WorldWideScience

Sample records for defensive earned run

  1. Some effects of overall rate of earning reinforcers on run lengths and visit durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonall, James S

    2006-07-01

    In a concurrent schedule, responding at each alternative is controlled by a pair of schedules that arrange reinforcers for staying at that alternative and reinforcers for switching to the other alternative. Each pair of schedules operates only while at the associated alternative. When only one pair of stay and switch schedules is presented, the rates of earning reinforcers for staying divided by the rates of earning reinforcers for switching controls the mean number responses in a visit and the mean duration of visits. The purpose of the present experiment was to see whether the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers changed the way that run length and visit duration were affected by the ratio of the rates of stay to switch reinforcers. Rats were exposed to pairs of stay and switch schedules that varied both the ratio of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers and the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers. Run lengths and visit durations were joint functions of the ratio of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers and the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers. These results shows that the effect of the ratio of the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers results from processes operating at the alternative, rather than from processes operating at both alternatives.

  2. The Short-Run Effects of the Croatian War on Education, Employment, and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecmanovic, Milica

    2013-01-01

    The recent war in Croatia (1991-1995) has had numerous adverse affects on the country and the economy as a whole. This article investigates the effect that the war had on the educational, employment, and earnings trajectories of the 1971 birth cohort of men. This birth cohort was very likely to be drafted into the armed forces. Using data from the…

  3. An Investigation of the Quality of Earnings Concept as Applied to Defense Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    conservative a company’s reporting methods are within generally accepted accounting principles ( GAAP )-- that is, the more likely the company is to minimize...during periods of inflation. (2) Accelerated depreciation methods as compared to methods that depreciate assets less rapidly. (3) Amortization of...impact on earnings quality. When a company uses accelerated depreciation for tax purposes and straight- line depreciation for reporting, the "flow through

  4. The U.S. Department of Defenses Earned Value ManagementAnalyst Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Military Departments or the Combat- ant Commands” ( Higgins and Ramsey, 2009, p. 2). 2 The Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) offers its workforce its...LeBlanc, Michelle Trigg, and Jonathan Higgins . The data call would not have been fielded without their expertise and support. Finally, we acknowledge...the BFM workforce. As indicated in Figure 3.1, EVM 101 (Fundamentals of EVM) is required for level I certification and EVM 201 ( Intermediate EVM) is

  5. Defense Industry Mergers and Monopoly Power: Analysis of Abnormal Earnings Using the Edwards-Bell-Ohlson Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heisey, J

    1997-01-01

    Recent defense industry consolidation has created several large defense firms. As a result of merger activity with their suppliers and competitors, these firms account for an increasing percentage of sales to the Department of Defense...

  6. Incentives and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings growth...... by investigating the effects that explicit short-run incentives and implicit incentives have on earnings growth. The model’s predictions are tested using personnel records from a large bank and are found to be consistent with the observed earnings growth during the first half of the employees’ careers....

  7. Statistical process control support during Defense Waste Processing Facility chemical runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) has been developed to ensure that the wasteforms produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will satisfy the regulatory and processing criteria that will be imposed. The PCCS provides rigorous, statistically-defensible management of a noisy, multivariate system subject to multiple constraints. The system has been successfully tested and has been used to control the production of the first two melter feed batches during DWPF Chemical Runs. These operations will demonstrate the viability of the DWPF process. This paper provides a brief discussion of the technical foundation for the statistical process control algorithms incorporated into PCCS, and describes the results obtained and lessons learned from DWPF Cold Chemical Run operations. The DWPF will immobilize approximately 130 million liters of high-level nuclear waste currently stored at the Site in 51 carbon steel tanks. Waste handling operations separate this waste into highly radioactive sludge and precipitate streams and less radioactive water soluble salts. (In a separate facility, soluble salts are disposed of as low-level waste in a mixture of cement slag, and flyash.) In DWPF, the precipitate steam (Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous or PHA) is blended with the insoluble sludge and ground glass frit to produce melter feed slurry which is continuously fed to the DWPF melter. The melter produces a molten borosilicate glass which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository

  8. Report on Allegation of Unsatisfactory Conditions Regarding Actions by the Defense Contract Management Agency, Earned Value Management Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    object ivity of Defen se Contract Management Agency to carry ou t its ea rn ed va lue managemen t oversight responsibilities; and DCMA Response: Non...Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302...Earned Value Management Center Director advised us that the 2-week time frame was “standard operating procedure” for performing compliance reviews at

  9. Earned Value Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson, J

    2002-01-01

    Earned Value Management is a methodology used to measure and communicate the real physical progress of a project and show its true cost situation. This tool was developed by the US Department of Defense in 1967 and later used successfully for monitoring DOE projects, in particular the US LHC accelerator project. A clear distinction must be made between an earned value management system and other tools under consideration or already existing at CERN which permit accurate predictions of the amount and date of future payments or a detailed follow up of contracts.

  10. Gap Analysis: Application to Earned Value Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, Gary O.; Franck, Raymond (Chip)

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program) Earned Value is regarded as a useful tool to monitor commercial and defense system acquisitions. This paper applies the theoretical foundations and systematics of Gap Analysis to improve Earned Value Management. As currently implemented, Earned Value inaccurately provides a higher value for the work performed. This preliminary research indicates that Earned Value calculations can be corrected. Value Analysis, properly defined and enacted,...

  11. Formal Specification and Run-time Monitoring Within the Ballistic Missile Defense Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caffall, Dale S; Cook, Thomas; Drusinsky, Doron; Michael, James B; Shing, Man-Tak; Sklavounos, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    .... Ballistic Missile Defense Advanced Battle Manager (ABM) project in an effort that is amongst the most comprehensive application of formal methods to a large-scale safety-critical software application ever reported...

  12. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  13. RUN1 and REN1 Pyramiding in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Crimson Seedless) Displays an Improved Defense Response Leading to Enhanced Resistance to Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe necator)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, Mario; Schlechter, Rudolf O.; Armijo, Grace; Solano, Esteban; Serrano, Carolina; Contreras, Rodrigo A.; Zúñiga, Gustavo E.; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Fungal pathogens are the cause of the most common diseases in grapevine and among them powdery mildew represents a major focus for disease management. Different strategies for introgression of resistance in grapevine are currently undertaken in breeding programs. For example, introgression of several resistance genes (R) from different sources for making it more durable and also strengthening the plant defense response. Taking this into account, we cross-pollinated P09-105/34, a grapevine plant carrying both RUN1 and REN1 pyramided loci of resistance to Erysiphe necator inherited from a pseudo-backcrossing scheme with Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis vinifera ‘Dzhandzhal Kara,’ respectively, with the susceptible commercial table grape cv. ‘Crimson Seedless.’ We developed RUN1REN1 resistant genotypes through conventional breeding and identified them by marker assisted selection. The characterization of defense response showed a highly effective defense mechanism against powdery mildew in these plants. Our results reveal that RUN1REN1 grapevine plants display a robust defense response against E. necator, leading to unsuccessful fungal establishment with low penetration rate and poor hypha development. This resistance mechanism includes reactive oxygen species production, callose accumulation, programmed cell death induction and mainly VvSTS36 and VvPEN1 gene activation. RUN1REN1 plants have a great potential as new table grape cultivars with durable complete resistance to E. necator, and are valuable germplasm to be included in grape breeding programs to continue pyramiding with other sources of resistance to grapevine diseases. PMID:28553300

  14. Essays on Earnings Predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Mark

    This dissertation addresses the prediction of corporate earnings. The thesis aims to examine whether the degree of precision in earnings forecasts can be increased by basing them on historical financial ratios. Furthermore, the intent of the dissertation is to analyze whether accounting standards...... forecasts are not more accurate than the simpler forecasts based on a historical timeseries of earnings. Secondly, the dissertation shows how accounting standards affect analysts’ earnings predictions. Accounting conservatism contributes to a more volatile earnings process, which lowers the accuracy...... of analysts’ earnings forecasts. Furthermore, the dissertation shows how the stock market’s reaction to the disclosure of information about corporate earnings depends on how well corporate earnings can be predicted. The dissertation indicates that the stock market’s reaction to the disclosure of earnings...

  15. Women's Earnings: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, women's real earnings rose whereas those of men declined. Even as the gender pay gap narrowed, earnings differences between white women and black and Hispanic women continued to grow. (Author)

  16. The Entrepreneurial Earnings Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing; Åstebro, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A review of recent evidence on relative earnings from entrepreneurship versus wage work presents a puzzle: why do individuals become entrepreneurs when entrepreneurs on average apparently earn less than employees? After considering several potential explanations, we empirically analyze one: income...

  17. Mendeteksi Earning Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahim Abdurahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membahas perkembangan model-model yang dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi adanya earnings management berdasarkan akrual (accrual-based models. Masing-masing model memiliki asumsi dan metoda yang berbeda dalam mendeteksi adanya earnings management. Masing-masing model memiliki kelemahan-kelemahan yang melekat disamping kelebihan-kelebihan yang dimilikinya. Dari keempat model yang dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi earnings management yaitu, Healy Model, DeAngelo Model, Jones model, Modified Jones model dan Industry model, diuji oleh Dechow et al. (1995, dalam hal tingkat keakuratannya dalam mendeteksi adanya earnings management. Masing-masing model diuji tingkat kemungkinannya memiliki kesalahan dalam mengukur adanya earnings management dengan tipe kesalahan I dan tipe kesalahan II. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa sangat penting bagi para pengguna laporan keuangan untuk menginvestigasi faktor-faktor yang mendorong timbulnya earnings management yang berkaitan dengan kinerja keuangan perusahaan. Hasil lain diperoleh pula bahwa modified Jones Model (1991 memiliki kemampuan yang baik untuk mendeteksi adanya earnings management. 

  18. Share price reaction to earnings announcement on the JSE-ALtX: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of testing this concept has been the observation of stock market reaction to corporate ... earnings. Earnings also display management's competitiveness in profitably running a company ... drifts positively in the case of good announcements or negatively in the case of bad ... the gains from trading on annual earnings strategy.

  19. Industry earnings plummet 34%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.B.; Sanders, V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that earnings for the first 9 months of 1992 plunged from the year ago level for a sample of U.S. oil and gas companies. However, increased natural gas prices sparked improvement in the third quarter. Year to date earnings for a group of integrated and nonintegrated companies fell 34% to $8.6 billion compared to a year ago on revenues that fell less than 1%. But third quarter earnings for the group jumped 28% to $3.3 billion on revenues that increased 7% to $119.9 billion. Special charges for restructuring, writedowns, and property dispositions continued to affect companies in the third quarter

  20. Earned Value Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — EVMS is a system for measuring project performance and progress in an objective manner by supporting earned value management. EVMS has the ability to combine...

  1. Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on earnings management by investigating the frequency distribution of the reported earnings (changes) by use of the approach documented by Burgstahler & Dichev (1997). In this study, it is investigated whether Danish firms use earnings management to avoid earnings decreases (an...... losses); and second: firm managers control "manageable" accounting accruals in anticipation of managing earnings....... losses) by examining the earnings (changes) frequency distribution. This approach captures neither the magnitude nor how earnings are managed. Consequently, the relation between main "manageable" elements of working capital, current assets (among these the key components inventory and accounts receivable......) and current liabilities, and reported earnings (changes) are examined. To address the problem further the modified Jones (1991) model is used to identify and separate discretionary accruals in order to identify pre-managed earnings (changes). The frequency distribution of these calculated premanaged earnings...

  2. Earned value project management

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, Quentin W

    2010-01-01

    Organizations that follow the principles of good Earned Value Management (EVM) create an environment that allows teams to successfully operate and thrive ? even in the face of challenges that could negatively impact their projects. Earned Value Project Management (EVPM) is a methodology used to measure and communicate the real physical progress of a project taking into account the work completed, the time taken and the costs incurred to complete that work. As a result, EVPM allows more educated and effective management decision-making, which helps evaluate and control project risk by measuring project progress in monetary terms. In the first two editions of Earned Value Project Management, Quentin W. Fleming and Joel M. Koppelman provided guidance for project management practitioners already familiar with EVPM, was well as those who were new to the use of this technique. The third edition expanded the information available on of EVPM for medium and smaller projects while still being relevant for larger projec...

  3. Personality, Education and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Economists are only beginning to understand the relationship between personality traits and economic outcomes. This paper examines the influence of childhood social maladjustment on cognitive development, labor market earnings and career progression using longitudinal data drawn from the National Child Development Study. Net of differences in…

  4. Earned Income Tax Credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Oers; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn recent policy discussions in the Netherlands, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been put forward as an effective instrument to reduce the unemployment rate among low-skilled workers. Using the MIMIC model, this article shows that a targeted EITC at low incomes indeed seems

  5. Presentation of 2004 earnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This presentation offers financial information on the AREVA Group earnings for the year 2004. With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, Areva offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The Group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. (A.L.B.)

  6. Industry Valuation Driven Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Jiao (Tao); G.M.H. Mertens (Gerard); P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates whether industry valuation impacts firms’ earnings management decisions. Existing accounting literature assumes that industry valuation has a constant impact on this decision. We argue that a higher industry valuation increases the perceived benefits of earnings

  7. Engaging in Earnings Management to Avoid Negative Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Subekti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the earnings management behavior of companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (ISE. Specifically, the study investigates whether companies engaging in real earnings management or accrual management intent to avoid negative earnings; it also examines whether earnings management behavior supports efficient contracting or opportunistic behavior perspective. The sample of this study comprised 166 firm-years of manufacturing industrial sector during the period 2004 – 2005. Using multiple regressions, the study finds evidence that the companies engage in both earnings management, which are discretionary expenses (proxy of real earnings management and accruals management. This evidence supports the studies of Graham, Harvey, & Rajgopal (2005 and Roychowdhury (2006. Another result shows that the real earnings management conducted by the companies is efficient partially, while the accruals management is opportunistic.

  8. Running the running

    OpenAIRE

    Cabass, Giovanni; Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We use the recent observations of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite experiment to place constraints on the running $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s} = \\mathrm{d}n_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ and the running of the running $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}} = \\mathrm{d}\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ of the spectral index $n_{\\mathrm{s}}$ of primordial scalar fluctuations. We find $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s}=0.011\\pm0.010$ and $\\beta_\\mathrm{s}=0.027\\...

  9. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Talented individuals are seen as drivers of long-term growth, but how do they realize their full potential? In this paper, I show that lifetime earnings of high-IQ men and women are substantially influenced by their personality traits, in addition to intelligence and education. Personality traits......, as identified in a factor model, significantly affect earnings, but not for young workers. The effects are furthermore heterogeneous by educational attainment. For women, personality traits do not affect family earnings in the same way as own earnings. Personality and IQ also influence earnings indirectly...... through education, which has sizeable positive rates of return for men in this sample. Women’s returns to education past a bachelor’s degree are lowered through worse marriage prospects, which offset gains to education in terms of own earnings. The causal effect of education is identified through matching...

  10. Birth Order, Schooling, and Earnings.

    OpenAIRE

    Behrman, Jere R; Taubman, Paul

    1986-01-01

    Birth-order effects are posited by many to affect earnings and schooling. The authors show how such effects can be interpreted to shift either the earnings possibility frontier for siblings or parental preferences. The authors find empirical evidence for birth- order effects on (age-adjusted) schooling and on earnings for young U.S. adults, though the latter is not robust for all specifications. The examination of intrahousehold allocations suggests that these birth-order differences occur, d...

  11. Obesity, Unemployment, and Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Härkönen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the effects of obesity—a clear signal of weight abnormality—on unemployment and earnings among Finnish men and women. Our empirical data consist of the last four waves (waves 4 to 8 of the Finnish section of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP data collected between 1998 and 2001. According to our results, obese women have a significantly higher risk of unemployment (even after controlling for age, level of education and other related factors, than women who are not obese. Furthermore, the generally weaker occupational positions of obese women tend to translate to lower earnings. Overall, obese women are more likely to have weaker labour market attachment  and hold socio-economically weaker positions. Similar results were not found among men. Thus, our results indicate the presence of gender discrimination in the Finnish labour market. In the conclusions we further discuss weight related impacts on succeeding in the labour market, but also its role as a possible risk factor in drifting away from employment. We reflect on this issue as a form of inequality that can have an increasing significance in the future.

  12. 7 CFR 1767.25 - Retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retained earnings. 1767.25 Section 1767.25....25 Retained earnings. The retained earnings accounts identified in this section shall be used by all RUS borrowers. Retained Earnings 433-439 [Reserved] Retained Earnings 433-439 [Reserved] ...

  13. Within- and cross-firm mobility and earnings growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Halliday, Timothy; Koch, Alexander

    , we show that cross-firm moves at the non-executive level provide sizeable short-run gains (similar to the effect of a promotion), consistent with the existing literature. These gains, however, appear modest when compared with the persistent impact on earnings growth of promotions (either within...... or across firms) and subsequent mobility at a higher hierarchy level....

  14. Earnings, employment and income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Haas, C.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates the importance of labour earnings for income and income inequality -also among top incomes. With a focus on employees and Europe, the chapter elaborates on the relationship between the household income distribution and the individual earnings distribution. On the one hand,

  15. 47 CFR 32.4550 - Retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4550 Retained earnings. (a) This account shall include the undistributed balance of retained earnings derived from the...

  16. Earnings Public-Use File, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Social Security Administration released Earnings Public-Use File (EPUF) for 2006. File contains earnings information for individuals drawn from a systematic random...

  17. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  18. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of personality traits and IQ on lifetime earnings of the men and women of the Terman study, a high-IQ U.S. sample. Age-by-age earnings profiles allow a study of when personality traits affect earnings most, and for whom the effects are strongest. I document...... a concave life-cycle pattern in the payoffs to personality traits, with the largest effects between the ages of 40 and 60. An interaction of traits with education reveals that personality matters most for highly educated men. The largest effects are found for Conscientiousness, Extraversion...

  19. Management Information & Control for Earnings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Provides the ability to track and manage earnings inquiries from the general public by automated selection of cases for quality review. It also provides Management...

  20. Social desirability of earnings tests

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie; Pestieau, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    In many countries pension systems involve some form of earnings test; i.e., an invidual's benefits are reduced if he has labor income. This paper examines whether or not such earning tests emerge when pension system and income tax are optimally designed. We use a simple model with individuals differing both in productivity and their health status. The working life of an individual has two 'endings': an official retirement age at which he starts drawing pension benefits (while possibly supplem...

  1. Can earnings manipulation create value?

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Miglo

    2008-01-01

    Existing literature usually considers earnings manipulation to be a negative social phenomenon. We argue that earnings manipulation can be a part of the equilibrium relationships between firm's insiders and outsiders. We consider an optimal contract between an entrepreneur and an investor where the entrepreneur is subject to a double moral hazard problem (one being the choice of production effort and the other being intertemporal substitution, which consists of transferring cash flows between...

  2. Earnings Inequality in International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Peracchi, Franco

    1999-01-01

    The increase in dispersion of personal earnings in the USA has received considerable attention and has been analyzed extensively. The evidence for other countries is less systematic. There are a few comparative studies, but they tend to focus on descriptions of the overall distribution of income or earnings. This paper compares the USA with other countries in order to understand whether the US experience is relatively unique or is instead part of a global (or perhaps industrial countries) phe...

  3. Self-Esteem and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Drago, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Recent research in economics suggests a positive association between self-esteem and earnings. A major problem in this literature is that from simple cross-sectional wage regressions it is not possible to conclude that self-esteem has a causal impact on earnings. While classical measurement error leads to an attenuation bias, reverse causality and omitted variable are likely to drive the OLS coefficient on self-esteem upward. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that adminis...

  4. HMO penetration and physicians' earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M

    1999-11-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate whether cross-sectional variations in enrollment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) affected physicians' earnings and hourly income in 1990. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 4,577 younger physicians (penetration is endogenous and used the instrumental variables approach to obtain unbiased estimates. HMO penetration had a negative and statistically significant impact on physicians earnings in 1990. A doubling of the average level of HMO penetration in the market is estimated to reduce annual earnings by 7% to 10.7%, and hourly earnings by approximately 6% to 9%. It appears that HMOs were successful in reducing physicians' annual and per hour earnings in 1990, presumably through a combination of fewer visits and lower payment rates for people covered by HMOs. Although these results cannot be generalized to all physicians, the experience of a younger cohort of physicians may still be a good indicator of the future effects of HMOs because younger physicians may be more susceptible to market forces than older and more established physicians. Moreover, these results may be somewhat conservative because they reflect market behavior in 1990, several years before the rapid growth and more aggressive market behavior of HMOs in recent years.

  5. Market Response toward Accrual Earnings Management, Real Transactions, and Strategic Revenue Recognition - Earnings Management1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windy Puspita Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the capital market response to a variety of earnings management tools i.e., accrual-based earnings management, real transaction activities, and strategic revenue recognition. We measure the market response to the information content of earnings by the earnings response coefficient (ERC. By using pooled-OLS regression from 748 firm-years data of public listed companies on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX in 2004-2009, we find some evidence of a negative association between earnings response coefficients and information content of earnings that contained earnings management. Our study find that real transactions earnings management in operating activities has negative association with earnings response coefficient, but we do not find any evidence from the other earnings management tools. The findings of this study imply that the market participants are able to capture a certain kind of earnings management behaviour that may reduce the earnings response coefficient.

  6. Earnings Management, Value Relevance Of Earnings and Book Value of Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Subekti, Imam

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies examining relationship between earnings management and value relevance of accounting information show that earnings management decrease value relevance of accounting information. Generally, the studies apply accruals earnings management. In contrast, the present study applies integrated earnings management proxies i.e. real and accruals earnings manage-ment. Real earnings management proxies are measured by abnormal cash flow of operation, ab-normal production cost, and abnorm...

  7. Thoughts on Earned Value Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pido, Kelle

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of Earned Value reporting and Earned Value Metrics (EVM) and the implementation for the Constellation Program. EVM is used to manage both the contract and civil service workforce, and used as a measure of contractor costs and performance. The Program EVM is not as useful for Level of Effort tasking, for either contractor, or civil service employees. Some issues and concerns in reference to EVM and the process for the use of EVM for Mission assurance are reviewed,

  8. Social Interaction and Market Reaction to Earnings News

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiguang

    2017-01-01

    This study documents strong effects of social interaction on investors’ attention and interpretations of earnings news. I estimate the firm-level investor social network and find that higher connectedness increases the announcement price reaction, reduces post-announcement drift, and decreases the long-run impact of the news on return volatility. I also find that social interaction triggers persistent disagreement-driven volume during and after the announcement. The evidence combined highligh...

  9. Sexual orientation, disclosure and earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, E.; Berkhout, P.

    2008-01-01

    Gay/bisexual workers tend to earn less than other men. Does this occur because of discrimination or because of selection? In this paper we address this question and collect new information on workplace disclosure to separate out discrimination effects from selection effects. Using a large sample of

  10. Physical Attractiveness, Employment, and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Pfeifer

    2011-01-01

    Survey data is used to estimate the impact of physical attractiveness rated by the interviewer as well as by the respondent on employment probability and labor income of men and women. In addition to mean linear and non-linear effects on earnings, simultaneous quantile regressions are applied to analyze heterogeneity across the wage distribution.

  11. Market liquidity around earnings announcements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, M.

    2002-01-01

    Prior literature indicates that bid-ask spreads are higher and depths are lower around earnings announcements than during non-announcement periods. This thesis investigates two important aspects of this drop in market liquidity, namely (a) the ability of management to mitigate the drop in market

  12. Measuring earnings quality: Evidence from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nurul Houqe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We utilize two basic approaches to measure the quality of earnings which control two different dimensions of earnings management. The research design is structured primary on the basis of calculating two different measures of the quality of earnings on the industry level and on the company level. We calculate earnings quality for New Zealand public firms from the OSIRIS (http://www.osiris.com database for 2004-2007. This research concludes that various stakeholders should apply more than one measure for the quality of earning in order to have strong evidence about the level of quality before taking any corrective action or making any decision related to that company. If one company is having low quality of earning according to one technique and high quality of earnings according to another, the stakeholders cannot have a final conclusion about that company and they need more investigations and analysis to assess the quality of earnings

  13. Improving the Measurement of Earnings Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Moira K.; Hryshko, Dmytro; Manovskii, Iourii

    The stochastic process for earnings is the key element of incomplete markets models in modern quantitative macroeconomics. We show that a simple modification of the canonical process used in the literature leads to a dramatic improvement in the measurement of earnings dynamics in administrative....... Accounting for these effects enables more accurate analysis using quantitative models with permanent and transitory earnings risk, and improves empirical estimates of consumption insurance against permanent earnings shocks....

  14. Do analysts disclose cash flow forecasts with earnings estimates when earnings quality is low?

    OpenAIRE

    Bilinski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cash flows are incrementally useful to earnings in security valuation mainly when earnings quality is low. This suggests that when earnings quality decreases, analysts will be more likely to supplement their earnings forecasts with cash flow estimates. Contrary to this prediction, we find that analysts do not disclose cash flow forecasts when the quality of earnings is low. This is because cash flow forecast accuracy depends on the accuracy of the accrual estimates and the precision of accrua...

  15. Liquidity Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matta, R.; Perotti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Can the risk of losses upon premature liquidation produce bank runs? We show how a unique run equilibrium driven by asset liquidity risk arises even under minimal fundamental risk. To study the role of illiquidity we introduce realistic norms on bank default, such that mandatory stay is triggered

  16. The gender earnings gap among pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M; Deziel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A gender earnings gap exists across professions. Compared with men, women earn consistently lower income levels. The determinants of wages and salaries should be explored to assess whether a gender earnings gap exists in the pharmacy profession. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the responses of male and female pharmacists' earnings with human-capital stock, workers' preferences, and opinion variables and (2) assess whether the earnings determination models for male and female pharmacists yielded similar results in estimating the wage-and-salary gap through earnings projections, the influence of each explanatory variable, and gender differences in statistical significance. Data were collected through the use of a 37-question survey mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, United States. Earnings functions were formulated and tested separately for male and female pharmacists using unlogged and semilog equation forms. Number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables were hypothesized to explain wage-and-salary differentials. The empirical evidence led to 3 major conclusions: (1) men's and women's earnings sometimes were influenced by different stimuli, and when they responded to the same variables, the effect often was different; (2) although the influence of some explanatory variables on earnings differed in the unlogged and semilog equations, the earnings projections derived from both equation forms for male and female pharmacists were remarkably similar and yielded nearly identical male-female earnings ratios; and (3) controlling for number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables reduced the initial unadjusted male-female earnings ratios only slightly, which pointed toward the presence of gender bias. After controlling for human-capital stock, job-related characteristics, and opinion variables, male pharmacists continued to earn higher income levels than female

  17. Measuring Uncertainty in Earned Value

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Defense is transforming its logistics and business systems to become agile, global-in-reach, and readily adaptable to evolving threats, all with significantly reduced Total Ownership Costs...

  18. Family Control and Earnings Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bona Sánchez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza la relación entre el control familiar y la calidad de la información contable en un contexto en el que el tradicional conflicto de agencia entre directivos y accionistas se desplaza a la divergencia de intereses entre accionistas controladores y minoritarios. Los resultados alcanzados muestran que, en comparación con las no familiares, las empresas de naturaleza familiar divulgan unos resultados de mayor calidad, tanto en términos de menores ajustes por devengo discrecionales como de mayor capacidad de los componentes actuales del resultado para predecir los cash flows futuros. Además, el aumento en los derechos de voto en manos de la familia controladora incrementa la calidad de los resultados contables. La evidencia obtenida se muestra consistente con la presencia de un efecto reputación/vinculación a largo plazo asociado a la empresa familiar. Adicionalmente, el trabajo refleja que a medida que disminuye la divergencia entre los derechos de voto y de cash flow en manos de la familia controladora, aumenta la calidad de la información contable.PALABRAS CLAVE: derechos de voto, divergencia, empresa familiar, calidad delresultado, reputación, beneficios privados.This work examines the relationship between family control and earnings quality in a context where the salient agency problem shifts away from the classical divergence between managers and shareholders to conflicts between the controlling owner and minority shareholders. The results reveal that, compared to non-family firms, family firms reveal higher earnings quality in terms of both lower discretionary accruals and greater predictability of future cash flows. They also show a positive relationship between the level of voting rights held by the controlling family and earnings quality. The evidence is consistent with the presence of a reputation/long-term involvement effect associated with the family firm. Moreover, the work reflects that, as the divergence

  19. Job Search and Earnings Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    David Turchick

    2014-01-01

    Measures of social mobility provide an extra dimension for testing job search models. The present note tests the dynamic model in [Acemoglu, D., 1999. Changes in unemployment and wage inequality: an alternative theory and some evidence. American Economic Review 89, 1259-1278] with respect to Fields’ mobility-as-an-equalizer-of-longer-term-incomes index. The 1980s in the U.S. were not only a period of raising inequality, but also one of longer-term earnings becoming even more unequal than shor...

  20. investors behavior, earnings management and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afraa Khzouri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the relationship between earnings management, governance and investors behavior, since this latter can inform about the nature of earnings management and can be considered as a governance mechanism to reduce accounts manipulations. On the basis of a sample of 700 American firms for the period of 1996-2006, our empirical results show that investors who take short positions, are able to interpret the information detected from the earnings management. The activity of these investors may be considered as an indicator of the quality of the governance structure and the presence and nature of earnings management. The under-reaction of investors to information leads to short-term sale of the shares of poorly governed firms and characterized by an opportunistic earnings management and to invest in firms well-governed and characterized by an informational earnings management therefore an abnormal profit can be realized.

  1. Abnormal Retained Earnings Around The World

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Paulo; Silva, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Using a firm-level survey database covering 50 countries we evaluate firms´ abnormal retained earnings. The results of our work indicate that firms located in emerging markets retain more earnings than firms from developed countries. On the other hand, firms located on common law based countries retain earnings above the expected and higher than firms placed on civil law based countries. A possible explanation, according to our results, can be seen in the economic growth that these countries ...

  2. Optimal earnings-related umemployment benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Taslimi, Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    Existing unemployment insurance systems in many OECD countries involve a ceiling on insurable earnings. The result is lower replacement rate for employees with relatively high earnings. This paper examines whether replacement rates should decrease as the level of earnings rises. The framework is a search equilibrium model where wages are determined by Nash bargaining between firms and workers, job search intensity is endogenous and workers are heterogeneous. The analysis suggests higher repla...

