in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess executive functions in medication naive children with attention deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD). Method: Group matched (age and gender) children with ADHD (N=30) and healthy children (N=30) in the age range of 6-14 years were compared on measures of executive functions (response inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility,…

  17. Mothers' experiences of parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kathleen; Jackson, Debra

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore the perceptions and experiences of mothers parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Previous quantitative studies have focussed on parenting styles and treatments, and highlight that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has a negative impact on family functioning. However, fewer researchers have explored maternal experiences of parenting a child with this disorder. A narrative-based feminist approach can provide greater insights into complex issues related to mothering a child with this disorder. Data were collected in 2007 with a volunteer sample of 11 mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder via in-depth interviews. Analysis was completed by listening for self-evaluative statements, paying attention to meta-statements and by identifying both consistencies and incongruities within participant's narratives. Dominant issues identified were: It's been 10 years of being on edge: The caring responsibility as overwhelming; If I had my time over again, I wouldn't tell the truth: Stigmatized, scrutinized and criticized; What have I done? What did I do? How come I've got this child: Guilt and self-blame and He doesn't stand a chance: Mother as advocate. Mothering a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is stressful and demanding, and mothers felt marginalized. Media portrayal of this disorder contributes to confusion related to causes, diagnosis and treatment choices. More education for healthcare professionals is needed to enable them to give appropriate guidance and support to enhance outcomes for children and their parents.

  18. Impact of executive function deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on academic outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C; Doyle, Alysa E; Seidman, Larry J; Wilens, Timothy E; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L; Faraone, Stephen V

    2004-10-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as at least 2 executive function measures impaired. Significantly more children and adolescents with ADHD had EFDs than did control participants. ADHD with EFDs was associated with an increased risk for grade retention and a decrease in academic achievement relative to (a) ADHD alone, (b) controlled socioeconomic status, (c) learning disabilities, and (d) IQ. No differences were noted in social functioning or psychiatric comorbidity. Children and adolescents with ADHD and EFDs were found to be at high risk for significant impairments in academic functioning. These results support screening children with ADHD for EFDs to prevent academic failure.

  19. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder analyzed with array comparative genome hybridization method. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duga, Balázs; Czakó, Márta; Komlósi, Katalin; Hadzsiev, Kinga; Sümegi, Katalin; Kisfali, Péter; Melegh, Márton; Melegh, Béla

    2014-10-05

    One of the most common psychiatric disorders during childhood is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which affects 5-6% of children worldwide. Symptoms include attention deficit, hyperactivity, forgetfulness and weak impulse control. The exact mechanism behind the development of the disease is unknown. However, current data suggest that a strong genetic background is responsible, which explains the frequent occurrence within a family. Literature data show that copy number variations are very common in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The authors present a patient with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who proved to have two approximately 400 kb heterozygous microduplications at 6p25.2 and 15q13.3 chromosomal regions detected by comparative genomic hybridization methods. Both duplications affect genes (6p25.2: SLC22A23; 15q13.3: CHRNA7) which may play a role in the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This case serves as an example of the wide spectrum of indication of the array comparative genome hybridization method.

  20. Visual short-term memory deficits in REM sleep behaviour disorder mirror those in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Zokaei, Nahid; Baig, Fahd; Giehl, Kathrin; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Mackay, Clare E; Husain, Masud; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder are at significantly higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Here we examined visual short-term memory deficits--long associated with Parkinson's disease--in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder without Parkinson's disease using a novel task that measures recall precision. Visual short-term memory for sequentially presented coloured bars of different orientation was assessed in 21 patients with polysomnography-proven idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, 26 cases with early Parkinson's disease and 26 healthy controls. Three tasks using the same stimuli controlled for attentional filtering ability, sensorimotor and temporal decay factors. Both patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease demonstrated a deficit in visual short-term memory, with recall precision significantly worse than in healthy controls with no deficit observed in any of the control tasks. Importantly, the pattern of memory deficit in both patient groups was specifically explained by an increase in random responses. These results demonstrate that it is possible to detect the signature of memory impairment associated with Parkinson's disease in individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The pattern of visual short-term memory deficit potentially provides a cognitive marker of 'prodromal' Parkinson's disease that might be useful in tracking disease progression and for disease-modifying intervention trials.

  1. Extinction learning deficit in a rodent model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Brackney Ryan J; Cheung Timothy HC; Herbst Katrina; Hill Jade C; Sanabria Federico

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Deficient operant extinction has been hypothesized to be constitutive of ADHD dysfunction. In order to elucidate the behavioral mechanisms underlying this deficit, the performance of an animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), was compared against the performance of a control strain, the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) during extinction. Method Following extensive training of lever pressing under variable interval schedules of food reinforcement (reported pre...

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep disordered breathing in pediatric populations: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedky, Karim; Bennett, David S; Carvalho, Karen S

    2014-08-01

    A relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children and adolescents has been suggested by some authors. Yet, this topic remains highly controversial in the literature. A meta-analysis was conducted in order to examine the extent of relationship between SDB and ADHD symptoms in pediatric populations and whether there are differences in ADHD symptoms pre- versus post-adenotonsillectomy in pediatric populations. PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo and Cochrane databases were searched using the key words "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" or "ADHD" and "obstructive sleep apnea" or "OSA" or "sleep disordered breathing" (SDB) or "SDB". English language publications through September 2012 were surveyed. Meta-analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between SDB and ADHD symptoms in the first part of the study, and the extent of change in ADHD symptoms before and after adenotonsillectomy in the second part. Eighteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria for the first part of the study. This represented 1113 children in the clinical group (874 diagnosed with SDB who were examined for ADHD symptoms; 239 diagnosed with ADHD who were examined for SDB) and 1405 in the control-group. Findings indicate that there is a medium relationship between ADHD symptoms and SDB (Hedges' g = 0.57, 95% confidence interval: 0.36-0.78; p = 0.000001). A high apnea hypopnea index (AHI) cutoff was associated with lower effect sizes, while child age, gender and body mass index did not moderate the relationship between SDB and ADHD. Study quality was associated with larger effect sizes. In the second part of the study, twelve studies were identified assessing pre- versus post-surgery ADHD symptoms. Hedges' g was 0.43 (95% confidence interval = 0.30-0.55; p < 0.001; N = 529) suggesting a medium effect, as adenotonsillectomy was associated with decreased ADHD symptoms at 2-13 months post-surgery. The findings of this meta

