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Sample records for deferred sexual maturity

  1. Why birds with deferred sexual maturity are sedentary on islands: a systematic review.

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    Miguel Ferrer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Island faunas have played central roles in the development of evolutionary biology and ecology. Birds are among the most studied organisms on islands, in part because of their dispersal powers linked to migration. Even so, we lack of information about differences in the movement ecology of island versus mainland populations of birds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present a new general pattern indicating that large birds with deferred sexual maturity are sedentary on islands, and that they become so even when they are migratory on the mainland. Density-dependent variation in the age at first breeding affects the survivorship of insular populations and this, in turn, affects the movement ecology of large birds. Because density-dependent variation in the age of first breeding is critical to the long-term survival of small isolated populations of long-lived species, migratory forms can successfully colonize islands only if they become sedentary once there. Analyses of the movement ecology of continental and insular populations of 314 species of raptors, 113 species of Ciconiiformes and 136 species of passerines, along with individual-based population simulations confirm this prediction. CONCLUSIONS: This finding has several consequences for speciation, colonization and survival of small isolated population of species with deferred sexual maturity.

  2. RADIO NOISE ADVANCES SEXUAL MATURITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ansistf-lewis

    Supplementary radio noise advances sexual maturity in domestic pullets exposed .... non-stimulatory photoperiod in some way provides a stimulus for initiating rapid gonadal development. However, the ..... Congress, New Delhi, India. Vol II ...

  3. State of Sexual Maturity of Nelore Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo José Ramírez López; Clara Cecilia Rugeles Pinto; Faider Alberto Castaño Villadiego; Víctor Enrique Gómez León; Tamires Miranda Neto; José Domingo Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the state of sexual maturity of young Nelore bulls and its relation to scrotal circumference and seminal characteristics. 1985 animals (aged between 19 and 23 months), fed with tropical pastures (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbes, and Panicum maximum), were evaluated through andrological examination. Physical characteristics of the ejaculate, sperm morphology and scrotal circumference (SC) were examined. After the andrological examination, animals were...

  4. Morphology of the reproductive tract and acquisition of sexual maturity in males of Potamotrygon magdalenae (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreros-Sierra, Tania Del Mar; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the structure of the reproductive tract of males of Potamotrygon magdalenae before, during, and after they acquire sexual maturity, and to establish the first maturity scale for males within the family Potamotrygonidae. The male reproductive tract of P. magdalenae is composed of testes, efferent ducts, epididymides, deferent ducts, seminal vesicles, Leydig, alkaline, and clasper glands, and claspers, all of which are paired and functional. Four sexual maturity stages were established: immature, maturing, reproductively active, and resting. The degree of claspers calcification is also a good indicator of sexual maturity in this species. The testes are lobulated, each lobe contains numerous spermatocysts which are organized in zones and are displaced radially from germinal papillae to the spermatozoa zone where individual spermatozoa are conveyed to the efferent ducts. The epididymis can be regionalized in head, body, and tail; these regions are distinguished by external pigmentation and by the epithelium lining configuration. The tail of the epididymis is connected with the deferent duct and this, in turn, with the seminal vesicle. The spermatozoa are organized in spermatozeugmata which begin to form in the deferent duct; this latter organ is attached laterally at the Leydig gland that is composed by simple glandular units. Irregular and vesicular secretions can be found in the genital ducts. These secretions might be associated with the maturation of the spermatozoa and formation of spermatozeugmata. The male reproductive tract of P. magdalenae is similar to other elasmobranchs; however, two types of primary spermatogonia, an epididymis internally regionalized, and the presence and structure of spermatozeugmata are specific features not yet described in freshwater stingrays. Most of the year, the males were reproductively active, however, few resting adult males occurred during one of the months of the lowest waters.

  5. State of Sexual Maturity of Nelore Bulls

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    Camilo José Ramírez López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the state of sexual maturity of young Nelore bulls and its relation to scrotal circumference and seminal characteristics. 1985 animals (aged between 19 and 23 months, fed with tropical pastures (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbes, and Panicum maximum, were evaluated through andrological examination. Physical characteristics of the ejaculate, sperm morphology and scrotal circumference (SC were examined. After the andrological examination, animals were classified as suitable for reproduction (andrological class 1; suitable for reproduction in natural mating system (class 2; temporarily unsuitable for reproduction (class 3; and discarded (class 5. To compare the measurements found in different andrological classes, two tests were used: the Tukey test with 5% probability of error, and simple Pearson correlations to verify the relationships between the studied characteristics. 84.5% of the bulls were found to be sexually mature. 39.75% of the animals suitable for reproduction presented a SC greater than 34 cm, and only 0.71% of the study population showed a scrotal circumference less than 28 cm. Favorable high correlations between SC and the physical characteristics of semen were evidenced. The article concludes that scrotal circumference is an excellent characteristics for evaluating and selecting young Nelore bulls.

  6. Characters of age, sex and sexual maturity in Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...

  7. Sexual maturation in kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka

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    Patterson, S.D.; Scarnecchia, D.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    We used observational and experimental approaches to obtain information on factors affecting the timing of maturation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka, a semelparous, landlocked salmon. Gonadal staging criteria were developed and applied to three kokanee populations in Idaho lakes and reservoirs. Testes were classified into three stages: immature (stage one, S1), maturing (S2), and mature (S3). Ovaries were classified into eight stages: immature (S1-S3), transitional (stage S4), maturing (S5-S7), and mature (S8). Males entered the maturing stage (S2) in February through April of the spawning year. Females entered maturing stage (S5) as early as July of the year before the spawning year, and as late as March of the spawning year. Three hatchery experiments demonstrated that attainment of a larger body size 10 to 16 months before spawning increased the likelihood of initiation of maturation in both sexes. No gonads in a state of regression were observed. A gonadosomatic index above 0.1 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing male, and a gonadosomatic index above 1.0 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing female. Instantaneous growth rates were not good predictors of maturation, but attaining a size threshold of 18 to 19 cm in the fall was a good predictor of maturation the following year. This improved knowledge of kokanee maturation will permit more effectively management of the species for age, growth and size at maturity as well as for contributions to fisheries. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexual maturation and aging of adult male mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Jasrotia, P; Silva, E B; Zada, A; Franco, J C

    2012-08-01

    The physiological age of adult males of seven mealybug species was measured in relation to the elongation of the male pair of the waxy caudal filaments. These filaments begin to emerge after eclosion and reached their maximum length from 29.4-46.6 h. The studied males were divided into three age groups, expressed as percentages of the total waxy caudal filaments length. Attraction to a sex pheromone source was significantly higher in the oldest male group (maximum filaments growth) compared with youngest one. Only the oldest male group copulated successfully; few of the younger males tested displayed 'courtship' behavior towards conspecific virgin females. The calculated duration of the sexually active phase of the adult male life cycle varied among species ranging from 34.4 to 46.6 h. There were marked variations in the strength of attraction to a pheromone source according to time of day. There was a continuous decrease in sexual activity from morning to evening. Our findings reveal clear maturation periods for adult males of the seven studied species. The long immature phase of the adult male mealybug is probably also related to several physiological processes that are needed to complete male maturation. The most noticeable change is the elongation of the waxy caudal filaments. However, mating may be performed at any time ambient conditions are suitable. Whereas male mealybug flight towards a pheromone source is restricted to a few hours, the male may continue mating activity throughout its sexually active period.

  9. Sexual maturation in boys with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bimal; Bhalla, A K; Singh, Surjit

    2011-11-01

    This paper aimed to study sexual maturation of boys with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) during adolescence. This study was carried out in the Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatrics Center, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. A total of 70 boys (between 9 and 17 years of age) diagnosed as cases of JRA comprised the sample for this study. Every child was examined for the development of genitalia as per criteria given by Tanner (Growth at adolescence, 2nd edn, Blackwell, Oxford, 1962) at half-yearly age intervals. However, with regard to development of hair (pubic, axillary and facial) mere presence or absence was noted. Mean (±SD) age of attainment of different stages of genitalia development as well as for eruption of hair was ascertained amongst boys who entered puberty using conventional statistics. Initiation of genitalia development (i.e. appearance of G-2 stage) was earliest among boys with systemic onset JRA (10.8 ± 1.3 years). None of the boys with JRA could attain final stage (G-5) of genitalia development by the age of 17 years, as compared with normal Chandigarh boys who had attained this by 15.2 years. Age of appearance of axillary, pubic, and facial hair was also earlier in systemic onset type of disease as compared with those with pauciarticular and polyarticular JRA. The timing of initiation of sexual maturity in boys with different types of JRA remains variably affected, and appears to experience substantial delay in completion of puberty.

  10. Temporal progression in migratory status and sexual maturation in European silver eels during downstream migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Guerrero, M.A.; Klein Breteler, J.G.P.; Thillart, G.E.E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The onset of downstream migration of European eels is accompanied by a cessation of feeding and the start of sexual maturation which stresses the link between metabolism and sexual maturation, also suggesting an important role for exercise. Exercise has been tested with eels in swim tunnels and was

  11. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

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    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  12. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  13. Correlation of sexual maturation with skeletal age of southern Chinese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, L L

    1997-03-01

    The correlation of skeletal maturation with the chronological ages of the onset of four secondary sexual characteristics (menarche, appearance of pubic hair and axillary hair, and breast development) was studied in a group of 117 Southern Chinese girls aged between 11 years, 9 months and 12 years, 3 months, who were born and brought up in Hong Kong. The skeletal maturation was assessed from left hand and wrist radiographs by the Greulich and Pyle Atlas Method (1959). The early maturers in sexual maturation were significantly more advanced in skeletal maturity with p < 0.001.

  14. Antennal proteome comparison of sexually mature drone and forager honeybees.

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    Feng, Mao; Song, Feifei; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2011-07-01

    Honeybees have evolved an intricate system of chemical communication to regulate their complex social interactions. Specific proteins involved in odorant detection most likely supported this chemical communication. Odorant reception takes place mainly in the antennae within hairlike structures called olfactory sensilla. Antennal proteomes of sexually mature drone and forager worker bees (an age group of bees assigned to perform field tasks) were compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and bioinformatics. Sixty-one differentially expressed proteins were identified in which 67% were highly upregulated in the drones' antennae whereas only 33% upregulated in the worker bees' antennae. The antennae of the worker bees strongly expressed carbohydrate and energy metabolism and molecular transporters signifying a strong demand for metabolic energy and odorant binding proteins for their foraging activities and other olfactory responses, while proteins related to fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, and protein folding were strongly upregulated in the drones' antennae as an indication of the importance for the detection and degradation of sex pheromones during queen identification for mating. On the basis of both groups of altered antenna proteins, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production and molecular transporters comprised more than 80% of the functional enrichment analysis and 45% of the constructed biological interaction networks (BIN), respectively. This suggests these two protein families play crucial roles in the antennal olfactory function of sexually mature drone and forager worker bees. Several key node proteins in the BIN were validated at the transcript level. This first global proteomic comparative analysis of antennae reveals sex-biased protein expression in both bees, indicating that odorant response mechanisms are sex-specific because of natural selection for different olfactory

  15. Association of Sexual Maturation and Body Size of Arfak Children

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    ELDA IRMA JEANNE JOICE KAWULUR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gonad maturation in pubertal girls and boys is accompanied with somatic growth spurt, changes in quantity and distribution of body fat (BF, development of secondary sex characters, and relevant physiological events. Menarche (first event of menstruation and spermarche (first event of nocturnal sperm emission are usually used as indicators of gonad maturation. We found that median age at menarche of Arfak girls in Manokwari, West Papua is 12.2 years, while median age at spermarche of boys is 13.6 years. A possible factor causing young age at menarche is due to adaptation to unstable environmental conditions because of high risk of mortality by malaria disease during childhood. The events of menarche and spermarche achieved one year after the peak body height (BH velocity, and just before or at the same time with the time of maximum growth rate of body weight (BW, body mass index (BMI, and BF. The average BMI of Arfak girls was big at 21.9 kg/m2 at the time of their menarche. Bigger average BMI might be caused by prepubertal slowing down of BH growth compare to growth of BW whichis still increasing. Girls accumulate BF before puberty to be used as an energy reserve for the occurrence of menarche. At the time of development of secondary sexual characters girls use the fat reserve so it decline sharply after puberty. In boys, growth rate of BF was stopped at 11 years old, and then growing negatively presumably because boys use fat mass for the occurence of spemarche. BF growth rate reached the lowest point at the age 16 years old, and then increase linearly with age through adolescence until adulthood at age 23 years old.

  16. Deferred Warping.

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    Knuth, Martin; Bender, Jan; Goesele, Michael; Kuijper, Arjan

    2016-03-18

    We introduce deferred warping, a novel approach for real-time deformation of 3D objects attached to an animated or manipulated surface. Our target application is virtual prototyping of garments where 2D pattern modeling is combined with 3D garment simulation which allows an immediate validation of the design. The technique works in two steps: First, the surface deformation of the target object is determined and the resulting transformation field is stored as a matrix texture. Then the matrix texture is used as look-up table to transform a given geometry onto a deformed surface. Splitting the process in two steps yields a large flexibility since different attachment types can be realized by simply defining specific mapping functions. Our technique can directly handle complex topology changes within the surface. We demonstrate a fast implementation in the vertex shading stage allowing the use of highly decorated surfaces with millions of triangles in real-time.

  17. Influence of Methoprene on Pheromone Emission and Sexual Maturation of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) males.

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    Muñoz-Barrios, Rodolfo; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C; Hernández, Emilio; Liedo, Pablo; Gómez-Simuta, Yeudiel; Malo, Edi A

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that the application of juvenile hormone analog, methoprene, reduces the time required for sexual maturation and enhances mating success in several species of tephritid fruit flies. This study examined the effect of different concentrations of methoprene incorporated into the diet of adult flies and distinct sugar:protein (S:P) ratios on sexual maturity and pheromone emission of Anastrepha obliqua males. Diets with 0.2 and 0.5% of methoprene accelerated sexual maturation of males compared with untreated males. In subsequent assays, the enhancement of male pheromone emission and sexual maturation by the incorporation of 0.02% methoprene into a 24:1 (S: P) diet was confirmed. Among the volatiles released by males, (Z)-3-nonenol and (Z,Z)-3,6-nonadienol were emitted at higher quantities by flies treated with methoprene than untreated ones. The results show that methoprene accelerates sexual maturation of mass-reared A. obliqua males and increases their mating propensity. This would reduce the time required to attain sexual maturation by sterile males, thus decreasing fly handling costs and improving the efficacy of the sterile insect technique.

  18. Sexual Maturation Pattern in Adolescent School Girls of Rural India: A Cross Sectional Study from Nagpur

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    Dr. Charuhas V Akre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Puberty is transformation of the child into an adult. It includes all the events of somatic and mental maturation. Secondary sex characters were also a part of this period. The objective was to assess the pattern of sexual maturation of adolescent school girls in rural India.Methods: This was a community based cross sectional study conducted among school children of Sevanand High school, Mahadula, Nagpur. 322 girls in the age group of 10-18 years were assessed for sexual maturation. The pubertal evaluation was made with reference to Tanner stages and grading was done as per Tanner’s scale. For statistical analysis, median and standard error along with 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated using Epi Info statistical package programme version 6.0 updated 2009. Statistical significance was assessed at a type I error rate of 0.05.Results: We found that pubertal changes appeared earlier in girls. The first to appear was breast development at a median age of 10.40 years. The last to appear was pubic hair development (PH5 at median age 16.87 years, the total time taken for complete sexual maturation being 6.38 years. Median age of menarche was found to be13.18 years.Conclusion: The pattern of sexual maturation in rural adolescent school children revealed that though puberty set in earlier in girls, but took longer time for complete maturation.

  19. Vocal sac development and accelerated sexual maturity in the lesser swimming frog, Pseudis minuta (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Javier; Barrasso, Diego A; Agostini, M Gabriela; Quinzio, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Sexual maturity involves the differentiation of the reproductive system, the maturation of germ cells, and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Even though this topic has received much attention, little is known about the sequence of events that encompass reproductive maturation in anurans and what it could reveal about the developmental basis of life cycle evolution. The discovery of froglets of Pseudis minuta with incipient vocal sacs calling in breeding pools alongside several larger adult specimens with fully developed vocal sacs raised the question of the timing of sexual maturity in this species. Here we describe the sequence and timing of differentiation, development and maturation of the vocal sac apparatus and the testes in P. minuta (Anura, Hylidae), in order to establish a timeline of events leading to sexual maturity. Differentiation of the vocal sac apparatus begins at the final metamorphic stages, earlier than reported for other species, and the vocal sac acquires its final shape during the early postmetamorphic period. These modifications occur after gonadal differentiation, which begins early during the larval period and proceeds with a highly accelerated rate of development (e.g., secondary spermatids appear well before metamorphic climax), a situation reported previously for other anuran species only in the genus Pseudis. These results, together with a skeletochronological analysis showing that some calling specimens presented no lines of arrested growth, indicate acceleration in the timing of sexual maturity in Pseudis, and raise questions about the interdependence/decoupling during the development of the different components involved in reaching the adult stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Direct and indirect measures of sexual maturity preferences differentiate subtypes of child sexual abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments.

  1. Sexual maturity cycle and spawning of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Davis Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, A. C.; Stenberg, Claus; Fossen, I.

    2010-01-01

    Female sexual maturation cycle and the main spawning time of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Davis Strait were studied through regularly collected samples during 1 year starting in spring 2003. Samples were collected from the southern slope of the Davis Strait Ridge between ...

  2. [Primordial structures of feminine maturation as reflected in fairy tales. Contribution to the anthropology of sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, T

    1976-01-01

    Two maturation fairy-tales with a high resonance effect are analysed. The method of interpretation was that of depth psychology, with observation of results of modern biological-anthropological research. The interpretation revealed 'hymenal' or retarding primary structures in the young female subject. These structures postpone the onset of sexual desires to the time after the defloration.

  3. Genetic association of sexual maturity with weekly live-weights of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Genetic association between sexual maturity and weekly live-weights ... under different selection environments (Anthony et al., 1996; Marks, 1996; Saatci et al., 2003). ... This will also complement our understanding of the evolutionary ... Mating was controlled by allowing a male to stay with an allocated female for one day.

  4. Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Rodrigues de Faria

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible.

  5. MAXIMIZING GROWTH AND SEXUAL MATURATION OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS IN SUPPORT OF MULTI-GENERATION TEST DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, R.L., G.M. Cripe and L.R. Goodman. In press. Maximizing Growth and Sexual Maturation of Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) in Support of Multi-Generation Test Development (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland...

  6. Alternative life histories in Xiphophorus multilineatus: evidence for different ages at sexual maturity and growth responses in the wild.

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    Bono, L M; Rios-Cardenas, O; Morris, M R

    2011-05-01

    In order to examine potential trade-offs in alternative life histories of the high-backed pygmy swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus, otoliths were used from wild-caught males to determine if sneaker males had the advantage of maturing earlier in natural environments. The sneakers matured significantly earlier than courters, but there was no difference among the three courter variants. In addition, analyses suggested that the effect of the pituitary locus on size at sexual maturity and growth rates was a consequence of age at sexual maturity. Finally, one of the courter variants had a significantly different relationship between age and size at sexual maturity than the other variants, suggesting that in this variant, age at sexual maturity may be more closely related to size and therefore may be less plastic in its growth responses.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of sexual maturation and mating in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

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    Ludvik M Gomulski

    Full Text Available Sexual maturation and mating in insects are generally accompanied by major physiological and behavioural changes. Many of these changes are related to the need to locate a mate and subsequently, in the case of females, to switch from mate searching to oviposition behaviour. The prodigious reproductive capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the factors that has led to its success as an invasive pest species. To identify the molecular changes related to maturation and mating status in male and female medfly, a microarray-based gene expression approach was used to compare the head transcriptomes of sexually immature, mature virgin, and mated individuals. Attention was focused on the changes in abundance of transcripts related to reproduction, behaviour, sensory perception of chemical stimulus, and immune system processes. Broad transcriptional changes were recorded during female maturation, while post-mating transcriptional changes in females were, by contrast, modest. In male medfly, transcriptional changes were consistent both during maturation and as a consequence of mating. Of particular note was the lack of the mating-induced immune responses that have been recorded for Drosophila melanogaster, that may be due to the different reproductive strategies of these species. This study, in addition to increasing our understanding of the molecular machinery behind maturation and mating in the medfly, has identified important gene targets that might be useful in the future management of this pest.

  8. Transcriptome profiling of sexual maturation and mating in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomulski, Ludvik M; Dimopoulos, George; Xi, Zhiyong; Scolari, Francesca; Gabrieli, Paolo; Siciliano, Paolo; Clarke, Anthony R; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Sexual maturation and mating in insects are generally accompanied by major physiological and behavioural changes. Many of these changes are related to the need to locate a mate and subsequently, in the case of females, to switch from mate searching to oviposition behaviour. The prodigious reproductive capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the factors that has led to its success as an invasive pest species. To identify the molecular changes related to maturation and mating status in male and female medfly, a microarray-based gene expression approach was used to compare the head transcriptomes of sexually immature, mature virgin, and mated individuals. Attention was focused on the changes in abundance of transcripts related to reproduction, behaviour, sensory perception of chemical stimulus, and immune system processes. Broad transcriptional changes were recorded during female maturation, while post-mating transcriptional changes in females were, by contrast, modest. In male medfly, transcriptional changes were consistent both during maturation and as a consequence of mating. Of particular note was the lack of the mating-induced immune responses that have been recorded for Drosophila melanogaster, that may be due to the different reproductive strategies of these species. This study, in addition to increasing our understanding of the molecular machinery behind maturation and mating in the medfly, has identified important gene targets that might be useful in the future management of this pest.

  9. Fisheries-induced evolution in growth, maturation and reporductive investment of the sexually dimorphic North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, van L.; Mollet, F.M.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the onset of sexual maturation, reproductive investment and growth of North Sea plaice are studied between three periods: 1900s, 1980s and 2000s. Probabilistic maturation reaction norms of both males and females, describing the probability of becoming mature conditional on age and size, s

  10. Fisheries-induced evolution in growth, maturation and reproductive investment of the sexually dimorphic North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Walraven, L.; Mollet, F. M.; van Damme, C. J. G.; Rijnsdorp, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the onset of sexual maturation, reproductive investment and growth of North Sea plaice are studied between three periods: 1900s, 1980s and 2000s. Probabilistic maturation reaction norms of both males and females, describing the probability of becoming mature conditional on age and size, s

  11. Fisheries-induced evolution in growth, maturation and reproductive investment of the sexually dimorphic North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Walraven, L.; Mollet, F. M.; van Damme, C. J. G.; Rijnsdorp, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the onset of sexual maturation, reproductive investment and growth of North Sea plaice are studied between three periods: 1900s, 1980s and 2000s. Probabilistic maturation reaction norms of both males and females, describing the probability of becoming mature conditional on age and size,

  12. Fisheries-induced evolution in growth, maturation and reporductive investment of the sexually dimorphic North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, van L.; Mollet, F.M.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the onset of sexual maturation, reproductive investment and growth of North Sea plaice are studied between three periods: 1900s, 1980s and 2000s. Probabilistic maturation reaction norms of both males and females, describing the probability of becoming mature conditional on age and size,

  13. Use of otoliths to estimate size at sexual maturity in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sérgio Agostinho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability of an alternative method for estimating the size at sexual maturity of females of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae was analyzed. This methodology was used to evaluate the size at sexual maturity in crabs, but has not yet been used for this purpose in fishes. Separation of young and adult fishes by this method is accomplished by iterative adjustment of straight-line segments to the data for length of the otolith and length of the fish. The agreement with the estimate previously obtained by another technique and the possibility of calculating the variance indicates that in some cases, the method analyzed can be used successfully to estimate size at sexual maturity in fish. However, additional studies are necessary to detect possible biases in the method.A viabilidade de uma metologia alternativa para a estimativa do tamanho de maturação sexual de fêmeas de Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae foi analisada. Esta metodologia tem sido utilizada para avaliar o tamanho da maturação sexual em caranguejos mas ainda não havia sido utilizada em peixes com este objetivo. A separação dos peixes jovens e adultos por este método é feita pelo ajuste iterativo de segmentos de reta aos dados de comprimento do otólito e comprimento do peixe. A concordância com a estimativa obtida previamente utilizando outra técnica e a possibilidade do cálculo da variância indica que em alguns casos o método analisado pode ser utilizado com sucesso para estimar o tamanho de maturação sexual em peixes, mas outros estudos são necessários para se detectar possíveis bias do método.

  14. Individual heterogeneity in growth and age at sexual maturity: A gamma process analysis of capture–mark–recapture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, William; Hesed, Kyle Miller

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of organisms’ growth rates and ages at sexual maturity is important for conservation efforts and a wide variety of studies in ecology and evolutionary biology. However, these life history parameters may be difficult to obtain from natural populations: individuals encountered may be of unknown age, information on age at sexual maturity may be uncertain and interval-censored, and growth data may include both individual heterogeneity and measurement errors. We analyzed mark–recapture data for Red-backed Salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to compare sex-specific growth rates and ages at sexual maturity. Aging of individuals was made possible by the use of a von Bertalanffy model of growth, complemented with models for interval-censored and imperfect observations at sexual maturation. Individual heterogeneity in growth was modeled through the use of Gamma processes. Our analysis indicates that female P. cinereus mature earlier and grow more quickly than males, growing to nearly identical asymptotic size distributions as males.

  15. [Pubertal maturation, physical self-esteem and sexuality in a sample of French adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potard, C; Courtois, R; Clarisse, R; Le Floc'h, N; Thomine, M; Réveillère, C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the links between pubertal maturation, physical self-esteem and sexuality in adolescence, differentiating between boys and girls. The sample was comprised of 312 French secondary school children (seventh and ninth grades); 52.6 % (n=164) of whom were girls. Participants answered three self-evaluation questionnaires: the scale of sexuality (interests, emotions, relationships: IERS) in prime adolescence (12 to 15 years); (b) the self-administered rating scale for pubertal development and (c) the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ). Pubertal maturation was associated with higher scores on "Flirting with the aim of having sexual relations" and "Going out with someone", and a drop in overall and physical self-esteem, mainly in socially valued domains, namely "Body fat" for girls, and "Strength" and "Health" for boys. Overall physical self-esteem was associated with "Going out with someone" and "Flirting with the aim of having sexual relations" in boys. Physical changes at puberty induce two distinct trends in adolescents: sexual exploration and discovery (genitalized body), and self-depreciation (social body). Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Survival, growth and sexual maturation in Atlantic salmon exposed to infectious pancreatic necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillehammer, Marie; Ødegård, Jørgen; Madsen, Per

    2013-01-01

    Background Outbreaks of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in Atlantic salmon can result in reduced growth rates in a fraction of the surviving fish (runts). Genetic and environmental variation also affects growth rates within different categories of healthy animals and runts, which complicates...... (0.39 +/- 0.07 and 0.36 +/- 0.08) and sexual maturation (0.33 +/- 0.05), and high for field survival (0.47 +/- 0.03 and 0.48 +/- 0.03). Growth in healthy animals, runt status and survival showed consistent favourable genetic associations. Sexual maturation showed an unfavourable non...... identification of runts. Mixture models are commonly used to identify the underlying structures in such data, and the aim of this study was to develop Bayesian mixture models for the genetic analysis of health status (runt/healthy) of surviving fish from an IPN outbreak. Methods Five statistical models were...

  17. Sexual maturation in Egyptian boys and girls with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Sheren Esam; Ali, Faten Ismael

    2013-08-01

    Children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) exhibit a compromised growth status while information concerning the pattern of their sexual maturity is scant. The aim of the current work was to study sexual maturity in boys and girls with JRA. The study included eighty JRA patients they were 45 male and 35 female and eighty age- and sex-matched normal children served as controls. Development of genitalia was evaluated as per sexual maturity rating criteria given by Tanner score. Development of hair (pubic, axillary and facial) and age of monarch to JRA females were noted The mean (±SD) age of appearance of genitalia stage G-2 in boys with systemic onset JRA (12.0 ± 0.3 years) was earlier when compared with pauciarticular (12.60 ± 0.93 years) and polyarticular (13.39 ± 0.93 years) JRA but delayed for all types of JRA when compared with controls (10.06 ± 0.63 years). In comparison with female groups, the mean (±SD) age of appearance of genitalia stage G-2 with systemic onset JRA (12.0 ± 0.4 years) was also earlier when compared with pauciarticular (12.68 ± 1.09 years) and polyarticular (13.72 ± 0.39 years). Age of menarche delayed in all JRA female patients. None of the study group reach stage G-5 of genitalia development. The timing of initiation of sexual maturity in boys and girls with JRA delayed and this delay variable according to disease subtype.

  18. Epididymis of Viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus): A Morphological Comparative Study in Relation to Sexual Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruceño, A A M; Aguilera-Merlo, C I; Chaves, E M; Mohamed, F H

    2017-02-01

    The morphological variations and the androgen receptor (AR) expression were studied in viscacha epididymis in relation to sexual maturity. The animals were divided into immature, pre-pubertal and adult, according to their corporal weight and testicular histology. The epididymides were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry for AR and morphometric analysis. In pre-pubertal and adult animals, four well-differentiated segments (initial, caput, corpus and cauda) were observed, while in immature animals, three segments were identified (initial-caput segment, corpus and cauda). In each segment, the structural parameters and the relative cell distribution were different between the groups. The serum testosterone levels of pre-pubertal and adults showed a very significant increase related to sexual maturity. The AR expression in epithelial and fibromuscular stromal cells was different between the groups. In conclusion, the present work demonstrates that the morphological characteristics of the viscacha epididymis vary while sexual maturity is reached, the development of initial and caput is subsequent to corpus and cauda development and the androgens might play an important role during this process.

  19. Exposure of the mouse perinatal testis to radiation leads to hypospermia at sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forand, A.; Messiaen, S.; Habert, R.; Bernardino-Sgherri, J. [Laboratory of Differentiation and Radiobiology of the Gonads, CEA, DSV, iRCM, SCSR, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France); Unit of Gametogenesis and Genotoxicity, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France); INSERM, U566, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France)

    2009-07-01

    The first round of mouse spermatogenesis begins from 3 to 4 days after birth through differentiation of gonocytes into spermatogonial-stem cells and type A spermatogonia. Consequently, this step of differentiation may determine generation of the original population of stem cells and the fertility potential of the adult mouse. We aimed to determine the effect of perinatal exposure to ionizing radiation on the testis at the end of the first wave of spermatogenesis and at sexual maturity. Our results show that, radiation sensitivity of the testis substantially decreases from late foetal life to the end of the first week after birth. In addition, partial or full recovery from radiation induced testicular weight loss occurred between the first round of spermatogenesis and sexual maturity, and this was associated with the stimulation of spermatogonial proliferation. Exposure of mice at 17.5 days after conception or at 1 day after birth to {gamma}-rays decreased the sperm counts at sexual maturity, while exposure of 8 day-old mice had no effect. This suggests that irradiation of late foetal or early neonatal testes has a direct impact on the generation of the neonatal spermatogonial-stem cell pool. (authors)

  20. Differential annual movement patterns in a migratory species: effects of experience and sexual maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E Jorge

    Full Text Available Some animals migrate long distances to exploit important seasonal food resources in the northern regions of the northern hemisphere, whilst avoiding winter starvation. Changes in the individual's age and navigational skills are likely to affect migration, which in turn influences the geographic distribution of individuals. Processes such as sexual maturation and navigational abilities are affected by age, and age is thus a key factor in understanding migration patterns and differences in distribution ranges. In the present study, we investigated the effects of age on the geographic distribution of a population of Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus throughout its annual cycle, by analyzing a dataset of 19,096 records from 10,000 color-ringed gulls. In contrast to previous assumptions, the results showed that gulls were geographically segregated by age throughout the entire annual cycle, rather than showing a geographic age-related cline only in the wintering areas. This asymmetric distribution results from a reduction in the annual range of sexually mature gulls, and the differential distribution of mature and immature individuals (mature birds remained in more northern areas, compared to immature birds, throughout the annual cycle. Furthermore, although immature gulls travelled longer distances than adults, they initiated their fall migration with short movements, in contrast to adults that migrated using longer movements. The effects identified in this study explain the non-homogenous distribution of populations throughout the annual cycle, with wide implications for the development of effective human health policies and/or wildlife management strategies.

  1. Differential annual movement patterns in a migratory species: effects of experience and sexual maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Paulo E; Sowter, David; Marques, Paulo A M

    2011-01-01

    Some animals migrate long distances to exploit important seasonal food resources in the northern regions of the northern hemisphere, whilst avoiding winter starvation. Changes in the individual's age and navigational skills are likely to affect migration, which in turn influences the geographic distribution of individuals. Processes such as sexual maturation and navigational abilities are affected by age, and age is thus a key factor in understanding migration patterns and differences in distribution ranges. In the present study, we investigated the effects of age on the geographic distribution of a population of Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus throughout its annual cycle, by analyzing a dataset of 19,096 records from 10,000 color-ringed gulls. In contrast to previous assumptions, the results showed that gulls were geographically segregated by age throughout the entire annual cycle, rather than showing a geographic age-related cline only in the wintering areas. This asymmetric distribution results from a reduction in the annual range of sexually mature gulls, and the differential distribution of mature and immature individuals (mature birds remained in more northern areas, compared to immature birds, throughout the annual cycle). Furthermore, although immature gulls travelled longer distances than adults, they initiated their fall migration with short movements, in contrast to adults that migrated using longer movements. The effects identified in this study explain the non-homogenous distribution of populations throughout the annual cycle, with wide implications for the development of effective human health policies and/or wildlife management strategies.

  2. Differential Annual Movement Patterns in a Migratory Species: Effects of Experience and Sexual Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Paulo E.; Sowter, David; Marques, Paulo A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Some animals migrate long distances to exploit important seasonal food resources in the northern regions of the northern hemisphere, whilst avoiding winter starvation. Changes in the individual's age and navigational skills are likely to affect migration, which in turn influences the geographic distribution of individuals. Processes such as sexual maturation and navigational abilities are affected by age, and age is thus a key factor in understanding migration patterns and differences in distribution ranges. In the present study, we investigated the effects of age on the geographic distribution of a population of Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus throughout its annual cycle, by analyzing a dataset of 19,096 records from 10,000 color-ringed gulls. In contrast to previous assumptions, the results showed that gulls were geographically segregated by age throughout the entire annual cycle, rather than showing a geographic age-related cline only in the wintering areas. This asymmetric distribution results from a reduction in the annual range of sexually mature gulls, and the differential distribution of mature and immature individuals (mature birds remained in more northern areas, compared to immature birds, throughout the annual cycle). Furthermore, although immature gulls travelled longer distances than adults, they initiated their fall migration with short movements, in contrast to adults that migrated using longer movements. The effects identified in this study explain the non-homogenous distribution of populations throughout the annual cycle, with wide implications for the development of effective human health policies and/or wildlife management strategies. PMID:21799853

  3. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole;

    2015-01-01

    in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from...

  4. Aerobic endurance in young female athletes in respect to sexual maturation, age and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Silveira Böhme

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were, in young female athletes: a to describe the development of aerobic endurance in relation to different sexual maturation stages by each chronological age; b to verify the existence of significant differences among the sexual maturation stages in each age; c to describe the development of aerobic endurance in relation to different ages by each sexual stage; d to verify the existence of significant differences among the ages by each sexual stage; e to verify the influence of chronological age, sexual maturation, adiposity, muscularity, physical growth and kind of sport on aerobic endurance. The sample comprised 305 female young athletes from 10 to 17 years of age, of basketball, handball, soccer and track and field, who were measured for their physical growth, adiposity, muscularity, sexual maturation stage and aerobic endurance. The variance and multiple regression analyses indicated that sexual maturation had no significant influence on the aerobic endurance of these female young athletes. RESUMO Este trabalho de pesquisa teve por objetivos, com relação a jovens atletas do sexo feminino: a descrever o desenvolvimento da resistência geral aeróbia considerando-se os diferentes níveis de maturação biológica em cada idade cronológica; b verificar a existência de diferenças significativas entre os níveis de maturação em cada idade cronológica; c descrever o desenvolvimento da resistência geral aeróbia considerando-se as diferentes idades cronológicas em cada nível de maturação biológica; d verificar a existência de diferenças significativas entre as idades cronológicas de mesmo estágio maturacional; e verificar a influência da maturação biológica, crescimento físico, adiposidade subcutânea, muscularidade, idade cronológica e o tipo de modalidade esportiva praticada sobre a resistência geral aeróbia. Para isso, uma amostra de 305 jovens atletas mulheres na faixa etária de 10 a 17 anos das

  5. Male sexual enhancement after methoprene treatment in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae): A sustained response that does not fade away after sexual maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, G E; Devescovi, F; Nussenbaum, A L; Cladera, J L; Fernández, P C; Vera, M T; Teal, P E A; Segura, D F

    2017-08-01

    The juvenile hormone (JH) of insects triggers physiological changes related to reproduction in adults of both sexes. Methoprene is a sesquiterpene with some effects that are analogous to those of JH. Treatments with methoprene accelerate sexual maturation in males of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus, giving young males a mating advantage over non-treated males of the same age. Here, we evaluated the effects of methoprene treatment on A. fraterculus males after the sexual maturation phase and tested whether this compound provides a long-term mating advantage. Moreover, we took the first step to unravel the mechanisms that underlie male sexual enhancement. We treated males 1day or 8days after adult emergence and compared mate choice between recently matured (young) females and females that had been mature for ca. 10days (aged females). We also addressed methoprene treatment effects on male sexual signalling. We found that methoprene treatment enhanced male sexual competitiveness even after the sexual maturation phase, and the effect did not decrease until males were older than 20days. However, when methoprene treatment was carried out close to sexual maturity, the mating enhancement was no longer observed, suggesting a non-immediate effect and excluding the possibility that methoprene acts as a pheromonal compound. Young and aged females tended to mate more frequently with treated-males. This might indicate that in a context of sexual selection, the potential benefits associated with reproductive success would be similar for females of both ages. Treated males released larger amounts of pheromonal compounds than non-treated males, but their courtship behaviour was not altered to the same extent, suggesting that methoprene treatment may accelerate differently the components of male courtship. We discuss potential benefits of using methoprene to increase the efficiency of the sterile insect technique, which is an environmentally safe method to

  6. Dormancy and the Influence of photoperiod and temperature on sexual maturity in Nicrophorus nepalensis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbe Hwang; Shiuh-Feng Shiao

    2011-01-01

    Carrion beetles (Nicrophorus spp.) use small vertebrate carcasses for food and reproduction. Their ecology and behaviors are highly affected by the availability of carcasses and the surrounding environmental conditions. Our results revealed that in subtropical Fushan, northern Taiwan, N. nepalensis was mainly active in spring (February to May), and could also be found in autumn (October and November); but there was no capture record in summer (June to September) and winter (December and January). A laboratory temperature tolerance study indicated that N. nepalensis adults become inactive at temperatures above 26°C, and had the highest mortality when the temperature was raised from 27℃ to 28℃. Furthermore, N. nepalensis became sexually mature at 20℃, depending on the photoperiod: the longer the day, the lower the percentage of sexually mature 2-week-old females after emergence. In another experiment, N. nepalensis virgins were paired under three possible conditions at Fushan. At 15℃ and 20℃, if carcasses were presented to the pairs within 3 days after emergence, all laid eggs in the second week after emergence. If carcasses were presented 1 week after emergence, most began to reproduce at 20℃ with 12.5 h of daylight. However, at 15℃ with 11 h of daylight, the carrion beetles hibernated first, and reproduced in the ninth week after emergence. At 25℃ with 14 h of daylight, carrion beetles did not bury the mouse carcasses, the females did not lay eggs, and the adult lifespan was only one-third of that at 20℃. This study revealed that both photoperiod and temperature influence the time needed to reach the sexual maturity of N. nepalensis; and also implied that the narrow temperature tolerance range and dormancy behavior of carrion beetles are highly regulated by those environmental factors.

  7. Biometric indices and size at first sexual maturity of eight alien fish species from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Yeamin Hossain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The biometric indices and size at first sexual maturity of eight alien fish species from several water bodies in Bangladesh were studied for the first time. A total of 273 individuals of eight alien fish species (Barbonymus gonionotus, Clarias gariepinus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, H. nobilis, Oreochromis niloticus and Pangasianodon hypophthalmus were collected using traditional fishing gears from June 2014 to May 2015. Among the four condition factors (Allometric condition factor, Fulton’s condition factor, Relative condition factor, and Relative weight studied, Fulton’s condition factor was the best for assessing the well-being of these alien species in their natural habitat, based on the relationships of condition factors with body weight and total length. The calculated form factor was 0.0270 for B. gonionotus, 0.0077 for C. gariepinus, 0.0119 for C. idella, 0.0194 for C. carpio, 0.0101 for H. molitrix, 0.0092 for H. nobilis, 0.0158 for O. niloticus and 0.0105 for P. hypophthalmus. The size at first sexual maturity was estimated in TL as 12.30 cm for B. gonionotus, 25.53 cm for C. gariepinus, 32.80 cm for C. idella, 18.22 cm for C. carpio, 23.92 cm for H. molitrix, 30.18 cm for H. nobilis, 21.78 cm for O. niloticus, and 21.32 cm for P. hypophthalmus. The present study also calculates form factor and first sexual maturity of these alien species from different water-bodies world over. The findings of this study can be very helpful for sustainable management of these alien species in Bangladesh and similar ecosystems.

  8. Assessment of Sexual Maturation among Boys in Special Schools of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Mosallanejad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to lack of detailed standards of sexual maturity in individuals with Intellectual, sensory and motor disability in Iran and the importance of timing of onset of puberty in these individuals, a study is necessary. By knowing the onset of puberty, physiologic and behavioral changes can be traced in these people, as well as the potential impact of the puberty on the underlying disease can be considered. The aim of the study was to investigate of sexual maturation among boys of special schools of Tehran. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was performed on children and adolescents male students in special school in Tehran at 2013. A random, multistage sample 0f 895 boy students of special schools was taken from 25 special schools in five districts of Tehran city. In this study, symptoms and stages of puberty were identified. Pubertal stages were assessed by visual inspection and palpation based on the rating scales of Tanner. In addition, demographic data such as age, height, weight were collected. Then the data were analyzed and mean age of onset of puberty was determined. Results: The mean age of onset of puberty in boys (Genitalia stage 2 was 13.12 ± 1.84 years and sexual maturation was completed at 16.57 ± 1.34 years. The average height at the onset of puberty (Genitalia stage 2 was 151.1 ± 9.91 cm and the average weight was 48.47 ± 10.14kg. The mean BMI for puberty onset was 20.89 ± 5.43. Conclusion: In our study, the mean age of puberty onset in boys with disabilities was 13.12 ± 1.84 years. Compared to the data from healthy boys, our findings indicate that the mean age of pubertal onset in boys with disabilities in special school is higher than that of their healthy counterparts.

  9. Transcriptional changes of cytokines in rooster testis and epididymis during sexual maturation stages and Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, M; Michailidis, G

    2016-08-01

    Infection of rooster testis and epididymis by pathogens can lead to impaired fertility, resulting in economic losses in the poultry industry. Antimicrobial protection of rooster reproductive organs is, therefore, an important aspect of reproductive physiology. Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, caused by Salmonella bacteria including Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and is usually the result of infection of the reproductive organs. Thus, knowledge of the endogenous innate immune mechanisms of the rooster testis and epididymis is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for stimulating the immune response and inflammation in chickens to Salmonella infection. In the present study the expression profile of 11 pro-inflammatory cytokine genes in the rooster testis and epididymis in vivo and transcriptional changes in these organs during sexual maturation and SE infection were investigated. Gene expression analysis data revealed that in both testis and epididymis nine cytokines namely the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17 and IL-18 genes were expressed, while no mRNA transcripts were detected in both organs for IL-2 and IL-4. Furthermore, the expression of various cytokine genes during sexual maturation appeared to be developmentally regulated, while SE infection resulted in a significant up-regulation of IL-1β, -6, -12 and -18 genes in the testis and an increase in the mRNA relative abundance of IL-1β, -6, -12, -16 and -18 in the epididymis of SE-infected sexually mature 28-week-old roosters. These results suggest a cytokine-mediated immune response mechanism against Salmonella infection in the rooster reproductive tract.

  10. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  11. Genome-wide association study (GWAS for growth rate and age at sexual maturation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro P Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Early sexual maturation is considered a serious drawback for Atlantic salmon aquaculture as it retards growth, increases production times and affects flesh quality. Although both growth and sexual maturation are thought to be complex processes controlled by several genetic and environmental factors, selection for these traits has been continuously accomplished since the beginning of Atlantic salmon selective breeding programs. In this genome-wide association study (GWAS we used a 6.5K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array to genotype ∼ 480 individuals from the Cermaq Canada broodstock program and search for SNPs associated with growth and age at sexual maturation. Using a mixed model approach we identified markers showing a significant association with growth, grilsing (early sexual maturation and late sexual maturation. The most significant associations were found for grilsing, with markers located in Ssa10, Ssa02, Ssa13, Ssa25 and Ssa12, and for late maturation with markers located in Ssa28, Ssa01 and Ssa21. A lower level of association was detected with growth on Ssa13. Candidate genes, which were linked to these genetic markers, were identified and some of them show a direct relationship with developmental processes, especially for those in association with sexual maturation. However, the relatively low power to detect genetic markers associated with growth (days to 5 kg in this GWAS indicates the need to use a higher density SNP array in order to overcome the low levels of linkage disequilibrium observed in Atlantic salmon before the information can be incorporated into a selective breeding program.

  12. Influence of age, sexual maturation, anthropometric variables and body composition on flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Donassolo Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Since flexibility is an important component of health-related physical fitness at all ages, this parameter should be evaluated in chi ldren and adolescent s because the abi l ity to acquire and maintain levels of flexibility is greater in this age group. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate body weight, height, BMI and flexibility according to chronological age and sexual maturat ion and to determine the influence of these var iables on flexibi l ity in student s f rom publ ic and private schools. A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted. The sample consisted of 2604 girls aged 8 to 17 years. Body weight, height, BMI, sexual maturation, and flexibility were evaluated. The data were analyzed descriptively using the following inferential tests: two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by the Tukey post-hoc test, Pearson’s and Spearman’s simple correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The SPSS® 13.0 program was used for all statistical analyses, with a level of significance of p<0.05. Significant differences with increasing age and maturation stage were observed for the variables body weight, height and BMI when compared to the subsequent year. In conclusion, body wei-ght and height increased with increasing age, especially between 8 and 13 years, and flexibility remained stable throughout childhood and adolescence.

  13. Sexual maturation in relation to polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons: Sharpe and Skakkebaek's hypothesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hond, Elly; Roels, Harry A; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Nawrot, Tim; Thijs, Lutgarde; Vandermeulen, Corinne; Winneke, Gerhard; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Staessen, Jan A

    2002-08-01

    Polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (PCAHs) have been described as endocrine disruptors in animals and in accidentally or occupationally exposed humans. In the present study we examined the effect of moderate exposure to PCAHs on sexual maturation. Two hundred adolescents (mean age, 17.4 years) who resided in two polluted suburbs and a rural control area in Flanders (Belgium) participated. We measured the serum concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 138, 153, and 180 and dioxin-like compounds [chemically activated luciferase expression (CALUX) assay] as biomarkers of exposure. School physicians assessed the pubertal development of boys and girls and measured testicular volume. In one suburb near two waste incinerators, compared with the other suburb and the control area, fewer boys (p ratio was 3.5 (p = 0.04). In girls, a doubling of the serum dioxin concentration increased the odds of not having reached the adult stage of breast development by 2.3 (p = 0.02). Left plus right testicular volume was lower in both polluted areas than in the control area (42.4 mL vs. 47.3 mL, p = 0.005) but was not related to the current exposure of the adolescents to PCAHs. Through endocrine disruption, environmental exposure to PCAHs may interfere with sexual maturation and in the long-run adversely affect human reproduction.