  3. THE ACCURACY OF EARNINGS FORECAST AND POST-IPO EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanthi Hutagaol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies showed that before IPO, many companies conducted earnings management in order to attractpotential investors through impressive earnings figures. This study aimed to investigate the tendency of earningsmanagement practice post - IPO. This practice of earnings management was motivated to preserve managers’reputation in achieving their earnings forecasts. Using a total of 165 IPOs in IDX during year 2000-2010, thisstudy employed descriptive analyses to identify the earnings management differences within the sample. A crosssectionanalysis was conducted to test the difference of earnings management indicator among the forecasters.Then, controlling for audit quality, ownership, firm size, and firm leverage, a regression analysis was performedto test the impact of earnings forecasts accuracy on the earnings management. The result of this research showedthat there was an indication that the forecasters conducted more earnings management than the non-forecasters.The study found that forecast accuracy was significantly related to managers’ behavior to manage post-IPOearnings. Further analysis showed that optimistic forecasters tended to engage more in more earning managementthan conservative forecasters. The cross section analysis confirmed that optimistic earnings forecast strengthenedthe relationship of forecast accuracy and post-IPO earnings management, while high audit quality failed toweaken it.

  4. Running Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Dalheimer, Matthias Kalle

    2006-01-01

    The fifth edition of Running Linux is greatly expanded, reflecting the maturity of the operating system and the teeming wealth of software available for it. Hot consumer topics such as audio and video playback applications, groupware functionality, and spam filtering are covered, along with the basics in configuration and management that always made the book popular.

  5. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  6. Insult to Injury: Disability, Earnings, and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Perry

    2012-01-01

    This study measures the longitudinal effect of disability on earnings, marriage, and divorce. The data come from the Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to administrative data on longitudinal earnings. Using event-study methods, the results show that the onset of a work-preventing disability is associated with a precipitous decline…

  7. The Earnings Gap between Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The size of the earnings gap between men and women has not changed substantially in recent years. The sustained earnings differential contrasts significantly with recent gains women have made in the job market. Several factors contribute to the wage differences: (1) The majority of women are in lower-paying occupations and lower-status jobs even…

  8. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; net earnings from self-employment. (a) Reporting requirements and conditions under which a report of earnings, that is, wages and/or net earnings from self-employment, is required. (1) If you have not reached...

  9. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2011-01-01

    The cross country running season has started well this autumn with two events: the traditional CERN Road Race organized by the Running Club, which took place on Tuesday 5th October, followed by the ‘Cross Interentreprises’, a team event at the Evaux Sports Center, which took place on Saturday 8th October. The participation at the CERN Road Race was slightly down on last year, with 65 runners, however the participants maintained the tradition of a competitive yet friendly atmosphere. An ample supply of refreshments before the prize giving was appreciated by all after the race. Many thanks to all the runners and volunteers who ensured another successful race. The results can be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/default.aspx CERN participated successfully at the cross interentreprises with very good results. The teams succeeded in obtaining 2nd and 6th place in the Mens category, and 2nd place in the Mixed category. Congratulations to all. See results here: http://www.c...

  10. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  11. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Chamizo

    2012-01-01

      On 17th January, as soon as the services were restored after the technical stop, sub-systems started powering on. Since then, we have been running 24/7 with reduced shift crew — Shift Leader and DCS shifter — to allow sub-detectors to perform calibration, noise studies, test software upgrades, etc. On 15th and 16th February, we had the first Mid-Week Global Run (MWGR) with the participation of most sub-systems. The aim was to bring CMS back to operation and to ensure that we could run after the winter shutdown. All sub-systems participated in the readout and the trigger was provided by a fraction of the muon systems (CSC and the central RPC wheel). The calorimeter triggers were not available due to work on the optical link system. Initial checks of different distributions from Pixels, Strips, and CSC confirmed things look all right (signal/noise, number of tracks, phi distribution…). High-rate tests were done to test the new CSC firmware to cure the low efficiency ...

  12. Intraoccupational Earnings Inequality. Human Capital and Institutional Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Jon

    1987-01-01

    Examines the distribution of earnings within occupations. Finds that these are more widely distributed than earnings among differing occupations. Suggests some gender differences in the processes generating earnings disparities within occupations. (CH)

  13. Earnings management, corporate governance and expense sticki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cost and expense stickiness is an important issue in accounting and economics research, and the literature has shown that cost stickiness cannot be separated from managers’ motivations. In this paper, we examine the effects that earnings management has on expense stickiness. Defining small positive profits or small earnings increases as earnings management, we observe significant expense stickiness in the non-earnings-management sub-sample, compared with the earnings-management sub-sample. When we divide expenses into R&D, advertising and other general expenses, we find that managers control expenses mainly by decreasing general expenses. We further examine corporate governance’s effect on expense stickiness. Using factor analysis, we extract eight main factors and find that good corporate governance reduces expense stickiness. Finally, we investigate the interaction effects of earnings management and corporate governance on expense stickiness. The empirical results show that good corporate governance can further reduce cost stickiness, although its effect is not as strong as that of earnings management.

  14. How do nonprofit hospitals manage earnings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Andrew J; Van Horn, R Lawrence

    2005-07-01

    We hypothesize that, unlike for-profit firms, nonprofit hospitals have incentives to manage earnings to a range just above zero. We consider two ways managers can achieve this. They can adjust discretionary spending [Hoerger, T.J., 1991. 'Profit' variability in for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Journal of Health Economics 10, 259-289.] and/or they can adjust accounting accruals using the flexibility inherent in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). To test our hypothesis we use regressions as well as tests of the distribution of earnings by Burgstahler and Dichev [Burgstahler, D., Dichev, I., 1997. Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses. Journal of Accounting and Economics 24, 99-126.] on a sample of 1,204 hospitals and 8,179 hospital-year observations. Our tests support the use of discretionary spending and accounting accrual management. Like Hoerger (1991), we find evidence that nonprofit hospitals adjust discretionary spending to manage earnings. However, we also find significant use of discretionary accruals (e.g., adjustments to the third-party-allowance, and allowance for doubtful accounts) to meet earnings objectives. These findings have two important implications. First, the previous evidence by Hoerger that nonprofit hospitals show less variation in income may at least partly be explained by an accounting phenomenon. Second, our findings provide guidance to users of these financial statements in predicting the direction of likely bias in reported earnings.

  15. Earnings Management: Obvious Phenomenon in Albanian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Llukani

    2013-07-01

    This paper is focused on reviewing the existing literature with regard to the Earnings Management in response to the growing pressure of investors, policy makers, and companies’ governance reform mechanisms to curb opportunistic behavior of the managers of these companies. It also examines the existence of this phenomenon in Albanian context as well as tests the importance of Modified Jones Model as an efficient tool for detection of abnormal accruals, used as a proxy for earnings management. The results show that firms in the Albanian market are engaged in earnings management initiatives.

  16. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Rakness.

    2013-01-01

    After three years of running, in February 2013 the era of sub-10-TeV LHC collisions drew to an end. Recall, the 2012 run had been extended by about three months to achieve the full complement of high-energy and heavy-ion physics goals prior to the start of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), which is now underway. The LHC performance during these exciting years was excellent, delivering a total of 23.3 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, 6.2 fb–1 at 7 TeV, and 5.5 pb–1 at 2.76 TeV. They also delivered 170 μb–1 lead-lead collisions at 2.76 TeV/nucleon and 32 nb–1 proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon. During these years the CMS operations teams and shift crews made tremendous strides to commission the detector, repeatedly stepping up to meet the challenges at every increase of instantaneous luminosity and energy. Although it does not fully cover the achievements of the teams, a way to quantify their success is the fact that that...

  17. Transforming Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Christopher J; Bunn, M. E; Lutes, Charles; Cavoli, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... Despite the resources and attention consumed by the war on terror, and recent decisions by the White House to curtail the growth of defense spending, the senior leadership of the Department of Defense (DoD...

  18. Hawaii Bottomfish Cost-Earnings Survey 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Main Hawaiian Islands bottomfish fishery for the 2010 operating year. Data collected include fisher classification,...

  19. Marianas Boat Fishing Cost Earnings Study 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the boat based fishing in the Mariana Archipelago fielded in 2011. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  20. Racial Earnings Differentials and Performance Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, John S.; O'Halloran, Patrick L.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative analysis between output-based payment and time rates payment is presented. It is observed that racial or gender earnings discrimination is more likely in time rates payment and supervisory evaluations.

  1. Cost Earnings Data 1993 - Hawaii Longline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected to support the first cost-earnings study of this fleet. Operational and vessel costs were collected by in-person interviews with vessel...

  2. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Earnings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Each year the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) sends SSA a file to be verified and matched against the Master Earnings File (MEF) and Employer Information File...

  3. Hawaii Charter Fishing Cost Earnings Survey 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the main Hawaiian Island Charter fishing fleet in 2012. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  4. Informativeness of accounting earnings in family firms

    OpenAIRE

    DOMINGO JAVIER SANTANA MARTÍN; JERÓNIMO PÉREZ ALEMÁN; CAROLINA BONA SÁNCHEZ

    2009-01-01

    This work examines the relationship between the family control and informativeness of accounting earnings in listed non-financial Spanish companies between 1997 and 2003. The results reveal a negative relationship between the family nature of the controlling shareholder and the credibility of accounting information. Moreover, as the level of voting rights in the hands of the family ultimate owner increases, the informativeness of earnings decreases. Only in family firms where the CEO is hired...

  5. Self-Employment, Earnings, and Sexual Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, Christopher; Jepsen, Lisa K.

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies document differences by sexual orientation in earnings and other labor-market outcomes, little is known about differences in self-employment. Our study contributes to both the self-employment literature and sexual-orientation literature by analyzing differences in self-employment rates and earnings by sexual orientation. Gay men are less likely to be self-employed than married men, whereas lesbians are equally likely to be self-employed as married women. We find that gay...

  6. Disparities in earnings and education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, P. Geetha

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of different levels of education, religion, caste as well as the impact of living in urban and rural communities on earnings in India. Besides these conventional stratification, yet another academic caste which influence earnings-the English language ability, is also examined. The paper uses a large cross-section sample of India Human Development Survey to estimate Mincer and augmented Mincer equations. The rates of return estimates obtained in these data and met...

  7. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  8. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN U.S. HOSPITALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Gang Nathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the hospital management practices of manipulating financial earnings within the bounds of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). We conduct regression analyses that relate earnings management to hospital characteristics to assess the economic determinants of hospital earnings management behavior. From the CMS Cost Reports we collected hospital financial data of all U.S. hospitals that request reimbursement from the federal government for treating Medicare patients, and regress discretionary accruals on hospital size, profitability, asset liquidity, operating efficiency, labor cost, and ownership. Hospitals with higher profit margin, current ratio, working capital, days of patient receivables outstanding and total wage are associated with more earnings management, whereas those with larger size and higher debt level, asset turnover, days cash on hand, fixed asset age are associated with lower level of earnings manipulation. Additionally, managers of non-profit hospitals are more likely to undertake some form of window-dressing by manipulating accounting accruals without changing business models or pricing strategies than their public hospital counterparts. We provide direct evidence of the use of discretionary accruals to manage financial earnings among U.S. hospitals and the finding has profound policy implications in terms of assessing the pervasiveness of accounting manipulation and the overall integrity of financial reporting in this very special public and quasi-public service sector.

  9. Geographic Differences in the Earnings of Economics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.; Xu, Weineng

    2014-01-01

    Economics has been shown to be a relatively high-earning college major, but geographic differences in earnings have been largely overlooked. The authors of this article use the American Community Survey to examine geographic differences in both absolute earnings and relative earnings for economics majors. They find that there are substantial…

  10. 18 CFR 367.2160 - Account 216, Unappropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Unappropriated retained earnings. 367.2160 Section 367.2160 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... retained earnings. This account must include the balances, either debit or credit, of unappropriated retained earnings arising from earnings of the service company. This account must not include any amounts...

  11. 48 CFR 52.234-4 - Earned Value Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earned Value Management....234-4 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 34.203(c), insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (JUL 2006) (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management system (EVMS...

  12. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 29th September at 18h. The 5.5km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at http://cern.ch/club...

  13. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2012-01-01

      On Wednesday 14 March, the machine group successfully injected beams into LHC for the first time this year. Within 48 hours they managed to ramp the beams to 4 TeV and proceeded to squeeze to β*=0.6m, settings that are used routinely since then. This brought to an end the CMS Cosmic Run at ~Four Tesla (CRAFT), during which we collected 800k cosmic ray events with a track crossing the central Tracker. That sample has been since then topped up to two million, allowing further refinements of the Tracker Alignment. The LHC started delivering the first collisions on 5 April with two bunches colliding in CMS, giving a pile-up of ~27 interactions per crossing at the beginning of the fill. Since then the machine has increased the number of colliding bunches to reach 1380 bunches and peak instantaneous luminosities around 6.5E33 at the beginning of fills. The average bunch charges reached ~1.5E11 protons per bunch which results in an initial pile-up of ~30 interactions per crossing. During the ...

  14. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2012-01-01

      With the analysis of the first 5 fb–1 culminating in the announcement of the observation of a new particle with mass of around 126 GeV/c2, the CERN directorate decided to extend the LHC run until February 2013. This adds three months to the original schedule. Since then the LHC has continued to perform extremely well, and the total luminosity delivered so far this year is 22 fb–1. CMS also continues to perform excellently, recording data with efficiency higher than 95% for fills with the magnetic field at nominal value. The highest instantaneous luminosity achieved by LHC to date is 7.6x1033 cm–2s–1, which translates into 35 interactions per crossing. On the CMS side there has been a lot of work to handle these extreme conditions, such as a new DAQ computer farm and trigger menus to handle the pile-up, automation of recovery procedures to minimise the lost luminosity, better training for the shift crews, etc. We did suffer from a couple of infrastructure ...

  15. How Sensitive is Intergenerational Earnings Mobility to Different Measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Mohammad Azhar; D. Munk, Martin; Bonke, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The article provides various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility based on Danish administrative register information. The aim is to calculate how sensitive the results are to different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components enabling the most accurate cross country comp...... find that intergenerational earnings mobility from father to son in Denmark is on the same level as in Sweden, Norway, and Finland, whereas the intergenerational earnings mobility in all the Nordic countries is found higher than in the UK and USA....

  16. Using the Pareto Distribution to Improve Estimates of Topcoded Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Armour; Richard V. Burkhauser; Jeff Larrimore

    2014-01-01

    Inconsistent censoring in the public-use March Current Population Survey (CPS) limits its usefulness in measuring labor earnings trends. Using Pareto estimation methods with less-censored internal CPS data, we create an enhanced cell-mean series to capture top earnings in the public-use CPS. We find that previous approaches for imputing topcoded earnings systematically understate top earnings. Annual earnings inequality trends since 1963 using our series closely approximate those found by Kop...

  17. Stock Prices and Earnings: A History of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia M. Dechow; Richard G. Sloan; Jenny Zha

    2014-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Accounting earnings summarize periodic corporate financial performance and are key determinants of stock prices. We review research on the usefulness of accounting earnings, including research on the link between accounting earnings and firm value and research on the usefulness of accounting earnings relative to other accounting and nonaccounting information. We also review research on the features of accounting earnings that make them ...

  18. Access and Diversity in the Running Start Program: A Comparison of Washington's Running Start Program to Other State Level Dual Enrollment Programs Hosted on a College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Since 1990, high school students in Washington have had the choice of earning college credit through the Running Start program. Running start is a dual enrollment and dual credit program that allows eleventh and twelfth grade high school students to take college courses at any of Washington's 34 community and technical colleges, Central Washington…

  19. Cameco sees improved earnings through nine months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Cameco Corporation says it had net earnings of $29 million in the first nine months of this year, compared to a profit of $5.4 million in the same period last year. The 1990 earnings do not include a $60.2 million gain on the sale of Cameco's Rabbit Lake assets. The increased earnings, the company says, reflected lower interest expense, gains on foreign exchange and improved product margins. Uranium concentrate sales volumes were virtually unchanged from last year, but sales revenues rose 5.6%, largely due to the mix of contracts, as Cameco continued to avoid the spot market, as it has since 1988, in favour of seeking longer term contracts at better prices

  20. Post-earnings announcement drift in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, William; Giannopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents evidence regarding the post-earnings announcement drift (PEAD) anomaly for the Greek market in the years 2000–2006 (covering earnings announcements in the years 2001–2007). The impact of the introduction of International Financial Reporting Standards on the size and prevalence of the PEAD anomaly is examined. Unlike recent evidence for the US market we find PEAD to be\\ud alive and well, and of growing importance in our Greek sample. It may be the adoption of international ...

  1. Family migration and relative earnings potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette

    2016-01-01

    of husband centered migration. Couples are more likely to migrate if household earnings potential is disproportionally due to one partner, and families react equally strongly to a male and a female relative advantage in educational earnings potential. These results are driven by households with a strong......A unitarian model of family migration in which families may discount wives’ private gains is used to derive testable predictions regarding the type of couples that select into migrating. The empirical tests show that gender neutral family migration cannot be rejected against the alternative...

  2. Using historic earnings to value hydro energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, I.A.; Whittington, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    This article briefly presents a technique for assigning a value to the water held in and removed from the hydro reservoir. Using historic earnings as the basis for a series of equations, it aims to give engineers trading energy a reliable means of placing a value on what is effectively a ''free'' resource. (Author)

  3. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  4. Analysts' earnings forecasts and international asset allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Carel; Plantinga, Auke

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether financial analysts’ earnings forecasts are informative from the viewpoint of allocating investments across different stock markets. Therefore we develop a country forecast indicator reflecting the analysts’ prospects for specific stock markets. The

  5. Enterprise Bargaining and the Gender Earnings Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Examination of the widening gender earnings gap in Australia indicates that women's wages continue to lag behind those of men. The main factor appears to be women's concentration in part-time work in enterprises where bargaining is less likely to occur. (JOW)

  6. Earnings Management and Valuation of Biological Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Menezes da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fair value to measure the worth of biological assets allows discretionary choices when using discounted cash flow in the absence of an active market, influencing the quality of accounting information. The objective of this study was to investigate evidence of earnings management among Brazilian companies that have adopted fair value based on the discounted cash flow method. The firms were investigated with regard to: a disclosure of the discount rate, b BM&FBovespa corporate governance levels; and c adherence to disclosure requirements in the Brazilian accounting standard CPC 29 (IAS 41. We analyzed 31 firms with significant biological assets from 2010 to 2012. The earnings management measurements were calculated according to the modified Jones, the Teoh, Welch and Wong (1998, and the KS models. The Mann-Whitney test of the means was applied and revealed evidence of greater earnings management for companies that use discounted cash flow, and the ones that least meet CPC 29 disclosure requirements, considering the KS model estimates. Regarding the other proposals, testing did not offer enough evidence of differences in discretionary accruals. In this sense, only hypotheses 1 and 4 are partially accepted, demanding more research in this area. We also present evidence in favor of adopting Exposure Draft ED/2013/08 Agriculture: Bearer Plants, Proposed amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 41, which proposes to measure biological assets at cost, because firms already following these rules showed lower earnings management in this study.

  7. Earnings and bank profitability in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bank earnings in form of retained profit help in the capital formation of banks. This is critical because capital inadequacy is often a cause of bank failures. During the banking crisis in Nigeria the gross earnings of many banks diminished considerably due to frauds and bad management. For example, in 2009 the Central Bank of Nigeria revoked the operating licences of fourteen banks which had huge nonperforming loans and were making losses. The fragility in the Nigerian banking system in the 1990s and beyond was compounded due to wide spread poor corporate governance practices and imprudent lending that led to the erosion of gross earnings and profitability. The study employed the exploratory research design. Data analyses were done through description statistics and the regression technique using the statistical package for the social sciences. The regression result was Y = 4.926 + 1.877x meaning that with an increase of 1 percent in gross earnings bank profitability increases by 1.88 percent. This is the crux of the study.

  8. Voluntary Management Earnings Forecasts and Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramlich, Jeffrey; Sørensen, Ole Vagn

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine whether Danish managers exercise discretionary accruals to reach earnings forecast targets they voluntarily specify in conjunction with initial public offerings (IPOs). Because the Danish accounting and legal environment is more permissive than the US, we use Denmark...

  9. Lifetime earnings for physicians across specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J Paul; Tancredi, Daniel; Jerant, Anthony; Romano, Patrick S; Kravitz, Richard L

    2012-12-01

    Earlier studies estimated annual income differences across specialties, but lifetime income may be more relevant given physicians' long-term commitments to specialties. Annual income and work hours data were collected from 6381 physicians in the nationally representative 2004-2005 Community Tracking Study. Data regarding years of residency were collected from AMA FREIDA. Present value models were constructed assuming 3% discount rates. Estimates were adjusted for demographic and market covariates. Sensitivity analyses included 4 alternative models involving work hours, retirement, exogenous variables, and 1% discount rate. Estimates were generated for 4 broad specialty categories (Primary Care, Surgery, Internal Medicine and Pediatric Subspecialties, and Other), and for 41 specific specialties. The estimates of lifetime earnings for the broad categories of Surgery, Internal Medicine and Pediatric Subspecialties, and Other specialties were $1,587,722, $1,099,655, and $761,402 more than for Primary Care. For the 41 specific specialties, the top 3 (with family medicine as reference) were neurological surgery ($2,880,601), medical oncology ($2,772,665), and radiation oncology ($2,659,657). The estimates from models with varying rates of retirement and including only exogenous variables were similar to those in the preferred model. The 1% discount model generated estimates that were roughly 150% larger than the 3% model. There was considerable variation in the lifetime earnings across physician specialties. After accounting for varying residency years and discounting future earnings, primary care specialties earned roughly $1-3 million less than other specialties. Earnings' differences across specialties may undermine health reform efforts to control costs and ensure adequate numbers of primary care physicians.

  10. The quality of accruals and earnings - and the market pricing of earnings quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    2004-01-01

    of some more specific company key accruals, where especially the two balance sheet accounts, inventory and accounts receivable, are of interest. This is documented and discussed by relating empirical measures of the quality of the different specific key-accruals as well as aggregated accruals quality vs......This study focuses on earnings quality by investigating the quality of accruals using the approach introduced by Dechow & Dichev (2002). One essential element is the role of accrual estimation errors, and another is whether the equity market impounds information about the quality of earnings....... The basic assumption is that the quality of accruals and earnings is decreasing as the magnitude of estimation errors in the accruals is increasing. The paper contributes to the literature on accrual (and earnings) quality by investigating not only the quality of aggregated accruals but also the quality...

  11. Earnings inequality and market work in husband-wife families

    OpenAIRE

    Pencavel, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Constructing pseudo-panel data from successive Current Population Surveys, this paper analyzes earnings inequality in husband and wife families over the life cycle and over time. Particular attention is devoted to the role of labor supply in influencing measures of earnings inequality. Compact and accurate descriptions of earnings inequality are derived that facilitate the analysis of the effect of the changing market employment of wives on earnings inequality. The growing propensity of marri...

  12. Credibility of management earnings forecasts and future returns

    OpenAIRE

    Norio Kitagawa; Akinobu Shuto

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of managerial discretion over their initial earnings forecasts on future performance. First, by estimating the discretionary portion of initial management earnings forecasts (defined as discretionary forecasts) based on the findings of fundamental analysis research, we find that firms with higher discretionary forecasts are more likely to miss their earnings forecast at the end of the fiscal year and revise their forecasts downward to meet their earnings for...

  13. Her earnings: Exploring variation in wives' earning contributions across six major Asian groups and Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Veena S

    2015-07-01

    Previous research on understanding race-ethnic differentials in employment and economic contributions by married women has primarily focused on Blacks, Hispanics, or Whites. This study investigates variations in wives' earning contributions as measured by wives earnings as a proportion of total annual household earnings among six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese relative to native born non-Hispanic White. I disaggregate the six Asian groups by their ethnicity and nativity status. Using pooled data from 2009-2011 American Community Survey, the findings show significance of human capital, hours of paid labor market engagement and nativity status. There is strong and negative association between husbands' human capital and labor supply with wives' earning contributions suggesting near universality of male-breadwinner status. Notwithstanding the commonalities, there is significant intergroup diversity. While foreign born and native born Filipina wives despite their spouses' reasonably high human capital and work hours, contribute one of the highest shares, the same cannot be said for the Asian Indians and Japanese. For foreign born Asian Indian and to some extent Japanese women, their high human capital is not translated to high earning contribution after controlling for husband's human capital. Further, nativity status impacts groups differentially. Native born Vietnamese wives contribute the greatest. Overall, the findings underscore the relevance of employing multiple conceptual frameworks in understanding earning contributions of foreign and native born Asian wives belonging to the six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Do managers manipulate earnings prior to management buyouts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Yaping; Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    To address the question as to whether managers intending to purchase their company by means of a levered buyout transaction manipulate earnings in order to buy their firm on the cheap, we study the different types of earnings management prior to the transaction: accrual management, real earnings

  15. 17 CFR 256.215 - Appropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appropriated retained earnings... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Liabilities and Other Credit Accounts § 256.215 Appropriated retained earnings. This account shall include the amount of retained earnings which has been appropriated or set...

  16. 17 CFR 256.216 - Unappropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retained earnings. This account shall include the balance, either debit or credit, arising from earnings... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unappropriated retained earnings. 256.216 Section 256.216 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  17. 18 CFR 367.2150 - Account 215, Appropriated retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 215, Appropriated retained earnings. 367.2150 Section 367.2150 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... retained earnings. This account must include the amount of retained earnings that has been appropriated or...

  18. 48 CFR 252.234-7002 - Earned Value Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earned Value Management... of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7002 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 234.203(2), use the following clause: Earned Value Management System (APR 2008) (a) In the performance of this...

  19. 48 CFR 1852.234-2 - Earned Value Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Earned Value Management... and Clauses 1852.234-2 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 1834.203-70(b) insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (NOV 2006) (a) In the performance of this contract, the...

  20. Earnings Differences between Women and Men. Facts on Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Although the gap between women's and men's wages differs slightly depending on how the gap is measured, no matter how they are measured, women's earnings are below those received by men in 97% of the occupations for which data are available. Since 1979, women's earnings have been climbing when compared with men's earnings, gaining steeply during…

  1. Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world . Millions of asteroids and...helps make Planetary Defense viable because defending the Earth against asteroids benefits from all the above technologies. So if our planet security...information about their physical characteristics so we can employ the right strategies. It is a crucial difference if asteroids are made up of metal

  2. Earnings Management and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Uyagu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study lies at the heart of the issue of reliability of financial statements. Reliability is the accountant’s terminology for integrity of financial statements. This study focused on the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on earnings management in the Nigerian manufacturing sectors. The study is motivated by the paucity of research on subject matter in manufacturing sub-sector in Nigeria. The study employed the ordinary least square multivariate regression technique. A sample of fifty- two manufacturing firms was used. The result shows that there is a positive relationship between CSR and earnings management. This study recommended that statutory bodies should put a ceiling on the amount to be expended on CSR which must be exceeded by any firm.

  3. Must producers earn a resource rent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    In petroleum producing countries it has been a prevailing opinion that a resource rent should be earned by petroleum producers due to the commodities' non-renewable nature. An important element in this logic is that the supply of oil and natural gas is limited to relatively few places in the world. As the resources are exploited, the remaining reserves are reduced. What is extracted today cannot be extracted tomorrow. Rationing of the scarce resource takes place through pricing mechanisms. Due to the scarcity the consumers must pay a higher price than the marginal production costs, so that the amounts supplied and demanded become equal. Most producers of oil and gas and not just the ones that produce the cheapest, have therefore until now earned an economic rent

  4. Timing of Earnings and Capital Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Miglo, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that asymmetric information about the timing of earnings can affect corporate capital structure. It sheds some new light on two following questions: why may profitable firms be interested in issuing equity, and why does debt not necessarily signal a firm quality. These issues seem to be puzzling from the classical pecking-order theory or signalling theory point of view. The paper also contributes to the analysis of the link between debt-equity choice and subsequent performanc...

  5. Earnings Management and Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Uyagu; Alexander Olawumi Dabor

    2017-01-01

    This study lies at the heart of the issue of reliability of financial statements. Reliability is the accountant’s terminology for integrity of financial statements. This study focused on the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on earnings management in the Nigerian manufacturing sectors. The study is motivated by the paucity of research on subject matter in manufacturing sub-sector in Nigeria. The study employed the ordinary least square multivariate regression technique. A sample of fi...

  6. FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Hui Hsu; Youan (Robert) Lin

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued that measuring financial instruments at fair value might not reflect firms’ financial condition. Prior study finds that managers manipulate the “disclosure” of fair value measurement (Song et al. 2010). In this study, we attempt to provide evidence regarding manager’s incentive to manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurements by examining whether the disclosure of less relevant fair value measurement is related to the odds of earnings management. We find that firms ...

  7. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  8. FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hui Hsu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many have argued that measuring financial instruments at fair value might not reflect firms’ financial condition. Prior study finds that managers manipulate the “disclosure” of fair value measurement (Song et al. 2010. In this study, we attempt to provide evidence regarding manager’s incentive to manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurements by examining whether the disclosure of less relevant fair value measurement is related to the odds of earnings management. We find that firms with more Level 3 assets and liabilities (i.e., less value relevant fair value measurement are more likely to recognize positive unrealized gains to meet or beat analyst forecast target. In addition, we find that only firms with weak corporate governance disclose more Level 3 fair value liabilities and recognize unrealized gains into reported earnings to meet or beat analyst forecast target. This evidence suggests that managers manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurement in order to manage reported earnings via the adoption of fair value option.