  3. Association of Attention Deficit Disorder With Bedside Anti-saccades in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Raja B; Hudson, Melissa M; Ness, Kirsten K; Liang, Zhu; Srivastava, Deokumar; Krull, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Impaired attention is well recognized in childhood cancer survivors. We prospectively evaluated 162 long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia to study an association between presence of neurologic soft signs as measured by Zurich Neuromotor Scale, bedside evaluation of anti-saccades, and attention deficit disorder. Attention deficit disorder was recognized in 10.5% of the study cohort. We did not find an association of attention deficit with presence of any soft sign. However, there was an association between presence of abnormal anti-saccades and attention deficit (P = .04). These results will require further validation and if confirmed may introduce a quick bedside method of assessing impaired attention in cancer survivors.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and dual disorders. Educational needs for an underdiagnosed condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Raga, Jose; Szerman, Nestor; Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of comorbid psychiatric disorders overlap with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the life span. There is a robust and complex link between ADHD and substance use disorders (SUD). The aim of this report was to review the neurobiological and other vulnerability factors explaining the comorbidity of ADHD and an addictive disorder, as well as the key aspects of the assessment and diagnosis of dually diagnosed ADHD patients. A comprehensive and systematic search of relevant databases (PubMed, Embase, and PsychINFO) was conducted to identify studies published in peer-reviewed journals until July 31, 2012, with the aim of exploring the association of ADHD and SUD with postgraduate training and residency education. Across the life span, ADHD is associated with significant impairment and comorbidity. Data from epidemiological, clinical and epidemiological studies show a very solid link between ADHD and SUD. Therefore, it is very important to carefully and systematically assess for any substance use in patients with suspected ADHD coming to initial assessment, and vice versa. While there are various valid and reliable rating and screening scales, diagnosis cannot solely rely on any of the instruments available for both SUD and ADHD in adult patients with dual pathology. The most important and effective tool in the assessment of dually diagnosed patients with ADHD and SUD is a full and comprehensive clinical and psychosocial assessment. Hence, it is essential to actively incorporate training opportunities on the assessment, diagnosis, and management of adult ADHD and dually diagnosed ADHD patients during postgraduate education residency or specialist training.

  5. Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Romero-Munguía

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity, and behavioral flexibility (core triad). Three major cognitive theories (theory of mind deficit, weak central coherence, and executive dysfunction) seem to explain many of these impairments. Currently, however, the empathizing-systemizing (a newer version of the theory of mind deficit account) and mnesic imbalance theories are the only ones that attempt to explain all these core tr...

  6. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Ersland, Lars; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex in adults...... groups. Results: The ADHD group showed a significant reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region compared to the controls. Conclusion: The reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region in the ADHD group may reflect a glutamatergic deficit in prefrontal neuronal circuitry in adults with ADHD...

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the Light of the Epigenetic Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Viviane; Utsumi, Daniel Augusto; Costa, Thaís Virgínia Moura Machado; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Muszkat, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a definite behavioral pattern that might lead to performance problems in the social, educational, or work environments. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, the symptoms of ADHD were restricted to those associated with cognitive (attention deficit) and behavioral (hyperactivity/impulsivity) deficits, while deficient emotional self-regulation, a relevant source of morbidity, was left out. The etiology of it is complex, as its exact causes have not yet been fully elucidated. ADHD seems to arise from a combination of various genetic and environmental factors that alter the developing brain, resulting in structural and functional abnormalities. The aim of this paper was to review epigenetics and ADHD focused on how multidimensional mechanisms influence the behavioral phenotype. PMID:26441687

  8. Developmental coordination disorder: core sensori-motor deficits, neurobiology and etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Alice; Sirigu, Angela

    2015-12-01

    Among developmental disorders, DCD is one of the least studied and less understood one (Bishop, 2010). This review summarizes the current understanding of developmental coordination disorder in neuropsychology with a focus mainly on high level sensorimotor impairments, its etiology and its neural bases. We summarize these core deficits in the framework of an influent motor control model (Blakemore et al., 2002). DCD has several environmental risk factors which probably interplay with genetic factors but those have not been sufficiently identified. High-level sensori-motor deficits are probably multifactorial in DCD and involve predictive coding deficits as well as weaknesses in perceptual and sensory integration. At the brain level, DCD is associated with impaired structure and functions within the motor network. Throughout the review we highlight exciting new findings as well as potential future lines of research to provide a more comprehensive understanding of this disorder.

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in the light of the epigenetic paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane eSchuch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a definite behavioral pattern that might lead to performance problems in the social, educational or work environments. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V, the symptoms of ADHD were restricted to those associated with cognitive (attention deficit and behavioral (hyperactivity/impulsivity deficits, while deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR, a relevant source of morbidity, was left out. The etiology of it is complex, as its exact causes have not yet been fully elucidated. ADHD seems to arise from a combination of various genetic and environmental factors that alter the developing brain, resulting in structural and functional abnormalities. The aim of this paper was to review epigenetics and ADHD focused on how multidimensional mechanisms influence the behavioral phenotype.

  10. Comorbidity of personality disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irastorza Eguskiza, Luis Javier; Bellón, Jose M; Mora, María

    2016-03-08

    A high comorbidity has been observed among attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and categorical personality disorders (PD). A study is conducted on the dimensional traits associated with ADHD and PD, in order to determine whether there are any differences. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 78 outpatients attending a Mental Health Clinic in Arganda (Madrid) from January 2013 to June 2015. ADHD diagnosis was evaluated with the CAARS, the CAADID, and the WURS scales, and the PD with the SCID-II-DSM-IV questionnaire. None of the patients were receiving any stimulant or atomoxetine before the study, and all patients signed the informed consent before the study. A high comorbidity was found with all PD clusters, especially with hyperactive and combined type ADHD. Depressive PD was associated with inattentive ADHD. In spite of using a questionnaire to evaluate PD, some differences can be observed between specific ADHD types and PD. More studies are needed to investigate dimensional personality traits in order to improve the diagnosis and therapeutics goals. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation between sleep disorder screening and executive dysfunction in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zambrano-Sanchez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare frequency of sleep disorders (SD and executive dysfunction (ED in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and a control group. Method We studied 156 children with ADHD with a mean age of 8.5 years, and a control group with 111 children with a mean age of 8.3 years. We utilized the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ to screen SD and the working memory measurement from the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV to screen ED. Results We did not observe an increased frequency of SD in children with ADHD compared with the controls. However, we did identify ED in children with ADHD; additionally a significant correlation was observed between the type of ADHD and SD and among ED, WISC-IV measurements, and type of SD in children with ADHD. Conclusion An increase of SD frequency in children with ADHD was not observed, but we did identify ED in children with ADHD. Additionally, a correlation among ADHD types, SD, ED, and WISC-IV measurements was observed in children with ADHD.