  14. A skeletochronological study of growth, longevity, and age at sexual maturity in a population of Rana latastei (Amphibia, Anura)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fabio M Guarino; Silvia Lunardi; Michela Carlomagno; Stefano Mazzotti

    2003-12-01

    Longevity and age at sexual maturity in an Italian population of Rana latastei were studied by skeletochronology performed on the phalanges. Frogs collected in 1998 and 1999 by drift fences and pitfall traps were marked by toe-clipping. After marking, individuals were released and the cut phalanges were processed for skeletochronological analysis. The maximum age so far recorded was 3 years in males and 4 years in females. The smallest male and female that were sexually mature on the basis of histological analysis of the gonads were 36 and 35 mm snout vent length (SVL), respectively. In both sexes, most individuals were estimated to breed shortly after emergence from their first overwintering. Among the European Brown Frogs, Rana latastei appears to be one of the shortest-lived and one of the first to reach sexual maturity.

  15. RNA sequencing to characterize transcriptional changes of sexual maturation and mating in the female oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weiwei; Luo, Deye; Wu, Fangyu; Wang, Jialu; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-03-05

    Female reproductive potential plays a significant role in the survival and stability of species, and sexual maturation and mating processes are crucial. However, our knowledge of the reproductive genes involved in sexual maturation and mating has been largely limited to model organisms. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is a highly invasive agricultural pest, known to cause major economic losses; thus, it is of great value to understand the transcriptional changes involved in sexual maturation and mating processes as well as the related genes. Here, we used a high-throughput sequencing method to identify multiple genes potentially involved in sexual maturation and mating in female B. dorsalis. We sequenced 39,999 unique genes with an average length of 883 bp. In total, 3264 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between mature virgin and immature Bactrocera dorsalis libraries, whereas only 83 DEGs were identified between flies that had mated or were mature virgins. These DEGs were functionally annotated using the GO and KEGG pathway annotation tools. Results showed that the main GO terms associated with the DEGs from the mature virgin vs. immature groups were primarily assigned to the metabolic and developmental processes, which we focused on, whereas those from the mated vs. mature virgin group largely belonged to the response to stimulus and immune system processes. Additionally, we identified multiple DEGs during sexual maturation that are involved in reproduction, and expression pattern analysis revealed that the majority DEGs detected were highly enriched in those linked to the ovaries or fat bodies. Several mating responsive genes differentially expressed after mating were also identified, and all antimicrobial peptides detected were highly enriched in fat body and significantly up-regulated approximately 2- to 10-fold at 24 h after mating. This study supplied female reproductive genes involved in sexual maturation and the post

  16. Sexually dimorphic gene expression that overlaps maturation of type II pneumonocytes in fetal mouse lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provost Pierre R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In human, respiratory distress of the neonates, which occurs in prematurity, is prevalent in male. Late in gestation, maturation of type II pneumonocytes, and consequently the surge of surfactant synthesis are delayed in male fetuses compared with female fetuses. Although the presence of higher levels of androgens in male fetuses is thought to explain this sex difference, the identity of genes involved in lung maturation that are differentially modulated according to fetal sex is unknown. We have studied the sex difference in developing mouse lung by gene profiling during a three-day gestational window preceding and including the emergence of mature PTII cells (the surge of surfactant synthesis in the mouse occurs on GD 17.5. Methods Total RNA was extracted from lungs of male and female fetal mice (gestation days 15.5, 16.5, and 17.5, converted to cRNA, labeled with biotin, and hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays (Affymetrix MOE430A. Analysis of data was performed using MAS5.0, LFCM and Genesis softwares. Results Many genes involved in lung maturation were expressed with no sex difference. Of the approximative 14 000 transcripts covered by the arrays, only 83 genes presented a sex difference at one or more time points between GDs 15.5 and 17.5. They include genes involved in hormone metabolism and regulation (i.e. steroidogenesis pathways, apoptosis, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, and lipid metabolism with four apolipoprotein genes. Genes involved in immune functions and other metabolisms also displayed a sex difference. Conclusion Among these sexually dimorphic genes, some may be candidates for a role in lung maturation. Indeed, on GD 17.5, the sex difference in surfactant lipids correlates with the sex difference in pulmonary expression of apolipoprotein genes, which are involved in lipid transport. This suggests a role for these genes in the surge of surfactant synthesis. Our results would help to

  17. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Komen, H.; Jobling, S.; Sumpter, J.; Bowmer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17β-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp

  18. Mother-Daughter Communication about Sexual Maturation, Abstinence and Unintended Pregnancy: Experiences from an Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Joanna; Ibisomi, Latifat; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2012-01-01

    Parental communication and support is associated with improved developmental, health and behavioral outcomes in adolescence. This study explores the quality of mother-daughter communication about sexual maturation, abstinence and unintended pregnancy in Korogocho, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We use data from 14 focus group…

  19. Age at sexual maturity, sex ratio, fecundity, and longevity of isolated headwater populations of westslope cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Downs; Robert G. White; Bradley B. Shepard

    1997-01-01

    We sampled 19 isolated headwater populations of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi in Montana to provide estimates of fecundity, longevity, sex ratio, and age at sexual maturity. Fecundity was estimated for 31 fish collected from two streams in the upper Missouri River drainage. Females smaller than 149 mm fork length (FL) were generally immature and...

  20. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Komen, H.; Jobling, S.; Sumpter, J.; Bowmer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17β-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp

  1. Mother-Daughter Communication about Sexual Maturation, Abstinence and Unintended Pregnancy: Experiences from an Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Joanna; Ibisomi, Latifat; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2012-01-01

    Parental communication and support is associated with improved developmental, health and behavioral outcomes in adolescence. This study explores the quality of mother-daughter communication about sexual maturation, abstinence and unintended pregnancy in Korogocho, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We use data from 14 focus group…

  2. Sexual development, maturity and reproduction of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus in the western and central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Potoschi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been conducted on the sexual development, maturity and reproduction of the dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus L. 1758 in the Mediterranean area, with special reference to the Balearic islands and Sicily. Professional fishing, carried out from August to December 1996, uses FADs (Fish Attracting Devices and surrounding nets. 2087 juvenile specimens of dolphinfish from the Ionian and southern Tyrrhenian seas, the Strait of Sicily and the Balearic islands were sampled. A small number of adult fish (39, which are not usually caught in surrounding nets, was sampled in the swordfish long-line by-catch. The gonads of the young fish were analysed monthly to establish the stage of development of the ovaries or testes, during the first few months of life. The gonads of the adult fish, sampled in the months of June-September only, were all mature. The specimens caught between October and December presented maturity stage V in the case of the females and I in the case of the males, indicating the end of the reproductive period. The gonado-somatic index (GSI and condition factor (CF were calculated for both genders. The trend of the GSI confirms the presence of immature specimens as regards the juvenile fish; the low value of GSI was obtained for the adults, probably associated with the post-reproduction conditions found in the October-December period. Most of the gonads sampled during the months between August and December belonged to young specimens born in early summer. This is confirmed by the juvenile stages (FL 2.5 to 4.3 cm caught with plankton nets in the Strait of Messina area in July.

  3. Linking steroid hormone levels to sexual maturity index and energy reserves in Nereis diversicolor from clean and polluted estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durou, C; Mouneyrac, C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare seasonal variations of reproduction physiology of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor --a key species in estuarine ecosystems--originating from a clean (Authie) and multi-polluted (Seine) estuaries. A particular attention was carried out in female worms, on relationships between sexual maturity stages, energy reserves (glycogen and lipids) and steroid hormone levels (progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone). Sexual maturity index (SMI), energy reserves and steroid hormones are clearly influenced by season in worms from both sites. Depleted steroid hormone levels were depicted in specimens exhibiting high sexual maturity stage and energy reserves. Intersite analysis has revealed all over the sampling period:--a sexual precocity in worms from Seine,--glycogen concentrations generally higher in worms from Authie,--no clear tendency for lipids,--no differences in steroid hormone levels. Sexual precocity and lower glycogen levels in Seine could be explained by a specific strategy above all devoted to reproduction in these worms. Chemical stress could be a possible explanation of these observations.

  4. Changes in proliferating and apoptotic markers in the oviductal magnum of chickens during sexual maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabia, Anna; Leśniak-Walentyn, Agnieszka; Ocłoń, Ewa; Sechman, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The avian oviduct is characterized by dynamic hormonal, biochemical, and cellular changes during its development. To better understand the molecular mechanisms regulating proper development of this organ in birds, the rate of cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as these processes-related gene expressions in the chicken oviduct during the sexual maturation were examined. The oviducts were isolated from Hy-Line Brown chickens at 2-week intervals from 10 to 16 weeks of age, and at 17 weeks, i.e. just after the onset of egg laying. In the tissue from the middle part of the oviduct (the magnum) the following parameters were tested: (1) proliferating (proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA]-positive) and apoptotic (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive) cells, (2) mRNA expression of bcl-2, caspases 2, 3, 8, and 9, PCNA, survivin-142, and ovalbumin by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, (3) protein expression of Bcl-2, PCNA, and caspases 3 and 9 by Western blot, (4) activity of caspases 2, 3, 8, and 9 by fluorometric method, and (5) localization of Bcl-2 and caspases by immunohistochemistry. It was found that the number of proliferating cells per unit area did not change during the examined period. The number of apoptotic cells in the oviductal wall remained on the same level until 14 weeks of age followed by a gradual decrease, reaching the lowest number at 17 weeks. The mRNA expression of all caspases and Bcl-2 gradually decreased during maturation, and PCNA decreased after 14 weeks of age. Survivin-142 mRNA level increased in 14-week-old chickens and then diminished, whereas ovalbumin expression was dramatically elevated in birds 16 weeks old and older. Patterns of protein expression of Bcl-2, PCNA, and caspases and activity of caspases were similar to mRNA, although not as pronounced. In the wall of the magnum the apoptotic cells and examined proteins were localized predominantly in the mucosa

  5. Deferred Compensation Becomes More Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Audrey Williams

    2006-01-01

    A key part of the compensation package for some college and university presidents is money that they do not receive in their paychecks. Formally known as deferred compensation, such payments can take many forms, including supplemental retirement pay, severance pay, or even bonuses. With large institutions leading the way, deferred compensation has…

  6. Does the timing of attainment of maturity influence sexual size dimorphism and adult sex ratio in turtles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Gibbons, J. Whitfield; Agha, Mickey

    2014-01-01

    The attainment of sexual maturity has been shown to affect measures of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and adult sex ratios in several groups of vertebrates. Using data for turtles, we tested the model that sex ratios are expected to be male-biased when females are larger than males and female-biased when males are larger than females because of the relationship of each with the attainment of maturity. Our model is based on the premise that the earlier-maturing sex remains smaller, on average throughout life, and predominates numerically unless the sexes are strongly affected by differential mortality, differential emigration, and immigration, or biased primary sex ratios. Based on data for 24 species in seven families, SSD and sex ratios were significantly negatively correlated for most analyses, even after the effect of phylogenetic bias was removed. The analyses provide support for the model that SSD and adult sex ratios are correlated in turtles as a result of simultaneous correlation of each with sexual differences in attainment of maturity (bimaturism). Environmental sex determination provides a possible mechanism for the phenomenon in turtles and some other organisms.

  7. Swimming physiology of European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla L.): energetic costs and effects on sexual maturation and reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Thillart, Guido E. E. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The European eel migrates 5,000–6,000 km to the Sargasso Sea to reproduce. Because they venture into the ocean in a pre-pubertal state and reproduce after swimming for months, a strong interaction between swimming and sexual maturation is expected. Many swimming trials have been performed in 22 swim tunnels to elucidate their performance and the impact on maturation. European eels are able to swim long distances at a cost of 10–12 mg fat/km which is 4–6 times more efficient than salmonids. The total energy costs of reproduction correspond to 67% of the fat stores. During long distance swimming, the body composition stays the same showing that energy consumption calculations cannot be based on fat alone but need to be compensated for protein oxidation. The optimal swimming speed is 0.61–0.67 m s−1, which is ~60% higher than the generally assumed cruise speed of 0.4 m s−1 and implies that female eels may reach the Sargasso Sea within 3.5 months instead of the assumed 6 months. Swimming trials showed lipid deposition and oocyte growth, which are the first steps of sexual maturation. To investigate effects of oceanic migration on maturation, we simulated group-wise migration in a large swim-gutter with seawater. These trials showed suppressed gonadotropin expression and vitellogenesis in females, while in contrast continued sexual maturation was observed in silver males. The induction of lipid deposition in the oocytes and the inhibition of vitellogenesis by swimming in females suggest a natural sequence of events quite different from artificial maturation protocols. PMID:20390348

  8. Evaluation of sexual maturity of young bulls from different breeds selected for post-weaning weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Morato Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm traits of 243 young bulls from Caracu (n=62, Gir (n=23, Guzerá (n=59 and Nellore (n=99 breeds, with 20-25 months of age, from the Breeding Program of Estação Experimental de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho, were analyzed. On the day of breeding soundness evaluation animals were weighed, the scrotal circumference was measured and the semen was collected by electroejaculation. The sperm motility, vigor and morphology were assessed and the animals were classified according to the andrological classification by points (CAP. No difference was observed among breeds for any seminal trait evaluated, although Nelore presented lower scrotal circumference average than the other breeds. When the animals were classified by body weight, it was observed that the heavier animals presented greater scrotal circumference, better seminal characteristics and, consequently, greater percentage of these animals were considered sexually mature comparing with the other body weight groups. It was concluded that the animals selected for post-weaning and reared on pasture from the taurine adapted breed Caracu and from the zebu breeds Gir, Guzerá and Nelore have proved able to reproduction at 23.2, 23.4, 22.7 and 22.8 months, respectively, corresponding to age which reached an average weight of 452, 422, 470 and 467 kg respectively.

  9. Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Barreto de Souza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volume, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9 mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

  10. Linking size and age at sexual maturation to body growth, productivity and recruitment of Atlantic cod stocks spanning the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Trippel, E.A.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2013-01-01

    Sexual maturation patterns of 22 North Atlantic stocks of cod (Gadus morhua) were examined and related to geographical distribution area, ambient water temperature, growth and surplus production. Four patterns were identified, i.e. sexual maturation early in life at small size, early in life...... at large size, late in life at small size and lastly, late in life at large size. These maturation patterns were geographically clustered and associated with differences in growth and surplus production. Stocks maturing late in life at small size were characterised by slow growth and low surplus production...... (e.g. stocks in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Labrador/Newfoundland). Stocks maturing early in life at large size exhibited high to intermediate growth and surplus production (e.g. Celtic Sea, North Sea). Stocks maturing late in life at large size had low to intermediate growth rates and surplus...

  11. Transcriptome Analysis and Differential Gene Expression on the Testis of Orange Mud Crab, Scylla olivacea, during Sexual Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiho, Khor; Fazhan, Hanafiah; Shahreza, Md Sheriff; Moh, Julia Hwei Zhong; Noorbaiduri, Shaibani; Wong, Li Lian; Sinnasamy, Saranya

    2017-01-01

    Adequate genetic information is essential for sustainable crustacean fisheries and aquaculture management. The commercially important orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea, is prevalent in Southeast Asia region and is highly sought after. Although it is a suitable aquaculture candidate, full domestication of this species is hampered by the lack of knowledge about the sexual maturation process and the molecular mechanisms behind it, especially in males. To date, data on its whole genome is yet to be reported for S. olivacea. The available transcriptome data published previously on this species focus primarily on females and the role of central nervous system in reproductive development. De novo transcriptome sequencing for the testes of S. olivacea from immature, maturing and mature stages were performed. A total of approximately 144 million high-quality reads were generated and de novo assembled into 160,569 transcripts with a total length of 142.2 Mb. Approximately 15–23% of the total assembled transcripts were annotated when compared to public protein sequence databases (i.e. UniProt database, Interpro database, Pfam database and Drosophila melanogaster protein database), and GO-categorised with GO Ontology terms. A total of 156,181 high-quality Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were mined from the transcriptome data of present study. Transcriptome comparison among the testes of different maturation stages revealed one gene (beta crystallin like gene) with the most significant differential expression—up-regulated in immature stage and down-regulated in maturing and mature stages. This was further validated by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, a comprehensive transcriptome of the testis of orange mud crabs from different maturation stages were obtained. This report provides an invaluable resource for enhancing our understanding of this species’ genome structure and biology, as expressed and controlled by their gonads. PMID:28135340

  12. Predicting size at first sexual maturity from length/weight relationship: a case study with an Amazonian catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Relationship between length and weight (LWR is used to describe aspects concerning the life cycle of fish, but does not considers possible changes during the lifetime mainly due to the sexual maturation. Thus, this study aims to identify the size at first maturity of Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae and infer if the reproductive engagement could change growth pattern, concerning the LWR. Estimates of the size at first maturity (L 50 were made by visual identification of gonadal development and through the gonadosomatic index (G SI . L 50 was estimated as 12.5 cm for males and 13.0 cm for females when applied visual identification of gonads development. L 50 estimates increased to 13.05 cm for males and 13.7 cm for females when estimated from G SI values. LWR was adjusted by using a regular power function and through the polyphasic growth model, with proportionality and allometric coefficients changing in a two phases. The results indicate differences in the growth pattern concerning males and females, as well as polyphasic growth. The change in the growth pattern of the polyphasic LWR was estimated at 11.42 cm for males and 12.53 cm for females, suggesting that changes in the growth pattern can sign-out the attainment maturity in this catfish.

  13. Relative growth, sexual dimorphism and morphometric maturity of Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Decapoda: Brachyura: Trichodactylidae from Santa Terezinha, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Rozário da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are important elements in the aquatic biota of brooks, rivers, lakes and ponds, from both ecological and the socio-economic aspects. Trichodactylidae comprises 51 endemic species from the Neotropical region. Among all the species of this family, Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 has the widest geographic distribution throughout Brazil. Despite that, there are few published contributions on the biology of this species. The present study investigated the following aspects of T. fluviatilis: relative growth, mean size at onset of morphometric maturity, sexual dimorphism, laterality and heterochely. Specimens were collected monthly from September 2010 through August 2011, from the Velha Eugênia Brook, municipality of Santa Teresinha, State of Bahia. Carapace width (CW, carapace length (CL, major cheliped length (MaCL and minor cheliped length (MiCL, major cheliped height (MaCH and minor cheliped height (MiCH, and width of the fifth abdominal segment (5AB were measured to evaluate the presence of sexual dimorphism; the major difference between the sexes was in the CW vs. 5AB ratio. Heterochely was observed in males and females,with the right cheliped larger than the left in 89% of males and 81% of females. Crab size at the onset of morphometric maturity (= puberty molt was estimated based on the ratio between CL, cheliped dimensions, 5AB and CW (independent variable. Females were larger than males when they reached morphometric maturity in all studied relations. We recommend the use of chelipeds and abdominal width relationships to estimate the size at the morphometric maturity in males and females, respectively.

  14. 26 CFR 1.404(d)-1T - Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for independent contractors. (Temporary) 1.404(d)-1T... Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for..., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing for deferred benefits for service providers with respect...

  15. NIEHS/EPA CEHCs: Perinatal Exposures, Epigenetics, Child Obesity and Sexual Maturation - University of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists are seeking to understand how early exposure to chemicals such as lead, bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates affects growth and sexual development during childhood and adolescence and the risk for diseases in adulthood.

  16. Associations between feed efficiency, sexual maturity and fertility-related measures in young beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura, A B P; Montanholi, Y R; Diel de Amorim, M; Foster, R A; Chenier, T; Miller, S P

    2016-01-01

    temperature variation at the top of the scrotum was correlated with improved sperm progressive motility (r=0.38), a lower occurrence of sperm loose head abnormalities was correlated with larger temperature variation at the lower part of the scrotum (r=-0.43), and a lower minimum testis echogenicity (r=-0.59) and smaller scrotal circumference (r=0.72) were correlated with age. The adjustment for body composition (RFI determination) enabled distinct biological inferences about reproduction and feed efficiency when compared with the non-adjusted model. However, both RFI models and the correlation analysis supported the hypothesis that feed-efficient bulls have features of delayed sexual maturity. Overall, the assessment of fertility-related measurements is important to avoid the improvement of feed efficiency at the expense of reproductive function in young bulls.

  17. Characterization of unique truncated prolactin receptor transcripts, corresponding to the intracellular domain, in the testis of the sexually mature chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J N; Burnside, J; Li, L; Tang, J; Davolos, C; Cogburn, L A

    1999-03-01

    We have examined expression of the chicken PRL receptor (cPRLR) gene in different tissues of the chicken by Northern blot analysis. Most tissues examined (ovary, testis, oviduct, kidney, and fat) possess a prominent full-length (4.6-kb) cPRLR transcript. A larger (11.7-kb) transcript is also detected in ovary, oviduct, testis, and kidney after longer exposure. A unique pattern of cPRLR expression was found in the testis of sexually mature chickens, which have an unusually high abundance of three small transcripts (1.2, 1.7, and 2 kb) in addition to the 4.6-kb transcript found in other tissues. Three domain-specific complementary DNA (cDNA) probes were constructed that correspond to the first and second ligand-binding regions in the extracellular domain and the transmembrane-intracellular domain. With these probes, Northern blot analysis of polyadenylated RNA prepared from the testes of a mature (22-week-old) chicken indicates that the highly abundant (1.2- and 1.7-kb) and less abundant (2.0-kb) cPRLR transcripts in testis hybridize only to the intracellular domain probe. Two types of truncated testis-specific cPRLR transcripts were identified using 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) analysis of polyadenylated RNA from the testis of a 22-week-old chicken. The predominant truncated cDNA sequence contains the highly conserved box 1 motif [(+)box 1 cDNA] and diverges (at nucleotide 1396) from that of the cPRLR cDNA, just downstream of the transmembrane domain. The other truncated cDNA lacks the box 1 motif [(-)box 1 cDNA], which is replaced by 39 bases that could encode a hydrophobic N-terminus with a putative 5'-untranslated region of 131 bases. Young chickens predominately express the full-length cPRLR messenger RNA (4.6 kb) in the testis. At the onset of sexual maturity, there is a dramatic increase in abundance of the testis-specific (+)box 1 transcript, whereas expression of the full-length cPRLR is depressed. The presence of truncated [(+) or (-)box 1] c

  18. A New Deferred Sentencing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Chakravarti

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available A new deferred sentencing scheme resembling double sampling scheme has been suggested from viewpoint of operational and administrative. It is recommended particularly when the inspection is destructive. The O.C. curves of the scheme for two sample sizes of 5 and 10 have been given.

  19. Present Action Spurs Deferred Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarc, Jerry A.

    1985-01-01

    Examines ways parishes or schools can promote deferred gifts, payable on death to the parish or institution. Suggests that financial planning seminars and will clinics, planned-giving promotion committees, and dissemination of free pamphlets on estate planning are good ways to promote these bequests. (DMM)

  20. Growth patterns in brooding dinosaurs reveals the timing of sexual maturity in non-avian dinosaurs and genesis of the avian condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gregory M; Curry Rogers, Kristina; Varricchio, David J; Norell, Mark A; Xu, Xing

    2007-10-22

    The timing of sexual maturation in non-avian dinosaurs is not known. In extant squamates and crocodilians it occurs in conjunction with the initial slowing of growth rates as adult size is approached. In birds (living dinosaurs) on the other hand, reproductive activity begins well after somatic maturity. Here we used growth line counts and spacing in all of the known brooding non-avian dinosaurs to determine the stages of development when they perished. It was revealed that sexual maturation occurred well before full adult size was reached-the primitive reptilian condition. In this sense, the life history and physiology of non-avian dinosaurs was not like that of modern birds. Palaeobiological ramifications of these findings include the potential to deduce reproductive lifespan, fecundity and reproductive population sizes in non-avian dinosaurs, as well as aid in the identification of secondary sexual characteristics.

  1. The effects of differential prenatal and postnatal social enviroments on sexual maturation of young prairie deermice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D; Terman, C R

    1975-05-01

    We compared the influence of different social enviroments on sexual maturation of young prairie deermice. Between 12 and 48 hr after parturition, one-half of a litter from a population was exchanged with one-half of a litter from a bisexual pair. In each situation the remaining half-litter served as controls for the exchange procedure. The testes and vesicular weights of population-reared males were significantly larger than those of males reared by bisexual pairs, irrespective of prenatal enviroment. Generally, population-reared females also had larger reproductive organs than those reared by bisexual pairs, although these differences were not statistically significant. There were no significant differences in the adrenal weights of males or females, but females reared by bisexual pairs had larger absolute and relative adrenals than females reared in populations.

  2. Short-term exposure to 17alpha-ethynylestradiol decreases the fertility of sexually maturing male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Irv R.; Skillman, Ann D.; Nicolas, Jean-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G.; Nagler, James J.

    2003-06-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a commonly used oral contraceptive that has been increasingly detected in sewage effluents. This study determined whether EE2 exposure adversely affected reproduction in sexually maturing male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed male trout to graded water concentrations of EE2 (10, 100, and 1,000 ng/ L) for 62 d leading up to the time of spawning. Semen and blood plasma samples were removed from each fish. Semen was used to fertilize groups of eggs from one nonexposed female. As a measure of fertility, eggs were incubated for 28 d after fertilization to determine the proportion that attained the eyed stage of embryonic development. Additional endpoints also measured included sperm motility, spermatocrit, gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices, testis histology, and circulating plasma levels of the sex steroids 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone (17,20-DHP) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). Exposure to 1,000 ng/L of EE2 caused complete mortality of the treatment group by day 57. Exposure to lower EE2 water concentrations (10 and 100 ng/L) caused an increase in sperm density, while a significant reduction in testis mass was observed only in the 100-ng/L exposure group. Most significantly, semen harvested from fish exposed to 10 and 100 ng/L EE2 caused an approximately 50% reduction in the number of eggs attaining the eyed stage of embryonic development. Plasma levels of 17,20-DHP in exposed fish were roughly twice the level of the controls, while levels of 11-KT were significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100 ng/L EE2. These results suggest that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to detrimental reproductive effects of short-term exposures to environmentally relevant levels of EE2.

  3. Sperm bundles in the seminal vesicles of sexually mature Lasius ant males.

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    Burnett, William E; Heinze, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    In many insects, sperm cells are produced in bundles with their heads being held together by a glycoprotein matrix secreted by a cyst cell. Mature sperm cells in the seminal vesicles are usually free, but in sawflies and several other insects, such structures (spermatodesmata) remain intact and sperm cells may be ejaculated as bundles. Here we report the occurrence of spermatodesmata in mature males of the ant Lasius pallitarsis. Microscopic investigations of the abdominal contents of males immediately prior to their nuptial flights showed that the anterior ends of numerous sperm cells were embedded in an oval-shaped 20 by 30 micrometer extracellular fibrous cap. Individual sperm ranged in length from 55 to 75 micrometers with an average overall length of 65 micrometers. The bulb-shaped heads of the sperm were relatively small, only about 1.5 micrometers in length and about 1.1 micrometers in diameter. The diameter of the sperm tails was approximately 1 micrometer. Observations of live preparations of the spermatodesmata showed increasingly active undulating wave-like movement of the sperm tails as the slide preparations aged. This appears to be the first case of sperm bundles being present in the seminal vesicles of mature ant males--males that are immediately poised to complete their nuptial mating flight.

  4. Sperm bundles in the seminal vesicles of sexually mature Lasius ant males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Burnett

    Full Text Available In many insects, sperm cells are produced in bundles with their heads being held together by a glycoprotein matrix secreted by a cyst cell. Mature sperm cells in the seminal vesicles are usually free, but in sawflies and several other insects, such structures (spermatodesmata remain intact and sperm cells may be ejaculated as bundles. Here we report the occurrence of spermatodesmata in mature males of the ant Lasius pallitarsis. Microscopic investigations of the abdominal contents of males immediately prior to their nuptial flights showed that the anterior ends of numerous sperm cells were embedded in an oval-shaped 20 by 30 micrometer extracellular fibrous cap. Individual sperm ranged in length from 55 to 75 micrometers with an average overall length of 65 micrometers. The bulb-shaped heads of the sperm were relatively small, only about 1.5 micrometers in length and about 1.1 micrometers in diameter. The diameter of the sperm tails was approximately 1 micrometer. Observations of live preparations of the spermatodesmata showed increasingly active undulating wave-like movement of the sperm tails as the slide preparations aged. This appears to be the first case of sperm bundles being present in the seminal vesicles of mature ant males--males that are immediately poised to complete their nuptial mating flight.

  5. [Deferred breast reconstruction - soul surgery?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kydlíček, Tomáš; Třešková, Inka; Třeška, Vladislav; Holubec, Luboš

    2013-01-01

    The loss or mutilation of a breast as a result of surgical treatment of neoplastic disease always represents a negative impact on a woman's psyche and negatively influences the quality of the woman's remaining life. The goal of our work was to implement deferred breast reconstruction into routine practice and the objectification of the influence of reconstruction on bodily integrity, quality of life, and the feeling of satisfaction in women. Women in remission from neoplastic disease after a radical mastectomy were indicated for breast reconstruction. Between January 2002 and December 2011 deferred breast reconstruction was carried out 174 × on 163 women, with an average age of 49.2 and an age range of 29-67 years. The most frequently used reconstruction method was a simple gel augmentation of the breast or a Becker expander/implant - 51 (29.3%) and 37 (21.3%), or in combination with a lateral thoracodorsal flap (31; 17.8% and 47; 27%); reconstruction using a free DIEP flap was carried out 7 × (4%). Complications occurred in 19 operations (10.9%) with a dominance of inflammation and pericapsular fibrosis, in a subjective analysis, satisfaction with the results prevailed, along with an increased quality of life after reconstruction. A growing number of deferred breast reconstructions, women's satisfaction with the results, the positive influence of renewed bodily integrity on the feeling of life satisfaction and the quality of life have elevated breast reconstructions to a qualitatively higher level.

  6. Influence of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and insulin treatment on the pituitary-testicular axis during sexual maturation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, S; Valli, G; Julie, P M; Arunakaran, J; Govindarajulu, P; Balasubramanian, K

    2000-01-01

    Effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetes and insulin treatment on the functioning of pituitary-testicular axis during sexual maturation was studied. Prepubertal (30 days old) and pubertal (50 days old) male Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single injection of STZ. A group of diabetic rats was given insulin (3U/100 g b.wt./day in 2 equally divided doses), 3 days after STZ treatment. Prepubertal and pubertal rats of all groups were killed on postnatal days 51 and 71, respectively. STZ-diabetes caused marked reduction in serum LH, FSH, prolactin, testosterone and testicular interstitial fluid testosterone as well as the activities of Leydig cellular steroidogenic enzymes (3beta-and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases). Insulin treatment to diabetic rats maintained these changes at control range except FSH and prolactin in prepubertal rats. The results indicate that (i) diabetes-induced steroidogenic lesions in Leydig cells represent a direct consequence of dysfunctioning of pituitary-testicular axis, (ii) the adverse effects of diabetes on pituitary-testicular functions are influenced by age of its induction and (iii) optimum insulin level is essential for the acquisition of Leydig cellular steroidogenic efficacy during sexual development.

  7. Relative growth and sexual maturity of the freshwater shrimp Palaemon pandaliformis (Crustacea, Palaemonidae in northeastern of Brazil (Canavieiras, Bahia

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    Lucas R. P. Paschoal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study comprises the description of relative growth and sexual maturity of a population of Palaemon pandaliformis Stimpson, 1871 in Salsa River (Northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected monthly between September 2009 and August 2010. Females were larger, heavier, and showed a greater allometric coefficient (b than male specimens. Only carapace length vs. pleura length in females presented a significant difference in the relative growth pattern, indicating a puberty moult. This relationship is strictly correlated to reproduction and its success rate in female shrimps. Estimated carapace length in 50% of mature females (CL50 was 4.53 mm. It was not possible to compare obtained CL50 results due to a lack of studies on this species. Comparison was based on the size of the smallest captured ovigerous female (3.81 CL mm, which is within the scope of recorded size for estuaries located in higher latitudes. This study reveals the lack of research on this genre in freshwater environments on a national and global scale.

  8. Microarray-based approach identifies differentially expressed microRNAs in porcine sexually immature and mature testes.

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    Lifan Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNA molecules which are proved to be involved in mammalian spermatogenesis. Their expression and function in the porcine germ cells are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY: We employed a miRNA microarray containing 1260 unique miRNA probes to evaluate the miRNA expression patterns between sexually immature (60-day and mature (180-day pig testes. One hundred and twenty nine miRNAs representing 164 reporter miRNAs were expressed differently (p<0.1. Fifty one miRNAs were significantly up-regulated and 78 miRNAs were down-regulated in mature testes. Nine of these differentially expressed miRNAs were validated using quantitative RT-PCR assay. Totally 15,919 putative miRNA-target sites were detected by using RNA22 method to align 445 NCBI pig cDNA sequences with these 129 differentially expressed miRNAs, and seven putative target genes involved in spermatogenesis including DAZL, RNF4 gene were simply confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results of this study indicated specific miRNAs expression in porcine testes and suggested that miRNAs had a role in regulating spermatogenesis.

  9. The impact of water exchange rate and treatment processes on water-borne hormones in recirculation aquaculture systems containing sexually maturing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A controlled seven-month study was conducted in six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS) to assess post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) performance in relation to WRAS water exchange rate. Unexpectedly high numbers of precocious sexually mature fish were observed in all WRAS...

  10. A Mixed-Methods Inquiry into the Intimate Practices of Partnered Mature Students and Influences on Relationship, Sexual, and School Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhijn, Tricia M.; Murray, Sarah H.; Mizzi, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Through the use of mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, the current study explored the impact of postsecondary study on the intimate relationships and school experiences of partnered mature students. Quantitative regression analyses indicated that parental status, family support, partner support, and sexual desire significantly predicted…

  11. Transcriptomic profiling of proteases and antiproteases in the liver of sexually mature hens in relation to vitellogenesis

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    Bourin Marie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most egg yolk precursors are synthesized by the liver, secreted into the blood and transferred into oocytes, to provide nutrients and bioactive molecules for the avian embryo. Three hundred and sixteen distinct proteins have been identified in egg yolk. These include 37 proteases and antiproteases, which are likely to play a role in the formation of the yolk (vitellogenesis, as regulators of protein metabolism. We used a transcriptomic approach to define the protease and antiprotease genes specifically expressed in the hen liver in relation to vitellogenesis by comparing sexually mature and pre-laying chickens showing different steroid milieu. Results Using a 20 K chicken oligoarray, a total of 582 genes were shown to be over-expressed in the liver of sexually mature hens (1.2 to 67 fold-differences. Eight of the top ten over-expressed genes are known components of the egg yolk or perivitelline membrane. This list of 582 genes contains 12 proteases and 3 antiproteases. We found that “uncharacterized protein LOC419301/similar to porin” (GeneID:419301, an antiprotease and “cathepsin E-A-like/similar to nothepsin” (GeneID:417848, a protease, were the only over-expressed candidates (21-fold and 35-fold difference, respectively that are present in the egg yolk. Additionally, we showed the 4-fold over-expression of “ovochymase-2/similar to oviductin” (GeneID:769290, a vitelline membrane-specific protease. Conclusions Our approach revealed that three proteases and antiproteases are likely to participate in the formation of the yolk. The role of the other 12 proteases and antiproteases which are over-expressed in our model remains unclear. At least 1/3 of proteases and antiproteases identified in egg yolk and vitelline membrane proteomes are expressed similarly in the liver regardless of the maturity of hens, and have been initially identified as regulators of haemostasis and inflammatory events. The lack of effect of sex

  12. The life history of Ardipithecus ramidus: a heterochronic model of sexual and social maturation

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    Clark Gary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the ontogeny of craniofacial growth in Ardipithecus ramidus in the context of its possible social and environmental determinants. We sought to test the hypothesis that this form of early hominin evolved a specific adult craniofacial morphology via heterochronic dissociation of growth trajectories. We suggest the lack of sexual dimorphism in craniofacial morphology provides evidence for a suite of adult behavioral adaptations, and consequently an ontogeny, unlike any other species of extant ape. The lack of sexually dimorphic craniofacial morphology suggests A. ramidus males adopted reproductive strategies that did not require male on male conflict. Male investment in the maternal metabolic budget and/or paternal investment in offspring may have been reproductive strategies adopted by males. Such strategies would account for the absence of innate morphological armoury in males. Consequently, A. ramidus would have most likely had sub-adult periods of socialisation unlike that of any extant ape. We also argue that A.ramidus and chimpanzee craniofacial morphology are apomorphic, each representing a derived condition relative to that of the common ancestor, with A. ramidus developing its orthognatic condition via paedomoporhosis, and chimpanzees evolving increased prognathism via peramorphosis. In contrast we suggest cranial volume and life history trajectories may be synapomorphic traits that both species inherited and retained form a putative common ancestral condition. Our analysis also provides support for the hypothesis that an intensification of maternal care was central to the process of hominization.

  13. Transcriptome profiling of testis during sexual maturation stages in Eriocheir sinensis using Illumina sequencing.

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    Lin He

    Full Text Available The testis is a highly specialized tissue that plays dual roles in ensuring fertility by producing spermatozoa and hormones. Spermatogenesis is a complex process, resulting in the production of mature sperm from primordial germ cells. Significant structural and biochemical changes take place in the seminiferous epithelium of the adult testis during spermatogenesis. The gene expression pattern of testis in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been performed on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for testis of E. sinensis. In two runs, we produced 25,698,778 sequencing reads corresponding with 2.31 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 342,753 contigs or 141,861 scaffold sequences, which identified 96,311 unigenes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 39,995 unigenes were annotated based on having a Blast hit in the non-redundant database or ESTscan results with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5. This is the first report of a mitten crab transcriptome using high-throughput sequencing technology, and all these testes transcripts can help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis and testis maturation.

  14. Change in location and processing of inhibin alpha-subunit precursors during sexual maturation of the Djungarian hamster testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohimaa, P; Bläuer, M; Bergmann, M; Aumüller, G

    1993-02-01

    Immunohistochemical location and immunoblot of inhibin alpha-subunit peptides were analyzed in the testis of the Djungarian hamster from days 0-31 of postnatal development using a specific antibody. An intense immunoreaction was observed in the centrally located T1 prespermatogonia at day 0. The staining intensity decreased gradually in the spermatogonia when they make contact with the basal lamina at days 8-10. At days 13 and 15 there is no staining. Thereafter the immunoreactivity in Sertoli cells as well as in A spermatogonia gradually increased, being highest in sexually mature animals. The intensity of alpha-subunit staining in the seminiferous tubules was stage specific, being strongest at stages III and IV. Immunoblot analysis of testis homogenates with the anti-INH alpha 1-32 antibody showed several bands: 88K, 80K, and 43K in immature hamster testis (0-, 2-, 6-, 8-, or 10-day-old). In the adult hamster (31-day-old) 88K, 80K, 28K, and 20K bands were seen, but no 43K band. Dimeric inhibin was not detected. The 43-44K band most likely corresponds to the pro-alpha N alpha C, the 28K band to intermediate forms between alpha N alpha C and alpha C (alpha I alpha C), and the 20K band to mature alpha-subunit (alpha C). The shift from the immature pattern to mature occurs at about 20 days of age. Freezing of the samples was deleterious to alpha C, since it could be detected only in freshly homogenized samples. The results suggest that prespermatogonia produce predominantly monomeric alpha-subunit precursor pro-alpha N alpha C, whereas the mature Sertoli cells as well as A spermatogonia contain mainly monomeric alpha I alpha C. The alpha-inhibin precursors may act as auto-/paracrine regulators of spermatogenesis. Our results suggest that different alpha-subunit precursors, pro-alpha N alpha C and alpha I alpha C, might be involved in the differentiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis, respectively. The posttranslational processing of alpha-subunit precursors

  15. Sexual maturity and reproductive period of the swimming blue crab Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 (Brachyura: Portunidae from Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, southern Brazil

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    Murilo Zanetti Marochi

    Full Text Available This work aims to estimate the average size at the onset of morphological and physiological sexual maturity and the reproductive period of Callinectes danae. Specimens were captured from a shrimp fishing boat equipped with a trawl net from March 2009 to February 2010. After sorting, crabs were sexed, and the following morphometric dimensions were measured: carapace width (CW, length and height of the major (MAP and HMAP, and the minor cheliped propodus (MIP and HMIP for both sexes, and the abdominal width for females (AW. The onset of morphological maturity was estimated with the REGRANS program, in which the inflection point is calculated. The size at the onset of physiological maturity was determined by logistic regressions fitted to the relationships between the percentages of juvenile and adult individuals of each CW. A total of 893 individuals were sampled. Of these individuals, 389 were males, 472 non-ovigerous females, and 32 ovigerous females. The CW ranged from 19.81 to 117.17 mm for males, 19.91 to 113.11 mm for non-ovigerous females, and 70.55 to 88.60 mm for ovigerous females. Morphological sexual maturity was attained at 86.47 mm CW (males and 67.87 mm CW (females. The size at the onset of physiological maturity was calculated to be 86.50 mm CW (males and 67.00 mm CW (females. Due to the closeness of these values, both techniques were deemed suitable for determination of the onset of sexual maturity in C. danae. This species reproduces throughout the year, but reproduction is more intense during the winter. Mature males are present throughout the year. Data from this investigation will help resource managers to develop strategies that will ensure a sustainable harvest of this important species of swimming crab in southern Brazil.

  16. Sperm protamine levels as indicators of fertilising potential in sexually mature male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, M; Padwal, V; Choudhari, J; Balasinor, N; Gill-Sharma, M K

    2008-02-01

    We have earlier reported that administration of cyproterone acetate, fluphenazine decanoate, tamoxifen citrate, oestradiol valerate to adult male rats, at doses of 50, 5.77, 0.71, 0.28 micromol kg(-1) body weight given for periods of 15, 60, 60, 10 days, respectively, partially suppressed/reduced availability of one or more reproductive hormones viz. LH, FSH, testosterone and reduced their siring ability. The reduction in epididymal sperm counts was not considerable after treatment with these drugs, but conventional methods of assessment of spermatozoa quality viz. sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD) assay, monobromobimane (mBBr) uptake, had shown quantifiable changes in caput sperm chromatin compaction and reduced the testicular levels of protamine 1. The present follow-up study attempts to quantify changes in caudal sperm chromatin which has undergone compaction in the epididymis, in the altered hormonal microenvironment of rats treated with cyproterone acetate, tamoxifen citrate, fluphenazine decanoate, oestradiol valerate, at doses of 50, 5.77, 0.71, 0.28 micromol kg(-1) body weight respectively given for periods of 15, 60, 60, 10 days, with a view to correlating these changes to reduction in their fertilising potential. During the androgen-dependent transit of spermatozoa from caput to cauda epididymis, thiol group oxidation and tyrosine phosphorylation of protamine occurs in maturing sperms concomitant with development of fertilising ability. The results indicate that conventional methods viz. SCSA, NCD, mBBr uptake fail to detect changes induced by hormone deficits in sperm chromatin condensation, as a result of maturation during transit from caput to cauda epididymis. Absence of protamine 1 in epididymal sperm was observed in either testosterone or FSH deficient rats that correlated with reduced fertilising potential. The study suggests that changes in LH/T or FSH affect a hitherto unknown common molecular

  17. Changes in hormonal profile, gonads and sperm quality of Argyrosomus regius (Pisces, Scianidae) during the first sexual differentiation and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, R; Zilli, L; Storelli, C; Vilella, S

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, sexual gonadal differentiation and first sexual maturation of Meagre (Argyrosomus regius) was studied, based upon the annual changes in gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal histology, and the plasma steroid hormones, testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and estradiol (E2). In addition, spermatozoa characteristics were evaluated by measuring sperm motility and morphology. Results demonstrated that Meagre completes sex differentiation at 10 to 12 mo of age, and are group-synchronous spawners, which reach puberty at 2 (mean length 26.8 ± 0.7 cm, mean weight 920 ± 75 g; N = 10) and 3 (mean length 35.8 ± 0.8 cm, mean weight 1610 ± 89 g; N = 10) years of age for males and females, respectively. In males, during the sex differentiation period, T levels were significantly higher with respect to those of 11-KT; this suggests that T has a key role in the early phases of the sex differentiation. During the spawning season an increase in plasma concentrations of all hormones was observed with 11-KT levels being significantly higher that those of T. In females, during the sex differentiation period, there was an increase in E2 plasma levels, while during the first spawning season, a significant increase of T and E2 levels were measured. Regarding sperm characteristics, the measured curvilinear velocity (VCL) and straight-linear velocity (VSL), resulted in the same order of magnitude with respect to those measured in other marine fish, while the average path velocity (VAP) was similar to that measured in the European Eel. The head of Meagre spermatozoa presents as oval shaped with a surface area of approximately 3.66 μm(2) and a perimeter of approximately 6.65 μm. All these findings represent an important basis for further investigation on the reproductive biology of this specie and may assist the farmers to improve seed production in aquaculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexually mature transgenic American chestnut trees via embryogenic suspension-based transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gisele M; Nairn, Campbell J; Le, Huong T; Merkle, Scott A

    2009-09-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of anti-fungal candidate genes into American chestnut (Castanea dentata), devastated by a fungal blight in the last century, would offer an alternative or supplemental approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees resistant to the blight fungus and other pathogens. By taking advantage of the strong ability of embryogenic American chestnut cultures to proliferate in suspension, a high-throughput Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into the tree was established. Proembryogenic masses (PEMs) were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 harboring the plasmid pCAMBIA 2301, followed by stringent selection with 50 or 100 mg/l Geneticin. A protocol employing size-fractionation to enrich for small PEMs to use as target material and selection in suspension culture was applied to rapidly produce transgenic events with an average efficiency of four independent transformation events per 50 mg of target tissue and minimal escapes. Mature somatic embryos, representing 18 transgenic events and derived from multiple American chestnut target genotypes, were germinated and over 100 transgenic somatic seedlings were produced and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Multiple vigorous transgenic somatic seedlings produced functional staminate flowers within 3 years following regeneration.

  19. Early sexual maturity among Pumé foragers of Venezuela: fitness implications of teen motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen L

    2008-07-01

    Because humans have slow life histories, discussions of the optimal age at first birth have stressed the benefits of delayed reproduction. However, given the diversity of ecological, fertility, and mortality environments in which humans live, reproductive maturity is expected to be highly variable. This article uses reproductive histories to examine a pattern of early menarche and first birth among the Pume, a group of South American foragers. Age at menarche and first birth are constructed using both retrospective and cross-sectional data for females over the age of 10 (n = 83). The objectives are first to define these patterns and then discuss their reproductive consequences. On average, Pume girls reach menarche at age 12.9, and give birth to their first child at age 15.3-15.5 (retrospective and cross-sectional data, respectively). This populational average falls several years prior to what often is considered the human norm. Two questions are then considered. What are the infant mortality costs across a mother's reproductive career? How does surviving fertility vary with age at first birth? Results indicate that the youngest of first-time mothers ( or =17). Given parity-specific mortality rates, the optimal strategy to minimize infant mortality and maximize reproductive span is to initiate childbearing in the midteens. Women gain no additional advantage in surviving fertility by delaying childbearing until their late teens.