  9. A modified earned value management using activity based costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Aminian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Earned Value Management (EVM has been a well-known methodology used since the 1960s when the US department of defense proposed a standard method to measure project perfor-mance. This system relies on a set of often straightforward metrics to measure and evaluate the general health of a project. These metrics serve as early warning signals to timely detect project problems, or to exploit project opportunities. A key aspect of EVM is to estimate the completion cost of a project by considering both cost and schedule performance indices. However, good performance of cost and schedule performance indices does not necessarily guarantee cost effec-tiveness of the project regardless of the overhead costs. The reason is because, in most project-based organizations, overhead costs constitute a significant proportion of the total costs. Howev-er, EVM indices are usually calculated in the absence of the so-called overhead costs. This paper, first, seeks to remedy this problem by proposing a practical procedure of allocating overhead costs in project-based organizations. Then the traditional EVM indices are revised by consider-ing the allocated overhead costs. Finally, a case study demonstrates the applicability of the pro-posed method for a real-life project.

  10. Defense Business Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Business Board Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Defense Business Board Business Excellence in Defense of the Nation Defense Business Board Home Charter Members Meetings Studies Contact Us The Defense

  11. Dr. Sheehan on Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, George A.

    This book is both a personal and technical account of the experience of running by a heart specialist who began a running program at the age of 45. In its seventeen chapters, there is information presented on the spiritual, psychological, and physiological results of running; treatment of athletic injuries resulting from running; effects of diet…

  12. Operationalizing Social Media: A Method For Incorporating Social Media In Department Of Defense Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-20

    consumer, and includes word -of- mouth or viral posts.7 However, the marketer may help generate earned media through marketing actions.8 Likewise, earned... MEDIA : A METHOD FOR INCORPORATING SOCIAL MEDIA IN DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER PLANS 5c. PROGRAM ELEM ENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT... social media to influence the 2016 U.S. presidential elections demonstrated the power of social media . They also revealed that the U.S. is behind its

  13. Earned Value Management (EVM) Implementation Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Stefanie M.; Richards, Brad W.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Earned Value Management (EVM) guidance for the effective application, implementation, and utilization of EVM on NASA programs, projects, major contracts and subcontracts in a consolidated reference document. EVM is a project management process that effectively integrates a project?s scope of work with schedule and cost elements for optimum project planning and control. The goal is to achieve timely and accurate quantification of progress that will facilitate management by exception and enable early visibility into the nature and the magnitude of technical problems as well as the intended course and success of corrective actions.

  14. Earning the social licence for nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguay, A.K.; Hoornweg, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to safe nuclear operation, a critical component of earning the social licence is effective communication. This paper outlines development of a communications strategy contributing to overall utility operation and project goals through: 1) Relationships with employees, host communities and the general public that are transparent and honest; 2) Processes that effectively interconnect the internal and external communications; and 3) Organizational leadership models that support communication excellence. With strategic development of these three focus areas the nuclear operator will contribute to increased support of the operator's own licence to operate and of support for the nuclear industry as a whole. (author)

  15. Earning the social licence for nuclear operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duguay, A.K. [New Brunswick Power, New Brunswick (Canada); Hoornweg, B.J. [Ontario Power Generation, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In addition to safe nuclear operation, a critical component of earning the social licence is effective communication. This paper outlines development of a communications strategy contributing to overall utility operation and project goals through: 1) Relationships with employees, host communities and the general public that are transparent and honest; 2) Processes that effectively interconnect the internal and external communications; and 3) Organizational leadership models that support communication excellence. With strategic development of these three focus areas the nuclear operator will contribute to increased support of the operator's own licence to operate and of support for the nuclear industry as a whole. (author)

  16. Earnings management environment : with the case of Troms Kraft

    OpenAIRE

    Nødset, Ingrid Foss

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I examine the topic of earnings management and use a case example. In the first part of the paper I review theory on two closely related topics - earnings management and fraud - and present and discuss incentives, methods, typical indications and frequency of earnings management in the financial statements. I continue to describe the frameworks and laws that apply to revenue recognition and how income is recognized in the power industry, as this is especially relevant for the ca...

  17. FEMALE EARNINGS AND DIVORCE RATES:SOME AUSTRALIAN EVIDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Phillips; William Griffiths

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether female earnings have influenced divorce rates in Australia, using state-level data for the past four decades. Following a recent study by Ressler and Waters (2000), which concludes from comparable US data that female earnings and divorce rates may be jointly endogenous, initial testing is performed to identify whether female earnings can be treated as exogenous. A Hausman specification error test finds no evidence of a simultaneous relationship ...

  18. Who Marries Differently-Aged Spouses? Earnings, Ability and Appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Hani; McKinnish, Terra

    2012-01-01

    In direct contrast to conventional wisdom and most economic models of gender differences in age of marriage, we present robust evidence that men and women who are married to differently-aged spouses are negatively selected. Earnings analysis of married couples in the 1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000 Decennial Censuses finds that male earnings decrease with within-couple age difference, regardless of whether the man is older or younger than his wife. In contrast, female earnings increase with within-...

  19. A Digital Analysis Of The Reported Earnings Of Asian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kathy H.Y. Hsu; Thomas E. Wilson, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research (Carslaw, 1988; Thomas, 1989) has noted unusual patterns in the frequency of occurrence of certain digits contained in reported earnings. Employing digital analysis, studies have found that managers in the U.S. and Australia may round reported earnings numbers to achieve income-smoothing objectives. This study extends prior literature by examining whether reported earnings of firms from six Asian countries: South Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and China follo...

  20. How are health professionals earning their living in Malawi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maseko Fresier C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The migration of health professionals from southern Africa to developed nations is negatively affecting the delivery of health care services in the source countries. Oftentimes however, it is the reasons for the out-migration that have been described in the literature. The work and domestic situations of those health professionals continuing to serve in their posts have not been adequately studied. Methods The present study utilized a qualitative data collection and analysis method. This was achieved through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health professionals and administrators to determine the challenges they face and the coping systems they resort to and the perceptions towards those coping methods. Results Health professionals identified the following as some of the challenges there faced: inequitable and poor remuneration, overwhelming responsibilities with limited resources, lack of a stimulating work environment, inadequate supervision, poor access to continued professionals training, limited career progression, lack of transparent recruitment and discriminatory remuneration. When asked what kept them still working in Malawi when the pressures to emigrate were there, the following were some of the ways the health professionals mentioned as useful for earning extra income to support their families: working in rural areas where life was perceived to be cheaper, working closer to home village so as to run farms, stealing drugs from health facilities, having more than one job, running small to medium scale businesses. Health professionals would also minimize expenditure by missing meals and walking to work. Conclusion Many health professionals in Malawi experience overly challenging environments. In order to survive some are involved in ethically and legally questionable activities such as receiving "gifts" from patients and pilfering drugs. The efforts by the Malawi government and the international

  1. The Audit Committee Characteristics and Earnings Quality: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allam Mohammed Mousa Hamdan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the relationship between audit committee characteristics and earnings management. Samples in the study included 50 industrial companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange ASE. Two models were used to measure earnings quality: one which depends on earnings continuity as an indication of quality, and one which depends on the decrease of discretionary accruals of quality, using pooled data regression for the two tests (Ordinary Least Squares OLS and Binary Logit. The study found that there was an influence of some standard characteristics of the audit committee on earnings quality.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF AUDIT COMMITTEE CHARACTERISTICS ON REAL EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyaningsih Supriyaningsih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Current study tests the impact of audit committees to the real earnings management.Using the manufacturing public listed companies from Indoensia Stock Exchange from 2012 until 2014, we found that that financial and accounting expertise of audit committee members and audit committee size have positive effect on real earnings management. Furthermore, we also found that the dual positions of the audit committee chairman have a negative effect on earnings management. The Tenure of audit committee chairman however, has no impact on real earnings management.

  3. Running and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Hansen, Pamela A

    2010-07-01

    The overall health benefits of cardiovascular exercise, such as running, are well established. However, it is also well established that in certain circumstances running can lead to overload injuries of muscle, tendon, and bone. In contrast, it has not been established that running leads to degeneration of articular cartilage, which is the hallmark of osteoarthritis. This article reviews the available literature on the association between running and osteoarthritis, with a focus on clinical epidemiologic studies. The preponderance of clinical reports refutes an association between running and osteoarthritis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Accrual-based and real earnings management and political connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, G.J.M.; Nandy, M.; Weitzel, G.U.; Lodh, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether the trade-off between real and accrual-based management strategies differs between firms with and without political connections. We argue that politically connected firms are more likely to substitute real earnings management for accrual-based earnings management than

  5. Gender Earnings Gap among Young European Higher Education Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the composition of the gender earnings gap among young European higher education graduates, with a particular focus on competencies controlling for individual background and job characteristics. The results show that much of the female worker's earnings advantage can be explained by job characteristics. With respect to the…

  6. Post-Service Earnings of Vietnam-Era Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    vets, for ihany faictors that civilian waces . 1contribLitC to earnings. f5 S. Bolin. Hess & Little Reereosion analysis Use of military trainingiI! %1...changes in the economy on the lifetime earnings of the sample members. He concluded that average annual income had increased while the returns to an

  7. OGJ group earnings show big gain for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Sanders, V.

    1994-01-01

    Earnings for Oil and Gas Journal's group of 22 large US oil companies advanced sharply last year, increasing 70.9% from 1992. Group profits totaled $16.1 billion, with the gain stemming largely from lack of one time charges that depressed earnings in 1992. Adoption of new accounting rules associated with future postretirement costs caused the 1992 charges. US exploration and production earnings were mixed, tied in part to oil and gas production volumes. Higher gas prices and production helped boost earnings for a number of companies. But the earnings improvement from gas was offset by reduced oil production and prices. Results from non-U.S. E and P also were mixed. Average worldwide crude oil export prices were down from year earlier levels. However, for some companies this was offset by higher production levels and lower exploration costs. Earnings from refining and marketing were improved from 1992 levels, particularly for non-US operations. Lower feedstock costs, especially in the fourth quarter, helped boost earnings in this sector. Refining earnings gains also flowed from lower costs due to restructuring and an accompanying improvement in operating efficiency. The paper discusses world trends, operations and prices, US exploration and production, non-US E and P, US and non-US refining and marketing, petrochemicals, and the forecast for future demand

  8. Immigrant-Native Differences in Earnings Mobility Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Esmaeilzadeh, Rayhaneh; Hansen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the earnings mobility between immigrants and natives within and between Denmark and Canada. Both countries have different labour market conditions and immigration history which leads to an interesting comparison of earning mobility processes. The paper employs a dynamic...

  9. Immigrant-Native Differences in Earnings Mobility Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Esmaeilzadeh, •Rayhaneh

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the earnings mobility between immigrants and natives within and between Denmark and Canada. Both countries have different labour market conditions and immigration history which leads to an interesting comparison of earning mobility processes. The paper employs a dynamic...

  10. Ownership Structure and Earnings Management in periods of Executive Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Rasmus S.

    This paper reports evidence of earnings management associated with non-routine executive changes in a Danish context. It is hypothesised that incoming executives in non-owner-controlled companies decrease earnings by means of discretionary accruals in the financial statements relating to the period...

  11. 5 CFR 630.303 - Part-time employees; earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Part-time employees; earnings. 630.303... AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.303 Part-time employees; earnings. A part-time employee for whom there... workweek, and a part-time employee on a flexible work schedule for whom there has been established only a...

  12. 5 CFR 844.402 - Restoration of earning capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... occupied immediately before retirement. The income limitation for most disability annuitants is based on... same as income for the purposes of the Internal Revenue Code. (2) Income earned from one source is not offset by losses from another source. Income earned as wages is not reduced by a net loss from self...

  13. The Earnings Management Motivation: Accrual Accounting vs. Cash Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Goel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Accrual basis of accounting has always found favour amongst corporate practitioners of earnings management. There have been extensive studies on earnings management, focusing on earnings hazards. This paper contributes to the literature by showing market inclination to accrual basis of accounting as motivated by a desire for earnings management. It analyzes the sample units’ performance in regard to accrual-indicators vs. cash-indicators and their pervasiveness on stock pricing in India. In India, the corporate ownership model is the Promoter Dominated Shareholders Model (PDSHM which makes this study unique in highlighting earnings management motivation. The units show a market preference for accrual numbers and motivation for earnings management as clear in their stock pricing behavior. I hope the study improves investors’ perception of the reliability of a firm’s performance, as measured by earnings. It is of use to the users of financial accounting and corporate finance globally for rationalizing the motivation behind earnings manipulation by the management.

  14. Investigating MBA Degrees Earned by Women: A Decade of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Cheryl; Rush, Douglas; Gartland, Myles

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined master of business administration (MBA) degrees earned by women at U.S. higher education institutions at three specific years spanning a decade: 2003, 2008, and 2013 to determine whether there was a significant difference in the percentage of MBA degrees earned by women based on the independent variables of institutional type,…

  15. WHY DO COMPANIES FROM EMERGING COUNTRIES MANAGE EARNINGS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Callao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence in terms of the incentives which lead managers from emerging European countries to manage earnings. In particular, we focused on four Eastern European countries: the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia, as the majority of studies on earnings management in developing countries were based on the Asian emerging market. The market of developing European countries is still barely explored. After we confirmed that managers from emerging European companies manage earnings, we find that within the different incentives which lead managers to earnings management, the avoidance of debt covenants violations is a strong incentive for managers. Additionally, those firms considered as poor investments (with less value have incentives to manage earnings down as a consequence to opt for market niche. Moreover, emerging Eastern European companies have incentives to flatten earnings of current periods in order to benefit in the future as the source of future nonmanipulated earnings will be insufficient, as they may expect reduced, or at least lower future performance of their companies affected by increasing global competition. Finally, we confirm that privately-owned companies tend to maximize accounting earnings more than state-owned companies because they are in a weaker position related to a specific political and historical factors.

  16. Occupational change, employer change, internal migration, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, R G

    1997-02-01

    "In this paper I use microdata from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics to measure the financial returns to intercounty and interstate migration for individuals in a temporal framework accounting for gains that accrue over time.... To account for the indirect effects of migration on earnings, explanatory variables are created by interacting migration status with: (1) occupational change, (2) employer change and (3) changes in both occupation and employer. These interaction terms are then included in the earnings functions. Earnings are estimated for three years subsequent to the migration decision to account for the financial returns to migration accruing over time. Results indicate that, when estimating earnings, the use of a simple migration dummy variable will mask the indirect effects of migration on earnings." excerpt

  17. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: DETERMINANT FACTORS AND STOCK PRICE IN DEVELOPING MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Fanani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prove whether manager coped its earnings for the purpose ofinformative or target opportunistic. Research also investigated whether investment opportunity setinfl uenced the choice of manager to report as opportunistic to hide performance, or to report earningmore informative concerning with debt, political cost, market share, and earning. Sample of thisresearch was chosen by using purposive sampling of 350 manufacturing business listed in the JakartaStock Exchange, started from 1997 up to 2002. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM by using programof Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS was considered as the appropriate statistical technique toexamine pattern relation of formed model. The results showed that earning management conductedby manager in Developing Market such as Indonesia represented informative earning managementwhich meant all investors had more own belief in earning reporting, but this research could notprove that company owning high investment opportunity set tended to conduct informative earningmanagement.

  18. Information asymmetry, mutual funds and earnings management: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhao Dai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how information asymmetry and mutual fund ownership affect listed companies’ earnings management. We show that (1 reducing information asymmetry improves firms’ earnings management behavior; (2 relative to short-term mutual funds, long-term mutual funds promote earnings quality by adopting a monitoring role; and (3 by dividing firms into high/low information asymmetry groups, we find that the information environment significantly increases the effect of long-term mutual funds on firms’ earnings management. In this paper, we provide new evidence for the role that institutional investors play in a typical emerging capital market. Our results have clear policy implications: to increase earnings quality, it is essential to improve information transparency and develop long-term institutional investors.

  19. Corporate Governance Quality and Earnings Management: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan S. Abbadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan. Using a panel data set of all industrial and service firms listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE during the period 2009-2013; this paper provides evidence that earnings management is affected negatively by corporate governance quality. In particular; the results show that earnings management is affected negatively by overall categories of governance index represented by board of director, board meeting, Audit and nomination and compensation committee. Furthermore, results suggest that corporate governance quality has increased over time. Thus, its ability to constrain earnings management has also increased. It is recommended to industrial and service companies to boost their compliance with corporate governance code to improve the integrity and reliability of financial reports. This paper fills a gap in the literature by providing evidence about the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan as an emerging economy.

  20. Measuring the effect of managerial ability on earning quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Bahri Sales

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the effect of managerial ability on earning quality on selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2007-2013. The proposed study uses data envelopment analysis to measure the relative efficiency of selected firms where Sales is considered as output and Cost of goods (COGS, Selling, General and Administrative Expenses (SG&A, Net Property Plant and Equipment (PPE, Net operating Leases (OpsLease, Research & Development (R&D, Purchased Good will (Goodwill and Other intangible assets (OtherIntan are considered as inputs. Earning quality in this survey consists of three parts of quality of accruals, earnings and earnings forecast persistence. The results of our survey have indicated that managerial ability influences positively on earning quality.

  1. Rising U.S. Earnings Inequality and Family Labor Supply: The Covariance Structure of Intrafamily Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Dean R. Hyslop

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the labor supply contributions to individual and family earnings inequality during the period of rising wage inequality in the early 1980's. Working couples have positively correlated labor market outcomes, which are almost entirely attributable to permanent factors. An intertemporal family labor supply model with this feature is used to estimate labor supply elasticities for husbands of 0.05, and wives of 0.40. This implies that labor supply explains little of the rising a...

  2. Aplicação do earned value em projetos complexos - um estudo de caso na EMBRAER On the use of the earned value management system approach for complex projects in the brazilian aircraft industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdala Giacometti

    2007-12-01

    were gathered through interviews, observations and document analysis. The results show that The Earned Value is used only in the defense aviation projects since it is a contractual obligation. Its use in executive and commercial areas is restricted to the combined definition stages, detailed project, and certification because the scope of the project is well defined, the schedule is detailed, and the costs are foreseen and fairly accurate. In the other stages of the product development, the use of earned value is restricted mainly because of the frequent changes of the scope of the product and project.

  3. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  4. Electron run-away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, I.B.

    1975-01-01

    The run-away effect of electrons for the Coulomb scattering has been studied by Dricer, but the question for other scattering mechanisms is not yet studied. Meanwhile, if the scattering is quasielastic, a general criterion for the run-away may be formulated; in this case the run-away influence on the distribution function may also be studied in somewhat general and qualitative manner. (Auth.)

  5. Triathlon: running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  6. The Relationship between Age at First Birth and Mother's Lifetime Earnings: Evidence from Danish Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Yee Mallory Leung

    Full Text Available Having children creates career interruptions and reductions in labor income for women. This study documents the relation between the age at first birth (AFB and women's labor income. We study these dynamics in the short run (i.e. ratio between labor income at AFB and two years prior to AFB and long run (i.e., positive/negative differences in total lifetime labor income.Using unique Danish administrative register data for the entire Danish population, we estimate the age-income profiles separately for college and non-college women conditional on marital status, and mothers' age at first birth (AFB. We compute the lifetime labor income differentials by taking the differences between the labor income of women with and without children at each AFB.The short-run loss in labor income, defined as the difference in percentages between the income earned two years prior to AFB and income earned at AFB, ranges from 37% to 65% for college women and from 40% to 53% for non-college women. These losses decrease monotonically with respect to AFB for both education groups. Our results on the lifetime labor income differentials between mothers and women without children also show a net effect that is monotonic (from negative to positive in AFB. With AFB31. The largest gains for college women are 13% of their average annual income and this figure is 50% for non-college women.Women have a large and unambiguous short-run reduction in labor income at their AFB. In terms of lifetime labor income, both college and non-college women, compared to childless women, are associated with lower income of more than twice their respective average annual income when bearing a child at AFB31 are relatively higher.

  7. Immigrants’ initial firm allocation and earnings growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While employers are playing an increasingly important role in immigration selection in Canada, little is known about how firm-level characteristics affect the economic integration of immigrants. Using a Canadian employer–employee matched dataset, this paper considers whether immigrants initially employed in low-paying firms in Canada experienced inferior earnings growth than those initially employed in high-paying firms. The results show that the large earnings differential observed between immigrants initially employed in low- and high-paying firms diminished only slightly over the subsequent 14 years, even when differences in demographic and general human capital characteristics are taken into account. Alors que les employeurs jouent un rôle de plus en plus important dans la sélection des immigrants qui s’établissent au Canada, on en sait peu sur la façon dont les caractéristiques au niveau de l’entreprise influencent l’intégration économique de ces derniers. Au moyen d’un ensemble de données appariées sur les employeurs et les employés, le présent document vise à déterminer si la croissance des gains des immigrants employés initialement au Canada par des entreprises à bas salaires est plus faible que celle des gains des immigrants employés au départ par des entreprises à hauts salaires. Les résultats montrent que l’écart important observé entre les gains des immigrants employés au départ par des entreprises à bas salaires et de ceux employés par des entreprises à hauts salaires ne diminuait que légèrement au cours des 14 années suivantes, même après avoir tenu compte des différences de caractéristiques démographiques et de caractéristiques générales du capital humain.

  8. A comparison of ethical perceptions of earnings-management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Jooste

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, Bruns and Merchant (1990 surveyed earnings-management practices and asked the readership of the Harvard Business Review to rate the acceptability of those practices. Prior to the Bruns and Merchant (1990 study, the morality of short-term earnings-management was of little concern to researchers and accounting practitioners. However, in the light of increased financial frauds and failures, new and increased emphasis has been placed on the importance of the concepts of earnings quality and earnings-management practices. Despite increased research focusing on business ethics since 1990, there is little evidence that the profession is educating accountants about earnings-management practices. This study compares the results of studies on earnings-management practices. Students and business managers were surveyed at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU and these results were compared to studies prior to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002 in the USA. The aim of the study is to determine if there have been changes in attitudes towards earnings-management practices since the acceptance of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

  9. Educational Pairings, Motherhood, and Women's Relative Earnings in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bavel, Jan; Klesment, Martin

    2017-12-01

    As a consequence of the reversal of the gender gap in education, the female partner in a couple now typically has as much as or more education compared with the male partner in most Western countries. This study addresses the implications for the earnings of women relative to their male partners in 16 European countries. Using the 2007 and 2011 rounds of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (N = 58,292), we investigate the extent to which international differences in women's relative earnings can be explained by educational pairings and their interaction with the motherhood penalty on women's earnings, by international differences in male unemployment, or by cultural gender norms. We find that the newly emerged pattern of hypogamy is associated with higher relative earnings for women in all countries and that the motherhood penalty on relative earnings is considerably lower in hypogamous couples, but neither of these findings can explain away international country differences. Similarly, male unemployment is associated with higher relative earnings for women but cannot explain away the country differences. Against expectations, we find that the hypogamy bonus on women's relative earnings, if anything, tends to be stronger rather than weaker in countries that exhibit more conservative gender norms.

  10. Marketization, occupational segregation, and gender earnings inequality in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangye; Wu, Xiaogang

    2017-07-01

    This article analyzes a large sample of the 2005 population mini-census data and prefecture-level statistics of China to investigate gender earnings inequality in the context of economic marketization, paying special attention to the changing role of occupational segregation in the process. We approximate marketization by employment sectors and also construct an index of marketization at the prefecture level. Results show that, despite the tremendous economic growth, marketization has exacerbated gender earnings inequality in urban China's labor markets. Gender earnings inequality is the smallest in government/public institutions, followed by public enterprises, and then private enterprises. The gender inequality also increases with the prefecture's level of marketization. Multilevel analyses show that occupational segregation plays an important role in affecting gender earnings inequality: the greater the occupational segregation, the more disadvantaged women are relative to men in earnings in a prefecture's labor market. Moreover, the impact of occupational segregation on gender earnings inequality increases with the prefectural level of marketization. These findings contribute to understanding the dynamics of gender earnings inequality and have important implications for policy to promote gender equality in urban China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Overcoming the "Run" Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that it is not simply experiencing anxiety that affects mathematics performance but also how one responds to and regulates that anxiety (Lyons and Beilock 2011). Most people have faced mathematics problems that have triggered their "run response." The issue is not whether one wants to run, but rather…

  12. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  13. PRECIS Runs at IITM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. PRECIS Runs at IITM. Evaluation experiment using LBCs derived from ERA-15 (1979-93). Runs (3 ensembles in each experiment) already completed with LBCs having a length of 30 years each, for. Baseline (1961-90); A2 scenario (2071-2100); B2 scenario ...

  14. The LHCb Run Control

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Callot, O; Duval, P-Y; Franek, B; Frank, M; Galli, D; Gaspar, C; v Herwijnen, E; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Sambade, A; Schwemmer, R; Somogyi, P

    2010-01-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provid...

  15. Reconciling Estimates of Earnings Processes in Growth Rates and Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Moira; Hryshko, Dmytro; Manovskii, Iourii

    The stochastic process for earnings is the key element of incomplete markets models in modern quantitative macroeconomics. It determines both the equilibrium distributions of endogenous outcomes and the design of optimal policies. Yet, there is no consensus in the literature on the relative...... magnitudes of the permanent and transitory innovations in earnings. When estimation is based on the earnings moments in levels, the variance of transitory shocks is found to be relatively high. When the moments in differences are used, the variance of the permanent component is relatively high instead. We...

  16. Disparities in earnings and education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Geetha Rani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of different levels of education, religion, caste as well as the impact of living in urban and rural communities on earnings in India. Besides these conventional stratification, yet another academic caste which influence earnings—the English language ability, is also examined. The paper uses a large cross-section sample of India Human Development Survey to estimate Mincer and augmented Mincer equations. The rates of return estimates obtained in these data and method confirm that returns to education increase with the level of education across location, caste-religion and English language ability. Returns to lower levels of education are low across different groups, indicating the low quality of basic schooling in the country. Returns to higher education vary at a great deal ranging between 4.9% among the rural workers and 38.2% among fluent English ability group. This is in contrast to Duraisamy reporting the highest returns to secondary education in India, between the period 1983 and 1993–1994. In a decade’s time, with changes in the economy and in the labour market, higher education especially the English language ability along with higher education brings in the highest wage premium.

  17. PENGUKURAN PERMANENT EARNINGS PADA HUBUNGAN DENGAN KEBIJAKAN DIVIDEND PERUSAHAAN : REVIEW PENELITIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Manuhara Putra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Corporate earnings divided into a permanent component of earnings and transitory earnings will be very useful in estimating the future value of the company, that will be useful in decision making stock return. Be more relevant for investors and financial analysts in analyzing the earnings based on the permanent and transitory earnings. On permanent earnings will be more focused to get the gain from investments. One focus of research is based on this component is to test the relationship with the earnings dividend payment policy. Based on several studies obtained different results concerning the relationship with the permanent earnings dividend policy. Research that focuses on permanent earnings using two approaches to determine the accuracy of the proxy of permanent earnings. Determination of permanent earnings through the stock price and the latter by using the accounting profit.

  18. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 2007-2008. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics,...

  19. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 1995-1996. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics,...

  20. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 2014. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics, levels of...

  1. Cost Earnings Survey of NWHI Bottomfish Fleets (1993): Obsolete

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study collected cost-earnings information for the 12 vessels which had reported bottomfish landings from Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 1993 in order to...

  2. Symmetry in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibert, M H

    1986-03-14

    Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions.

  3. The Talking Cure of Avoidant Personality Disorder: Remission through Earned-Secure Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey

    The concept of earned security is important and has significant implications for psychotherapy. Understanding how individuals with insecure attachment styles can develop secure attachment styles through reparative relationships, such as the therapeutic relationship, can assist psychotherapists in helping patients to overcome the effects of early negative life experiences. Personality disorders are commonly associated with negative experiences, such as abuse, neglect, and other empathic failures. These disorders are particularly difficult to treat because of their pervasive nature and the resultant defense mechanisms that often thwart psychotherapy. However, an understanding of the role that attachment can play in the etiology, symptomatology, and treatment of psychopathology can greatly enhance the therapeutic process. This case report describes the long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy of a woman with a history of childhood trauma, avoidant attachment style, and avoidant personality disorder. Through the therapeutic relationship, she developed a secure attachment, and her symptoms remitted, and her life drastically improved.

  4. Why does the Job Corps increase gender earnings inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Strittmatter, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Several studies considering the Job Corps find more positive earnings effects for males than for females. This effect heterogeneity in favor of males contrasts with the results of the majority of other training program evaluations. Applying the translated quantile approach of Bitler, Hoynes, and Domina (2014), I show that an important mechanism behind the surprising findings for the Job Corps operates through existing gender earnings inequality rather than Job Corps trainability differences b...

  5. The Effects of Unemployment on the Earnings of Young Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Gray

    2000-01-01

    The high rates of youth unemployment experienced in a number of OECD economies has raised concerns about the effect of this on subsequent earnings. Using the Australian Youth Survey (AYS) a longitudinal survey of Australian youth, we estimate the effects of unemployment on subsequent hourly and weekly earnings. The estimates suggest that, when unobserved heterogeneity is taken into account, it is only long histories of unemployment which have a negative effect on hourly wages. On the other ha...

  6. The Wage Gap: Women's and Men's Earnings. Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Lois; Gish, Melinda; Braunstein, Jill; Allore, Sara

    After remaining virtually unchanged from 1995 through the 1970s, the wage gap between women and men began to decline in the 1980s. By the early 1990s, the ratio of the annual earnings of women employed full time year-round to the annual earnings of their male counterparts reached 72.0%. That ratio decreased slightly (to 71.4%) in 1995. The wage…

  7. Earnings Management Surrounding CEO Turnover: Evidence from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    JONG-SEO CHOI; YOUNG-MIN KWAK; CHONGWOO CHOE

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the empirical relation between CEO turnover and earnings management in Korea using a sample of 317 CEO turnovers and 634 non-turnover control firms during the period of 2001-2008. We classify CEO turnovers into four types depending on whether the departure of outgoing CEO is peaceful or forced and the incoming CEO is promoted from within or recruited from outside the firm. We measure earnings management by both discretionary accruals and real activities management. We al...

  8. The effect of leverage increases on real earnings management

    OpenAIRE

    Zagers-Mamedova, Irina

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMain subject of this paper is to understand whether there could be an incentive for managers to manipulate cash flow from operating activities (CFO) through the use of real earnings management (REM), in situations with increasing leverage. Based upon a study of Jelinek (2007) who researched the correlation between increasing levels of leverage and accrual earnings management, I developed my main hypothesis with respect to the effect of leverage increases on REM to influence CFO. R...