  12. Psychological distress in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Cairney, John; Pollock, Nancy; Campbell, Wenonah; Russell, Dianne J; Macdonald, Kathryn; Schmidt, Louis; Heath, Nancy; Veldhuizen, Scott; Cousins, Martha

    2014-05-01

    This study explored whether or not a population-based sample of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), with and without comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), experienced higher levels of psychological distress than their peers. A two-stage procedure was used to identify 244 children: 68 with DCD only, 54 with ADHD only, 31 with comorbid DCD and ADHD, and 91 randomly selected typically developing (TD) children. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured by child and parent report. Child sex and caregiver ethnicity differed across groups, with a higher ratio of boys to girls in the ADHD only group and a slightly higher proportion of non-Caucasian caregivers in the TD group. After controlling for age, sex, and caregiver ethnicity, there was significant variation across groups in both anxiety (by parent report, F(3,235)=8.9, pdisorder groups had significantly higher levels of symptoms than TD children, but most pairwise differences among those three groups were not significant. The one exception was the higher level of depressive symptoms noted by parent report in the ADHD/DCD group. In conclusion, children identified on the basis of motor coordination problems through a population-based screen showed significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than typically developing children. Children who have both DCD and ADHD are particularly at heightened risk of psychological distress.

  13. Effect of Methylphenidate on Emotional Dysregulation in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder + Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Ayse; Akyol Ardic, Ulku; Ercan, Eyup Sabri

    2017-04-01

    Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a frequent feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It can be observed as a dysregulation profile or a deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) profile. Oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) comorbidity is prevalent in ADHD and known to be related with ED. The first-line treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, but their effects on ED are not well studied. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on ED in ADHD + ODD/CD cases. A total of 118 ADHD + ODD/CD patients with a mean age of 9.0 ± 1.9 years were treated with MPH for 1 year. Also, parents of cases were recruited for a parent-training program, which initiated after first month of MPH treatment. Symptom severity was assessed at baseline and 12th month by Turgay Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale-Parent Form, Children Depression Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist 4-18 years, and Parental Acceptance and Rejection Questionnaire-Mother Form. Emotional dysregulation (DESR + DP) was present in 85.6% of cases. Conduct disorder was significantly higher in patients with DP, whereas ODD was significantly higher in the DESR and non-ED groups (P < 0.0001). Symptoms of ADHD and ED were significantly improved with 1-year of MPH treatment (P < 0.05). The improvement in ED was independent of improvement in ADHD symptoms and parent training (P < 0.05). Emotional dysregulation is highly prevalent in disruptive behavioral disorders as ODD and CD, which are comorbid with ADHD. The MPH treatment is effective on ED independently from other clinical determinants.

  14. Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that on the basis of parents' reports, 60% of these individuals still met the ... Longitudinal studies of children with ADHD indicate that the ... anxiety disorders, learning disorders and substance abuse ... 43.75% of the sample had clinically significant symptoms .... close interpersonal relationships and behaviour regulation.

  15. Study of Attention Deficit in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Kafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Attention deficit has significant effect on the life of patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the attention deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: In the present post-hoc study, 132 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected via non-randomized sampling at Shafa Hospital (Rasht, Iran and then divided into four equal groups: chronic schizophrenia patients, first-episode patients, chronic bipolar patients, and first-episode bipolar patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals were selected as the control group. Subjects were evaluated by Stroop color-word test. The gathered Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Attention deficit among chronic schizophrenics and patients suffering from bipolar disease was higher than the control group (p <1. Chronic schizophrenic patients compared with schizophrenia bipolar disease and first round schizophrenia showed more attention deficit. There was no significant difference among the first bipolar disease and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as the first round schizophrenia (p<0.05. Conclusion: Attention deficit is more severe in schizophrenic patients than bipolar disorder, and chronicity is more effective in schizophrenic patients. Key words: Attention, Schizophrenia, Chronicity

  16. Extinction learning deficit in a rodent model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brackney Ryan J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficient operant extinction has been hypothesized to be constitutive of ADHD dysfunction. In order to elucidate the behavioral mechanisms underlying this deficit, the performance of an animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, was compared against the performance of a control strain, the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY during extinction. Method Following extensive training of lever pressing under variable interval schedules of food reinforcement (reported previously, SHR and WKY rats were exposed to two sessions of extinction training. Extinction data was analyzed using the Dynamic Bi-Exponential Refractory Model (DBERM of operant performance. DBERM assumes that operant responses are organized in bouts separated by pauses; during extinction, bouts may decline across multiple dimensions, including frequency and length. DBERM parameters were estimated using hierarchical Bayesian modeling. Results SHR responded more than WKY during the first extinction session. DBERM parameter estimates revealed that, at the onset of extinction, SHR produced more response bouts than WKY. Over the course of extinction, response bouts progressively shortened for WKY but not for SHR. Conclusions Based on prior findings on the sensitivity of DBERM parameters to motivational and schedule manipulations, present data suggests that (1 more frequent response bouts in SHR are likely related to greater incentive motivation, and (2 the persistent length of bouts in SHR are likely related to a slower updating of the response-outcome association. Overall, these findings suggest specific motivational and learning deficits that may explain ADHD-related impairments in operant performance.

  17. Mothers whose children have ADD/ADHD discuss their children's medication use: an investigation of blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne N; Lang, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a frame and discourse analysis of Internet blog sites where parents (usually mothers) discuss their concerns about medication use by their children with attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). This is a particularly important topic in an era characterized by powerful circulating discourses around the contentious medicalization of, and prevalent pharmaceutical treatments for, ADD/ADHD, as well as the mother blame associated with having a child diagnosed with ADD/ADHD. The findings document that the mothers see ADD/ADHD as legitimate medical diagnoses and view themselves as caretakers of children with brain and neuro-chemical anomalies affecting the behavior of their children. They favor pharmaceutical use and describe themselves as experts in the difficult and complex issues related to pharmaceuticalized parenting. At the same time their adoption of medicalization is contingent as they express specific critiques of some doctors, some types of doctors, and critically evaluate science.