  20. Histological assessment of organs in sexually mature and post-spawning steelhead trout and insights into iteroparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Zachary L.; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are anadromous and iteroparous, but repeat-spawning rates are generally low. Like other anadromous salmonids, steelhead trout fast during freshwater spawning migrations, but little is known about the changes that occur in vital organs and tissues. We hypothesized that fish capable of repeat-spawning would not undergo the same irreversible degeneration and cellular necrosis documented in semelparous salmon. Using Snake River steelhead trout as a model we used histological analysis to assess the cellular architecture in the pyloric stomach, ovary, liver, and spleen in sexually mature and kelt steelhead trout. We observed 38 % of emigrating kelts with food or fecal material in the gastrointestinal tract. Evidence of feeding was more likely in good condition kelts, and feeding was associated with a significant renewal of villi in the pyloric stomach. No vitellogenic oocytes were observed in sections of kelt ovaries, but perinucleolar and early/late stage cortical alveolus oocytes were present suggesting iteroparity was possible. We documented a negative correlation between the quantity of perinucleolar oocytes in ovarian tissues and fork length of kelts suggesting that larger steelhead trout may invest more into a single spawning event. Liver and spleen tissues of both mature and kelt steelhead trout had minimal cellular necroses. Our findings indicate that the physiological processes causing rapid senescence and death in semelparous salmon are not evident in steelhead trout, and recovery begins in fresh water. Future management efforts to increase iteroparity in steelhead trout and Atlantic salmon must consider the physiological processes that influence post-spawning recovery.

  1. The influence of steroids on the vascular tension of isolated superficial nasal and facial veins in gilts during sexual maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewski, W J; Muszak, J; Tabecka-Łonczyńska, A; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2010-01-01

    The arrangement of the superficial facial veins enables blood flow from the nasal cavity into the peripheral circulation by two pathways: through the facial vein into the external jugular vein and through the frontal vein into the cavernous sinus. The venous cavernous sinus is the site where hormones and pheromones permeate from venous blood into the arterial blood supplying the brain and hypophysis. The present study was designed to: (1) determine whether estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) affect the vascular tone of the superficial veins of the nose and face in maturating prepubertal gilts (PP) and in prepubertal gilts deprived of ovarian hormones (PPov), and (2) to analyze the immunolocalization of progesterone receptors (PR), and estradiol receptors alpha (ER alpha) and beta (ER beta) in these veins. The influence of hormones on the vascular tension differed depending on the type of vessel, the hormonal status and dose of hormone used. Estradiol decreased the vascular tension in the nasal and facial veins of PP gilts (P tension in the proximal and distal parts of the facial vein (P tension in the proximal segment of the nasal vein and in the distal segment of the frontal and facial veins, and decreased the tension in the distal segment of the nasal and facial veins (P tension of distal and proximal segments of the nasal vein (P tension of the distal part of the nasal vein (P superficial nasal and facial veins. In conclusion, the ovarian steroid hormones that modulate the vascular tension of the nasal and facial veins in prepubertal gilts may influence the transfer of boar pheromones from the nasal mucosa to the brain via local humoral pathway during sexual maturation.

  2. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.

  3. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxiang [Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang, Wenchang, E-mail: wenchang2002@sina.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Liu, Jin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Sun, Yan [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

    2013-06-15

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

  4. Girls' physical activity and sedentary behaviors: Does sexual maturation matter? A cross-sectional study with HBSC 2010 Portuguese survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Adilson; Branquinho, Cátia; De Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between girls' sexual maturation (age of menarche) and physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data were collected from a national representative sample of girls in 2010 (pre-menarcheal girls n = 583, post-menarcheal girls n = 741). Physical activity (times/week and hours/week) and screen-based sedentary time (minutes/day) including television/video/DVD watching, playing videogames, and computer use were self-reported. Pre-menarcheal girls engaged significantly more times in physical activity in the last 7 days than post-menarcheal girls (3.5 ± 1.9 times/week vs. 3.0 ± 1.7 times/week, P physical activity. Post-menarcheal girls spent significantly more minutes per day than pre-menarcheal girls watching TV, playing videogames, and using computers on weekdays (TV: 165.2 ± 105.8 vs. 136.0 ± 106.3, P physical activity and for computer use. Specific interventions should be designed for girls to increase their physical activity participation and decrease time spent on the computer, for post-menarcheal girls in particular. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:471-475, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Characterization of cytological changes, IgA, IgG and IL-8 levels and pH value in the vagina of prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen minipigs during an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Grossi, Anette Blak;

    2016-01-01

    minipigs ( n = 10). In sexually mature minipigs ( n = 10), evaluated through an estrous cycle, there was an increase in number of mucosal neutrophils and other leukocytes during estrus. The level of total IgA on the vaginal mucosa increased during diestrus. The level of total IgG showed no significant...... changes through the cycle. The vaginal IgA level in the prepubertal minipigs was similar to the low estrus level in sexually mature minipigs, and the IgG level in prepubertal was similar to the stable level in the sexually mature minipigs....

  6. 17 CFR 256.253 - Other deferred credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other deferred credits. 256... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 8. Deferred Credits § 256.253 Other deferred credits. This account shall include advance billings and receipts and other deferred credit items, not provided for elsewhere...

  7. Prevalência de anemia e níveis séricos de hemoglobina em adolescentes segundo estágio de maturidade sexual Prevalence of anemia and hemoglobin serum levels in adolescents according to sexual maturation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Brandão Mariath

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante a adolescência o crescimento acelerado promove um aumento nas necessidades nutricionais, inclusive de ferro, tornando os adolescentes um grupo de risco nutricional. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a prevalência de anemia e os níveis séricos de hemoglobina de acordo com o estágio de maturidade sexual em uma amostra representativa composta por 272 adolescentes matriculados em escolas da rede municipal de ensino de Balneário Camboriú-SC. A auto-avaliação da maturidade sexual foi realizada segundo os critérios de Tanner (1962. Os níveis sangüíneos de hemoglobina foram medidos através do sistema HemoCue® e o diagnóstico de deficiência de ferro foi baseado no critério proposto pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (2001. Foram consideradas significativas as diferenças ao nível de pAccelerated growth spurt during adolescence leads to increased nutritional requirements, including iron, therefore posing a nutritional risk to adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia and hemoglobin serum levels according to the sexual maturation stage in a representative sample comprised of 272 adolescents enrolled in public schools in Balneário Camboriú, SC. Self-assessment of sexual maturation was carried out according to criteria defined by Tanner (1962. Hemoglobin serum levels were measured through the HemoCue® system and the diagnosis of iron deficiency was based on the cut off points proposed by the World Health Organization (2001. Differences were considered significant at the level of p<0.05. We found a prevalence of 31.2% of anemia without significant differences between genders. Hemoglobin serum levels were significantly higher in boys (p=0.044 than in girls. We did not find significant differences between mean hemoglobin levels of girls who had reached menarche and the ones who had not. There was no statistical association between the presence of anemia and sexual maturation stages of adolescents

  8. Integrity of the plasma membrane, the acrosomal membrane, and the mitochondrial membrane potential of sperm in Nelore bulls from puberty to sexual maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.L.S. Reis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal membrane integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential of Nelore bull sperm from early puberty to early sexual maturity and their associations with sperm motility and vigor, the mass motility of the spermatozoa (wave motion, scrotal circumference, and testosterone. Sixty Nelore bulls aged 18 to 19 months were divided into four lots (n=15 bulls/lot and evaluated over 280 days. Semen samples, collected every 56 days by electroejaculation, were evaluated soon after collection for motility, vigor and wave motion under an optical microscope. Sperm membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial activity were evaluated under a fluorescent microscope using probe association (FITC-PSA, PI, JC-1, H342. The sperm were classified into eight integrity categories depending on whether they exhibited intact or damaged membranes, an intact or damaged acrosomal membrane, and high or low mitochondrial potential. The results show that bulls have a low amount of sperm with intact membranes at puberty, and the sperm show low motility, vigor, and wave motion; however, in bulls at early sexual maturity, the integrity of the sperm membrane increased significantly. The rate of sperm membrane damage was negatively correlated with motility, vigor, wave motion, and testosterone in the bulls, and a positive correlation existed between sperm plasma membrane integrity and scrotal circumference. The integrity of the acrosomal membrane was not influenced by puberty. During puberty and into early sexual maturity, bulls show low sperm mitochondrial potential, but when bulls reached sexual maturity, high membrane integrity with high mitochondrial potential was evident.

  9. Maturidade sexual do caranguejo Armases rubripes (Rathbun (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Sexual maturity of the crab Armases rubripes (Rathbun (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana V. Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a maturidade sexual de Armases rubripes (Rathbun, 1897 em três diferentes ambientes (rio, praia arenosa e manguezal no sudeste do Brasil. Os caranguejos foram coletados mensalmente de julho/2002 a fevereiro/2004, utilizando-se peneiras no Rio Sahy durante as marés altas e, manualmente, na praia e no manguezal, durante as marés baixas. Os animais foram capturados por dois coletores num esforço de 15 minutos por estação de coleta. No laboratório, os exemplares foram separados por sexo e mensurados em relação a largura da carapaça, do abdome e comprimento do gonopódio. As gônadas, gonopódios e o abdome foram analisados segundo sua forma e seu aspecto. Um total de 4.051 indivíduos foram amostrados (1.067 machos, 1.563 fêmeas e 1.421 juvenis. Foram determinados cinco morfotipos: juvenis, machos imaturos, fêmeas imaturas, machos maduros e fêmeas maduras. O início da maturidade sexual fisiológica e morfológica ocorreu de forma assíncrona, com machos produzindo gametas mais cedo que as fêmeas. O tamanho da primeira maturidade sexual apresentou diferença significativa entre os ambientes analisados, exceção observada para o manguezal. Os indivíduos obtidos no manguezal apresentaram menores tamanhos para o início da maturidade sexual. Embora, estimados os tamanhos da maturidade sexual morfológica de machos e fêmeas, a análise do crescimento alométrico foi inadequado para a espécie.The present study analyzed the sexual maturity of Armases rubripes (Rathbun, 1897 in three populations from different environmental conditions (river, beach and mangrove in the southeastern Brazilian coast. Crabs were sampled monthly from July 2002 to February 2004; they were captured with sieves at Sahy River, during the high tides, and by hand at beach and mangrove areas, during low tides. Animals were captured by establishing a catch effort of two collectors during 15 minutes for each station. At laboratory, all individuals

  10. Pulsed feedback defers cellular differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe H Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis cells that respond to sudden nutrient limitation with multiple rounds of growth and division before differentiating into spores. A well-characterized genetic circuit controls the concentration and phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A, which rises to a critical concentration to initiate sporulation. However, it remains unclear how this circuit enables cells to defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles. Using quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of Spo0A dynamics in individual cells, we observed pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation at a characteristic cell cycle phase. Pulse amplitudes grew systematically and cell-autonomously over multiple cell cycles leading up to sporulation. This pulse growth required a key positive feedback loop involving the sporulation kinases, without which the deferral of sporulation became ultrasensitive to kinase expression. Thus, deferral is controlled by a pulsed positive feedback loop in which kinase expression is activated by pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation. This pulsed positive feedback architecture provides a more robust mechanism for setting deferral times than constitutive kinase expression. Finally, using mathematical modeling, we show how pulsing and time delays together enable "polyphasic" positive feedback, in which different parts of a feedback loop are active at different times. Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long deferral times. Together, these results suggest that Bacillus subtilis uses a pulsed positive feedback loop to implement a "timer" that operates over timescales much longer than a cell cycle.

  11. 26 CFR 1.404(a)-1T - Questions and answers relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for employees. (Temporary) 1.404(a)-1T Section 1.404(a... relating to deductibility of deferred compensation and deferred benefits for employees. (Temporary) Q-1... contributions or compensation under section 404(a)? A-1: As amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1984, section 404(b...

  12. Prevalence of sexual problems and related help-seeking behaviors among mature adults in Brazil: data from the global study of sexual attitudes and behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Duarte Moreira Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Relatively little is known about the usual frequency of sexual activity and how older individuals cope with sexual problems. The objective was to study sexual activity, prevalence of sexual problems and related help-seeking behaviors among middle-aged and older men and women in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population survey, by Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. METHODS: Interviews were held with 1,199 Brazilians aged 40-80 years (471 men and 728 women. The standardized questionnaire investigated demographics, general health, sexual behavior, attitudes and beliefs. RESULTS: Overall, 92.6% of men and 58.3% of women had had sexual intercourse during the preceding year. More than half of the men and women had done so more than once a week. Early ejaculation (30.3% was the commonest male sexual problem, followed by inability to reach orgasm (14.0%, erectile difficulties (13.1% and lack of sexual interest (11.2%. For women, the commonest sexual problems were lubrication difficulties (23.4% and lack of sexual interest (22.7%. Depression was a significant correlate of sexual problems, for men and women. More women than men had sought help for sexual problem(s from a healthcare professional. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of encouraging greater use of available healthcare services, including consultation with a medical doctor regarding sexual health. This should not only enable men and women to maintain satisfactory sexual function well into their later years, but may also result in overall improvement in the quality of healthcare.

  13. Morphometric sexual maturity and allometric growth of the crab Sesarma rectum Randall, 1840 (Crustacea: Sesarmidae in an impacted tropical mangrove in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bezerra Ribeiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The size at sexual maturity and the allometric growth of the semi-terrestrial crab Sesarma rectum were studied in an impacted tropical mangrove in northeast Brazil. Crabs were monthly collected during spring low-tide periods, from October 2009 through September 2010. A catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE technique was used to sample the crab population, with two-hour sampling periods, by two people. A total of 492 crabs were obtained, being 262 males and 230 females. The specimens were measured at carapace width (CW, the left and right propodus length and height (RPL, RPH, LPL and LPH, and the gonopod length of males (GL, and abdomen width (AW of females. In males, the inflection point was at 27.14 mm CW in the relationship between CW and the length of right propodus (LRP, considering the morphological size at the onset of maturity. Based on the relationship between CW and AW, the size at sexual maturity in females was 22.97 mm. In spite of living in an impacted area, this population attained the maturity onset at a bigger size than other localities.

  14. [Reproductive pattern and mean size of sexual maturity of female lobsters Panulirus gracilis (Decapoda: Palinuridae) in Playa Lagarto, Guanacaste, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Madrigal, Helven

    2012-12-01

    The lobster P. gracilis is important as a fishery resource and also contributes to food security of fishers in coastal communities in the North Pacific of Costa Rica. Due to the importance of updating knowledge related to the reproductive pattern of this species, we analyzed 357 specimens of female lobsters caught by the fishing methods of "hookah" and lung diving, from November 2007 to October 2008 in Playa Lagarto. Furthermore, we examined the size composition by depth; monthly pattern of reproductive activity (RAI) associated with the relative increase in sea surface temperature, and also the mean size at maturity using Generalized Linear Models. Four physiological states of sexual maturity showed that females with no signs of mating or sexual maturity have a minimum mean size of 62.3mm of cephalothorax length (CL). There are characteristics of functional maturity from very small sizes ranging from 30 to 50mm CL, being the smallest berried female reported for this specie of 35.8mm CL and the highest percentage of mature females between 70 and 80mm CL. Percentages of RAI remained above 50% during the year except October and January. In addition, it observed an increase in the RAI that started from April and continued until August associated with a relative increase in temperature on March, although the correlation was not significant (r2=0.49, p>0.05). It is possible that the low mean size at maturity (70.2mm LC) for P. gracilis in this region is related to the fishing activity. It recommends the establishment of a ban in the region of at least five months (April-August) in order to protect the reproductive seasonality of the species and to promote a recruitment increase in the fishing areas.

  15. In- and outdoor reproduction of first generation common sole Solea solea under a natural photothermal regime: Temporal progression of sexual maturation assessed by monitoring plasma steroids and gonadotropin mRNA experssion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Blok, M.C.; Kals, J.; Blom, E.; Tuinhof-Koelma, N.; Dirks, R.P.; Forlenza, M.; Blonk, R.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Reproduction of many temperate fishes is seasonal and maturation and spawning of gametes are under photothermal control. Reproductive success of first generation (G1) common sole Solea solea in captivity has been low. In this study, the sexual maturation status has been assessed during the prespawni

  16. Relative growth and morphological sexual maturity size of the freshwater crab Trichodactylus borellianus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae) in the Middle Paraná River, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williner, Verónica; Torres, María Victoria; Carvalho, Débora Azevedo; König, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The relative growth of a number of morphological dimensions of the South American freshwater crab Trichodactylus borellianus (Trichodactylidae) were compared and related to sexual dimorphism. Crabs were collected from ponds in the Middle Paraná River in Argentina. A regression model with segmented relationship was used to test for relative growth between these measurements where breakpoints infer the body size at which crabs reach sexual maturity. In both sexes the carapace width and the length, height, and thickness of the right and left chelae were measured, as well as the male pleopod length and the female abdomen width. All of these measurements were found to show positive allometry with the exception of the male pleopod length and the left chelae, which did not show a breakpoint. In females the breakpoint for the abdomen width inferred a morphological sexual maturity at carapace width 6.9 mm. In males the break point for the pleopod length was at carapace width 6.6 mm, with that for the chelae measurements was between carapace widths 6.4 and 6.9 mm. The relative growth pattern in Trichodactylus borellianus was found to be similar to that recorded for other species of the family Trichodactylidae. PMID:25561835

  17. Rapid sexual maturity and short life span in the blue-legged frog and the rainbow frog from the arid Isalo Massif, southern-central Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Fabio M; Tessa, Giulia; Mercurio, Vincenzo; Andreone, Franco

    2010-12-01

    Longevity and age at sexual maturity were estimated in two anurans from the arid Isalo Massif (southern-central Madagascar), the blue-legged frog (Mantella expectata) and the rainbow frog (Scaphiophryne gottlebei). Phalanges from 69 individuals of M. expectata and 38 individuals of S. gottlebei were analyzed, using the skeletochronological method, in samples collected during two periods: January-February and November-December 2004. The male gonads of both species were also analyzed in order to better correlate reproductive activity with phenology. The phalangeal diaphysis in adults of both species was composed of two concentric bone layers: an innermost endosteal bone, which was less developed or sometimes lacking in S. gottlebei, and an outermost and broader layer of periosteal bone. Lines of arrested growth (LAGs) were observed in both species, although their recognition was more problematic and their distinctiveness much less evident in S. gottlebei. The results presented here indicate that M. expectata and S. gottlebei have a short life span and attain sexual maturity within the first active season after metamorphosis. Maximum longevity was 3 years in M. expectata and 2 years in S. gottlebei. In S. gottlebei the adult body size is likely attained during the same season in which metamorphosis occurs, but then breeding occurs only after the first latency period. Thus, mature individuals have only one LAG, corresponding to 1 year. The low number of individuals with two LAGs suggests that most animals die before the second latency period.

  18. Sexual dimorphism in size, age, maturation, and growth characteristics of boarfish (Capros aper) in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Coad, Julie Olivia; Farrell, Edward D.

    2012-01-01

    . There is no significant difference in length at maturity nor age at maturity between the two sexes, with L50 = 9.7 cm and A50 = 3.4 years. Growth is dimorphic following von Bertalanffy growth characteristics, with a common t = –2.897, but significantly different K and Linf values, where females have K = 0.145 and Linf...

  19. The distribution of neuropeptide Y and dynorphin immunoreactivity in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, from birth to sexual maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepriano, L. M.; Schreibman, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y and dynorphin have been localized in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, at different ages and stages of development from birth to sexual maturity. Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y was found in perikarya and tracts of the nucleus olfactoretinalis, telencephalon, ventral tegmentum and in the neurohypophysis and in the three regions of the adenohypophysis. Immunoreactive dynorphin was found in nerve tracts in the olfactory bulb and in cells of the pars intermedia and the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary gland.

  20. Puberdade e maturidade sexual em touros jovens da raça Simental, criados sob regime extensivo em clima tropical Puberty and sexual maturity in young Simmental bulls, raised under pasture conditions in a tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires Miranda Neto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a idade à puberdade e maturidade sexual e sua relação com peso corporal e mensurações testiculares em tourinhos da raça Simental criados sob regime extensivo em clima tropical. Utilizaram-se 44 tourinhos com 1 a 30 meses de idade. As mensurações corporais e testiculares foram feitas mensalmente e os ejaculados coletados quinzenalmente, a partir dos seis meses de idade, utilizando-se o método de eletroejaculação. Observou-se idade à puberdade aos 13,42 ± 3,02 meses e maturidade sexual aos 21,43 ± 6,6 meses de idade, com peso corporal e perímetro escrotal, respectivamente, de 324,2 ± 23,7 kg e 26,90 ± 1,41 cm para a puberdade e 360 ± 69,04 kg e 34,88 ± 3,9 cm para maturidade sexual. Este estudo revelou idade tardia para a cronologia dos eventos reprodutivos, com relação direta do tipo de manejo adotado.The objective of this study was to determine the age at puberty and sexual maturity and its relationship with body weight and testicular measurements in Simmental young bulls raised under pasture conditions in a tropical climate. Forty-four young bulls at 1 to 30 months of age were used. Body and testicular measurements were made monthly and ejaculates collected fortnightly, from six months of age by using the method of electroejaculation. Age at puberty was 13.42 ± 3.02 months and sexual maturity was observed at 21.43 ± 6.6 months of age, with body weight and scrotal circumference of 324.2 ± 23.7 kg and 26.90 ± 1.41 cm for puberty and 360 ± 69.04 kg and 34.88 ± 3.9 cm to sexual maturity, respectively. This study found late age to the timing of reproductive events, with direct relation to the type of management adopted.

  1. 12 CFR 615.5209 - Deferred-tax assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5209 Deferred-tax assets. For purposes of calculating capital ratios under this part, deferred-tax assets are subject to the conditions... deferred-tax assets, net of any valuation allowance, from its assets and its total capital that is equal...

  2. 18 CFR 367.2530 - Account, 253, Other deferred credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Credits § 367.2530 Account, 253, Other deferred... deferred credits. 367.2530 Section 367.2530 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  3. Testing predictions of the programmed and stochastic theories of aging: comparison of variation in age at death, menopause, and sexual maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, N S; Gavrilov, L A; Severin, F F; Skulachev, V P

    2012-07-01

    One of the arguments against aging being programmed is the assumption that variation in the timing of aging-related outcomes is much higher compared to variation in timing of the events programmed by ontogenesis. The main objective of this study was to test the validity of this argument. To this aim, we compared absolute variability (standard deviation) and relative variability (coefficient of variation) for parameters that are known to be determined by the developmental program (age at sexual maturity) with variability of characteristics related to aging (ages at menopause and death). We used information on the ages at sexual maturation (menarche) and menopause from the nationally representative survey of the adult population of the United States (MIDUS) as well as published data for 14 countries. We found that coefficients of variation are in the range of 8-13% for age at menarche, 7-11% for age at menopause, and 16-21% for age at death. Thus, the relative variability for the age at death is only twice higher than for the age at menarche, while the relative variability for the age at menopause is almost the same as for the age at menarche.

  4. Níveis séricos de hemoglobina em adolescentes segundo estágio de maturação sexual Hemoglobin serum levels in adolescents according to sexual maturation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Petroli Frutuoso

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A adolescência constitui etapa de risco para o desenvolvimento da anemia ferropriva, uma vez que ocorre aumento da necessidade de ferro decorrente do crescimento estatural e da maturação biológica. Estudaram-se 130 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, para verificar os valores de hemoglobina sérica em diferentes fases de maturação sexual. Utilizou-se o método de fotometria para dosar a hemoglobina sérica e realizou-se auto-avaliação do estágio de maturação sexual com base nos critérios de Tanner. Os níveis médios de hemoglobina foram semelhantes entre sexos, bem como entre meninas que menstruavam ou não. O nível médio de hemoglobina foi de 13,3g/dL tanto para os meninos como para as meninas (p=0,64, com desvios-padrão de 1,12 e de 0,83, respectivamente. Entre os adolescentes estudados, 7,7% tinham anemia ferropriva. Recomenda-se atenção ao grupo de adolescentes, devido ao aumento da necessidade de ferro durante o estirão de crescimento, principalmente entre as meninas, aumentando a suscetibilidade à anemia.During adolescence, the risk of development of iron-deficiency anemia is higher because of the growth spurt and the sexual maturation which increase the iron requirement. One hundred and thirty adolescents (males and females were studied, in order to assess the serum hemoglobin values in different sexual maturation stages. The photometric method was used and a self-evaluation of the sexual maturation stage based on Tanner's criteria was applied. The average hemoglobin values were similar for both sexes, as well for girls who had menstruated or not. The average hemoglobin values were 13.3 (s.d. 1.12g/dL for males and 13.3 (s.d. 0.83g/dL for females (p=0.64. Among the studied adolescents, 7.7% had iron-deficiency anemia. Due to the iron requirement increase during the growth spurt, mainly in females, and the higher susceptibility to iron deficiency anemia, special attention to the adolescents is recommended.

  5. 26 CFR 31.3306(r)(2)-1 - Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonqualified deferred compensation plans. 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Section 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL..., Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans. (a) In general. Section 3306(r)(2) provides a special timing rule for the...

  6. Reduced embryonic survival in rainbow trout resulting from paternal exposure to the environmental estrogen 17 alpha- ethynylestradiol during late sexual maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kim H. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Schultz, Irvin R. [Battelle PNNL, Sequin, WA (United States). Marine Science Lab; Nagler, James J. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Exposure of fishes to environmental estrogens is known to affect sexual development and spawning, but little information exists regarding effects on gametes. This study evaluated embryonic survival of offspring from male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17a-ethynylestradiol (EE2)using an in vitro fertilization protocol. Males were exposed at either 1800 or 6700 degree days (8d) (i.e. 161 or 587 days post-fertilization (dpf)) to test for effects on testes linked to reproductive ontogeny. At 18008d, fish were beginning testicular differentiation and were exposed to 109 ng EE2/l for 21 days. At 67008d, fish have testes containing spermatocytes and spermatids and were exposed for 56 days to either 0.8, 8.3, or 65 ng EE2/l. Semen was collected at full sexual maturity in each group and used to fertilize eggs pooled from several non-exposed females. Significant decreases in embryonic survival were observed only with the 67008d exposure. In 0.8 and 8.3 ng EE2/l treatments, embryo survival was significantly reduced at 19 dpf when compared with the control. In contrast, an immediate decrease in embryonic survival at 0.5 dpf was observed in the 65 ng EE2/l treatment. Blood samples collected at spawning from 67008d exposed males revealed a significant decrease in 11-ketotestosterone and a significant increase in luteinizing hormone levels for the 65 ng EE2/l treatment when compared with the other treatment groups. Results indicate that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to EE2 exposure with these fish exhibiting two possible mechanisms of reduced embryonic survival through sperm varying dependant

  7. The Costs and Benefits of Deferred Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Norman S.; Metzler, Howard C.

    It is argued in this book that while there can be a significant payoff for deferred giving programs, it is important to determine their cost effectiveness. Modern business methods of cost accounting, benefits analysis, and actuarial and econometric forecasting are applied to the Pomona College plan, whose study was supported by Lilly Endowment,…

  8. Deferred Tax Assests and Bank Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallemore, J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, I examine three issues: (1) whether the probability of bank failure is increasing in the proportion of regulatory capital composed of deferred tax assets (DTA), (2) whether market participants incorporate the increased failure risk associated with the DTA component of capita

  9. The Costs and Benefits of Deferred Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Norman S.; Metzler, Howard C.

    It is argued in this book that while there can be a significant payoff for deferred giving programs, it is important to determine their cost effectiveness. Modern business methods of cost accounting, benefits analysis, and actuarial and econometric forecasting are applied to the Pomona College plan, whose study was supported by Lilly Endowment,…

  10. 42 CFR 60.12 - Deferment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approve the deferment. The lender or holder may rely in good faith upon statements of the borrower and the... to the lender or holder. When those verification statements or other information conflict with... established by the Public Health Service for the payment of uniform levels of financial support for...

  11. Expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and glucocorticoid receptors in reproductive tissue of male horses at different stages of sexual maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Luna, C V; Budik, S; Helmreich, M; Walter, I; Aurich, C

    2013-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) as mediators of the stress response may affect Leydig cell function by inhibiting either luteinizing hormone receptor expression or testosterone biosynthesis. The isozymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) 1 and 11βHSD2 control the intracellular cortisol levels. Little is known about the effects of stress on fertility in the equine. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence and cellular localization of glucocorticoid receptors (GCR) and glucocorticoid-metabolizing enzymes (11βHSD1 and 11βHSD2) in equine epididymal and testicular tissue with special regard to sexual maturation. Testicular and epididymal tissue was collected from 21 healthy stallions, and four age groups were designed: pre-pubertal, young, mature and older horses. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were used. Pre-pubertal horses showed higher testicular gene expression of 11βHSD1, 11βHSD2 and GCR than horses of all other groups (p horses. In mature stallions, expression of 11βHSD enzymes and the oxidative 11βHSD activity in Leydig cells and epididymal basal and principal cells suggest a protective role on these tissues contributing to physiological intracellular glucocorticoid concentrations.

  12. Female sexual maturation and reproduction after prepubertal exposure to estrogens and endocrine disrupting chemicals: a review of rodent and human data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasier, G; Toppari, J; Parent, A-S; Bourguignon, J-P

    2006-07-25

    Natural hormones and some synthetic chemicals spread into our surrounding environment share the capacity to interact with hormone action and metabolism. Exposure to such compounds can cause a variety of developmental and reproductive detrimental abnormalities in wildlife species and, potentially, in human. Many experimental and epidemiological data have reported that exposure of the developing fetus or neonate to environmentally relevant concentrations of some among these endocrine disrupters induces morphological, biochemical and/or physiological disorders in brain and reproductive organs, by interfering with the hormone actions. The impact of such exposures on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and subsequent sexual maturation is the subject of the present review. We will highlight epidemiological human studies and the effects of early exposure during gestational, perinatal or postnatal life in female rodents.

  13. Morphology, sexual dimorphism and size at maturation in topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva from the heated Lake Licheńskie (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Záhorská E.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To assess the spatial variability in external morphology as well as sexual dimorphism of a non-native population of topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva within an ontogenetic context, triple regression analysis (distance-based measurements and statistical tests were applied to data from a heated lake in Poland. Moreover, this population just invaded this extreme and thus special habitat in 2003, and therefore it represents a novel environment and its first stages of establishment. It has often been reported that topmouth gudgeon is very flexible when reaching new environments and this also shows in forming different phenotypes. We found that mature males and females have not only a different morphology, but also the development of the traits is different. These findings correspond with the specifics of this particular type of habitat.

  14. The consequences of lead acetate intake on exposure and integrity biomarkers of reproductive system in female rats at sexual maturity (two generation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Dumitrescu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the assessment of lead toxic impact on female reproductive systemintegrity and performances biomarkers. The objectives were: the evaluation of lead levels in ovary,Fallopian tubes and uterus (exposure biomarker and the structural changes in ovary, Fallopian tubesand uterus (integrity biomarker at sexual maturity consecutive exposure to lead acetate (50, 100, 150ppb Pb in drinking water along two generation (F0, F1. The study pointed out significant increase of leadlevel in ovaries, Fallopian tubes and uterus comparative to the control group and direct corelation, withdifferent degrees of significance, with the exposure level; severe congestive and degenerative changes inovary (destruction of parenchymatosa zone, vacuolar epithelial cells, passive vascular congestion,edematous follicle without oocytes, follicle with oocytes and uterus (necrosis of uterine glands,destruction of uterine lining cells, total detachments of the superficial layers of the epithelia, hypertrophyof the epithelia.

  15. Seasonal Variation of the Glycogen Enzyme Activity in Diploid and Triploid Pacific Oyster Gonad During Sexual Maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The glycogen content and the activities of two key enzymes in glycogen metabolism, glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthetase, in the gonad of diploid and triploid Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were compared during maturation. The glycogen content in the gonad of diploids decreased with gametogenesis (by 85.7%), but the glycogen content in the gonad of triploids did not vary significantly. Activity of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) in the gonad of diploids decreased with gametogenesis (by 55.5%), while GP activity of triploids did not vary significantly during maturation. Activity of glycogen synthetase (GS) in the gonad of diploids increased slightly with gametogenesis, reaching a peak in June. Activity of GS declined sharply from June to July, which might be due to gonad spawning. GS activity of triploid oysters in spawning time (July and August) was significantly higher than that

  16. Influência da maturação sexual no limiar de lactato em jogadoras de futebol Influence of sexual maturation in lactate threshold in female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Anauate Nicolao

    2010-10-01

    idade entre 12 e 15 anos ser um período de diversas modificações, o desenvolvimento maturacional, e não a idade cronológica, mostrou uma diferença significante nas variáveis analisadas.The lactate thresholds are used to assess the aerobic capacity in different ages. Studies show that children and adolescents present less lactate blood concentrations [La] than adults under certain effort loads. There are evidences that this is related to their maturational development. OBJECTIVE: To verify the association between the sexual maturation and the lactate threshold in some adolescent soccer players ranging from 12 to 15 years old. METHOD: The sample was related to the intentional and not probabilistic type involving 36 girls, from 12 to 15 years old, members of the soccer schools held by the Mayority of São Paulo. The body weight, height and the sum of two skinfolds - calf and triceps were obtained from the sample. A physician directly observed the sexual maturation of the genitals and pubic hair development through the Tanner index.To determine the lactate threshold a progressive test, a 3x800m in running track, was performed by adolescents, their effort intensity was controlled by pre-established heart rate zones and the lactate blood concentrations [La] were measured at the end of each run. The velocity corresponding to lactate blood concentrations [La] of 2,5mmol (V2,5 was obtained through the linear interpolation.The multiple linear regression was used to better understand the nature of these associations between the variables, considering the lactate threshold (V2,5 as a dependent variable and the age (years, the body weight index (kg/m2, height (cm and the sum of the skinfolds (mm as independent variables. RESULT: The growth variables and the sexual maturation have little association with the lactate threshold in the youngest and pre-adolescent girls. It is important to take in consideration the sexual maturation influence on the threshold lactate. CONCLUSION

  17. Evidence of late-summer mating readiness and early sexual maturation in migratory tree-roosting bats found dead at wind turbines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Cryan

    Full Text Available Understanding animal mating systems is an important component of their conservation, yet the precise mating times for many species of bats are unknown. The aim of this study was to better understand the details and timing of reproductive events in species of bats that die most frequently at wind turbines in North America, because such information can help inform conservation strategies. We examined the reproductive anatomy of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus, eastern red bats (L. borealis, and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans found dead beneath industrial-scale wind turbines to learn more about when they mate. We evaluated 103 L. cinereus, 18 L. borealis, and 47 Ln. noctivagans from wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada. Histological analysis revealed that most male L. cinereus and L. borealis, as well as over half the Ln. noctivagans examined had sperm in the caudae epididymides by late August, indicating readiness to mate. Testes regression in male hoary bats coincided with enlargement of seminal vesicles and apparent growth of keratinized spines on the glans penis. Seasonality of these processes also suggests that mating could occur during August in L. cinereus. Spermatozoa were found in the uterus of an adult female hoary bat collected in September, but not in any other females. Ovaries of all females sampled had growing secondary or tertiary follicles, indicating sexual maturity even in first-year females. Lasiurus cinereus, L. borealis, and Ln. noctivagans are the only North American temperate bats in which most first-year young of both sexes are known to sexually mature in their first autumn. Our findings provide the first detailed information published on the seasonal timing of mating readiness in these species most affected by wind turbines.

  18. Evidence of late-summer mating readiness and early sexual maturation in migratory tree-roosting bats found dead at wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M; Jameson, Joel W; Baerwald, Erin F; Willis, Craig K R; Barclay, Robert M R; Snider, E Apple; Crichton, Elizabeth G

    2012-01-01

    Understanding animal mating systems is an important component of their conservation, yet the precise mating times for many species of bats are unknown. The aim of this study was to better understand the details and timing of reproductive events in species of bats that die most frequently at wind turbines in North America, because such information can help inform conservation strategies. We examined the reproductive anatomy of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), eastern red bats (L. borealis), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) found dead beneath industrial-scale wind turbines to learn more about when they mate. We evaluated 103 L. cinereus, 18 L. borealis, and 47 Ln. noctivagans from wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada. Histological analysis revealed that most male L. cinereus and L. borealis, as well as over half the Ln. noctivagans examined had sperm in the caudae epididymides by late August, indicating readiness to mate. Testes regression in male hoary bats coincided with enlargement of seminal vesicles and apparent growth of keratinized spines on the glans penis. Seasonality of these processes also suggests that mating could occur during August in L. cinereus. Spermatozoa were found in the uterus of an adult female hoary bat collected in September, but not in any other females. Ovaries of all females sampled had growing secondary or tertiary follicles, indicating sexual maturity even in first-year females. Lasiurus cinereus, L. borealis, and Ln. noctivagans are the only North American temperate bats in which most first-year young of both sexes are known to sexually mature in their first autumn. Our findings provide the first detailed information published on the seasonal timing of mating readiness in these species most affected by wind turbines.

  19. Evidence of late-summer mating readiness and early sexual maturation in migratory tree-roosting bats found dead at wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Jameson, J.W.; Baerwald, E.F.; Willis, C.K.R.; Barclay, R.M.R.; Snider, E.A.; Crichton, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding animal mating systems is an important component of their conservation, yet the precise mating times for many species of bats are unknown. The aim of this study was to better understand the details and timing of reproductive events in species of bats that die most frequently at wind turbines in North America, because such information can help inform conservation strategies. We examined the reproductive anatomy of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), eastern red bats (L. borealis), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) found dead beneath industrial-scale wind turbines to learn more about when they mate. We evaluated 103 L. cinereus, 18 L. borealis, and 47 Ln. noctivagans from wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada. Histological analysis revealed that most male L. cinereus and L. borealis, as well as over half the Ln. noctivagans examined had sperm in the caudae epididymides by late August, indicating readiness to mate. Testes regression in male hoary bats coincided with enlargement of seminal vesicles and apparent growth of keratinized spines on the glans penis. Seasonality of these processes also suggests that mating could occur during August in L. cinereus. Spermatozoa were found in the uterus of an adult female hoary bat collected in September, but not in any other females. Ovaries of all females sampled had growing secondary or tertiary follicles, indicating sexual maturity even in first-year females. Lasiurus cinereus, L. borealis, and Ln. noctivagans are the only North American temperate bats in which most first-year young of both sexes are known to sexually mature in their first autumn. Our findings provide the first detailed information published on the seasonal timing of mating readiness in these species most affected by wind turbines.

  20. Effects of cryodevice type and donors' sexual maturity on vitrification of minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) oocytes at germinal vesicle stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwayama, Hiroshi; Hochi, Shinichi; Kato, Megumi; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Kuwayama, Masashige; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka

    2004-11-01

    Germinal-vesicle-stage oocytes enclosed with compact cumulus cell layers (COCs) were recovered from adult or prepubertal minke whale ovaries, and were vitrified in a solution containing 15% ethylene glycol, 15% DMSO and 0.5 M sucrose using either a Cryotop or an open-pulled straw (OPS) as the cryodevice. The post-warm COCs with normal morphology were cultured for 40 h in a 390 mosmol in vitro maturation medium, and oocytes extruding the first polar body were considered to be matured. The proportion of morphologically normal COCs after vitrification and warming was higher when the COCs were cryopreserved by Cryotop (adult origin, 88.4%; prepubertal origin, 80.8%) compared with the OPS (adult origin, 67.7%; prepubertal origin, 64.2%). The oocyte maturation rate was higher in the adult/Cryotop group (29.1%) compared with those of the prepubertal/Cryotop group (14.4%), the adult/OPS group (14.3%) and the prepubertal/OPS group (10.6%). These results indicate that the Cryotop is a better device than the OPS for vitrification of immature oocytes from adult minke whales.

  1. Sexuality and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  2. Quantitative analysis of crypt cell population during postnatal development of the olfactory organ of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Teleostei, Poecilidae), from birth to sexual maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Simone; Lazzari, Maurizio; Franceschini, Valeria

    2012-08-01

    Crypt cells are one of three types of olfactory sensory neuron, differing from ciliated and microvillar cells in shape, localization and number, and found only in fish. Although crypt cells are morphologically well characterized, their function remains unclear. They were hypothesized to be involved in reproductive behaviours by detecting sex pheromones, but electrophysiological investigations revealed sensitivity to only amino acids. However, the number of crypt cells in adult guppies is not the same in the two sexes. In this study, we compared the size of the crypt cell population in juvenile guppies during the first 90 days after birth. The purpose of our study was to clarify whether a correlation exists between sex and the number of these olfactory neurons. The data show that guppies reach adult crypt cell density when they become sexually mature. Despite a constant increment in volume during development of the olfactory organ, the minimum density of crypt neurons occurs at ~45 days. Moreover, in the early weeks, the density of crypt neurons is greater in males than in females because in females the total number of cells decreases significantly after just 7 days. In adults, however, crypt neurons are found in higher density in females than in males. These findings suggest that the number of crypt cells is sex specific, with independent developmental dynamics between males and females. A role in pheromone detection could explain such a difference, but the early appearance of crypt cells in the first days of life is suggestive of other, not sexually related, functions.

  3. Sexual maturity, spawning and fecundity of king weakfish Macrodon ancylodon, caught off Rio Grande do Sul State (southern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastácio Afonso Juras

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the sexual maturity, spawning and fecundity of king weakfish, Macrodon ancylodon, off the southern coast of Brazil (lat. 29º to 32ºS were carried out from September, 1976, to August, 1977. The sex ratio varied monthly, with slight predominance of males (51.14% over females (48.86%. The mean size at first maturity was estimated as 27.4 cm TL for females and 21.5 cm TL for males. The macroscopic examination of gonads and analysis of the gonadal index indicated that December and February were the most intensive spawning months. Fish weight proved to be the best predictor data of fecundity: F = 17056.2500 + 425.3712 Wt (r² = 0.6434 , were F is the total number of eggs in both ovaries. The number of eggs of 199 females varied from 59,850 for 33.4 cm TL fish to over 358,450 for 37.2 cm TL; the mean fecundity verified was 165,273 eggs per female. Frequency distributions of egg diameter in the ovaries were polymodal, suggesting fractional spawning during the reproduction season.

  4. Effect of age of release from light or food restriction on age at sexual maturity and egg production of laying pullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gous, R M; Bradford, G D; Johnson, S A; Morris, T R

    2000-07-01

    1. Lohmann Brown pullets, in one trial, and Hyline Brown pullets in another, were reared from day 2 on short daylengths, and from week 8 in trial 1 (week 16 in trial 2) on food restriction. These restrictions were lifted at various times during the rearing period as a means of determining the relative importance of the day length and food restriction stimuli on the attainment of sexual maturity and subsequent laying performance. 2. A total of 2304 pullets were used in each trial. The birds were reared in light proof rooms, and subjected to 8L:16D until they were moved to a laying facility where a light stimulus of 16L:8D was applied. In trial 1 the six ages at which light stimulation was applied were 115, 122, 129, 136, 143 and 171 d. Within each light treatment, food restriction of pullets, which consisted of feeding 72 g of food/bird d, was lifted at six different ages, namely, 115, 129, 143, 157, 171 and 185 d. In trial 2 both the light stimulation and the lifting of food restriction occured at 111, 125, 139, 153, 167 and 181 d of age, producing 6x6=36 treatments in both trials. 3. The first trial was terminated when the pullets were 28 weeks old, soon after all the birds had commenced laying, because of an outbreak of Egg Drop Syndrome. However, because age at maturity was the variable of major interest, data from this experiment could be used in the analysis. The second trial ended when the birds reached 40 weeks of age. Variables measured were age at maturity, food intake and body weight gain subsequent to the lifting of restrictions and, in the second experiment, rate of lay, peak rate of lay and egg weight at various ages. 4. The mean age at sexual maturity was influenced by the date of release from light restriction (Pexperiments. These effects were not independent: the effect of the interaction of light and food restriction on this increase in food intake was also highly significant. The longer the birds were subjected to light restriction, the less

  5. Deferred Executive Compensation Policies in Chinese State-owned Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Ju

    2007-01-01

    Since the commencement of industrial reform in China, most Chinese state-owned enterprises have adopted a deferred executive compensation policy to provide incentives for their management teams. However, the effectiveness of such a policy needs to be evaluated In this paper, we specify a model of deferred executive compensation policy, in which the compensation for executives is contingent on firms 'future revenue. The model suggests that under deferred executive compensation policies, managers exhibit an increasing level of effort in every period. Furthermore, the deferred compensation policy encourages managers to make long-term investments, which might generate revenue even after the termination of managerial contracts.

  6. DEFERRED TAXES: FEATURES OF ACCOUNTING AND ANALYSIS IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krugljak Z. I

    2016-01-01

    The article highlights the results of the analysis of deferred taxes as indicators of the accounting financial statements, reflecting payments to the budget for income tax agricultural organizations...

  7. Deferred tax analysis and impact on firm's economic efficiency ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Category of deferred income tax is a complex topic including the whole accounting system and the income tax. Calculation method can be time-consuming and demanding a high quality system of analytical evidence and a system of valuation and demanding the high level of accountants' knowledge. The aim in the theoretical level was to analyze process of calculation and recording of deferred tax. Importance of recording of deferred tax and the impact on financial analysis ratios was analyzed. Fourteen business entities were examined. Deferred tax recording is a legal way to reduce retained earnings a to protect of its careless alocation.

  8. Evaluation of the influence of prenatal transportation stress on GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in sexually mature Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, B P; Roberts, M C; Bedenbaugh, M N; Lewis, A W; Neuendorff, D A; Riley, D G; Carroll, J A; Vann, R C; Amstalden, M; Randel, R D; Welsh, T H

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of prenatal transportation stress (PNS) with exogenous GnRH-induced LH and testosterone secretion in sexually mature Brahman bulls. Brahman cows (n = 96; 48 were stressed by transportation at 5 stages of gestation and 48 were controls) produced a calf crop of 85 calves. All bulls (n = 46) from this calf crop were electroejaculated every 2 wk beginning at a scrotal circumference of 24 cm until sexual maturity (SM; i.e., 500 million sperm/ejaculate). The initial 11 control and 12 PNS bulls to reach SM were selected for the experiment. Within 7-21 d after reaching SM, bulls were fitted with jugular cannulas, from which blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 6 h prior to exogenous GnRH administration (10 ng/kg BW; i.v.) and for 6 h after GnRH. Serum concentrations of LH, testosterone, and cortisol were determined by RIA. Age and body weight did not differ ( > 0.1) between PNS and control bulls at the time of the experiment. All bulls responded similarly to exogenous GnRH, indicating no influence of PNS on LH or testosterone response to GnRH. More ( < 0.01) PNS (9 of 11) than control (3 of 12) bulls exhibited an endogenous pre-GnRH LH pulse, and more ( = 0.02) PNS (9 of 11) than control bulls (4 of 12) exhibited a pre-GnRH testosterone response to LH. The average concentration of testosterone during the 60 min (time -60, -45, -30, -15, and 0 min relative to GnRH) immediately preceding GnRH, tended to be greater ( = 0.07) in PNS (1.46 ± 0.30 ng/mL) than control (0.68 ± 0.28 ng/mL) bulls. During that time span serum cortisol was lower ( < 0.01) in PNS (4.00 ± 0.91 ng/mL) than control (7.8 ± 0.87 ng/mL) bulls. A treatment by time interaction ( = 0.03) affected testosterone concentrations from time -240 to 360 min relative to GnRH. Results from this study indicate that PNS did not affect pituitary responsiveness to GnRH or testicular responsiveness to GnRH-induced LH secretion.