  9. R&D EXPENDITURES AND EARNINGS TARGETS: EVIDENCE FROM FRANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Guidara, Rihab; Boujelbene, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Research and development (R&D) investments reduce current-period earnings while the benefits associated with the investments occur in the future. This problem implies an earnings management tool to boost short-term performance. While there is much evidence regarding managerial discretion through R&D capitalization, empirical studies that directly examine managerial discretion through R&D expenditure adjusting have not been widely provided in the European context. This paper seeks ...

  10. R&D EXPENDITURES AND EARNINGS TARGETS: EVIDENCE FROM FRANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Guidara, Rihab; Boujelbene, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Research and development (R&D) investments reduce current-period earnings while the benefits associated with the investments occur in the future. This problem implies an earnings management tool to boost short-term performance. While there is much evidence regarding managerial discretion through R&D capitalization, empirical studies that directly examine managerial discretion through R&D expenditure adjusting have not been widely provided in the European context. This ...

  11. Within- and cross-firm mobility and earnings growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Halliday, Timothy; Koch, Alexander Karl

    While it is well established that both promotions within firms and mobility across firms lead to substantial earnings progression, few studies offer an integrated analysis of the effects of these two types of mobility on earnings growth. To do this, we exploit a large Danish panel data set and te...... deductable pension contributions and more expensive real estate or financed consumption where interest is tax deductable....

  12. How Working Time Reduction Affects Employment and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Raposo, P.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    December 1, 1996 Portugal introduced a new law on working hours which gradually reduced the standard workweek from 44 hours to 40 hours. We study how this mandatory working hours reduction affected employment and earnings of workers involved. We find for workers who were affected by the new law that working hours decreased, while hourly wages increased, keeping monthly earnings approximately constant. We also find that the working hours reduction did not lead to an increased job loss of worke...

  13. Education, work and earnings of Peruvian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E M

    1996-01-01

    This study describes trends in educational attainment among women in Peru, and examines the determinants of educational attainment, labor force participation and employment, and earnings. Data were obtained from the Peruvian Living Standards Survey among a sample of 5644 women aged 20-59 years. Findings indicate that parents' educational variables had a positive and statistically significant relationship with the educational attainment of their daughters. The impact declined over time from older to younger cohorts. School reforms improved women's access to education. Education became more universal and compulsory over time. Daughters of mothers with white collar occupations had higher levels of schooling than farmers' daughters. The effects of fathers' education was larger. There was a wider gap between farmers and nonfarmers. Textbooks, teachers, and number of grades offered were the only primary school inputs that showed any clear cohort trend in their effect on years of schooling. As primary schools became more available, textbooks had a greater impact on school attainment. The impact of textbooks was larger for women than for men. The number of grades offered had a large positive effect which increased across cohorts from older to younger. Findings suggest weak effects of school reforms on women's likelihood of participating in the paid or unpaid labor force. Years of schooling had a very small and negative effect on total labor force participation. Woman's paid employment was influenced by age, education and training, household characteristics, and family's unearned income. Educational attainment had a small positive effect on participation in paid employment for younger women and no effect for older women. The average rate of return in paid employment to primary education was about 12%. Primary education had the highest rate of return. The return to job tenure was higher for younger women.

  14. RUNNING INJURY DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karen Krogh; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. PURPOSE: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. METHODS: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: "Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?". In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click "Yes" or "No" to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. RESULTS: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  15. Running Injury Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Johansen, Karen; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. Purpose: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. Methods: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: “Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?”. In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click “Yes” or “No” to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. Results: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  16. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT, AUDIT QUALITY AND LEGAL ENVIRONMENT: AN INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Unsal Memis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between earnings management-audit quality and earnings management-legal system quality by using 1507 firms’ observations from listed companies in private firms across different 8 emerging countries. Consistent with previous research, differentiation between Big 4 and non-Big 4 audit firms are used as a audit quality proxy and discretionary accruals are used to measure the earnings management. According to the results, only for Brazilian and Mexican companies, there is significant relationship between the discretionary accruals and audit quality. For the other countries there is not significant relationship. Furthermore efficiency of the legal system helps decrease earnings management incentives. Along with results, the big four auditors do not constrain the earnings management incentives in every emerging country but effective legal system does. In this analysis we used other earnings management related variables like the size of the firms, leverage, lagged ROA of the firms which have loss in the previous year and Tobin Q as control variables.

  17. The Islamic Capital Market Response to the Real Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Yuliana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to prove the effect of the company's status, i.e membership on the Islamic capital market and the status as suspect firm, as a determinant of real earnings management (REM. REM is conducted by abnormally increasing sales, increasing production and reducing discretionary costs in order to achieve a certain earnings target. This study uses Earnings Distribution Analysis (EDA technique, which refers to the Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979 to identify the suspect firms. Suspect firms are companies that have small positive earnings. The samples of this research are companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2011 and 2012. Based on the result of regression analysis, hypothesis testing results show that the suspect firms conduct real earnings management in all three types of activities more aggressively than the non-suspect firms. Furthermore, this study also showed empirical evidence that there are differences in real earnings management actions between companies listed in the Islamic capital market compared to conventional capital markets. Then, this study also showed that the Islamic capital market is more appropriate in response to the REM than the conventional capital market.

  18. Social Desirability Bias and Earnings Management around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niszczota Paweł

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test whether inter-country variation in individuals’ tendency to conform, as measured by the Lie (social desirability scale used in the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, can explain differences in the propensity to employ corporate earnings management around the world. Such a link is feasible, given that survey data suggest executives tend to be under severe pressure to meet earnings benchmarks, to which they often succumb by engaging in earnings management (to the detriment of the company’s long-term prospects. We hypothesize that in countries where the propensity to act in a socially desirable (outsider-satisfying way is stronger, earnings management should be more prevalent. Research results support our hypothesis, and demonstrate the existence of a positive relationship between the prevalence of earnings management in a country and the mean score of individuals from that country on the Eysenck Lie scale, which further evidences that capital market pressure is a significant determinant of earnings management.

  19. Earning on Response Coefficient in Automobile and Go Public Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisdawati Arifin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze factors that influence earnings response coefficients (ERC, simultaneously and partially, composed of leverage, the systematic risk (beta, growth opportunities (market to book value ratio, and the size of the firm (firm size, selection of the sample in this study the author take 12 automakers and components that meet the criteria of completeness of the data from the year 2008 to 2012, entirely based on consideration of the following criteria: (1 the company's automotive and components are listed on the stock exchange, (2 have the financial statements years 2008-2012 (3 has a return data (closing price the first day after the date of issuance of the financial statements. This study uses secondary data applying multiple linear regression models to analyze and test the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable partially (t-test, simultaneous (f-test, and the goodness of fit (R-square on a research model. The result shows that leverage, beta, growth opportunities (market to book value ratio and size along with (simultaneously the effect on the dependent variable (dependent variable earnings response coefficients. Partially leverage negatively affect earnings response coefficients, partially beta negatively correlated earnings response coefficients, partially growth opportunities (market to book value ratio significant effect on earnings response coefficients, partially sized companies (firm size significantly influence earnings response coefficients.

  20. BOARD OF DIRECTORS STRUCTURE AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: BIST MANUFACTURING CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin TEMİZ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate association between firms’ board structure (independent members, audit comittee, female membership and board of directors size and earnings management. For the purpose of investigating associations four different earnings management models were used. In addition, four hypotheses were tested in the context of the study.  Within the scope of the study, data covering the years 2012 - 2016 belonging to the firms operating in the BIST Manufacturing Sector were used. According to results there is a relationship between the proportion of independent members in the board and earnings management practices based on accrual and sales manipulation. Obtained results confirm that the increase in the proportion of female members on the board reduces earnings management practices based on cash flow and sales manipulation. There is also evidence that an increase in the size of the board reduces earnings management practices based on cash flow and income manipulation. There is no supporting evidence that the proportion of audit comittee members reduces earnings management practices.

  1. Home - Defense Technology Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    by @dtsamil Defense Technology Security Administration Mission, Culture, and History Executive Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration OFFICE of the SECRETARY of DEFENSE Defense Technology Security Administration

  2. The LHCb Run Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessio, F; Barandela, M C; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; Herwijnen, E v; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Sambade, A; Schwemmer, R; Somogyi, P [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Callot, O [LAL, IN2P3/CNRS and Universite Paris 11, Orsay (France); Duval, P-Y [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Franek, B [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Galli, D, E-mail: Clara.Gaspar@cern.c [Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  3. 18 CFR 367.4360 - Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Appropriations of retained earnings. 367.4360 Section 367.4360 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4360 Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings. This account must include appropriations of retained earnings as follows: (a) Appropriations required...

  4. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George N.

    2017-11-01

    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  5. Investor reaction to strategic emphasis on earnings numbers: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shibley Sadique

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the earnings information and stock prices of S&P500 firms and find that investors following S&P500 stocks (i respond more to pro forma earnings than to GAAP earnings, (ii respond to an emphasis on pro forma earnings, and (iii are fixated on pro forma earnings. We provide the first direct evidence that a strategic emphasis on earnings numbers may affect return volatility. Further, our results do not support the argument that a larger investor response to Street earnings might be driven by large differences between the Street numbers and GAAP numbers.

  6. Optimizing Active Cyber Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenlian; Xu, Shouhuai; Yi, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Active cyber defense is one important defensive method for combating cyber attacks. Unlike traditional defensive methods such as firewall-based filtering and anti-malware tools, active cyber defense is based on spreading "white" or "benign" worms to combat against the attackers' malwares (i.e., malicious worms) that also spread over the network. In this paper, we initiate the study of {\\em optimal} active cyber defense in the setting of strategic attackers and/or strategic defenders. Specific...

  7. Accounting standards and investor perception of earnings quality: IAS/IFRS vs. German Gaap

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari Mascia; Momentè Francesco; Reggiani Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the earnings quality under the IAS/IFRS and German GAAP by evaluating the earnings management degree in IAS and HGB adopters and by investigating what is the level of uncertainty (reliability) that investors perceive from the earnings announced. Our results show that IAS and HGB adopters do not present any significant differences in earnings management, if we examine the working capital accruals, while IAS/IFRS sub-sample is less engaged in earnings management, considering the tota...

  8. Internal migration, earnings, and the importance of self-selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A M; Sirageldin, I

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of internal migration on earnings within the human capital model framework. Since migrants constitute a non-random sample of population, the endogenous nature of migration decision warrants necessary correction for the selectivity bias in their earnings function. The Mincer-type earnings model is thus augmented to determine the extent of this bias. Besides estimating the standard Mincerian earnings model, the paper also attempts to verify the learn-as-you-go proposition by introducing migration duration variables in the earnings model. Based on the household level Population, Labor Force, and Migration (1979-80) survey data, the analysis yields the following important conclusions: (i) the data allowed a meaningful estimation of Mincerian earnings function for migrants and non-migrants; (ii) the level of schooling was one of the important determinants of the distribution of income both for migrants and nonmigrants--the four categorical variables of education were in general statistically significant with expected signs, implying that the hypothesis of a positive relationship between income and education was accepted; (iii) the rates of return to education improved systematically with higher levels of education, thus confirming the notion that education serves as a signalling device; (iv) the age-income profile was almost linear for migrants but showed concavity for nonmigrants; (v) the presence of sample-selection was observed for migrants; and (vi) even after controlling for the influence of personal characteristics, i.e., education and experience, the long-standing migrants earned relatively more at the destination than the more recent migrants.

  9. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  10. Fermilab DART run control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1996-01-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. The authors discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of the experiences in developing it. They also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system

  11. Fermilab DART run control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1995-05-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the, control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of our experiences in developing it. We also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system

  12. Earning management: analysis of publications in brazilian accounting journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Gomes Machado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to identify characteristics, from the perspective of social networks, of the scientific literature on earning management in Brazilian accounting journals. Specifically, were identified: a authors and their social networks of scientific production; b researched topics, models for accruals detection, authors’ networks and the period studied; c methodological procedures used. A bibliometric survey, with a quantitative approach was performed through the analysis of 17 Brazilian accounting journals, since their first edition until the year 2010. Out of them, 10 published articles having the theme earning management in the title, abstract or keywords. The 32 identified articles were submitted to content analysis and then the data were presented from the perspective of social networks. The survey results show that: the authors and their social networks of production originates mostly from Universidade de São Paulo (USP; the most researched theme was the methods or means to conduct earnings management, and accruals measurement models, with emphasis on Kang and Sivaramakrishnan Model; the descriptive research, based on document and quantitative approach were the most commonly used forms in the articles researched. It is noteworthy that structural gaps are the topics, such as compensation plans, political costs and earnings management in different contractual environments. The research results can contribute to academia to highlight some features of the earnings management theme and its researchers, in the field of publications in Brazilian accounting journals.

  13. The practice and earnings of preventive medicine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salive, M E

    1992-01-01

    A shortage of preventive medicine (PM) physicians exists in the United States. Researchers know little about these physicians' earnings and practice characteristics. The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) mailed a survey to all self-identified PM physicians on the American Medical Association (AMA) Physician Masterfile. A total of 3,771 (54%) responded; respondents' sex and region of residence were typical for PM physicians in general, with a slight excess of older physicians and those reporting board certification. A total of 2,664 (71%) were working full time, with median earnings of $85,000 (mean $90,000). Among full-time physicians, relatively higher earnings were associated with the following characteristics: male sex; age 45 to 64 years; major source of income from clinical, business, or industrial sources, rather than governmental or academic; and PM board certification. Full-time PM physicians earned much less than office-based private practitioners in several primary care specialties in 1989. The gap in earnings between PM specialists in government positions and those in the private sector is also substantial. Both disparities may require creative solutions.

  14. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    In even the most experienced hands, an adequate physical examination of the ears can be difficult to perform because of common problems such as cerumen blockage of the auditory canal, an unco- operative toddler or an exasperated parent. The most common cause for a running ear in a child is acute purulent otitis.

  15. Earnings and Job Satisfaction of Employed Spanish Doctoral Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Canal Domínguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for highly qualifi ed workers in developed countries has raised a new interest in analysing whether doctoral training meets the needs of the European labour market. Job satisfaction enables an approach to both the relationship between training and job position and to a company?s successful management of its relationship with those workers who are PhD holders. The results indicate that an analysis based on earnings is relevant, as it makes it possible to identify two clear job satisfaction behaviours: on the one hand, as earnings increase, so does job satisfaction, although this is found to a lesser extent in the higher earnings range; on the other hand, when moving up in the salary range, the relative assessment of job satisfaction components changes, as well as their signifi cance in explaining the variations in job satisfaction.

  16. Audit Committee Attributes and Earnings Management: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afensimi Elijah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the agency theoretical framework, the  study postulates that audit committee attributes can impact significantly, constraining accrual-based distortion of financial reporting credibility and thus improve the quality of financial reporting. To assess our arguments, audit committee size, audit committee financial literacy, audit committee attendance at meetings, audit committee independence and audit meetings frequency of meeting were regressed on financial reporting quality measured by discretionary accruals. The findings for the full sample and negative discretionary accruals sample confirm our expectation that audit committee characteristics have a constraining effect on earnings management. Specifically, audit committee financial expertise, audit committee size, audit committee independence and diligence showed an inverse and significant relationship with earnings management. This is in tandem with theoretical expectations and suggest that increases in these variables we exert a declining influence on earnings management. The study concludes that there is the need for companies to focus on attributes that strengthen the effectiveness of their audit committees.

  17. Danwei Profitability and Earnings Inequality in Urban China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has debated the relative importance of such factors as human capital, political capital and region in determining workers’ earnings in reform-era urban China. This article argues that a main agent of social stratification in contemporary China continues to be the danwei, the work unit. Using data from a 1999 survey we conducted in three large Chinese cities, Wuhan, Shanghai and Xi’an, we assess the extent to which workers’ earnings (including regular wages, bonuses and subsidies) depend on the profitability of their danwei. Results show that the financial situation of the danwei is one of the most important determinants of earnings in today’s urban China. Furthermore, the importance of danwei profitability does not vary by city or by employment sector. PMID:20445771

  18. Earnings, Uncertainty, and the Self-Employment Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Maire, Daniel; Schjerning, Bertel

    2007-01-01

    -employed can retain earnings and thereby transfer income across tax-years. Secondly, expected income level and income variance are important determinants in choice of occupation. Thirdly, men put more emphasis on expected earnings level, while women appears more risk averse, which contribute to explain why......This paper investigates the relationship between self-employment choice, expected earnings, and uncertainty. Several interesting results emerge from our analysis on Danish longitudinal register data: Firstly, self-employed (taxable) personal income bunch at kink points in the tax system since self...... fewer women are self-employed. Finally, our results suggest that non-western immigrants are marginalized into self-employment. Occupational choice, self-employment, wage-di¤erentials, income uncertainty, risk aversion, overcon…dence, self-selection, gender di¤erences.  ...

  19. Strategic Defense Initiative Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ... to Third World and other nations. I will then discuss the scope of the SDI effort, the evolving strategic defense system architectures and theater defense, our compliancy with the ABM Treaty, technology spinoffs resulting from SDI...

  20. The Dynamics of Gender Earnings Differentials: Evidence from Establishment Data

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Erling; Pekkala Kerr, Sari; Olivetti, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    We use a unique match between the 2000 Decennial Census of the United States and the Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics (LEHD) data to analyze how much of the increase in the gender earnings gap over the lifecycle comes from shifts in the sorting of men and women across high- and low-pay establishments and how much is due to differential earnings growth within establishments. We find that for the college educated the increase is substantial and, for the most part, due to differential ea...

  1. Banking system reform, earnings quality and credit allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuli Zhu; Lianjun Li; Yunkui Xue

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates credit allocation before and after the 2003 banking system reform in China. We find that relationships between earnings quality and new short-term loans, long-term loans and total loans in listed companies changed significantly after the banking system reform, especially in stateowned listed companies. Further investigation shows that due to the influence of rent-seeking, banks have eased the earnings requirements of non-stateowned listed companies. These findings enhance our understanding of the economic consequences of the banking system reform and of credit discrimination under the new regime.

  2. Banking system reform, earnings quality and credit allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Zhu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates credit allocation before and after the 2003 banking system reform in China. We find that relationships between earnings quality and new short-term loans, long-term loans and total loans in listed companies changed significantly after the banking system reform, especially in state-owned listed companies. Further investigation shows that due to the influence of rent-seeking, banks have eased the earnings requirements of non-state-owned listed companies. These findings enhance our understanding of the economic consequences of the banking system reform and of credit discrimination under the new regime.

  3. Earnings among young and mature Danish university graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    wages among private sector employees. This applies to both genders, but the differences are stronger among male employees. The analyses of long-term wages reveal a more homogeneous pattern. Mature graduates earn less in all the years investigated. The wage differences are greatest among male graduates...... for a longer period of time and to control for more labour market-relevant variables than any previous study of graduation age and earnings. The results show that graduation age has either a slightly positive or an insignificant impact on starting wages within the public sector or a negative impact on starting...... employed in private enterprises, and the gap increases throughout their careers....

  4. Earnings management: estudo de caso do Banco Nacional Earnings management: Central Bank's case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Medeiros Cupertino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo promove um estudo de caso de uma das maiores instituições financeiras brasileiras da década de 90: o Banco Nacional S.A. (BNSA. O BNSA teve sua intervenção decretada pelo Banco Central do Brasil em 1995, após ser identificada a existência de ativos insolventes, originados por gerenciamento fraudulento dos lucros da entidade. O estudo visa investigar a gestão fraudulenta de lucros do Banco Nacional S.A., tanto nos seus aspectos motivadores, quanto em relação aos seus efeitos na composição patrimonial da entidade. A abordagem metodológica contempla: (i pesquisa explicativa, quanto aos objetivos do estudo; (ii estudo de caso, quanto aos procedimentos aplicados e (iii pesquisa qualitativa, quanto à abordagem do problema. Constatou-se que pode haver interesses inconciliáveis entre o agente e o principal, conforme disciplinado pela teoria da agência. O artigo, ainda, ressalta a importância do conhecimento dos dados financeiros na identificação dos fatos de interesse, dos ajustes pertinentes e da correta evidenciação da situação patrimonial da entidade.This paper features a case study of one of the main Brazilian banks of the 90's: Banco Nacional S/A (BNSA. The bank had its intervention decreed by Central Bank of Brazil in 1995, after the existence of insolvent assets, originated by fraudulent earnings management, were identified. The study aims to investigate the fraudulent earnings management of BNSA, both in motivational aspects and in relation of the effects in its balance sheet structure. The methodological approach of the study encompasses: (i an explanatory research, regarding the intended aim of the study; (ii case study, regarding the applied procedures; and (iii a qualitative research, regarding the approach to the problem. It was concluded that irreconcilable conflicts of interest might occur between the agent and the principal, according to the Agency Theory. The paper also emphasizes the importance of

  5. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    French, Geoffrey S

    2004-01-01

    .... This paper examines defensive tactics and strategies from the German defense in depth that emerged from World War I to the American Active Defense that developed in the Cold War and proposes a new mindset for DIW that draws on these operational concepts from military history.

  6. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  7. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  9. Running economy and energy cost of running with backpacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Volker; Cramer, Leoni; Heitkamp, Hans-Christian

    2018-05-02

    Running is a popular recreational activity and additional weight is often carried in backpacks on longer runs. Our aim was to examine running economy and other physiological parameters while running with a 1kg and 3 kg backpack at different submaximal running velocities. 10 male recreational runners (age 25 ± 4.2 years, VO2peak 60.5 ± 3.1 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed runs on a motorized treadmill of 5 minutes durations at three different submaximal speeds of 70, 80 and 90% of anaerobic lactate threshold (LT) without additional weight, and carrying a 1kg and 3 kg backpack. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, lactate and RPE were measured and analysed. Oxygen consumption, energy cost of running and heart rate increased significantly while running with a backpack weighing 3kg compared to running without additional weight at 80% of speed at lactate threshold (sLT) (p=0.026, p=0.009 and p=0.003) and at 90% sLT (p<0.001, p=0.001 and p=0.001). Running with a 1kg backpack showed a significant increase in heart rate at 80% sLT (p=0.008) and a significant increase in oxygen consumption and heart rate at 90% sLT (p=0.045 and p=0.007) compared to running without additional weight. While running at 70% sLT running economy and cardiovascular effort increased with weighted backpack running compared to running without additional weight, however these increases did not reach statistical significance. Running economy deteriorates and cardiovascular effort increases while running with additional backpack weight especially at higher submaximal running speeds. Backpack weight should therefore be kept to a minimum.

  10. The College Payoff: Education, Occupations, Lifetime Earnings. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.; Cheah, Ban

    2011-01-01

    Education and earnings interact in complex and often unexpected ways--but there are rules to the game. "The College Payoff," a new paper from the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, uses in-depth data analysis to identify, illuminate and elucidate those rules. This executive summary provides a glimpse of the education and…

  11. Do Managers Manipulate Earnings Prior to Management Buyouts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Y.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: To address the question as to whether managers manipulate accounting numbers downwards prior to management buyouts (MBOs), we implement an industry-adjusted buyout-specific approach and receive an affirmative answer. In UK buyout companies, negative earnings manipulation (understating the

  12. CEO origin and accrual-based earnings management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, Y.F.; Qin, B.; Wielhouwer, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of CEO origin on accrual-based earnings management and how these effects evolve over the CEO's tenure in office. Compared with CEOs promoted from within the company, CEOs recruited from outside have a stronger incentive to demonstrate their abilities in the initial

  13. A Price Earnings Index for the Danish Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Price-earnings ratios are part of the toolkit that is used for assessing the valuation ofindividual firms on the stock market as well as the entire market itself. This paperpresents consistent P/E series for the liquid Danish shares adjusted for share buybacks.The results show that over the period...

  14. Earnings Management through Goodwill Impairment: CEO and CFO tenure impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.V. Visnevskaá (Olga)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary This paper examines the relationship between the extent of goodwill impairment and the properties of CEOs and CFOs of a selection of FTSE Eurotop 100 Index companies. Prior research indicated that it is likely that CEOs tend to take earnings baths early in their tenure,

  15. ATRF Earns Three Green Globes, Exceeds NIH Building Standards | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer From project management and energy and water efficiency to emissions and the indoor environment, the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) was built with sustainability in mind, exceeding the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH’s) building standards and earning three Green Globes from the Green Building Initiative (GBI).

  16. Can "Some College" Help Reduce Future Earnings Inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Daniel P.; Moulton, Jeremy G.; Bono-Lunn, Dillan; Chrisco, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the policy debate over "college for all" versus "college for some" in the United States and analyzes the relationship between "some college" (as a formal education attainment category) and earnings. Our evidence confirms--using data from the American Community Survey (ACS), the Panel Study on…

  17. 24 CFR 904.110 - Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... separate EHPA for each homebuyer. Since the homebuyer is responsible for maintaining the home, a portion of... through a work order. A homebuyer shall receive a copy of all such work orders for his home. (i... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA...

  18. CEO Origin and Accrual-Based Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, Y.; Qin, B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of CEO origin on accrual-based earnings management and how these effects evolve over the CEO’s tenure in office. Compared with CEOs promoted from within the company, CEOs recruited from outside have a stronger incentive to demonstrate their abilities in the initial

  19. Rural Earnings Holding Steady in the Early 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate an overall decline in the rural-urban pay gap during the early 1990s (due to declining urban wages, not rising rural wages). In 1993, the earnings of 30 percent of rural full-time workers were below the poverty level. Compares low-income workers by gender, age group, education, and race/ethnicity. (LP)

  20. Gender and Racial Gaps in Earnings among Recent College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang

    2008-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of baccalaureate graduates from 1993 (B&B 93/97/03), I explore factors that contribute to the gender and racial gap in earnings among recent college graduate. Results indicate that college major remains the most significant factor in accounting for the gender gap in pay. Female graduates are still left…

  1. Labor Market Institutions and the Dispersion of Wage Earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Checchi, D.; Atkinson, A.B.; Bourguignon, F.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the contribution of the distribution of individual wages and earnings to that of household incomes we find two separate literatures that should be brought together, and bring “new institutions” into play. Growing female employment, rising dual-earnership and part-time employment

  2. Psychology Baccalaureates at Work: Major Area Subspecializations, Earnings, and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    A Census Bureau national survey identified baccalaureates aged up to 64 years having major area subspecializations labeled "psychology," "industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology," and "counseling psychology." Median 2009 earnings of all such types of baccalaureate psychology alumni were well below the distribution mean of the 153 fields in the…

  3. Within- and Cross-Firm Mobility and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Halliday, Timothy; Koch, Alexander Karl

    It is widely accepted that promotions within firms and mobility across firms lead to significant earnings progression. Existing research generally examined cross-firm mobility separately from hierarchical advancement. Yet, as our descriptive evidence from Danish panel data shows, how the two type...... growth of promotions (either within or across firms) and subsequent mobility at a higher hierarchy level....

  4. International Financial Reporting Standards and Earnings Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Augusto Timm Rathke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the level of earnings management in Latin America after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and analyzes the role of cross-listing in the United States. The literature on earnings management in less developed countries is still under construction, and few studies focus on this issue, especially with respect to Latin America, despite its relevant role in the global economy. This paper fills this gap in the literature as it analyzes the level of IFRS earnings management regarding the first and main Latin American countries applying IFRS (Brazil and Chile, when compared to the main Anglo-Saxon countries with IFRS tradition (United Kingdom and Australia, and with the main Continental European economies (France and Germany. The results show that Latin American firms present a higher level of earnings management than Continental European and Anglo-Saxon firms, and this opportunistic behavior remains significant when only global players with cross-listing in the United States are analyzed. Thus, even with a unique set of high quality accounting standards (IFRS and strong reporting incentives, countries’ specific characteristics still play an important role in the way IFRS is implemented in each country.

  5. 26 CFR 1.312-6 - Earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exclude from earnings and profits that portion of any premium which is unearned under the provisions of section 832(b)(4) and which is segregated accordingly in the unearned premium reserve. (b) Among the items... items includible in gross income under section 61 or corresponding provisions of prior revenue acts...

  6. Evaluation of Building Projects Using Earned Value Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates building construction projects using the Earned Value Analysis technique, the Experimental Approach, and Value Concept Analysis. The aim was to compare the cost incurred for an identified amount of work done on a project with the cost budgeted for the same work. The results were used to calculate ...

  7. Job Search Methods: Consequences for Gender-based Earnings Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Matt L.; Torres, Lisa

    2001-01-01

    Data from adults in Atlanta, Boston, and Los Angeles (n=1,942) who searched for work using formal (ads, agencies) or informal (networks) methods indicated that type of method used did not contribute to the gender gap in earnings. Results do not support formal job search as a way to reduce gender inequality. (Contains 55 references.) (SK)

  8. Panel Estimates of Male-Female Earnings Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Kak; Polachek, Solomon W.

    1994-01-01

    Application of single and simultaneous equation fixed-effects and random-effects shows that earnings appreciation with experience and depreciation with labor market interruptions are comparable for men and women. Adjusting for heterogeneity reduces the wage gap to 20%; adjusting for endogeneity reduces it nearly to zero. (SK)

  9. Estimating the Effect of Personality on Male-Female Earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Mueller; E.J.S. Plug (Erik)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper uses the Five-Factor Model of personality structure as an organizing framework to explore the effects of personality on earnings. Using data from a longitudinal survey of American high school graduates, we find that extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism

  10. PENGARUH PENGUNGKAPAN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY TERHADAP EARNING RESPONSE COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Mitha Dwi Restuti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh negatif pengungkapan Corporate Sosial Responsibility (CSR disclosure terhadap Earning Response Coefficient (ERC. Alat analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis regresi berganda.Sampel yang digunakan adalah sebanyak 150 perusahaan yang terdaftar pada Bursa Efek Indonesia pada tahun 2010. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa pengungkapan Corporate Social Responsibility tidak berpengaruh terhadap Earning Response Coefficient (ERC. Hal ini dapat dikatakan bahwa investor belum memperhatikan informasi-informasi sosial yang diungkapkan dalam laporan tahunan perusahaan sebagai informasi yang dapat mempengaruhi investor dalam melakukan keputusan investasi. Investor masih mengganggap informasi laba lebih bermanfaat dalam menilai perusahaan dan dianggap lebih mampu memberikan informasi untuk mendapatkan return saham yang diharapkan oleh investor dibandingkan dengan informasi sosial yang diungkapkan oleh perusahaan.The purpose of this study is to determine the negative effect of Corporate Social Responsibility disclosure (CSR disclosure of Earnings Response Coefficient (ERC. Multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. The samples were 150 companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2010. Based on the research, the result was the disclosures of Corporate Social Responsibility did not influence Earning Response Coefficient (ECR. It can be said that investors did not pay attention to social information that was disclosed in the company’s annual report as information that could affect investors in making investment decisions. Investor did not consider sosial information; they only consider profit information to assess the company value and their investment return

  11. Audit firm rotation, audit firm tenure and earnings conservatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.T.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Vasileiou, K.Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the debate around the possibility of mandating audit firm rotation. Specifically, it examines conservatism as an attribute of earnings quality, which has not attracted particular attention in the auditor rotation research. Applying regression analyses on a sample,

  12. Evaluation of Earning Performance of Female Owned Leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tools for data analyses were descriptive statistics, income statement and an econometric model involving Ordinary Least Square regression analyses. The earning performance evaluation indicated that the enterprises have performed creditably considering the value of the gross margin analysis which is high and gross ...