  18. Does connection to primary care matter for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Sara L; Finkelstein, Jonathan; Kuhlthau, Karen

    2008-08-01

    Whether high-quality primary care in the form of a medical home effectively meets the health care needs of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is unknown. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the percentage who report unmet health care need, (2) evaluate whether having a medical home is associated with lower risk for having unmet needs, and (3) compare the impact of having a medical home on unmet need for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with those with asthma. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted of the National Survey of Children's Health, 2003, a nationally representative sample. The primary outcome variable was parent-reported unmet health care need. Multivariate logistic regression tested the impact of having a medical home on unmet needs for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and asthma. The National Survey of Children's Health interviewed parents of 6030 children who had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 6133 children who had asthma and were between the ages of 6 and 17 years. A total of 16.8% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder had at least 1 unmet need compared with 6.7% of children with asthma. Although the proportion of children with a medical home was comparable, children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were 3.5 times more likely to have an unmet need than were children with asthma. Children with asthma who have a medical home have less than half the likelihood of reporting an unmet need in comparison with those without a medical home; however, among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, having a medical home was not associated with decreased likelihood of reporting an unmet need. Having a medical home is not associated with fewer unmet needs for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Our results suggest that high-quality primary care may not be as successful at meeting the needs of children with

  19. Methylphenidate in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nicolas; Rolland, Benjamin; Karila, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopment disorder occurring during childhood. However, ADHD persists into adulthood in 45.7% of cases. The global prevalence of adult ADHD is estimated to 5.3%, with no difference between Europe and North America. ADHD is often comorbid with substance use disorder (SUD), with Odds Ratio ranges from 1.5 to 7.9, depending on the substance and the dependence level. Conversely, the prevalence of ADHD among patients with SUD is 10.8%, versus 3.8% for patients without SUD. Methylphenidate (MPH) alleviates ADHD symptoms and, as such, is currently considered as a first choice medication. MPH blocks the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters leading to an increase in extracellular dopamine. It should be noted that its subjective effects are highly dependent on the pharmacokinetic and especially on the rate of input, which highlights the importance of choosing a sustained-release formulation. Meanwhile, prescribing MPH to patients with comorbid SUD has always been challenging for clinicians. The aim of this review is to address the benefits and pitfalls of using MPH in adults with ADHD comorbid SUD, depending on each of the following types of SUD: amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol, cannabis and opiates. Overall, due to the prevalence of ADHD in SUD and to the benefits of MPH observed in this population, and considering the mild or low side effects observed, the response to MPH treatment should be evaluated individually in adults with comorbid ADHD and SUD. The choice of the formulation should favor sustained- release MPH over immediate release MPH. Cardiovascular parameters also have to be monitored during long-term use.

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical features and familial transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Kaul, Prashant; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Hier, Bridget O; Hendricks, Kaitlin; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by clinically significant functional impairment due to symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. Previous research suggests a link, in child samples, between ADHD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by (1) chronically reexperiencing a traumatic event, (2) hyperarousal, and (3) avoiding stimuli associated with the trauma while exhibiting numbed responsiveness. This study sought to address the link between ADHD and PTSD in adults by providing a comprehensive comparison of ADHD patients with and without PTSD across multiple variables including demographics, patterns of psychiatric comorbidities, functional impairments, quality of life, social adjustment, and familial transmission. Participants in our controlled family study conducted between 1998 and 2003 were 190 adults with DSM-IV ADHD who were attending an outpatient mental health clinic in Boston, Massachusetts; 16 adults with DSM-IV ADHD who were recruited by advertisement from the greater Boston area; and 123 adult controls without ADHD who were recruited by advertisement from the greater Boston area. All available first-degree relatives also participated. Subjects completed a large battery of self-report measures (the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, items from the Current Behavior Scale, the Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report, and the Four Factor Index of Social Status) designed to assess various psychiatric and functional parameters. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Clinician Version, and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children-Epidemiologic Version). The lifetime prevalence of PTSD was significantly higher among adults with ADHD compared with controls (10.0% vs 1.6%; P = .004). Participants with ADHD and those with ADHD + PTSD

  1. Driving behaviour in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Groom, Madeleine J.; van Loon, Editha; Daley, David; Chapman, Peter; Hollis, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the impact of cognitive impairments on driving in adults with ADHD. The present study compared the performance of adults with and without ADHD in a driving simulator on two different routes: an urban route which we hypothesised would exacerbate weak impulse control in ADHD and a motorway route, to challenge deficits in sustained attention. Methods Adults with (n = 22, 16 males) and without (n = 21, 18 males) ADHD completed a simulated driving session while eye...

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research. Indeed, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental. Disorders, 4th edition ... Undertaken at Moi University's School of Medicine in Eldoret, Kenya. ... self-reported ADHD symptoms among medical students in Eldoret is very high.

  3. Language impairment in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... Language impairment (Li) is a highly prevalent comorbidity in children with psychiatric disorders and ... were diagnosed as ADHD and then they were evaluated for their language development.

  4. Neural markers of social and monetary rewards in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luz Gonzalez-Gadea; Mariano Sigman; Alexia Rattazzi; Claudio Lavin; Alvaro Rivera-Rei; Julian Marino; Facundo Manes; Agustin Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of decision making propose a shared value-related brain mechanism for encoding monetary and social rewards. We tested this model in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and control children. We monitored participants’ brain dynamics using high density-electroencephalography while they played a monetary and social reward tasks. Control children exhibited a feedback Error-Related Negativity (fERN) modulation ...

  5. Face Scanning in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Human Versus Dog Face Scanning

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro eMuszkat; Claudia Berlim De Melo; Patricia de Oliveira Lima Muñoz; Tania Kiehl Lucci; Vinicius Frayze David; José de Oliveira Siqueira; Emma eOtta

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to explore attention allocation to human and dog faces in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD). Significant differences were found among the three groups. TD participants looked longer at the eyes than ASD and ADHD ones, irrespective of the faces presented. In spite of this difference, groups were similar in that they looked more to the eyes than to the mouth are...