  9. The effect of the MC4R gene on boar taint compounds, sexual maturity and behaviour in growing-finishing boars and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeke, A; Aluwé, M; Janssens, S; Wauters, J; Vanhaecke, L; Buys, N; Millet, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-10-01

    Societal pressure to ban surgical castration of male piglets is rising due to animal welfare concerns, thus other methods to prevent boar taint need to be explored. Genetic selection against boar taint appears to be a long-term sustainable alternative. However, as boar taint is linked to reproductive hormones, it is important to consider possible negative side effects such as delayed sexual maturity or changes in behaviour. We reported earlier that the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) marker can be used to reduce boar taint levels in fat of boars. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether MC4R marker-assisted selection for lower boar taint prevalence affects plasma levels of boar taint compounds and testosterone; sexual maturity; behaviour; skin lesions; and lameness in boars and gilts. Using an intervention study with a 2×2 design, 264 boars and gilts differing on position 893 of the MC4R gene (AA v. GG) were compared. The MC4R polymorphism did not affect the plasma concentration of either androstenone or testosterone at different time points, whereas the concentration of skatole was significantly lower (P=0.003) and the concentration of indole tended to be lower (P=0.074) in GG compared with AA boars. A higher percentage of gilts of the GG genotype were in puberty at slaughter age compared with AA gilts (Pbehaviour (P=0.015) and less passive and feeding behaviour (P=0.003). They showed more skin lesions on their back and caudal area (P=0.022), and tended to show more skin lesions on their head and anterior area (P=0.093) compared with AA animals. In conclusion, the polymorphism in the MC4R gene can be used as a marker without negative effects on reproduction characteristics in boars and gilts. Genetic selection towards a lower prevalence of boar taint will lead to more active pigs with more skin lesions. Management strategies may therefore be necessary to reduce skin lesions in the selected animals.

  10. Mixed-Precision Spectral Deferred Correction: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grout, Ray W. S.

    2015-09-02

    Convergence of spectral deferred correction (SDC), where low-order time integration methods are used to construct higher-order methods through iterative refinement, can be accelerated in terms of computational effort by using mixed-precision methods. Using ideas from multi-level SDC (in turn based on FAS multigrid ideas), some of the SDC correction sweeps can use function values computed in reduced precision without adversely impacting the accuracy of the final solution. This is particularly beneficial for the performance of combustion solvers such as S3D [6] which require double precision accuracy but are performance limited by the cost of data motion.

  11. DEFERRED TAXES: FEATURES OF ACCOUNTING AND ANALYSIS IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krugljak Z. I.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of the analysis of deferred taxes as indicators of the accounting financial statements, reflecting payments to the budget for income tax agricultural organizations. The importance of deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities as a key marker of efficiency of the tax policy of the agricultural organizations is emphasized. Its inefficiency can be judge by excess of deferred tax assets over deferred tax liabilities, which is seen as a temporary diversion of funds from the market, which has zero profitability. The conclusion was made about the improvement of financial stability and liquidity of the organization under the influence of deferred tax liabilities and the deteriorating financial situation, financial stability and liquidity under the influence of deferred tax assets. The effective income tax rate of the agricultural organizations of Krasnodar territory is determined; it does not exceed 3% and differs from general because of tax benefits, deductions and tax policy. The basic causes of appearance of temporary differences are identified by types in the account of the agricultural organizations. Typical errors in accounting for deferred taxes are described. A refined form of the report on financial results containing transcript of profit before tax from non-agricultural activities, with the aim of monitoring the relationship of accounting and taxable profit in the agricultural organizations

  12. Reporting Deferred Gifts: CASE-NACUBO Guidelines Ensure Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, James F.; Munger, Peter L.

    1983-01-01

    Three methods for reporting the value of a deferred gift are described: the tax method, net realizable value, and fair market value. Three major categories of deferred gifts are identified: pooled income funds, charitable remainder trusts, and charitable gift annuities. (MLW)

  13. Myocardial Damage in Patients With Deferred Stenting After STEMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob; Engstrøm, Thomas; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although some studies found improved coronary flow and myocardial salvage when stent implantation was deferred, the DANAMI-3-DEFER (Third DANish Study of Optimal Acute Treatment of Patients With ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction) did not show any improvement in clinical outcome...... in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and deferred stenting. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the effect of deferred stent implantation on infarct size, myocardial salvage, and microvascular obstruction (MVO......) in patients with STEMI. METHODS: In the present DANAMI-3 substudy, a total of 510 patients with STEMI were randomized to PCI with deferred versus immediate stent implantation. The patients underwent a cardiac magnetic resonance examination before discharge after the index procedure and again 3 months later...

  14. Sexual maturity and performance of pullets fed different preparations and concentrations of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium in pre-laying and early laying periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Harthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of brown marine algae (BMA; Sargassum dentifebium as alternative feed source for pullets was studied in three processed and at three concentrations in the pullets from 14-42 weeks. The processing forms were sundried brown marine algae (SBMA, sundried and boiled brown marine algae (BBMA and sundried and autoclaved brown marine algae (ABMA. The concentrations of BMA were 2%, 4% and 6% that composed 10 treatments along with control. Each treatment was replicated 6 times using 30 pullets per treatment. Different criteria on pullets and eggs, including feed intake, body weight, feed conversion efficiency, laying rate and egg mass and quality were studied. Results indicated that BMA could be used up to 6% in the pullets diets from 14 to 42 weeks without adverse effects (P≥0.05 on sexual maturity (139-142 days, laying rate (80.7-87.9%, egg mass (44.99-51.86 g/hen/day, feed conversion ratio (2.468-2.868 kg feed/kg egg and Haugh unit (82.9-90.6 and shell percentage (8.61-9.87%. Furthermore, egg yolk color and calcium content in eggshell were improved (P≤0.05 by 12.31% and 9.1%, respectively.

  15. 26 CFR 31.3121(v)(2)-1 - Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonqualified deferred compensation plans. 31.3121(v)(2)-1 Section 31.3121(v)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(v)(2)-1 Treatment of amounts... under a nonqualified deferred compensation plan within the meaning of section 3121(v)(2) and this...

  16. Relative growth and sexual maturity of the freshwater shrimp Palaemon pandaliformis (Crustacea, Palaemonidae in northeastern of Brazil (Canavieiras, Bahia Crescimento relativo e maturidade sexual de Palaemon pandaliformis (Crustacea, Palaemonidae no Nordeste do Brasil (Canavieiras, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. P. Paschoal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study comprises the description of relative growth and sexual maturity of a population of Palaemon pandaliformis Stimpson, 1871 in Salsa River (Northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected monthly between September 2009 and August 2010. Females were larger, heavier, and showed a greater allometric coefficient (b than male specimens. Only carapace length vs. pleura length in females presented a significant difference in the relative growth pattern, indicating a puberty moult. This relationship is strictly correlated to reproduction and its success rate in female shrimps. Estimated carapace length in 50% of mature females (CL50 was 4.53 mm. It was not possible to compare obtained CL50 results due to a lack of studies on this species. Comparison was based on the size of the smallest captured ovigerous female (3.81 CL mm, which is within the scope of recorded size for estuaries located in higher latitudes. This study reveals the lack of research on this genre in freshwater environments on a national and global scale.Foram descritos o crescimento relativo e a maturidade sexual de uma população de Palaemon pandaliformis Stimpson, 1871 do rio Salsa (Nordeste do Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente entre setembro de 2009 e agosto de 2010. As fêmeas foram maiores, mais pesadas e exibiram um coeficiente alométrico (b maior que os machos. Apenas a relação comprimento de carapaça vs. comprimento de pleura nas fêmeas, apresentou uma diferença significativa no padrão de crescimento relativo, evidenciando a muda da puberdade. Esta relação é estritamente correlacionada aos eventos reprodutivos e ao sucesso deste em fêmeas de carídeos. O comprimento da carapaça em que 50% das fêmeas estão maduras (CL50 foi estimado em 4,53 mm. Não foi possível comparar os resultados de CL50 obtidos devido à falta de estudos enfocando a espécie. A comparação foi feita através do tamanho da menor fêmea ovígera capturada (3,81 CL mm, o qual

  17. Imagem corporal em adolescentes: associação com a maturação sexual e sintomas de transtornos alimentares Body image among adolescents: association with sexual maturation and symptoms of eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cristina Scherer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Verificar a associação da imagem corporal (IC com a maturação sexual e com sintomas de transtornos alimentares (TA em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 325 adolescentes do sexo feminino (11 a 14 anos da cidade de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Utilizaram-se a escala de silhuetas corporais e o Teste de Atitudes Alimentares (EAT-26. Foram coletadas informações sobre a menarca. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de insatisfação com a IC foi de 75,8%; 61,5% apresentaram o desejo de reduzir o peso corporal. A média de idade da menarca foi de 11,5 (desvio-padrão = 0,99 anos. Foi verificada associação significante entre IC e menarca (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body image (BI with sexual maturation and symptoms of eating disorders among adolescents. METHODS: A total of 325 adolescent girls (11 to 14 years from Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were studied. A body silhouette scale and the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 were used. Information about menarche were recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of BI dissatisfaction was 75.8%, with 61.5% of the girls wishing to reduce body weight. The mean age at menarche was 11.5 years (SD = 0.99. A significant association was observed between BI and menarche (p < 0.001, age at menarche (p < 0.001, and symptoms of eating disorders (p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The presence of menarche and its occurrence at an early age causes adolescents show a greater desire to lose weight. In addition, girls wishing to be thinner are more likely to present symptoms of eating disorders.

  18. Effects of exposure of rat dams to 1-bromopropane during pregnancy and lactation on growth and sexual maturation of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Koichi; Kitoh, Junzoh; Tsukamura, Hiroko; Maeda, Kei-Ichiro; Wang, Hailan; Li, Weihua; Ichihara, Sahoko; Nakajima, Tamie; Ichihara, Gaku

    2006-07-25

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) exhibits neuroreproductive toxicities in adult rats and humans. Here, we determined the effects of exposure of rat dams to 1-BP during pregnancy and lactation on the growth and sexual maturation of their offspring. In Experiment 1, 40 rats were exposed to 0, 100, 400 and 800ppm 1-BP during pregnancy and lactation for 8h/day. Ten rats that were not placed in chambers throughout the experiment served to observe the effect of separation of dams from offspring. In Experiment 2, three groups of 10 pregnant rats each were exposed to fresh air in three chambers and 10 other rats were exposed to 800ppm 1-BP during pregnancy and lactation for 8h/day. After delivery, offspring of the exposed and non-exposed dams were swapped so that they were nursed by the opposite dams. In Experiment 1, the survival rate and body weight of offspring were lower than the non-exposed in 1-BP dose-dependent manner. In Experiment 2, the survival rate and body weight of offspring (Group A) nursed by exposed dams and those (Group B) of exposed dams were significantly lower than non-exposed groups. The body weight of Group A was lower than that of Group B, although the two groups showed a significant equal decrease in the survival rate. The number of dead offspring from Group A was significantly higher. Our results indicate that exposure to 1-BP during pregnancy and lactation has comparable effects on survival rate, but exposure during lactation has a more adverse effect on growth of offspring than that during pregnancy. Moreover, exposure during lactation is associated with reduced early survival of third generation (F2) rats.

  19. Help Is Available on Tax-Deferred Annuity Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Administrator, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Briefly reviews different types of tax-deferred annuities (TDA's) and describes the National Education Association's TDA Studies--comparative analyses of specific fixed, variable, and qualified mutual fund annuity packages. (PGD)

  20. Analysis of Deferred Taxes in the Business Environment in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savka VUČKOVIĆ-MILUTINOVIĆ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flow-through model of income tax reporting in general purpose financial statements had a long history of use in Serbia. It was only in 2004 (and 2003 for banks, when the implementation of deferred taxes model started. It was inevitable, because IAS/IFRS became mandatory basis for preparing financial statements. In this paper we examine quality of deferred taxes disclosures in the financial statements of companies in Serbia. We also documented the most common temporary differences that arise in measuring accounting and taxable income and in that way we identified the major sources of deferred tax. We analyzed the materiality of deferred taxes and their effect on company´s performance in Serbia.

  1. 7 CFR 930.63 - Deferment of restricted obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN... regulations issued thereunder, secure bonds on restricted percentage cherries to temporarily defer the...

  2. 18 CFR 367.1860 - Account 186, Miscellaneous deferred debits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1860 Account 186, Miscellaneous... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING...

  3. 7 CFR 1721.106 - Repayment of deferred payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... energy project(s), distributed generation project(s), and the contribution(s)-in-aid of construction. An... period starting with the next payment (November if paying on a monthly basis). When a Borrower defers...

  4. Clock genes and their genomic distributions in three species of salmonid fishes: Associations with genes regulating sexual maturation and cell cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Moira M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clock family genes encode transcription factors that regulate clock-controlled genes and thus regulate many physiological mechanisms/processes in a circadian fashion. Clock1 duplicates and copies of Clock3 and NPAS2-like genes were partially characterized (genomic sequencing and mapped using family-based indels/SNPs in rainbow trout (RT(Oncorhynchus mykiss, Arctic charr (AC(Salvelinus alpinus, and Atlantic salmon (AS(Salmo salar mapping panels. Results Clock1 duplicates mapped to linkage groups RT-8/-24, AC-16/-13 and AS-2/-18. Clock3/NPAS2-like genes mapped to RT-9/-20, AC-20/-43, and AS-5. Most of these linkage group regions containing the Clock gene duplicates were derived from the most recent 4R whole genome duplication event specific to the salmonids. These linkage groups contain quantitative trait loci (QTL for life history and growth traits (i.e., reproduction and cell cycling. Comparative synteny analyses with other model teleost species reveal a high degree of conservation for genes in these chromosomal regions suggesting that functionally related or co-regulated genes are clustered in syntenic blocks. For example, anti-müllerian hormone (amh, regulating sexual maturation, and ornithine decarboxylase antizymes (oaz1 and oaz2, regulating cell cycling, are contained within these syntenic blocks. Conclusions Synteny analyses indicate that regions homologous to major life-history QTL regions in salmonids contain many candidate genes that are likely to influence reproduction and cell cycling. The order of these genes is highly conserved across the vertebrate species examined, and as such, these genes may make up a functional cluster of genes that are likely co-regulated. CLOCK, as a transcription factor, is found within this block and therefore has the potential to cis-regulate the processes influenced by these genes. Additionally, clock-controlled genes (CCGs are located in other life-history QTL regions within

  5. Perinatal Western Diet Consumption Leads to Profound Plasticity and GABAergic Phenotype Changes within Hypothalamus and Reward Pathway from Birth to Sexual Maturity in Rat

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    Julie Paradis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal maternal consumption of energy dense food increases the risk of obesity in children. This is associated with an overconsumption of palatable food that is consumed for its hedonic property. The underlying mechanism that links perinatal maternal diet and offspring preference for fat is still poorly understood. In this study, we aim at studying the influence of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding [western diet (WD] during gestation and lactation on the reward pathways controlling feeding in the rat offspring from birth to sexual maturity. We performed a longitudinal follow-up of WD and Control offspring at three critical time periods (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood and focus on investigating the influence of perinatal exposure to palatable diet on (i fat preference, (ii gene expression profile, and (iii neuroanatomical/architectural changes of the mesolimbic dopaminergic networks. We showed that WD feeding restricted to the perinatal period has a clear long-lasting influence on the organization of homeostatic and hedonic brain circuits but not on fat preference. We demonstrated a period specific evolution of the preference for fat that we correlated with specific brain molecular signatures. In offspring from WD fed dams, we observed during childhood the existence of fat preference associated with a higher expression of key gene involved in the dopamine (DA systems; at adolescence, a high-fat preference for both groups, progressively reduced during the 3 days test for the WD group and associated with a reduced expression of key gene involved in the DA systems for the WD group that could suggest a compensatory mechanism to protect them from further high-fat exposure; and finally at adulthood, a preference for fat that was identical to control rats but associated with profound modification in key genes involved in the γ-aminobutyric acid network, serotonin receptors, and polysialic acid–NCAM-dependent remodeling of the

  6. Feeding habits, sexual dimorphism and size at maturity of the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 (Teiidae in a reforested restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil Hábito alimentar, dimorfismo sexual e tamanho na maturidade sexual do lagarto Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 (Teiidae em restinga reflorestada no nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GG. Santana

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits, the sexual dimorphism in size and sexual maturity of the actively foraging lizard Cnemidophorusocellifer were analysed in an area of a reforested Restinga habitat located in the municipality of Mataraca, along the northern-most coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. Seventy-five specimens of C. ocellifer were examined (46 males and 29Â females. Of this total, only 23 specimens had prey in their stomachs. The most frequent prey consumed items were orthopterans (50%, coleopterans (23.9% and arachnids (10.9%; termites and insect larvae were less consumed (both with 2.2%. There were no significant differences observed between the numbers of prey consumed by either males or females. There were significant differences in SVL (snout-vent length between the sexes, with males attaining larger SVL values. When the influence of SVL was removed from the analyses, sexual dimorphism in the form was still reflected in the head size of these lizards. Sexual maturity in females and males was attained with SVL of 42.2 and 49.0 mm respectively. Although no significant difference was observed between the SVL of the females and the number of eggs produced, there was a clear tendency for larger females to produce more eggs. The low structural complexity of the vegetation and the poor soil quality in the reforested restinga area examined does not furnish favourable habitat for insect and termite larvae, contributing to the marked differences in the diet of the population of C. ocellifer observed in the present study in relation to the diet of their conspecifics in undisturbed areas of restinga, cerrado and caatinga.O hábito alimentar, dimorfismo sexual e tamanho na maturidade sexual do lagarto forrageador ativo Cnemidophorus ocellifer foram analisados em um habitat de restinga reflorestada, situado no município de Mataraca, extremo norte do litoral do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Foram examinados 75 espécimes de C. ocellifer, sendo 46 machos e 29 f

  7. Microscopic evidence of the opportunistic reproductive strategy and early sexual maturation of the small-sized characin Knodus moenkhausii (Characidae, Pisces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceneviva-Bastos, M; Taboga, S R; Casatti, L

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the reproductive biology of Knodus moenkhausii, an abundant small-sized characin fish with broad occurrence in the Paraná River basin, Brazil. Specimens were collected monthly to determine fecundity, length at first maturity, reproductive period and spawning type. Gonads were macroscopically classified according to their form, size and texture in three different stages (immature, maturing or mature). Histological procedures were conducted to confirm gonadal developmental stages, and it was possible to notice that maturing females actually presented atretic oocytes, and all males that were macroscopically classified as immature, maturing and mature actually presented abundant spermatozoa in their gonads. Because of these discrepancies, a reclassification of gonadal maturations stages was needed after histological analysis, reinforcing its importance to studies on the reproduction of small characins. Reproduction occurred throughout the year though with two peaks. The length of the smallest mature individuals was 13 mm SL for males and 24 mm SL for females. Despite presenting relatively small batch fecundity, some life history traits such as early reproduction, multiple spawning throughout the year, in association with known opportunistic feeding habits, explain the high abundance of this species in locations where it occurs. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Risk model for estimating the 1-year risk of deferred lesion intervention following deferred revascularization after fractional flow reserve assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depta, Jeremiah P; Patel, Jayendrakumar S; Novak, Eric; Gage, Brian F; Masrani, Shriti K; Raymer, David; Facey, Gabrielle; Patel, Yogesh; Zajarias, Alan; Lasala, John M; Amin, Amit P; Kurz, Howard I; Singh, Jasvindar; Bach, Richard G

    2015-02-21

    Although lesions deferred revascularization following fractional flow reserve (FFR) assessment have a low risk of adverse cardiac events, variability in risk for deferred lesion intervention (DLI) has not been previously evaluated. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model to estimate 1-year risk of DLI for coronary lesions where revascularization was not performed following FFR assessment. A prediction model for DLI was developed from a cohort of 721 patients with 882 coronary lesions where revascularization was deferred based on FFR between 10/2002 and 7/2010. Deferred lesion intervention was defined as any revascularization of a lesion previously deferred following FFR. The final DLI model was developed using stepwise Cox regression and validated using bootstrapping techniques. An algorithm was constructed to predict the 1-year risk of DLI. During a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 4.0 ± 2.3 years, 18% of lesions deferred after FFR underwent DLI; the 1-year incidence of DLI was 5.3%, while the predicted risk of DLI varied from 1 to 40%. The final Cox model included the FFR value, age, current or former smoking, history of coronary artery disease (CAD) or prior percutaneous coronary intervention, multi-vessel CAD, and serum creatinine. The c statistic for the DLI prediction model was 0.66 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.61-0.70). Patients deferred revascularization based on FFR have variation in their risk for DLI. A clinical prediction model consisting of five clinical variables and the FFR value can help predict the risk of DLI in the first year following FFR assessment. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Sexual maturity of the deep-sea royal crab Chaceon ramosae Manning, Tavares & Albuquerque, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae in southern Brazil Madurez sexual del cangrejo real Chaceon ramosae Manning, Tavares & Albuquerque, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae en el sur de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The royal crab Chaceon ramosae is one of the three species of deep-sea crabs currently exploited in Brazil. The royal crab fishery started in 2001 with foreign vessels that were extensively monitored by observers and tracked by satellite. A management plan implemented in 2005 was based only on biomass dynamics, as biological knowledge of the resource was limited at that date. Samples taken aboard were used to determine size at first sexual maturity for males and females by studying the use of allometric growth of chelae and abdomen in relation to carapace width (CW, the proportion of females with opened vulvae and eggs in the pleopods, and males showing copula marks on the first ambulatory legs. Morphometric maturity was attained, on average, at 12.1 cm (males and 10.7 cm (females. The CW50% was estimated to be 10.9 cm and 12.2 cm for females, respectively considering the vulva condition and eggs in the pleopods, and 13.6 cm for males. By size class, the maximum estimated proportions of ovigerous females by size class was 0.4 and of males with copula marks was 0.6, suggesting a bi-annual reproductive cycle for individuals of the species. The size composition analysis showed that irnmature individuals may comprise up to 70% of the catches. These results indicate the need to consider enhanced trap selectivity and lower mortality of ovigerous females as new and immediate goals to improve resource management.El cangrejo real Chaceon ramosae corresponde a una de las tres especies de cangrejos de profundidad que actualmente se explotan en Brasil. La pesca de cangrejo real comenzó en el año 2001 por barcos extranjeros que eran intensamente supervisados por observadores y rastreados por satélites. En el año de 2005 se implemento un plan de manejo, considerando solamente el estudio de la dinámica de la biomasa del recurso, ya que el conocimiento biológico todavía era limitado. A partir de muestras obtenidas a bordo de los barcos de pesca, se estim

  10. Sexual maturity of the deep-sea red crab Chaceon notialis Manning & Holthuis, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae in southern Brazil Madurez sexual del cangrejo rojo de profundidad Chaceon notialis Manning & Holthuis, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae al sur de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sant'Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The red crab Chaceon notialis is one of the three deep-sea crab species currently exploited in Brazil. The red crab fishery started in 1998 with foreign vessels that, as of 2000, have been extensively moni-tored by observers and tracked by satellite. A management plan implemented in 2005 was based only on bio-mass dynamics, as biological knowledge of the resource was limited at that date. Samples taken aboard were used to determine size at first sexual maturity for males and females by studying the allometric growth of the chelae and abdomen in relation to the carapace width (CW, the proportion of females with opened vulvae and eggs in the pleopods, and males showing copula marks on the first ambulatory legs. Morphometric maturity was attained, on average, at 8.9 cm CW (males and 8.8 cm CW (females. The CW5% was estimated to be 6.9 and 9.7 cm CW for females, considering the vulva condition and eggs in the pleopods, respectively, and 8.4 cm CW for males. The maximum estimated proportions of ovigerous females and males with copula marks by size class were 0.8 and 0.7, respectively, suggesting an annual reproductive cycle for the species, both at the populational and individuals levels. The size composition analysis showed that up to 97% of the females caught in the fishery were immature. Given these results, enhancing trap selectivity and minimizing the mortality of ovigerous females should be considered as new and immediate goals for the management of the resource.El cangrejo-rojo Chaceon notialis corresponde a una de las tres especies de cangrejos de profundidad que actualmente se explotan en Brasil. La pesca de cangrejo-rojo comenzó en el año 1998 por barcos extranjeros que, desde 2000 fueron intensamente vigilados por observadores y rastreados por satélites. En el año de 2005 se implemento un plan de manejo, considerando solamente el estudio de la dinámica de la biomasa del recurso, ya que el conocimiento biológico todavía era limitado

  11. 26 CFR 1.404(b)-1T - Method or arrangement of contributions, etc., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing for deferred benefits. (Temporary) 1.404(b)-1T Section 1... of contributions, etc., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing for deferred benefits..., deferring the receipt of compensation or providing for deferred benefits (other than compensation) is to be...

  12. Child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymel, K P; Jenny, C

    1997-08-01

    Multiple obstacles can hinder the medical evaluation of suspected child sexual abuse in pediatric primary care. The need for diagnostic accuracy is high. Knowledge of sexual abuse risk factors, an understanding of the victimization process, and awareness of the varied clinical presentations of sexual abuse can be of assistance. Open-ended questioning of the suspected victim is the most critical component of the evaluation. Skillful medical interviewing requires time, training, patience, and practice. Pediatricians lacking any of these four requirements should defer interviewing in sexual abuse cases to other professionals. Abnormal physical findings from sexual abuse are uncommon. Colposcopy has assisted pediatricians greatly in reaching consensus regarding diagnostic physical findings. Cases of acute sexual assault require familiarity with the forensic rape examination, STD screening and prophylaxis, and pregnancy prevention. Victimization from sexual abuse continues long after the abusive acts end, often requiring long-term therapeutic intervention. An emerging standard of care for medical evaluations of suspected child sexual abuse recognizes the requirement for patience and compassion while retaining objectivity. The pediatrician's primary concern must be for the child's physical and emotional well-being.

  13. Avaliação dos níveis de proteína da dieta sobre a idade à maturidade sexual e produção de ovos de perdiz (Rhynchotus rufescens Temminek Influence of crude protein levels in partridges's (Rhynchotus rufescens Temminek diet and eggs production over the sexual maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joji Ariki

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de dietas com diferentes níveis de proteína na fase de crescimento sobre a idade à maturidade sexual, utilizou-se sessenta perdizes, Rhynchotus rufescens Temminek (Aves, Tinamidae tendo como tratamentos cinco programas de alimentação, baseados nas recomendações do NRC (1994 para faisões, variando os teores de proteína bruta, de acordo com a idade da ave. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída por três aves. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo SAS (SAS, 1992 e para comparações entre médias de tratamentos foi utilizado o teste de Tukey ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. Os resultados mostraram diferença (p In order to evaluate the influence of crude protein levels in the diet over the sexual maturity age, 60 partridges Rhynchotus rufescens Temminek (Aves, Tinamidae were fed 5 different crude protein levels according to the bird's age. The results show a difference (p < 0,05 among treatments for the age at first lay, which confirms the increased earlier sexual maturity in heavier birds, although no difference was observed in the treatments for the number of eggs produced. The average age at sexual maturity of 302 days, close to other birds with the same kind of exploration, shows that this species deserves further studies in order to improve its reproductive levels.

  14. 47 CFR 32.4361 - Deferred tax regulatory adjustments-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deferred tax regulatory adjustments-net. 32... Accounts § 32.4361 Deferred tax regulatory adjustments—net. (a) This account shall include amounts of... Account 4341, Net deferred tax liability adjustments. (b) This account shall also be adjusted for...

  15. 7 CFR 1703.309 - Terms of repayment of deferred loan payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... deferment payment required. (e) The balance in a borrower's cushion of credit account shall not be reduced by the borrower below the level of the unpaid balance of the payment deferred. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms of repayment of deferred loan payments. 1703...

  16. Deferred Imitation and Social Communication in Speaking and Nonspeaking Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Gillberg, Christopher; Smith, Lars; Tjus, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Deferred imitation and early social communication skills were compared among speaking and nonspeaking children with autism and children developing typically. Overall, the children with autism showed a lower frequency on measures of deferred imitation and social communication compared with typically developing children. Deferred imitation was…

  17. Secular trends: 10 and 20-year comparisons of sexual maturation among students. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n6p680

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mateus Farias

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the secular trends of sexual matu­ration of students between 11 and 15 years old, during a period of 10 and 20 years. The sample was composed by 1,002 students aged between 11 and 15 years; 536 boys (12.6±1.3 years old and 466 girls (12.5±1.2 years old who took part in the Ilhabela Mixed-Longitudinal Project on Growth, Development, and Physical Fitness. The students’ assessment period occurred in 1990/91 (initial, 2000/01 (10 years later, and 2009/10 (20 years later. Sexual maturation was analyzed according to the self-assessment method and age at menarche (month and year was collected retrospectively. The statistical analysis used was: one-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s post-hoc test. The level of significance was p<0.01. The onset of menarche in the initial analysis was at: 12.5±1.2 years old; in the 2000/01 group: 12.3±1.0 years old (Δ=-1.6%, and in the 2009/10 group: 12.2±1.0 years old (Δ=-2.4%. Although there was a tendency towards reduction in age at menarche along the periods in­vestigated, differences were not significant. There were significant differences only in genitals (G4, and pubic hair (P3 in boys after 10 and 20 years. In the same period, it did not occur any significant difference in maturational stages for girls. In conclusion, there was no secular trend of secondary sexual characteristics in boys (genital and pubic hair and girls (breast and pubic hair and in age at menarche over 10 and 20 years.

  18. Sexual maturation and changes in water and salt transport components in the kidney and intestine of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Steffen S; Weber, Claus; Nielsen, Andreas M; Mohiseni, Mohammad; Bosssus, Maryline C; Tipsmark, Christian K; Borg, Bertil

    2015-10-01

    Mature three-spined stickleback males use spiggin threads secreted from their kidney to glue together nest material. This requires strongly hypertrophied renal proximal tubular cells, which compromises renal osmoregulatory function during the breeding period. Experimental evidence suggests that the intestine takes over hypotonic fluid secretion at that stage but the mechanism is unexplored. To unravel the molecular mechanism we analyzed and compared transcript levels of several membrane proteins involved in water and salt transport in intestinal and renal tissues, in non-mature males (NM), mature males (MM), and mature females (MF). Aquaporin paralogs aqp1a, -3a, -8aa, -8ab, -10a, and -10b, two Na(+),K(+)-ATPase alpha-1 subunit isoforms (nka547, nka976), Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-)-, and Na(+),Cl(-)-cotransporters (nkcc1a, nkcc2, ncc), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (cftr) and two claudin isoforms (cldn2, cldn15a) were expressed in the intestine and kidney in all groups. There were no differences in aqp and cldn expression between intestines of NM and MM; nkcc2 was lower and nka levels tended to be higher in intestines of MM than in NM. In the kidney, aqp1 and aqp8ab levels were lower in MM than in NM, whereas aqp3a, nkcc1a, cldn15a, and spiggin were markedly elevated. This was accompanied by marked hypertrophy of kidney tubules in MM. The data support an altered kidney function in terms of water handling in mature males, whereas there was no support for modified trans-epithelial water permeability or salt-secretory activity in the intestine of mature males. Salt-absorptive activity in the intestine may, however, be down-regulated during male maturation.

  19. A Deferred Cost of Education Plan for Podiatric Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine, Washington, DC.

    A study carried out by the American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine and the Academy for Educational Development: (1) examines and documents the financial needs and prospects of colleges of podiatric medicine; (2) analyzes the case for and against a deferred cost of education plan for the colleges of podiatric medicine; and (3)…

  20. Dynamic Matching Markets and the Deferred Acceptance Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    In many dynamic matching markets, priorities depend on previous allocations. In such environments, agents on the proposing side can manipulate the period-by-period deferred acceptance (DA) mechanism. We show that the fraction of agents with incentives to manipulate the DA mechanism approaches zero...... together justify the implementation of the period-by-period DA mechanism in dynamic markets....

  1. 7 CFR 930.163 - Deferment of restricted obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN... bond on restricted percentage cherries to be posted to temporarily defer the date that...

  2. 5 CFR 847.906 - How is the present value of a deferred annuity without credit for NAFI service computed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How is the present value of a deferred... § 847.906 How is the present value of a deferred annuity without credit for NAFI service computed? (a) The present value of a deferred annuity equals the present value of the deferred annuity...

  3. Deferred Item and Vehicle Routing within Integrated Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the possible integration of long-haul operations by transportation mode and service level (defined by guaranteed delivery time) for package delivery carriers. Specifically, we consider the allocation of deferred items to excess capacity on alternative modes in ways that allow all transportation modes to be utilized better. Model formulation and solution techniques are discussed. The solution techniques presented produce efficient solutions for large-scale problem instances....

  4. Revisionist integral deferred correction with adaptive step-size control

    KAUST Repository

    Christlieb, Andrew

    2015-03-27

    © 2015 Mathematical Sciences Publishers. Adaptive step-size control is a critical feature for the robust and efficient numerical solution of initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we show that adaptive step-size control can be incorporated within a family of parallel time integrators known as revisionist integral deferred correction (RIDC) methods. The RIDC framework allows for various strategies to implement stepsize control, and we report results from exploring a few of them.

  5. Population structure and sexual maturity of the calico box crab Hepatus epheliticus Linnaeus (Brachyura, Hepatidae from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico Estructura poblacional y madurez sexual en el cangrejo caja moteado Hepatus epheliticus Linnaeus (Brachyura, Hepatidae procedente de la Península del Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Hernáez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The calico box crab Hepatus epheliticus is an abundant species from shallow and continental shelf waters of the Atlantic coast of USA and Mexico. Information about population structure and sexual maturity is absent, even though this crab is caught to be used as bait for the octopus fishery in the Campeche Bank, Mexico. In order to achieve such information, a total of 768 individuals were collected from January to March 2010 through baited traps installed in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Our results showed that sex ratio is biased towards more males than females (1:0.55, contradicting to that reported in other brachyuran crabs. The absence of ovigerous females suggests that they did not enter into the traps during embryogenesis. Males reached a larger maximum size than females (64.0 ± 6.15 and 58.4 ± 5.60 mm carapace width, respectively. The general scheme of growth being positive allometric throughout ontogeny of both sexes. Males presented a transition phase from juveniles to adult corresponding to the puberty moult. The estimation of the onset of functional sexual maturity revealed a steady situation for the population, with 21.5 and 13.8% of males and females, respectively, morphologically immature at the time of catch. This study constitutes the first report on population structure and sexual maturity in a population of the calico box crab H. epheliticus.El cangrejo caja moteado Hepatus epheliticus es un abundante braquiuro perteneciente a la familia Hepatidae, distribuido desde aguas someras hasta la plataforma continental en la costa atlántica de Estados Unidos y México. La información sobre su demografía poblacional y madurez sexual es actualmente inexistente, aun cuando esta especie es intensamente capturada como carnada en la pesquería del pulpo del estado de Campeche, México. Entre enero y marzo de 2010, se colectaron 768 especímenes usando trampas instaladas en la Península de Yucatán, México. Los resultados mostraron una

  6. Influência dos estágios de maturação sexual no estado nutricional, antropometria e composição corporal de adolescentes Influence of the stages of sexual maturation in the nutritional status, anthropometrics and corporal composition of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiriaque Barra Ferreira Barbosa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os fenômenos puberais apresentam variabilidade no que diz respeito às idades de início e término, à velocidade e magnitude com que se expressam e as suas inter-relações. Tais fenômenos influenciam as modificações antropométricas e de composição corporal que caracterizam o processo de crescimento e desenvolvimento da adolescência. O artigo tem como objetivo analisar a influência dos estágios de maturação sexual, no estado nutricional, antropometria e composição corporal de adolescentes de ambos os sexos. A revisão de literatura foi realizada utilizando-se os termos "Adolescent, Puberty and Body Composition", por meio de consulta na base de dados do HighWire Press®. Trabalhou-se com artigos publicados desde janeiro de 1995 até julho de 2006, incluindo, outros relevantes ao tema, publicados anteriormente. Na adolescência, para se avaliar o estado nutricional e as modificações antropométricas e de composição corporal, é de extrema importância a consideração não somente da idade cronológica, mas também do estágio de maturação sexual. Cabe ressaltar as consideráveis dificuldades metodológicas existentes nos estudos acerca do estadiamento pubertário. Destaca-se a importância da realização de mais estudos, no sentido de elucidar a influência dos estágios de maturação sexual na evolução dos parâmetros antropométricos e de composição corporal, possibilitando a construção e utilização sistemática de referências que considerem o desenvolvimento pubertário.Puberty phenomena concerning ages of onset and ending, speed and magnitude of expression, and interrelations are variable. Such phenomena influence anthropometric and body composition changes characterizing the process of growth and development during adolescence. This article has the objective of analyzing the influence of sexual maturing status on nutritional status, anthropometry and body composition in adolescents of both sexes. Literature

  7. Size structure and sexual maturity of the golden crab (Chaceon chilensis exploited off Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile Estructuras de tallas y madurez en el cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis explotado alrededor de la isla Robinson Crusoe, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Guerrero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Golden crab (Chaceon chilensis specimens were analyzed after being caught with traps by artisanal fishermen off Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. Of the 13,027 individuals caught between 300 and 1,000 m depth, 97.9% were male (12,754 and the rest female (273. The carapace length (CL of the sampled crabs was measured and, on average, the males (CL: 118.9 mm were larger than the females (CL: 94.3 mm. On the north side of the island, the specimens presented lower average sizes (112.2 mm whereas, in the remaining zones, the average carapace lengths were similar (CL: 117.1-119.5 mm. In bathymetric terms, an increasing trend was seen between average size and depth, with sizes over 123 mm CL found beginning at 750 m depth. A comparison of linear regressions between the carapace length and chela length of males revealed physical maturity at 100 mm CL, whereas a numerical analysis showed the size at first sexual maturity (SSM50% to be 109 mm CL.Se analizaron ejemplares de cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis capturados mediante trampas por pescadores artesanales en torno a la isla Robinson Crusoe del archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Chile, entre 300 y 1.000 m de profundidad. Se midió la longitud cefalotorácica (LC de 13.027 individuos de los cuales 12.754 correspondieron a machos y únicamente 273 a hembras, con un claro predominio de machos (97,9%, fueron de talla promedio superior a las hembras (118,9 y 94,3 mm de LC, respectivamente. En el sector norte de la isla, se encontraron ejemplares con menor talla media (112,2 mm que en las zonas restantes, la longitud cefalotorácica media presentó valores similares (117,1 a 119,5 mm de LC. Se encontró una tendencia creciente entre la talla media y la profundidad, registrándose a partir del estrato de 750 m tallas promedio superiores a 123 mm de LC. Mediante la comparación de regresiones lineales entre la longitud cefalotorácica y la longitud de la quela, en machos se estableci

  8. Tax-deferred annuity plans: meeting the IRS audit challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussler, M

    1997-01-01

    A growing number of nonprofit organizations are being fined for violations of IRS regulations following IRS audits of their tax-deferred annuity (TDA) plans. To ensure that their organizations can withstand the scrutiny of an IRS audit, TDA plan administrators must ensure that plans meet IRS regulations and be prepared for IRS audits. Documentation--particularly of the TDA plan itself, and procedures related to salary reduction programs, compensation limits, excess deferrals and other excess contributions, loans, and distributions--must be comprehensive and in compliance with IRS regulations.

  9. Maturidade sexual das fêmeas de Callinectes danae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae nos estuários dos rios Botafogo e Carrapicho, Itamaracá, PE, Brasil Sexual maturity of females of Callinectes danae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae in the estuaries of the Botafogo and Carrapicho rivers, Itamaracá, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline do Vale Barreto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Callinectes danae (Smith, 1869, siri-azul, constitui um importante recurso pesqueiro nos estuários dos rios Botafogo e Carrapicho. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a maturidade sexual das fêmeas de C. danae. Os espécimes foram capturados, entre outubro de 2003 a junho de 2004, com auxílio de um barco de pesca equipado com rede de arrasto do tipo "wing-trawl" e arrastados durante 5 minutos. No laboratório, os siris foram contados, numerados, sexados, pesados e mensurados. A largura da carapaça (LC foi medida na base do espinho lateral e a largura do abdome (LA mensurada na altura da articulação do quinto esternito abdominal. Um total de 596 fêmeas de C. danae foram analisadas: 417 (69,97% no rio Botafogo e 179 (30,03% no Carrapicho; as fêmeas não-ovígeras apresentaram LC de 18,38 a 101 mm (59,14 ± 13,65 mm e 26,70 a 83,48 mm (59,16 ± 13,77 mm, nos respectivos rios; a LC de fêmeas ovígeras foi de 57,04 a 83,30 mm (67,68 ± 6,56 mm. As médias de larguras das carapaças não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas O conhecimento da maturidade sexual das fêmeas de Callinectes danae é de grande importância para o seu manejo e conservação. O L50 gonadal foi estimado em 63,58 mm (chi2 = 140,47; g.l. = 1; p Callinectes danae (Smith, 1869 is an important fishery resource in the Botafogo and Carrapicho river estuaries. The aim of this study was to estimate the sexual maturity of C. danae. Specimens were captured between October 2003 and June 2004 with the aid of a fishing boat equipped with a wing-trawl and trawling took place during 5 minutes each time. In the laboratory, the crabs were counted, numbered, sexed, weighed, and measured. The carapace width (CW was measured at the base of the lateral spine and the abdomen width (AW was measured at the point of the articulation of the fifth abdominal esternite. A total of 596 females of C. danae were analyzed: 417 (69.97% from Botafogo River and 179 (30.03% from

  10. 77 FR 74488 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ..., USCIS, Office of Policy and Strategy, Chief, Regulatory Coordination Division, 20 Massachusetts Avenue... making their request for consideration of deferred action with USCIS; 5. Entered without inspection... into removal proceedings as part of the deferred action for childhood arrivals process. Those who...

  11. The per-protocol effect of immediate vs. deferred ART initiation in the START randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodi, Sara; Sharma, Shweta; Lundgren, Jens D;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The START trial found a lower risk of a composite clinical outcome in HIV-positive individuals assigned to immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared with those assigned to deferred initiation. However, 30% of those assigned to deferred initiation started ART earlier...

  12. 76 FR 45199 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  13. 76 FR 28661 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metro 1-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metro 1-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area, California AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  14. 78 FR 53038 - Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions; California; San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions; California; San Joaquin Valley AGENCY: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset sanctions and to defer...

  15. 76 FR 76046 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  16. Survival after primary and deferred cystectomy for stage T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedeir Ali-El-Dein

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Cancer-specific survival is statistically comparable for primary and deferred cystectomy in T1 bladder cancer, although there is a non-significant difference in favor of primary cystectomy. In the deferred cystectomy group, the number of TURBTs beyond three is associated with lower survival. Conservative treatment should be adopted for most cases in this category.

  17. 20 CFR 422.122 - Information on deferred vested pension benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on deferred vested pension... PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.122 Information on deferred vested pension benefits. (a) Claimants for... electronic pension benefit record. This record contains information received from IRS on individuals for whom...

  18. 78 FR 13370 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... children and meet the following guidelines to be considered for deferred action for childhood arrivals: 1... of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection... information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses. Overview of This...

  19. Concurrent non-deferred reference counting on the Microgrid: first experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herhut, S.; Joslin, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Poss, R.; Grelck, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a first evaluation of our novel approach for non- deferred reference counting on the Microgrid many-core architecture. Non-deferred reference counting is a fundamental building block of im- plicit heap management of functional array languages in general and Sin- gle Assignment C in partic

  20. Relative growth and morphological sexual maturity of Chasmagnathus granulatus (Crustacea, Varunidae from a mangrove area in southeastern Brazilian coast Crescimento relativo e maturidade sexual morfológica de Chasmagnathus granulatus (Crustacea, Varunidae de uma área de manguezal no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Augusto Gregati

    Full Text Available The relative growth and morphological sexual maturity of Chasmagnathus granulatus Dana, 1851 are presented for the first time to a mangrove population. The crabs were obtained during low tide periods, in the mangrove of Jabaquara Beach, Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. All crabs in intermolt stage were sexed and had their body parts measured as follows: body height (BH, carapace length (CL and width (CW, major cheliped propodus height (PH and length (PL for each sex, gonopod length (GL and abdomen width (AW for males and females, respectively. The relative growth was described using the allometric equation y=ax b and the size at onset sexual maturity was achieved using the software Mature I. The size of specimens ranged from 4.1 mm to 39.5 mm CW. The growth pattern was different between sexes in the cheliped relationships; the relationships BH vs. CW evidenced positive allometry for juveniles; PL vs. CW and PH vs. CW positive allometry for most crabs except juvenile females; AW vs. CW and GL vs. CW evidenced positive allometry for juveniles and isometry for adults. The relationships that best indicated the change from the juvenile to the adult phase were PH vs. CW for males and AW vs. CW for females. The size in which 50% of males from this population are mature is at 19.7 mm of CW (F=144.14; pO crescimento relativo e a maturidade sexual morfológica de Chasmagnathus granulatus Dana, 1851 são apresentados pela primeira vez para uma população de manguezal. Os caranguejos foram obtidos durante os períodos de maré baixa, no manguezal da praia do Jabaquara, Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Todos os caranguejos em estágio de intermuda foram classificados quanto ao sexo e as seguintes medidas lineares foram tomadas: altura do corpo (AC, altura do própodo do quelípodo maior (APQ, comprimento da carapaça (CC, comprimento do própodo do quelípodo maior (CPQ, largura da carapaça (LC, comprimento do gonopódio (CG e largura do abdome (LA para

  1. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. 35.3405-1 Section 35.3405-1 Internal... withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred income under section 3405 of the...

  2. Performance of Lempel-Ziv compressors with deferred innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Martin

    1989-01-01

    The noiseless data-compression algorithms introduced by Lempel and Ziv (LZ) parse an input data string into successive substrings each consisting of two parts: The citation, which is the longest prefix that has appeared earlier in the input, and the innovation, which is the symbol immediately following the citation. In extremal versions of the LZ algorithm the citation may have begun anywhere in the input; in incremental versions it must have begun at a previous parse position. Originally the citation and the innovation were encoded, either individually or jointly, into an output word to be transmitted or stored. Subsequently, it was speculated that the cost of this encoding may be excessively high because the innovation contributes roughly 1g(A) bits, where A is the size of the input alphabet, regardless of the compressibility of the source. To remedy this excess, it was suggested to store the parsed substring as usual, but encoding for output only the citation, leaving the innovation to be encoded as the first symbol of the next substring. Being thus included in the next substring, the innovation can participate in whatever compression that substring enjoys. This strategy is called deferred innovation. It is exemplified in the algorithm described by Welch and implemented in the C program compress that has widely displaced adaptive Huffman coding (compact) as a UNIX system utility. The excessive expansion is explained, an implicit warning is given against using the deferred innovation compressors on nearly incompressible data.