  13. When does the tone of earnings press releases matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudt, Kris; Thewissen, James; Torsin, Wouter

    2018-01-01

    The tone of a firm's financial disclosure is increasingly used as a variable in panel data regressions to predict future performance and explain investors’ reaction at earnings announcement. We investigate when tone is informative, and argue that the informativeness of tone increases with the

  14. Mental Illness and Labour Market Outcomes: Employment and Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of severe mental illness on the capacity to hold a job and to earn an income. We find that the employment rate is reduced with about 1/3 during the development of the disease. Hospital admission seems to stabilize employment for all diagnoses. The employment rate...

  15. The effect of leverage increases on real earnings management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Zagers-Mamedova (Irina)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMain subject of this paper is to understand whether there could be an incentive for managers to manipulate cash flow from operating activities (CFO) through the use of real earnings management (REM), in situations with increasing leverage. Based upon a study of Jelinek (2007) who

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility and Earnings Management : Evidence from Asian Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Kang, Feng-Ching

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how earnings management is associated with corporate social responsibility (CSR) and investor protection with 139 firms in ten Asian countries. In Asia, CSR is increasingly attracting attention but the legal system generally is perceived as being poor. We hypothesize that there is an

  17. A risk augmented mincer earnings equation? Taking stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.

    2009-01-01

    We survey the literature on the Risk Augmented Mincer equation that seeks to estimate the compensation for uncertainty in the future wage to be earned after completing an education. There is wide empirical support for the predicted positive effect of wage variance and the negative effect of wage

  18. A risk augmented Mincer earnings equation? Taking stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.

    2011-01-01

    We survey the literature on the Risk Augmented Mincer equation that seeks to estimate the compensation for uncertainty in the future wage to be earned after completing an education. There is wide empirical support for the predicted positive effect of wage variance and the negative effect of wage

  19. Helping Working Families: The Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Saul D.; Seidman, Laurence S.

    The impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on working families was analyzed. The analysis established that the EITC is, on balance, a highly effective program that meets its primary objectives well. The following benefits of the EITC were identified: (1) it reduced the poverty rate in 1999 by an estimated 1.5 percentage points; (2) it is…

  20. How Working Time Reduction Affects Employment and Earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Raposo, P.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    December 1, 1996 Portugal introduced a new law on working hours which gradually reduced the standard workweek from 44 hours to 40 hours. We study how this mandatory working hours reduction affected employment and earnings of workers involved. We find for workers who were affected by the new law that

  1. Goodwill Impairment as a Tool for Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Lemans (Jamilla)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary This research examines whether or not goodwill impairments are being used by Dutch listed firms to manipulate earnings. Two different regression models are used for this purpose which include firm-specific factors as well as proxies for big bath accounting, income

  2. 76 FR 7526 - Major System Acquisition; Earned Value Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... that they may compare planned spending with actual spending, isolate the source of performance problems..., since the cost incurred by the government is fixed the requirement for ANSI compliance for performance... Earned Value Management (EVM) is a performance-based tool that gives agency managers an early warning of...

  3. Impact of external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Wai Wong

    2016-11-01

    Originality/value: The findings has also revealed important variables to be included in explaining high skill labor earnings in the context of Malaysian engineers, it serves as an important reference for future in modeling earnings.

  4. Ubuntu Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Ubuntu for everyone! This popular Linux-based operating system is perfect for people with little technical background. It's simple to install, and easy to use -- with a strong focus on security. Ubuntu: Up and Running shows you the ins and outs of this system with a complete hands-on tour. You'll learn how Ubuntu works, how to quickly configure and maintain Ubuntu 10.04, and how to use this unique operating system for networking, business, and home entertainment. This book includes a DVD with the complete Ubuntu system and several specialized editions -- including the Mythbuntu multimedia re

  5. DETERMINANTS OF RETAINED EARNINGS IN PROFITABLE STEEL COMPANIES IN INDIA: A STUDY OF STEEL SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sohaib Masood

    2018-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to identify the important determinants of retained earnings in profitable steel companies in steel sector of India and which have impact on the retention of earnings of steel companies under study. Multiple linear regression is used to identify the determinants of retained earnings for a period of sixteen years. Also the importance of retained earnings as a source of finance for steel sector companies is also studied in the paper.

  6. Power Scaling of Petroleum Field Sizes and Movie Box Office Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, J. A.; Barton, C. C.

    2017-12-01

    The size-cumulative frequency distribution of petroleum fields has long been shown to be power scaling, Mandelbrot, 1963, and Barton and Scholz, 1995. The scaling exponents for petroleum field volumes range from 0.8 to 1.08 worldwide and are used to assess the size and number of undiscovered fields. The size-cumulative frequency distribution of movie box office earnings also exhibits a power scaling distribution for domestic, overseas, and worldwide gross box office earnings for the top 668 earning movies released between 1939 and 2016 (http://www.boxofficemojo.com/alltime/). Box office earnings were reported in the dollars-of-the-day and were converted to 2015 U.S. dollars using the U.S. consumer price index (CPI) for domestic and overseas earnings. Because overseas earnings are not reported by country and there is no single inflation index appropriate for all overseas countries. Adjusting the box office earnings using the CPI index has two effects on the power functions fit. The first is that the scaling exponent has a narrow range (2.3 - 2.5) between the three data sets; and second, the scatter of the data points fit by the power function is reduced. The scaling exponents for the adjusted value are; 2.3 for domestic box office earnings, 2.5 for overseas box office earnings, and 2.5 worldwide box office earnings. The smaller the scaling exponent the greater the proportion of all earnings is contributed by a smaller proportion of all the movies: where E = P (a-2)/(a-1) where E is the percentage of earnings, P is the percentage of all movies in the data set. The scaling exponents for box office earnings (2.3 - 2.5) means that approximately 20% of the top earning movies contribute 70-55% of all the earnings for domestic, worldwide earnings respectively.

  7. Earnings management through loss avoidance: Does South Africa have a good story to tell?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangakane Lehlogonolo Pududu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether South African managers manage earnings to avoid reporting small losses (small earnings decreases. The study covers all the companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE from 2003 to 2011. In line with Burgstahler and Dichev (1997, the cross-sectional distributions of earnings and changes in earnings are examined and the distributions are shown in histograms. Previous research (using data from the United States has shown that the distribution curve for both the earnings and the change in earnings variable had noticeably fewer observations just below zero than would normally be expected, and a significantly higher number of observations just above zero. This pattern in the distributions suggests that managers manage reported earnings to ensure that earnings do not fall below a specific threshold, this being zero or the previous year’s performance. Interestingly, and in contrast with  the previous  literature, using the Burgstahler and Dichev (1997 research model of analysis, our results show no evidence in South Africa of managers managing earnings to avoid reporting small losses or small decreases in earnings. A possible reason for this could be the relatively smaller size of the JSE (compared with stock exchanges in the United States. In addition, and more important, is the possibility that investors and analysts in South Africa may be fixated on other performance indicators, such as revenue and headline earnings per share, rather than on earnings (profits.  This study adds to the limited research on earnings management in South Africa, which is a developing economy. Furthermore, previous research shows an inverse relationship between earnings management and earnings quality. The results of this study may therefore be useful to the users and the regulators of financial reports, both are concerned with earnings for the purposes of assessing the cost of capital and how companies

  8. ATLAS people can run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira; Pauline Gagnon

    It must be all the training we are getting every day, running around trying to get everything ready for the start of the LHC next year. This year, the ATLAS runners were in fine form and came in force. Nine ATLAS teams signed up for the 37th Annual CERN Relay Race with six runners per team. Under a blasting sun on Wednesday 23rd May 2007, each team covered the distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m taking the runners around the whole Meyrin site, hills included. A small reception took place in the ATLAS secretariat a week later to award the ATLAS Cup to the best ATLAS team. For the details on this complex calculation which takes into account the age of each runner, their gender and the color of their shoes, see the July 2006 issue of ATLAS e-news. The ATLAS Running Athena Team, the only all-women team enrolled this year, won the much coveted ATLAS Cup for the second year in a row. In fact, they are so good that Peter Schmid and Patrick Fassnacht are wondering about reducing the women's bonus in...

  9. Underwater running device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Sumio; Matsuo, Takashiro; Yoshida, Yoji

    1996-01-01

    An underwater running device for an underwater inspection device for detecting inner surfaces of a reactor or a water vessel has an outer frame and an inner frame, and both of them are connected slidably by an air cylinder and connected rotatably by a shaft. The outer frame has four outer frame legs, and each of the outer frame legs is equipped with a sucker at the top end. The inner frame has four inner frame legs each equipped with a sucker at the top end. The outer frame legs and the inner frame legs are each connected with the outer frame and the inner frame by the air cylinder. The outer and the inner frame legs can be elevated or lowered (or extended or contracted) by the air cylinder. The sucker is connected with a jet pump-type negative pressure generator. The device can run and move by repeating attraction and releasing of the outer frame legs and the inner frame legs alternately while maintaining the posture of the inspection device stably. (I.N.)

  10. Do Survey Data Estimate Earnings Inequality Correctly? Measurement Errors among Black and White Male Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have considered how earnings inequality estimates may be affected by measurement error in self-reported earnings in surveys. Utilizing restricted-use data that links workers in the Survey of Income and Program Participation with their W-2 earnings records, we examine the effect of measurement error on estimates of racial earnings…

  11. Annual earnings announcements and market reaction: The case of a small capital market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønroth, Helle Langhoff; Møller, Peder Fredslund; Thinggaard, Frank

    suggest that only a model based on reported IBES-estimates of earnings per share shortly before earnings release is descriptive of the market´s expectations. Some of these findings contradict the results in the only published 17 year old Danish event study on annual earnings announcements...

  12. 18 CFR 367.4390 - Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings. 367.4390 Section 367.4390 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4390 Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings. (a...

  13. 18 CFR 367.2161 - Account 216.1, Unappropriated undistributed subsidiary earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., either debit or credit, of undistributed retained earnings of subsidiary companies since their... account, this account must be debited and account 216, Unappropriated retained earnings (§ 367.2160..., Unappropriated undistributed subsidiary earnings. 367.2161 Section 367.2161 Conservation of Power and Water...

  14. Can Technical Analysis Signals Detect Price Reactions Around Earnings Announcement?: Evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dedhy Sulistiawan; Jogiyanto Hartono

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether technical analysis signals can detect price reactions before and after earnings announcement dates in Indonesian stock market. Earnings announcements produce reactions, both before and after the announcements. Informed investors may use private information before earnings announcements (Christophe, Ferri and Angel, 2004; Porter, 1992). Using technical analysis signals, this study expects that retail investors (uninformed investors) can detect preannouncements react...

  15. A Study on the Relationship of Earnings and Cash Flows: Evidence of Finance Sector in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salehi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is investigating the quality of annual accounting earnings in banking firms that have been listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE and it evaluates the most important information of accounting that is earnings and cash flows. The study also intends to investigate the relationship between earnings and cash flows regarding their relationship with the expected return of stocks and the extent of informing in the analysis of the inevitable return of stocks. The analyses of data during 6 years revealed that the earnings in comparison to the cash flows are very important as they have positive effects on the stock. Moreover, in the case of the relations of earnings and earnings changes with the expected return of stocks and the relation of cash flows and cash flow changes with the expected return of stock, it was found that there is only a meaningful relationship between earning changes and the expected return of stock in banking groups. However, there is no meaningful relationship between earning and cash flows with the expected return of stock. The result was that the informational content test didn’t support the value relation of earning and cash flows. Furthermore, the classifying of information through banking group indicated that the changes of earning was in the first rank and next were earning, the changes of cash flow and cash flows.Keywords: Earnings; Cash flows; expected return; Value relevance; Banking risks

  16. 75 FR 11998 - Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue... Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee will be held Tuesday, April 20, 2010 from 8 a.m. to...

  17. 76 FR 22171 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  18. 76 FR 32024 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  19. 76 FR 10944 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Tuesday...

  20. 75 FR 33894 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  1. 76 FR 45006 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, September 26, 2011, at 3 p.m...

  2. 76 FR 2197 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  3. 76 FR 56879 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, October 24, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time...

  4. 75 FR 7540 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  5. 76 FR 17995 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  6. 75 FR 18955 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  7. 76 FR 63716 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, November 28, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time...

  8. 76 FR 6188 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, March 28, 2011, at 2 p.m., Eastern...

  9. 75 FR 25316 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  10. The design of the run Clever randomized trial: running volume, -intensity and running-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik; Parner, Erik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2016-04-23

    Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week follow-up. Healthy recreational runners between 18 and 65 years and with an average of 1-3 running sessions per week the past 6 months are included. Participants are randomized into two intervention groups: Running schedule-I and Schedule-V. Schedule-I emphasizes a progression in running intensity by increasing the weekly volume of running at a hard pace, while Schedule-V emphasizes a progression in running volume, by increasing the weekly overall volume. Data on the running performed is collected by GPS. Participants who sustain running-related injuries are diagnosed by a diagnostic team of physiotherapists using standardized diagnostic criteria. The members of the diagnostic team are blinded. The study design, procedures and informed consent were approved by the Ethics Committee Northern Denmark Region (N-20140069). The Run Clever trial will provide insight into possible differences in injury risk between running schedules emphasizing either running intensity or running volume. The risk of sustaining volume- and intensity-related injuries will be compared in the two intervention groups using a competing

  11. Technologies for distributed defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiders, Barbara; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of 'citizen soldiers', with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  12. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  13. Barefoot running: biomechanics and implications for running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Allison R; Davis, Irene S

    2012-01-01

    Despite the technological developments in modern running footwear, up to 79% of runners today get injured in a given year. As we evolved barefoot, examining this mode of running is insightful. Barefoot running encourages a forefoot strike pattern that is associated with a reduction in impact loading and stride length. Studies have shown a reduction in injuries to shod forefoot strikers as compared with rearfoot strikers. In addition to a forefoot strike pattern, barefoot running also affords the runner increased sensory feedback from the foot-ground contact, as well as increased energy storage in the arch. Minimal footwear is being used to mimic barefoot running, but it is not clear whether it truly does. The purpose of this article is to review current and past research on shod and barefoot/minimal footwear running and their implications for running injuries. Clearly more research is needed, and areas for future study are suggested.

  14. The influence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems' performance on earnings management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Kuen-Chang; Liu, Jau-Yang; Lin, Sin-Jin; Chou, Yu-Wei

    2012-11-01

    We analyse whether there is a linkage between performance measures of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems and earnings management. We find that earnings management decreases with the higher performance of ERP systems. The empirical result is as expected. We further analyse how the dimension of the DeLone and McLean model of information systems success affects earnings management. We find that the relationship between the performance of ERP systems and earnings management depends on System Quality after ERP implementation. The more System Quality improves, the more earnings management is reduced.

  15. Macroeconomic effects of zero corporate income tax on retained earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Jaan Masso; Jaanika Meriküll

    2011-01-01

    International tax competition had led to a lowering of corporate tax rates worldwide. Estonia was the first country to reduce the tax rate on retained earnings to zero, while distributed profits remained taxed at the pre-reform level. This paper seeks to analyse the effects of this unique tax reform implemented in year 2000. We apply a neoclassical exogenous growth general equilibrium model with an extension for endogenous corporate finance. Our findings indicate that the reform had a strong ...

  16. Earnings announcements and the variability of stock returns

    OpenAIRE

    Eilifsen, Aasmund; Knivsflå, Kjell Henry; Sættem, Frode

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the dissemination process of firm-specific annual earnings information in the Norwegian capital market. We find a significant reduction in stock price volatility in the post-announcement period relative to the pre-announcement period for companies traded on the Oslo Stock Exchange in the period 1990-1995. Potential explanations for this phenomenon are tested by relating the observed return volatility to changes in the volatility of the underlying business, the spe...

  17. Re-examining the earnings assimilatins of immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, Taryn Ann

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the earnings assimilation of immigrants have traditionally focused exclusively on immigrants in employment. However, given evidence of immigrants' difficulties in entering and remaining in the labor market, restricting the population to those in employment may entail a selection bias. In addition, the primary variable of interest in such studies is often the duration of residence or the years since migration (YSM), which is interpreted as a proxy for potential labor market experien...

  18. Public-private sector earnings differentials in a transition economy

    OpenAIRE

    Laušev, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse how economic transition affected earnings differentials in Eastern European economies. In particular, as the public sector was the sole employer in the pre-transition period, the analysis of public sector pay setting is crucial to understanding how privatisation affected the labour market during the transition.\\ud \\ud The central idea of the first essay is to develop a theoretical model that explains the pay setting behaviour of the employer in the public ...

  19. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.

  20. ANALISIS PENGARUH PERUBAHAN EARNINGS DAN RISIKO PASAR TERHADAP STRUKTUR MODAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endi Sarwoko

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji perbedaan rata-rata struktur modal antar industri, menguji pengaruh perubahan earnings perusahaan terhadap struktur modal, dan menguji pengaruh risiko pasar dengan struktur modal perusahaan. Struktur modal dalam penelitian ini diproksikan dengan debt to equity ratio dan debt to total assets. Data diperoleh dari Pojok Bursa Efek Jakarta (BEJ Universitas Brawijaya, sampel sebanyak 40 perusahaan yang diambil secara Purposive dengan kriteria perusahaan-perusahaan tersebut aktif mencatatkan laporan keuangannya di BEJ dan aktif melakukan perdagangan saham selama 6 tahun terakhir. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh terbalik antara perubahan earnings perusahaan terhadap D/E tetapi perubahan earnings ternyata tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap D/A. Risiko pasar tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap debt to equity, hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa ketika akan melakukan pembelian saham investor tidak mempertimbangkan risiko pasar. Sedangkan berdasarkan pengaruh terhadap D/A diperoleh hasil risiko pasar berpengaruh signifikan terhadap debt to total assets,  manajemen perusahaan sangat memperhatikan dampak risiko pasar dalam menentukan kebijakan struktur modal perusahaan, karena dalam memberikan pinjaman kreditur biasanya sangat mempertimbangkan aset yang dimiliki perusahaan didanai dari mana, hutang atau modal sendiri.

  1. Why do very unattractive workers earn so much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi; Hu, Shihao; Larere, Adrien

    2018-05-01

    Kanazawa and Still (2018) showed that very unattractive workers earned more than unattractive workers, sometimes more than average-looking or attractive workers, because they had higher levels of intelligence and education, but they did not explain why very unattractive workers had higher intelligence and education. There are both theoretical and empirical reasons to expect that some intelligent men may prefer to marry very unattractive women. The analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) shows that very unattractive women were significantly more likely to be married at Age 29 than unattractive or average-looking women, and their spouses or partners earned significantly more than those of unattractive or average-looking women. If intelligent men have historically preferred to marry very unattractive women generation after generation, then, because both general intelligence and physical attractiveness are highly heritable, this can explain why very unattractive workers are more intelligent and achieve higher education, thereby earning more. It can also explain why the positive correlation between intelligence and physical attractiveness is not larger despite assortative mating of intelligent men of higher status and physically attractive women over many generations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Injury Reduction Effectiveness of Prescribing Running Shoes Based on Foot Shape in Air Force Basic Military Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knapik, Joseph J; Brosch, Lorie C; Venuto, Margaret; Swedler, David I; Bullock, Steven H; Gaines, Lorraine S; Murphy, Ryan J; Canada, Sara E; Hoedebecke, Edward L; Tobler, Steven K

    2008-01-01

    In response to a request from the Military Training Task Force of the Defense Safety Oversight Council this study examined whether prescribing running shoes based on the shape of the plantar surface...

  3. Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting and Earnings Management: The Role of Political Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Yip

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Francis, Nanda and Olsson (2008 proposed that earnings quality influence firms’ disclosure decisions. We examine whether Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosure is related to earnings management and if the relationship is mitigated by political cost considerations or by the firm’s ethical predisposition. We argue that the relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management is context-specific and we consider one particular context, the political environment. We test our hypotheses by regressing earnings management on CSR disclosure while controlling for other factors that may affect the level of earnings management. We find a significant relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management, and more specifically, we find evidence of a negative (complementary relationship in the oil and gas industry while we find evidence of a positive (substitutive relationship in the food industry. The evidence supports the view that the relationship between CSR reporting and earnings management is affected by the political environment and not by ethical considerations.

  4. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  5. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Defense Business Transformation by Jacques S. Gansler and William Lucyshyn The Center for Technology and National...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Business Transformation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...vii Part One: DoD Business Transformation

  6. Darlington up and running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Show, Don

    1993-01-01

    We've built some of the largest and most successful generating stations in the world. Nonetheless, we cannot take our knowledge and understanding of the technology for granted. Although, I do believe that we are getting better, building safer, more efficient plants, and introducing significant improvements to our existing stations. Ontario Hydro is a large and technically rich organization. Even so, we realize that partnerships with others in the industry are absolutely vital. I am thinking particularly of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. We enjoy a very close relationship with Aecl, and their support was never more important than during the N/A Investigations. In recent years, we've strengthened our relationship with Aecl considerably. For example, we recently signed an agreement with Aecl, making available all of the Darlington 900 MW e design. Much of the cooperation between Ontario Hydro and Aecl occurs through the CANDU Engineering Authority and the CANDU Owners Group (CO G). These organizations are helping both of US to greatly improve cooperation and efficiency, and they are helping ensure we get the biggest return on our CANDU investments. CO G also provides an important information network which links CANDU operators in Canada, here in Korea, Argentina, India, Pakistan and Romania. In many respects, it is helping to develop the strong partnerships to support CANDU technology worldwide. We all benefit in the long run form sharing information and resources

  7. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  8. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-01-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  9. Physiological demands of running during long distance runs and triathlons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausswirth, C; Lehénaff, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to identify the main metabolic factors which have an influence on the energy cost of running (Cr) during prolonged exercise runs and triathlons. This article proposes a physiological comparison of these 2 exercises and the relationship between running economy and performance. Many terms are used as the equivalent of 'running economy' such as 'oxygen cost', 'metabolic cost', 'energy cost of running', and 'oxygen consumption'. It has been suggested that these expressions may be defined by the rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) at a steady state (i.e. between 60 to 90% of maximal VO2) at a submaximal running speed. Endurance events such as triathlon or marathon running are known to modify biological constants of athletes and should have an influence on their running efficiency. The Cr appears to contribute to the variation found in distance running performance among runners of homogeneous level. This has been shown to be important in sports performance, especially in events like long distance running. In addition, many factors are known or hypothesised to influence Cr such as environmental conditions, participant specificity, and metabolic modifications (e.g. training status, fatigue). The decrease in running economy during a triathlon and/or a marathon could be largely linked to physiological factors such as the enhancement of core temperature and a lack of fluid balance. Moreover, the increase in circulating free fatty acids and glycerol at the end of these long exercise durations bear witness to the decrease in Cr values. The combination of these factors alters the Cr during exercise and hence could modify the athlete's performance in triathlons or a prolonged run.

  10. The Sources of Life Chances: Does Education, Class Category, Occupation, or Short-Term Earnings Predict 20-Year Long-Term Earnings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChangHwan Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In sociological studies of economic stratification and intergenerational mobility, occupation has long been presumed to reflect lifetime earnings better than do short-term earnings. However, few studies have actually tested this critical assumption. In this study, we investigate the cross-sectional determinants of 20-year accumulated earnings using data that match respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to their longitudinal earnings records based on administrative tax information from 1990 to 2009. Fit statistics of regression models are estimated to assess the predictive power of various proxy variables, including occupation, education, and short-term earnings, on cumulative earnings over the 20-year time period. Contrary to the popular assumption in sociology, our results find that cross-sectional earnings have greater predictive power on long-term earnings than occupation-based class classifications, including three-digit detailed occupations for both men and women. The model based on educational attainment, including field of study, has slightly better fit than models based on one-digit occupation or the Erikson, Goldthorpe, and Portocarero class scheme. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings for the sociology of stratification and intergenerational mobility.

  11. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Effective action and brane running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevik, Iver; Ghoroku, Kazuo; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2004-01-01

    We address the renormalized effective action for a Randall-Sundrum brane running in 5D bulk space. The running behavior of the brane action is obtained by shifting the brane position without changing the background and fluctuations. After an appropriate renormalization, we obtain an effective, low energy brane world action, in which the effective 4D Planck mass is independent of the running position. We address some implications for this effective action

  13. Asymmetric information and bank runs

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Chao

    2007-01-01

    It is known that sunspots can trigger panic-based bank runs and that the optimal banking contract can tolerate panic-based runs. The existing literature assumes that these sunspots are based on a publicly observed extrinsic randomizing device. In this paper, I extend the analysis of panic-based runs to include an asymmetric-information, extrinsic randomizing device. Depositors observe different, but correlated, signals on the stability of the bank. I find that if the signals that depositors o...

  14. Trends in the earnings gender gap among dentists, physicians, and lawyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Le, Thanh An; Lo Sasso, Anthony T; Vujicic, Marko

    2017-04-01

    The authors examined the factors associated with sex differences in earnings for 3 professional occupations. The authors used a multivariate Blinder-Oaxaca method to decompose the differences in mean earnings across sex. Although mean differences in earnings between men and women narrowed over time, there remained large, unaccountable earnings differences between men and women among all professions after multivariate adjustments. For dentists, the unexplained difference in earnings for women was approximately constant at 62% to 66%. For physicians, the unexplained difference in earnings for women ranged from 52% to 57%. For lawyers, the unexplained difference in earnings for women was the smallest of the 3 professions but also exhibited the most growth, increasing from 34% in 1990 to 45% in 2010. The reduction in the earnings gap is driven largely by a general convergence between men and women in some, but not all, observable characteristics over time. Nevertheless, large unexplained gender gaps in earnings remain for all 3 professions. Policy makers must use care in efforts to alleviate earnings differences for men and women because measures could make matters worse without a clear understanding of the nature of the factors driving the differences. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How to run 100 meters ?

    OpenAIRE

    Aftalion, Amandine

    2016-01-01

    A paraitre dans SIAP; The aim of this paper is to bring a mathematical justification to the optimal way of organizing one's effort when running. It is well known from physiologists that all running exercises of duration less than 3mn are run with a strong initial acceleration and a decelerating end; on the contrary, long races are run with a final sprint. This can be explained using a mathematical model describing the evolution of the velocity, the anaerobic energy, and the propulsive force: ...

  16. A Running Start: Resource Guide for Youth Running Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Seth; Becker, Andrew; Armstrong, Tess

    2016-01-01

    The lack of physical activity is an epidemic problem among American youth today. In order to combat this, many schools are incorporating youth running programs as a part of their comprehensive school physical activity programs. These youth running programs are being implemented before or after school, at school during recess at the elementary…

  17. Changes in Running Mechanics During a 6-Hour Running Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanelli, Nicola; Taboga, Paolo; Lazzer, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    To investigate changes in running mechanics during a 6-h running race. Twelve ultraendurance runners (age 41.9 ± 5.8 y, body mass 68.3 ± 12.6 kg, height 1.72 ± 0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874-m flat loops as possible in 6 h. Running speed, contact time (t c ), and aerial time (t a ) were measured in the first lap and every 30 ± 2 min during the race. Peak vertical ground-reaction force (F max ), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the center of mass (Δz), leg-length change (ΔL), vertical stiffness (k vert ), and leg stiffness (k leg ) were then estimated. Mean distance covered by the athletes during the race was 62.9 ± 7.9 km. Compared with the 1st lap, running speed decreased significantly from 4 h 30 min onward (mean -5.6% ± 0.3%, P running, reaching the maximum difference after 5 h 30 min (+6.1%, P = .015). Conversely, k vert decreased after 4 h, reaching the lowest value after 5 h 30 min (-6.5%, P = .008); t a and F max decreased after 4 h 30 min through to the end of the race (mean -29.2% and -5.1%, respectively, P running, suggesting a possible time threshold that could affect performance regardless of absolute running speed.

  18. Department of Defense perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines radiation instrumentation from the Department of Defense perspective. Radiation survey instruments and calibration, or RADIAC, as it is called in the services, while administratively falling under the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy, has generally been managed at a lower level. The Naval Electronics Systems Command and Army Signal Corp are the two principles in the Department of Defense for RADIAC. The actions of the services are coordinated through the tri-service RADIAC working group, which meets about every year and a half. Several points from this organization are highlighted

  19. CDF run II run control and online monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, T.; Ikado, K.; Badgett, W.; Chlebana, F.; Maeshima, K.; McCrory, E.; Meyer, A.; Patrick, J.; Wenzel, H.; Stadie, H.; Wagner, W.; Veramendi, G.