  6. Increased Neural Responses to Reward in Adolescents and Young Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Rhein, Daniel; Cools, Roshan; Zwiers, Marcel P.; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Franke, Barbara; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; van Rooij, Daan; van Dongen, Eelco V.; Lojowska, Maria; Mennes, Maarten; Buitelaar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disorder associated with abnormal reward processing. Limited and inconsistent data exist about the neural mechanisms underlying this abnormality. Furthermore, it is not known whether reward processing is abnor

  7. Executive function profile of Chinese boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: different subtypes and comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Lan; Chan, Raymond C K; Wang, Yufeng

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the executive function (EF) profile of Chinese boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using a large sample. Executive function performance within the ADHD subtypes and the effects of comorbidity were also investigated. Five hundred Chinese boys (375 with ADHD and 125 controls) aged 6-15 completed a battery of EF tests. Boys with all types of ADHD performed worse in all of the EF tests than age- and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls. The boys with the inattention ADHD subtype and the combined subtype showed similar impairments across different EF tasks, whereas the boys with the hyperactive-impulsive ADHD subtype primarily displayed deficits in theory of mind and visual memory. Comorbid oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder had no additional influence on the EF characteristics of the boys with ADHD only, whereas comorbid learning disorder increased the severity of inhibition and shifting impairments.

  8. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children – Role of Behaviour Therapy and Parent Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common behavioural disorder of childhood. It is a major public health problem. Children with ADHD have significant impairment in sustaining attention and this in turn will have negative impact on the academic performance and social-emotional development of the child. Most of the children present to child guidance clinic between the ages of 5-10 years. But ADHD can be problematic in pre-school age group and can continue into the adolescence. ADHD in childhood is a developmental precursor of later antisocial disorder. Hence early behavioural interventions are necessary in the management of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Parent training programmes are interventions aimed at training parents in techniques which enable them to manage children's challenging behaviour.

  9. On the nature of the speech perception deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, R S; Serniclaes, W; Rider, D; Chabane, N

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have claimed to show deficits in the perception of speech sounds in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of the current study was to clarify the nature of such deficits. Children with ASD might only exhibit a lesser amount of precision in the perception of phoneme categories (CPR deficit). However, these children might further present an allophonic mode of speech perception, similar to the one evidenced in dyslexia, characterised by enhanced discrimination of acoustic differences within phoneme categories. Allophonic perception usually gives rise to a categorical perception (CP) deficit, characterised by a weaker coherence between discrimination and identification of speech sounds. The perceptual performance of ASD children was compared to that of control children of the same chronological age. Identification and discrimination data were collected for continua of natural vowels, synthetic vowels, and synthetic consonants. Results confirmed that children with ASD exhibit a CPR deficit for the three stimulus continua. These children further exhibited a trend toward allophonic perception that was, however, not accompanied by the usual CP deficit. These findings confirm that the commonly found CPR deficit is also present in ASD. Whether children with ASD also present allophonic perception requires further investigations.

  10. Sleep Problems as Predictors in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Causal Mechanisms, Consequences and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Um, Yoo Hyun; Hong, Seung-Chul; Jeong, Jong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is notorious for its debilitating consequences and early age of onset. The need for early diagnosis and intervention has frequently been underscored. Previous studies have attempted to clarify the bidirectional relationship between ADHD and sleep problems, proposing a potential role for sleep problems as early predictors of ADHD. Sleep deprivation, sleep-disordered breathing, and circadian rhythm disturbances have been extensively studied, yield...

  11. Comparing the Drawings of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Normal Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mahnaz Haghighi; Maedeh Khaterizadeh; Gholamreza Chalbianloo; Sholeh Toobaei; Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral problem during childhood and in school-aged children. Various projection drawings have been designed for assessing children’s personality and psychological disorders including the tests of draw a person (DAP) and draw a family (DAF). We aimed to compare the differences between typically developing children and children with ADHD using these tests. Methods In this case-control study, all the 9-10 year-old b...

  12. Stigmatization and self-perception of youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Regina Bussing, Anuja S Mehta Department of Psychiatry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: Increasing numbers of families must learn to manage their child's attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) through multimodal interventions that may include psychosocial, educational, and medication treatments. Like others with mental disorders, youth with ADHD face significant stigma in its various forms, including public (expressed as prejudice and discrimination), c...

  13. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Focused Overview for Children’s Environmental Health Researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Andréa; Eubig, Paul A.; Schantz, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed childhood neurobehavioral disorder. Much research has been done to identify genetic, environmental, and social risk factors for ADHD; however, we are still far from fully understanding its etiology. In this review we provide an overview of diagnostic criteria for ADHD and what is known about its biological basis. We also review the neuropsychological functions that are affected in ADHD. The goal is to ...

  14. Family Functioning in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with or without Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebla Gokce Imren

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine family functioning in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and ADHD comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder ( ODD or conduct disorder ( CD. Method: Forty nine children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and forty eight controls (aged 8-16 years were assesed with Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version; Parents completed the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD for family functioning which asseses 6 dimensions of family functioning ( problem solving, communication, behavior control, affective involvement, affective responsiveness, and roles and also includes a general functioning subscale. Results: 34.7 % of the ADHD children had comorbid psychiatric disorders, and the major comorbidity was ODD (24.5 %. ADHD families scored high at the level of “unhealthy functioning “ in the problem solving, roles, affective involvement, general functioning, and behavior control subscales of FAD. Besides, problem solving behaviour and general functioning were significantly poorer than control families and they had more difficulties in area of roles. When DEHB was comorbid with ODD or DB, all areas of family functioning as measured by FAD were scored high at the level of “unhealthy functioning “. Additionally, general functioning and affective responsiveness were significantly poorer than ADHD without ODD or DB comorbidity. Discussion: Recent studies revealed that ADHD and especially ADHD comorbid with ODD or DB may disrupt family functioning in many ways. In this study, the families of children and adolescents with ADHD and ADHD comorbid with ODD or DB had poorer family functioning in most of the subscales of FAD. Treatment of children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD especially comorbid with ODD or DB should include parental treatment and intervention addressing parental skills, and family functioning. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 22-30

  15. Tourette's and comorbid syndromes: obsessive compulsive and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A common etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, D M; Bradshaw, J L; Purcell, R; Pantelis, C

    1999-08-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS), a neuropsychiatric movement disorder that manifests itself in childhood, is often associated with comorbid symptomatology, such as obsessions, compulsions, hyperactivity, distractibility, and impulsivity. Epidemiological studies suggest that a substantial number of TS patients develop clinical levels of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review aims to provide an integrated account of the three disorders in terms of their comorbidity. Neuroimaging studies suggest that all three disorders involve neuropathology of the basal-ganglia thalamocortical (BGTC) pathways: TS in the sensorimotor and limbic BGTC circuits; OCD in the prefrontal and limbic BGTC pathways; and ADHD in the sensorimotor, orbitofrontal, and limbic BGTC circuits. The pattern of comorbidity and other evidence indicates that the TS gene(s) may be responsible for a spectrum of disorders, including OCD and ADHD, but also that the disorders OCD and ADHD can exist in their own right with their own etiologies.