  3. Maduración sexual en niños con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 tratados con dosis múltiples de insulina Sexual maturation in children presenting with Type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with multiple dose of insulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Espinosa Reyes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Antes de la terapia insulínica, la menarquia y menstruaciones subsecuentes aparecían raramente en niñas con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM 1 desde la infancia, y en los varones se verificaba un importante retraso puberal. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar el inicio de la pubertad, y la influencia de la edad de diagnóstico de la diabetes y el grado de control metabólico, sobre el desarrollo sexual en un grupo de ninos atendidos en consultas de endocrinología pediátrica. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo no concurrente a partir de las historias clínicas de pacientes tratados con dosis múltiples de insulina, de procedencia urbana (32 varones y 28 hembras, seguidos longitudinalmente por examen clínico y determinaciones bioquímicas periódicas desde el inicio de la DM 1 hasta alcanzar su talla final. El control metabólico fue evaluado a través de la hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1 realizada trimestralmente, y clasificado según criterios de la institución en bueno (B: 10 %. La media de la edad a la que se encontró un volumen testicular de 4 mL fue 12,5 ± 0,8 años; en las niñas el inicio del desarrollo mamario se constató a la edad promedio de 11,4 ± 1,3 años y la menarquia ocurrió a los 12,9 ± 1,2 años. Se comprobó también que 31 pacientes tuvieron un control metabólico B (51,6 %, 22 R (36,7 % y 7 M (11,7 %. Se concluye que el tratamiento con dosis múltiples de insulina tiene una influencia favorable y decisiva sobre el grado de control metabólico, lo cual hace posible un desarrollo puberal adecuado en pacientes con DM 1.Before insulin therapy, menarche and subsequent menstruation rarely appear in girls presenting Type 1 diabetes mellitus (MD 1 from childhood, and in boys a significicant pubertal retardation was confirmed. Aim of present paper is to assess onset of puberty, influence of diagnosis age of diabetes, and degree of metabolic control, on sexual development in a cohort of children seen in service of

  4. Donating blood for research: a potential method for enhancing customer satisfaction of permanently deferred blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff

    2015-11-30

    Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia.

  5. Seduction trauma: representation, deferred action, and pathogenic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, H P

    1996-01-01

    Seduction trauma refers to a range of phenomena currently described under the rubric of child abuse. Freud elucidated the fantasy distortion and elaboration of traumatic experience and retained the importance of actual trauma. Psychic trauma is associated with the alteration of self and object representations and ensuing new identifications, e.g., with victim and aggressor. The "deferred action" of psychic trauma is an antiquated concept and psychic trauma has immediate effects as well as far reaching developmental consequences. Prior trauma predisposes to later traumatic vulnerability and to trauma linked to phase specific unconscious conflict. The pathogenesis of child sex abuse and the enactment of oedipal incest extends before and after the oedipal phase, is often associated with other forms of abuse, and has a history of pathogenic parent-child relationship.

  6. Deferred versus conventional stent implantation in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (DANAMI 3-DEFER)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbæk, Henning; Høfsten, Dan Eik; Køber, Lars

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite successful treatment of the culprit artery lesion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation, thrombotic embolisation occurs in some cases, which impairs the prognosis of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed...... to assess the clinical outcomes of deferred stent implantation versus standard PCI in patients with STEMI. METHODS: We did this open-label, randomised controlled trial at four primary PCI centres in Denmark. Eligible patients (aged >18 years) had acute onset symptoms lasting 12 h or less, and ST...... revascularisation of the target vessel within 2 years' follow-up. Patients, investigators, and treating clinicians were not masked to treatment allocation. We did analysis by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01435408. FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2011, and Feb 28, 2014...

  7. Influencia de la madurez sexual y la castración sobre la actividad eléctrica cardíaca en conejos machos y hembras Influence of sexual maturity and gonadectomy on cardiac electrical activity in male and female rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Y. Eizikovits

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Es bien conocida la existencia de diferencias en la actividad eléctrica cardíaca asociadas al sexo. Si bien estas diferencias habitualmente se relacionan al efecto de la madurez y de las hormonas sexuales gonadales, todavía existen controversias al respecto. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto que la madurez sexual y la castración producen sobre los distintos parámetros del electrocardiograma de superficie y de la duración de los potenciales de acción (DPA. Se utilizaron conejos jóvenes (menores de un mes de edad y adultos (mayores de seis meses de edad. Las diferencias obtenidas en las hembras se observan en la repolarización tardía, mientras que en los machos ocurren en la repolarización temprana. Existiría una relación entre las diferencias observadas en la duración desde el pico máximo hasta el fin de la onda T (Tpf y las observadas en la DPA al 90% de la repolarización (DPA90 en las hembras, mientras que en los machos la relación existe entre la duración desde el punto J hasta el pico máximo de la onda T (JTp y la DPA al 30 y 50% de la repolarización (DPA30 y DPA50. Si bien existen diferencias que podrían ser debidas a factores hormonales otras serían debidas a factores no hormonales.Sex-associated differences in cardiac electrical activity have already been documented. Even though these differences are usually associated with the effect of maturity and sex hormones, there are still some controversial points to this respect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maturity and gonadectomy on the different parameters of surface electrocardiogram and the duration of the action potential in young and adult rabbits. The differences obtained in females were observed in late repolarization, whereas in males took place in early repolarization. There was a relationship between the differences observed in the duration from the peak to the end of the T wave and those observed in the duration of the

  8. Deferred Compensation for Personnel of Tax-Exempt Universities: Effective Use of Section 403(b) Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Under the Tax Reform Act of 1986 many university employees are no longer able to make tax deductible contributions to an IRA. Several alternative plans of action are discussed including tax-deferred annuities. Tax planning strategies are offered. (MLW)

  9. Deferred endoscopic urethral realignment: Role in management of traumatic posterior urethral disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Elgammal

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: When early realignment is postponed for any reason, deferred endoscopic realignment is considered an adequate substitute because urethral continuity can be achieved in a group of patients without increase incidence of impotence and incontinence.

  10. 18 CFR 367.2550 - Account 255, Accumulated deferred investment tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Credits § 367.2550 Account... Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC...

  11. 18 CFR 367.2820 - Account 282, Accumulated deferred income taxes-Other property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Credits § 367.2820 Account... Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC...

  12. 18 CFR 367.1900 - Account 190, Accumulated deferred income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1900 Account 190, Accumulated... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING...

  13. 18 CFR 367.2830 - Account 283, Accumulated deferred income taxes-Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Credits § 367.2830 Account 283... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY...

  14. Donating blood for research: a potential method for enhancing customer satisfaction of permanently deferred blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    Background Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Materials and methods Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. Results The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Discussion Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia. PMID:26674813

  15. Influência da maturação sexual, idade cronológica e índices de crescimento no limiar de lactato e no desempenho da corrida de 20 minutos Influencia de la madurez sexual, edad cronológica e índices de crecimiento en el límite de lactato y en el desempeño en carreras de velocidad de 20 minutos Influence of sexual maturation, chronological age and growth indices in lactate threshold and performance in the 20 minutes running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivis Elton Schlickmann Frainer

    2006-06-01

    evaluación de madurez sexual a través de los índices de Tanner (madurez sexual de genitales y madurez sexual del pelo pubiano; 2 test progresivo descontinuo de 3 x 800m (pista de atletismo para determinar V2,5, y 3 carreras de 20 minutos para determinar V20 y la [la] final. No fue encontrada asociación entre madurez sexual, edad cronológica e indicadores de crecimiento con V2,5. Solamente la estatura se mostró asociada con V20. Así, otras variables de desempeño, fisiológicas o biomecánicas, pueden influenciar más al final de la concentración de lactato y en las carreras de 20 minutos que las variables de crecimiento durante la adolescencia.Children and adolescents present less blood lactate concentrations ([la] than adults under certain loads. It is suggested that these differences are related to maturational aspects. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of sexual maturation, chronological age and growth indices (body weight, height and sum of two skinfolds - subscapular and triceps over the lactate threshold velocity, in the fixed lactate concentration of 2.5 mmol.l-1 (V2,5 and in the 20 minutes running (V20. Thirty-three boys, aged 13-15 years, who practice different sports were submitted to: 1 anthropometrical and sexual maturation evaluations through the Tanner index (sexual maturation of genitals and pubic hair; 2 progressive discontinuous test (3 x 800m in running track to determine V2,5; and 3 20 minutes running test to determine the V20 and final blood [la]. There were no associations between V2,5 and sexual maturation, neither chronological age nor growth index. As the only association verified was between V20 and height (r = 0,41; p < 0,05, the authors conclude that during adolescence other performance, physiological and/or biomechanical variables may play a greater role in lactate threshold and in the 20 minutes running than the growth variables.

  16. 34 CFR 611.44 - Under what circumstances may the Secretary defer a scholarship recipient's service obligation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... scholarship recipient's service obligation? 611.44 Section 611.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Scholarships § 611.44 Under what circumstances may the Secretary defer a scholarship recipient's service obligation? (a) Upon written request, the Secretary may defer...

  17. Optimizing Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Autogenous arteriovenous fistulas are the preferred vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Increasing fistula prevalence depends on increasing fistula placement, improving the maturation of fistula that fail to mature and enhancing the long-term patency of mature fistula. Percutaneous methods for optimizing arteriovenous fistula maturation will be reviewed.

  18. Successful Combination of Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Diagnostics and Targeted Deferred Neisseria gonorrhoeae Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Carolien M; de Vries, Henry J C; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Unemo, Magnus; van Dam, Alje P

    2015-06-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are recommended for the diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infections because of their superior sensitivity. Increasing NAAT use causes a decline in crucial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance data, which rely on culture. We analyzed the suitability of the ESwab system for NAAT diagnostics and deferred targeted N. gonorrhoeae culture to allow selective and efficient culture based on NAAT results. We included patients visiting the STI Clinic Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in 2013. Patient characteristics and urogenital and rectal samples for direct N. gonorrhoeae culture, standard NAAT, and ESwab were collected. Standard NAAT and NAAT on ESwab samples were performed using the Aptima Combo 2 assay for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis. Two deferred N. gonorrhoeae cultures were performed on NAAT-positive ESwab samples after storage at 4°C for 1 to 3 days. We included 2,452 samples from 1,893 patients. In the standard NAAT, 107 samples were N. gonorrhoeae positive and 284 were C. trachomatis positive. The sensitivities of NAAT on ESwab samples were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75 to 90%) and 87% (95% CI, 82 to 90%), respectively. ESwab samples were available for 98 of the gonorrhea-positive samples. Of these, 82% were positive in direct culture and 69% and 56% were positive in the 1st and 2nd deferred cultures, respectively (median storage times, 27 and 48 h, respectively). Deferred culture was more often successful in urogenital samples or when the patient had symptoms at the sampling site. Deferred N. gonorrhoeae culture of stored ESwab samples is feasible and enables AMR surveillance. To limit the loss in NAAT sensitivity, we recommend obtaining separate samples for NAAT and deferred culture.

  19. Outcomes of coronary stenoses deferred revascularization for borderline versus nonborderline fractional flow reserve values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depta, Jeremiah P; Patel, Jayendrakumar S; Novak, Eric; Masrani, Shriti K; Raymer, David; Facey, Gabrielle; Patel, Yogesh; Zajarias, Alan; Lasala, John M; Singh, Jasvindar; Bach, Richard G; Kurz, Howard I

    2014-06-01

    Current evidence supports deferral of revascularization for lesions with fractional flow reserve (FFR) values >0.80. The natural history after deferral of revascularization of lesions with borderline FFR values is unknown. This study evaluated the outcomes of patients after deferred revascularization of coronary stenoses based on a borderline FFR value. We retrospectively studied 720 patients with 881 intermediate-severity coronary stenoses who underwent FFR assessment from October 2002 to July 2010 and were deferred revascularization. Patients were divided into gray zone (0.75 to 0.80), borderline (0.81 to 0.85), and nonborderline (>0.85) FFR groups. Any subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting of a deferred stenosis during follow-up was classified as a deferred lesion intervention (DLI). Patient and/or lesion characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between the FFR groups using univariate and propensity score-adjusted inverse probability of weighting Cox proportional hazards analyses. During a mean follow-up of 4.5 ± 2.1 years, 157 deferred lesions (18%) underwent DLI by percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 117) or coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 40). No statistically significant differences were observed in clinical outcomes between the gray zone and borderline FFR groups. Lesions with a borderline FFR were associated with a significantly higher risk of DLI compared with lesions with nonborderline FFR values (hazard ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 2.33, p = 0.007). Lesions deferred revascularization because of a borderline FFR (0.81 to 0.85) were associated with a higher risk of DLI compared with lesions with a nonborderline FFR (>0.85). Further study is needed to determine the optimal management of coronary stenoses with a borderline FFR value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Immediate Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection Accelerates Bone Loss Relative to Deferring Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoy, Jennifer F; Grund, Birgit; Roediger, Mollie P

    2017-01-01

    Both HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Because the relative contributions of ART and untreated HIV to BMD loss are unclear, it is important to quantify the effect of ART on bone. We compared the effect...... of early ART initiation (CD4 >500 cells/μL) with deferred ART on change in BMD in the START Bone Mineral Density substudy, a randomized trial evaluating the effect of immediate ART initiation versus deferring ART (to CD4

  1. Different supplents for finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Tadeu de Andrade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of four types of supplement on the finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season. Sixty-four castrated Nellore males with an age of approximately 34 months and initial body weight (BW ranging from 360 to 380 kg were divided into 16 animals per treatment in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four types of pasture supplement: deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + energy protein mineral salt (SuEPM used as control; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + ground corn grain (SuCo; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + citrus pulp (SuCPu; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + soy hull (SuSH. The pasture was deferred for 170 days and provided 3,482 kg DM/ha of forage, permitting a stocking rate of 1.56 AU/ha (DM intake of 2.25% BW and 50% pasture efficiency. The animals received the supplement ad libitum in the SuEPM treatment and as % BW in the other treatments from July to October. The animals were slaughtered at a minimum BW of 457 kg. The following variables were evaluated: final weight, weight gain during the period (WG, average daily gain (ADG, hot carcass weight (HCW, and hot carcass yield (HCY. With respect to final weight, the supplement in the SuCo, SuCPu and SuSH treatments permitted a greater supply of nutrients and the animals therefore exhibited better performance (P<0.05 compared to the SuEPM treatment (mean of 478.68 vs 412.62 kg. The same effect was observed for the other parameters studied. Analysis of WG and ADG showed that SuSH was superior to the SuCo and SuCPu treatments (P<0.05 due to the increased offer of concentrate and SuEPM was inferior to the other treatments. Higher HCW (260.05 kg and HCY (53.92% were obtained with treatment SuSH as a result of greater performance. Supplementation of cattle during the dry period on

  2. Taxable and Tax-deferred Investing with the Limited Use of Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Gallmeyer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We study the impact of the different tax treatment of capital gains and losses on the optimal location of assets in taxable and tax-deferred accounts. The classical result of Black (1980) and Tepper (1981) suggests that investors should follow a strict pecking order asset location rule and hold...... those assets that are subject to the highest tax rate preferentially in tax-deferred accounts. We show that with the different tax treatment of realized gains and losses, only tax-efficient equity mutual funds are optimally held in taxable accounts, whereas mutual funds with average tax...

  3. 5 CFR 847.907 - How is the monthly annuity rate used to compute the present value of the deferred annuity without...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... compute the present value of the deferred annuity without credit for NAFI service determined? 847.907... the present value of the deferred annuity without credit for NAFI service determined? (a) The monthly annuity rate used to compute the present value of the deferred annuity under § 847.906 of this subpart...

  4. Teenage Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Teenage Sexuality Page Content Article Body Sex and sexuality ... have sexual intercourse? Will having sex help my relationship? If I am attracted to a same-sex ...

  5. Efeito da duração do tratamento com progestágeno e da maturidade sexual na taxa de prenhez em novilhas de corte: avaliação econômica e biológica Effect of the duration of progestagen exposure and sexual maturity on the pregnancy rate of beef heifers: economic and biological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Machado Pfeifer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos neste experimento foram avaliar o efeito do tempo de exposição a um progestágeno (P4 na taxa de prenhez de novilhas púberes e pré-púberes inseminadas em tempo-fixo (IATF e estudar o retorno econômico dos protocolos utilizados, por meio da comparação desses protocolos ao sistema tradicional de acasalamento natural aos 26 meses de idade. Foram utilizadas 114 novilhas da raça Bradford com 16 meses de idade, classificadas em quatro grupos de acordo com o tratamento e a maturidade sexual: GPPLP - pré-puberes, longo tratamento com P4 (n=21; e GPPCP - pré-puberes, curto tratamento com (n=19; GPLP - púberes, longo tratamento com P4 (n=34; e GPCP - púberes, curto tratamento com P4 (n=40. As novilhas do GPPLP e GPLP receberam no dia -8 um pessário intravaginal impregnado com acetato de medroxiprogesterona. No dia 0, o pessário foi removido e outro foi inserido, juntamente com uma injeção de 2,5 mg de benzoato de estradiol (BE. No dia 8, o pessário foi retirado e as novilhas receberam 0,5 mg de BE e 250 µg de cloprostenol sódico. A inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF foi realizada 54 horas depois. As novilhas do GPPCP e GPCP receberam o mesmo tratamento de sincronização dos grupos GPPLP e GPLP, com exceção do AMP do dia -8 ao dia 0. A taxa de prenhez foi maior nas novilhas púberes (60,3% que nas pré-puberes (35,0%. No entanto, não foi detectado efeito do tempo de tratamento na taxa de prenhez nas novilhas púberes e pré-puberes. A resposta econômica na utilização de protocolos com P4 foi maior em novilhas aos 16 meses que no sistema de acasalamento aos 26 meses. A exposição prolongada a um P4 não foi eficiente para aumentar a taxa de prenhez de novilhas submetidas a IATF.The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of the duration of progestagen (P4 exposure and sexual maturity of prepubertal and pubertal heifers submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI. A hundred and fourteen 16

  6. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basic HIV/AIDS information and resources for prevention LGBT Health Information for lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health ...

  7. Antropometria, maturação sexual e idade da menarca de acordo com o nível socioeconômico de meninas escolares de Cascavel (PR Antropometry, sexual maturation and menarcheal age according to socioeconomic status of schoolgirls from Cascavel (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Paulo Roman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a idade da menarca e a antropometria de meninas escolares de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos em Cascavel (Estado do Paraná -Região Sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado no ano de 2006 com 2.761 meninas em 27 escolas públicas e particulares. A idade da menarca foi obtida pelo método status quo. Para a avaliação da maturação sexual foi realizada a autoavaliação de acordo com os critérios descritos por Tanner. O nível socioeconômico foi obtido por meio do questionário da ABEP (2003. Avaliou-se o peso e a estatura, obtendo-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC. Foram utilizados a análise estatística descritiva e o teste de Mann-Whitney, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A idade da menarca geral foi 12,2±1,2 anos e 12,1±1,1; 12,3±1,2 e 12,4±1,2 anos para os tercis alto, médio e baixo de nível socioeconômico, respectivamente. Foram constatados valores superiores para as meninas pós-menarca no peso e na estatura dos 10 aos 17 anos de idade e no IMC dos 11 aos 14 anos de idade. CONCLUSÕES: As meninas de nível socioeconômico alto apresentaram idade da menarca em idade inferior aos demais níveis socioeconômicos. Embora estas diferenças tenham sido observadas em níveis socioeconômicos distintos, biologicamente foram consideradas pequenas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate age of menarche and anthropometric data of schoolgirls of different socioeconomic levels in Cascavel, state of Parana, in Southern Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 with 2,761 girls evaluated in 27 private and public schools. Age at menarche was obtained by the status quo method. Sexual maturity was assessed by self evaluation, according to Tanner's criteria. Socioeconomic level was obtained through the ABEP (2003 questionnaire. Data of weight, stature and Body Mass Index (BMI were obtained. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney test at 5% significance. RESULTS: Age

  8. Rendimientos, estructuras de tallas y madurez sexual del alfonsino (Beryx splendens capturado en el cordón submarino de Juan Fernández, Chile Fishing yields, size structures, and sexual maturity of alfonsino (Beryx splendens caught on Juan Fernandez seamounts, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Guerrero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la información recopilada en lances comerciales para la captura de alfonsino (Beryx splendens realizados en montes submarinos del archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Chile, entre los años 2001 y 2003, que corresponden a la etapa de desarrollo inicial de esta pesquería. En dicho período se efectuaron 187 lances, de los cuales en 121 se obtuvo la especie objetivo, capturándose 525,1 ton, que constituyeron el 99,2% de la captura total. Por la configuración irregular de los fondos, los lances de pesca se caracterizaron por su corta duración (0,26-0,50 h, a profundidad media de 469,7 m. En este periodo se analizaron 14.773 ejemplares, 6.064 machos (41% y 8.709 hembras (59%, evidenciando un predominio de hembras. La proporción sexual estructurada a la talla mostró un predominio de machos a tallas inferiores a 24 cm de longitud de horquilla (LH. En machos el tamaño medio fluctuó entre 34,6 y 36,8 cm de LH y en hembras entre 36,2 y 38,4 cm LH. Para determinar la madurez de las gónadas, se utilizó la escala macroscópica propuesta por Lehodey et al. (1997 y se estableció que los machos alcanzaron la primera madurez (TMS50% a 34,3 cm LH y las hembras a los 33,3 cm LH. Los rendimientos promedio en el período analizado correspondieron entre 0,2 y 6,6 ton lance-1 y entre 1,8 y 19,0 ton h.a.-1 , con medias de 4,3 ton lance-1 y 9,2 ton h.a.-1 .We analyzed information collected during commercial hauls targeting alfonsino (Beryx splendens on seamounts of the Juan Fernández Archipelago (Chile from the early stages of the fishery (2001-2003. Of the 187 hauls carried out in this period, 121 were successful; alfonsino catches reached 525.1 ton, constituting 99.2%> of the total catch. Due to the irregularity of the sea bottom, short (0.26-0.50 h fishing hauls were performed at mid-depth (469.7 m. We analyzed 14,773 specimens during the study period: 6,064 males (41% and 8,709 females (59%, the latter being predominan! The size structure was

  9. 27 CFR 26.95 - Deferred payment of tax-release of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of wine. 26.95 Section 26.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.95 Deferred payment of tax—release of wine. (a) Action by proprietor. Where the proprietor has furnished bond, on Form 2897, and payment of...

  10. Approximation of functions in Besov space by deferred Cesàro mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mradul Veer Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we study the degree of approximation of functions (signals in a Besov space by trigonometric polynomials using deferred Cesàro mean. We also deduce a few corollaries of our main result and compare them with the existing results.

  11. 75 FR 22813 - Guidance for Industry: Requalification Method for Reentry of Blood Donors Deferred Because of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Requalification Method for Reentry of Blood Donors Deferred Because of Reactive Test Results for Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen (Anti- HBc),'' dated May 2010. The guidance document provides recommendations to establishments that collect Whole Blood or blood components......

  12. 78 FR 10554 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  13. Deferred Primary Anastomosis Versus Diversion in Patients with Severe Secondary Peritonitis Managed with Staged Laparotomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordonez, Carlos A.; Sanchez, Alvaro I.; Pineda, Jaime A.; Badiel, Marisol; Mesa, Rafael; Cardona, Uriel; Arias, Rafael; Rosso, Fernando; Granados, Marcela; Gutierrez-Martinez, Maria I.; Ochoa, Juan B.; Peitzman, Andrew; Puyana, Juan-Carlos

    2010-01-01

    There is inconclusive data on whether critically ill individuals with severe secondary peritonitis requiring multiple staged laparotomies may became eligible candidates for deferred primary anastomoses (DPA). We sought to compare a protocol for DPA against a protocol for diversion in severely ill cr

  14. 78 FR 37719 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... approval of revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) portion of the... Quality Management District Proposed Contingency Measures for the 2007 PM 2.5 SIP'' (dated October 2011... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air...

  15. Life Cycle Asset Allocation in the Presence of Housing and Tax-Deferred Investing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marekwica, Marcel; Schaefer, Alexander; Sebastian, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    , investors can deduct mortgage interest payments from taxable income, while simultaneously earning interest in tax-deferred accounts tax-free. Matching empirical evidence, our model predicts that investors with higher retirement savings choose higher loan-to-value ratios to exploit this tax arbitrage...

  16. To Defer or To Stand Up? How Offender Formidability Affects Third Party Moral Outrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2011-01-01

    According to models of animal behavior, the relative formidability of conspecifics determines the utility of deferring versus aggressing in situations of conflict. Here we apply and extend these models by investigating how the formidability of exploiters shapes third party moral outrage in humans...

  17. 34 CFR 535.55 - What is the length of the deferment of repayment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the length of the deferment of repayment? 535.55 Section 535.55 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND MINORITY LANGUAGES AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL...

  18. 34 CFR 535.54 - Under what circumstances is repayment deferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Under what circumstances is repayment deferred? 535.54 Section 535.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND MINORITY LANGUAGES AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL EDUCATION:...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6058-1 - Information required in connection with certain plans of deferred compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purposes of this section, the term “funded plan of deferred compensation” means each pension, annuity... 405(a); individual retirement accounts and annuities described in sections 408(a) and 408(b); and... Retirement Income Security Act of 1974; (88 Stat. 840)). The term does not include annuity...

  20. Deference, Denial, and Beyond: A Repertoire Approach to Mass Media and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymes, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines two general research approaches, within the education world, to these mass-mediated formations: "Deference" and "Denial." Researchers who recognize the social practices that give local meaning to mass media formations and ways of speaking do not attempt to recontextualize youth media in their own social…

  1. 40 CFR 280.11 - Interim prohibition for deferred UST systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (2) Is cathodically protected against corrosion, constructed of noncorrodible material, steel clad... substance. (b) Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this section, an UST system without corrosion protection may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim prohibition for deferred...

  2. The impact of excess choice on deferment of decisions to volunteer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren S. Carroll

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess choice has previously been shown to have detrimental effects on decisions about consumer products. As the number of options increases, people are more likely to put off making an active choice (i.e., defer and show less satisfaction with any purchase actually made. We extend this line of enquiry to choosing a charitable organisation to volunteer for. The issue is important because the number of voluntary organisations is enormous and the impact of such a decision may be greater than for consumer decisions in terms of time commitment and benefits to the volunteer and society. Study 1 asked students to examine a real volunteering website and record how many organisations they considered, decision difficulty and whether or not they would like to sign up for a chosen organisation or prefer to defer a decision. Study 2 presented either a relatively small (10 or large (30 choice set of hypothetical organisations and measured deferment likelihood and decision difficulty. In both studies the more options considered, the greater the likelihood to defer. This effect was mediated by decision difficulty. This research is the first to find that detrimental effects of excess choice extend to volunteering. Implications for volunteer recruitment are discussed.

  3. 78 FR 77696 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D, OMB Control No. 1615-0124; Correction ACTION... Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) published a 60-day Notice...

  4. 77 FR 49451 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D, New Information Collection; Emergency... Collection Under Review. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration...

  5. 78 FR 76636 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Form I-821D; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection... Immigration Services (USCIS) invites the general public and other Federal agencies to comment upon...

  6. 27 CFR 26.104 - Deferred payment of tax-release of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of beer. 26.104 Section 26.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.104 Deferred payment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the brewer has furnished bond on Form 2898, and payment of the tax...

  7. A feasibility study of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubolyam Sasiwimol

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the feasibility of a large immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy (ART study in children. Methods We conducted an open-label pilot randomized clinical trial study in 43 Thai children with CD4 15 to 24% of starting generic AZT/3TC/NVP immediately (Arm 1 or deferring until CD4 Results Recruitment took 15 months. Twenty-six of 69 (37.7% were not eligible due mainly to low CD4%. Twenty four and 19 were randomized to arms 1 and 2 respectively. All accepted the randomized arm; however, 3 in arm 1 stopped ART and 1 in arm 2 refused to start ART. Ten/19 (53% in arm 2 started ART. At baseline, median age was 4.8 yrs, CDC A:B were 36:7, median CD4 was 19% and viral load was 4.8 log. All in arm 1 and 17/19 in arm 2 completed the study (median of 134 weeks. No one had AIDS or death. Four in immediate arm had tuberculosis. Once started on ART, deferred arm children achieved similar CD4 and viral load response as the immediate arm. Adverse events were similar between arms. The deferred arm had a 26% ART saving. Conclusion Almost 40% of children were not eligible due mainly to low CD4% but adherence to randomized treatment and retention in trial were excellent. A larger study to evaluate when to start ART is feasible.

  8. Immediate versus deferred coronary angioplasty in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, R.K.; Ronner, E.; ter Bals, E.; Slagboom, T.; Smits, P.C.; ten Berg, J.M.; Kiemeneij, F.; Amoroso, G.; Patterson, M.S.; Suttorp, M.J.; Tijssen, J.G.P.; Laarman, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The field of acute coronary syndromes is characterised by an increasing tendency towards early invasive catheter-based diagnostics and therapeutics-a practice based on observational and retrospective data. OBJECTIVE: To compare immediate versus deferred angioplasty in patients with non-S

  9. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual ... is being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of ...

  10. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  11. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  12. Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponseti, J; Granert, O; van Eimeren, T

    2014-01-01

    . In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (f......Human faces can motivate nurturing behaviour or sexual behaviour when adults see a child or an adult face, respectively. This suggests that face processing is tuned to detecting age cues of sexual maturity to stimulate the appropriate reproductive behaviour: either caretaking or mating......MRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more...

  13. Sexuality Education for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Christopher A.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    As people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) mature from adolescents into adults, social deficits may become more pronounced and apparent in new areas (e.g., social functioning and sexuality). Like neurotypicals, sexuality may be directly related to quality of life for people with ASD. Current practice for addressing sexuality in the ASD…

  14. Sexuality Education for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Christopher A.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    As people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) mature from adolescents into adults, social deficits may become more pronounced and apparent in new areas (e.g., social functioning and sexuality). Like neurotypicals, sexuality may be directly related to quality of life for people with ASD. Current practice for addressing sexuality in the ASD…

  15. Infantile sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2010-01-01

    When first presented, Freud´s theory of infantile sexuality was a scandal. Not only was the claim that the small child sucking at the mother´s breast experiences a kind of pleasure that Freud without hesitation named sexual, the theory also turned the common understanding of human sexuality up...... vision of the sexual. Following a historic outline, we examine the theories that inspired by Laplanche, once more discuss infantile sexuality, and argue that infantile sexuality is clarified by combining the concept of the drive with what in effect is an inter-subjective point of view....

  16. Alabama – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    There is no state law in Alabama prohibiting any form of employment discrimination. Rather, Alabama defers to federal law for providing its citizens with protections against discrimination based upon age, race, religion, sex, national origin, and disabilities. Only a few unsuccessful attempts have been made to enact legislation to prohibit sexual orientation discrimination, and none to prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity or expression. Neither the state nor any locality in...

  17. Concentrações de hormônio na carcaça de tilápias-do-nilo e maturação precoce após reversão sexual Hormone concentration in carcass of Nile tilapia submitted to early maturation after sexual reversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Francisco Zanardi

    2011-01-01

    one to compare two methods of masculinization: via oral application, using a diet with hormone (60 mg 17α-methyltestosterone.kg-1; and through immersion bath (6 mg 17α-metyltestosterone.L-1, each one with five replicates. Larvae and juvenile were sampled on day 1 (beginning of the experiment and on days 30 (end of hormone feeding period, 40, 45, 60 and 90. One sample with 0.5 g of fish was collected from each replication for analysis of body testosterone. Fish fed diet with hormone were given experimental ration for 30 days and commercial ration until the end of the experiment, and fish in immersion bath received commercial ration and they were submitted to immersion bath (6 mg 17 α-metyltestosterone.L-1 for 36 hours on days 6 and 10 after the beginning of the experiment. For fish given ration without hormone (control, values of body testosterone were almost totally steady over the experiment, moderately increasing from day 60. Concentrations of body testosterone in fish fed diet with hormone or immersion bath were the highest on day 30. For fish submitted to immersion bath, the values were reduced on day 40 and they increased again until 60 days of observation, while for those submitted to diet with hormone, concentrations of testosterone gradually increased until 60 days. The use of 17 α-methyltestosterone through oral administration or immersion bath of larvae promotes sexual maturation of fish from day 45, especially on those fed diet with hormone. Concentrations of hormone in the carcass are lower than the recommended by Codex Alimentarius from Brazil as safe for human consumption.

  18. Adolescent Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Thomasina H.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)

  19. Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly ... men (5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made ...

  20. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... big part of being human. Love, affection and sexual intimacy all play a role in healthy relationships. ... both men and women. Factors that can affect sexual health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about ...

  1. Semi-implicit spectral deferred correction methods for ordinary differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minion, Michael L.

    2002-10-06

    A semi-implicit formulation of the method of spectral deferred corrections (SISDC) for ordinary differential equations with both stiff and non-stiff terms is presented. Several modifications and variations to the original spectral deferred corrections method by Dutt, Greengard, and Rokhlin concerning the choice of integration points and the form of the correction iteration are presented. The stability and accuracy of the resulting ODE methods are explored analytically and numerically. The SISDC methods are intended to be combined with the method of lines approach to yield a flexible framework for creating higher-order semi-implicit methods for partial differential equations. A discussion and numerical examples of the SISDC method applied to advection-diffusion type equations are included. The results suggest that higher-order SISDC methods are more efficient than semi-implicit Runge-Kutta methods for moderately stiff problems in terms of accuracy per function evaluation.

  2. Female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic fre...

  3. The Response of Deferred Executive Compensation to Changes in Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Aspen Gorry; Kevin A. Hassett; R. Glenn Hubbard; Aparna Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing use of stock options in executive compensation, we examine how taxes influence the choice of compensation and document that income deferral is an important margin of adjustment in response to tax rate changes. To account for this option in the empirical analysis, we explore deferral by estimating how executives’ choice of compensation between current and deferred income depends on changes in tax policy. Our empirical results suggest a significant impact of taxes on the co...

  4. Can Authorization Reduce Poverty among Undocumented Immigrants? Evidence from the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Antman, Francisca M.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the impact of authorization on the poverty exposure of households headed by undocumented immigrants. The identification strategy makes use of the 2012 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, which provided a temporary work authorization and reprieve from deportation to eligible immigrants. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we compare DACA-eligible to DACA-ineligible likely unauthorized immigrants, before and after the program implementation. We find that DA...

  5. Fourth-Order Deferred Correction Scheme for Solving Heat Conduction Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yambangwai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A deferred correction method is utilized to increase the order of spatial accuracy of the Crank-Nicolson scheme for the numerical solution of the one-dimensional heat equation. The fourth-order methods proposed are the easier development and can be solved by using Thomas algorithms. The stability analysis and numerical experiments have been limited to one-dimensional heat-conducting problems with Dirichlet boundary conditions and initial data.

  6. Audit Maturity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Uttam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today it is crucial for organizations to pay even greater attention on quality management as the importance of this function in achieving ultimate business objectives is increasingly becoming clearer. Importance of the Quality Management (QM Function in achieving basic need by ensuring compliance with Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI / International Organization for Standardization (ISO is a basic demand from business nowadays. However, QM Function and its processes need to be made much more mature to prevent delivery outages and to achieve business excellence through their review and auditing capability. Many organizations now face challenges in determining the maturity of the QM group along with the service offered by them and the right way to elevate the maturity of the same. The objective of this whitepaper is to propose a new model –the Audit Maturity Model (AMM which will provide organizations with a measure of their maturity in quality management in the perspective of auditing, along with recommendations for preventing delivery outage, and identifying risk to achieve business excellence. This will enable organizations to assess QM maturity higher than basic hygiene and will also help them to identify gaps and to take corrective actions for achieving higher maturity levels. Hence the objective is to envisage a new auditing model as a part of organisation quality management function which can be a guide for them to achieve higher level of maturity and ultimately help to achieve delivery and business excellence.

  7. Healthy Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction, or infirmity. Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to ... women’s response intertwines both her physical and emotional sexual drive. This would explain how women can start, or be receptive to, a sexual ...

  8. Sexual Regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to answer three key questions about explaining the emotion of regret in the domain of casual sex: Are sex differences in sexual regret robust or attenuated in a highly egalitarian culture? What proximate psychological variables might explain sex differences in sexual regret? And what accounts for within-sex variation in experiences of sexual regret about casual sex. We conducted a study of 263 Norwegian students (ages 19–37 who reported how much they regretted having either engaged in, or passed up, their most recent casual sexual experience. Sex differences in sexual regret are not attenuated in this sexually egalitarian culture. The study revealed sex differences in worries about pregnancy, STIs, and reputation; however, these predictors did not succeed in accounting for the sex differences in regret engaging in casual sex. Sexual gratification and socio-sexual orientation both predicted the sex differences in casual sex regret. In contrast, only socio-sexual orientation attenuated the sex difference in regret passing up casual sex. Predictors of within-sex variation in casual sexual regret included worry about sexual reputation, experienced gratification during the encounter, and socio-sexual orientation. Discussion focuses on implications for the psychological design features of this relatively neglected emotion.

  9. Infantile sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2010-01-01

    When first presented, Freud´s theory of infantile sexuality was a scandal. Not only was the claim that the small child sucking at the mother´s breast experiences a kind of pleasure that Freud without hesitation named sexual, the theory also turned the common understanding of human sexuality up-si...

  10. Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed or attempted sex acts that are against ... is unable to consent. It also includes abusive sexual contact. It can happen to men, women or ...

  11. Sadomasochism, sexual excitement, and perversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernberg, O F

    1991-01-01

    Sadomasochism, an ingredient of infantile sexuality, is an essential part of normal sexual functioning and love relations, and of the very nature of sexual excitement. Sadomasochistic elements are also present in all sexual perversions. Sadomasochism starts out as the potential for erotic masochism in both sexes, and represents a very early capacity to link aggression with the libidinal elements of sexual excitement. Sexual excitement may be considered a basic affect that overcomes primitive splitting of love and hatred. Erotic desire is a more mature form of sexual excitement. Psychoanalytic exploration makes it possible to uncover the unconscious components of sexual excitement: wishes for symbiotic fusion and for aggressive penetration and intermingling; bisexual identifications; the desire to transgress oedipal prohibitions and the secretiveness of the primal scene, and to violate the boundaries of a teasing and withholding object. The relation between these wishes and the development of erotic idealization processes in both sexes is explored in the context of a critical review of the pertinent psychoanalytic literature.

  12. Female sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  13. Maternal age at maturation underpins contrasting behavior in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertsen, Grethe; Stewart, David C.; McKelvey, Simon; Armstrong, John D.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father). We found that when juvenile salmon were competing for feeding territories, offspring of early-maturing mothers were more aggressive than those of late-maturing mothers, but were out-competed for food by them. This is the first demonstration of a link between natural variation in parental age at maturation and variation in offspring behavior. PMID:27656083

  14. Sexual Regret

    OpenAIRE

    Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair; Mons Bendixen; David M. Buss

    2016-01-01

    The current study sought to answer three key questions about explaining the emotion of regret in the domain of casual sex: Are sex differences in sexual regret robust or attenuated in a highly egalitarian culture? What proximate psychological variables might explain sex differences in sexual regret? And what accounts for within-sex variation in experiences of sexual regret about casual sex. We conducted a study of 263 Norwegian students (ages 19–37) who reported how much they regretted having...

  15. Compulsory sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emens, Elizabeth F

    2014-02-01

    Asexuality is an emerging identity category that challenges the common assumption that everyone is defined by some type of sexual attraction. Asexuals--those who report feeling no sexual attraction to others--constitute one percent of the population, according to one prominent study. In recent years, some individuals have begun to identify as asexual and to connect around their experiences interacting with a sexual society. Asexuality has also become a protected classification under the antidiscrimination law of one state and several localities, but legal scholarship has thus far neglected the subject. This Article introduces asexuality to the legal literature as a category of analysis, an object of empirical study, and a phenomenon of medical science. It then offers a close examination of the growing community of self-identified asexuals. Asexual identity has revealing intersections with the more familiar categories of gender, sexual orientation, and disability, and inspires new models for understanding sexuality. Thinking about asexuality also sheds light on our legal system. Ours is arguably a sexual law, predicated on the assumption that sex is important. This Article uses asexuality to develop a framework for identifying the ways that law privileges sexuality. Across various fields, these interactions include legal requirements of sexual activity, special carve-outs to shield sexuality from law, legal protections from others' sexuality, and legal protections for sexual identity. Applying this framework, the Article traces several ways that our sexual law burdens, and occasionally benefits, asexuals. This Article concludes by closely examining asexuality's prospects for broader inclusion into federal, state, and local antidiscrimination laws.

  16. A burn center paradigm to fulfill deferred consent public disclosure and community consultation requirements for emergency care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Martha G; Falletta, Lynn; Andrews, David A; Reed, Michael D

    2012-09-01

    To fulfill Food and Drug Administration and Department of Health and Human Services emergency care research informed consent requirements, our burn center planned and executed a deferred consent strategy gaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval to proceed with the clinical study. These federal regulations dictate public disclosure and community consultation unique to acute care research. Our regional burn center developed and implemented a deferred consent public notification and community consultation paradigm appropriate for a burn study. Published accounts of deferred consent strategies focus on acute care resuscitation practices. We adapted those strategies to design and conduct a comprehensive public notification/community consultation plan to satisfy deferred consent requirements for burn center research. To implement a robust media campaign we engaged the hospital's public relations department, distributed media materials, recruited hospital staff for speaking engagements, enlisted community volunteers, and developed initiatives to inform "hard-to-reach" populations. The hospital's IRB determined we fulfilled our obligation to notify the defined community. Our communication strategy should provide a paradigm other burn centers may appropriate and adapt when planning and executing a deferred consent initiative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic viability of production of Nellore heifers on Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu pastures deferred and fertilized with nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Batista de Aguilar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen on deferred pastures of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, and the implications on the economic viability of production of Nellore heifers. This was a completely randomized design with four treatments (T1 = deferred pasture without nitrogen fertilization; T2 = deferred pasture fertilized with 50 kg N ha-1, T3 = deferred pasture with 100 kg N ha-1, T4 = deferred pasture with 150 kg N ha-1 and four replications (16 fertilized paddocks. First, there were used 48 Nellore heifers, average eight months of age and initial body weight of 178.69 ± 26.67 kg, with three heifers in each paddock, in all treatments, in a continuous grazing system, with variable stocking rate. Only the treatment the without nitrogen fertilization showed negative monetary values of R$ -181.96, R$ ha-1 -72.79 and R$ @-1 -32.11. The treatment with 50 kg N ha-1 achieved the highest positive monetary values of R$ 756.02, R$ ha-1 302.40 and R$ @-1 50.52. Economic viability data in beef heifer production demonstrate that the treatment with 50 kg N ha-1 is the most financially viable under the conditions of this study.

  18. Maturity assessment and curve progression in girls with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James O; Browne, Richard H; McConnell, Sharon J; Margraf, Susan A; Cooney, Timothy E; Finegold, David N

    2007-01-01

    Scoliosis progression during adolescence is closely related to patient maturity. Maturity has various indicators, including chronological age, height and weight changes, and skeletal and sexual maturation. It is not certain which of these indicators correlates most strongly with scoliosis progression. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate various maturity measurements and how they relate to scoliosis progression. Physically immature girls with idiopathic scoliosis were evaluated every six months through their growth spurt with serial spinal radiographs; hand skeletal ages; Oxford pelvic scores; Risser sign determinations; height; weight; sexual staging; and serologic studies of the levels of selected growth factors, estradiol, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin. These measurements were then correlated with the curve-acceleration phase. The period and pattern of curve acceleration began during Risser stage 0 for all patients. Skeletal maturation scores derived with the use of the Tanner-Whitehouse-III RUS method, particularly those for the metacarpals and phalanges, were superior to all other indicators of maturity. Regression of the scores provided good estimates of maturity relative to the period of curve progression (Pearson r = 0.93). The initiation of this period occurred simultaneously with digital changes from Tanner-Whitehouse-III stage F to G. At this stage, curves also separated into rapid, moderate, and low-acceleration patterns, with specific curve types in the rapid and moderate-acceleration groups. The low-acceleration group was not confined to a specific curve type. The curve-acceleration phase separates curves into various types of curve progression. The Tanner-Whitehouse-III RUS scores are highly correlated with timing relative to the curve-acceleration phase and provide better maturity determination and prognosis determination during adolescence than the other parameters tested. Accurate skeletal maturity determination

  19. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient.

  20. Sexual addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Thibaut, Florence

    2010-09-01

    The potential adverse consequences, personal distress, shame and guilt presented by patients who suffer from sexual addiction require a more in-depth understanding of the phenomenology and psychobiology of this disorder. A bibliographic review was conducted using MEDLINE and EBSCO databases with the following keywords: "sexual addiction," "hypersexuality," "compulsive sexual behavior," "behavioural addiction," "treatment," and "addiction." Several conceptualizations of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder have been proposed based on the models of, respectively, obsessive compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, out of control excessive sexual disorder, and addictive disorder. Despite the lack of robust scientific data, a number of clinical elements, such as the frequent preoccupation with this type of behavior, the time spent in sexual activities, the continuation of this behavior despite its negative consequences, the repeated and unsuccessful efforts made to reduce the behavior, are in favor of an addictive disorder. In addition there is a high comorbidity between excessive sexual behavior and other addictive behaviors. The phenomenology of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder favors its conceptualization as an addictive behavior, rather than an obsessive-compulsive, or an impulse control disorder. Moreover, the criteria that are quite close to those of addictive disorders were recently proposed for the future DSM-V in order to improve the characterization of this condition. Finally, controlled studies are warranted in order to establish clear guidelines for treatment of sexual addiction.

  1. [Sexual assaults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosset, Didier; Hédouin, Valéry

    2002-04-01

    Examining a victim of sexual assault is a medico-legal emergency. It has to be performed within 72 h, in appropriate conditions. A recent laceration of the hymen does not necessarily indicate a rape, and conversely absence of trauma to a rape victim does not negate the validity of her claim to rape. A normal clinical examination does not exclude the possibility of a sexual abuse. Unlawful sexual intercourse is defined by a sexual penetration without valid consent. Specimen collection, to be considered as an evidence, must be sealed. Toxicological samples have to be performed to search a rape under influence.

  2. Internet Sexualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  3. Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias; Persson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The topic of cognitive foresight in non-human animals has received considerable attention in the last decade. The main questions concern whether the animals can prepare for upcoming situations which are, to various degrees, contextually or sensorially detached from the situation in which the preparations are made. Studies on great apes have focused on tool-related tasks, e.g., the ability to select a tool which is functional only in the future. Dufour and Sterck (2008), however, investigated whether chimpanzees were also able to prepare for a future exchange with a human: an object exchanged for a food item. The study included extensive training on the exchangeable item, which is traditionally not compatible with methods for studying planning abilities, as associative learning cannot be precluded. Nevertheless, despite this training, the chimpanzees could not solve the deferred exchange task. Given that great apes can plan for tool use, these results are puzzling. In addition, claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study (Suddendorf and Corballis, 2010). Here we partly replicated Dufour and Sterck's study to discern whether temporally deferred and spatially displaced exchange tasks are beyond the capabilities of great apes. In addition to chimpanzees we tested orangutans. One condition followed the one used by Dufour and Sterck, in which the exchange items, functional only in the future, are placed at a location that freely allows for selections by the subjects. In order to test the possibility that the choice set-up could explain the negative results in Dufour and Sterck's study, our second condition followed a method used in the planning study by Osvath and Osvath (2008), where the subjects make a forced one-item-choice from a tray. We found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions.