    2001-01-01

    The authors discuss the CDF Run II Run Control and online event monitoring system. Run Control is the top level application that controls the data acquisition activities across 150 front end VME crates and related service processes. Run Control is a real-time multi-threaded application implemented in Java with flexible state machines, using JDBC database connections to configure clients, and including a user friendly and powerful graphical user interface. The CDF online event monitoring system consists of several parts: the event monitoring programs, the display to browse their results, the server program which communicates with the display via socket connections, the error receiver which displays error messages and communicates with Run Control, and the state manager which monitors the state of the monitor programs

  20. Studying the Relationship between Economic Massive Changes with Earnings Management of Listed Companies in Tehran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMANİ SERYASAT, Hamid; PİRAYESH, Reza; NOORALİDOKHT, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This study investigates the relationship between earnings management and profitability of companies listed in Tehran stock exchange and its purpose is to examine the existence of earnings management phenomenon of listed companies in Tehran stock exchange. One of the executives' main objectives about earning management is creation a more stable flow, in order to support higher earning payments. More stable earnings flow can be perceived as a lower risk that leads to higher stock pric...

  1. How Federal Government Policies Have Helped Women Earn College Degrees?

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Deondra

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have long recognized that higher education brings knowledge and skills that translate into economic gains and enhanced political engagement, but little attention has been paid to the shifting impact of U.S. policies on college attendance by men and women. Once a male bastion, American higher education has become much more welcoming to women since the mid twentieth century. Starting in 1981, women earned the majority of bachelor’s degrees, and by 2003 U.S. colleges enrolled 1.3 women ...

  2. Entrepreneur's Choice of Tax Base: Earned or Capital Income?

    OpenAIRE

    Jouko Ylä-Liedenpohja

    2002-01-01

    The determination of the entrepreneur’s tax burden in the dual income tax system is studied. The dual system taxes income from capital at a flat rate, but earned income at progressive rates. The media view claims the entrepreneur to be able to take his pay as favourably taxed income from capital. It is shown not to be supported by the recent data nor by deductive analysis in case of start-ups when (i) proper opportunity costs of the outside employment option and (ii) the financial capital tie...

  3. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  4. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  5. Defense Transportation; The Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The statement of managers in the conference report on the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1997, directed us to validate the results and savings achieved from this and any other personal property pilot program...

  6. Defense Primer: DOD Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    functions, from intelligence analysis or software development to landscaping or food service. Why does DOD use individual contractors? Going back to...that provide professional services, from research to management support. The bulk of contractors—more than 70%—provide products, and these include...10 U.S.C. Part IV: Service, Supply, and Procurement. CRS Products CRS In Focus IF10548, Defense Primer: U.S. Defense Industrial Base, by Daniel

  7. Ballistic Missile Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    At the 2010 NATO summit in Lisbon, the alliance decided to move forward on the development of a territorial ballistic missile defense (BMD) system and explore avenues for cooperation with Russia in this endeavor. Substantial progress on BMD has been made over the past decade, but some questions remain regarding the ultimate strategic utility of such a system and whether its benefi ts outweigh the possible opportunity costs. Missile defense has been a point of contention between the US and its...

  8. PENGARUH PREMANAGED EARNINGS DAN DIVIDEN YANG DIHARAPKAN TERHADAP PRAKTIK MANAJEMEN LABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Anita Wibiksono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine whether the companies paying dividend in the previous year (payers are more likely to perform earnings management than companies that do not (non-payers in order to meet the expected dividend. The study also examines the impact of premanaged earnings and expected dividend on earnings management practices. Sample used in this research are manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2010-2012. The findings suggest that there is a significant negative relationship between premanaged earnings and discretionary accruals, and a significant positive relationship between the expected dividends and discretionary accruals. This study concludes that dividend is important determinant of earnings thresholds. However, dividend is not a unique motivation to perform earnings management.

  9. Relative changes in earned income five years after diagnosis with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleal, Bryan; Panton, Ulrik Haagen; Willaing, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    $ 924 (3.03%) among women. The effect was generally largest in the youngest age-group, in lower earners and among men. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly indicate that a diagnosis of diabetes has a significant impact on earnings. Age and earnings at the time of diagnosis appear to play a moderating role.......,090 people with diabetes were included in the study and matched to 91,090 controls in the general population. The analysis revealed highly significant loss of earnings for people with diabetes when compared with people without diabetes, with an overall relative loss of US $ 3694 (8.01%) among men and US......OBJECTIVE: With previous studies indicating that diabetes affects employment status and lifetime earnings, the aim of this study was to determine the impact on earnings in the immediate period after diagnosis. Recognising that earnings and employment status are dynamic over the life course, we...

  10. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency...

  11. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  12. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  13. Defense waste processing facility startup progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, D.C.; Elder, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950's to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high level waste produced since operation began have been consolidated into 33 million gallons by evaporation at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy has authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters, prior to emplacement in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. Cold startup testing using simulated non-radioactive feeds is scheduled to begin in November 1992 with radioactive operation scheduled to begin in May 1994. While technical issues have been identified which can potentially affect DWPF operation, they are not expected to negatively impact the start of non-radioactive startup testing

  14. A Study on the Determinants of Earnings Response Coefficient in an Emerging Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Mashayekhi; Zeynab Lotfi Aghel

    2016-01-01

    The determinants of Earnings Response Coefficient (ERC), including firm size, earnings growth, and earnings persistence are studied in this research. These determinants are supposed to be moderator variables that affect ERC and Return Response Coefficient. The research sample contains 82 Iranian listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) from 2001 to 2012. Gathered data have been processed by EVIEWS Software. Results show a significant positive relation between firm size and ERC, and als...

  15. A Study on the Relationship of Earnings and Cash Flows: Evidence of Finance Sector in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Salehi; Mirsohrab Seyedghorbani

    2013-01-01

    The present study is investigating the quality of annual accounting earnings in banking firms that have been listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) and it evaluates the most important information of accounting that is earnings and cash flows. The study also intends to investigate the relationship between earnings and cash flows regarding their relationship with the expected return of stocks and the extent of informing in the analysis of the inevitable return of stocks. The analyses of data dur...

  16. The Male-Female Wage Gap: Lifetime Earnings Losses. Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Heidi; Whittaker, Julie

    Currently, the median full-time woman worker earns 74.4 percent of the annual earnings of the median man. Over their lifetime, young women stand to lose a great deal of money due to differences in the wages for women and men. Estimates are that the average 25-year-old woman who works full time year round for 40 years will earn $523,000 less than…

  17. Influencing Factors on Earnings Management, Empirical Evidence from Listed German and Austrian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Dilger; Sabine Graschitz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Since the 1960s earnings management has been a widely researched area and became presumably known by the current accounting scandals. This paper aims at empirically showing which factors affect earnings management. Design/methodology/approach – According to former research literature factors are derived, which might influence the companies' earnings management behavior. These factors are the applied accounting standard, the industry sector and the country of official quotation. ...

  18. Cost Effectiveness of the Earned Income Tax Credit as a Health Policy Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter A; Mohit, Babak; Wu, Jinjing; Jia, Haomiao; Rosen, Zohn

    2016-12-01

    Lower-income Americans are suffering from declines in income, health, and longevity over time. Income and employment policies have been proposed as a potential non-medical solution to this problem. An interrupted time series analysis of state-level incremental supplements to the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program was performed using data from 1993 to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys and state-level life expectancy. The cost effectiveness of state EITC supplements was estimated using a microsimulation model, which was run in 2015. Supplemental EITC programs increased health-related quality of life and longevity among the poor. The program costs about $7,786/quality-adjusted life-year gained (95% CI=$4,100, $13,400) for the average recipient. This ratio increases with larger family sizes, costing roughly $14,261 (95% CI=$8,735, $19,716) for a family of three. State supplements to EITC appear to be highly cost effective, but randomized trials are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Timeliness of earnings reported by Romanian listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Carp

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the quality of financial information, by assessing the timeliness of earnings, using information specific to non-financial companies listed on the regulated section of Bucharest Stock Exchange. The study also seeks to assess the symmetry of actions for the timely recognition of potential gains and losses (components of the economic income and, if there is an asymmetry, to identify the sense of the temporary gap. The phenomenon is analysed in conjunction with a number of control factors such as the Romanian Accounting Standards (RAS, the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, the degree of indebtedness or the entities’ field of activity. Quantitative analysis performed through econometric models consecrated in the field, such as Basu (1997 and Ball and Shivakumar (2005, reveals that the companies included in the study provide financial information that meets the qualitatively criterion assessed, respectively earnings timeliness. Deepening the analysis has made it possible to identify a timely recognition both for unrealised gains and potential losses, as a result of tests carried out on the whole sample, an advance in what concerns the inclusion of economic lose in the accounting income compared to the recognition of economic gains. The presence of disjunctive factors in the analysis generated a number of particular results. In the case of normally indebted companies that apply the IFRS, a timely recognition of economic gains and losses was noted, without the gap specific to conservatism.

  20. Stratified patterns of divorce: Earnings, education, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kaplan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite evidence that divorce has become more prevalent among weaker socioeconomic groups, knowledge about the stratification aspects of divorce in Israel is lacking. Moreover, although scholarly debate recognizes the importance of stratificational positions with respect to divorce, less attention has been given to the interactions between them. Objective: Our aim is to examine the relationship between social inequality and divorce, focusing on how household income, education, employment stability, relative earnings, and the intersection between them affect the risk of divorce in Israel. Methods: The data is derived from combined census files for 1995-2008, annual administrative employment records from the National Insurance Institute and the Tax Authority, and data from the Civil Registry of Divorce. We used a series of discrete-time event-history analysis models for marital dissolution. Results: Couples in lower socioeconomic positions had a higher risk of divorce in Israel. Higher education in general, and homogamy in terms of higher education (both spouses have degrees in particular, decreased the risk of divorce. The wife's relative earnings had a differential effect on the likelihood of divorce, depending on household income: a wife who outearned her husband increased the log odds of divorce more in the upper tertiles than in the lower tertile. Conclusions: Our study shows that divorce indeed has a stratified pattern and that weaker socioeconomic groups experience the highest levels of divorce. Gender inequality within couples intersects with the household's economic and educational resources.

  1. Model construction of “earning money by taking photos”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingmei

    2018-03-01

    In the era of information, with the increasingly developed network, “to earn money by taking photos” is a self-service model under the mobile Internet. The user downloads the APP, registers as a member of the APP, and then takes a task that needs to take photographs from the APP and earns the reward of the task on the APP. The article uses the task data and membership information data of an already completed project, including the member’s location and reputation value. On the basis of reasonable assumption, the data was processed with the MATLAB, SPSS and Excel software. This article mainly studied problems of the function relationship between the task performance, task position (GPS latitude and GPS longitude) and task price of users, analyzed the project’s task pricing rules and the reasons why the task is not completed, and applied multivariate regression function and GeoQ software to analyze the data, studied the task pricing rules, applied the chart method to solve the complex data, clear and easy to understand, and also reality simulation is applied to analyze why the tasks are not completed. Also, compared with the previous program, a new task pricing program is designed for the project to obtain the confidence level by means of the SPSS software, to estimate the reasonable range of the task pricing, predict and design a new pricing program on the reasonable price range.

  2. IFRS ADOPTION AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN BRAZILIAN PUBLICLY TRADED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Midoguti Joia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, Brazil adopted the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Studies involving publicly traded companies in different countries around the world indicate that these new standards tend to improve the information quality and make it more comparable and transparent. This study was aimed at verifying any changes in the earnings management levels after 2010 and whether this happened in function of the full adoption of the IFRS by the Brazilian publicly traded companies (except for financial institutions. The data were extracted from the three-monthly financial statements of the databases from Economática and the Brazilian Securities Commission for the period from 2006 till 2011. To achieve the research objectives, two tests were applied. The first showed that the average discretionary accruals, calculated through the Modified Jones Model, were lower after 2010. Next, the regression analysis was elaborated, using panel data with Newey-West’s correction. The results did not confirm the hypothesis that the adoption of the IFRS affected the earnings management level in the period under analysis, but showed that the size and indebtedness significantly explain the discretionary accruals, independently of the adoption of the IFRS. The results suggest that larger companies with a large proportion of own capital tend to produce higher quality reports, independently of the adoption of the IFRS.

  3. Earning and caring: demographic change and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic Beaujot

    2002-12-01

    activities, we contrast theoretical orientations that see advantages to a division of labour or complementary roles, in comparison to orientations that see less risk and greater companionship in a collaborative model based on sharing paid and unpaid work, or co-providing and co-parenting. It is important to look both inside and outside of families, or at the changing gendered links between earning and caring, to understand change both in families and in the work world. It is proposed that equal opportunity by gender has advanced further in the public sphere associated with education and work, than in the private family sphere associated with everyday life. Time-use data indicate that, on average, men carry their weight in terms of total productive time (paid plus unpaid work, but that women make much more of the accommodations between family and work. Fertility is likely to be lowest in societies that offer women equal opportunity in the public sphere but where families remain traditional in terms of the division of work. Policies are discussed that would reduce the dependency between spouses, and encourage a greater common ground between men and women in earning and caring.

  4. Global health worker salary estimates: an econometric analysis of global earnings data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serje, Juliana; Bertram, Melanie Y; Brindley, Callum; Lauer, Jeremy A

    2018-01-01

    Human resources are consistently cited as a leading contributor to health care costs; however the availability of internationally comparable data on health worker earnings for all countries is a challenge for estimating the costs of health care services. This paper describes an econometric model using cross sectional earnings data from the International Labour Organization (ILO) that the World Health Organizations (WHO)-Choosing Interventions that are Cost-effective programme (CHOICE) has used to prepare estimates of health worker earnings (in 2010 USD) for all WHO member states. The ILO data contained 324 observations of earnings data across 4 skill levels for 193 countries. Using this data, along with the assumption that data were missing not at random, we used a Heckman two stage selection model to estimate earning data for each of the 4 skill levels for all WHO member states. It was possible to develop a prediction model for health worker earnings for all countries for which GDP data was available. Health worker earnings vary both within country due to skill level, as well as across countries. As a multiple of GDP per capita, earnings show a negative correlation with GDP-that is lower income countries pay their health workers relatively more than higher income countries. Limited data on health worker earnings is a limiting factor in estimating the costs of global health programmes. It is hoped that these estimates will support robust health care intervention costings and projections of resources needs over the Sustainable Development Goal period.

  5. Adolescent mental health and earnings inequalities in adulthood: evidence from the Young-HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Miriam; Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde; Melkevik, Ole; Reneflot, Anne; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that adolescent mental health problems are associated with lower employment probabilities and risk of unemployment. The evidence on how earnings are affected is much weaker, and few have addressed whether any association reflects unobserved characteristics and whether the consequences of mental health problems vary across the earnings distribution. A population-based Norwegian health survey linked to administrative registry data (N=7885) was used to estimate how adolescents' mental health problems (separate indicators of internalising, conduct, and attention problems and total sum scores) affect earnings (≥30 years) in young adulthood. We used linear regression with fixed-effects models comparing either students within schools or siblings within families. Unconditional quantile regressions were used to explore differentials across the earnings distribution. Mental health problems in adolescence reduce average earnings in adulthood, and associations are robust to control for observed family background and school fixed effects. For some, but not all mental health problems, associations are also robust in sibling fixed-effects models, where all stable family factors are controlled. Further, we found much larger earnings loss below the 25th centile. Adolescent mental health problems reduce adult earnings, especially among individuals in the lower tail of the earnings distribution. Preventing mental health problems in adolescence may increase future earnings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. COP21: defense stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldefy, Alain; Hulot, Nicolas; Aichi, Leila; Tertrais, Bruno; Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre; Piodi, Jerome; Regnier, Serge; Volpi, Jean-Luc; Descleves, Emmanuel; Garcin, Thierry; Granholm, Niklas; Wedin, Lars; Pouvreau, Ana; Henninger, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The 21. Conference of the Parties (COP21) from the UN Framework Convention took place in Paris between November 30 and December 11, 2015. The challenge is to reach a universal agreement of fight against global warming and to control the carbon footprint of human activities. This topic is in the core of the Defense Ministry preoccupations. This special dossier takes stock of the question of defense issues linked with global warming. The dossier comprises 13 papers dealing with: 1 - COP21: defense stakes (Coldefy, A.); 2 - Warfare climate, a chance for peace (Hulot, N.); 3 - COP21 and defense (Aichi, L.); 4 - A war climate? (Tertrais, B.); 5 - Challenges the World has to face in the 21. century (Paillard, C.A.); 6 - Desertification: a time bomb in the heart of Sahel (Piodi, J.); 7 - The infrastructure department of defense in the fight against climate disturbance (Regnier, S.); 8 - Fight against global warming, a chance for the forces? (Volpi, J.L.); 9 - Sea and sustainable development (Descleves, E.); 10 - Rationales of Arctic's surrounding powers (Garcin, T.); 11 - Arctic: strategic stake (Granholm, N.; Wedin, L.); 12 - Strategic impact of Turkey's new energy choices (Pouvreau, A.); 13 - Climate and war: a brief historical outlook (Henninger, L.)

  7. How have people responded to changes in the retirement earnings test in 2000?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae G; Manchester, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This article describes responses to removing the retirement earnings test in 2000 for persons at the full retirement age or older. We examine annual earnings and retirement benefit claims from Social Security administrative data that cover the 4 years before and after the change. Three findings emerge from the study. First, the effect on earnings of removing the earnings test is uneven across people with different earnings levels. We find little effect on earnings at lower levels, but the effect on earnings in the mid to upper levels (50th to 80th percentiles) is large and significant. Such a finding indicates that the removal most affects people with earnings levels above the earnings test threshold. The largest increases in earnings are found at the 70th percentile for persons who have attained ages 65-69 and at the 60th percentile for those turning 65. Second, there is no clear evidence of the effect of the test's removal on the overall rate of labor force participation. A small rise in work participation among individuals aged 65-69 may be at least partially attributable to the trend already under way. Increases in work participation that do occur are mostly attributable to retaining older workers rather than inducing older workers back into the workforce. The effect appears to increase over time, suggesting that the removal has long-lasting effects on work participation. Third, the removal of the earnings test accelerated applications for benefits by 2 to 5 percentage points among individuals aged 65-69 and by 3 to 7 percentage points among those reaching age 65.

  8. ANALISIS FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERPENGARUH TERHADAP EARNINGS MANAGEMENT PADA PERUSAHAAN GO PUBLIC DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Utari Widyaningdyah

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Earnings management is a management act in financial statement preparing process in order to obtain whether his personality welfare or his company's value. This research is a replication from Dechow et.al (1996 who had tested causes and consequences of earnings manipulation in firms subject to AAER (Accounting and Auditing Enforcement Release by SEC (Securities Exchange Commission. Purpose of this research is to give empirically evidence the influence of auditor reputation, board of directors, leverage, and public offering stock percentage at IPO time to the earnings management in initial public offering's firms which was listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange at 1994 until 1997.Statistical analysis method used is multiple regression. This research's result shows that leverage has significant influence to earnings management. It is mean that earnings management has a relation with external financing, especially debt. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Earnings management merupakan tindakan manajemen yang berupa campur tangan dalam proses penyusunan laporan keuangan dengan maksud untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraannya secara personel maupun untuk meningkatkan nilai perusahaan. Penelitian ini merupakan hasil replikasi dari penelitian Dechow et.al (1996 yang menguji sebab dan konsekuensi earnings management pada perusahaan yang menjadi subjek diberlakukannya AAER(Accounting and Auditing Enforcement Release oleh SEC (Securities Exchange Commision. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan secara empiris pengaruh reputasi auditor, jumlah dewan direksi, leverage, dan persentase saham yang ditawarkan kepada publik saat IPO terhadap earnings management pada perusahaan yang melakukan IPO (Initial Public Offerring di Bursa Efek Jakarta pada tahun 1994 sampai dengan 1997. Metode analisis statistik yang digunakan adalah multiple regression. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa hanya faktor leverage yang berpengaruh signifikan terhadap earnings management. Hal ini

  9. Running continuous academic adoption programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tobias Alsted

    Running successful academic adoption programmes requires executive support, clear strategies, tactical resources and organisational agility. These two presentations will discuss the implementation of strategic academic adoption programs down to very concrete tool customisations to meet specific...

  10. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  11. Phthalate SHEDS-HT runs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inputs and outputs for SHEDS-HT runs of DiNP, DEHP, DBP. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Moreau, M., J. Leonard, K. Phillips, J. Campbell,...

  12. Defense waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    Defense high-level waste (HLW) and defense transuranic (TRU) waste are in interim storage at three sites, namely: at the Savannah River Plant, in South Carolina; at the Hanford Reservation, in Washington; and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in Idaho. Defense TRU waste is also in interim storage at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in Tennessee; at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in New Mexico; and at the Nevada Test Site, in Nevada. (Figure E-2). This document describes a workable approach for the permanent disposal of high-level and transuranic waste from atomic energy defense activities. The plan does not address the disposal of suspect waste which has been conservatively considered to be high-level or transuranic waste but which can be shown to be low-level waste. This material will be processed and disposed of in accordance with low-level waste practices. The primary goal of this program is to utilize or dispose of high-level and transuranic waste routinely, safely, and effectively. This goal will include the disposal of the backlog of stored defense waste. A Reference Plan for each of the sites describes the sequence of steps leading to permanent disposal. No technological breakthroughs are required to implement the reference plan. Not all final decisions concerning the activities described in this document have been made. These decisions will depend on: completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, authorization and appropriation of funds, agreements with states as appropriate, and in some cases, the results of pilot plant experiments and operational experience. The major elements of the reference plan for permanent disposal of defense high-level and transuranic waste are summarized

  13. Defensive Federal Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-20

    requires that all affirmative defenses be pleaded in the answer. The rule lists 19 specific affirmative defenses, such as estoppel , laches, res judicata...Brown, 22 F.3d 516 (2d Cir. 1994); Poole v. Rourke, 779 F. Supp. 1546 (E.D. Cal. 1991). 3-40 potential collateral estoppel .4. effect of the district...the back pay claim, which was over $10,000, to the Court of Claims. The court of appeals found that ൸Collateral estoppel prohibits relitigation of

  14. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMIC CRISES IN THE BRAZILIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldy Fernandes da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 economic crisis challenged accounting, either demanding recognition and measurement criteria well adjusted to this scenario or even questioning its ability to inform appropriately entities’ financial situation before the crisis occurred. So, our purpose was to verify if during economic crises listed companies in the Brazilian capital market tended to adopt earnings management (EM practices. Our sample consisted in 3,772 firm-years observations, in 13 years – 1997 to 2009. We developed regression models considering discretionary accruals as EM proxy (dependent variable, crisis as a macroeconomic factor (dummy variable of interest, ROA, market-to-book, size, leverage, foreign direct investment (FDI and sector as control variables. Different for previous EM studies two approaches were used in data panel regression models and multiple crises were observed simultaneously. Statistics tests revealed a significant relation between economic crisis and EM practices concerning listed companies in Brazil in both approaches used.

  15. Managerial ability and earnings quality: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Salehi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditor independence is associated with the independence of the internal/external auditor from various parties who may have some financial interest in the business being audited. Many countries have set up different rules forcing firms to change their auditors every few years. This helps business retain healthy business. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of change in auditing system on 90 selected firms from Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2007-2011. Using a regression model developed earlier by Demerjian et al. (2012a [Demerjian, P. R., Lev, B., Lewis, M. F., & McVay, S. E. (2012a. Managerial ability and earnings quality. The Accounting Review, 88(2, 463-498.], the study determines a positive impact of change in auditor system on business development.

  16. EFFECTS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE VARIABLES ON EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanus Remond Waworuntu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of corporate governance on earnings management, this paper analyzed 171 annualreports from issued 2006 to 2009 by 57 non-financial, joint stock companies implementing GCG (GoodCorporate Governance practices, which were listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX. Six corporategovernance variables (board composition, independent commissioners, separate chairman/CEO roles, auditcommittee, managerial share ownership, and audit quality as well as three control variables (leverage, size,and ROA were used. The results showed that two corporate governance variables significantly influencedearnings management practices (separate chairman/CEO roles and managerial share ownership; the othervariables had no effect because these companies used GCG practices only to follow regulations rather than tomonitor and control.

  17. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  18. A Comparison of Danish and International Findings on Intergenerational Earnings Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Azhar, Hussain; D. Munk, Martin

    a comparison with analyses on a Danish register data set. The earnings mobility between fathers/mothers and their sons/daughters is investigated, and shows that the father-son earnings persistence effect is found to be smaller in Denmark, Finland and Sweden than in the United States, but higher than in Norway....

  19. Is Economics a Good Major for Future Lawyers? Evidence from Earnings Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports descriptive data on earnings differences for practicing lawyers by undergraduate major with a focus on economics majors. Some majors do much better than others. Economics majors tend to do very well in both median and mean earnings. Electrical engineering, accounting, finance, and some other majors also do relatively well. This…

  20. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-2 - Computation of net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-2 Computation of net earnings from self-employment. (a) General rule. In general, the gross income and... ascertaining his net earnings from self-employment, are to be determined by reference to the provisions of law...

  1. 26 CFR 1.857-7 - Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a real estate investment... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-7 Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust. (a) Any real estate investment trust whether or not such trust...

  2. The impact of mothers' earnings on health inputs and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Naci; Raschke, Christian; Unel, Bulent

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of mothers' earnings on birth weight and gestational age of infants in the U.S. It also analyzes the impact of earnings on mothers' consumption of prenatal medical care, and their propensity to smoke and drink during pregnancy. The paper uses census division-year-specific skill-biased technology shocks as an instrument for mothers' earnings and employs a two-sample instrumental variables strategy. About 14 million records of births between 1989 and 2004 are used from the Natality Detail files along with the CPS Annual Demographic Files from the same period. The results reveal that an increase in weekly earnings prompts an increase in prenatal care of low-skill mothers (those who have at most a high school degree) who are not likely to be on Medicaid, and that earnings have a small positive impact on birth weight and gestational age of the newborns of these mothers. Specifically, if a mother's earnings double, this produces a weight gain of the newborn by about 100g and an increase in gestational age by 0.7 weeks. An increase in earnings does not influence the health of newborns of high-skill mothers (those with at least some college education). Variations in earnings have no impact on birth weight for mothers who are likely to be on Medicaid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 26 CFR 1.857-11 - Non-REIT earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-REIT earnings and profits. 1.857-11 Section 1.857-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-11 Non-REIT earnings and profits...

  4. Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…

  5. 20 CFR 416.1112 - Earned income we do not count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1112 Earned income we do not count. (a) General... receive it. (3) If you are under age 22 and a student who is regularly attending school as described in... not blind) and under age 65 or you are disabled (but not blind) and received SSI as a disabled...

  6. 48 CFR 352.234-3 - Full earned value management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-3 Section 352.234-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-3 Full earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(c), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Full Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a) The Contractor...

  7. 48 CFR 352.234-4 - Partial earned value management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-4 Section 352.234-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-4 Partial earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(d), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Partial Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a) The...

  8. Multilevel Analysis of the Effects of Antidiscrimination Policies on Earnings by Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawitter, Marieka

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the 2000 U.S. Census data to assess the impact of antidiscrimination policies for sexual orientation on earnings for gays and lesbians. Using a multilevel model allows estimation of the effects of state and local policies on earnings and of variation in the effects of sexual orientation across local labor markets. The results…

  9. A Hierarchical Linear Model for Estimating Gender-Based Earnings Differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberfield, Yitchak; Semyonov, Moshe; Addi, Audrey

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of gender earnings inequality in data from 116,431 Jewish workers were compared using a hierarchical linear model (HLM) and ordinary least squares model. The HLM allows estimation of the extent to which earnings inequality depends on occupational characteristics. (SK)

  10. Education and Synthetic Work-Life Earnings Estimates. American Community Survey Reports. ACS-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Tiffany; Kominski, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between education and earnings is a long-analyzed topic of study. Generally, there is a strong belief that achievement of higher levels of education is a well established path to better jobs and better earnings. This report provides one view of the economic value of educational attainment by producing an estimate of the amount of…

  11. Factors Influencing the Earnings Expectations among Macedonian Students: A Comparative Perspective with the EU Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Andonova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the earnings expectations of Macedonian students and the main factors that shape their expectations. Previous research has shown that earnings expectation is a major determinant that influences a decision on schooling (Williams and Gordon, 1981; Betts, 1996; Wolter and Zbinden, 2001. Given that the main pathway to developing individual human capital is schooling, learning about factors that affect individual’s decision on whether to acquire more education can contribute towards better educational policy. We employ similar empirical approach as Brunello et al. (2001, 2004. We use available information to regress: i expected future earnings right after university graduation and ii expected future earnings 10 years after graduation, on a set of variables: characteristics of the individual, socio-economic background, field of study, year of study, academic performance, sources of information for future earnings, etc. Our findings show that expected earnings are significantly correlated with the education of the father, year of study, sources of information on earnings in the labor market, gender, ethnicity, having a regular job during studies, perceived employability, field of study, and the country of future employment. In other words, Macedonian students form their earnings expectations in a similar vein as their European counterparts.

  12. 26 CFR 1.312-15 - Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.312-15 Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits. (a) Depreciation for taxable years beginning after June 30, 1972—(1) In general...

  13. 25 CFR 115.713 - When does money in a trust account start earning interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does money in a trust account start earning interest? 115.713 Section 115.713 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL... and Interests § 115.713 When does money in a trust account start earning interest? Funds must remain...

  14. 25 CFR 115.710 - Does money in a trust account earn interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does money in a trust account earn interest? 115.710 Section 115.710 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST... Interests § 115.710 Does money in a trust account earn interest? Yes, all money deposited in a trust account...

  15. Listed companies’ income tax planning and earnings management: Based on China’s capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanwei Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Ministry of Finance issued the new China accounting standards on February 15, 2006(CAS2006, which require the listed companies to use the balance sheet liability method for the income tax accounting. Thus, it give us an opportunity to investigate the earnings management of listed companies from the perspective of income tax. Under the balance sheet liability method, because conforming earnings management strategies and nonconforming earnings management strategies have different income tax cost and the current income payable will also vary, the listed companies need to choose conforming earnings management and nonconforming earnings management. Our research just try to investigate the relationship between the listed companies’ income tax planning and earnings management on the background of this new system.Design/methodology/approach: Our research approach combines theoretical analysis and empirical analysis. This paper first make a deep theoretical analysis on the listed companies’ choice between pretax earnings management activities that have current income tax consequences (book-tax ‘conforming earnings management’ and earnings management activities that do not have current income tax consequences (book-tax ‘nonconforming earnings management’,and then we exemplify our theory. Next, we come up with two hypotheses based on the theoretical analysis, build up a restatement model and conduct the empirical examination. The empirical analysis employs the method of descriptive statistics and logistic regression.Findings: When engaging in earnings management, listed companies will trade off conforming and nonconforming earnings management from the perspective of income tax cost. We find that managers’ motivations and purposes will influence the choice. On the one hand, when companies are facing the punishment of the suspension or termination of the listing for three consecutive losses, they will have a great incentive to

  16. 75 FR 47349 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, September 22, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time...