  16. Discriminant Validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Parent Form for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A.; Hale, James B.; Brodzinsky, Lara K.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, with concomitant executive function deficits often being the focus of empirical and clinical investigation. This study explored the validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Parent Form (BRIEF; Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000) for…

  17. Stop Hurting Start Helping. Empathy in children with disruptive behavior, attention-deficit and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, P.K.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357395964

    2014-01-01

    To date, various psychiatric disorders such as disruptive behavior, attention-deficit/hyperactivity and autism spectrum disorders have been associated with deficits in empathy in school-aged children and adolescents. In this dissertation, behavioral and physiological measures were used to study

  18. Stop Hurting Start Helping. Empathy in children with disruptive behavior, attention-deficit and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, P.K.H.

    2014-01-01

    To date, various psychiatric disorders such as disruptive behavior, attention-deficit/hyperactivity and autism spectrum disorders have been associated with deficits in empathy in school-aged children and adolescents. In this dissertation, behavioral and physiological measures were used to study empa

  19. Neurofeedback as an Intervention to Improve Reading Achievement in Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Jeffry Peter

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit disorders are among the most prevalent and widely studied of all psychiatric disorders. The National Center for Health Statistics reports that 9.0% of children (12.3% of boys and 5.5% of girls) between ages 5 to 17 have been diagnosed with ADHD. Research consistently demonstrates that attention deficits have a deleterious effect…

  20. Motor function may differentiate attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from early onset bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjaerum Bente

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiating between bipolar spectrum disorder (BD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in childhood and adolescence is difficult because the clinical presentation is influenced by ongoing neural development, causing considerable symptom overlap. Motor problems and neurological soft signs have been associated with ADHD for decades. Little is known about motor skills in BD. Here we assess the diagnostic accuracy of neuromotor deviations in differentiating ADHD from BD in clinical practice. We also investigate if these deviations exist in concurrent ADHD and BD, thus indicating true comorbidity Methods 64 patients 6-18 years (31 girls, 33 boys fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of BD, ADHD combined subtype (ADHD-C or comorbid BD and ADHD-C, were compared using an age-standardized neuromotor test; NUBU. Categorical variables were analyzed using cross table with two-tailed chi square test or Fisher's exact test when appropriate. Continuous variables were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test and, if significant, Mann-Whitney U test and ROC plots. Results The ADHD-C group and the comorbid ADHD-C and BD group both showed significantly more neurological soft signs (p less than 0.01 and lower mean static coordination percentile (p less than 0.01 than the BD group. The positive predictive value of NUBU in the diagnosis of ADHD-C with or without concurrent BD was 89% (80-95 for total soft signs and 87% (79-95 for static coordination below the 7.5 percentile. Conclusion An age-standardized neuromotor test battery may promote diagnostic accuracy in differentiating ADHD from BD in clinical practice, and help evaluating whether symptoms of ADHD in children who have BD reflect symptom overlap or real comorbidity. This may have important implications for everyday diagnostic work.

  1. Risk factors for comorbid oppositional defiant disorder in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordermeer, Siri D S; Luman, Marjolein; Weeda, Wouter D; Buitelaar, Jan K; Richards, Jennifer S; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-03-10

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is highly prevalent in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Individuals with both ADHD and ODD (ADHD + ODD) show a considerably worse prognosis compared with individuals with either ADHD or ODD. Therefore, identification of risk factors for ADHD + ODD is essential and may contribute to the development of (early) preventive interventions. Participants were matched for age, gender, and ADHD-subtype (diagnostic groups), and did not differ in IQ. Predictors included pre- and perinatal risk factors (pregnancy duration, birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy), transgenerational factors (parental ADHD; parental warmth and criticism in diagnostic groups), and postnatal risk factors (parental socioeconomic status [SES], adverse life events, deviant peer affiliation). Three models were assessed, investigating risk factors for ADHD-only versus controls (N = 86), ADHD + ODD versus controls (N = 86), and ADHD + ODD versus ADHD-only (N = 90). Adverse life events and parental ADHD were risk factors for both ADHD + ODD and ADHD-only, and more adverse life events were an even stronger risk factor for comorbid ODD compared with ADHD-only. For ADHD + ODD, but not ADHD-only, parental criticism, deviant peer affiliation, and parental SES acted as risk factors. Maternal smoking during pregnancy acted as minor risk factor for ADHD-only, while higher birth weight acted as minor risk factor for ADHD + ODD. No effects of age were present. Findings emphasise the importance of these factors in the development of comorbid ODD. The identified risk factors may prove to be essential in preventive interventions for comorbid ODD in ADHD, highlighting the need for parent-focused interventions to take these factors into account.

  2. Fronto-striatal glutamate in children with Tourette's disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaijen, Jilly; Forde, Natalie J; Lythgoe, David J; Akkermans, Sophie E A; Openneer, Thaira J C; Dietrich, Andrea; Zwiers, Marcel P; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-01-01

    Both Tourette's disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been related to abnormalities in glutamatergic neurochemistry in the fronto-striatal circuitry. TD and ADHD often co-occur and the neural underpinnings of this co-occurrence have been insufficiently investigated in prior studies. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in children between 8 and 12 years of age (TD n = 15, ADHD n = 39, TD + ADHD n = 29, and healthy controls n = 53) as an in vivo method of evaluating glutamate concentrations in the fronto-striatal circuit. Spectra were collected on a 3 Tesla Siemens scanner from two voxels in each participant: the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the left dorsal striatum. LC-model was used to process spectra and generate glutamate concentrations in institutional units. A one-way analysis of variance was performed to determine significant effects of diagnostic group on glutamate concentrations. We did not find any group differences in glutamate concentrations in either the ACC (F(3132) = 0.97, p = 0.41) or striatum (F(3121) = 0.59, p = 0.62). Furthermore, variation in glutamate concentration in these regions was unrelated to age, sex, medication use, IQ, tic, or ADHD severity. Obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms were positively correlated with ACC glutamate concentration within the participants with TD (rho = 0.35, puncorrected  = 0.02). We found no evidence for glutamatergic neuropathology in TD or ADHD within the fronto-striatal circuits. However, the correlation of OC-symptoms with ACC glutamate concentrations suggests that altered glutamatergic transmission is involved in OC-symptoms within TD, but this needs further investigation.