  4. Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias eOsvath

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of cognitive foresight in non-human animals has received considerable attention in the last decade. The main questions concern whether the animals can prepare for upcoming situations which are, to various degrees, contextually or sensorially detached from the situation in which the preparations are made. Studies on great apes have focused on tool-related tasks, e.g. the ability to select a tool which is functional only in the future. Dufour and Sterck (2008, however, investigated whether chimpanzees were also able to prepare for a future exchange with a human: an object exchanged for a food item. The study included extensive training on the exchangeable item, which is traditionally not compatible with methods for studying planning abilities, as associative learning cannot be precluded. Nevertheless, despite this training, the chimpanzees could not solve the deferred exchange task. Given that great apes can plan for tool use, these results are puzzling. In addition, claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study (Suddendorf and Corballis, 2010. Here we partly replicated Dufour and Sterck’s study to discern whether temporally deferred and spatially displaced exchange tasks are beyond the capabilities of great apes. In addition to chimpanzees we tested orangutans. One condition followed the one used by Dufour and Sterck, in which the exchange items, functional only in the future, are placed at a location that freely allows for selections by the subjects. In order to test the possibility that the choice set-up could explain the negative results in Dufour and Sterck’s study, our second condition followed a method used in the planning study by Osvath and Osvath (2008, where the subjects make a forced one-item-choice from a tray. We found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions.

  5. RISK FOR MALARIA IN UNITED STATES DONORS DEFERRED FOR TRAVEL TO MALARIA-ENDEMIC AREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan; Steele, Whitney; Custer, Brian; Kleinman, Steven; Cable, Ritchard; Wilkinson, Susan; Wright, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Deferral for travel to malaria-endemic areas excludes many blood donors in the United States. Most transfusion-transmitted malaria is associated with lengthy residence in malaria-endemic areas rather than routine travel. This study compares the impact of existing deferral requirements to the risk that a presenting donor with malaria travel history harbors malaria parasites under current and hypothetical alternate regulations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Deferred donors from six blood centers were sampled to estimate a national cohort of donors deferred annually for malaria travel to different geographic regions. Risk for malaria infection following travel to each region, and distribution of incubation periods for each malaria species were estimated for U.S. travelers. Region-specific travel risks were used to estimate the risk that a presenting blood donor with malaria travel might asymptomatically harbor malaria parasites at different intervals following return to the United States. RESULTS Travel to Africa presents risk for malaria infection >1000 times that of travel to malaria-endemic parts of Mexico, yet Mexico accounts for >10 times as many deferred donors. Shortening the deferral period from 12 to 3 months for travelers to Mexico increases the risk of collecting a contaminated unit by only 1 unit per 57 years (sensitivity analysis, 1 every 29 - 114 years), at annual gain of >56,000 donations. CONCLUSION This study provides the first systematic appraisal of the U.S. requirements for donor qualification regarding travel to malarial areas. Consideration should be given to relaxing the guidelines for travel to very low-risk areas such as Mexico. PMID:19903290

  6. Huanghua Port Nickel-Iron Project Deferred to the End of 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The Huanghua Port nickel-iron project in Cangzhou of Hebei Province,with a joint in- vestment of 1.8 billion Yuan by Sinosteel and Baosteel,will be deferred to the end of 2009 and even won’t be put into production until 2010,due to the sliding nickel price and low demand in the stainless steel market.PhaseⅠof the project has a productivity of 16,000 tons of nickel.In addition,Qingshan Group’s nickel-

  7. Oocyte development and maturity classification of boarfish (Capros aper) in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Edward D.; Hüssy, Karin; Coad, Julie O.;

    2012-01-01

    become the target of an industrial fishery in the Northeast Atlantic. A total of 2014 boarfish were collected from January to December 2010. Mature male and female boarfish were sexually dimorphic and could be readily identified based on external characteristics. A comprehensive maturity scale...

  8. Pretend play, deferred imitation and parent-child interaction in speaking and non-speaking children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Tjus, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    This study investigates spontaneous pretend play during a parent-child free play observation, and deferred imitation observed in an experimental setting in speaking and non-speaking children with autism in comparison to children with typical development. Both groups of children with autism showed a reduced level of deferred imitation compared to the typically developing group, but only the non-speaking children with autism spent significantly less time in pretend play compared to children with typical development. Deferred imitation was related to parents' verbal interaction in both groups. An analysis of the parent-child interaction revealed that parents of children with autism used less synchronized comments compared to parents of typically developing children. Parents of the speaking group with autism used more synchronized than unsynchronized comments, while parents of the non-speaking group used the same amount of synchronized and unsynchronized comments. These findings are discussed in terms of how the developmental level affects behavior and interaction in autism.

  9. Effect of different concentrations sevoflurane on spatial learning and memory functions into sexual maturity peried in neonatal rats%不同浓度七氟醚对新生大鼠性成熟期空间学习记忆功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐冬梅; 苏涛; 徐桂萍; 陈晓芳

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨新生7d大鼠接受不同浓度七氟醚麻醉后对其性成熟期(出生后55 d~60 d)空间学习记忆能力的影响. 方法 出生7d龄SD大鼠48只,体重12 g~16 g,雌雄各半,采用随机数字表法分为3组(每组16只):3%七氟醚吸入6h组(A组)、1.5%七氟醚吸入6h组(B组)和空白对照组(C组).新生大鼠接受麻醉后次日(8 d)每组各取8只,采用直接断头法处死,取大脑海马CA1区组织,利用比色法测定乙酰胆碱酯酶(acetylcholine esterase,AchE)及胆碱乙酰转移酶(cholineacetyhransferase,ChAT)的活性.剩余大鼠继续生长至性成熟期(55 d~60 d)时,先利用Morris水迷宫实验测试其空间学习记忆能力,实验结束后再测定大脑海马CA1区AchE及ChAT的活性. 结果 ①8d时:A组及B组AchE活性分别为(0.34±0.07) U/mg和(0.33±0.07)U/mg,均较C组增加(P<0.01);A组及B组ChAT活性分别为(81±22) U/mg和(96±29) U/mg,均较C组降低(P<0.01).②性成熟期时:Morris水迷宫实验中,A组和B组平均逃避潜伏期、原平台象限活动时间及穿越原平台次数与C组比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);60d时,AchE活性、ChAT活性各组间差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05). 结论 新生7dSD大鼠接受不同浓度七氟醚麻醉后可短暂性升高大脑海马CA1区AchE活性,降低ChAT活性表达,但不影响其发育至性成熟期时的空间学习记忆能力.%Objective To investigate the effect of different concentrations sevoflurane on spatial learning and memory functions into sexual maturity period (55 d-60 d) in neonatal rats (7 d).Methods Forty-eight SD rats of both sexes aged 7 days weighing 12 g-16 g were randomly divided into 3 groups(n=16):group A and B inhaled 3% and l.5% sevoflurane in oxygen(1 L/min) for 6 h respectively,control group(group C)[inhaled oxygen(1 L/min) only].The effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on spatial learning and memory functions were assessed using Morris water-maze test in sexual maturity

  10. Sexual revolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekma, G.; Giami, A.

    2014-01-01

    The sexual revolution of 1960-1980 created a major break in attitudes and practices in Western societies. It created many new freedoms for gay men, youth and women, in terms of sexual imagery, information, and rights. Leftists denounced the revolution's consumerism whilst feminists lamented its cont

  11. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health By Mayo Clinic Staff Sexual health basics Sexuality is part of being human. Love, affection and intimacy all play a role in healthy relationships from childhood through old age. You often hear about the importance of physical health, mental health and spiritual health, ...

  12. Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Deferred Coronary Lesions according to Disease Severity Assessed by Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Ki Bum; Nam, Chang Wook; Cho, Yun Kyeong; Yoon, Hyuck Jun; Park, Hyoung Seob; Kim, Hyungseop; Han, Seongwook; Hur, Seung Ho; Kim, Yoon Nyun; Park, Sang Hyun; Han, Jung Kyu; Koo, Bon Kwon; Kim, Hyo Soo; Doh, Joon Hyung; Lee, Sung Yun; Yang, Hyoung Mo; Lim, Hong Seok; Yoon, Myeong Ho; Tahk, Seung Jea; Kim, Kwon Bae

    2016-12-01

    Data on the clinical outcomes in deferred coronary lesions according to functional severity have been limited. This study evaluated the clinical outcomes of deferred lesions according to fractional flow reserve (FFR) grade using Korean FFR registry data. Among 1,294 patients and 1,628 lesions in Korean FFR registry, 665 patients with 781 deferred lesions were included in this study. All participants were consecutively categorized into 4 groups according to FFR; group 1: ≥ 0.96 (n = 56), group 2: 0.86-0.95 (n = 330), group 3: 0.81-0.85 (n = 170), and group 4: ≤ 0.80 (n = 99). Primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization. The median follow-up period was 2.1 years. During follow-up, the incidence of MACE in groups 1-4 was 1.8%, 7.6%, 8.8%, and 13.1%, respectively. Compared to group 1, the cumulative rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis of MACE was not different for groups 2 and 3. However, group 4 had higher cumulative rate of MACE compared to group 1 (log-rank P = 0.013). In the multivariate Cox hazard models, only FFR (hazard ratio [HR], 0.95; P = 0.005) was independently associated with MACE among all participants. In contrast, previous history of percutaneous coronary intervention (HR, 2.37; P = 0.023) and diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (HR, 2.35; P = 0.015), but not FFR, were independent predictors for MACE in subjects with non-ischemic (FFR ≥ 0.81) deferred coronary lesions. Compared to subjects with ischemic deferred lesions, clinical outcomes in subjects with non-ischemic deferred lesions according to functional severity are favorable. However, longer-term follow-up may be necessary.

  13. Sexual prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.

  14. Affiliation of the beneficiaries of a deferred pension to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Subsequent to the modifications to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund allowing members of the personnel having five years of affiliation to the Fund to opt for a deferred retirement pension, the Organization wishes to recall the rules relating to the affiliation of those beneficiaries to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). In accordance with Articles III 2.02 and VIII 4.02 of the CHIS Rules, beneficiaries of a deferred retirement pension can only be Members of the CHIS as CERN pensioners if they applied to remain Members of the Scheme upon termination of their compulsory membership as a member of the personnel and if their membership has been uninterrupted up to the moment they become CERN pensioners. The applicable contribution for this intermediate period is indicated in Articles III 5.03 and X 1.02 of the CHIS Rules. The amount is revised annually, and is set at 936 CHF/ month for 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 73635

  15. Undocumented students pursuing medical education: The implications of deferred action for childhood arrivals (DACA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-Medina Anaya, Yohualli; del Rosario, Mithi; Doyle, Lawrence Hy; Hayes-Bautista, David E

    2014-12-01

    There are about 1.8 million young immigrants in the United States who came or were brought to the country without documentation before the age of 16. These youth have been raised and educated in the United States and have aspirations and educational achievements similar to those of their native-born peers. However, their undocumented status has hindered their pursuit of higher education, especially in medical and other graduate health sciences. Under a new discretionary policy, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), many of these young immigrants are eligible to receive permission to reside and work in the United States. DACA defers deportation of eligible, undocumented youth and grants lawful presence in the United States, work permits, Social Security numbers, and, in most states, driver's licenses. These privileges have diminished the barriers undocumented students traditionally have faced in obtaining higher education, specifically in pursuing medicine. With the advent of DACA, students are slowly matriculating into U.S. medical schools and residencies. However, this applicant pool remains largely untapped. In the face of a physician shortage and the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, an increase in matriculation of qualified undocumented students would be greatly beneficial. This Perspective is intended to begin discussion within the academic medicine community of the implications of DACA in reducing barriers for the selection and matriculation of undocumented medical students and residents. Moreover, this Perspective is a call to peers in the medical community to support undocumented students seeking access to medical school, residency, and other health professions.

  16. Pulmonary effects of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunisaki, Ken M; Niewoehner, Dennis E; Collins, Gary

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV...... were not masked to the treatment group assignment; however, the assessors who reviewed the outcomes were masked to the treatment group. The primary outcome was the annual rate of decline in lung function, expressed as the FEV1 slope in mL/year; spirometry was done annually during follow-up for up to 5...... and 28% were current smokers. Median follow-up time was 2·0 years (IQR 1·9-3·0). We noted no differences in FEV1 slopes between the immediate and deferred ART groups either in smokers (difference of -3·3 mL/year, 95% CI -38·8 to 32·2; p=0·86) or in non-smokers (difference of -5·6 mL/year, -29·4 to 18...

  17. Deference and Diffèrance: Judicial Review and the Perfect Gift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J De Ville

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The highest courts in both Canada and South Africa have expressed themselves in favour of an approach of deference as respect in the review of administrative action. The notion of deference as respect derives from the thinking of David Dyzenhaus, who has developed a theory of democracy in support of this approach to judicial review. Dyzenhaus’ model of review attempts to steer clear from the problems he associates particularly with positivism and liberalism. Dyzenhaus’ model of review furthermore attempts to allow space for the administration to play a significant role in giving effect to democratic values, on the understanding that all such decisions need to be reasonably justifiable. In this article the views of Dyzenhaus are contrasted with those of Jacques Derrida, especially insofar as the latter has reflected on the relation between law and justice, as well as concepts such as the gift and democracy. The argument developed in this article is that Dyzenhaus’ model of review, despite its many positive features, needs to be rethought with reference to the perfect gift, unconditional justice and democracy to come. Such a rethinking is required because of the limited conception of justice – as simply ‘our’ justice – in Dyzenhaus’ model.

  18. ACCOUNTING – TAXATION REPORT IN TERMS OF DEFERRED TAXES ON ASSETS REVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has always been and will be a relationship between accounting and taxation, and the ongoing discussions are related to intensity, interrelation and generation of reciprocal effects. Profit is the "wealth" achieved by the economic entity, the share of shareholders after paying the income tax, where applicable, which makes the profit have a major influence on the method of determination and thus of the accounting treatment incurred by the income tax depending on the accounting cultures in dispute for supremacy, namely the European accounting culture and the Anglo-Saxon accounting culture. As the users of information in the financial statements seek to assess the performance and profitability of the company in general and, academically, the income tax is the only element raising debates on the relationship between accounting and taxation, we deemed it useful to conduct a study on the accounting – taxation report in terms of deferred taxes related to assets revaluation. The record of deferred tax amount for each type of temporary difference results in elimination of tax effects from accounting, with the aim of revealing the real earnings of the economic entity and not its fiscal side, all of which is a step in disconnecting the taxation accounting

  19. Immune control of HIV-1 infection after therapy interruption: immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernaschi Massimo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal stage for initiating antiretroviral therapies in HIV-1 bearing patients is still a matter of debate. Methods We present computer simulations of HIV-1 infection aimed at identifying the pro et contra of immediate as compared to deferred Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART. Results Our simulations highlight that a prompt specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes response is detected when therapy is delayed. Compared to very early initiation of HAART, in deferred treated patients CD8+ T cells manage to mediate the decline of viremia in a shorter time and, at interruption of therapy, the virus experiences a stronger immune pressure. We also observe, however, that the immunological effects of the therapy fade with time in both therapeutic regimens. Thus, within one year from discontinuation, viral burden recovers to the value at which it would level off in the absence of therapy. In summary, simulations show that immediate therapy does not prolong the disease-free period and does not confer a survival benefit when compared to treatment started during the chronic infection phase. Conclusion Our conclusion is that, since there is no therapy to date that guarantees life-long protection, deferral of therapy should be preferred in order to minimize the risk of adverse effects, the occurrence of drug resistances and the costs of treatment.

  20. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...

  1. The School Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    PŠENIČKOVÁ, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with school maturity of children and is aimed at pre-school children at the age of 6 years or, if necessary, older. The aim of this thesis is to capture the differences between children who start a year later than they were supposed to and children who went to enrolment for the first time and present the reasons for postponing the start of the school attendance. The theoretical part focuses on the issue of maturity of pre-school children and also deals with their rea...

  2. The Medical Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon W.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…

  3. The Medical Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon W.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…

  4. Immediate versus deferred delivery of the preterm baby with suspected fetal compromise for improving outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Sarah J; Bricker, Leanne; Norman, Jane E; West, Helen M

    2016-07-12

    Immediate delivery of the preterm fetus with suspected compromise may decrease the risk of damage due to intrauterine hypoxia. However, it may also increase the risks of prematurity. To assess the effects of immediate versus deferred delivery of preterm babies with suspected fetal compromise on neonatal, maternal and long-term outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised trials comparing a policy of immediate delivery with deferred delivery or expectant management in preterm fetuses with suspected in utero compromise. Quasi-randomised trials and trials employing a cluster-randomised design were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included one trial of 548 women (588 babies) in the review. Women with pregnancies between 24 and 36 weeks' gestation took part. The study took place in 13 European countries, between 1993 and 2001. The difference in the median randomisation to delivery interval between immediate delivery and deferred delivery was four days (median: 0.9 (inter-quartile range (IQR) 0.4 to 1.3) days for immediate delivery, median: 4.9 (IQR 2.0 to 10.8) days in the delay group).There was no clear difference in the primary outcomes of extended perinatal mortality (risk ratio (RR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67 to 2.04, one trial, 587 babies, moderate-quality evidence) or the composite outcome of death or disability at or after two years of age (RR 1.22, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.75, one trial, 573 babies, moderate-quality evidence) with immediate delivery compared to deferred delivery. The results for these outcomes are consistent with both appreciable benefit and harm. More babies in the immediate delivery group were ventilated for more than 24 hours (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.97, one trial, 576 babies). There

  5. Sexual Behavior of Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revadi, Santosh; Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco; Dekker, Teun; Becher, Paul G

    2015-03-09

    A high reproductive potential is one reason for the rapid spread of Drosophila suzukii in Europe and in the United States. In order to identify mechanisms that mediate mating and reproduction in D. suzukii we studied the fly's reproductive behavior, diurnal mating activity and sexual maturation. Furthermore, we studied the change of female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) with age and conducted a preliminary investigation on the role of female-derived chemical signals in male mating behavior. Sexual behavior in D. suzukii is characterized by distinct elements of male courtship leading to female acceptance for mating. Time of day and age modulate D. suzukii mating activity. As with other drosophilids, female sexual maturity is paralleled by a quantitative increase in CHCs. Neither female CHCs nor other olfactory signals were required to induce male courtship, however, presence of those signals significantly increased male sexual behavior. With this pilot study we hope to stimulate research on the reproductive biology of D. suzukii, which is relevant for the development of pest management tools.

  6. Technology Maturity is Technology Superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-09

    Dominant Air Power: Design For Tomorrow…Deliver Today 2 TECHNOLOGY MATURITY CONFERENCE • ONE DEFINITION OF MATURITY – GOOD JUDGEMENT COMES FROM...EXPERIENCE—EXPERIENCE COMES FROM BAD JUDGEMENT Dominant Air Power: Design For Tomorrow…Deliver Today 3 TECHNOLOGY MATURITY CONFERENCE • THIS WILL BE A...2008 TECHNOLOGY MATURITY CONFERENCE “ TECHNOLOGY MATURITY IS TECHNOLOGY SUPERIORITY” Aeronautical Systems Center Dr. Tom Christian ASC/EN, WPAFB OH

  7. Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunctions in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Namli; Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam; Mehmet Emin Demirkol

    2016-01-01

    In the clinical course of bipolar disorder, there is a reduction in sexual will during depressive episodes and inappopriate sexual experiences and hypersexuality occurs during manic episodes. Up to now, studies focused on sexual side effects of drugs. Sexual violence, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception methods, unplanned pregnancies need to be assessed carefully in bipolar disorder patients. This review focused on sexuality and sexual dysfunctions in the course of bipolar disorder. ...

  8. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  9. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  10. Mechanics of bacteriophage maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Wouter H.; Gertsman, Ilya; May, Eric R.; Brooks III, Charles L.; Johnson, John E.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Capsid maturation with large-scale subunit reorganization occurs in virtually all viruses that use a motor to package nucleic acid into preformed particles. A variety of ensemble studies indicate that the particles gain greater stability during this process, however, it is unknown which material

  11. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  12. Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality, Islam, and Problematics of Sex Education: A Call for Re-Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a critical examination of the problematics of childhood and adolescent sexuality and sex education in an Islamic context. By exploring conceptions of (pre-marital) sexuality, childhood, and maturity/adulthood, it is suggested that: (i) "childhood" and "sexuality" do not coexist harmoniously in Islamic…

  13. Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality, Islam, and Problematics of Sex Education: A Call for Re-Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a critical examination of the problematics of childhood and adolescent sexuality and sex education in an Islamic context. By exploring conceptions of (pre-marital) sexuality, childhood, and maturity/adulthood, it is suggested that: (i) "childhood" and "sexuality" do not coexist harmoniously in Islamic…

  14. Sexual Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concern causing distress can be classified as a dysfunction and can be lifelong or begin at any age. It can be situational or constant. Sexual disorders can affect men and women and are classified into four categories: desire disorders, ...

  15. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occurs in both men and women, and is normal. Knowing how your sexual response and feelings change, and how to enjoy your sex life despite these changes, is part of healthy aging. As we age, our bodies undergo changes that ...

  16. 42 CFR 62.9 - Under what circumstances can the period of obligated service be deferred to complete approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from a school of medicine, osteopathy, or dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry or pharmacy, the Secretary will defer the beginning date of the obligated service to allow the participant to... for any participant receiving a degree from a school of medicine, osteopathy or dentistry, or (2) one...

  17. DACA at the Two-Year Mark: A National and State Profile of Youth Eligible and Applying for Deferred Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalova, Jeanne; Hooker, Sarah; Capps, Randy

    2014-01-01

    Since the Obama administration launched the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program in 2012, which offers temporary relief from deportation and the right to apply for work authorization for certain unauthorized immigrants who came to the United States as children, 55 percent of the 1.2 million youth who immediately met the program's…

  18. 26 CFR 1.101-7 - Mortality table used to determine exclusion for deferred payments of life insurance proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deferred payments of life insurance proceeds. 1.101-7 Section 1.101-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... payments of life insurance proceeds. (a) Mortality table. Notwithstanding any provision of § 1.101-4 that... principles of this section may be illustrated by the following examples: Example 1. A life insurance...

  19. A Two-week Field Course with Deferred Papers: A Possible Solution to the Problem of Undergraduate Field Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, William A.; Wiedel, Joseph W.

    1971-01-01

    Field work is an important but often neglected facet of undergraduate geography training. Kinds of field work and field training are analyzed including selection of study areas and camp site selection. A two week field camp with deferred papers is a workable solution for undergraduate programs. (NH)

  20. 76 FR 56114 - Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  1. 76 FR 56116 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  2. 77 FR 24857 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  3. [Age of puberty and western young women sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch, C; Ohl, J

    2015-02-01

    The onset of menarche and age of first sexual experience have both lowered over the past century. Does the age of puberty influence the sexuality of the girl/young occidental woman? If so, to what degree? Besides, is the acquisition of reproductive function, regardless of age, a sign of sufficient maturity to engage in sexual activity? Studies show that early puberty, early sex, unprotected sexual intercourse in adolescence and number of sexual partners in early adulthood are closely related. These early sexual experiences could be stimulated by early drug use as well as by depressive disorders. The age of puberty has a real influence on sexuality but this link will be modulated by a number of social behavioral factors and it is not sustainable. The age of puberty is not a good indicator of maturity for teenage sexuality; early maturation and early sexual activity are usually associated with risky behaviors. However, other studies on the subject are required, including a consideration of the issues associated with delayed puberty, a subject virtually absent from the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexual Jealousy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual jealousy is a basic emotion. Although it lacks a distinctive facial expression and is unlikely to solve problems of survival, it evolved because it solves adaptive problems of mating. Some adaptive functions are similar in men and women at one level of abstraction, such as warding off potential mate poachers and deterring relationship defection. Other functions are sex-differentiated, such as increasing paternity probability for men and monopolizing a mate's economic commitments for women. Dozens of studies have documented sex-differentiated design features of jealousy: The relative upset about sexual and emotional aspects of infidelity; processing speed and memorial recall of sexual and emotional infidelity cues; physiological distress to sexual and emotional infidelity cues; qualities of same-sex rivals that evoke jealousy, such as superior job prospects versus greater physical attractiveness; triggers of mate retention tactics; jealous interrogations following the discovery of infidelity; and whether an infidelity produces forgiveness or breakup. Although showing all the hallmarks of evolved functionality, sexual jealousy also leads to tremendous destruction, from humiliation to homicide. By these scientific theoretical and empirical criteria, sexual jealousy is properly considered not only "basic" but also "one of the most important emotions".

  5. Use of deferred consent for severely ill children in a multi-centre phase III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boga Mwamvua

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary participation of a subject in research respects a subject's rights, strengthens its ethical conduct, and is formalized by the informed consent process. Clinical trials of life-saving interventions for medical emergencies often necessitate enrolment of patients where prior written individual informed consent is impossible. Although there are regulations and guidelines on protecting subjects in emergency research, these have been criticised for being limited and unnecessarily restrictive. Across Europe and the United States stringent regulations have resulted in a substantial decline of clinical trials involving emergency interventions. Methods We are conducting a trial of fluid resuscitation in children with hypovolaemic shock in six hospitals across three malaria-endemic African countries. The design is pragmatic as children are enrolled on clinical criteria alone and is being conducted in hospitals with facilities typical of many district hospitals across Africa. The trial aims to inform strategy for managing children with febrile illness and features of shock. In order to develop appropriate consent processes for the trial, we conducted a narrative review of current international recommendations for emergency consent. Results Practical or specific guidance was generally sparse or confusing with few examples in the literature to direct our informed consent process. For a sub-group of children who were critically sick or where parents themselves were otherwise too distressed to consider prior written consent, we opted for a modified form of deferred consent. This included verbal assent from guardians at the point of enrolment, with full written consent obtained after stabilising the child. For children who died prior to full written consent, ethical permission was received to waiver full consent. Conclusions In light of the controversy around guidance and regulations in this area we report how and why we have used a

  6. Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, R Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

    2006-12-29

    Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on

  7. Deferred Action: Theoretical model of process architecture design for emergent business processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel, N.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-Business modelling and ebusiness systems development assumes fixed company resources, structures, and business processes. Empirical and theoretical evidence suggests that company resources and structures are emergent rather than fixed. Planning business activity in emergent contexts requires flexible ebusiness models based on better management theories and models . This paper builds and proposes a theoretical model of ebusiness systems capable of catering for emergent factors that affect business processes. Drawing on development of theories of the ‘action and design’class the Theory of Deferred Action is invoked as the base theory for the theoretical model. A theoretical model of flexible process architecture is presented by identifying its core components and their relationships, and then illustrated with exemplar flexible process architectures capable of responding to emergent factors. Managerial implications of the model are considered and the model’s generic applicability is discussed.

  8. Sexual maturation and metabolic profile among adolescents and children of the Health Worker Cohort Study in Mexico Madurez sexual y perfil metabólico de los adolescentes y niños del estudio de cohorte de trabajadores de la salud en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie G Katon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to investigate the associations between level and timing of sexual development with metabolic profile in a cohort of Mexican adolescents in central Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Baseline data from children between the ages of 7 and 17 years (n= 582 who participated in the Health Worker Cohort Study, was used. The study participants included children of workers at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS and the National Institute of Public Health, both located in Cuernavaca, in addition to children of workers at the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México in Toluca who were enrolled between March 2004 and April 2006. Multiple linear regressions with robust estimates of variance, were used adjusting for specific covariates. RESULTS:Both pubertal boys and girls, compared to their pre-pubertal counterparts, had higher body mass index (girls: 4.59 kg/m², pOBJETIVO:Investigar las asociaciones entre etapa y momento de inicio del desarrollo sexual y perfil metabólico en una cohorte de adolescentes mexicanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS:Se usó la información basal de los jóvenes entre 7 y 17 años de edad (n= 582, que participaron en el Estudio de cohorte de trabajadores de la salud. Los participantes del estudio fueron los hijos e hijas de los trabajadores del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS y del Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública en Cuernavaca, Morelos, así como los hijos e hijas de los trabajadores de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México en Toluca. Se realizaron regresiones lineales múltiples con estimadores de varianza robustos, ajustando por covariables específicas. RESULTADOS:Se encontró un índice de masa corporal mayor en los niños y niñas en la etapa de pubertad, comparado con los de pre-pubertad (niñas: 4.59 kg/m², p<0.0001; niños: 1.12 kg/m², p= 0.05 y un mayor porcentaje de grasa corporal (niñas: 3.61, p<0.0001; niños: 1.48, p= 0.0001. Se encontró una diferencia

  9. Maturity in technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberts

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept is developed that modern technology, because of its relationship with pure science, can never really become mature, but will always grow as the pool of scientific knowledge grows. Parameters indicating to some extent the degree of technological prowess in a society are compared for a spectrum of countries. It is clear that in spite of some internationally outstanding successes. South Africa must be regarded on average as a developing society.

  10. Action plan to regain unnecessary deferred blood donors due to malaria risk in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değirmenci, Aysu; Döşkaya, Mert; Caner, Ayşe; Nergis, Sebnem; Gül, Kadri; Aydınok, Yeşim; Ertop, Tufan; Aksoy, Nurten; Korkmaz, Metin; Alkan, Mehmet Ziya; Üner, Ahmet; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2012-06-01

    Malaria was expected to be a major problem during blood donation in Turkey due to existence of malaria cases in southeastern region of Turkey. The present study aimed for the first time, to investigate malaria in "donors deferred for malaria risk" and to determine the regional rates of malaria deferral in Turkey. Blood samples were collected from several Blood Banks of southeastern provinces where local malaria cases still exist and from Blood Bank of Ege University Medical School (EUMS) located in western Turkey where malaria is eradicated decades ago. Plasmodium spp. and specific antibodies were investigated by stained smears, antigen detection, PCR and ELISA. Among the donors deferred for malaria risk, Plasmodium spp. were not detected by microscopy, PCR or antigen detection. Seroprevalances were 2% and 3.92% in western and southeastern regions, respectively. Rate of donor deferral for malaria risk was 0.9% in EUMS and deferrals were exclusively because of travel to southeastern Turkey. In southeastern provinces, deferrals were mainly due to malaria like fever history. The present study first time assessed regional rates of donor deferral due to malaria risk in Turkey. Previously, malaria was expected to be a major problem during blood donation in Turkey due to existence of malaria cases in southeastern region of Turkey. The results of the study showed that 97% of the deferrals were unnecessary. In conclusion, to reduce unnecessary donor deferrals in Turkey, in addition to comprehensive questioning for malaria history, the usage of a malaria antibody screening method should be initiated prior to deferral decision.

  11. Deconstructing the Risk for Malaria in United States Donors Deferred for Travel to Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan; Kleinman, Steven; Custer, Brian; Cable, Ritchard; Wilkinson, Susan L; Steele, Whitney; High, Patrick M; Wright, David

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 66,000 blood donors are deferred annually in the U.S. due to travel to malaria-endemic areas of Mexico. Mexico accounts for the largest share of malaria travel deferrals, yet it has extremely low risk for malaria transmission throughout most of its national territory, suggesting a suboptimal balance between blood safety and availability. This study sought to determine whether donor deferral requirements might be relaxed for parts of Mexico without compromising blood safety. Study Design and Methods Travel destination was recorded from a representative sample of presenting blood donors deferred for malaria travel from six blood centers during 2006. We imputed to these donors reporting Mexican travel a risk for acquiring malaria equivalent to Mexican residents in the destination location, adjusted for length of stay. We extrapolated these results to the overall U.S. blood donor population. Results Risk for malaria in Mexico varies significantly across endemic areas and is greatest in areas infrequently visited by study donors. Over 70% of blood donor deferrals were triggered by travel to the state of Quintana Roo on the Yucatán Peninsula, an area of very low malaria transmission. Eliminating the travel deferral requirement for all areas except the state of Oaxaca might result in the recovery of almost 65,000 blood donors annually at risk of approximately one contaminated unit collected every 20 years. Conclusion Deferral requirements should be relaxed for presenting donors who travelled to areas within Mexico that confer exceptionally small risks for malaria, such as Quintana Roo. PMID:21564102

  12. Nitrogen fertilization strategies, morphogenetic and structural features in Brachiaria decumbens deferred for 95 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Andrade Teixeira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim this work was to evaluate the morphogenic and structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens pastures to determine the most suitable nitrogen fertilization strategies, for pastures deferred for a period of 95 days. Four strategies of fertilization at the beginning and end of the summer (0-0, 100- 0, 50-50, 0-100 kg ha-1 N were studied, respectively, with four replications. The strategy of 100 kg ha-1 N applied at the end of the summer (0-100, followed the parceling strategy at the beginning and end of the summer (50-50 favored higher rates of leaf appearance and lower values of phyllochron. Greater rate of leaf elongation was observed for 0-100 strategy, resulting in 40% increase compared to pastures that were not fertilized. However, there was no effect of fertilization strategies on stem elongation rate, registering an average of 0.28 cm.dia-1. There was a higher blade:stem ratio for the stratum A (40 cm above the soil in all treatments, observing higher blade:stem ratio for strategies 0-100 and 50-50, at this stratum. There was no effect for the total number of leaves and final leaf length. However, greater stem lengths were observed in pastures with 0-100 fertilizer strategy, followed by the 50-50 strategy. The strategy of applying 100 kg ha-1 at the end of summer, followed by the strategy of 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen divided at the beginning and end of summer, promote greater influence on the morphogenic and structural traits, in pastures deferred for 95 days.

  13. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Sexual Orientation KidsHealth > For Parents > Sexual Orientation Print A ... orientation is part of that process. What Is Sexual Orientation? The term sexual orientation refers to the ...

  14. Understanding Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Sexual Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Sexual violence refers to any sexual activity where consent is not obtained or freely given. Anyone can experience or perpetrate sexual violence. Most ...

  15. Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseti, J; Granert, O; van Eimeren, T; Jansen, O; Wolff, S; Beier, K; Deuschl, G; Bosinski, H; Siebner, H

    2014-05-01

    Human faces can motivate nurturing behaviour or sexual behaviour when adults see a child or an adult face, respectively. This suggests that face processing is tuned to detecting age cues of sexual maturity to stimulate the appropriate reproductive behaviour: either caretaking or mating. In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more than child faces. These brain regions comprised areas known to be implicated in face processing, and sexual processing, including occipital areas, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and, subcortically, the putamen and nucleus caudatus. The same regions were activated in paedophiles, but with a reversed preferential response pattern.

  16. Evaluation of sexual maturity among adolescent male sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acceptance. Tanner staging assesses pubic hair growth and increase in genital size, the latter factor being best reflected by ..... Research Methodology with Statistics for Health and Social. Sciences. ... observation in one practice. Ann Trop ...

  17. Whose Maturity is it Anyway?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    of understanding of the potential impact of (a) choice of the quantitative approach, and (b) scale of measurement on the design and assessment of the maturity model. To address these two methodological issues, we analysed a social media maturity data set and computed maturity scores using different quantitative......This paper presents results from an ongoing empirical study that seeks to understand the influence of different quantitative methods on the design and assessment of maturity models. Although there have been many academic publications on maturity models, there exists a significant lack...

  18. Sexual Violence

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/4/2011.

  19. Sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Parental care includes a wide variety of traits that enhance offspring development and survival. It is taxonomically widespread and is central to the maintenance of biodiversity through its close association with other phenomena such as sexual selection, life-history evolution, sex allocation, socia

  20. A Review of Factors Influencing Maturation of Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar with Focus on Water Recirculation Aquaculture System Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturation of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar is an extremely complex process, particularly in aquaculture systems, with many variables (known or otherwise) having the capacity to influence the timing and prevalence of maturation, and acting as promoters and/or inhibitors of sexual development. The vast...

  1. Sexual activity and function assessment in middle-aged Chinese women using the female sexual function index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caiyun; Cui, Liping; Zhang, Lizhi; Shi, Chang; Zang, Hong

    2017-06-01

    To assess sexual activity, sexual function, and their correlation with vaginal maturation status among middle-aged Chinese women. A cross-sectional study with comparisons across age groups was carried out. In all, 120 women aged 45 to 60 years were recruited into three groups: 45 to 50 (youngest group), 51 to 55 (intermediate group), and 56 to 60 years old (eldest group). Sexual function was assessed through the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI); vaginal maturation status was determined through the Vaginal Maturation Index (VMI) and pH value. Sexual activity was recorded with self-administered questionnaires. Low sexual frequency was present in a higher proportion of women, but sexual distress was identified within a lower proportion of women in the eldest group. The total FSFI score was significantly lower in the eldest group than in the youngest and intermediate groups (P VMI (P VMI was positively correlated with the total FSFI score, the domain score for sexual desire, and lubrication (r = 0.26, 0.25, 0.34; P < 0.05, 0.05, 0.01), but the opposite associations were demonstrated for pH value (r = -0.47, -0.37, -0.38; P < 0.01, respectively), especially with vaginal pain (r = -0.44, P < 0.01). Among middle-aged Chinese women, sexual desire is lower in 56 to 60-year-old women, compared with those aged 45 to 55 years, whereas vaginal dryness and dyspareunia become more prevalent with age. Importantly, sexual function is associated with vaginal maturation status in women at midlife.

  2. Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunctions in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Namli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the clinical course of bipolar disorder, there is a reduction in sexual will during depressive episodes and inappopriate sexual experiences and hypersexuality occurs during manic episodes. Up to now, studies focused on sexual side effects of drugs. Sexual violence, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception methods, unplanned pregnancies need to be assessed carefully in bipolar disorder patients. This review focused on sexuality and sexual dysfunctions in the course of bipolar disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 309-320

  3. A thermogenic secondary sexual character in male sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Priess, M. Cody; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Brant, Cory O.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Ke; Nanlohy, Kaben G.; Bryan, Mara B.; Brown, C. Titus; Choi, Jongeun; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Secondary sexual characters in animals are exaggerated ornaments or weapons for intrasexual competition. Unexpectedly, we found that a male secondary sexual character in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus ) is a thermogenic adipose tissue that instantly increases its heat production during sexual encounters. This secondary sexual character, developed in front of the anterior dorsal fin of mature males, is a swollen dorsal ridge known as the ‘rope’ tissue. It contains nerve bundles, multivacuolar adipocytes and interstitial cells packed with small lipid droplets and mitochondria with dense and highly organized cristae. The fatty acid composition of the rope tissue is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The cytochrome c oxidase activity is high but the ATP concentration is very low in the mitochondria of the rope tissue compared with those of the gill and muscle tissues. The rope tissue temperature immediately rose up to 0.3°C when the male encountered a conspecific. Mature males generated more heat in the rope and muscle tissues when presented with a mature female than when presented with a male (paired t-test, P-3 more heat than the muscle in 10 min. Transcriptome analyses revealed that genes involved in fat cell differentiation are upregulated whereas those involved in oxidative-phosphorylation-coupled ATP synthesis are downregulated in the rope tissue compared with the gill and muscle tissues. Sexually mature male sea lamprey possess the only known thermogenic secondary sexual character that shows differential heat generation toward individual conspecifics.

  4. One Step In and One Step Out : The Lived Experience of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program

    OpenAIRE

    Kosnac, Hillary Sue

    2014-01-01

    After over a decade of congressional stalemate on the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act, the Obama administration announced the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program in the summer of 2012. A form of prosecutorial discretion, DACA offers certain undocumented youth a two-year reprieve from deportation, employment authorization and, in some states like California, a driver's license. Nevertheless, because DACA does not provide a pathway to citizenship...

  5. Means And Ends In City Of Arlington v. FCC: Ignoring The Lawyer's Craft to Reshape the Scope of Chevron Deference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Healy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In last year’s term, the United States Supreme Court considered the question of the scope of Chevron deference in City of Arlington v. FCC. This article discusses how the decision is an example of the work of an activist Court. The case should have been resolved by a straight forward determination under the analysis of United States v. Mead that Chevron deference simply did not apply to the Federal Communications Commission’s (“FCC” legal determination. The Court ignored this restrained approach to the case and instead addressed the question the Justices desired to decide: the reach of Chevron deference. The article discusses and criticizes the approach of Justice Scalia writing for the majority and of Chief Justice Roberts writing for three dissenting Justices.Practitioners and scholars of administrative law can only be confused by the Court’s willingness to apply Chevron in City of Arlington, given the informal administrative action being reviewed and the fact that neither reviewing court actually applied each of the two parts of the Mead test. The Court’s flawed administrative law analysis results from the activist concerns of Justice Scalia and Chief Justice Roberts. Justice Scalia uses the case as a vehicle to undermine Mead, a decision that Justice Scalia loathes. Chief Justice Roberts uses the case as a vehicle to advocate for less judicial deference and less law defining power for increasingly powerful agencies. Neither member of the Court allowed the applicable rules of contemporary administrative law to hinder his efforts to achieve his broader goals. Administrative law would have been better served if a properly restrained Court had considered and applied the previously determined rules for judicial review of administrative agencies. 

  6. Early versus deferred treatment for smoldering multiple myeloma: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Gao

    Full Text Available Whether patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM needed to receive early interventional treatment remains controversial. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of early treatment over deferred treatment for patients with SMM.MEDLINE and Cochrane Library were searched to May 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs that assessed the effect of early treatment over deferred treatment. Primary outcome measure was mortality, and secondary outcome measures were progression, response rate, and adverse events.Overall, 5 trials including 449 patients were identified. There was a markedly reduced risk of disease progression with early treatment (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07 to 0.24. There were no significant differences in mortality and response rate (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.45 to 1.60, and OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.32 to 1.23, respectively. More patients in the early treatment arm experienced gastrointestinal toxicities (OR = 10.02, 95%CI = 4.32 to 23.23, constipation (OR = 8.58, 95%CI = 3.20 to 23.00 and fatigue or asthenia (OR = 2.72, 95%CI = 1.30 to 5.67. No significant differences were seen with the development of acute leukemia (OR = 2.80, 95%CI = 0.42 to 18.81, hematologic cancer (OR = 2.07, 95%CI = 0.43 to 10.01, second primary tumors (OR = 3.45, 95%CI = 0.81 to 14.68, nor vertebral compression (OR = 0.18, 95%CI = 0.02 to 1.59.Early treatment delayed disease progression but increased the risk of gastrointestinal toxicities, constipation and fatigue or asthenia. The differences on vertebral compression, acute leukemia, hematological cancer and second primary tumors were not statistically significant. Based on the current evidence, early treatment didn't significantly affect mortality and response rate. However, further much larger trials were needed to provide more evidence.

  7. Theoretical analysis for scaling law of thermal blooming based on optical phase deference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunqiang; Huang, Zhilong; Ren, Zebin; Chen, Zhiqiang; Guo, Longde; Xi, Fengjie

    2016-10-01

    parameters and the geometric scaling parameters can really describe the gas thermal blooming effect in the axial pipe flow. These conclusions can give a good reference for the construction of the thermal blooming test system of laser system. Contrasted with the thermal blooming scaling parameters of the Bradley-Hermann distortion number ND and Fresnel number NF, which were derived based on the change of far field beam intensity distortion, the scaling parameters of pipe flow thermal blooming deduced from the optical path deference variation are very suitable for the optical system with short laser propagation distance, large Fresnel number and obviously changed optical path deference.

  8. Primary School Puberty/Sexuality Education: Student-Teachers' Past Learning, Present Professional Education, and Intention to Teach These Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Coleman, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Primary school teachers are often tasked with puberty/sexuality education for students who are undergoing sexual maturation at ever-earlier ages. This study explores the changing trajectories of the pre-service learning and teaching of primary school puberty/sexuality education at an urban university, including student-teachers' childhood…

  9. Sexual assault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M-L; Hilden, M; Lidegaard, Ø

    2015-01-01

    .4-2.2) or anogenital lesion (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0). Women aged 45 years or older were more likely to sustain a physical injury (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.2) or an anogenital lesion (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our results challenge the typical stereotype of a violent rape attack by a stranger, which......OBJECTIVE: To describe the victims of sexual assault and the circumstances in which the assaults occur. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault (CVSA), Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: A total of 2541 women attending CVSA from 2001...... to 2010. METHODS: All women attending CVSA underwent a standardised data collection procedure. Descriptive bivariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Associations between different assault characteristics and (1) the age of the victim and (2...

  10. Puberty and adolescent sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy comparison between direct stent implantation surgery and deferred stent implantation surgery for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after PCT thrombus aspiration surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xia Han; Xiu-Hong Liu; Ping Zhou; Guo-Mei Dan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To compare the efficacy of direct stent implantation surgery and deferred stent implantation surgery for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after PCT thrombus aspiration surgery. Method:A total of 74 cases with STEMI were selected, who had been given PCT thrombus aspiration surgery treatment, and were randomly divided into direct group and deferred group (n=37). Patients in direct group were given direct stent implantation surgery after PCT thrombus aspiration surgery treatment. Patients in deferred group were given deferred stent implantation surgery 14 d later after anticoagulant and anti-platelet treatment. Heart structure and function, stent release characteristics and adverse reactions) were compared 6 months after the surgery. Results:Two hours after surgery, ST segment drop amplitude in deferred group was significantly higher than that in direct group (P<0.05);TIMI frame number was obvious and no reflow/slow blood flow occurrence ratio was significantly lower than that in direct group (P<0.05);implantation stent number and stent length in deferred group were significantly less than that in direct group (P<0.05);the release characteristic indexes of implantation stent in deferred group:stent diameter and stent expansion pressure were significantly higher than that in direct group (P<0.05);6 months after surgery, LVEF improvement in deferred group was significantly higher than that in direct group (P<0.05), while LVEDD、LVEDV ventricular remodeling was significantly lower than that in direct group (P<0.05);The total adverse event occurrence rate in deferred group was 5.4%, which was significantly lower than that in direct group (18.9%) (P<0.05). Conclusions:The deferred stent implantation surgery after PCI thrombus aspiration surgery could obviously reduce the occurrence rate of no reflow/slow blood flow, obviously improve the heart function and myocardial perfusion, reduce the usage amount of stent, reduce the occurrence of

  12. Modeling non-maturing liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    von Feilitzen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Non‐maturing liabilities, such as savings accounts, lack both predetermined maturity and reset dates due to the fact that the depositor is free to withdraw funds at any time and that the depository institution is free to change the rate. These attributes complicate the risk management of such products and no standardized solution exists. The problem is important however since non‐maturing liabilities typically make up a considerable part of the funding of a bank. In this report different mode...