  17. 75 FR 62632 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, November 24, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  18. 75 FR 39333 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, August 25, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  19. 76 FR 37199 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, August 22, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  20. 75 FR 55406 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, October 27, 2010, at 1:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  1. 75 FR 4140 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION... Tax Credit Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public... Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, February 24, 2010, at 1 p...

  2. Universities Report $1.8-Billion in Earnings on Inventions in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Universities and their inventors earned more than $1.8-billion from commercializing their academic research in the 2011 fiscal year, collecting royalties from new breeds of wheat, from a new drug for the treatment of HIV, and from longstanding arrangements over enduring products like Gatorade. Northwestern University earned the most of any…

  3. Economics of Education and Work Life Demand in Terms of Earnings and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Belle Selene; Liitiäinen, Elia

    2014-01-01

    This article uses data from a major international survey to construct earnings functions in terms of learning outcomes and variables related to working life in different European countries. In order to complement the extended earnings regression model, the authors have used partial correlation analysis and the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to…

  4. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(2)-1 - Earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits. 1.381(c)(2)-1 Section 1.381(c)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(2)-1 Earnings and profits. (a) In...

  5. Business Administration and Computer Science Degrees: Earnings, Job Security, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kamlesh; Uhlig, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of business administration vs. computer science degrees in terms of earnings, job security, and job satisfaction. The paper focuses on earnings potential five years and ten years after the completion of business administration and computer science degrees. Moreover, the paper presents the income changes with…

  6. Does Human Capital Investment Impact the Earning Mobility of the Near Poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    This secondary analysis of the earning mobility of the near poor examined the impact of human capital investment on the earning mobility of the near poor between 2005 and 2009. The theory framing this study is Human Capital Theory (Shultz, 1961). Other demographic and socioeconomic variables were included in this study to further explore factors…

  7. Income Smoothing and Earnings Informativeness : A matter of institutional characteristics or accounting standards?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tudor (Alexandra)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive Summary This study investigates the level of income smoothing and its impact on the informativeness of earnings. The main contribution of this research is that as well IFRS as investor protection are considered to examine the association between income smoothing and earnings

  8. THE IMPACT OF IFRS ADOPTION ON EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN BANKING COMPANIES IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Santy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the IFRSadoption as a standard that can lead to a reduction of earnings management. The research aimed to give empirical evidence concerning the impact of the IFRS adoption on earnings management, and the test of the difference level of earnings management between before and after the IFRS adoption. The research scope focused on the implementation of IFRS adoption particularly in PSAK No. 50 and PSAK No. 55 (revised 2006 concerningfinancial instruments. The research objects were the banking companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange for 4 years (2008-2011, i.e. as many as 23 banks. Samples were taken by using the purposive sampling technique. The main variables in this research are IFRS and earnings management,and includes several control variable, among others are, size, financial leverage, market to book value and institutional investors. The data were analyzed usingmultiple regression analysis and different t-test analysis. The research result indicates that the IFRS adoption has not effect the decreaseon the earnings management.Among the four control variables, the variable institutional investor is found not to have theeffect on earnings management, whereas the other three variables haveeffect.The result of the different t-test analysis also indicates that statistically there is not significant difference on the level of the earnings management between before and after IFRS adoption. Thus, based on this study concluded that the adoption of IFRS still allow for the occurrence of earnings management.

  9. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    The 1993 policy to promote the consolidation of the United States defense industry began a series of acquisitions and mergers that went beyond the intent of the policy and left the Department of Defense (DoD...

  10. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    ...% of defense product sales annually. Defense consolidation has diminished the flexibility required for surge capacity, diminished competitive innovations in products, and reduced competitive pricing based on multiple sources for products...

  11. Influencing Factors on Earnings Management, Empirical Evidence from Listed German and Austrian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Dilger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Since the 1960s earnings management has been a widely researched area and became presumably known by the current accounting scandals. This paper aims at empirically showing which factors affect earnings management. Design/methodology/approach – According to former research literature factors are derived, which might influence the companies' earnings management behavior. These factors are the applied accounting standard, the industry sector and the country of official quotation. Although several measurements for earnings management like abnormal accruals or income smoothing exist, this paper is predominantly using the distribution of net income scaled by total assets (RoA respectively total sales (RoS as earnings management measure. These earnings management measures have been selected as they can measure the frequency of earnings management in reality and no estimates are necessary. Findings – In general, analyses show that the distribution in earnings management intervals differ from the total population. Most noteworthy is that by adoption of principle-based accounting standards (IFRS/US-GAAP, in case of this study no differences of earnings quality was observable. The other two variables yield in mixed results due to the robustness checks, which indeed questions the scaling variables for data-sets including the financial industries. Research limitations/implications – First, according to the chosen measurement parameter no distinct assertion concerning the reasons for execution or non-execution of earnings management can be deduced. Second, the method of earnings management's identification is not dividable and therefore real-, accounting-, legal- and illegal- earnings management cannot be identified. Third, the research results are just partially generalizable concerning representativity (e.g. other countries, non-market listed companies and taken for granted just for similar data-sets. Originality/value – Although prior

  12. Auditor report and earnings management: Evidence from FTSE 350 companies in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alhadab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between audit report and real-based and accrual-based earnings management based on a UK sample. Prior research has mostly focused on US data and examined the relationship between auditor report (qualified vs. non-qualified and earnings management (proxied by discretionary accruals, and found evidence that qualified audit report is positively associated with the level of discretionary accruals. Despite the importance of the role of audit firms to constrain the use of earnings management, there is no research to date has examined the relationship between auditor reports and real earnings management activities based on UK sample. This paper therefore fills this gap in the literature by providing the first evidence for UK FTSE 350 companies that auditor report is positively associated with real and accrual earnings management. The paper also provide evidence that firms received qualified audit report share different characteristics as compared to firms received un-qualified audit report

  13. A study on relationship between audit quality and earnings management in Iranian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Masihi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between audit quality and earnings management in Iranian banking industry. The proposed study gathers the necessary information from 18 different Iranian banks over the period 2005-2012. The study considers the effects of three independent variables including type of auditing, tenure of auditing and size of bank on earning managements. The result of our survey has indicated that there was a meaningful and reverse relationship between type of accounting and earnings management. In addition, the longer an auditing firm perform auditing program, the better the firm reports earnings management. Finally, as the size of firm increases, there is a better earnings management.

  14. Is the gap more than gender? A longitudinal analysis of gender, gender role orientation, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Livingston, Beth A

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of between-individual differences in gender role orientation were also considered). Results indicated that whereas traditional gender role orientation was positively related to earnings, gender significantly predicted the slope of this relationship: Traditional gender role orientation was strongly positively associated with earnings for men; it was slightly negatively associated with earnings for women. Occupational segregation partly explained these gender differences. Overall, the results suggest that although gender role attitudes are becoming less traditional for men and for women, traditional gender role orientation continues to exacerbate the gender wage gap.

  15. The Quality of Accounting Earnings and Change in Political Power Map: Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harymawan Iman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the earnings quality of politically connected firms listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2006-2010. This study compare two definition (Soeharto Dependency Index (SDI and Politically Exposed Person (PEP of political connections to capture the effect of the changes of political power map on the earnings quality of politically connected firms in Indonesia. The finding shows that the quality of accounting earnings of politically connected firms which were formerly closely related to President Soeharto in 1998 are not significantly different to other firms. Furthermore, when this study employ politically exposed person as a proxy of political connections, the findings shows that connected firms have significantly lower quality accounting earnings. Consistent with prior findings, this study shows that change in political power map in Indonesia affect the level of earnings quality of politically connected firms.

  16. An Empirical Examination of Ownership Structure, Earnings Management and Growth Opportunities in Mexican Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel San Martín Reyna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the influence of ownership structure, board and leverage on the earnings management when companies either face, or do not face, profitable growth opportunities for a sample of 90 listed Mexican firms during the period 2005-2009. The results confirm the relevance of debt and board of directors in terms of earnings management by showing a positive relationship between earnings management and both board of directors and leverage in the presence of growth opportunities. In contrast, this relationship becomes negative when firms have no profitable investment projects. The results also demonstrate the relevance of controlling shareholders on earnings management under a growth opportunity setting.Therefore, our results show that ownership structure, composition and size of board and leverage play a dual role: reduce the earnings management when there are no investments projects, but impact positively in presence of growth opportunities.

  17. Defensive Passivity in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, Eliyahu; Gaoni, Bracha

    1977-01-01

    There are potentially healthy adolescents who display excessive reluctance to move toward independent decision and action. This research presents a clinical description of this "syndrome", conceptualizes it as a defensive maneuver against mourning over cherished childhood dreams and offers steps for therapeutic intervention. (Editor/RK)

  18. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  19. Auxins in defense strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čarná, Mária; Repka, V.; Skůpa, Petr; Šturdík, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2014), s. 1255-1263 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011802 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * defense responses * JA Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  20. Hanford defense waste studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Zimmerman, M.G.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    PNL is assisting Rockwell Hanford Operations to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement for the management of Hanford defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is leading the task of calculation of public radiation doses from a large matrix of potential routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment

  1. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Countless studies, however, have demonstrated the weakness in this system.15 The tension between easily remembered passwords and suffi...vulnerabilities Undiscovered flaws The patch model for Internet security has failed spectacularly. Caida , 2004 Signature-Based Defense Anti virus, intrusion

  2. The Earnings/Price Risk Factor in Capital Asset Pricing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Falcão Noda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article integrates the ideas from two major lines of research on cost of equity and asset pricing: multi-factor models and ex ante accounting models. The earnings/price ratio is used as a proxy for the ex ante cost of equity, in order to explain realized returns of Brazilian companies within the period from 1995 to 2013. The initial finding was that stocks with high (low earnings/price ratios have higher (lower risk-adjusted realized returns, already controlled by the capital asset pricing model's beta. The results show that selecting stocks based on high earnings/price ratios has led to significantly higher risk-adjusted returns in the Brazilian market, with average abnormal returns close to 1.3% per month. We design asset pricing models including an earnings/price risk factor, i.e. high earnings minus low earnings, based on the Fama and French three-factor model. We conclude that such a risk factor is significant to explain returns on portfolios, even when controlled by size and market/book ratios. Models including the high earnings minus low earnings risk factor were better to explain stock returns in Brazil when compared to the capital asset pricing model and to the Fama and French three-factor model, having the lowest number of significant intercepts. These findings may be due to the impact of historically high inflation rates, which reduce the information content of book values, thus making the models based on earnings/price ratios better than those based on market/book ratios. Such results are different from those obtained in more developed markets and the superiority of the earnings/price ratio for asset pricing may also exist in other emerging markets.

  3. Selection, Language Heritage, and the Earnings Trajectories of Black Immigrants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Tod G.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean surpass the earnings of U.S.-born blacks approximately one decade after arriving in the United States. Using data from the 1980–2000 U.S. censuses and the 2005–2007 American Community Surveys on U.S.-born black and non-Hispanic white men as well as black immigrant men from all the major sending regions of the world, I evaluate whether selective migration and language heritage of immigrants’ birth countries account for the documented earnings crossover. I validate the earnings pattern of black immigrants documented in previous studies, but I also find that the earnings of most arrival cohorts of immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean, after residing in the United States for more than 20 years, are projected to converge with or slightly overtake those of U.S.-born black internal migrants. The findings also show three arrival cohorts of black immigrants from English-speaking African countries are projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born black internal migrants. No arrival cohort of black immigrants is projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites. Birth-region analysis shows that black immigrants from English-speaking countries experience more rapid earnings growth than immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. The arrival-cohort and birth-region variation in earnings documented in this study suggest that selective migration and language heritage of black immigrants’ birth countries are important determinants of their initial earnings and earnings trajectories in the United States. PMID:24854004

  4. ZNJPrice/Earnings Ratio Model through Dividend Yield and Required Yield Above Expected Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Price/earnings ratio is the most popular and most widespread evaluation model used to assess relative capital asset value on financial markets. In functional terms, company earnings in the very long term can be described with high significance. Empirically, it is visible from long-term statistics that the demanded (required yield on capital markets has certain regularity. Thus, investors first require a yield above the stable inflation rate and then a dividend yield and a capital increase caused by the growth of earnings that influence the price, with the assumption that the P/E ratio is stable. By combining the Gordon model for current dividend value, the model of market capitalization of earnings (price/earnings ratio and bearing in mind the influence of the general price levels on company earnings, it is possible to adjust the price/earnings ratio by deriving a function of the required yield on capital markets measured by a market index through dividend yield and inflation rate above the stable inflation rate increased by profit growth. The S&P 500 index for example, has in the last 100 years grown by exactly the inflation rate above the stable inflation rate increased by profit growth. The comparison of two series of price/earnings ratios, a modelled one and an average 7-year ratio, shows a notable correlation in the movement of two series of variables, with a three year deviation. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that three years of the expected inflation level, dividend yield and profit growth rate of the market index are discounted in the current market prices. The conclusion is that, at the present time, the relationship between the adjusted average price/earnings ratio and its effect on the market index on one hand and the modelled price/earnings ratio on the other can clearly show the expected dynamics and course in the following period.

  5. Peran Praktek Corporate Governance Sebagai Moderating Variable dari Pengaruh Earnings Management Terhadap Nilai Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinola Herawaty

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the empirical study is to examine the role of Corporate Governance Practices as a variable that moderates the effect of Earnings Management to the value of the firm. The result gives the evidence that corporate governance practices that have a significant impact to the value the firm are outside independent director and institutional ownership, in the model regression with moderating variable. It also indicates that Independent director, audit quality and institutional ownership are moderating variables of the relationship between earnings management and the value of the firm, but not the managerial ownership. Thus, earnings Management can be minimized with the monitoring mechanism i.e. (1 independent director that can monitor the management of the company in aligning the interest of principal and agent, (2 institutional ownership shareholders - the sophitisticed investor that also monitor the management to decrease the motivation of management to manipulate Earnings and (3 audit quality with the role of auditors to give the credibility of the reported financial statement by management. Abstract in Bahasa Indoesia: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menge¬tahui secara empiris pengaruh earnings management terhadap nilai perusahaan, praktek corporate governance nilai perusahaan dan pengaruh praktek corporate governance terhadap hubungan antara earnings management dan nilai perusahaan dan memahami peranan praktek corporate governance terhadap praktek earnings management yang dilakukan yang perusahaan dalam upaya meningkatkan nilai perusahaan. Hasil penelitian membuktikan corporate governance berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap nilai perusahaan dengan variabel komisaris inde¬penden dan kepemilikan institusional. Kepemilikan manajerial akan menurunkan nilai perusahaan sedangkan kualitas audit akan meningkatkan nilai perusahaan. Komisaris independen, kualitas audit dan kepemilikan institusional merupakan variabel pemoderasi antara

  6. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  7. The Effect of Cash Dividend, Retained Earnings, and Stock Price of Manufacturing Company Listed In Indonesia Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Farah Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of cash dividends per share, retained earnings per share, earnings per share, and leverage on the stock price of manufacture industry in Indonesia from 2008-2012. Research used secondary data in which the source was obtained indirectly through an intermediary medium or data processed from literatures and reports associated with this research. Independent variables in this study (x) are cash dividends per share, retained earnings per share, earnings per ...

  8. Earnings Inequality and the Intersectionality of Gender and Ethnicity in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Tanzanian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Juliet U. Elu; Linda Loubert

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates quantile earnings functions with data from the 2004 Tanzanian Household Worker Survey to determine if ethnicity and gender--being female--matters per se and across the distribution of earnings. We find that in the Tanzanian manufacturing sector gender intersects with ethnicity to condition earnings and the return to schooling across the distribution of earnings. This suggests that in Sub-Saharan Africa--at least in Tanzania--labor market policies aimed at eradicating gend...

  9. Children's Fitness. Managing a Running Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, J. Scott; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1987-01-01

    A running program to increase the cardiovascular fitness levels of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children is described. Discussed are the running environment, implementation of a running program, feedback, and reinforcement. (MT)

  10. Earnings management behavior of the initial public offering (IPO) firms during pre-IPO, IPO, and post-IPO years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Benali, Meryem

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the pattern of earnings management around the IPO year in Morocco during the period between 2001 and 2007. Our results show that earnings management reaches its maximum level during the year of an IPO followed earnings management during the pre-IPO years and the post-IPO years...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1248-2 - Earnings and profits attributable to a block of stock in simple cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Gains and Losses § 1.1248-2 Earnings and profits attributable to a block of stock in simple cases. (a... United States shall not be excluded under this subdivision from earnings and profits accumulated for a... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Earnings and profits attributable to a block of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.611-4 - Depletion as a factor in computing earnings and profits for dividend purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Depletion as a factor in computing earnings and....611-4 Depletion as a factor in computing earnings and profits for dividend purposes. For rules with respect to computation of earnings and profits where depletion is a factor in the case of corporations...

  13. 26 CFR 1.956-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... earnings invested in United States property by A Corporation attributable to the stock acquired by M... foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property. 1.956-1 Section 1.956-1... foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property. (a) In general. Section 956...

  14. 26 CFR 1.312-7 - Effect on earnings and profits of gain or loss realized after February 28, 1913.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in determining invested capital; and (2) The computation of earnings and profits of the corporation... stock in the hands of Corporation R for purposes of computing earnings and profits, however, will be... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect on earnings and profits of gain or loss...

  15. Gender Segregation in Fields of Study at Community Colleges and Implications for Future Earnings. Fact Sheet #C395

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughari, Layla; Gunn-Wright, Rhiana; Gault, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary education yields myriad benefits, including increased earnings potential, higher lifetime wages, and access to quality jobs. But postsecondary degrees are not all equal in the benefits they bring to students, and women tend to obtain degrees in fields with lower earnings. Women with associate degrees earn approximately 75 percent of…

  16. Does Money Matter: Earnings Patterns Among a National Sample of the US State Governmental Public Health Agency Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Brian C; Leider, Jonathon P; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Earnings have been shown to be a critical point in workforce recruitment and retention. However, little is known about how much governmental public health staff are paid across the United States. To characterize earnings among state health agency central office employees. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of state health agency central office employees in late 2014. The sampling approach was stratified by 5 (paired HHS) regions. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to correctly calculate variance estimates, given the complex sampling design. Descriptive and bivariate statistical comparisons were conducted. A linear regression model was used to examine correlates of earnings among full-time employees. A total of 9300 permanently employed, full-time state health agency central office staff who reported earnings information. Earnings are the main outcomes examined in this article. Central office staff earn between $55,000 and $65,000 on average annually. Ascending supervisory status, educational attainment, and tenure are all associated with greater earnings. Those employed in clinical and laboratory positions and public health science positions earn more than their colleagues in administrative positions. Disparities exist between men and women, with men earning more, all else being equal (P earnings levels, including disparities in earnings that persist after accounting for education and experience. Data from the survey can inform strategies to address earnings issues and help reduce disparities.

  17. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    OpenAIRE

    David Hryvniak; Jay Dicharry; Robert Wilder

    2014-01-01

    Background: Running is becoming an increasingly popular activity among Americans with over 50 million participants. Running shoe research and technology has continued to advance with no decrease in overall running injury rates. A growing group of runners are making the choice to try the minimal or barefoot running styles of the pre-modern running shoe era. There is some evidence of decreased forces and torques on the lower extremities with barefoot running, but no clear data regarding how thi...

  18. Accounting ethics – an empirical investigation of managing short-term earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Jooste

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Short-term earnings are managed in most, if not all, companies. The management of short-term earnings is vulnerable to misinterpretation, manipulation or deliberate deception even if these misleading accounting practices are prohibited by accounting regulations. Hence, the problem with managing short-term earnings is that it becomes an ethical practice, regardless of who is or may be affected by the practice or the information that flows from it. As a result of the publicity received by Enron and WorldCom on financial failures and fraud, and the subsequent legislation, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002, students are expected to understand the morality issues of earnings-management practices. Therefore, the ethics of earnings-management practices affects the accounting educator. Accounting students and business managers were surveyed and the findings indicated that there is no significant difference between gender regarding the ethicality of twenty earning management practices. The results, however, show that there is a significant difference between the perceptions of business managers and students regarding the morality of earnings-management practices. However, no significant differences were found between genders.

  19. Financial Risk Ratios and Earnings Management: Reducing Uncertainties in Shariah-compliant Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Kazemian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether Shariah-compliant companies practice earnings management by investigating the relationship among the risk of financial distress, leverage, and free cash flow in discretionary accruals, which function as a substitute for earnings management. This empirical research is conducted on a sample of Malaysian Shariah-compliant companies from all industries in Bursa Malaysia from 2012 to 2014. Results show that Shariah-compliant companies are highly influenced by the risk of financial distress, leverage, and free cash flow. This study argues that working as either Shariah-compliant or non-Shariah-compliant does not affect the level of earnings management through financial distress, high leverage, and free cash flow by managers. Results should be of interest to stakeholders, shareholders, and regulatory bodies (i.e., the Shariah Advisory Council and the Securities Commission that oversee the accountability of corporate financial reporting to prevent earnings management in Shariah-compliant companies. Findings can also aid relevant authorities (i.e., the Shariah Advisory Council and the Security Commission in Malaysia in overcoming or reducing problems related to earnings management. This study is one of the most significant works in Malaysia in terms of sample size and methodology. It argues that the three elements of earnings management (i.e., financial distress, high leverage, and free cash flow influence better disclosure of reported earnings.

  20. Red light running camera assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  1. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  2. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  3. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... news is that many children whose parents had drug problems don't become addicted when they grow up. The chances of addiction are higher, but it doesn't have to ...

  4. Running codes through the web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.H.

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Clark presented a report and demonstration of running atomic physics codes through the WWW. The atomic physics data is generated from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) codes that calculate electron impact excitation, ionization, photoionization, and autoionization, and inversed processes through detailed balance. Samples of Web interfaces, input and output are given in the report

  5. Defense Primer: Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Usually, incremental funding is used to mitigate peaks and valleys in annual budgets caused by the cost of one item significantly changing the...base defense budget . DOD uses these funds to buy several different types of materiel, including  new items easily recognizable as military...pursues a policy of full funding for procurement, meaning that the total estimated cost of each unit must be funded in the year it is budgeted . In a

  6. Quadrennial Defense Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    medicine , and computer network operations. While we continue to employ a mix of programs and incentives to recruit quality personnel, we are also...Lithuania* Singapore Australia Finland Luxembourg* Slovakia* Austria France* Macedonia Slovenia* Azerbaijan Georgia Montenegro Spain* Belgium...20,000 positions by 2015. We will continue to significantly enhance Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates meets with plant workers during a tour of an

  7. Whither Ballistic Missile Defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-30

    important that technology today is placing enormous power in the many camps-not only information that enables timely decision-making, but also the...WHITHER BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE? BY AMBASSADOR HENRY F. COOPER NOVEMBER 30,1992 TECHNICAL MARKETING SOCIETY OF AMERICA WASHINGTON, DC...Conference on Technical Marketing 2000: Opportunities and Strategies for a Changing World) I intend to discuss the prospects for SDI in a changing

  8. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar...... defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects...

  9. Separating the Stock Market′s Reaction to Simultaneous Dividend and Earnings Announcements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sponholtz, Carina Margit

    asymmetries between shareholders and management. We find that the stock market reacts to surprise in management forecasts of next year's earnings and the current dividend. Additional breakdowns reveal that the signalling models and free cash flow hypothesis provide explanations for separate components......We analyze simultanous announcements of current dividends, current earnings and managment forecasts of next year's earnings. By conducting the empirical analysis using Danish data, this study is the first not to suffer from problems related to low levels of agency costs and informational...

  10. Management decisions based on the measurement of enterprise performance through “Earnings per share“ indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Bogdan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Earnings per share indicator does not provide though the possibility to compare all the enterprises which compute it due to the difficulties in interpreting the differences noticed from one enterprise to another, differences which can result from the different number of shares issued by each of them and from the different categories of shares issued. The accounting policy of IASB regarding the determination and interpretation of earnings per share of the enterprise is implemented through IAS 33. The main objective of our paper has in view the description and exemplification of the computing model of the Earnings per share indicator.

  11. The Dark Side of Valuation: Firms with No Earnings, No History and No Comparables

    OpenAIRE

    Aswath Damodaran

    1999-01-01

    In traditional valuation models, we begin by forecasting earnings and cash flows and discount these cash flows back at an appropriate discount rate to arrive at the value of a firm or asset. This task is simpler when valuing firms with positive earnings, a long history of performance and a large number of comparable firms. In this paper, we look at valuation when one or more of these conditions does not hold. We begin by looking ways of dealing with firms with negative earnings, and note that...

  12. Does stock price synchronicity effect information content of reported earnings? Evidence from the MENA region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Farooq

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the effect of stock price synchronicity on the value relevance of reported earnings in the MENA region during the period between 2009 and 2013. Our results show that the information content of reported earnings increases with increase in stock price synchronicity. We document higher impact of earnings on returns for firms with higher stock price synchronicity. We argue that firms with high synchronicity have better information environment. As a result, these firms disclose information that is of high quality. We also show that information conveyed through stock price synchronicity is more important than information conveyed through traditional governance mechanisms

  13. PENGARUH ADOPSI PSAK NO.24 TERHADAP EARNINGS RESPONSE COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilha Refyal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of PSAK No.24(Revisi 2004 adoption on earningsresponse coefficient (ERC. This study focuses discussion on the differences of ERC between theperiod before to the period after the adoption, the influence of changes in the post-employmentbenefits account (due to revision to the ERC, and the influence of the difference in time ofadoption to the ERC. This study is divided into two tests, which are panel data regression testingand Multiple Cross-section Regression testing. ERC in the period after the adoption of the PSAK24 revision is greater than the period before the adoption of PSAK 24 revision. By usingmanufacturing companies during that adoped PSAK 24 during 2004 or 2005, the research findthat changes in post-employment benefits liability have a significant positive effect on ERC. Thecompanies that adopt the standard earlier (early adopter have a greater ERC compare to thecompanies that adopt at the end of the mandatory time (late adopter The study also supportsprevious research on factors affecting the ERC, which are the capital structure and size. Keywords:Earnings Response Coefficient, Revision PSAK 24, Post-employment Benefits Liability,Adoption Timing.

  14. Development of Earned Value Management System in PP Construction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Moon, Byeong-Suk [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The NPP construction project has been determined in the form of a rather lump-sum contract with little details in resource requirements and estimations. Therefore, Earned Value Management System (EVMS) needs to be applied to the NPP projects in order to incorporate scope, schedule and cost targeting efficient and to control effective resource. The NPP projects in Korea have not applied EVMS. EVMS has phased in NPP construction project by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP), playing the role of project master manager in NPP construction in Korea. This study presented the EVMS unlike other system. Accordingly, EVMS is expected to reduce risks and increase efficiency in the NPP project. The NPP construction project is a technology ntensive multi-construction project that should be based on economics and stability and that takes over ten years to complete, requiring investment of billions of dollars, a great number of persons concerned, and a vast store of human and material resources. KHNP is phasing EVMS in NPP construction project for overseas contracts and the efficient management, the paper presented the pilot EVMS in KHNP. It expected to control and identify of NPP construction projects by using EVMS as a computerized management tool which is quantitative and objective management criteria. It is necessary to improve of the contract system related EVM for enterprise system, and the effort will be required, such as on-site support and training so that this can be done in collaboration with the relevant stakeholders.

  15. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  16. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  17. Running: Improving Form to Reduce Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Running is often perceived as a good option for "getting into shape," with little thought given to the form, or mechanics, of running. However, as many as 79% of all runners will sustain a running-related injury during any given year. If you are a runner-casual or serious-you should be aware that poor running mechanics may contribute to these injuries. A study published in the August 2015 issue of JOSPT reviewed the existing research to determine whether running mechanics could be improved, which could be important in treating running-related injuries and helping injured runners return to pain-free running.

  18. The Effects of Tax Avoidance, Accrual Earnings Management, Real Earnings Management, and Capital Intensity on the Cost of Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrie Firmansyah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effects of tax avoidance, accrual profit management, real profit management, and capital intensity on equity costs. The population of this study is a manufacturing company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange which amounted to 146 companies. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling and resulted in 420 units of analysis. This type of research is quantitative causality by performing hypothesis testing analysis is done by using multiple linear regression model. The findings of this research are tax avoidance will add to the risks that must be borne by investors thus increasing uncertainty over their investment. Investors consider that accrual profit management actions are opportunistic as risk-taking actions as well as real profit management actions. While on Capital Intensity, investors assume the information on the company’s fixed assets is not useful in making investment decisions. The conclusions that can be taken are tax avoidance, accrual profit management, and earnings management real positive to the cost of equity. However, capital intensity has a negative effect.

  19. Run-off from roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to find the run-off from roof material a roof has been constructed with two different slopes (30 deg C and 45 deg C). Beryllium-7 and caesium-137 has been used as tracers. Considering new roof material the pollution removed by runoff processes has been shown to be very different for various roof materials. The pollution is much more easily removed from silicon-treated material than from porous red-tile roof material. Caesium is removed more easily than beryllium. The content of caesium in old roof materials is greater in red-tile than in other less-porous materials. However, the measured removal from new material does not correspond to the amount accumulated in the old. This could be explained by weathering and by saturation effects. This last effect is probably the more important. The measurements on old material indicates a removal of 44-86% of the caesium pollution by run-off, whereas the measurement on new showed a removal of only 31-50%. It has been demonstrated that the pollution concentration in the run-off water could be very different from that in rainwater. The work was part of the EEC Radiation Protection Programme and done under a subcontract with Association Euratom-C.E.A. No. SC-014-BIO-F-423-DK(SD) under contract No. BIO-F-423-81-F. (author)

  20. Better in the long run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Last week, the Chamonix workshop once again proved its worth as a place where all the stakeholders in the LHC can come together, take difficult decisions and reach a consensus on important issues for the future of particle physics. The most important decision we reached last week is to run the LHC for 18 to 24 months at a collision energy of 7 TeV (3.5 TeV per beam). After that, we’ll go into a long shutdown in which we’ll do all the necessary work to allow us to reach the LHC’s design collision energy of 14 TeV for the next run. This means that when beams go back into the LHC later this month, we’ll be entering the longest phase of accelerator operation in CERN’s history, scheduled to take us into summer or autumn 2011. What led us to this conclusion? Firstly, the LHC is unlike any previous CERN machine. Because it is a cryogenic facility, each run is accompanied by lengthy cool-down and warm-up phases. For that reason, CERN’s traditional &...