  3. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Written Expression with Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Graham, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This review assessed the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) for teaching written composition strategies to students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. We examined the participants and the settings in which SRSD has been used, the writing strategies tested, genres addressed, and the effects of SRSD on outcome measures.…

  4. Caregiver Survey of Pharmacotherapy to Treat Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marilee A.; Seyfer, Daisha L.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Foster, Jessica E. A.; McClure, Kelsey E.; Coury, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by a unique neurocognitive and behavioral profile, including increased incidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the perceived helpfulness and side effects of medications used to treat ADHD (methylphenidate class,…

  5. Association between medication prescription for atopic diseases and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Pleiter, Janine C.; de Vries, Tjalling W; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C M; Bos, Jens H.J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hak, Eelko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on the association between atopic diseases and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether children with drug-treated ADHD are more likely to receive treatment for asthma, allergic rhinitis, or eczema before the start of ADHD

  6. Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and atopic diseases : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Schans, Jurjen; Pleiter, Janine C; De Vries, Tjalling W.; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C.M.; Bos, Jens H.J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hak, Eelko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data on the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and atopic diseases have been inconclusive. We assessed whether children using ADHD medication are more likely to receive drug treatment for asthma, allergic rhinitis, and/or eczema than children not using AD

  7. Dexmethylphenidate Extended-Release Capsules in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raul R.; Muniz, Rafael; Pestreich, Linda; Brams, Matthew; Mao, Alice R.; Childress, Ann; Wang, James

    2008-01-01

    A study to compare the release of 20mg of dexmethylphenidate extended-release capsules against placebo spread over a period of 12 hours in children afflicted with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is conducted. Findings reveal that dexmethylphenidate provided significant improvement.

  8. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Scales for Diagnosing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (SCALES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Gail R.; Campbell, Hilary L.; Miller, Brian K.

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have evolved over time with current versions of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual", (4th edition), text revision, ("DSM-IV-TR") suggesting that two constellations of symptoms may be present alone or in combination. The SCALES instrument for diagnosing attention deficit…

  9. Using a Multicomponent Function-Based Intervention to Support Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Su-Je; Blair, Kwang-Sun Cho

    2017-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of a multicomponent function-based intervention on students with other health impairment (OHI) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a private special education school. The focus of the intervention was to prevent problem behaviors and to increase academic engagement by modifying classroom…

  10. Clinical Reasoning in the Assessment and Intervention Planning for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climie, Emma A.; Mah, Janet W. T.; Chase, Cheryl Y.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with insight into the clinical reasoning involved in the assessment and intervention planning for a child with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The reader will be guided through the authors' conceptualization of this case, and suggestions for intervention in the classroom will be…

  11. The Effect of Acupressure for Moderating Behavior of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynn; Sinnott, Jan

    This study examined the effects of an acupressure intervention with two adolescents previously diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An inventory based on standard criteria for diagnosing ADHD was completed by each student, their parents, case workers, and teachers both before and after the intervention. The intervention…

  12. Effect of Pycnogenol® on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaet, Annelies A.J.; Ceulemans, Berten; Verhelst, Helene; West, Van Dirk; Bruyne, De Tess; Pieters, Luc; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.; Hermans, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Methylphenidate (MPH), the first choice medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is associated with serious adverse effects like arrhythmia. Evidence on the association of ADHD with immune and oxidant-antioxidant imbalances offers potential for antioxidant

  13. The Neural Correlates of Deficient Error Awareness in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Redmond G.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Dockree, Paul M.; Lau, Adam; Hester, Robert; Garavan, Hugh; Fitzgerald, Michael; Foxe, John J.; Robertson, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to detect and correct errors is critical to adaptive control of behaviour and represents a discrete neuropsychological function. A number of studies have highlighted that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with abnormalities in behavioural and neural responsiveness to performance errors. One limitation of…

  14. Detrimental effects of gum chewing on vigilance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William; Evans, Lynsay; Birrel, Laura; Sontag, Thomas A.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Impairments of attention are cardinal features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and can seriously affect the daily life of children with ADHD. Despite effective treatment strategies, there is a need of further treatment options that can be added to available and well established tr

  15. The use of medication against attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Bjerregaard, Bine Kjøller; Glintborg, D.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Our aim was to characterize utilization patterns for drugs used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the level of the individual patient among Danish users, focusing on treatment duration, doses used, and concurrent use of ADHD and non-ADHD drugs. METHODS: Using the Da...

  16. Can Executive Functions Explain the Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda; McBurnett, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the ability of executive functions (EF) to account for the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) status and social adjustment as indexed by parent and teacher report and by performance on a standardized observational "chat room" task. Children with the Combined subtype (ADHD-C; n = 23), the…

  17. The Role of Executive Functions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Testing Predictions from Two Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghyung; Riccio, Cynthia A.; Hynd, George W.