  13. Effects of Dietary Nutrient Level on Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Sexual Maturity of Yellow-Feathered Broilers%饲粮营养水平对黄羽肉鸡生长性能、肉品质和性成熟的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马淑梅; 陈超; 李复煌; 陈继兰; 华登科; 郭艳丽; 孙研研; 李冬立; 刘念; 李云雷; 薛夫光; 白皓

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮营养水平对黄羽肉鸡生长性能、肉品质和性成熟的影响。采用单因子完全随机设计,将432只1日龄商品代北京油鸡随机分配到高、中和低3种营养水平组,每组4个重复,每个重复36只鸡,自由采食、饮水。饲粮按中速黄羽肉鸡的饲养标准分为3个阶段(1~5周、6~9周和10~13周),每个阶段在保持蛋白质与能量比值不变的情况下分别设置高、中和低3种营养水平。结果表明,1~5周,低营养水平组肉鸡的平均日采食量和平均日增重极显著低于中、高营养水平组( P<0.01);中营养水平组的平均日增重显著高于低营养水平组( P<0.05),料重比显著低于低营养水平组( P<0.05)。饲粮营养水平对肉品质未表现出显著影响( P>0.05)。高营养水平组母鸡鸡冠重和鸡冠长度极显著高于中、低营养水平组( P<0.01),鸡冠高度显著高于中、低营养水平组( P<0.05),高营养水平组有促进卵巢重的趋势( P=0.08)。饲粮营养水平对公鸡性成熟指标未表现出显著影响( P>0.05)。由此可见,对于中速型黄羽肉鸡,中营养水平的饲粮能获得较好的生长性能,高营养水平的饲粮能促进母鸡性成熟。%The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary nutrient level on growth per-formance, meat quality and sexual maturity of yellow-feathered chickens.Using the completely randomized de-sign, a total of 432 one-day-old Beijing-You chicks were allocated to three nutrient level groups [ high ( H) , middle ( M) and low ( L) nutrient levels] .For each group, there were 4 replicates of 36 birds each.Feed and water were provided ad libitum.According to the feeding standard of medium-speed yellow-feathered chickens, three growth stages (1 to 5 weeks, 6 to 9 weeks and 10 to 13 weeks) were set up.The three diets had the same ratio

  14. Epilepsy Surgery: Factors That Affect Patient Decision-Making in Choosing or Deferring a Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Todd Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical resection for well-selected patients with refractory epilepsy provides seizure freedom approximately two-thirds of the time. Despite this, many good candidates for surgery, after a presurgical workup, ultimately do not consent to a procedure. The reasons why patients decline potentially effective surgery are not completely understood. We explored the socio cultural, medical, personal, and psychological differences between candidates who chose (n = 23 and those who declined surgical intervention (n = 9. We created a novel questionnaire addressing a range of possible factors important in patient decision making. We found that patients who declined surgery were less bothered by their epilepsy (despite comparable severity, more anxious about surgery, and less likely to listen to their doctors (and others and had more comorbid psychiatric disease. Patients who chose surgery were more embarrassed by their seizures, more interested in being “seizure-free”, and less anxious about specific aspects of surgery. Patient attitudes, beliefs, and anxiety serve as barriers to ideal care. These results can provide opportunities for education, treatment, and intervention. Additionally, patients who fit a profile of someone who is likely to defer surgery may not be appropriate for risky and expensive presurgical testing.

  15. Fractional Flow Reserve-Guided Deferred Versus Complete Revascularization in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mark W; Hermanides, Rik S; Kaplan, Emel; Hemradj, Veemal; Fabris, Enrico; Koopmans, Petra C; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; Gosselink, A T Marcel; Van't Hof, Arnoud W J; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Roolvink, Vincent; Remkes, Wouter S; van der Sluis, Aize; Suryapranata, Harry; Kedhi, Elvin

    2016-11-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of deferred versus complete revascularization using a fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided strategy in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), we analyzed all DM patients who underwent FFR-guided revascularization from January 1, 2010, to December 12, 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with ≥1 remaining FFR-negative (>0.80) medically treated lesions [FFR(-)MT] and those with only FFR-positive lesions (≤0.80) who underwent complete revascularization [FFR(+)CR] and were followed until July 1, 2015. The primary end point was the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion (FFR assessed) revascularization, and rehospitalization for acute coronary syndrome. A total of 294 patients, 205 (69.7%) versus 89 (30.3%) in FFR(-)MT and FFR(+)CR, respectively, were analyzed. At a mean follow-up of 32.6 ± 18.1 months, FFR(-)MT was associated with higher MACE rate 44.0% versus 26.6% (log-rank p = 0.02, Cox regression-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21 to 3.33, p required to guide our treatment strategy in these patients with high-risk, fast-progressing atherosclerosis.

  16. A delay discounting task produces a greater likelihood of waiting than a deferred gratification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael E; McCoy, Anthony W

    2015-01-01

    A first-person-shooter video game was adapted for the study of choice between smaller sooner and larger later outcomes to compare the behavioral patterns produced by deferred gratification (DG) and delay discounting (DD) tasks. Participants played a game in which they could either fire their weapon sooner and do a small amount of damage or wait a few seconds to fire their weapon and do a larger amount of damage. For the DD task, a failure to fire within one second committed the player to waiting for the larger later outcome thus removing the opportunity to defect during the delay that is present in the DG task. The incentive structure changed multiple times during game play so that at times the optimal decision was to choose the smaller sooner outcome whereas at other times the optimal decision was to wait for the larger later outcome. Players assigned to the DD task showed a greater tendency to wait and lower sensitivity to the changing incentives.

  17. Epilepsy surgery: factors that affect patient decision-making in choosing or deferring a procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher Todd; Noble, Eva; Mani, Ram; Lawler, Kathy; Pollard, John R

    2013-01-01

    Surgical resection for well-selected patients with refractory epilepsy provides seizure freedom approximately two-thirds of the time. Despite this, many good candidates for surgery, after a presurgical workup, ultimately do not consent to a procedure. The reasons why patients decline potentially effective surgery are not completely understood. We explored the socio cultural, medical, personal, and psychological differences between candidates who chose (n = 23) and those who declined surgical intervention (n = 9). We created a novel questionnaire addressing a range of possible factors important in patient decision making. We found that patients who declined surgery were less bothered by their epilepsy (despite comparable severity), more anxious about surgery, and less likely to listen to their doctors (and others) and had more comorbid psychiatric disease. Patients who chose surgery were more embarrassed by their seizures, more interested in being "seizure-free", and less anxious about specific aspects of surgery. Patient attitudes, beliefs, and anxiety serve as barriers to ideal care. These results can provide opportunities for education, treatment, and intervention. Additionally, patients who fit a profile of someone who is likely to defer surgery may not be appropriate for risky and expensive presurgical testing.

  18. Epilepsy Surgery: Factors That Affect Patient Decision-Making in Choosing or Deferring a Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher Todd; Mani, Ram; Lawler, Kathy; Pollard, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Surgical resection for well-selected patients with refractory epilepsy provides seizure freedom approximately two-thirds of the time. Despite this, many good candidates for surgery, after a presurgical workup, ultimately do not consent to a procedure. The reasons why patients decline potentially effective surgery are not completely understood. We explored the socio cultural, medical, personal, and psychological differences between candidates who chose (n = 23) and those who declined surgical intervention (n = 9). We created a novel questionnaire addressing a range of possible factors important in patient decision making. We found that patients who declined surgery were less bothered by their epilepsy (despite comparable severity), more anxious about surgery, and less likely to listen to their doctors (and others) and had more comorbid psychiatric disease. Patients who chose surgery were more embarrassed by their seizures, more interested in being “seizure-free”, and less anxious about specific aspects of surgery. Patient attitudes, beliefs, and anxiety serve as barriers to ideal care. These results can provide opportunities for education, treatment, and intervention. Additionally, patients who fit a profile of someone who is likely to defer surgery may not be appropriate for risky and expensive presurgical testing. PMID:24159385

  19. ‘Humblewise’: Deference and Complaint in the Court of Requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam J. Meyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When servants, laborers, and apprentices sued their masters for back wages or mistreatment in the Court of Requests they took advantage of the court’s doctrine of equity. Since these plaintiffs often lacked the strict written proofs required by common law, or were bound by unfair written contracts, they badly needed an equitable jurisdiction where fairness, extenuating circumstances, and broad social mores could overrule the letter of the law. The formal tropes of their Complaints negotiate the tension between these two conceptions of justice and reveal how that tension relates to early seventeenth century economic culture, where customary ideas about patronage and hierarchical obligations coexisted with emerging notions of self-interest and contractual equality. In appealing to the court with older but still vibrant discourses of social justice and mutual obligation, plaintiffs modulated their Complaints with expressions of deference and helplessness. Their pleadings therefore take the sophisticated rhetorical form of self-assertion articulated as abject submission. The documents are highly mediated by lawyers and institutional constraints, but nevertheless reveal subordinates tactically using expressions of weakness to elicit pathos and use the ideology of paternalism against their masters.

  20. [Sexual fantasies and impotence. Apropos of 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, N; Lobna, L Aribi; Boujelbene, F; Jaoua, A

    2002-02-01

    Sexual fantasies, drawn of the erotic memory that constitutes himself the long of the sexual history of each, are indispensable, for the good sexual working. Some authors tend to consider the imagination like a "veritable intra psychic erogenous zone". However, people who, for a reason or an another, persisted to avoid all sexual activity before the marriage and to separate all erotic velleity, don't they risk to have an erotic imaginary atrophied, who could sound negatively once on their sexual behaviour, after the marriage, when all is suddenly authorized for them? Through two clinical observations of secondary sexual impotence, we are going to try to show the ominous consequences of such a relentlessness (imposed by the education, the social morals or the religion), against sexual stimulation, on the sexuality. These consequences are more easily observable in men, of the fact of their active role, in the sexual activity. Our purpose is to insist on the necessity to explore the sexual history owing all sexual dysfunction, and to place it in the biographic setting of the impatient; but also and especially to attract the attention on the importance of a precocious sex education, adapted to age, to the personal maturation and the cultural and educational context.

  1. Maturational and Non-Maturational Factors in Heritage Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji Hye

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to understand the maturational and non-maturational aspects of early bilingualism and language attrition in heritage speakers who have acquired their L1 incompletely in childhood. The study highlights the influential role of age and input dynamics in early L1 development, where the timing of reduction in L1 input and the…

  2. Estrutura do capim-braquiária durante o diferimento da pastagem = Signalgrass structure during pasture deferment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o número de perfilhos, a massa de forragem e de seus componentes morfológicos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk durante o diferimento da pastagem. Os tratamentos foram quatro períodos de diferimento (18, 46, 74 e 121dias, a partir de 8/3/2004. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com duas repetições. Foram determinados os números de perfilhos vegetativos (PV, reprodutivos (PR e mortos (PM, bem como as massas de lâmina foliar verde (MLV, colmo verde (MCV e forragemmorta (MFM. Durante o período de diferimento houve redução no número de PV (de 1.491 para 944 perfilhos m-2. Os números de PR e PM não foram influenciados pelo período de diferimento e suas médias foram 211 e 456 perfilhos m-2, respectivamente. O período de diferimento causou incremento nas MCV (de 2.965 para 4.877 kg ha-1 de massa seca e MFM (2.324 para 4.823 kg ha-1 de massa seca, porém não influenciou a MLV (em média, 2.047 kg ha-1 de massa seca. Em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, o pasto de B. decumbens, adubado com nitrogênio e diferido no início de março, pode permanecer diferido por cerca de 70 dias para conciliar produção de forragem em quantidade com boa composição morfológica. This experiment was performed aiming to evaluate tiller population density, forage mass and its morphological components on pastures of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. during deferment. The treatments encompassed four deferred grazing periods (18, 46, 74 and 121 days. Arandomized block design with two replications was used. The numbers of vegetative tillers (VT, reproductive tillers (RT and dead tillers (DT in the pasture were determined. The masses of green leaf blade (GLBM, dead stem (DSM and dead forage (DFM were alsodetermined. There was a reduction in the number of VT (from 1,491 to 944 tiller m-2 during the deferment period. RT and DT numbers were not influenced by the deferment periods. Their averages were

  3. Sexuality in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org editorial staffSexual Dysfunction (Women)Read Article >>WomenSexual Dysfunction (Women)Learn about the symptoms, causes and treatment of sexual dysfunction disorders.April 2014September 2000familydoctor.org editorial staff ...

  4. Rethinking Sexual Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane

    2017-04-01

    Over the last two decades sexuality has emerged as a key theme in debates about citizenship, leading to the development of the concept of sexual citizenship. This article reviews this literature and identifies four main areas of critical framing: work that contests the significance of sexuality to citizenship; critiques that focus on the possibilities and limitations of mobilising the language of citizenship in sexual politics; analyses of sexual citizenship in relation to nationalisms and border making; and literature that critically examines western constructions of sexuality and sexual politics underpinning understandings of sexual citizenship. In order to progress the field theoretically, the article seeks to extend critiques of sexual citizenship focusing on two key aspects of its construction: the sexual citizen-subject and spaces of sexual citizenship. It argues for a critical rethink that encompasses a de-centring of a 'western-centric' focus in order to advance understandings of how sexual citizenship operates both in the Global North and South.

  5. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  6. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Toddlers and Sexual Behavior Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, ... behavioral problem or sexual abuse. What kind of sexual behaviors are okay? Masturbation in toddlers is usually ...

  7. Your Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ072 WOMEN’S HEALTH Your Sexual Health • What causes sexual problems in women? • What are the types of sexual problems that affect women? • What are desire problems? • ...

  8. Hormones and female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

  9. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    MN, Anil Kumar; Pai, NB; Rao, S; Rao, TSS; Goyal, N.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic di...

  10. Marriage and Sexuality from a Psychiatric Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bozkurt

    Full Text Available Sexuality, taking on a shape in the interaction of psychological, social, and biological variables, may lose its functionality with the blockage of these components. Sexual dysfunction may be handled as if it is only a symptom being based on the decay of marital relationship in the content of therapy, and sexual dysfunction may be neglected by family and marriage therapists from time to time. Contrarily, sex therapists may show the tendency to handle the problem in aspect of only sexuality. In the relationships of all spouses, thought and emotional intimacy should not be neglected whatever sexual problem they may have. Factors determining happiness such as physical attractiveness, impressiveness, positive and negative attitudes, marriage age, children, socioeconomic conditions, common intentions, and hobbies, sexual life, have attracted the attention of investigators for long time. Most important element among these factors seems to be sexuality. In recent years, researchers have begun to consider interaction between sexuality and marriage much more. Marital life includes food, shelter, togetherness, satisfaction originated from positive marital relationships, sharing role to cause of sexual maturation, acceptance of social role, and responsibility, individual entrepreneurship, and supporting to creativity. Marriage, consisting of spouses completing each other in these fields, is the headstone of social development and maturation. It has been suggested that there is a role of sexual dysfunction in protecting the balance of marital relationships. According to this suggestion, these disorders may prevent any damage to self and conserve the border of ego. Moreover, we may suggest that sexual dysfunction breaks the marital relationship, removes the protective effect on marital balance if we consider the beneficial effects of sexuality in points of intimacy in thought and emotional fields. Sexuality can be only experienced with healthy personality

  11. Sexual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Christine Boyce

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This month two general practitioners (GPs describe their approach to sexual health consultations.The issue of a sexually active adolescent demonstrates some differences in legislation pertaining tothe requirement to involve the authorities, although in essence the young person can expect thesame response from these practitioners in two different health care systems. On the other hand apatient at risk of sexually transmitted infections is more likely to be referred to a specialistGenitourinary clinic in the UK although the protocols for screening and education are largely similar.Equally patients who are HIV positive can expect to receive the bulk of their care from specialistclinics in both countries.Midwives are the main stay of antenatal services in Australia and the UK with general practitionersminimally involved in routine cases. Also home births are a negigible proportion of all deliveries ineither country. When patients opt for a home birth our authors expressed the view that GPsgenerally do not have the skills or experience to be the main health professional in attendance.Therefore such births are primarily managed by midwives as the key health care professional. Thefocus of General practitioners is primarily to ensure that the patient is making an informed decisionabout delivering her baby at home. The GP is therefore still in an influential position to assist thewoman in making a decision about where to give birth. As a point of difference in Australia a homebirth would result in out of pocket expences for the mother.The views expressed below are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect health policy orpractice elsewhere in their countries. However we believe they offer an interesting perspective ontheir health care systems and commend the article to our readers.Please

  12. Childhood sexual abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Aktepe

    1993-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  13. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeersch, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  14. Sexual excitement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, R J

    1976-08-01

    Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior.

  15. Non-social adaptation defers a tragedy of the commons in Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahl, Kyle L; Walsh, Jessica; Gilbert, Kerrigan; Schuster, Martin

    2015-08-01

    In a process termed quorum sensing (QS), the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses diffusible signaling molecules to regulate the expression of numerous secreted factors or public goods that are shared within the population. But not all cells respond to QS signals. These social cheaters typically harbor a mutation in the QS receptor gene lasR and exploit the public goods produced by cooperators. Here we show that non-social adaptation under growth conditions that require QS-dependent public goods increases tolerance to cheating and defers a tragedy of the commons. The underlying mutation is in the transcriptional repressor gene psdR. This mutation has no effect on public goods expression but instead increases individual fitness by derepressing growth-limiting intracellular metabolism. Even though psdR mutant populations remain susceptible to invasion by isogenic psdR lasR cheaters, they bear a lower cheater load than do wild-type populations, and they are completely resistant to invasion by lasR cheaters with functional psdR. Mutations in psdR also sustain growth near wild-type levels when paired with certain partial loss-of-function lasR mutations. Targeted sequencing of multiple evolved isolates revealed that mutations in psdR arise before mutations in lasR, and rapidly sweep through the population. Our results indicate that a QS-favoring environment can lead to adaptations in non-social, intracellular traits that increase the fitness of cooperating individuals and thereby contribute to population-wide maintenance of QS and associated cooperative behaviors.

  16. Multidimensional sexual perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N; Almeida, Isabel; Lyons, Emma

    2013-11-01

    Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality characteristic that can affect all areas of life. This article presents the first systematic investigation of multidimensional perfectionism in the domain of sexuality exploring the unique relationships that different forms of sexual perfectionism show with positive and negative aspects of sexuality. A sample of 272 university students (52 male, 220 female) completed measures of four forms of sexual perfectionism: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. In addition, they completed measures of sexual esteem, sexual self-efficacy, sexual optimism, sex life satisfaction (capturing positive aspects of sexuality) and sexual problem self-blame, sexual anxiety, sexual depression, and negative sexual perfectionism cognitions during sex (capturing negative aspects). Results showed unique patterns of relationships for the four forms of sexual perfectionism, suggesting that partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism are maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with negative aspects of sexuality whereas self-oriented and partner-oriented sexual perfectionism emerged as ambivalent forms associated with positive and negative aspects.

  17. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional

  18. Repeat Courses of Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS), Deferring Whole-Brain Irradiation, for New Brain Metastases After Initial SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, David B.; Modlin, Leslie A.; Jayachandran, Priya; Von Eyben, Rie; Gibbs, Iris C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Choi, Clara Y.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, California (United States); Chang, Steven D.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Li, Gordon; Adler, John R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Hancock, Steven L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Soltys, Scott G., E-mail: sgsoltys@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), deferring whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), for distant intracranial recurrences and identify factors associated with prolonged overall survival (OS). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively identified 652 metastases in 95 patients treated with 2 or more courses of SRS for brain metastases, deferring WBRT. Cox regression analyzed factors predictive for OS. Results: Patients had a median of 2 metastases (range, 1-14) treated per course, with a median of 2 courses (range, 2-14) of SRS per patient. With a median follow-up after first SRS of 15 months (range, 3-98 months), the median OS from the time of the first and second course of SRS was 18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 15-24) and 11 months (95% CI 6-17), respectively. On multivariate analysis, histology, graded prognostic assessment score, aggregate tumor volume (but not number of metastases), and performance status correlated with OS. The 1-year cumulative incidence, with death as a competing risk, of local failure was 5% (95% CI 4-8%). Eighteen (24%) of 75 deaths were from neurologic causes. Nineteen patients (20%) eventually received WBRT. Adverse radiation events developed in 2% of SRS sites. Conclusion: Multiple courses of SRS, deferring WBRT, for distant brain metastases after initial SRS, seem to be a safe and effective approach. The graded prognostic assessment score, updated at each course, and aggregate tumor volume may help select patients in whom the deferral of WBRT might be most beneficial.

  19. Scents of adolescence: the maturation of the olfactory phenotype in a free-ranging mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A Caspers

    Full Text Available Olfaction is an important sensory modality for mate recognition in many mammal species. Odorants provide information about the health status, genotype, dominance status and/or reproductive status. How and when odor profiles change during sexual maturation is, however often unclear, particularly in free-ranging mammals. Here, we investigated whether the wing sac odorant of male greater sac-winged bats (Saccopteryx bilineata, Emballonuridae differs between young and adults, and thus offers information about sexual maturity to potential mating partners. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found differences in the odorants of young and adult males prior and during, but not after the mating period. The wing sac odorant of adult males consists of several substances, such as Pyrocoll, 2,6,10-trimethyl-3-oxo-6,10-dodecadienolide, and a so far unidentified substance; all being absent in the odor profiles of juveniles prior to the mating season. During the mating season, these substances are present in most of the juvenile odorants, but still at lower quantities compared to the wing sac odorants of adults. These results suggest that the wing sac odorant of males encodes information about age and/or sexual maturity. Although female S. bilineata start to reproduce at the age of half a year, most males of the same age postpone the sexual maturation of their olfactory phenotype until after the first mating season.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Vinay; Lambert, Dennis; Edler, Joshua; Kymes, Steven; Apte, Rajendra S

    2012-08-01

    Perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) with ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser versus triamcinolone plus prompt laser. Data for the analysis were drawn from reports of the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCRnet) Protocol I. Computer simulation based on Protocol I data. Analyses were conducted from the payor perspective. Simulated participants assigned characteristics reflecting those seen in Protocol I. Markov models were constructed to replicate Protocol I's 104-week outcomes using a microsimulation approach to estimation. Baseline characteristics, visual acuity (VA), treatments, and complications were based on Protocol I data. Costs were identified by literature search. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed, and the results were validated against Protocol I data. Direct cost of care for 2 years, change in VA from baseline, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) measured as cost per additional letter gained from baseline (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study). For sham plus laser (S+L), ranibizumab plus prompt laser (R+pL), ranibizumab plus deferred laser (R+dL), and triamcinolone plus laser (T+L), effectiveness through 104 weeks was predicted to be 3.46, 7.07, 8.63, and 2.40 letters correct, respectively. The ICER values in terms of dollars per VA letter were $393 (S+L vs. T+L), $5943 (R+pL vs. S+L), and $20 (R+dL vs. R+pL). For pseudophakics, the ICER value for comparison triamcinolone with laser versus ranibizumab with deferred laser was $14 690 per letter gained. No clinically relevant changes in model variables altered outcomes. Internal validation demonstrated good similarity to Protocol I treatment patterns. In treatment of phakic patients with DME, ranibizumab with deferred laser provided an additional 6 letters correct compared with triamcinolone with laser at an additional cost of $19 216 over 2 years. That would indicate that if the gain in VA seen at 2 years

  1. Changes in inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers: a randomized comparison of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jason V; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Duprez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Among a subgroup of participants in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Trial that were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (ART) or off ART (6 months or longer) at study entry, risk of AIDS and serious non-AIDS events were increased for participants who deferred ART...... compared with those randomized to (re)initiate ART immediately. Our objective was to determine whether ART initiation in this group reduced markers of inflammation and coagulation that have been associated with increased mortality risk in SMART. Changes in these biomarkers have been described after...... stopping ART, but not after starting ART in SMART....

  2. Adolescent sexual victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early...

  3. Sexuality and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctuary, Gerald

    The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…

  4. Sexuality and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4602 [email protected] Down Syndrome What Is Down Syndrome? Down Syndrome Facts Myths & Truths Preferred Language Guide Q& ... Shop NDSS Home » Resources » Wellness » Sexuality » Sexuality & Down Syndrome Sexuality & Down Syndrome Human sexuality encompasses an individual's self-esteem, ...

  5. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...

  6. Sexuality and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care.

  7. Abused Sexuality- Experience of Sexuality Post Experiences of Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sunanda Jalote

    2016-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been happening from times immemorial and is that brutal aspect of society which also talk about spirituality, peace and harmony in the same breath. Youth gets irrevocably scarred by such childhood traumas which linger on in their adult life too. In the present study, an effort was made to study and understand how heterosexual and queer youth in contemporary middle class in Delhi explore the relationship sexual abuse survivors have with their own sexuality and how their negoti...

  8. Abused Sexuality- Experience of Sexuality Post Experiences of Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sunanda Jalote

    2016-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been happening from times immemorial and is that brutal aspect of society which also talk about spirituality, peace and harmony in the same breath. Youth gets irrevocably scarred by such childhood traumas which linger on in their adult life too. In the present study, an effort was made to study and understand how heterosexual and queer youth in contemporary middle class in Delhi explore the relationship sexual abuse survivors have with their own sexuality and how their negoti...

  9. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  10. Primary School Puberty/Sexuality Education: Student-Teachers' Past Learning, Present Professional Education, and Intention to Teach These Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Coleman, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Primary school teachers are often tasked with puberty/sexuality education for students who are undergoing sexual maturation at ever-earlier ages. This study explores the changing trajectories of the pre-service learning and teaching of primary school puberty/sexuality education at an urban university, including student-teachers' childhood…

  11. Sexuality and Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialmy, Abdessamad

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts.

  12. Cognitive function and neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-infected Children older than 1 year of age randomized to early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy: the PREDICT neurodevelopmental study.

    OpenAIRE

    Puthanakit, T.; Ananworanich, J.; Vonthanak, S.; Kosalaraksa, P; Hansudewechakul, R; Lugt, J. van der; Kerr, SJ; Kanjanavanit, S.; Ngampiyaskul, C.; Wongsawat, J; Luesomboon, W.; Vibol, U.; Pruksakaew, K; Suwarnlerk, T; Apornpong, T

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported similar AIDS-free survival at 3 years in children who were >1 year old initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and randomized to early versus deferred ART in the Pediatric Randomized to Early versus Deferred Initiation in Cambodia and Thailand (PREDICT) study. We now report neurodevelopmental outcomes.Two hundred eighty-four HIV-infected Thai and Cambodian children aged 1-12 years with CD4 counts between 15% and 24% and no AIDS-defining illness were randomized to initia...

  13. Intimacy maturity and its correlates in young married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K M; Speisman, J C; Jackson, D; Bartis, S; Costos, D

    1986-01-01

    Intimate relationships, like the individuals who participate in them, are conceived of as following developmental processes. Five dimensions of intimacy--that is, relationship orientation, caring-concern, commitment, sexuality, and communication--are identified, and an approach to assessing relationship maturity on each of these dimensions is described. In a study of 31 young married couples, scores on each dimension of intimacy maturity were analyzed in relation to gender, gender role (as assessed through an adaptation of the Bem Sex Role Inventory; Bem, 1974), and marital adjustment. There were no significant differences between husbands and wives on any of the intimacy or marital adjustment scales and only a marginal difference on one gender role scale (agency). Patterns of correlations among intimacy, marital adjustment, and gender role scores varied by gender. Not only do there appear to be two marriages (his and hers) in every marriage, but the correlates of these marriages also vary.

  14. Haemoglobin polymorphism in Gadus morhua: Genotypic differences in maturing age and within-season gonad maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, J.; Giskeödegård, R.; Sundnes, G.

    1983-09-01

    276 specimens of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) were caught during spawning in a restricted area of the Trondheimsfjord, Norway, in April and May 1979. Genotypes at the polymorphic haemoglobin locus Hbl differed significantly with respect to mean age at maturation (in males) and mean gonadic development stage (in females). There was no indication of population mixing in the genotypic composition at Hbl or at any of the 4 polymorphic tissue enzyme loci investigated ( LDH-3, IDH-1, PGM, and PGI-1. The findings obtained were considered with regard to temperature-related differences in the functional properties of Hbl molecules, and genotypic differences in growth, age at maturation, and fishing mortality. At the present stage of investigation, the natural selection pattern seems directional and strong. However, the Hbl allele frequencies observed in cod from the examined areas reveal no detectable changes over a period of two decades (˜ 4 generations). The current pattern of commercial exploitation causes, through size selection, a modification of the rate of erosion of the inferior allele, but additional factors must be in force, which play a role in its current abundance in an evolutionary perspective. The observed Hbl genotypic differences in the exact within-season time for spawning might be one such factor. A potential sexual difference in genotypic fitness might be another, but this has yet to be confirmed. The apparent existence of considerable natural and artificial selection forces acting upon cod haemoglobin genotypes makes Hbl allele frequencies unreliable for use in population structure analyses.

  15. Sexually transmitted diseases and sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Nejad, Hossein; Wasserman, Marlene; Weidner, Wolfgang; Richardson, Daniel; Goldmeier, David

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for state-of-the-art information in the area of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in relation to sexual function. There are an estimated 60 million people living with and 340 million with treatable STIs. Surveys show sexual problems to be as high as 35% for men and 55% for women; however, there is little research directly assessing relationships between infection and sexual function. To show that STIs are associated with (and may cause) sexual dysfunction. Conversely, sexual dysfunction can increase patients' risk of STI acquisition. In men, erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with condom use may lead to unsafe sexual practices and, hence, STI acquisition. The role of various therapies including phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in the treatment of ED in positive men taking social drugs will be explored. To provide state-of-the-art knowledge concerning sexual function and STIs, representing the opinions of five experts from four countries developed in a consensus process and encompassing a detailed literature review over a 2-year period. Expert opinion was based on the grading of evidence-based medical literature, widespread internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. This article highlights major factors causing the spread of STIs and suggests management interventions to prevent further spread of HIV/STIs, focusing on the juxtaposition between STIs and sexual functioning. Women's unique vulnerabilities to HIV/STIs (biological and physiological issues, gender-based violence, gender inequity) and their impact on women's sexual function are reviewed. Similarly, men's unique vulnerabilities to HIV/STIs including condom use, disclosure, voluntary counseling and testing, multiple concurrent sexual partners, and recreational drug use--particularly in homosexual men--are explored, as is the association of prostatitis and sexual function. Lastly, the article reviews the relationship between circumcision and sexual dysfunction. A

  16. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Sarah A; Rosen, Natalie O

    2017-03-01

    Sexual problems are common during pregnancy, but the proportion of pregnant women who experience sexual distress is unknown. In non-pregnant samples, sexual distress is associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. To identify the proportion of women experiencing sexual distress during pregnancy and to compare the sexual and relationship satisfaction of women who report sexual distress during pregnancy with that of women without distress. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnant women completed a cross-sectional online survey. Women completed validated measurements of sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index; score relationship satisfaction (Couples Satisfaction Index). Overall, 42% of women met the clinical cutoff for sexual distress. Of sexually active women (n = 230), 26% reported concurrent sexual problems and distress and 14% reported sexual distress in the absence of sexual problems. Sexual distress and/or problems in sexual functioning were linked to lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with pregnant women with lower sexual distress and fewer sexual problems. Sexual distress is common during pregnancy and associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. Health care providers should ask pregnant women about feelings of sexual distress. Identifying pregnant women who experience sexual distress and referring them to appropriate resources could help minimize sexual and relationship problems during pregnancy. Vannier SA, Rosen NO. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction. J Sex Med 2017;14:387-395. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of high-order explicit Runge–Kutta, extrapolation, and deferred correction methods in serial and parallel

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2014-06-13

    We compare the three main types of high-order one-step initial value solvers: extrapolation, spectral deferred correction, and embedded Runge–Kutta pairs. We consider orders four through twelve, including both serial and parallel implementations. We cast extrapolation and deferred correction methods as fixed-order Runge–Kutta methods, providing a natural framework for the comparison. The stability and accuracy properties of the methods are analyzed by theoretical measures, and these are compared with the results of numerical tests. In serial, the eighth-order pair of Prince and Dormand (DOP8) is most efficient. But other high-order methods can be more efficient than DOP8 when implemented in parallel. This is demonstrated by comparing a parallelized version of the wellknown ODEX code with the (serial) DOP853 code. For an N-body problem with N = 400, the experimental extrapolation code is as fast as the tuned Runge–Kutta pair at loose tolerances, and is up to two times as fast at tight tolerances.

  18. The evolution of prestige: freely conferred deference as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, J; Gil-White, F J.

    2001-05-01

    This paper advances an "information goods" theory that explains prestige processes as an emergent product of psychological adaptations that evolved to improve the quality of information acquired via cultural transmission. Natural selection favored social learners who could evaluate potential models and copy the most successful among them. In order to improve the fidelity and comprehensiveness of such ranked-biased copying, social learners further evolved dispositions to sycophantically ingratiate themselves with their chosen models, so as to gain close proximity to, and prolonged interaction with, these models. Once common, these dispositions created, at the group level, distributions of deference that new entrants may adaptively exploit to decide who to begin copying. This generated a preference for models who seem generally "popular." Building on social exchange theories, we argue that a wider range of phenomena associated with prestige processes can more plausibly be explained by this simple theory than by others, and we test its predictions with data from throughout the social sciences. In addition, we distinguish carefully between dominance (force or force threat) and prestige (freely conferred deference).

  19. Accounting choices in Brazil: identifying the characteristics of publicly traded companies that opted to maintain versus derecognise deferred assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Drago Lorencini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issuance of Brazilian Law 11.638/2007 is a critical step in the convergence of the Brazilian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAPs towards International Financial Reporting Standards. After the law was implemented and later modified by Provisional Executive Order 449/2008 (converted into Law 11.941/2009, certain accounting choices were allowed during the transition period. The Brazilian GAAPs allowed for restructuring costs and costs related to opening a new facility to be recognised as assets. As a transitional provision, companies were allowed to choose between maintaining or eliminating these values. In this paper, we attempted to identify which company characteristics were associated with this accounting choice. The final sample consisted of Brazilian companies listed on the BM & FBOVESPA, and a logistic regression identified two characteristics. Participation in one of the three different corporate governance levels of the BM & FBOVESPA was associated with the choice to derecognise the deferred assets, while companies decided to maintain the deferred asset if it was relatively large. The empirical evidence reported here contributes to the literature by explaining the manner in which a set of firm characteristics is related to a firm's accounting choices.

  20. From Crescent to Mature Virion: Vaccinia Virus Assembly and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV has achieved unprecedented success as a live viral vaccine for smallpox which mitigated eradication of the disease. Vaccinia virus has a complex virion morphology and recent advances have been made to answer some of the key outstanding questions, in particular, the origin and biogenesis of the virion membrane, the transformation from immature virion (IV to mature virus (MV, and the role of several novel genes, which were previously uncharacterized, but have now been shown to be essential for VACV virion formation. This new knowledge will undoubtedly contribute to the rational design of safe, immunogenic vaccine candidates, or effective antivirals in the future. This review endeavors to provide an update on our current knowledge of the VACV maturation processes with a specific focus on the initiation of VACV replication through to the formation of mature virions.

  1. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  2. Effects of Sexuality Information on Sexual Behavior and Control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Sexuality Information on Sexual Behavior and Control of Sexually ... the knowledge of sexuality among different categories of school teenagers and to ... of structured self-administered questionnaires haven obtained relevant consent.

  3. Sexual narcissism and the perpetration of sexual aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K

    2010-08-01

    Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction).

  4. Sexuality, mother-child health and infectious diseases.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... mature ejaculation.1. Nigerian authors on the other hand report on the preva- ... associated with tobacco smoking behavior among long distance drivers in ... sexual debut: prevalence and risk factors among second- ary school students in ... Laelago T, Belachew T, Tamrat M. Effect of inti- mate partner ...

  5. Sexual dysfunction among youth: an overlooked sexual health concern

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Caroline; Kågesten, Anna E; Blum, Robert Wm

    2016-01-01

    Background There is growing recognition that youth sexual health entails a broad range of physical, emotional and psychosocial responses to sexual interactions, yet little is known about sexual dysfunctions and well being in youth populations. This study explored sexual dysfunctions among youth and its associations with other domains of sexual health. Sexual dysfunctions were defined as: problems related to orgasm, pain during intercourse, lack of sexual desire or sexual pleasure. Methods Dat...

  6. Multidimensional Sexual Perfectionism and Female Sexual Function: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N

    2016-11-01

    Research on multidimensional sexual perfectionism differentiates four forms: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. Self-oriented sexual perfectionism reflects perfectionistic standards people apply to themselves as sexual partners; partner-oriented sexual perfectionism reflects perfectionistic standards people apply to their sexual partner; partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism reflects people's beliefs that their sexual partner imposes perfectionistic standards on them; and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism reflects people's beliefs that society imposes such standards on them. Previous studies found partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism to be maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with a negative sexual self-concept and problematic sexual behaviors, but only examined cross-sectional relationships. The present article presents the first longitudinal study examining whether multidimensional sexual perfectionism predicts changes in sexual self-concept and sexual function over time. A total of 366 women aged 17-69 years completed measures of multidimensional sexual perfectionism, sexual esteem, sexual anxiety, sexual problem self-blame, and sexual function (cross-sectional data). Three to six months later, 164 of the women completed the same measures again (longitudinal data). Across analyses, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism emerged as the most maladaptive form of sexual perfectionism. In the cross-sectional data, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism showed positive relationships with sexual anxiety, sexual problem self-blame, and intercourse pain, and negative relationships with sexual esteem, desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasmic function. In the longitudinal data, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism predicted increases in sexual anxiety and decreases in sexual esteem, arousal, and lubrication over time. The findings suggest that partner-prescribed sexual

  7. Inappropriate sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philo, S W; Richie, M F; Kaas, M J

    1996-11-01

    Inappropriate sexual behavior, or sexually aggressive behavior, is a term which encompasses a variety of behaviors, including obscene gesturing, touching or hugging another person, exposing body parts or disrobing, and masturbating in public. Inappropriate sexual behavior often elicits feelings of anxiety, embarrassment, or unease in the caregiver and the result is often disruption in continuity of care for the patient. The cause of inappropriate sexual behavior varies among individuals and careful assessment of the etiology of the behavior is the first essential step in intervening. Nursing interventions focus upon providing opportunities for expression of appropriate sexual behavior while attempting to extinguish inappropriate sexual behavior.

  8. Indian concepts on sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality.

  9. Female adolescent sexuality. Promoting healthy sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L

    2000-03-01

    Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual

  10. Does sexual abuse in childhood cause pedophilia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, K; Watson, R; Dickey, R

    1990-12-01

    The reliability of the notion that pedophilia is caused by sexual abuse in childhood was explored by examining retrospective self-reports of 344 males. Included in the study were 77 heterosexual pedophiles, 54 homosexual pedophiles, 51 nonpedophilic sex offenders against children, 36 sex offenders against physically mature females, 75 heterosexual paid volunteers who erotically preferred mature females, and 51 homosexual clients who preferred mature males. For each sex offender the differential diagnosis of an erotic preference for minors vs. a preference for physically mature partners was made by means of the phallometric test of erotic gender and age preferences. The analysis of self-reports confirmed that the proportion of pedophiles who report having been sexually abused in childhood by mature persons is larger than that of men who were not charged for or accused of a sex offense against a child though the difference is relatively small (28.6 vs. 13.9 and 10.7% for the heterosexual pedophiles and the two groups of gynephiles, respectively, and 25.9 vs. 11.8% for the homosexual pedophiles and androphiles, respectively). Further analysis demonstrated, however, that pedophiles who admitted having an erotic interest in children significantly more often claimed that they had been sexually abused as children than pedophiles who did not admit having such feelings. This interdependence renders the reliability of these self-reports questionable.

  11. Sexuality and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodlar, Borut; Nagy, Marija Zunter

    2009-09-01

    Sexuality and sexual disorders of patients with psychoses are frequently neglected and under-investigated. The main purpose of the present study is to discuss the subjective experience of sexuality in patients with psychosis within the general psychodynamic and phenomenological understandings of psychotic states. The authors, both psychotherapists, dealing with patients with psychoses, reflected experiences from their clinical work with the help of the conceptual frameworks of psychodynamic and phenomenological psychiatry. Willingness and need of patients to talk about sexuality, non-specificity of frequencies and variety of sexual disorders in psychotic patients, difficulties in establishment of a stable (sexual) identity and the question of homosexuality, absence of sexual activities with others and feelings of guilt and inadequacy, masturbation with its functions, impulsive sexual acts or lack of sexual self-control, erotic delusions and erotic transference were the main findings, dominating the sexual sphere of these patients. All these manifestations of sexuality in patients with psychosis can be seen - as exposed in discussion - as consequences of a basic self-disorder (phenomenological perspective) or of difficulties in regulating closeness and distance (psychodynamic perspective). Reasons of avoidance of treatment of sexuality by the therapists of psychotic patients are discussed as well. Implications for dealing with sexuality issues in psychotherapy of patients with psychoses were drawn from the above findings in the last part of the article.

  12. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity dates. 1421.101 Section 1421.101 Agriculture... Maturity dates. (a)(1) All marketing assistance loans shall mature on demand by CCC and no later than the... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date...

  13. Ribosome maturation in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silengo, L; Altruda, F; Dotto, G P; Lacquaniti, F; Perlo, C; Turco, E; Mangiarotti, G

    1977-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro experiments have shown that processing of ribosomal RNA is a late event in ribosome biogenesis. The precursor form of RNA is probably necessary to speed up the assembly of ribomal proteins. Newly formed ribosomal particles which have already entered polyribosomes differ from mature ribosomes not only in their RNA content but also in their susceptibility to unfolding in low Mg concentration and to RNase attack. Final maturation of new ribosomes is probably dependent on their functioning in protein synthesis. Thus only those ribosomes which have proven to be functional may be converted into stable cellular structures.

  14. PREDICTIVE VALUE OF THE DEFERRED TAXES GENERATED BY THE SUBVENTIONS FOR INVESTMENTS – ESSENTIAL ELEMENT FOR PRESENTING THE INFORMATION IN THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most information underlying the decision to invest at the level of a company, are provided by the accountancy, this becoming today a common language with respect to the businesses on the international markets, and the accountancy normalization was extrapolated from the national level to the international level, due to the needs concerning the comparability and the transparency of the entities financial statements, without considering the geopolitical area where they were built. These issues justify the approaches for improving both accounting treatments and the procedures for elaborating and presenting data within the financial statements such that the users to benefit from credible and transparent information. One of the major issues arising with respect to the performance of an entity aims to prepare a unique situation on the company performance, namely:“the statement of the comprehensive income”, having as primordial objective the facility of forecasting the performance, within which the deferred taxes generated by the subventions for investments are an essential element with an important predictive value. In this context, starting from the main differences between the provisions of the national, Anglo-Saxon accounting regulations and those of the international reference system with respect to the predictive value of the deferred taxes and continuing with the occurrence and evolution of the deferred taxes generated by the subventions for investments, the study proposes to highlight the predictive value of the deferred taxes generated by the subventions for investments, provided o the users by the information of annual financial statements.

  15. Deferred imitation in 18-month-olds from two cultural contexts: the case of Cameroonian Nso farmer and German-middle class infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Sonja; Lamm, Bettina; Graf, Frauke; Knopf, Monika

    2013-12-01

    Imitative learning has been described in naturalistic studies for different cultures, but lab-based research studying imitative learning across different cultural contexts is almost missing. Therefore, imitative learning was assessed with 18-month-old German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants - representing two highly different eco-cultural contexts associated with different cultural models, the psychological autonomy and the hierarchical relatedness - by using the deferred imitation paradigm. Study 1 revealed that the infants from both cultural contexts performed a higher number of target actions in the deferred imitation than in the baseline phase. Moreover, it was found that German middle-class infants showed a higher mean imitation rate as they performed more target actions in the deferred imitation phase compared with Cameroonian Nso farmer infants. It was speculated that the opportunity to manipulate the test objects directly after the demonstration of the target actions could enhance the mean deferred imitation rate of the Cameroonian Nso farmer infants which was confirmed in Study 2. Possible explanations for the differences in the amount of imitated target actions of German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants are discussed considering the object-related, dyadic setting of the imitation paradigm with respect to the different learning contexts underlying the different cultural models of learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 32 CFR 1630.13 - Class 1-D-D: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reserve component or student taking military training. 1630.13 Section 1630.13 National Defense Other...: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military training. In Class 1-D-D... (entire college level) Army Reserve Officer's Training Corps, or the Air Force Reserve Officer's...

  17. The reproductive cycle, size at maturity and fecundity of garfish ( Belone belone, L. 1761) in the eastern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorica, B.; Sinovčić, G.; Keč, V. Čikeš

    2011-12-01

    A recent study concerning the reproductive biology of the garfish ( Belone belone, L. 1761) has been carried out in the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea along the Croatian coastline. Specimens of the fish ( N = 3,393) were collected over a 6-year period (2003-2008). Their length varied between 20.8 and 75.4 cm (mean ± SD = 38.3 ± 7.94). Female garfish were dominant in larger length groups being most apparent during the resting phase of sexual cycle and in the peak of the spawning period, occurring in April and May. The sexual ratio of all specimens was m/f = 0.98. Males were prevalent in March—at the beginning of the highest spawning activities. Fifty percentage of the garfish population sexually matured at 28.5 cm of total length. Males and females reached their sexual maturity at 28.0 and 31.5 cm of total length, respectively. Spawning began in January peaking during March to May. According to their maturity stages, gonad weight and the gonadosomatic index, males began to spawn one month earlier (April) than females (May). The mean batch fecundity of garfish was 1,242.46 ± 843.64 of matured oocytes per ovary. Matured oocyte diameters ranged from 1.223 to 4.283 mm with the mean value of 2.269 ± 0.332 mm.

  18. Scleroderma and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scleroderma and Sexuality INTRODUCTION If you or your partner have been diagnosed with scleroderma, you may be wondering how this will ... will continue to find satisfaction and enjoyment through sexuality. If you are single, you may wonder how ...

  19. Female sexuality in magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Patrícia Zucco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper results from an investigation on the discourse of female sexuality carried by women's magazines in the years 2005 and 2006. 'Claudia' and 'Mulher dia-a-dia' were the documents analyzed through a qualitative investigative approach. The data construction was undertaken through critical discourse analysis, and female sexuality was approached from a constructivist perspective. The main results showed that the discursive conventions present in the reports gave shape to dual positions on contemporary Western sexual dynamics, such as: adoption of symmetrical sexual practices versus continuation of asymmetrical sexual practices; female sexual autonomy versus female sexual dependency; activeness versus passiveness; female pleasure versus male pleasure. Thus, we argue that sexuality remains doubly informed by hegemonic standards in force within society.

  20. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be comfortable with your sexuality, improve your self-esteem and accept your body. Try practicing these healthy ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/female-sexual-dysfunction/basics/definition/CON-20027721 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  1. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans Health ... 10 VA HSR&D Investigator Insights: Military Sexual Trauma - Duration: 3:27. Veterans Health Administration 898 views ...

  2. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs ... often help with the symptoms and keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  3. Sexual Problems in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many men have sexual problems. They become more common as men age. Problems can include Erectile dysfunction Reduced or lost interest in sex ... problems may also be factors. Occasional problems with sexual function are common. If problems last more than ...

  4. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Female Sexual Dysfunction February 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors ... Resources Mayo Clinic Cleveland Clinic What is female sexual dysfunction (FSD)? Many women have a low sex ...

  5. Number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness predict sexual victimization: do more partners equal more risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dave P; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness were examined as independent risk factors for sexual victimization among college women. Using a sample of 335 college women, this study examined the interaction of number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness on verbal sexual coercion and rape. Approximately 32% of the sample reported unwanted sexual intercourse, 6.9% (n = 23) experienced verbal sexual coercion, 17.9% (n = 60) experienced rape, and 7.2% (n = 24) experienced both. As number of sexual partners increased, instances of verbal sexual coercion increased for women low in relational sexual assertiveness but not for women high in relational sexual assertiveness. A similar relationship was not found for rape. Among women who experienced both verbal sexual coercion and rape, increases in number of partners in the context of low refusal and relational assertiveness were associated with increases in verbal sexual coercion and rape. Findings suggest sexual assertiveness is related to fewer experiences of sexual coercion.

  6. Dysfunctional anger and sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A G

    2014-06-01

    Sexual offenses with or without aggression attract attention from the popular media and the scientific community. Empirical research suggests a relationship between anger and sexual violence. This article describes the key themes of dysfunctional anger and sexual violence, and how dysfunctional anger relates to sexual fantasies, sexual offending, and sexual recidivism. The implications of the findings for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  7. Adolescents sexual practices

    OpenAIRE

    Frias, Ana; Chora, Antónia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: If teens options are experimenting sexualized practices, we should facilitate their knowledge, make them aware of their choices and help them living their sexuality in a safer mode. Objectives: To identify adolescents sexual practices; characterize the attitudes of teenagers against the use of contraception. Methods: quantitative research with exploratory nature. We studied a convenience sample of 301 adolescents of both sexes whitch attend the 9th grade. Sexual practices and a...