  1. LHC Report: Positive ion run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The current LHC ion run has been progressing very well. The first fill with 358 bunches per beam - the maximum number for the year - was on Tuesday, 15 November and was followed by an extended period of steady running. The quality of the beam delivered by the heavy-ion injector chain has been excellent, and this is reflected in both the peak and the integrated luminosity.   The peak luminosity in ATLAS reached 5x1026 cm-2s-1, which is a factor of ~16 more than last year's peak of 3x1025 cm-2s-1. The integrated luminosity in each of ALICE, ATLAS and CMS is now around 100 inverse microbarn, already comfortably over the nominal target for the run. The polarity of the ALICE spectrometer and solenoid magnets was reversed on Monday, 28 November with the aim of delivering another sizeable amount of luminosity in this configuration. On the whole, the LHC has been behaving very well recently, ensuring good machine availability. On Monday evening, however, a faulty level sensor in the cooling towe...

  2. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  3. Running jobs in the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, A; Stagni, F; Garcia, M Ubeda

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously 'in the vacuum' rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  4. Investigating the relationship between corporate social responsibility and earnings management: Evidence from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Gras-Gil

    2016-10-01

    The results show that corporate social responsibility practices may be an organizational device that leads to more effective use of resources, which then has a negative impact on earnings management practices.

  5. American Samoa Small Boat and Spear Cost-Earnings Data: 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the American Samoa small boat and spear fishery in 2015. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  6. Audit Committee Accounting Expert and Earnings Management with “Status” Audit Committee as Moderating Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Suprianto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the effect of accounting expert of audit committee on earnings management. This research also assesses the role of audit committee on earnings management with audit committee status as moderating variable. The population is all of firm’s which listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Purposive sampling is used to collect data. Data used financial statements and annual report companies from Indonesia Stock Exchange website. Moderated regression analysis (MRA is used to analyze the hypothesis. The result shows that accounting expert of audit committee has negative effect on earnings management. Yet, variable of audit committee status cannot moderate the relationship between accounting expert of audit committee and earnings management in Indonesia.

  7. The Balance Sheet As an Earnings Management Constraint (Case Study In Indonesia Manufacture Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Sudaryati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research has the purpose to examine the balance sheet existence as an earnings management constraint. This research use the secondary which it is taken from the quarterly financial statement of manufacture companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX during 2008-2009 periods. This research used 68 manufacture companies as its sample. Then, the obtained data has regression analyzed by Generalized Ordered Logit Model. The Output of regression indicates that there is significant relation between net assets with the earnings surprise. The reporting earnings surprise smaller negative or larger positive decrease when the value of net asset is overstated. So, it can be concluded that balance sheet is as an earnings management constraint.

  8. Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Saville

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation.  This study reviews these arguments  as they apply to South Africa, and finds that an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio is more successful in forecasting equity returns than is the simple price-earnings ratio.  Moreover, the metric is found to be significant in explaining relative asset class returns. On a risk-adjusted basis, however, the tool fails to improve the portfolio results when compared to a buy-and-hold strategy.

  9. Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Saville

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation.  This study reviews these arguments  as they apply to South Africa, and finds that an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio is more successful in forecasting equity returns than is the simple price-earnings ratio.  Moreover, the metric is found to be significant in explaining relative asset class returns. On a risk-adjusted basis, however, the tool fails to improve the portfolio results when compared to a buy-and-hold strategy.

  10. 26 CFR 1.996-3 - Divisions of earnings and profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.996-3 Divisions of earnings... dividend of $35, i.e., one-half of R's taxable income of $70. The tax consequences of these facts to X and...

  11. The Persistence of Gender Earnings Inequality in Taiwan, 1978-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zveglich, Joseph E., Jr.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Despite rapid structural change in Taiwan, the gender earnings ratio between 1978-82 remained at 65%. Women's relative gains in education and experience were apparently offset by an increase in wage discrimination. (SK)

  12. Proposing a model for limiting earning management practices: The case of Jordanian listed firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea’a Al-Deen Al-Sraheen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of this paper is to propose a model for limiting earning management practices among manufacturing firms in Jordan. In order to do so, two independent variables are examined in this paper, namely, political influence and CEO Duality. Discretionary total accruals according to the modified Jones model (1991 was used in order to estimate the level of earnings management, which is the dependent variable. The sample comprised 64 companies for the financial year 2013. The results suggest that a positive and significant association existed among both political influence and CEO duality and earning management. This means that both independent variables exacerbated earnings management. Further research is required to determine what urgent legislation should be developed to restrict the presence of members who have political connections on the board of directors. Also, the need exists for the separation of roles of Chairman and CEO to ensure the independence and complying with the requirements of corporate governance.

  13. The Role of Analysts as Gatekeepers: Enhancing Transparency and Curbing Earnings Management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martinez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of analysts’ coverage, forecasting errors and earnings management. It corroborates the role of analysts as gatekeepers by finding that analysts enhance transparency and reduce the scope of earnings management. To identify analysts’ coverage we used the I/B/E/S, from where we also obtained information on the consensus projections of analysts for listed Brazilian companies. The results indicated a negative correlation between the number of analysts covering firms and the magnitude of their discretionary accruals in absolute terms, indicating that more scrutiny inhibits earnings management. We also found a negative correlation between analysts’ coverage and forecasting errors. Multivariate regressions showed statistically significant results in the same sense. Therefore, market analysts, despite the severe criticism they receive from the specialized press, actually have a beneficial effect on corporate governance by monitoring managers and inhibiting earnings management.

  14. Technical Performance Measurement, Earned Value, and Risk Management: An Integrated Diagnostic Tool for Program Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pisano, N

    2002-01-01

    ...) and in private industry. Currently-reported earned value data contains invaluable planning and budget information with proven techniques for program management, however, shortcomings of the system are its emphasis...

  15. The Inefficient Use of Macroeconomic Information in Analysts' Earnings Forecasts in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Zwart (Gerben); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents empirical evidence that security analysts do not efficiently use publicly available macroeconomic information in their earnings forecasts for emerging market stocks. Analysts completely ignore forecasts on political stability, while these provide valuable information

  16. Annual Earnings Announcements and Market Reaction: The Influence of Screening Criteria for Thin Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peder Fredslund; Thinggaard, Frank; Lønroth, Helle L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an event study of the Danish stock market price reactions to annual earnings announcements in the period 1993-1997, with a dual purpose. The primary purpose is to find out how market reactions vary with different screening criteria for thin trading. Our findings...... on this point suggest that the Danish stock market, although small, seems to have different segments of shares in relation to earnings announcements. Applying different screening criteria we find differences both in terms of how quickly the market reacts to earnings announcements and the relative quality...... purpose of our study is briefly to compare our findings with those of a similar study for the period 1971-1981. The aim is to find indications of developments in the Danish market's reactions to earnings announcements since that study. We find distinct indications that the Danish stock market in some...

  17. Role of Social Relations of Outside Directors with CEO in Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shaique

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of social relations among the board members on earnings management in Pakistani listed companies. Specifically, we have analyzed the social networks between CEO and outside board members. The modified Jones model has been used in this study to measure earnings management and we have captured social relations through SOCIAL (Social networking index. Our results suggest that firms with more connected boards show a positive relationship between board independence and earnings management. Further, we have shown that firms with CEO duality exhibit a higher association between social connections of the board and earnings management than firms with non-duality. Social relations among the board members undermine monitoring ability of outside directors and the impact becomes more severe in the presence of CEO duality.

  18. Welfare family policies and gender earnings inequality: A cross-national comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2003-01-01

    The present study examines whether and to what extent welfare-family policies are likely to affect earnings inequality between economically active men and women. Using hierarchical linear models, we combine individual-level variables (obtained from the Luxembourg Income Study) with country level data (obtained from secondary sources) to evaluate the net effects of welfare family policies on gender earnings inequality across 20 industrialized countries. The analysis reveals that net of individ...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-1 - Definition of net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of net earnings from self-employment... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-1 Definition of net earnings from self-employment. (a) Subject to the special rules set forth in §§ 1.1402(a)-3...

  20. Management Earnings Forecasts as a Performance Target in Executive Compensation Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Shota Otomasa; Atsushi Shiiba; Akinobu Shuto

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates whether and how Japanese firms use management earnings forecasts as a performance target for determining executive cash compensation. Consistent with the implications of the principal-agent theory, we find that the sensitivity of executive cash compensation varies with the extent to which realized earnings exceed initial management forecasts. In particular, we find that, for a sample of Japanese firms comprising 14,899 firm-year observations from 2005 to 2012, the exec...

  1. The Influence of Higher Moments of Earnings Distributions on Career Decisions.

    OpenAIRE

    Flyer, Fredrick A

    1997-01-01

    A model where choice of occupation is sequential is applied to college graduates from the National Longitudinal Study of High School Class of 1972 to investigate how higher moments of occupational earnings distributions influence initial field of work. Individual specific life-cycle earnings projections that incorporate option values of occupational mobility are generated, and the relationship between these pay measures and choice of initial occupation is explored within a multinomial logit f...

  2. Sharing the load? : Partners' relative earnings and the division of domestic labour

    OpenAIRE

    Lyonette, Clare; Crompton, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    One of the most pressing issues contributing to the persistence of gender inequality is the gendered division of domestic labour. Despite their entry into paid employment, women still carry out more domestic work than men, limiting their ability to act on an equal footing within the workplace. This qualitative research adds to the ongoing debate concerning the reasons for the persistence of the gendered nature of domestic work, by comparing working women who earn more, those who earn around t...

  3. The Earnings Ladder. Who's at the Bottom? Who's at the Top? Statistical Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Washington, DC. Economics and Statistics Administration.

    Data collected by the March Current Population Survey were used to identify which groups of year-round, full-time civilian workers aged 16 and older were most likely to be at the top and bottom of the earnings ladder. Women, young workers, less-educated individuals, and Hispanics were most likely to earn less than $13,091 (1992 constant dollars),…

  4. Does Accrual Management Impair the Performance of Earnings-Based Valuation Models?

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Courteau; Jennifer L. Kao; Yao Tian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines empirically how the presence of accrual management may affect firm valuation. We compare the performance of earnings-based and non-earnings-based valuation models, represented by Residual Income Model (RIM) and Discounted Cash Flow (DCF), respectively, based on the absolute percentage pricing and valuation errors for two subsets of US firms: “Suspect” firms that are likely to have engaged in accrual management and “Normal” firms matched on industry, year and size. Results ...

  5. Earnings management and financial reporting fraud: can external auditors spot the difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Kassem, Rasha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to increase external auditors’ knowledge about earnings management and help them spot the difference between earnings management and financial reporting fraud. A thorough literature review was undertaken to achieve the paper’s aim. The secondary data used in this paper was obtained from different databases like Ebscohost, Business Search Premier, Academic Search Premier, Emerlad, Sciencedirect, and Jstor. The current paper suggests a new approach and way of thinking f...

  6. Military service and military vocational training effects on post-service earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Bolin, Phil Warren

    1980-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The influence of military service and military vocational training on post-service earnings was analyzed using the National Longitudinal Survey of young men (14-24 years of age in 1966) . When individuals were classified by their propensity to use training neither military service nor military vocational training was a significant determinant of post-service earnings. A disaggregation of the sample IQ revealed that m...

  7. Keterkaitan Antara Nilai Etika Dengan Akuntansi Keuangan (Tinjauan Atas Praktik Earnings Management)

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo, H.Y. Sri

    2009-01-01

    Started in 1990s, Accounting practices introduced many terms like: Creative Accounting, Aggressive Accounting, Earnings Management and Financial Shenanigans. Creative Accounting has a positive meaning in terms of language, that is why so many people accepted and justified this Accounting practice as a good idea. Many Academicians argued that creative accounting is permissible as long as it is not contrary to the rule. In this article we will evaluate Earnings Management from th...

  8. The Effects of Military Change-of-Station Moves on Spousal Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Career Advancement Accounts program, available to assist some Figure 1. Impact of PCS Moves on Military Spousal Earnings NOTES: The “working spouses...Spouses’ career earnings may be especially affected by permanent change-of-station (PCS) moves. Job-specific skills and knowledge gained while one is...Finally, the inherently disruptive nature of moving could have negative effects on productivity , thereby lowering wages. To date, our understanding of

  9. Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Saville

    2011-01-01

    Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation.  This study rev...

  10. Beneish M-score and detection of earnings management in Italian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Corsi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accounting literature on the reliability of financial information presents several mathematical models whose purpose is to identify the existence of values manipulations. The phenomenon is described as earnings management and presents a broad discussion concerning the search for suitable models to measure the distortions in values. In this respect, the present paper aims to compare the ability of two versions of the same mathematical model of classify the risk of earnings manipulation in a discriminant way.

  11. Run Clever - No difference in risk of injury when comparing progression in running volume and running intensity in recreational runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Rasmussen, Sten; Sørensen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Background/aim: The Run Clever trial investigated if there was a difference in injury occurrence across two running schedules, focusing on progression in volume of running intensity (Sch-I) or in total running volume (Sch-V). It was hypothesised that 15% more runners with a focus on progression...... in volume of running intensity would sustain an injury compared with runners with a focus on progression in total running volume. Methods: Healthy recreational runners were included and randomly allocated to Sch-I or Sch-V. In the first eight weeks of the 24-week follow-up, all participants (n=839) followed...... participants received real-time, individualised feedback on running intensity and running volume. The primary outcome was running-related injury (RRI). Results: After preconditioning a total of 80 runners sustained an RRI (Sch-I n=36/Sch-V n=44). The cumulative incidence proportion (CIP) in Sch-V (reference...

  12. Acceptance of HIV in Cote d'Ivoire earns praise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-22

    The first known case of AIDS in Cote d'Ivoire was diagnosed in 1985. After that, the number of people identified as having AIDS grew rapidly, but the social stigmatization of people with HIV and AIDS caused the discussion of HIV/AIDS to remain taboo for years. Even health workers only mentioned the virus within the privacy of their clinics. The government of Cote d'Ivoire finally decided in 1994 to acknowledge the existence of an HIV epidemic in the country and launched an anti-AIDS campaign supported by social workers and nongovernmental organizations. These actions have earned international support for the authorities of Cote d'Ivoire. As a result of the campaign, growing numbers of people have been taking care of infected relatives, while some people with AIDS have publicly declared their HIV-positive serostatus. An HIV laboratory, the first of its kind in West Africa, will be established in Cote d'Ivoire, and the UN Program Against AIDS will base its regional office for West Africa in the city. Peter Piot, the program's executive director, has stated that the UN chose Abidjan because of the Cote d'Ivoire's new honest approach toward fighting HIV and AIDS. Cote d'Ivoire, a member of the UN AIDS Coordination Committee, plans to host an International Conference on AIDS in 1997. The US Centers for Disease Control also plan to finance the creation of a virological laboratory in Abidjan to determine how the virus is reproduced in humans with the goal of developing a vaccine against it; to identify how HIV is transmitted, how it kills, and how to prevent its propagation; and to serve as a training center for young Ivoirian virologists. Construction began upon the Abidjan Virology Laboratory in late March 1996. The laboratory is expected to cost 400 million CFA francs (almost $850,000) and should start operating in July 1997.

  13. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  14. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  15. THE ROLE OF EARNINGS PERSISTENCE IN VALUATION ACCURACY AND THE TIME HORIZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Coppe Pimentel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assumption that earnings persistence has implications for both financial analysis and compensation contracts, the aim of this paper is to investigate the role of earnings persistence assuming that (i more persistent earnings are likely to be a better input to valuation models and (ii more persistent earnings are likely to serve as a proxy for long-term market and managerial orientation. The analysis is based on Brazilian listed firms from 1995 to 2013, and while we document strong support for the relevance of earnings persistence in financial analysis and valuation, we fail to document a significant relationship between earnings persistence and long-term value orientation. These results are sensitive to different specifications, and additional results suggest that firms’ idiosyncratic risk (total risk is relevant to explain the focus on short-term outcomes (short-termism across firms. The main contribution of this paper is to offer empirical evidence for the relevance of accounting numbers in both valuation and contractual theories in an emergent market.

  16. Impact of external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.; Cheng, M.Y.; Lau, T.C.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings among engineers in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: Using curricular vitae data from a job agency, this paper tracks job mobility through job histories and examine how it affects earnings. Findings: Results obtained from regression analysis indicate that higher external job mobility will contribute to higher earnings, but occupational mobility will have adverse effect on earnings. Research limitations/implications: Limitation of the study is that the results are extrapolated from a self-report dataset. Practical implications: Nonetheless, the results give important implications to the Malaysian job market on how firm-specific skills and occupational specific skills are rewarded among engineers who actively seek for alternative employment online, and a guide to job applicants in career planning. Originality/value: The findings has also revealed important variables to be included in explaining high skill labor earnings in the context of Malaysian engineers, it serves as an important reference for future in modeling earnings.

  17. The PE Ratio and the Predicted Earnings Growth – the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurach Radosław

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the components of equity returns on the Polish capital market. To analyse the underlying complexity of returns we took into consideration the model designed by Leibowitz (1999. This model captures three factors: dividend yield, expected growth in earnings and expected change in price-to-earnings (PE ratio. We applied this model to analyse the average discount/premium not only to particular shares but to market averages as well. Firstly, we examined the variation of PE across the companies (as adapted from Penman (1996 to analyse the average rate of return and their striking distance of individual stocks from a ‘normal’ level. Then we checked the transitory earnings in the portfolios of high PE, whereby a fall in current earnings relative to sustainable level of earnings leads to a transitory high PE ratio. We expect that the effect of transience in current year earnings can be significant. Lastly, we analysed the individual companies in order to check what percentage of companies give a “correct” signal about future prospects.

  18. Board of Commisioner Duality Role, Governance and Earnings Management of Initial Public Offerings in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Prasetiawati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public firm is required to implement good corporate governance as assurance to reduce information asymmetry between firm and its stockholders. Corporate governance mechanism should be able to limit any improper actions of the firm’s management. This study investigates whether the duality role of the board affects earnings management practice of firms making initial public offering at Indonesian Stock Exchange. The study also examines other corporate governance mechanism factors, namely the number of board of commission-ners, the proportion of independent board of commissioners, size of firm, financial leverage, and profitability. Earnings management was measured using Cross-Sectional Modified Jones model. The study employs a total of 60 firms that went public from 2000 to 2006. The results show that duality status of board of commissioners positively and significantly affects earnings management in IPO firms. This could be interpreted that board of directors with duality role had a lower function in monitoring the firms’ performance so that management have opportunity to manage reported earnings. When board of commissioners have dual role, the level of earnings management is getting intense, and vice versa. Size of board of commissioners and profitability are positively related to earnings management.

  19. Earnings volatility and the role of cash flows in the capital markets: Empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Melita Charitou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent global financial crisis brought to the forefront of the capital markets the importance of firm fundamentals and especially, the valuation role of cash flows. In this study, we examine the role of earnings and cash flows in two major capital markets, namely, USA and France. We hypothesize that the relationship between cash flows and security returns improves when earnings are transitory and this robustness is country specific. The dataset consists of more than 37,000 USA and French firm-year observations over an eight-year period. Multivariate statistical regression analysis is undertaken to test the major research hypotheses. Results indicate that when earnings are transitory (unstable, investors pay more attention to cash flows and less attention to earnings, a result indicating that investors penalize firms with unstable earnings. In summary, the evidence provided in this study supports that there are substantial differences in the way investors and financial analysts perceive financial information such as earnings and cash flows in France and USA. These results should be of great importance to the major stakeholders such as investors, creditors, financial analysts, especially after the recent global financial crisis and the collapse of giant organizations worldwide.

  20. Impact of external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.; Cheng, M.Y.; Lau, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings among engineers in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: Using curricular vitae data from a job agency, this paper tracks job mobility through job histories and examine how it affects earnings. Findings: Results obtained from regression analysis indicate that higher external job mobility will contribute to higher earnings, but occupational mobility will have adverse effect on earnings. Research limitations/implications: Limitation of the study is that the results are extrapolated from a self-report dataset. Practical implications: Nonetheless, the results give important implications to the Malaysian job market on how firm-specific skills and occupational specific skills are rewarded among engineers who actively seek for alternative employment online, and a guide to job applicants in career planning. Originality/value: The findings has also revealed important variables to be included in explaining high skill labor earnings in the context of Malaysian engineers, it serves as an important reference for future in modeling earnings.

  1. The Role of Corporate Governance as a Leverage Moderating and Free Cash Flow on Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Yendrawati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to agency theory there were separation of function between principal and agent. This separation created different interest between principal and agent. This condition occurs because of the asymmetric information that agent more knew company information than principal. Therefore, it was interesting to study the actions of management.This research aimed to analyze the influence of leverage and free cash flow to earning management and the ability to analyze the influence corporate governance consisting of managerial ownership, institutional ownership, independent commissioner, and audit committee in influencing earnings management on the listed manufacturing companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange during years 2010-2014. The results showed that leverage significantly influence to earnings management and free cash flow significantly influence to earnings management moderating variables that influence the relationship of leverage to earnings management is managerial ownership, independent commissioner,audit committee, and moderating variables that influence the relationship of free cash flow to earning management was managerial ownership and institutional ownership.

  2. Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.J.; Kohen, M.D.; Rivers, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program (DTIRP) was established by the Department of Defense in 1990 to assist defense facilities in preparing for treaty verification activities. Led by the On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA), an element of the Department of Defense, DTIRP''s membership includes representatives from other Department of Defense agencies, the Department of Energy (DOE), the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Commerce, and others. The Office of Safeguards and Security has a significant interest in this program, due to the number of national defense facilities within its purview that are candidates for future inspections. As a result, the Office of Safeguards and Security has taken a very active role in DTIRP. This paper discusses the Office of Safeguards and Security''s increasing involvement in various elements of the DTIRP, ranging from facility assessments to training development and implementation

  3. Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sarihan, Ali; Bush, Amy; Summers, Lawrence; Thompson, Brent; Tomasszewski, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper will build on ballistic missile defense in Europe. In the first part, a brief historical overview will place the current public management issue into light. This is followed by a discussion of the main actors in the international debate, the problems that arise and the available options and recommendations to address missile defense. In the second part, differences between George W. Bush and Barack H. Obama will analyze under the title “Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe: Evolving...

  4. LHCb siliicon detectors: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition and first experience of Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Rinnert, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The detector includes a high precision tracking system consisting of a silicon-strip vertex detector (VELO) surrounding the pp interaction region, a large- area silicon-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet (TT), and three stations of silicon- strip detectors (IT) and straw drift tubes placed downstream (OT). The operational transition of the silicon detectors VELO, TT and IT from LHC Run 1 to Run 2 and first Run 2 experiences will be presented. During the long shutdown of the LHC the silicon detectors have been maintained in a safe state and operated regularly to validate changes in the control infrastructure, new operational procedures, updates to the alarm systems and monitoring software. In addition, there have been some infrastructure related challenges due to maintenance performed in the vicinity of the silicon detectors that will be discussed. The LHCb silicon dete...

  5. Defense Programs and Budget Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Troutman, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    .... Therefore the Defense Department has set before itself a requirement to modernize a large conventional force structure engaged in ongoing combat operations while simultaneously developing deeper...

  6. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  7. HTML 5 up and running

    CERN Document Server

    Pilgrim, Mark

    2010-01-01

    If you don't know about the new features available in HTML5, now's the time to find out. This book provides practical information about how and why the latest version of this markup language will significantly change the way you develop for the Web. HTML5 is still evolving, yet browsers such as Safari, Mozilla, Opera, and Chrome already support many of its features -- and mobile browsers are even farther ahead. HTML5: Up & Running carefully guides you though the important changes in this version with lots of hands-on examples, including markup, graphics, and screenshots. You'll learn how to

  8. Inequality in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel

    2014-05-23

    This Review presents basic facts regarding the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality in Europe and the United States. Income and wealth inequality was very high a century ago, particularly in Europe, but dropped dramatically in the first half of the 20th century. Income inequality has surged back in the United States since the 1970s so that the United States is much more unequal than Europe today. We discuss possible interpretations and lessons for the future. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Electroweak processes at Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Spalla, Margherita; Sestini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We present a summary of the studies of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at LHC after the first year of data taking of Run2, focusing on possible results to be achieved with the analysis of full 2015 and 2016 data. We discuss the measurements of W and Z boson production, with particular attention to the precision determination of basic Standard Model parameters, and the study of multi-boson interactions through the analysis of boson-boson final states. This work is the result of the collaboration between scientists from the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments.

  10. Running gratings in photoconductive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N. V.; Kukhtareva, T.; Lyuksyutov, S. F.

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the three-dimensional version of a standard photorefractive model (STPM), we obtain a reduced compact Set of equations for an electric field based on the assumption of a quasi-steady-state fast recombination. The equations are suitable for evaluation of a current induced by running...... gratings at small-contrast approximation and also are applicable for the description of space-charge wave domains. We discuss spatial domain and subharmonic beam formation in bismuth silicon oxide (BSO) crystals in the framework of the small-contrast approximation of STPM. The experimental results...

  11. Google Wave Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrate, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Catch Google Wave, the revolutionary Internet protocol and web service that lets you communicate and collaborate in realtime. With this book, you'll understand how Google Wave integrates email, instant messaging (IM), wiki, and social networking functionality into a powerful and extensible platform. You'll also learn how to use its features, customize its functions, and build sophisticated extensions with Google Wave's open APIs and network protocol. Written for everyone -- from non-techies to ninja coders -- Google Wave: Up and Running provides a complete tour of this complex platform. You'

  12. Handbook of cosmic hazards and planetary defense

    CERN Document Server

    Allahdadi, Firooz

    2015-01-01

    Covers in a comprehensive fashion all aspects of cosmic hazards and possible strategies for contending with these threats through a comprehensive planetary defense strategy. This handbook brings together in a single reference work a rich blend of information about the various types of cosmic threats that are posed to human civilization by asteroids, comets, bolides, meteors, solar flares and coronal mass ejections, cosmic radiation and other types of threats that are only recently beginning to be understood and studied, such as investigation of the “cracks” in the protective shield provided by the Van Allen belts and the geomagnetosphere, of matter-antimatter collisions, orbital debris and radiological or biological contamination. Some areas that are addressed involve areas about which there is a good deal of information that has been collected for many decades by multiple space missions run by many different space agencies, observatories and scientific researchers. Other areas involving research and ...

  13. Defense.gov Special Report: Defense Officials Release Operational Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    , DOD Operational Energy Strategy DOD's Operational Energy Strategy will guide the Defense Department to operations are among the goals of the Defense Department's operational energy strategy, a senior Pentagon operational energy footprint, experts in solar power, microgrids and "smart" generators recently

  14. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... defense against two different fungal pathogens in pear calli ... study the biochemical changes in relation to plant defense ... relatively easy to manipulate by empirical means, allowing for a ... earlier phase, and the degree of rot was significantly ..... resistance of fruit, and they play an important role in the.

  15. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  16. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  17. Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, Stephen M.; Laux, Sara; Kuivila, Thomas; Hass, Daniel; Joy, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although minimalist footwear is increasingly popular among runners, claims that minimalist footwear enhances running biomechanics and efficiency are controversial. Hypothesis: Minimalist and barefoot conditions improve running efficiency when compared with traditional running shoes. Study Design: Randomized crossover trial. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Fifteen experienced runners each completed three 90-second running trials on a treadmill, each trial performed in a different type of footwear: traditional running shoes with a heavily cushioned heel, minimalist running shoes with minimal heel cushioning, and barefoot (socked). High-speed photography was used to determine foot strike, ground contact time, knee angle, and stride cadence with each footwear type. Results: Runners had more rearfoot strikes in traditional shoes (87%) compared with minimalist shoes (67%) and socked (40%) (P = 0.03). Ground contact time was longest in traditional shoes (265.9 ± 10.9 ms) when compared with minimalist shoes (253.4 ± 11.2 ms) and socked (250.6 ± 16.2 ms) (P = 0.005). There was no difference between groups with respect to knee angle (P = 0.37) or stride cadence (P = 0.20). When comparing running socked to running with minimalist running shoes, there were no differences in measures of running efficiency. Conclusion: When compared with running in traditional, cushioned shoes, both barefoot (socked) running and minimalist running shoes produce greater running efficiency in some experienced runners, with a greater tendency toward a midfoot or forefoot strike and a shorter ground contact time. Minimalist shoes closely approximate socked running in the 4 measurements performed. Clinical Relevance: With regard to running efficiency and biomechanics, in some runners, barefoot (socked) and minimalist footwear are preferable to traditional running shoes. PMID:26131304

  18. Defense Reutilization and Marketing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    H -3 E Responsibilities of Defense Reutilization and Marketing Regions (D R M s...at Defense electronic products which produce radiation Reutilization and Marketing Offices, para- when energized. Among the principal radi- graph F... Sporting Equipment 7820 Games , Toys, and Wheeled Goods 7830 Recreational and Gymnastic Equipment 7910 Floor Polishers and Vacuum Cleaning Equipment

  19. Defense Acquisitions Acronyms and Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    DR Decision Review DRMO Defense Reutilization Marketing Office DRPM Direct Reporting Program Manager DSAA Defense Security Assistance Agency...STE Special Test Equipment STEP Simulation, Test, and Evaluation Process STLDD Software Top Level Design Document STP Software Test Plan STPR...established catalog or market prices for specific tasks under standard commercial terms and conditions; this does not include services sold based

  20. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.