    2004-01-01

    The role of executive functions in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) varies considerably depending on the models of ADHD. We examined the interrelationship of two major executive functions (i.e., inhibition and working memory) with behavioral, emotional, and school problems in a group of children who had a comprehensive…

  18. Anxiety and disruptive behavior mediate pathways from attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder to depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Roy (Arunima); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. Ormel (Johan); C.A. Hartman (Catharina)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The progression to depression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clearly understood. To clarify this relationship, we tested the following hypotheses in a population-based study: (1) children with ADHD have a higher risk of developing

  19. Individuals with a Gifted/Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelly M.; Olenchak, F. Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on twice-exceptional students who are dual diagnosed as having giftedness and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This area of research is warranted because giftedness and ADHD present similarly but have different ramifications for performance and outcomes. In addition, research inquiry and…

  20. The Relation between Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mother-Infant Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Deborah L.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between maternal symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific maternal behaviors was examined in a community sample of 40 mothers of infants aged 3-8 months. It was hypothesized that maternal ADHD symptoms would be related to lower levels of maternal sensitivity, and higher levels of maternal…

  1. A Coaching Intervention for College Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Stacy L.; Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we describe coaching as an intervention for college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Coaching college students with ADHD empowers individuals to organize and execute their responsibilities, both in academia and in everyday life. With the assistance of a coach, individuals with ADHD can create structure…

  2. Does reward frequency or magnitude drive reinforcement-learning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luman, M.; van Meel, C.S.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.; Geurts, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show an impaired ability to use feedback in the context of learning. A stimulus-response learning task was used to investigate whether (1) children with ADHD displayed flatter learning curves, (2) reinforcement-learning in ADHD was sensit

  3. Efficacy of Methylphenidate among Children with Autism and Symptoms of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Lubetsky, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen children (ages 5-11) with autism and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of methylphenidate. Eight subjects responded positively, decreasing their hyperactivity. Ratings of stereotypy and inappropriate speech also decreased, however, no changes were found…

  4. The Developmental Trajectories of Executive Function of Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ying; Shuai, Lan; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Qian, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Yufeng

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of executive function (EF) of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Han Chinese. Five hundred and fifteen children and adolescents with ADHD and 249 healthy controls took part in this study. All of them were administered four EF tests capturing…

  5. Examining Relationships between Executive Functioning and Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalunas, Sarah L.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.

    2011-01-01

    Although motivation and cognition are often examined separately, recent theory suggests that a delay-averse motivational style may negatively impact development of executive functions (EFs), such as working memory (WM) and response inhibition (RI) for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; Sonuga-Barke, 2002). This model…

  6. Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Freitag, Christine; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Rothenberger, Aribert; Hawi, Ziarih; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method: We used case-control analyses of 896 cases…

  7. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Associated Features among Children in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecendreux, Michel; Konofal, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Earlier studies point to the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be similar around the world. There is, however, a wide variety in estimates. The prevalence of ADHD in youth has never been examined in France. Method: Starting with 18 million telephone numbers, 7,912 numbers are randomly selected. Among the…

  8. Biomarkers and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scassellati, Catia; Bonvicini, Cristian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gennarelli, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether peripheral biochemical markers (biomarkers) might differentiate patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from non-ADHD individuals. Method: We conducted a systematic search and a series of meta-analyses of case-control studies comprising studies from 1969 to 2011. Results: We identified 210…

  9. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Asherson, Philip; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Holmans, Peter; Daly, Mark; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Buitelaar, Jan; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Gill, Michael; Anney, Richard J. L.; Langely, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Kent, Lindsey; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa; Smalley, Susan; Loo, Sandra; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elia, Josephine; Todorov, Alexandre; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Ebstein, Richard P.; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McGough, James; Nisenbaum, Laura; Middleton, Frank; Hu, Xiaolan; Nelson, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. As prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yielded significant results, we conducted a meta-analysis of…

  10. A Cueing Procedure To Control Impulsivity in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavac, Heidi D.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Posavac, Steven S.

    1999-01-01

    Tests the efficacy of a cueing procedure for improving the impulse regulation of four boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) during social skills training. Behavioral data suggested that all subjects demonstrated positive changes in impulse regulation. Likewise, the treatment effects appeared to have produced positive effects on…

  11. Using a Multicomponent Function-Based Intervention to Support Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Su-Je; Blair, Kwang-Sun Cho

    2017-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of a multicomponent function-based intervention on students with other health impairment (OHI) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a private special education school. The focus of the intervention was to prevent problem behaviors and to increase academic engagement by modifying classroom…

  12. Remediation of Deficits in Recognition of Facial Emotions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinger, Paige M.; Depue, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the Mind Reading interactive computer software to remediate emotion recognition deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Six unmedicated children with ASD and 11 unmedicated non-clinical control subjects participated in the study. The clinical sample used the software for five sessions. The…

  13. Temperament and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Development of a Multiple Pathway Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Sachek, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines the parallels between major theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and relevant temperament domains, summarizing recent research from our laboratories on (a) child temperament and (b) adult personality traits related to ADHD symptoms. These data are convergent in suggesting a role of effortful control and…

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Scales for Diagnosing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (SCALES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Gail R.; Campbell, Hilary L.; Miller, Brian K.

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have evolved over time with current versions of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual", (4th edition), text revision, ("DSM-IV-TR") suggesting that two constellations of symptoms may be present alone or in combination. The SCALES instrument for diagnosing attention deficit…

  15. Study of Anxiety in Parents and Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jose Juan Castro; Bermúdez, M. Olga Escandell; Sevilla, M. del Sol Fortea; Hernán-Pérez, Alejandra Sanjuán

    2015-01-01

    The identification of factors that influence attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will help to develop intervention strategies for the personal and social adjustment of these individuals. The goal of the study is to assess the perception of anxiety in a group of children and adolescents with ADHD and the anxiety that their parents…

  16. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Exercise Deficit Disorder (EDD) in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Best, Thomas M.; MacDonald, James; Myer, Gregory D.; Stracciolini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Exercise deficit disorder (EDD) is a pediatric medical condition characterized by reduced levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) that are below current recommendations and inconsistent with positive health outcomes. At present, a majority of children and adolescents meet the diagnostic criteria for EDD because they are not…

  17. Characteristics of College Students with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Who Misuse Their Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca; Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the characteristics of college students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms who misuse their prescribed psychostimulant medications. Methods and Participants: Forty-three undergraduate students with a prescription for Ritalin or Adderall completed structured…

  18. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niermann, H.C.M.; Scheres, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefo

  19. Effects of choosing academic assignments on a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The effects of choosing academic assignments on the undesirable behaviors manifested by a second-grade student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed. This study extended Dunlap et al.'s (1994) research on choice making as a form of antecedent control. A reversal design showed that undesirable behaviors decreased when the student was given a choice of academic assignments.

  20. Attention-Deficit/Hperactivity Disorder Symptom Levels and Romantic Relationship Quality in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Michael R.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Whitton, Sarah W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom levels in college undergraduates are associated with poorer romantic relationship quality, and to test whether emotion regulation difficulties, perceived stress, and hostile relationship conflict mediate this association.…