  8. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Pamela

    1989-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction takes place in the context of women's lives and affects their sexuality and self-esteem. Awareness of these influences are vital to the management of the dysfunction and the promotion of positive sexuality. The family physician's contribution to both the prevention and management of sexual concerns includes an awareness of societal influences and facilitation of a woman's sense of her own power and control over her life.

  9. Sexuality in old age

    OpenAIRE

    KOSOVÁ, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    Age and sex are two terms that are not frequently associated with each other. Sexuality is a natural part of human nature, accompanying people throughout their whole lives, still in old age. The elderly are often considered asexual by society, and therefore they feel too shy to speak out about problems they are facing in their sexual lives. In this paper, physiological and psychosocial changes the old age brings about, ailments and sexual dysfunctions that may affect seniors´ sexuality, and m...

  10. Fibromyalgia and sexual problems

    OpenAIRE

    Scarpellini, P; F. Sernissi; Rossi, A; C. Giacomelli; L. Bazzichi; A. Consensi; Bombardieri, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the recent literature concerning sexual dysfunction in fibromyalgic patients. To this end, we used the common online databases PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to June 2012) and searched for the key words fibromyalgia (FM) and sexual dysfunction. All the studies examined underlined that FM is strictly associated with sexual dysfunction in women. The major findings observed were related to a decreased sexual desire and arousal, decreased experience of orgas...

  11. Methylation changes associated with early maturation stages in the Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Figueroa Andrés

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early maturation in the Atlantic salmon is an interesting subject for numerous research lines. Prior to sea migration, parr can reach sexual maturation and successfully fertilize adult female eggs during the reproductive season. These individuals are known as precocious parr, mature parr or "sneakers". Reasons for early maturation are unknown and this transitory stage is usually considered to be a threshold trait. Here, we compare methylation patterns between mature and immature salmon parr from two different rivers in order to infer if such methylation differences may be related to their maturation condition. First we analyzed genetic differences between rivers by means of AFLPs. Then, we compared the DNA methylation differences between mature and immature parrs, using a Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP, which is a modification of the AFLPs method by making use of the differential sensitivity of a pair of restriction enzymes isoschizomeres to cytosine methylation. The tissues essayed included brain, liver and gonads. Results AFLPs statistical analysis showed that there was no significant differentiation between rivers or a significant differentiation between maturation states in each river. MSAP statistical analysis showed that among the three tissues sampled, the gonads had the highest number of significant single-locus variation among populations with 74 loci followed by brain with 70 and finally liver with only 12. Principal components analysis (PCA of the MSAP profiles revealed different profiles among different tissues (liver, brain and testis clearly separating maturation states in the testis tissue when compared to the liver. Conclusions Our results reveal that genetically-similar mature and immature salmon parr present high levels of DNA methylation variation in two of the three analyzed tissues. We hypothesize that early maturation may be mostly mediated by epigenetic processes rather than by

  12. Sexual Health in Adult Men with Spina Bifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. Bong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical and surgical advances in the treatment of spina bifida (SB have resulted in increasing numbers of patients reaching adulthood. As such, issues related to sexual maturity are being investigated to offer optimal healthcare to men with spina bifida. This report constitutes a review of the current literature relating to adults with spina bifida and issues of sexuality, erectile dysfunction and fertility. In general, adult males with spina bifida have normal sexual desires and an interest in addressing these issues with healthcare providers. Sexual education and access to intimacy are delayed compared to the general population. 75% of men achieve erections, but maintaining erections is a problem and some may be merely reflexive in nature. The many of these men show marked improvement with sildenafil. In SB erectile dysfunction and infertility are related to the level of neurological lesion with the best performance status in those with sacral lesions and intact reflexes. Men with lesions higher than T10 are at risk for azoospermia. There is an increased risk of neural tube defects in the children of men with spina bifida, but the current incidence with modern folic acid therapy is unknown. As the number of males with spina bifida reaching sexual maturity increases, further investigation into sexuality, sex education, intimacy, and treatments for erectile dysfunction and infertility will be needed.

  13. Rhetorical Maturity: Definition and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan

    Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development, when applied to theories of teaching composition, support any method or material that refers to the age and prior experience of the writer and the newness of the task the writer is attempting. Rhetorical development and maturation in the ability to write and argue persuasively are partly conceptual…

  14. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...

  15. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  16. Human oocyte maturation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coticchio, Giovanni; Dal-Canto, Mariabeatrice; Guglielmo, Maria-Cristina; Mignini-Renzini, Mario; Fadini, Rubens

    2012-01-01

    Oocytes from medium-sized antral follicles have already completed their growth phase and, if released from the follicular environment and cultured in vitro, are able to resume the meiotic process and mature. However, in vitro maturation (IVM) does not entirely support all the nuclear and cytoplasmic changes that occur physiologically as an effect of the ovulatory stimulus. Regardless, oocyte IVM is widely applied for the breeding of agriculturally important species. In assisted reproduction technology, IVM has been proposed as an alternative treatment to circumvent the drawbacks of standard ovarian stimulation regimens. Initially introduced to eliminate the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome afflicting women presenting with polycystic ovaries, subsequently IVM has been suggested to represent an additional approach suitable also for normovulatory patients. So far, in children born from IVM cycles, no doubts of an increased incidence of congenital abnormalities have been raised. Many more births would be achieved if novel IVM systems, currently dominated by empiricism, could be conceived according to more physiological criteria. Recent findings shedding new light on the control of meiotic progression, the support of cumulus cells to the oocyte cellular reorganization occurring during maturation, and the modulation of the stimulus that promotes oocyte maturation downstream the mid-cycle gonadotropin signal are likely to provide crucial hints for the development of more efficient IVM systems.

  17. Women and sexual problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Causes of sexual dysfunction References Miller M. Sexual dysfunction in women. First Consult. Available at: www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/medical_topic/21-s2.0-1016356?scrollTo=%23top. Elsevier BV. Revised Mar 11, 2014. ... CK. Female sexual function and dysfunction. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, ...

  18. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Irwin; Kim, Noel N.; Clayton, Anita H

    2017-01-01

    to participate in sexual activity due to absent or decreased spontaneous desire, sexual desire in response to erotic cues or stimulation, or ability to maintain desire or interest through sexual activity for at least 6 months, with accompanying distress. Treatment follows a biopsychosocial model and is guided...

  19. Rethinking Sexual Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades sexuality has emerged as a key theme in debates about citizenship, leading to the development of the concept of sexual citizenship. This article reviews this literature and identifies four main areas of critical framing: work that contests the significance of sexuality to citizenship; critiques that focus on the possibilities and limitations of mobilising the language of citizenship in sexual politics; analyses of sexual citizenship in relation to nationalisms and border making; and literature that critically examines western constructions of sexuality and sexual politics underpinning understandings of sexual citizenship. In order to progress the field theoretically, the article seeks to extend critiques of sexual citizenship focusing on two key aspects of its construction: the sexual citizen-subject and spaces of sexual citizenship. It argues for a critical rethink that encompasses a de-centring of a ‘western-centric’ focus in order to advance understandings of how sexual citizenship operates both in the Global North and South. PMID:28490816

  20. Randomized trial evaluating ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Michael J; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Beck, Roy W; Bressler, Neil M; Bressler, Susan B; Edwards, Allison R; Ferris, Frederick L; Friedman, Scott M; Glassman, Adam R; Miller, Kellee M; Scott, Ingrid U; Stockdale, Cynthia R; Sun, Jennifer K

    2010-06-01

    Evaluate intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab or 4 mg triamcinolone combined with focal/grid laser compared with focal/grid laser alone for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Multicenter, randomized clinical trial. A total of 854 study eyes of 691 participants with visual acuity (approximate Snellen equivalent) of 20/32 to 20/320 and DME involving the fovea. Eyes were randomized to sham injection + prompt laser (n=293), 0.5 mg ranibizumab + prompt laser (n=187), 0.5 mg ranibizumab + deferred (> or =24 weeks) laser (n=188), or 4 mg triamcinolone + prompt laser (n=186). Retreatment followed an algorithm facilitated by a web-based, real-time data-entry system. Best-corrected visual acuity and safety at 1 year. The 1-year mean change (+/-standard deviation) in the visual acuity letter score from baseline was significantly greater in the ranibizumab + prompt laser group (+9+/-11, Peyes at baseline (n=273), visual acuity improvement in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group appeared comparable to that in the ranibizumab groups. No systemic events attributable to study treatment were apparent. Three eyes (0.8%) had injection-related endophthalmitis in the ranibizumab groups, whereas elevated intraocular pressure and cataract surgery were more frequent in the triamcinolone + prompt laser group. Two-year visual acuity outcomes were similar to 1-year outcomes. Intravitreal ranibizumab with prompt or deferred laser is more effective through at least 1 year compared with prompt laser alone for the treatment of DME involving the central macula. Ranibizumab as applied in this study, although uncommonly associated with endophthalmitis, should be considered for patients with DME and characteristics similar to those in this clinical trial. In pseudophakic eyes, intravitreal triamcinolone + prompt laser seems more effective than laser alone but frequently increases the risk of intraocular pressure elevation. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier

  1. The Impact of Deferred Tax Assets, Discretionary Accrual, Leverage, Company Size and Tax Planning Onearnings Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus Widiatmoko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and provide empirical evidence of the influence of deferred tax asset, discretionary accrual, leverage, company size, and tax planning on earnings management. Financial performance is an indicator that is required by company management to measure the effectiveness of company performance. This research used secondary data that was got from annual report published in www.idx.co.id and data from Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD. Populations of the research are manufacturing companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2011-2013. Samples were selected by using purposive sampling method. There are 208 observations that will examined by logistic regression analysis. The result shows that deferred tax asset has negative and not significant effect to the earnings management, discretionary accrual has negative and not significant effect to the earnings management, leverage has negative and significant effect to the earnings management, company size has positive and significant effect to the earnings management, tax planning has positive and not significant effect to the earnings management.Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis bukti empiris mengenai pengaruh asset pajak tangguhan, discretionary accrual, leverage, ukuran perusahaan, dan perencanaan pajak terhadap manajemen laba. Kinerja keuangan adalah indikator untuk mengukur efektivitas perusahaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang diperoleh dari www.idx.co.id serta data dari Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD. Populasi penelitian ini adalah perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaftar di BEI tahun 2011-2013. Sampel dipilih dengan purposive sampling. Terdapat 208 observasi yang akan diuji dengan model analisis regresi logistik. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa asset pajak tangguhan memiliki pengaruh negatif dan tidak signifikan terhadap praktik manajemen laba, discretionary accrual memiliki pengaruh negatif dan tidak signifikan terhadap

  2. Spina bifida and sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Michael Ernst; Biering-Sørensen, Ida; Liebach, Annette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sexual function amongst adult individuals with spina bifida and to register their subjective satisfaction with their sexual life and relationships. SETTING: Department for Spinal Cord Injuries, East Denmark. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cohort study. Medical record information......, neurological examination, personal interview, Functional Independence Measure (FIMTM), Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) on quality of life, and questions on sexual function and related topics. Study cohort: Fifty-three participants (27 women, 26 men) with spina bifida (mean age 27.1, range 18......: There is a need for further sexual education and counselling for adults with spina bifida in order to improve their sexuality and quality of life....

  3. To Mature or not to Mature: The Information Systems Conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Marnewick

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research has been done within the South African information technology (IT industry over the last decade with regard to project management maturity (PMM and the impact it has on delivering information systems (IS projects successfully. The research was done to determine whether IS PMM per knowledge area has improved over the last decade. It investigates if there is a correlation between maturity levels and project success. Four independent surveys over the last decade focused on IS PMM and the longitudinal analysis provides a benchmark for whether IS PMM has increased or not. This article focuses on whether certain knowledge areas are more of a problem within the IT industry and to determine what the overall IS PMM is. The longitudinal analysis indicates trends and highlights areas of concern. It indicates that most IT companies are still operating at level 3 and that risk and procurement management are the knowledge areas of concern. A comparative analysis indicates that there is no difference between South African and international maturity levels. The results provide a South African perspective of IS PMM. It highlights that risk management is still a knowledge area that is neglected and that emphasis must be placed on managing risk within IT projects.

  4. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houeix Benoit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult and in the parr-smolt transformation. Results Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1, which were down-regulated in precocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were up-regulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1 were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For

  5. Aggressive antisocial behaviors are related to character maturity in young Swedish violent offenders independent of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nilsson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antisocial personality and psychopathic traits have constantly been found to accompany criminal and aggressive behaviors, but little attention has been given to aspects of character maturity and its relation to such behaviors. The present study investigated 1 whether level of character maturity (low, medium, and high is associated with amount of aggressive antisocial behaviors and psychopathic traits in young men imprisoned for violent criminality, and 2 whether such an association is independent of coexisting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: Swedish males (N=270, aged 18-25 sentenced to prison for violent and/or sexual criminality in the western region of the Swedish Prison and Probation Service underwent a thorough clinical examination during their incarceration. Data on character maturity as measured by the character dimensions Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness of the Temperament and Character Inventory were available for n=148 subjects, and used to divide these offenders into three groups with low, medium, and high character maturity. These groups were then compared for variables reflecting criminal history, a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD, Conduct disorder (CD and substance use disorders (SUD, aggressive behaviors, and psychopathic traits.Results: Character maturity was consistently associated with less aggressive antisocial behaviors and psychopathic personality traits; the group with the highest character maturity showed; i a later age at onset of criminality, ii a smaller number of prior violent criminal acts, iii lower prevalences of ADHD, CD, and SUD, iv less self-rated and expert-rated aggressive behaviors, and v less psychopathic traits. The association between character maturity and aggressive behaviors/psychopathic personality traits remained even when ADHD was controlled for. The only exception was sexual criminality, where the group with the highest character maturity contained the largest amount

  6. The Emory University / Grady Memorial Hospital program: Postponing Sexual Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Postponing Sexual Involvement program of Emory University's Grady Memorial Hospital began as a teen pregnancy prevention program in the early 1970s. Initially Atlanta public schools devoted 5 classroom periods to discussion of sexuality and decision making. Evaluation results indicated that adolescent sexual behavior change was not occurring, so program staff added the Postponing Sexual Involvement component in 1983. This abstinence program was based on the theory that social influence is related to the likelihood of becoming sexually involved, and not lack of knowledge. Specific age groups are targeted, so that attitudes and skills can be promoted until the maturity of handling sexuality is reached. The assumption is that teenagers are not mature enough to understand the implications of their actions and to deal with consequences. Adolescents are encouraged to explore feelings about sexual involvement and to envision how their future can be affected by such behavior. Human sexuality information, including contraception is still provided for 5 periods, with and additional 5 periods on postponing sexual involvement. 4000 8th graders in Atlanta receive this instructional program. The significant feature of the program is the coexistence of the messages that adolescents ought not to get involved sexually at an early age, and that, if sexual involvement does occur, they should use appropriate contraception. A unique feature is the teaching conducted by trained 11th and 12th grade students as teen leaders in presenting information, conducting discussions, teaching assertiveness skills, and providing a forum for practicing handling problem situations. The youth models are important for dispelling the myth that "everybody's doing it." Teen leaders received about 20 hours of training in how to guide discussions about handling social and peer pressures. Structured and guided exercises were conducted for practicing skills in resisting peer pressure. The program

  7. Human sexual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The human sexual response to sexually arousing stimuli is a motivational incentive-based cycle comprising subjective experience and physiologic changes. Clinical and empirical data support a circular model of overlapping phases of variable order. Brain imaging data of sexual arousal identify areas of cerebral activation and inhibition reflecting a complex network of cognitive, motivational, emotional, and autonomic components. Psychologic and biologic factors influence the brain's appraisal and processing of sexual stimuli to allow or disallow subsequent arousal. The sexual and non-sexual outcomes influence motivation to future sexual intimacy. Variability is marked both between individuals and within a person's sexual life, influenced by multiple factors, including stage of life cycle, mental health, and relationship happiness. Neurologic disease can interrupt the cycle at many points: by limiting motivation, reducing ability to attend to and feel sexual stimuli, and accomplishing the movements needed to stimulate and experience intercourse. Impairments to genital congestion, penile erection, and orgasm may also occur. Disease-associated changes to the interpersonal relationship and self-image plus frequently comorbid depression will tend to lessen motivation and temper the brain's appraisal of sexual stimuli, so precluding arousal. Therapy begins by explaining the sexual response cycle, clarifying the points of interruption in the patient's own cycle so as to guide treatment.

  8. Sexual activity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients.

  9. Sexual Orientation and Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Saray

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Is there a choice in sexual orientation? [Wilkerson, William S. (2009: “Is It a Choice? Sexual Orientation as Interpretation”. In: Journal of Social Philosophy 40. No. 1, p. 97–116] argues that sexual desires require interpretation in order to be fully constituted, and therefore sexual orientation is at least partially constituted by choice. [Díaz-León, Esa (2017: “Sexual Orientation as Interpretation? Sexual Desires, Concepts, and Choice”; In: Journal of Social Ontology] critically assesses Wilkerson’s argument, concluding that we still lack a good argument for the claim that choice plays a role in sexual orientation. Here I examine Díaz-León’s response to Wilkerson. I introduce what I call the conceptual act theory of sexual orientation, and argue that even if interpretation were not necessary to constitute sexual desires, it is a necessary element to constitute what we call sexual orientation. However, I conclude that even if we agree that interpretation is involved in sexual orientation, it does not follow that there is a choice involved.

  10. The Impact of Puberty and Sexual Activity upon the Health and Education of Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, J.

    1987-01-01

    Sex equity issues which are emphasized in this article include: (a) how boys and girls negotiate reproductive transitions; (b) how male and female sexual maturity is treated differently by parents, educators, and society; and (c) how the consequences of puberty and sexual behavior may differ for boys and girls. (IAH)

  11. [Sexual cycle of Cerastoderma glaucum Poiret, 1798 (Bivalvia, Eulamellibranchia, Cardiidae) in Lake Tunis and in the Bou Grara sea (Tunisia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaouali, J

    1980-09-01

    The study of the sexual cycle of Cerastoderma glaucum points out the presence of a very short sexual rest period (from january to march) and of three spawning periods (from may to june, august to september, december to january). If autumn is warm (15 degree C), 80 to 90% of the winter stock is formed by mature individuals.

  12. Drugs and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Antonio; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Marino, Antonio G; Mento, Carmela; Micò, Umberto; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco; Muscatello, Maria R A

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between drugs and sexual behavior in a sample of polydrug substance abusers recruited from several Italian therapeutic communities; participants were 90 polydrug substance abusers (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, inhalants, marijuana/sedatives or hallucinogens abusers) who were compared with 90 nonsubstance-abusing individuals. Sexual behavior was measured by the Italian version of the Sex and the Average Woman (or Man; SAWM), a questionnaire that assesses different kind of sexual attitudes. Results showed that drug-abusing individuals are particularly inclined to search for sexual intercourse and are open to different kinds of sexual experiences; however, they have difficulties in establishing committed and deep relationships with their partners, showing signs of inhibition, affective detachment or anger. Their sexual lives are also surrounded by negative emotions, disturbing thoughts and maladjusted behaviors. The importance of integrating sexual problems into therapeutic strategies is discussed.

  13. Green ICT Maturity Model for Czech SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Buchalcevova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of a Green ICT maturity model that is aimed at maturity assessment of a Green ICT capability in SMEs that figure as users of ICT services. Based on a literature review and internet search, six maturity models in the Green ICT area were detected and further analysed. Since these maturity models do not suit maturity assessment in non-ICT SMEs, a new Green ICT maturity model for SMEs was developed. This paper introduces the process of model development, description of the resulted model and evaluation of the model.

  14. Dynamic feedback circuits function as a switch for shaping a maturation-inducing steroid pulse in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten Erik; Danielsen, Erik Thomas; Herder, Rachel;

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones trigger the onset of sexual maturation in animals by initiating genetic response programs that are determined by steroid pulse frequency, amplitude and duration. Although steroid pulses coordinate growth and timing of maturation during development, the mechanisms generating...... that functions in producing steroid oscillations that can guide the decision to terminate growth and promote maturation....... these pulses are not known. Here we show that the ecdysone steroid pulse that drives the juvenile-adult transition in Drosophila is determined by feedback circuits in the prothoracic gland (PG), the major steroid-producing tissue of insect larvae. These circuits coordinate the activation and repression...

  15. PLM Maturity Evaluation and Prediction Based on a Maturity Assessment and Fuzzy Sets Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haiqing; Sekhari, Aicha; Ouzrout, Yacine; Bouras, Abdelaziz

    2014-01-01

    Part 8: Change Management and Maturity; International audience; Companies adopt PLM maturity models to evaluate PLM implementation and recognize relative positions in PLM selection to better harness PLM benefits. However, the majority traditional PLM maturity models are relative time-consuming and energy-consuming. This work focuses on proposing a fuzzy extended PCMA (PLM Components Maturity Assessment) maturity model to brightly evaluate the gradual process of PLM maturity accompaniment with...

  16. Dental maturity curves in Finnish children: Demirjian's method revisited and polynomial functions for age estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillet, Nils; Nyström, Marjatta; Kataja, Matti; Demirjian, Arto

    2004-11-01

    Dental maturity was studied from 2213 dental panoramic radiographs of healthy ethnic Finns from southern Finland, aged between 2 and 19 years. The aim was to provide new Finnish maturity tables and curves and to compare the efficiency of Demirjian's method when differently weighted scores and polynomial regressions are used. The inter-ethnic variations lead us to calculate specific Finnish weighted scores. Demirjian's method gives maturity score as a function of age and seems better adapted for clinicians because, in their case, the maturity score is unknown. Polynomial functions give age as a function of maturity score and are statically adapted for age estimation studies. Finnish dental maturity tables and development curves are given for Demirjian's method and for polynomial functions. Sexual dimorphism is established for the same weighted score for girls and boys, and girls present a greater maturity than boys for all of age groups. Polynomial functions are highly reliable (0.19% of misclassifies) and the percentile method, using Finnish weighted scores, is very accurate (+/- 1.95 years on average, between 2 and 18 years of age). This suggests that polynomial functions are most useful in forensic sciences, while Demirjian's method is most useful for dental health clinicians.

  17. The maturing process: a vital element in the holistic care of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, C

    1993-09-01

    The maturing process is a powerful holistic method for removing childhood blocks, thus freeing us to develop our full potential in the present. This health-patterning modality is an imagery process that assists us in reshaping the holograms in our memory banks. This process is effective with women coming from a variety of dysfunctional backgrounds, dealing with codependency, sexual abuse, and grief and loss issues. Female relationships and interactions are explored through the use of two case studies. The maturing process represents a missing and vital element in the holistic care of women.

  18. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also

  19. The reciprocal relationship between sexual victimization and sexual assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2007-03-01

    Low sexual assertiveness has been proposed as a possible mechanism through which sexual revictimization occurs, yet evidence for this has been mixed. In this study, prospective path analysis was used to examine the relationship between sexual refusal assertiveness and sexual victimization over time among a community sample of women. Results provide support for a reciprocal relationship, with historical victimization predicting low sexual assertiveness and low sexual assertiveness predicting subsequent victimization. The effect of recent sexual victimization on subsequent sexual assertiveness also was replicated prospectively. These findings suggest that strengthening sexual assertiveness may help reduce vulnerability to future victimization.

  20. Maturity model for enterprise interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédria, Wided; Naudet, Yannick; Chen, David

    2015-01-01

    Historically, progress occurs when entities communicate, share information and together create something that no one individually could do alone. Moving beyond people to machines and systems, interoperability is becoming a key factor of success in all domains. In particular, interoperability has become a challenge for enterprises, to exploit market opportunities, to meet their own objectives of cooperation or simply to survive in a growing competitive world where the networked enterprise is becoming a standard. Within this context, many research works have been conducted over the past few years and enterprise interoperability has become an important area of research, ensuring the competitiveness and growth of European enterprises. Among others, enterprises have to control their interoperability strategy and enhance their ability to interoperate. This is the purpose of the interoperability assessment. Assessing interoperability maturity allows a company to know its strengths and weaknesses in terms of interoperability with its current and potential partners, and to prioritise actions for improvement. The objective of this paper is to define a maturity model for enterprise interoperability that takes into account existing maturity models while extending the coverage of the interoperability domain. The assessment methodology is also presented. Both are demonstrated with a real case study.

  1. Sexual risk behavior and pregnancy in detained adolescent females: a study in Dutch detention centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Lucres MC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83% was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured interview, standardized questionnaires and file information on pregnancy, sexuality related characteristics (sexual risk behavior, multiple sex partners, sexual trauma, lack of assertiveness in sexual issues and early maturity and mental health characteristics (conduct disorder, alcohol and drug use disorder and suicidality. Results Approximately 20% of the participants reported having been pregnant (before detention, although none had actually given birth. Sexuality related characteristics were more prevalent in the pregnancy group, while this was not so for the mental health characteristics. Age at assessment, early maturity, sexual risk behavior, and suicidality turned out to be the best predictors for pregnancy. Conclusion The lifetime prevalence of pregnancy in detained adolescent females is high and is associated with both sexuality related risk factors and mental health related risk factors. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs targeting sexual risk behavior and mental health are warranted during detention.

  2. Sexual risk behavior and pregnancy in detained adolescent females: a study in Dutch detention centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerlynck, Sannie MJJ; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres MC; Bezemer, Pieter D; Doreleijers, Theo AH

    2007-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83%) was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured interview, standardized questionnaires and file information on pregnancy, sexuality related characteristics (sexual risk behavior, multiple sex partners, sexual trauma, lack of assertiveness in sexual issues and early maturity) and mental health characteristics (conduct disorder, alcohol and drug use disorder and suicidality). Results Approximately 20% of the participants reported having been pregnant (before detention), although none had actually given birth. Sexuality related characteristics were more prevalent in the pregnancy group, while this was not so for the mental health characteristics. Age at assessment, early maturity, sexual risk behavior, and suicidality turned out to be the best predictors for pregnancy. Conclusion The lifetime prevalence of pregnancy in detained adolescent females is high and is associated with both sexuality related risk factors and mental health related risk factors. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs targeting sexual risk behavior and mental health are warranted during detention. PMID:17683633

  3. Early growth trajectories affect sexual responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Who-Seung; Metcalfe, Neil B; Réale, Denis; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2014-02-22

    The trajectory of an animal's growth in early development has been shown to have long-term effects on a range of life-history traits. Although it is known that individual differences in behaviour may also be related to certain life-history traits, the linkage between early growth or development and individual variation in behaviour has received little attention. We used brief temperature manipulations, independent of food availability, to stimulate compensatory growth in juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. Here, we examine how these manipulated growth trajectories affected the sexual responsiveness of the male fish at the time of sexual maturation, explore associations between reproductive behaviour and investment and lifespan and test whether the perceived time stress (until the onset of the breeding season) influenced such trade-offs. We found a negative impact of growth rate on sexual responsiveness: fish induced (by temperature manipulation) to grow slowest prior to the breeding season were consistently quickest to respond to the presence of a gravid female. This speed of sexual responsiveness was also positively correlated with the rate of development of sexual ornaments and time taken to build a nest. However, after controlling for effects of growth rate, those males that had the greatest sexual responsiveness to females had the shortest lifespan. Moreover, the time available to compensate in size before the onset of the breeding season (time stress) affected the magnitude of these effects. Our results demonstrate that developmental perturbations in early life can influence mating behaviour, with long-term effects on longevity.

  4. Sexism, Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    SEXISM , SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: TOWARD CONCEPTUAL CLARITY Dr. Richard Harris Department of Social Work and Center for Policy...00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sexism , Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Sexual Harassment .........................................................................................2 Sexism

  5. Psychosexual correlates of sexual double standard endorsement in adolescent sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerink, Peggy; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; van den Eijnden, Regina; ter Bogt, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the sexual double standard, more insight is needed into the conditions

  6. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  7. Psychosexual correlates of sexual double standard endorsement in adolescent sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerink, Peggy; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; van den Eijnden, Regina; ter Bogt, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the sexual double standard, more insight is needed into the conditions

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  9. An Internet study of men sexually attracted to children: Sexual attraction patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J Michael; Hsu, Kevin J; Bernhard, Paula A

    2016-10-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first large study of the attractions of child-attracted men recruited in any manner other than their being charged with legal offenses. We recruited 1,189 men from websites for adults attracted to children. Men in our sample were highly attracted to children, and they were much less attracted to adults, especially to adult men. However, men varied with respect to which combination of gender and age they found most attractive. Men in our sample were especially attracted to pubescent boys and prepubescent girls. Their self-reported attraction patterns closely tracked the age/gender gradient of sexual arousal established in prior research. Consistent with the gradient, men most attracted to prepubescent children were especially likely to have bisexual attractions to children. Pedohebephilia-attraction to sexually immature children-is best considered a collection of related if distinct sexual orientations, which vary in the particular combination of gender and sexual maturity that elicits greatest sexual attraction. Finally, our study reveals the potential power and efficiency of studying highly cooperative child-attracted men recruited via the Internet. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. [Sexual dysfunction in men with spinal injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stien, Ragnar

    2008-02-14

    Spinal injuries may disturb men's sexual functions in various ways. Review article based on extensive clinical experience, lecturing, research and selected articles. A spinal injury may disrupt or disturb the connection between the brain's main centres for sexual function to the genitals. This often leads to extensive problems with erection, ejaculation, orgasm and fertility. Hormonal affection of sexuality is not much altered. Libido problems are of a more psychological nature, such as a poor self-esteem and lack of understanding from the surroundings. Sedative effects of medicines affect all aspects of sexuality. About 80% of men with spinal injuries have erection problems; mainly erection of short duration that can be treated with medicines administered orally (such as phosphodiesterase inhibitors) or by self injection of alpha-adrenergic inhibitors directly into the sinusoids in the penis. Only 10-15% ejaculate spontaneously. Ejaculation may be assisted in various ways, the vibro-ejaculation method being the most effective. The semen quality is reduced, possibly because of altered neurogen control of sperm maturation. Modern techniques for in vitro fertilisation combined with assisted ejaculation and careful control of the semen quality, has made it possible for most spinal-injured men to have their own children.

  11. Sexual Scripts and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Black Heterosexual Men: Development of the Sexual Scripts Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J.; Noar, Seth M.; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interv...

  12. Abused Sexuality- Experience of Sexuality Post Experiences of Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda Jalote

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse has been happening from times immemorial and is that brutal aspect of society which also talk about spirituality, peace and harmony in the same breath. Youth gets irrevocably scarred by such childhood traumas which linger on in their adult life too. In the present study, an effort was made to study and understand how heterosexual and queer youth in contemporary middle class in Delhi explore the relationship sexual abuse survivors have with their own sexuality and how their negotiate their sexual selves. The secondary aim of the study was to investigate the function and effects of guilt, shame, desire, fantasies and gender roles in their lives and how, if at all, they connect to the experiences of sexual assault suffered by individuals within this socio-cultural group. The approach that frames this study is a discourse analytic approach and this is seen as central to the methodology of this study and the language used to talk about the findings and implications of this research.

  13. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdun Kuyucu; Ozgul Tap

    2009-01-01

    Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf) follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted til...

  14. The stress of maternal separation causes misprogramming in the postnatal maturation of rat resistance arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reho, John J; Fisher, Steven A

    2015-11-01

    We examined the effect of stress in the first 2 wk of life induced by brief periods of daily maternal separation on developmental programming of rat small resistance mesenteric arteries (MAs). In MAs of littermate controls, mRNAs encoding mediators of vasoconstriction, including the α1a-adrenergic receptor, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, and CPI-17, the inhibitory subunit of myosin phosphatase, increased from after birth through sexual [postnatal day (PND) 35] and full maturity, up to ∼80-fold, as measured by quantitative PCR. This was commensurate with two- to fivefold increases in maximum force production to KCl depolarization, calcium, and the α-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, and increasing systolic blood pressure. Rats exposed to maternal separation stress as neonates had markedly accelerated trajectories of maturation of arterial contractile gene expression and function measured at PND14 or PND21 (weaning), 1 wk after the end of the stress protocol. This was suppressed by the α-adrenergic receptor blocker terazosin (0.5 mg·kg ip(-1)·day(-1)), indicating dependence on stress activation of sympathetic signaling. Due to the continued maturation of MAs in control rats, by sexual maturity (PND35) and into adulthood, no differences were observed in arterial function or response to a second stressor in rats stressed as neonates. Thus early life stress misprograms resistance artery smooth muscle, increasing vasoconstrictor function and blood pressure. This effect wanes in later stages, suggesting plasticity during arterial maturation. Further studies are indicated to determine whether stress in different periods of arterial maturation may cause misprogramming persisting through maturity and the potential salutary effect of α-adrenergic blockade in suppression of this response.

  15. A Set Theoretical Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    Maturity Model research in IS has been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. To address these criticisms, this paper proposes a novel set-theoretical approach to maturity models ch...

  16. Sexuality in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Sapetti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Just as the body and its functions undergo changes with age, in the same way sexuality shares this aging process. However, remember a golden rule that we are sexual since we are born until we die; only possibilities are modified with the passage of the years. This article intends to show the changes that occur in the sexual response of the elderly. If sexual life during youth was pleasant and satisfactory this will condition sexuality in the socalled third age and the elderly seek to maintain it, this is not the case for those who had a dysfunctional past. This article briefly describes the andropause and the SIM, vicissitudes, changes and differences in sexual response and chances to maintain eroticism in the older adult. 

  17. Sexuality Following Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Serefoglu, Ege C; Albersen, Maarten;

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Radical prostatectomies can result in urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction. Traditionally, these issues have been studied separately, and the sexual problem that has received the most focus has been erectile dysfunction. AIM: To summarize the literature on sexually related side...... effects and their consequences after radical prostatectomy and focus on the occurrence and management of problems beyond erectile dysfunction. METHODS: The literature on sexuality after radical prostatectomy was reviewed through a Medline search. Original research using quantitative and qualitative...... methodologies was considered. Priority was given to studies exploring aspects of sexuality other than erectile function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence, predictive factors, and management of post-prostatectomy sexual problems beyond erectile dysfunction. RESULTS: Most patients will develop urinary...

  18. Mediators of Sexual Revictimization Risk in Adult Sexual Assault Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  19. Sexual compulsion--relationship with sex, attachment and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Katz, Lichen; Eberhardt, Hila; Cohen, Koby; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Sexual addiction, also known as hypersexual disorder, is associated with serious psychosocial problems for many people. This study used questionnaires to investigate the effects of gender, sexual orientation and attachment (avoidance and anxiety) on sexual compulsion among 100 heterosexual and homosexual men and women. A positive correlation was found between anxious attachment and sexual compulsivity (r =0.46; p sexual compulsivity (r = 0.39; p £ 0.01) in all participants. Secondly, an analysis of covariance showed a gender by sexual orientation interaction effect [F(1,103) = 6.39, p sexual compulsivity. A follow-up comparison showed that lesbian women had higher rates of sexual compulsivity than heterosexual women [t(2, 50) = 5.08, p sexual compulsivity between homosexual and heterosexual men [t(2, 50) = 1.30,p = N.S.]. The results provide preliminary evidence for an association between attachment and sexual compulsivity and the effects of gender and sexual orientation on sexual compulsivity.

  20. SEXUALITY AND PSYCHOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Škodlar, Borut; Žunter Nagy, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual disorders of patients with psychoses are frequently neglected and under-investigated. The main purpose of the present study is to discuss the subjective experience of sexuality in patients with psychosis within the general psychodynamic and phenomenological understandings of psychotic states. The authors, both psychotherapists, dealing with patients with psychoses, reflected experiences from their clinical work with the help of the conceptual frameworks of psychodynami...

  1. Aging and sexuality.

    OpenAIRE

    Holzapfel, S.

    1997-01-01

    Recent research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. In men, greater physical stimulation is required to attain and maintain erections, and orgasms are less intense. In women, menopause terminates fertility and produces changes ste...

  2. [Depressive symptoms and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution and human sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory.

  4. Produção de bovinos em pastagens de capim-braquiária diferidas Bovine production on deferred signalgrass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante os meses de janeiro a setembro de 2004 (ano 1 e de 2005 (ano 2, foram avaliados os efeitos dos períodos de diferimento (ano 1: 103, 121, 146 e 163 dias; ano 2: 73, 103, 131 e 163 dias e de pastejo (1, 29, 57 e 85 dias na produção de forragem e no desempenho de bovinos de corte em pastagens diferidas de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, segundo o esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com duas repetições. Houve variação na produção de forragem entre os anos. Pastagens diferidas por maior período possuíram maiores massas de forragem total e forragem morta. Com o aumento do período de pastejo, diminuiram as massas de forragem total e forragem verde e aumentou a massa de forragem morta. A composição química da forragem da amostra de simulação de pastejo foi modificada pelos períodos de diferimento e de pastejo. Não houve efeito dos períodos de diferimento e de pastejo sobre o consumo do suplemento, expresso em porcentagem do peso corporal. O desempenho dos bovinos diminuiu durante o período de pastejo no ano 1 (de 0,739 para 0,467 kg/animal.dia e no ano 2 (de 0,885 para 0,189 kg/animal.dia e foi maior em pastagens diferidas por menor período no ano 2 (0,692 kg/animal.dia. O ganho de peso por área foi maior em pastagens diferidas por menor período no ano 2 (4,87 kg/ha.dia. Na região de Viçosa, a produção de bovinos em recria em pastagens diferidas melhora quando o pasto adubado e suplementado de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk é diferido por cerca de 70 dias e utilizado a partir do início do mês de julho.Throughout January to September 2004 (first year and 2005 (second year, the effects of 103, 121, 146 and 163-day (first year, and 73, 103, 131 and 163-day (second year deferring periods, as well as 1, 29, 57 and 85-day grazing on forage production and beef cattle performance in Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk were evaluated. Randomized block

  5. Sexual deviance and psychopathy as risk factors for sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Karla Jean

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of psychopathy and sexual deviance in sexual offenders (N = 76). The relationship between psychopathy and sexual deviance was assessed in terms of their independence and whether they interacted to increase sexual recidivism significantly. The predictive values of psychopathy and sexual deviance as individual risk factors were also explored. Psychopathy and sexual deviance as general constructs were independent, although a number of specific aspects of psy...

  6. Phenotype of normal hairline maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassman, William R; Pak, Jae P; Kim, Jino

    2013-08-01

    Hairlines change shape with age, starting at birth. A good head of hair is frequently present some time after ages 3 to 5 years. The look of childhood has its corresponding hairline, and, as the child grows and develops into adulthood, facial morphology migrate changes from a childlike look to a more mature look. This article discusses the dynamics of hairline evolution and the phenotypic variations of the front and side hairlines in men and women. A modeling system is introduced that provides a common language to define the various anatomic points of the full range of hairlines.

  7. [Arrest of maturation in spermatogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, S; Bellocci, M; Martini, M; Bruno, B; Moscardelli, S; Fabbrini, A; Properzi, G

    1982-07-30

    The ultrastructural aspects of the germinal epithelium of 10 infertile men affected by maturative arrest of spermatogenesis were studied. We noted an increased number of malformed germinal cells. Marginal nuclear vescicles were present in spermatogonia of patients affected by spermatogonial arrest. The few spermatid present in the germinal epithelium of the patients affected by a spermatidic arrest presented changes of the nuclear condensation, the acrosome, and the tail. The Sertoli cells presented an immature aspect of the nucleus and changes of the "mantle". A possible correlation between the Sertoli cells changes and the altered spermatogenesis was proposed.

  8. Technology maturity and technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underhill, Gary K.; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W.; Jones, Robert L.; Michael, Herbert K.; Powell, Paul H.; Riemann, Carl F.; Rios-Castellon, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Burchard P.; Wilson, John S.

    1976-01-01

    All of the work reported in the preceding chapters was performed in order to assess the technical, economic, and energetic feasibility of proceeding with more detailed studies of the geopressured geothermal resource. The preliminary conceptual design and costing activities represented the prime activity for component by component review of the maturity of the technology available for resource utilization facilities. The economics and energetics studies focussed attentions on the areas of major capital and energy investment; these results comprise a useful guide for focussing design in order to reduce initial and operations and maintenance costs and/or investment. The following presents a discussion of the primary technical problems identified.

  9. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

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  10. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  11. The sexual and ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupančič Alenka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the crucial ontological implications of the psychoanalytic theory of sexuality in its Freudo-Lacanian orientation. As irreducible to different sexual practices and contents, the concept of sexuality obtains conceptual weight that makes it particularly relevant for philosophical ontological thinking. Starting from the hypothesis that something about sexuality is constitutively unconscious - that is to say, existing only in the form of the unconscious - the paper points at the singular short-circuit of the epistemological and ontological level which is at work in psychoanalytic theory, and which cannot be neglected in philosophical examination of the relation between knowledge and being.

  12. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  13. Sexuality in transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik

    2015-01-01

    Through an investigation of a reported rape, this article suggests that we conceive sexuality as a transitional object that changes and transforms depending on space and temporality. This makes sexuality difficult to grasp within specific and stable frames of gender and power analysis. Applying...... such an approach, the complexities of sexual assault, changing power relations and unstable narratives of gender and sexuality are illuminated. The analysis shows that the traditional divide between public and private has dissolved and that public spaces of pop culture are drawn into spaces of intimacy and thereby...

  14. Sexual orientation disparities in sexually transmitted infections: examining the intersection between sexual identity and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G

    2013-02-01

    The terms MSM (men who have sex with men) and WSW (women who have sex with women) have been used with increasing frequency in the public health literature to examine sexual orientation disparities in sexual health. These categories, however, do not allow researchers to examine potential differences in sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk by sexual orientation identity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigated the relationship between self-reported STIs and both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. Additionally, this study examined the mediating role of victimization and STI risk behaviors on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported STIs. STI risk was found to be elevated among heterosexual-WSW and bisexual women, whether they reported same-sex partners or not, whereas gay-identified WSW were less likely to report an STI compared to heterosexual women with opposite sex relationships only. Among males, heterosexual-identified MSM did not have a greater likelihood of reporting an STI diagnosis; rather, STI risk was concentrated among gay and bisexual identified men who reported both male and female sexual partners. STI risk behaviors mediated the STI disparities among both males and females, and victimization partially mediated STI disparities among female participants. These results suggest that relying solely on behavior-based categories, such as MSM and WSW, may mischaracterize STI disparities by sexual orientation.

  15. [Sleep and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, G; Vlatkovic, D

    2006-03-22

    Our knowledge about the multiple aspects of sleep functions are still insufficient. Concerning the relationship between sleep and sexuality there are four points of view to take into account. Two observations: a spontaneous sexual excitement during REM sleep and that some anxious dreams can produce also sexual arousal. Two hypotheses: the erotic pleasure could be easier to perceive in a sleeping or dreaming state than in a waking state and some sleeping troubles could have an important influence on the sexual life of a couple.

  16. Fibromyalgia and sexual problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarpellini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to describe the recent literature concerning sexual dysfunction in fibromyalgic patients. To this end, we used the common online databases PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to June 2012 and searched for the key words fibromyalgia (FM and sexual dysfunction. All the studies examined underlined that FM is strictly associated with sexual dysfunction in women. The major findings observed were related to a decreased sexual desire and arousal, decreased experience of orgasm, and in some studies an increase in genital pain. The psychological aspects, together with the stress related to the constant presence of chronic widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances, are certainly a major factor that adversely affects the sexuality of the patient with FM. Moreover, the drugs most commonly used in these cases may interfere negatively on the sexuality and sexual function of these patients. Therefore, the therapeutic intervention should be targeted and the side effects should be weighed up against the positive effects. It is of the utmost importance to recognise the problem of sexuality and sexual dysfunction in a more complex form of its expression and undertake a multidisciplinary therapeutic intervention to improve the quality of FM patients’ life.

  17. Fibromyalgia and sexual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzichi, L; Giacomelli, C; Rossi, A; Sernissi, F; Scarpellini, P; Consensi, A; Bombardieri, S

    2012-09-28

    The aim of this review was to describe the recent literature concerning sexual dysfunction in fibromyalgic patients. To this end, we used the common online databases PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to June 2012) and searched for the key words fibromyalgia (FM) and sexual dysfunction. All the studies examined underlined that FM is strictly associated with sexual dysfunction in women. The major findings observed were related to a decreased sexual desire and arousal, decreased experience of orgasm, and in some studies an increase in genital pain. The psychological aspects, together with the stress related to the constant presence of chronic widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances, are certainly a major factor that adversely affects the sexuality of the patient with FM. Moreover, the drugs most commonly used in these cases may interfere negatively on the sexuality and sexual function of these patients. Therefore, the therapeutic intervention should be targeted and the side effects should be weighed up against the positive effects. It is of the utmost importance to recognise the problem of sexuality and sexual dysfunction in a more complex form of its expression and undertake a multidisciplinary therapeutic intervention to improve the quality of FM patients' life.

  18. Validation of endoscopy for determination of maturity in small salmonids and sex of mature individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erica A. Swenson; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Philip J. Howell

    2007-01-01

    Fish maturity status, sex ratio, and age and size at first maturity are important parameters in population assessments and life history studies. In most empirical studies of these variables, fish are sacrificed and dissected to obtain data. However, maturity status and the sex of mature individuals can be determined by inserting an endoscope through a small incision in...

  19. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... of maturity models. Specifically, it explores maturity models literature in IS and standard guidelines, if any to develop maturity models, challenges identified and solutions proposed. Our systematic literature review of IS publications revealed over hundred and fifty articles on maturity models. Extant...

  20. Producción y calidad del forraje diferido de Panicum coloratum L. en dos periodos de diferimiento y tres momentos de defoliación Production and quality of Panicum coloratum L. deferred forage with two deferred period and three times of defolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Steinberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas pecuarios de las áreas subtropicales de la Argentina utilizan en invierno forrajes diferidos, provenientes del crecimiento acumulado en verano de gramíneas megatérmicas o pasturas naturales. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la producción de materia seca, porcentajes de hojas, tallos, proteína bruta, fibra detergente neutra, fibra detergente ácida, cenizas y digestibilidad del diferido de Panicum coloratum cv Verde. Se evaluaron dos periodos de diferimiento: diferido total (DT, forraje acumulado desde el rebrote en primavera y diferido parcial (DP, forraje acumulado desde un corte a fines de diciembre y ambos con tres oportunidades de defoliación: temprano (mayo; intermedio (julio y tardío (agosto. DT produjo más materia seca, pero con alta proporción de tallos, mayor cantidad de fibra y menor porcentaje de proteínas y cenizas; mientras que DP presentó menos tallos y más hojas y como consecuencia mayor porcentaje de proteínas y cenizas. Se concluye que P. coloratum es un recurso adecuado para diferir, sólo si se lo utiliza con un período corto de diferido y momentos tempranos de uso, ya que presenta un nivel mínimo de proteína suficiente para satisfacer los requerimientos de los animales sin la necesidad de realizar suplementación nitrogenada y valores superiores al 55% de digestibilidad.During winter the livestock production systems in subtropical areas of Argentina use deferred forage of native pasture or warm season grasses from the cumulative growth of the summer. The aim of this study was to determine dry matter production and percentage of leaves, stems, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ash and digestibility of deferred forage of Panicum coloratum cv Verde. Two deferred periods were evaluated: total deferred (TD, forage accumulated since the spring regrowth and partial deferred (PD, forage accumulated from a cut in late December, and both with three cut dates: early (May